?aoa?ao c iie?oieia??

ia oaio:

Iie?oeea ? aeaaea ye noni?euei? yaeua

ANOOI

Iie?oeea ? aeaaea – iaeaaaeeea?o? neeaaeia? noni?eueiiai aeeooy.
Aeyaeaiiy ?o nooiino? aeicaiey? ?ic?a?aoeny a neeaaeieo i?iaeaiao
no/aniino? oa aecia/eoe naith iiceoe?th aei ieo. No/ania ethaeeia
iino?eii a?ae/oaa? ia nia? aieea iie?oeee. A oiiaao aeaiie?aoe/iiai
ia?aoiaeo ?? aoaeoeai?noue iinoa? aaaeeeaei /eiieeii noaa?eueiino?
iaoiai noni?euenoaa. Naia ?? ?aaoethth/ee aieea ia noni?euei? i?ioeane
iiaeiai ni?eyoe iiaeieaiith e?ece. Eiaeai c ian iiaeiai ona?aeiieoe aeey
naaa cia/aiiy iie?oeee, iie?oe/ii? o/ano?, nooi?noue iie?oe/ieo
a?aeiinei, aeaaee oa iie?oe/iiai aeeooy, aeyaeoe aeey naaa iaoai?cie ?o
ooieoe?iioaaiiy. A?ae ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie, iaoei noni?euenoaii,
caeaaeeoue i?inoaaiiy eiai oeyoii aeaiie?ao??.

Aeey aena?oeaiiy oaie eaeoe?? ie i?iiiio?ii oae? ieoaiiy.

1. Ci?no, iioiaeaeaiiy oa ooieoe?? iie?oeee.

2. Aca?iiae?y iie?oeee c ?ioeie noa?aie noni?eueiiai aeeooy.

3. Iiiyooy oa no?oeoo?a aeaaee, ?? eaa?oeii?noue.

4. Iie?oe/i? a?aeiineie oa iie?oe/ia aeeooy noni?euenoaa.

1 Ci?no, iioiaeaeaiiy oa ooieoe?? iie?oeee

Oa?i?i “iie?oeea” aeiee ua a aioe/i?e A?aoe??. A?i iioiaeeoue a?ae
aeaaiueia?aoeueeiai neiaa polis (eao.), ui icia/a? i?noi-aea?aeaaa (a
aioe/i?e A?aoe??). C iacaith “iie?n” iia’ycaiee ? ?ioee oa?i?i politeia,
ui aeine?aii icia/a? “a?aoe o/anoue o iie?oe/iiio aeeoo?”. Ioaea c
ia?oeo oai??a, i?enay/aieo aea/aiith iie?oeee (o?aeoao A??noioaey
“Iie?oeea” i?e aeine?aiiio ia?aeeaae? oaeiae iineoue iacao “oa, ui
a?aeiineoueny aei aea?aeaae”) oeae oa?i?i icia/aa “aea?aeaaia aeeooy”,
“aea?aeaaiee ono??e”. Ca A?enoioaeai iie?oeea aoiaeeoue aei ?iaeiaiai
aecia/aiiy ethaeeie. A?i, aecia/ath/e nooi?noue ethaeeie, iaceaaa ??
iie?oe/iith oaa?eiith. ?ioee aeaaiueia?aoeueeee o?einio Ieaoii i?ae
iie?oeeith ?icoi?a ienoaoeoai, caeaoi?noue aeeoe ?acii ca oiia iie?no,
oeyoii aeio?eiaiiy iaaiiai eiiieaeno i?aaee nioe?aeueiiai ni?aaeeooy.
Ioaea, ii/eiath/e c aeaai?o /an?a, iie?oeea — oea ciaiiy ? oi?iiy
aeinyaaoe ?icae?eaiiy ooieoe?e a?iiaaeyi, caa??aaoe ?o ni?eeoaaiiy ?
oe?e?ni?noue ni?eueiino?.

Iaei??th c o?aaeeoe?eieo aeaoa?i?iaio?a iie?oeee ? aeaaea. A?aeiia?aeii
i?ae iie?oeeith ?icoi?thoue ae?yeuei?noue oa a?aeiineie ii cae?eniaiith
aeaaee a noni?euenoa?. I?iaoeueeee iie?oieia I. Aaaa? cacia/aa, ui
iie?oeea — oea i?aaiaiiy aeaaee, ?? caaithaaiiy ? oo?eiaiiy a ??cieo
aaeeeeo noni?eueieo eieaeoeaao. Ca Ae.?noiiii, iie?oeea iinoa? ye
?aae?ciaaiee aeaaeith ?iciiae?e oe?iiinoae. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui aei
e?ioey XIX no. iie?oeea iia’ycoaaeanue o?aaeeoe?eii ? ia?aaaaeii ?c
aea?aeaaiith aeaaeith, iai?yieaie ?? ae?yeueiino? oa oi?iaie ono?ith.
Ioaea iniaeeao oaaao i?eaa?oaa ?inoeoooe?eiee aniaeo ?icoi?iiy iie?oeee.
?ioa iiceoe?y ?icai?oa?oueny a XX no. Aiia ?ai?acaioo? iie?oeeo ye
aeaaeo, ia eeoa aea?aeaaio, a e iia’ycaio c iaaea?aeaaieie no?oeoo?aie,
a yeeo oaeiae cina?aaeaeo?oueny aeaaea (ia?o??, a?oie oeneo, CI? oiui).
Cia/ii aeiiiaith? oeth iiceoe?th i?aeo?ae, noi?iiaaiee a ae?oa?e
iieiaei? XX no. ia aac? iie?oe/iiai a?oaa?i?ecio. A oeeo iaaeao iie?oeea
anioe?th?oueny c oea?eiith ae?yeueiino? iie?oe/ii? ethaeeie, ??
?ioa?anaie, iiaaae?ieith.

