.

Качества воды в Суздальских озерах

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 424
Скачать документ

O A I A : Eco/aiea ea/anoaa aiaeu a Nocaeaeueneeo Ica?ao.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue oaiu :

Ciuaiei A. I. – o/eoaeue oeiee

?oeiaiaeeoaeue yenia?eiaioa :

I?oaei A. O. – aeioeaio Nia AOO?I

?aaiou auiieieee :

Eeeiaiei Ieeieae

Iiianou?aiei Ieoaee

IX “ a “ eeann

oeiea ? 150

oeiea ? 623

Naieo – Iaoa?ao?a

1996 aiae.

Researching the quality (cleanliness) of water of the Susdalskie lakes.

Nikolay Klimenko, school # 150, 10-th year

Michail Monastyrenko, school # 623, 10-th year

The Susdalskie lakes are situated in limits of Saint-Petersburg and
serve as a favorite resting place for many town-dwelers. That’s why
it’s important for water of these lakes to be clean.

We performed investigation that included determination of concentration
of nitric compounds in forms of nitrates, nitrites and ammonium salts.

All chemical analyses of water was done in ….. laboratory of NIAOO ?I.

The results tells that water of 1-st and 2-nd lake consistence of nitric
compounds is low in all three forms and conforms with ecological
standards. In water of 3-rd lake it’s observed high concentration of
nitrites and ammonium salts that significantly exceeds highest
permissible concentrations. Concentration of nitrites is 0.44 milligrams
per liter and concentration of ammonium nitrogen is 0.38 milligrams per
liter. Ecological norms are correspondingly 0.08 and 0.38 milligrams per
liter maximum.

In same time snow coverage of the lakes was analyzed, because it’s
pollution also aggravates the ecology of the lakes.

The results of research entered into the database of ecological
condition of reservoirs of Saint-Petersburg area.

Eco/aiea ea/anoaa aiaeu a Nocaeaeueneeo ica?ao.

Eeeiaiei Ieeieae oeiea ? 150

Iiianou?aiei Ieoaee oeiea ? 623

Nocaeaeueneea ica?a iaoiaeyony a /a?oa ai?iaea Naieo – Iaoa?ao?aa e
yaeythony ecethaeaiiui ianoii ioaeuoa ai?iaeai, a nayce n /ai e ea/anoao
aiaeu a yoeo ica?ao i?aaeuyaeythony iiauoaiiua o?aaiaaiey.

Iaie auei i?iaaaeaii enneaaeiaaiea aiaeu yoeo ica? ia niaea?aeaiea a iae
niaaeeiaiee acioa a aeaea ieo?aoia, ieo?eoia e aiiiieeiuo nieae.

Oeie/aneee aiaeec aiaeu i?iaiaeeee a aee?aaeeoiaaiiie yeiaiaeeoe/aneie
eaai?aoi?ee NIAOO ?I.

?acoeueoaou iieacaee, /oi a ia?aii e aoi?ii ica?ao niaea?aeaiea acioa ai
anao o?ao oi?iao iaaaeeei e ia aeinoeaaao i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiuo
eiioeaio?aoeee ( IAeE ). A o?aoueai ica?a iaaethaeaaony cia/eoaeueiia
i?aauoaiea IAeE ii ieo?eoai e aiiiieeiui nieyi. Niaea?aeaiea acioa
ieo?eoia aeinoeaaao 0.44 ia/e i?e IAeE ?aaiii 0.08 ia/e, a niaea?aeaiea
aiiiieeiiai acioa ninoaaeyao 0.38 ia/e i?e IAeE 0.50 ia/e.

Iaeiia?aiaiii aue i?iaaaeai aiaeec niaaeiiai iie?iaa ica?, caa?yciaiea
eioi?iai aianoa ni noieaie io aeeeie cano?ieee ia aa?aao ica? aiinyo
naie io?eoeaoaeueiue aeeaae a ninoiyiea aiaeu.

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey eiatho i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea :

aeaiiua aiaeecia aianaiu a aaie aeaiiuo ia yeieiae/aneii ninoiyiee
aiaeiaiia Eaieia?aaeneie iaeanoe.

Anooieaiea

Anoue a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa ica?a , iinyuea iacaaiea Nocaeaeueneeo . Yoi
/enoaeoea eeth/aaua ica?a anaaaea iaieee e naaa iaoa?ao?aeoeaa . Caeanue
no?ieee aea/e e eaoiea aeai?oeu , eoiaeenue eaoii e eaoaeenue ia naiyo
ceiie . Caeanue aiaeeeanue ?uaa e aiacaeeeenue ioeoeu Ii a?aiaia
eciaieeenue. Aaeece ica? ia ianoa au?oaeaiiuo eania au?in ia?iiiue
aeeeie ?aeii, iiyaeeanue aieueoay i?iiuoeaiiay ciia ” Ia?ian “. Auee
i?ieiaeaiu oinnaeiua e aeaeaciua aei?iae, ii iei aeaeioeenue iioiee
iaoei e oyaeaeua aeaeaciiaei?iaeiua ninoaau. Ioeoeu noaee iieeaeaoue
i?eau/iua aiacaeiauey , caa?e ooiaeeee iiaeaeueoa io /aeiaaea , a
caa?yciaiiuo aiaeiaiao iiaeaaea ?uaa .