Ua iaeio aeii?iaioo o aecia/aii? iie?oeee noaiiaeoue aeyaeaiiy ??
nioe?aeueiiai ci?noo. A?aeiia?aeii ie iiaeaii a?aeie?aieoe aeaa
iai?yiee. Ia?oee ?icaeyaea? iie?oeeo ye ia’?aeiaiiy ethaeae aeey
aeinyaiaiiy caaaeueiiai aeia?iaooo, ye ae?yeuei?noue ii aeneiaeaiith
caaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano. Oea noa?a eiii?ii?no, eiinainono. Ioaea, aiia
aecia/a?oueny ye niin?a nioe?aeueii? ?ioaa?aoe?? ? ni?eeoaaiiy
(eiioi?eaoe??). Ae?oaee iai?yiie, uiaei aecia/aiiy nioe?aeueiiai ci?noo,
aaniethoeco? eiioe?eoiee ii/aoie iie?oeee. A?aeiia?aeii iie?oeea
aaa/a?oueny a caaacia/aii? iaioaaiiy iaeieo iaae ?ioeie, ye ae?ac
ai?ioueae. Eiie?aoiei ao?eaiiyi oeueiai i?aeoiaeo ? aeeeoaoo?a iaeiiai c
eean?a, aai ae “a?aenoithaaiiy aeeoioii?? “ae?oa-ai?ia”” (ca E.
Oi?aeoii), “iao?-/oae?”. Iie?oeea, ca oe??th aeii?iaioith ? oi?iith
?aae?caoe?? oeo aai ?ioeo aoe/ieo oe?eae. C?icoi?ei, ui a oeueiio ieai?
?icia?ooy i?aeoiae?a iiaea aooe aeoaea oe?iea — iai?eeeaae, c?inoaiiy
aeaaa oa oi?aae?iiy o a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c i?eioeeiaie ni?aaaaeeeaino?
(Ieaoii); cae?eniaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ieneaiiy (A.A.O.Aaaaeue);
anoaiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai aaeaino nee oa i?aeo?eiea oe?e?niino?
noni?euenoaa (Aeaa?a); cae?eniaiiy caaaeueii? aie? (AE.-AE.?onni).

Iie?oeea oaeiae iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny ye ii?iioai?/?noue, ae?yeuei?noue ii
oe??ieaiiy, ci?ie a?aeiinei a noni?euenoa?, ye aeinyaiaiiy
aeiiiaeaiino?. Iie?oeea, ye ie aa/eii, iia’ycaia c oi?aae?iiyi. A
iaae?ao eiai ?icai?oa?oueny iiooe oeyo?a aei iaeia?aeiiiai. I?ioean
i?eeiyooy ??oaiue a iie?oeoe? iineoue oai?/ee oa?aeoa?, i?enooi?
aeaiaioe ?eceeo, ai ?acoeueoaoe ia caaaeaee iiaeia ia?aaeaa/eoe.
Aacoiiaii, an? oe? eiioeaiooaeuei? neeaaeia? iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe i?ae
/an aiae?co oaeiai oaiiiaio ye iie?oeea. Oea aeanoue ciiao oieeiooe
iaeiia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei oeueiai neeaaeiiai yaeua.

Ia ?aii?o aoaiao ?icaeoeo ethaenueeiai noni?euenoaa, eiee ethaee aoee
ia’?aeiai? e?iaii?iaeeiieie ca’yceaie, iaiao?aeiino? a iie?oeoe? ia
aoei. Noni?euenoai ua ia caciaei oiae? ??ceiai i?ioenoaaeaiiy ?ioa?an?a.
Iaoai?ci naiii?aai?caoe?? a io?eiaii? oa ?iciiae?e? i?iaeoeo?a, aeiaie
?ae?a??, o?aaeeoe?? i?e?iaeiei /eiii ?aaoethaaee ye i?ioean caaeiaieaiiy
iio?aa, oae ? i?aeo?eieo oe?e?niino? nioe?oio. Iaeiae, ii i??? i?ia?ano
iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, oneeaaeiaiiy noni?euenoaa, c?inoaiiy eiai
aaaaoii??iino? iinoa? i?iaeaia a?aaoethaaiiy noia?a/eeaeo ?ioa?an?a oa
caa?aaeaiiy eiai oe?e?niino?. Ieaiaia ia’?aeiothoueny a a?eueo aaeee?
ni?eueiino? — ia?iaeiino?, eaea aioo??oiy aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y noni?euenoaa
ca nioe?aeueieie, aoi?/ieie, ?ae?a?eieie oa ?ioeie iciaeaie. Iio??aiith
aeyaey?oueny ?ioa i?aai?caoe?y noni?euenoaa. Aeieea? aea?aeaaa, yea ca
?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy cania?a i?eiono caaacia/o? iaiao?aei?
caaaeueiiiaia’yceia? oi?ie nioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee aeey on?o oa??a
ianaeaiiy. Oea ye?nii iiaee ??aaiue ?aaoethaaiiy i?aea?oiiaeo a?aeiinei,
?iciianthaeaeaieo ia cia/i?e oa?eoi???. Oi?io?oueny iniaeeaee oa?
ethaeae, ui cae?enith? aeaaeo ? oi?aae?iiy (aia?ao oi?aae?iiy). Oiaoi
/?oei ?iciaaeiaothoueny ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy oa oeo, eei oi?aaeythoue.

A?aeiioaiiy aei aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, ye ie aa/eii, aieeaa? ia iiaeeeaino?
caaeiaieaiiy nioe?aeueieie a?oiaie nai?o caieo?a oa iio?aa.
Iaiao?aei?noue anooiaoe a iiina?aaeeiaai? aea?aeaaith a?aeiineie c
?ioeie a?oiaie oa c naieie oeaio?aie aeaaee ia?aaeaa/aei a naith /a?ao
a?aea?? aeaaeiicia/oueo ?ioa?an?a oa ioi?ieaiiy a?oiiaeo cac?oaiue. Oea
ni?eyei aeieeiaiith iiaeo nioe?aeueieo anioe?aoe?e, a oaeiae i?ecaiaeeei
aei c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? ethaeae, ui niaoe?aeueii caeiaeeny oi?aae?iiyi.
Ioaea iie?oeeo iiaeia aecia/eoe ye nenoaio a?aeiinei i?ae ethaeueie,
ye? aeieeathoue c i?eaiaeo i?aai?caoe?? oa aeei?enoaiiy aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee a noni?euenoa?.

Iie?oe/iee oa?aeoa? noni?eueieo a?aeiinei aeiaaa? ona?aeiieaiiy nai?o
?ioa?an?a ye a?oiith a oe?eiio (ia ??ai? iie?oe/ieo i?ia?ai, oe?eae,
?aeaieia?e), oae ? eiaeiei ?? i?aaenoaaieeii ie?aii. Ethaeeia iiaeiia
ona?aeiiethaaoe naith i?eiaaei?noue aei aeaii? a?oie. Iie?oe/ia
ona?aeiieaiiy ?ioa?an?a aeeth/a? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?o ?c caieoaie ?ioeo
a?oi ? aecia/aiiy cania?a oa nooiaiy aea?aeaaiiai ao?o/aiiy a i?ioean
noni?eueii? aca?iiae??. Eiee ni?eueiioa ia iiaea ona?aeiieoe nai?
iie?oe/ii cia/ou? ?ioa?ane, aiia noa? ca?o/ieoeath aeanii? ae?oe, aai
aoaea ia’?eoii iai?ioethaaiiy c aieo ?ioeo a?oi. Oaeei /eiii, iie?oe/i?
ona?aeiieaiiy ?ioa?an?a iaiao?aei? aeey oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? aie?,
ni?yiiaaii? ia aoaeoeaio o/anoue a iie?oe/iiio i?ioean?.

I?aenoiiaoth/e, iiaeia aecia/eoe iie?oeeo ye iaeanoue, a iniiaiiio,
oe?eani?yiiaaieo a?aeiinei i?ae a?oiaie c i?eaiaeo aeei?enoaiiy
?inoeooo?a ioae?/ii? aeaaee aeey ?aae?caoe?? ?o noni?eueiicia/oueo
caieo?a oa iio?aa.

Aecia/eii oaia? iniiai? ooieoe?? iie?oeee:

a?aeaeooy aeaaeii cia/oueo ?ioa?an?a nioe?aeueieo a?oi noni?euenoaa.
Caaaeyee iie?oeoe?, ethaee io?eiothoue aeiaeaoeia? iiaeeeaino?
caaeiaieueiyoe nai? iio?aae ? ?ioa?ane;

iie?oeea ?aoe?iiae?co? i?ioe??//y, ui aeieeathoue, ni?ey? ae??oaiith
eiioe?eo?a;

oi?aae?iiy, iaeaaiaeaeaiiy noni?eueii? aca?iiae?? (aaaeeeaee can?a
oeueiai — iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy i?eiono uiaei /eai?a noni?euenoaa);

iie?oeea ia?aaeaa/a? ?ioaa?aoe?th noni?euenoaa, caaacia/o? aa?iii?th
i?eaaoieo oa noni?eueieo ?ioa?an?a. *a?ac oea, caaaeyee iie?oeoe?
i?aeo?eio?oueny oe?e?ni?noue noni?euenoaa, noaa?euei?noue oa noni?eueiee
ii?yaeie;

iie?oeea noaiiaeoue na?aaeiaeua nioe?ae?caoe?? iniaenoino?. Ethaeeia
aoiaeeoue aei iie?oeee, canaith? oa ae?iaey? nai? noaaeaiiy aei
noni?eueii? aca?iiae??, c i?eaiaeo aeei?enoaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeaaee;

a i?ioean? iie?oeee ethaeeia canaith? caaaeueiii?eeiyoi? oyaeaiiy;

e??i onueiai, iie?oeea, aeei?enoiaoth/e iaoiaee iie?oe/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy
iiaea ooai?thaaoe iia? oi?ie nioe?aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? aeeooy. ?iaeoa
eaaeo/e, caaacia/o? ?iiaaoe?ei?noue noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo. Iiaeeeaino?
iie?oeee ?icoe?ththoueny caaaeyee aca?iiae?? c ?ioeie noa?aie
noni?eueiiai aeeooy.

2 Aca?iiae?y iie?oeee c ?ioeie noa?aie noni?eueiiai aeeooy

Iie?oeea a?ae/oaa? ia nia? aieea aeiiii?ee, ii?ae?, i?aaa, ooaeiaeiuei?
eoeueoo?e oiui. Aea ae e aiia ae?? ia oe? oa ?io? noa?e.

O?eaaeee /an iie?oeea ni?eeiaeanue ye anacaaaeueia oi?aa?naeueia oi?ia
ethaenueei? aeoeaiino?. ?icoi?iiy iaaii? aaoiiii?? iie?oeee aeaei ciiao
a?eueo /?oei ni?aa?aeianoe iie?oeeo c ?ioeie noa?aie aeeooy.

Oea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??ci? ieneeoae? ioe?ithaaee aeiaie? iaiaeiicia/ii.
Aeaye? aa/eee ?? ye ia?oi?yaeio noa?o ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino? (Iinea);
?io?, iaaiaee, ?ic/eiyee ?? a ??cieo aeaeao ae?yeueiino?, caia?a/oaaee
iiaeeea?noue ?? aaoiiii?caoe?? (O?aeae); aeaeio?? ?icaeyaeaee ?? ye
caeaaeio a?ae aeiiii?ee (Ia?en), i?aaa (Aiaan), ii?ae? (A??noioaeue) /e
?ae?a?? (oaieia?/ia ia?aaeeaia); ?io? — aecia/aee ?? ye a?aeiinii
aaoiiiiio ??aiii?aaio c ?ioeie noa?o noni?eueiiai aeeooy.