E oioy Nocaeaeueneea Ica?a eeoue e?ioioiue oaieie iaoaai iauaai aeiia,
eo noaeueaa ia iiaeao ia aieiiaaoue.

A naiae ?aaioa iu iiiuoaainy oioy au ?acia?aoueny a i?e/eiao caa?yciaiey
yoeo ica? .

Ceiie 1996 aiaea iaie auee acyou i?iau aiaeu e niaaa, aiaeec eioi?uo aue
i?iaaaeai a eaai?aoi?ee aiaeeoe/aneie oeiee Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa ?anoeoaeueiuo iieeia?ia
iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii nio?oaeieeia eaai?aoi?ee

E?oaiai?io acioa

Acio yaeyaony yeaiaioii eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiui aeey i?aaie/aneie
aeecie. Ieiei 16 – 17 % aai aoiaeyo a ninoaa anao aaeeiauo aauanoa,
neoaeaueo iniiaie anao aeeauo i?aaieciia. A i?e?iaea ?anniao?eaaaiue
yeaiaio iai?a?uaii i?ioiaeeo ii?aaeaeaiiue oeeee aanueia iiiaiia?aciuo
i?aa?auaiee.

Iaeay onoie/eainoue acioenouo niaaeeiaiee a oneiaeyo aunieeo oaiia?aoo?
e ecauoea aiaeyiiai ia?a canoaaeyao i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi i?e ia?aciaaiee
caiiie ei?u e aa a aeaeueiaeoai ioeaaeaeaiee aieueoay /anoue acioa
aoiinoa?u nio?aieeanue a naiaiaeiii ninoiyiee. Oaeea acoioniaea?aeauea
ieia?aeu, eae ieo?eaeu, anee e aicieeaee a cia/eoaeueiuo eiee/anoaao, oi
aeieaeiu auee auoue iia?aaaiu a aeoaieeo neiyo Caiee, eciee?iaaiiuo io
aa iiaa?oiinoe a?iiaaeiuie ianneaaie aieaa eaoo/eo e eaaeeo ii?iae.

Iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ?acaeoey aieaa aunieii?aaieciaaiiie iaoa?ee – aeeaiai
aauanoaa – niaaeeiaiey naycaiiiai acioa iiaee ia?aciaaoueny ia
iiaa?oiinoe caiiie ei?u eeoue iinea aeinoaoi/iiai aa inouaaiey.
Iaiaueiiaaiii /anoua e iiuiua yeaeo?e/aneea ?ac?yaeu a oaieie e i/aiue
aeaaeiie aoiinoa?a ioaeaeaiiuo aaieiae/aneeo yiio iaoneaaeeaaee
/anoe/ioth aeennioeeaoeeth aiaeyiiai ia?a ia yeaiaiou e yia?ae/iia
naycuaaiea aoiinoa?iiai acioa a NO . Ieenue acioa ia?aoiaeeea caoai a
NO2 e acioioth eeneioo, eioi?ay aianoa n aeiaeaeai iiiaaeaea a ii/ao e
acaeiiaeaenoaiaaea n eiaaoeieny a iineaaeiae nieyie. O. i. ia?ae/iui
ia?aciaaieai niaaeeiaiee naycaiiiai acioa Caiey, iiaeaeeiiio, iaycaia
a?icai ( 1 ).

N ?acaeoeai ia iae i?aaie/aneie aeecie niee acioiie eeneiou iineoaeeee
aaaeiaeoei iaoa?eaeii aeey au?aaioee ?anoaieyie iniiau eo oeaiae –
aaeeiauo aauanoa. Ec ?anoaiee aaeee /anoe/ii ia?aoiaeyo a i?aaieci
aeeaioiuo, yene?aiaiou aeeaioiuo e eo o?oiu, a oaeaea inoaiee naieo
?anoaiee aica?auatho ii/aa acyoue ec iaa naycaiiue acio. Iiae
aicaeaenoaeai iniauo aeaeia aaeoa?ee oiiiyiooua inoaiee “aietho”, o. a.
i?aoa?iaaatho ?yae neiaeiuo aeioeie/aneeo eciaiaiee, i?e/ai a eiia/iii
n/aoa niaea?aeaaoeeny a ieo naycaiiue acio ia?aoiaeeo a aiieae e niee
aiiiiey ( 2 ) ( 3 ) .