?niothoue aea? e?aei? oi/ee ci?o: iaeia c ieo aeaoa?i?io? iie?oe/i?
i?ioeane iaiie?oe/ieie oaeoi?aie, ?ioa a?ia?aie?co?
naiiaeaoa?i?iiaai?noue iie?oeee, aiai?eoue i?i ?? iai?aeaeaaei?noue
aieeao ?ioeo noa? aeeooy. Caea?oueny, ui a?eueo ia’?eoeaiei ? i?aeo?ae,
ca yeei iie?oeea oa ?io? noa?e aca?iiae?thoue, aca?iicaeaaeaoue ye
a?aeiinii naiino?ei? nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a.
Iiaeeeaa ia?aaaaa oeo /e ?ioeo ?aaoeyoi??a iaoiiaeth?oueny ??cieie
i?e/eiaie (?noi?e/ia neooaoe?y, iaioae?oao oa ?i.).

A oiiaao noaa?eueieo aeaiie?ao?e ca’ycie iie?oeee c ?ioeie noa?aie ia?
no?eeee aeeiai?/iee oa?aeoa?. I?inoaaeo?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei cieaeaiiy
?ie? iaoiae?a iie?oe/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy, iineeaiiy aieeao ii?aeueieo,
?ae?a?eieo ii?i, iaoiae?a naiii?aai?caoe?? a noni?euenoa?.

Ia?ao?aeiee noai iie?oe/iiai ?aaeeio, yeee /anoi noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
e?ecith, ni?ey? iineeaiith aieeao oaeoi??a iie?oe/iiai oa?aeoa?o,
i?aeaeuo? cia/aiiy iie?oe/ii? aie? oa ??aiy ?inoeooae?caoe?? iie?oe/ieo
a?aeiinei. Iniaeeai oea aeyaey?oueny a eia?oe? ae?? aaoi?eoa?iiai
?aaeeio, aeey yeiai iie?oeea — can?a i??i?eoaoiiai aieeao ia iineeaiiy
?aaoeueiaaiino? nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a.

Uiaei oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio, oi a iueiio iie?oe/ia naaaiey aeinyaa?
iainyaeieo ?ici???a. Iie?oe/i? iaoiaee ca noooth i?aei?iythoue oa
aeaaaeueaothoue /eiieee ?ioiai ii?yaeeo. Iaa?oue aeiiii?/ia
aeioe?euei?noue a?aeaea? i?noea ?aeaieia?/iei i??eoaaiiyi. Iie?oeea
iaaoaa? a?ia?o?ioiaaiiai cia/aiiy, aiia i?iieea? iaa?oue o iniaenoa
aeeooy a?iiaaeyi.

Oaia? ?icaeyiaii eiie?aoio aca?iiae?th iie?oeee c aeayeeie noa?aie
ethaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?.

Aeiiii?ea ia? cia/iee aeaoa?i?ioth/ee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii?
aeaaee. Cie?aia, aeaaaeiiiainueeee i?aeo?ae (c aiae. — “?icaeoie”)
aecia/a?, ui neaai ?icaeiooa aeiiii?ea ia?aaeaa/a? oeaio?ae?caoe?th
aeaaee, iineeth? aaoi?eoa?i? oaiaeaioe??. Aenieee ??aaiue aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo ? aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii anoaiiaeaiiy oa caa?aaeaiiy noaa?eueii?
aeaiie?ao??.

Ca?oa?aei? aeine?aeieee aeei?enoiaothoue oaea iiiyooy, ye ?iaeaen
eiiieaeniiai ?icaeoeo, a yeiio aeiiii?/i? iieacieee iin?aeathoue
aaaeeeaa i?noea. A caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o ?icaeiooino? i?iaiico?oueny
ia?niaeoeaa anoaiiaeaiiy noaa?eueii? aeaiie?ao?? a o?e /e ?io?e e?a?i?,
ui ia?aaeeaa? aoai iiaea?i?caoe??.

Oaeee aeine?aeiee, ye A.?annae, neioacoaaa iieacieee
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa iie?oe/iiai oa?aeoa?o, oa aeae?eea i’youe
oei?a aea?aeaa, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue i’yoe oeiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa. O?aaeeoe?ei?, i?ei?oeai? noni?euenoaa;
o?aaeeoe?ei? oeea?e?caoe??; ia?ao?aei? noni?euenoaa; noni?euenoaa
i?iieneiaeo ?aaiethoe?e; noni?euenoaa aenieiai ianiaiai niiaeeaaiiy.

Ca’ycie iie?oeee oa aeiiii?ee iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe ae?aeaeoe/ii.
Iie?oeea oaeiae ia? ?aaoethth/? iiaeeeaino? uiaei aeiiii?ee, ai ?
oi?iith aeaaeii — aea?aeaaiiai i?eiono. A ?ac? iaiao?aeiino? aieea ??
iaaoaa? iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy. Nueiaiaei? ye e?aa?aeuei? ?aeaieiae
caoiaeo, oae ? eiina?aaoeai? a?aeiiaeythoueny a?ae ??cei iaaaoeaiiai
noaaeaiiy aei aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee. Aiie aeciathoue
iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy oeeo aaaeae?a.

A no/ani?e Oe?a?i?, ye ? a ?ioeo aea?aeaaao, ui i?iaiaeyoue
iinooioae?oa?i? o?ainoi?iaoe??, ieoaiiy iineeaiiy ?aaoeueiaaiino?
nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a ? iaea?eueo aeooaeueiei. Iie?oe/iee aiae?c
iio??aai aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aoaeoeaieo aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue:
anoaiiaeaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua, noaa?aeaeaiiy ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei, ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. I??e iie?oe/iiai oa?aeoa?o
iaiao?aei? e aeey iiaeieaiiy iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a ieioei? nenoaie oa
iiaeieaiiy e?eciaeo yaeu ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo.

Iaeiae oni?o aeaiie?aoe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue aoaea caeaaeaoe a?ae
caa?aaeaiiy aeeiai?/iiai aaeaino i?ae /eiieeaie iie?oe/iiai oa
aeiiii?/iiai oa?aeoa?o. Iai?eeeaae, ia iaio cia/ouei aeyaey?oueny
?icaeoie a?eueii? aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, noaa?aeaeaiiy
ainiiaea?nueei? ?i?oe?aoeae oa oe?ieee ?icaeoie i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.

Aeiiii?ea oa iie?oeea aca?iiae?thoue iiina?aaeeiaaii /a?ac nioe?aeuei?
a?aeiineie. Oiio oa?aeoa? ?o aca?iiae?? aaaaoi a /iio caeaaeeoue a?ae
ci?noo ?ioa?an?a nioe?aeueieo a?oi, ui neeaaeathoue oa /e ?ioa
noni?euenoai.

I?aaiaa, th?eaee/ia noa?a cae??ieth? a caeiiiaeaanoa? iniiai? i?eioeeie
iie?oe/iiai iaioaaiiy. Aiii iinoa? nai???aeiei ?iaeeeaoi?ii aeic??eino?
iie?oeee, aea?aeaae. Aecia/a? iaae? i?eionoeii? iie?oe/ii? iiaaae?iee
noa’?eo?a iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Iniaeeai oea iiaeiii noinoaaoeny
i?aaey/eo e?e. Uiaei iaoi? iauiaeaaiuei? ?noi???: a oiiaao oioae?oa?iiai
?aaeeio i?aai neoaoaaei iie?oeoe?, i?ye ia ?aaeaiaiooaaei i?aaiaa,
aeaaeia naaa?eey. Aaniethoia aeaaea ?icaauo? aaniethoii.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iie?oeee ? ii?ae? aa?a na?e
ii/aoie ua ca aeaai? /ane. A oe?eiio a ?noi??? o?einionueei? oa
iie?oe/ii? aeoiee iiaeia aecia/eoe o?e iniiai? i?aeoiaee.

Ia?oee i?aeo?ae (Iae?aaaee?, Iinea, I?oaeuen, Aaioai) a?aeeeaea?
aoaeue-yea na?eicia cia/aiiy ii?ae? aeey iie?oeee.

Ae?oaee i?aeo?ae (Ieaoii, A??noioaeue, O?iii), iaaiaee, ?ic/eiyee
iie?oe/i? i?aeoiaee a ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo ioe?ieao. Aeneiaethaaeanue oi/ea
ci?o, ui aoe/i? i???ioe?e ? iaenooo?a?oeie a ethaenuee?e
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? (iaeiaeiai a on?o noa?ao, ia a?aeie?aiethth/e
iie?oeeo).

O?ao?e i?aeo?ae (A.Oaaeoea?, I.Aaiae?) a?aenoithaaee aeoieo
ooeyoaoithaaiiy iie?oeee ii?aeeth. C oeueiai iiaeyaeo, ii?aeue ?
aaaeeeaei /eiieeii ioe?iee iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? acaaae?.

A iie?oeoe? i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?? ?ioa?an?a ia?a?nii
iia’ycaiee c ii?aeueiei aeai?ii ethaeeie. Oyaeaiiy i?i ni?aaaaeeea?noue,
oa?aeoa? a?aeiinei c aea?aeaaith, i?i iaae? naiaiaee oa ??ai?noue
aieeaathoue ia iie?oe/i? ianoaiiae oa iiaaae?ieo. O a?aeiineiao c
aea?aeaaith (aea?aeaaiith aeaaeith) ethaeeia ea?o?oueny aeiiaaie ei?eno?
oa ii?aeueiino?. Ii?aeue ?ici?uo? iie?oe/i? ieoaiiy o ieiuei?
aca?iia?aeiinei “aeia?a” oa “cea”. ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee aea?? a?eueoith
i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae ii?aeueiiai ai?iaoaaiiy, oiae? ye i?ioan?ei?
aniaeoe oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? ae?o i?noyoue i?i?iaeueiee ??aaiue
ii?aeueii? ?aoeaen??.

C?icoi?ei, ui ii?aeuei?noue iie?oeee a?aeiinia, oei a?eueoa, ui
ii?aeueia ioe?iea iie?oe/ieo cania?a, ui canoiniaothoueny, caeaaeeoue
a?ae eiie?aoii? neooaoe??. Iai?eeeaae, aea?aeaaa iiaea aoaeoeaii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe nai? iiiiiieueia i?aai ia aeei?enoaiiy neee o?eueee
oiae?, eiee ia? eaa?oeii?noue. ?iaeoa eaaeo/e, eiee ii?aeuei? ii/oooy
ia?iaeo ca?aathoueny c ii?iaie io?oe?eii? aeaaeii? ii?ae?.

O a?aeiineiao ii?ae? oa iie?oeee oaeiae iaiao?aeiee aaeain iai?eionoeiee
ye a?ia?ii?ae?ci, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?noeo?eaoe?? iie?oe/ieo oyaeaiue,
ui ? oeyoii aei nioe?aeueieo eaoano?io, oae ? iaoooaaiiy nioe?aeueieie
i?eioeeiaie, ui oa?aeoa?ii aeey an?o a?aeiieo ?noi??? aeeeoaoi?nueeeo
?aaeei?a.

sseui iie?oeea ia oeo?a?oueny ii?aeueieo aeiia, oiae? ?e i?eiaaeia
i?aaiaiiy aeinyaoe oe?eae ca ?aooiie iaioi? nioe?aeueii? oe?ie, caa?aaoe
ie? oa a?iiaaeyinueeo caiaeo.