Yoe eiia/iua i?iaeoeou aiiaue onaaeaathony ?anoaieyie, /anoe/ii
iiaeaa?aathony aeaeueiaeoae ia?a?aaioea a niee acioiie eeneiou ( 4 ) ( 5
).

HNO3

e ieo?aou

1
2

5

6

N2
aaeie

4

7
3

NH3

e niee

aiiiiey

2NH3 + 3O2 = 2HNO2 + 2H2O + 172 eeae ( 5 )

2HNO2 + O2 = 2HNO3 + 26 eeae ( 5 )

5C + 4KNO3 = 2K2CO3 + 2CO2 + 2N2 + 360 eeae ( 6 )

2N2 + 6H2O + 3C + 83 eeae = 4NH3 + 3CO2 ( 7 )

NH3 + HNO3- NH4NO3 ( 5 )

2NaNO3 – 2NaNO2 + O2 ( 5 )

Ieo?eou

Ieo?eou iiyaeythony a aiaea aeaaiui ia?acii a ?acoeueoaoa aeioeie/aneiai
ieeneaiey aiieaea eee ainnoaiiaeaiey ieo?aoia. A iiaa?oiinoiuo aiaeao a
i?enoonoaee aeinoaoi/iuo eiee/anoa eenei?iaea i?e aunieeo cia/aieyo
ieeneeoaeueii-ainnoaiiaeoaeueiiai iioaioeeaea aeiieie?otho i?ioeannu
aeioeie/aneiai ieeneaiey.

Ainnoaiiaeaiea ieo?aoia n ia?aciaaieai ieo?eoia i?ioaeaao a oneiaeyo
aeaoeoeeoa eenei?iaea a i?eaeiiiuo neiyo aiaeu e a aeiiiuo ioeiaeaieyo.
A niaieoiiinoe n ae?oaeie eia?aaeeaioaie eiioeaio?aoeey ieo?aoia e aa
aeeiaieea e ?ani?aaeaeaiea a aiaeiaia iiaoo neoaeeoue aaaeiuie
iieacaoaeyie iacaaiiuo auoa i?ioeannia. I?enoonoaea a iiauoaiiuo
eiioeaio?aoeeyo ieo?eoia iiaeao naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue i caa?yciaiee
aiaeiaia.

Ieo?aou

Ieo?aou yaeythony eiia/iui i?iaeoeoii aeioeie/aneiai ieeneaiey aiieaea,
ia?acothuaainy aeaaiui ia?acii a ?acoeueoaoa ?aniaaea aaeeiauo aauanoa.

A iiaa?oiinoiuo aiaeao ieo?aou iau/ii i?enoonoaotho a caiaoiuo
eiee/anoaao ca eneeth/aieai ia?eiaea eioaineaiiai ?acaeoey oeoiieaieoiia
a aiaeiaiao, eiaaea niaea?aeaiea ieo?aoia iiaeao iaaeaoue aei en/acathua
iaeuo aaee/ei.

Iiauoaiiay eiioeaio?aoeey ieo?aoia iiaeao naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue ia
eiaaoai ianoi a i?aaeoanoaothuee ia?eiae oaeaeueiuie caa?yciaiee
aiaeiaia.

Naaaeaiey ia eciaiaieyo a eiioeaio?aoeee ieo?aoia e niioiioaiee iaaeaeo
eiioeaio?aoeeyie inoaeueiuo oi?i acioa iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey
oa?aeoa?enoeee eioaineaiinoe i?ioeannia naiii/euaiey e naiii/euathuae
niiniaiinoe aiaeiaiia.Aiiiieeiue acio

A iiaa?oiinoiuo aiaeao aiiiieeiue acio iaoiaeeony aeaaiui ia?acii a
aeaea eiiia aiiiiey e iaaeennioeee?iaaiiuo iieaeoe NH4OH.

I?enoonoaea a iacaa?yciaiiuo iiaa?oiinoiuo aiaeao eiiia aiiiiey naycaii
n i?ioeannaie aeaa?aaeaoeee aaeeiauo aauanoa, aeacaieie?iaaiey
aieiieeneio, ?aceiaeaieai ii/aaeiu. Oaaee/aiea eiioeaio?aoeee eiiia
aiiiiey iaaethaeaaony iiyoiio a ia?eiaeu ioie?aiey aiaeiuo i?aaieciia,
iniaaiii a ciiao eo neiieaiey: a i?eaeiiiii neeaa aiaeiaia, a neiyo
iiauoaiiie ieioiinoe oeoi – e aaeoa?eiieaieoiia. Eiiu aiiiiey iiaoo
ia?aciauaaoueny a ?acoeueoaoa aiay?iaiuo i?ioeannia ainnoaiiaeaiey
ieo?aoia e ieo?eoia. Cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai eiiia aiiiiey iinooiaao a
i?e?iaeiua aiaeu n aoiinoa?iuie inaaeeaie. Aunieea eiioeaio?aoeee eiiia
aiiiiey oa?aeoa?iu aeey iinooiathueo a aiaeiaiu noi/iuo aiae e
i?iinoieia i?aaei?eyoee ieuaaie, eienioeie/aneie, eanioeie/aneie e
oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Iiauoaiiia niaea?aeaiea eiiia aiiiiey oeacuaaao ia oooaeoaiea
naieoa?iiai ninoiyiey aiaeiaia.Iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiey aiaeecia