?iaeea?aeoaeueiee, a?oiiaee oa caaaeueiiethaenueeee ??ai? iie?oe/ii?
na?aeiiino? iiaeii? io?eioaaoe ?ioaa?aeueio oi?ioeo. Ia?aaaaa iaeiiai c
ieo iaaaoeaia ca nai?i aieeaii, ai ii?ooo? aeeiai?/iee aaeain i?ae
iie?oeeith oa ii?aeeth, ?aaeueiei oa ?aeaaeueiei. Aeey caa?aaeaiiy
oeueiai aaeaino iaiao?aeii iineethaaoe o? ianoaiiae, ui ia’?aeiothoue
noni?euenoai, a ia i?ecaiaeyoue aei eiai ?iciaaeo. Noaa?euei?noue
noni?euenoaa ia?aaeaa/a? iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo /eiiee?a ii?aeue ye
aeaea?aei iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo oa iie?oeeo — ye can?a oe??ieaiiy
oi?aa?naeueieo ii?i oa oe?iiinoae ii?ae?.

3 IIIssOOss OA NO?OEOO?A AEAAeE, ?? EAA?OEII?NOUe

sse aaea aoei cacia/aii, nooi?nio aeaoa?i?iaioo iie?oeee noaiiaeoue
aeaaea. ?icaeyiaii aeaoaeuei?oa oeae oaiiiai.

No/ania iie?oieia?y, ye i?aaeei, aeoiaeeoue ?c ?icoi?iiy aeaaee, yea
cai?iiiioaaa I.Aaaa?. Aeaaea iinoa? ye caeaoi?noue ie?aii? ethaeeie aai
a?oie ethaeae noaa?aeaeoaaoe o noa?? nioe?aeueieo a?aeiinei, ia
aeeaey/enue ia ii??, aeanio aieth. Aeaaea i?iyaey?oueny iianthaee: a
?iaeei?, o ae?iaie/eo eieaeoeaao, a?i??, o aea?aeaa? caaaeii. A
inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo ie ia?ii ni?aao c aa?oiaiith iie?oe/iith aeaaeith.

Nooi?noue aeaaee iieyaa? o a?aeiineiao ea??aieoeoaa, aeaaea?thaaiiy ?
i?aeei?aiiy. Iaeiae ?niothoue ??ci? oeoia/aiiy aeaaee. Oaeaieia?/ia, c
iiaeyaeo aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae, ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino?. Ca iei, aeaaea
iiaea aooe aecia/aia ye ?aae?caoe?y iai?/aieo oe?eae. “C aeaio noa’?eo?a
A ? A, noa’?eo A aeinyaa? iaea?eueo iai?/aieo ?acoeueoao?a, a i?ae
noa’?eo A. A?aeiia?aeii noa’?eo A ? aieiae?? aeaaeith”.

A?oaa?i?enonueea o?aeooaaiiy ?icaeyaea? aeaaeo ye iniaeeaee oei
iiaaae?iee, i?e yeiio iaei? ethaee eiiaiaeothoue, a ?io? —
i?aeei?ythoueny. Oeae i?aeo?ae ?iaeea?aeoae?co? ?icoi?iiy aeaaee,
caiaey/e eiai aei aca?iiae?? ?aaeueieo iniaenoinoae. Iniaeeaa oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny noa’?eoeai?e iioeaaoe?? aeaaee. Ethaeeiith ea?o?
ii?eaaiiy aei aeaaee, i?aaiaiiy aei ia?. Aiia ni?eeia?oueny ye can?a
caaaa/aiiy, iaea?aeaiiy i?anoeaeo, aaciaee, aeia?iaooo. Iie?oe/ia aeaaea
neeaaea?oueny ?c c?oeiaiue, ??ciiiai?oii? aie? aei aeaaee, ye aaeaino,
??aiiaaae iie?oe/ieo nee.

Aei a?oaia?i?enonueeiai o?aeooaaiiy aeecueeee ? ineoieia?/iee i?aeo?ae.
Caaaeueia a iueiio oa, ui aeaaea ia? ca aeaea?aei ?iaeea?aeoaeueio
iiaaae?ieo. Iaiao?aeii aeyaeyoe ineoieia?/i? canaaee aie? aei aeaaee.
Iayaii oeae i?aeo?ae iiaeia i?ine?aeeoaaoe a iaaeao ineoiaiae?co. Aeaaea
aeieea? ye aca?iiae?y aie? aei aeaaee iaeieo oa aioiaiino? aei
i?aeei?aiiy, “aeia?ia?eueiiai ?aanoaa” — c aieo ?ioeo. A ineo?oe?
ethaeeie ? no?oeoo?e (ca C.O?aeaeii), ye? ?iaeyoue eiai noeeueiei aei
ia?aaaae ?aanoaa ca?aaee iniaenoi? caoeuaiino? oa caniiei?iino? ca
aeiiiiiaith ethaia? aei i?aaeoaey.

Nenoaiia o?aeooaaiiy aeaaee i?ioeeaaeia iiia?aaeiueiio. Aeaaea, ca iei,
oea iio?aeia ia a?ae ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo, i?aeiniaeno?nieo a?aeiinei, a
a?ae nioe?aeueii? nenoaie ? aeyaey?oueny o aca?iia?aeiineiao /anoei oa
oe?eiai.

No?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoue aeaaeo ye
aeanoea?noue nioe?aeueii? i?aai?caoe??. Ethaenueea noni?euenoai
aaco?oueny ia aeioe?eueiino? ?iciiae?eo ooieoe?e ea?oaaiiy oa
i?aeei?aiiy. Oea oiiaa aoaeoeaiiai ni?eueiiai aoooy ethaeae. ???a?o?y
aeanoeaa noni?euenoao. Ioaea aeaaea iinoa? ye aeanoea?noue nioe?aeueieo
noaoon?a, ?ieae, ui aeathoue ciiao eiio?iethaaoe ?ano?ne aeaaee.

?aeyoe?ii?nonueea (a?ae “relation” aiae. — a?aeiioaiiy) aecia/aiiy
aeaaee ? neioaciei. Aeaaea – oea a?aeiioaiiy i?ae aeaiia ia?oia?aie
(aaaioaie), i?e yeiio iaeei c ieo cae?enith? cia/iee aieea ia ?ioiai.
?ioeie neiaaie, aeaaea – oea aca?iiae?y i?ae noa’?eoii ? ia’?eoii, i?e
ye?e noa’?eo ca aeiiiiiaith iaaieo cania?a eiio?ieth? ia’?eo.

No?oeoo?a aeaaee neeaaea?oueny c noa’?eoa, ia’?eoa aeaaee oa ?ano?n?a.
Noa’?eo ao?eth? aeoeaiee ii/aoie. A?aeiineie aeaaee iathoue aneiao?e/iee
oa?aeoa? (aeaaea caaaeaee eiioeaio?o?oueny ia aioe? noa’?eoa, aea
nooi?noue noa’?eo-ia’?eoieo a?aeiinei caeaaeeoue a?ae oeio iie?oe/iiai
?aaeeio).

?ano?ne aeaaee – oea an? o? caniae, aeei?enoaiiy yeeo caaacia/o? aieea
ia ia’?eo aeaaee a?aeiia?aeii aei oe?eae noa’?eoa. ?ano?ne iiaeia
eeaneo?eoaaoe ia ooee?oa?i?, i?eionia?, ii?iaoeai? (ca A.Aooe?ii?).
Ooee?oa?i? – oea iaoa??aeuei? oa ?io? nioe?aeuei? aeaaa, ui iia’ycai? c
iianyeaeaiieie ?ioa?anaie ethaeae. Aiie iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoenue ye
aeey caioi/aiiy, oae ? aeey iiea?aiiy. I?eionia? ?ano?ne – oea i??a
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai iiea?aiiy. ?o canoiniaothoue oiae?, eiee ia?o?
(ooee?oa?i?) aeyaeythoueny ia aoaeoeaieie aai ae/a?iaieie. Ii?iaoeai? –
aeeth/athoue o? caoiaee, ye? aieeaathoue ia aioo??oi?e na?o ethaeeie, ia
ii?ie iiaaae?iee oa oe?ii?ni? i???ioaoe?? (CI?, ooaeiaeiy e?oa?aoo?a,
??ci? noa?e eoeueoo?e, ae?th/a caeiiiaeaanoai, o?aaeeoe?? oiui) Oeae oei
?ano?n?a aieeaa? naia ia na?aeii?noue ethaeeie, oiae? ye ia?o? aeaa
aeaee – ia ?aaeuei? ianoaaeie aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie, a /a?ac oea —
ia iiaaae?ieo.

Iiaeia oaeiae i?iaiaeeoe eeaneo?eaoe?th ?ano?n?a a?aeiia?aeii aei noa?
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?: iie?oe/i?, aeiiii?/i?, nioe?aeuei?, iie?oeei-neeia?,
eoeueoo?ii-?ioi?iaoe?ei?.

Aeiiii?/i? ?ano?ne – oea iaoa??aeuei? oe?iiino?, ui iaiao?aei? aeey
noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa niiaeeaaiiy. Oea a?io?, caniae
ae?iaieoeoaa, caiey, ei?eni? eiiaeeie, i?iaeoeoe oa?/oaaiiy oiui.

Nioe?aeuei? ?ano?ne aeathoue ciiao aieeaaoe ia nioe?aeueiee noaoon
ethaeeie. Aei ieo a?aeiinyoueny, iai?eeeaae, iaoa??aeueiee aeia?iaoo,
ea?’??a, i?anoeae, ina?oa, iaaee/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy, nioe?aeueia
caoeuai?noue.

Aei eoeueoo?ii-?ioi?iaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a iaeaaeaoue ciaiiy oa ?ioi?iaoe?y,
a oaeiae caniae ?o io?eiaiiy oa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy (caeeaaee ina?oe ?
iaoee, CI?, caeeaaee eoeueoo?e). Aeaye? aeine?aeieee aaaaeathoue, ui XXI
noie?ooy noaia noie?ooyi iaioaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a aeaaee.

Iie?oeei-neeia? ?ano?ne – oea aea?aeaaiee aia?ao o?ce/iiai i?eiono
(a?i?y, ea?i? i?aaie oiui).

Aaaeeeai a?aecia/eoe, ui ? naia ethaeeia ? niaoeeo?/iei ?ano?nii aeaaee
(aeaiia?ao?/i? ?ano?ne). Ethaeeia noai?th? an? ?io? ?ano?ne aeaaee.
Ethaeeia iiaea aenooiaoe cia?yaeaeyi aeaaee ye can?a aieeao ia ?ioeo
ethaeae. Oiaoi ethaeeia iiaea aenooiaoe ? noa’?eoii ? ia’?eoii aeaaee.

Ie aecia/eee, ui oaea aeaaea ye oaiiiai noni?eueiiai aoooy. Aea aeaaea
iiaea aooe eeaneo?eiaaia ca oaeeie aeaeaie: aeiiii?/ia, nioe?aeueia,
aeooiaii-?ioi?iaoe?eia, i?eioniaa, iie?oe/ia.