Ieo?aou ii?aaeaeyeenue ia i?eai?a YEIOANO – 01 n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo
yeaeo?iaeia.

Ieo?eou – ia oioieiei?eiao?a n ?aaeoeaii A?enna ii eioaineaiinoe ie?anee
?anoai?a.

Acio aiiiieeiue – oai aea iaoiaeii ( ii eioaineaiinoe ie?anee ) n
oaiieii e aeiioei?eoii.

?acoeueoaou i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaaeeoea, ec eioi?ie neaaeoao, /oi
niaea?aeaiea ieo?aoia ai anao ica?ao i/aiue aunieia e aeinoeaaao 34 ia/e
i?e IAeE 40 ia/e.

Niaea?aeaiea ieo?eoia a 1-i e 2-i ica?ao ia auoa 0.04 ia/e, ii a 3-i
ica?a eo iieacaoaeue a 5 ?ac i?aauoaao IAeE.

Iaeiaiueoaa niaea?aeaiea eiiia aiiiiey a 1-i e 2- ica?ao, a a 3-i ica?a
iii i?aauoaao IAeE. Yoi naycaii eae n oai, /oi o aa?aaia iaoiaeyony
ca?inee eaiuoa, a oaeaea n oai, /oi o e?ay aiaeu noiyo aeeeua iino?ieee,
noiee ec eioi?uo iiiaaeay a ica?, caa?yciytho aai.

Iaeiaei, caa?yciaiea ica? i?ienoiaeeo ia oieueei ec-ca na?inia a?yciuo
aiae, ii e ec-ca caa?yciaiey aoiinoa?u.

Aiaeec niaaeiiai iie?iaa, naeaeaiiue a i?iaa niaaa 4 ai?aey 1996 aiaea,
iieacae, /oi a aoiinoa?iuo inaaeeao i?enoonoaotho ieo?aou, ieo?eou e
aiiiieeiue acio, eioi?ua aiinyo naie aeeaae a iauaa niaea?aeaiea acioa a
aiaeu ica?.?acoeueoaou aiaeecia i?ia niaaa e aiaeu, acyouo ia
Nocaeaeueneeo Ica?ao.

? Ianoi

ioai?a

i?ia Ieo?eou

NO2

IAeE 0.08 ia/e Ieo?aou

NO3

IAeE 40 ia/e Eii

NH4

IAeE 0.5 ia/e

1. 1-a ica?i, na?aaeeia 0.001 26.6 0.025

2. 1-a ica?i, aa?aa 0.04 30.0 0.005

3. 2- ica?i, eoiaeueiy 0.025 24.0 0.19

4. i?ioiea ai 2-a ica?i 0.02 27.8 0.19

5. 3-a ica?i, na?aaeeia 0.438 34.2 0.78

6. 3-a ica?i, aa?aa 0.310 33.8 0.87

7. Niaa. 2-a ica?i 0.085 0.7 0.38

Caeeth/aiea.

I?iaaaeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi ioeaiea ea/anoaa ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu iaaiciiaeia aac ciaiey oeiee, aa caeiiia e oiaiey i?eiaiyoue eo
ia i?aeoeea. ?aaoey?iua aiaeecu aiaeu Nocaeaeueneeo ica? iicaieeee
onoaiiaeoue caeiiiia?iinoe eciaiaiey aa ninoaaa e auyaeoue i?e/eiu
caa?yciaiey yoeo ica?. Ia iniiaa iiieoi?eiaa ( iinoiyiiiai ieaiiia?iiai
iaaethaeaiey ) ica? noaiao aiciiaeiui i?aaeeiaeeoue iaoiaeu i/enoee eo
aiaeu.

E e o a ? a o o ? a

1. A. A. Iae?ania “Eo?n Iauae Oeiee “

2. “ Oieoeoee?iaaiiua iaoiaeu aiaeeca aiae NNN? “ A. 1.

E. Aeae?iiaoecaeao 1978 a.

3. O. A. Oaeueaeiai, A. A. ?oaeceoen “ Oeiey “

I. “I?inaauaiea” 1990 a.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020