Iniaeeai oe?eaaa ieoaiiy — a /iio iieyaa? niaoeeo?ea iie?oe/ii? aeaaee.
Aecia/eii ?yae iciae, ui ?? a?ae??ciythoue:

eaaaeuei?noue o aeei?enoaii? neee a iaaeao aea?aeaae oa c aieo
aea?aeaae;

aa?oiaainoai, iaia’yceia?noue ??oaiue iie?oe/ii? aeaaee iaae onyeeie
?ioeie;

ioae?/i?noue (anacaaaeuei?noue, iicainiai?noue). Iie?oe/ia aeaaea a?ae
?iai? anueiai noni?euenoaa caa?oa?oueny aei on?o a?iiaaeyi ca
aeiiiiiaith i?aaa;

iiiioeaio?e/i?noue (iayai?noue ?aeeiiai oeaio?o i?eeiyooy iie?oe/ieo
??oaiue). ?io? aeaee aeaaee iie?oeaio?e/i?;

?icia?ooy ?ano?n?a iie?oe/ii? aeaaee.

Iie?oe/ia aeaaea a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae on?o ?ioeo oi?i noni?eueii? aeaaee
nai?th noaa?aii?noth: caaaeuei? caeiie ? ii?yaeee iioe?ththoue ?? ia
an?o a?iiaaeyi; aiia aeiineoue inoaoi/ia ??oaiiy a on?o aeiaaeeao;
naiino?eii i?aaenoaaey? a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai o i?aeia?iaeieo
ni?aaao. Ae??oaeueiei caniaii canoinoaaiiy aeaaee aenooia? iiiiiie?y
ianeeuenoaa ye aioo??oiueiai (i?aai iiea?aiiy), oae ? ciai?oiueiai
(i?aai ia a?eio). Aeey iie?oe/ii? aeaaee iathoue cia/aiiy ia no?eueee
?ioa?ane ie?aieo in?a /e a?oi, ne?eueee caaaeuei? ?ioa?ane an?o
a?iiaaeyi noni?euenoaa.

Iie?oe/ia aeaaea ?aae?co? nai? iiaeeeaino? o oi?iao, i?ioenoiyoe yeei ia
iiaeooue aioenioe?aeuei? oaiaeaioe?? ? aioea?iiaaeyinuee? ae??. Aiia
nie?a?oueny ia niaoeeo?/i? cia?yaeaey ? caniae aeaaee:
th?eaee/ii-noaeia?, aaei?i?no?aoeai?, ea?i?, a?enueeia?. Ci?noii
iie?oe/ii? aeaaee ia? aooe i?aaiaiiy aei caa?aaeaiiy noni?euenoaa a?ae
?iciaaeo ? noai?aiiy oiia aeey eiai ?icaeoeo.

A no/aniiio noni?euenoa? i?inoaaeo?oueny eoioeyoeaiee aoaeo –
iaeiie/aiiy aeaaee, ui iineeth?oueny. ??ci? aeaee aeaaee iathoue
oaiaeaioe?th aei aca?iiae?? ? iaa?oue aei iaoiiaeaiiy iaeia aei iaeii?.

Aeey oiai, uia aeeiioaaoe nai? ooieoe??, aeaaea iiaeiia aooe
?inoeoooe?ae?ciaaiith, cae??ieaia o oi?i? iie?oe/iiai iaioaaiiy. Aiii
icia/a? no?oeoo?oaaiiy a noni?euenoa? a?aeiinei aeaaeoaaiiy ?
i?aeei?aiiy, i?aai?caoe?eia ioi?ieaiiy ? cae??ieaiiy ?iciiae?eo
oi?aae?inueei? i?aoe?. Cae/aeii, c inoaiiueith iia’ycai?, c iaeiiai
aieo, nioe?aeuei? i?ea?ea?, c ?ioiai – aeeiiaa/a ae?yeuei?noue.
Iie?oe/ia iaioaaiiy aeieea?, eiee aeaaea ?inoeooth?oueny,
ia?aoai?th?oueny a no?ee? a?aeiineie. Aiii iia’ycaia c ?iciiae?eii
noaoonieo iiceoe?e a noni?euenoa?.

Iaioaaiiy a?iiaaeyiaie ioe?ith?oueny ii-??ciiio. Iiceoeaia ioe?iea
i?eeiyooy aeaaee ianaeaiiyi, aeciaiiy ?i ?? i?aaa oi?aaeyoe oa caiaea
i?aeei?thaaoeny icia/a? eaa?oeii?noue aeaaee. Oaea aeaaea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ye ni?aaaaeeeaa oa i?aaii??ia. Aiia ia? aaoi?eoao.
A?eueo?noue ianaeaiiy aiaaiaia, ui ?nioth/ee ii?yaeie ? iaee?auee c
iiaeeeaeo aeey oeueiai noni?euenoaa. Eaa?oeii?noue aeaaee
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iayai?noth eiinainono uiaei iniiaieo oe?eae ?
oe?iiinoae ?icaeoeo.

Iaiao?aeii ?ic??ciyoe eaa?oeii?noue aeaaee oa ?? eaaaeuei?noue. Ia?oa
iiiyooy iineoue aoe/iee oa?aeoa?, ae?oaa – th?eaee/iee oa
aoe/ii-iaeo?aeueiee. Eaaaeueiith ? aeaaea, yea aeaea? caeiie oa ia?
ciiao ?o cae?enithaaoe, aea i?e oeueiio aiia iiaea aooe ia eaa?oeiiith
(iai?eeeaae, eiee ianaeaiiy ciaoiaeeoueny a ianeai?e aai aeoeai?e
iiiceoe?? aei aeaaee). A oeueiio aeiaaeeo eaaaeueia aeaaea /anoi
aaea?oueny aei i?eiono ? ianeeey ye ii a?aeiioaiith aei ie?aieo /eai?a
noni?euenoaa, oae ? noni?euenoaa caaaeii.

Ca I.Aaaa?ii iiaeia aeae?eeoe o?e oeie eaa?oeiiino? aeaaee:
o?aaeeoe?eio, oa?eciaoe/io oa eaaaeueio.

O?aaeeoe?eia aeaaea a?oioo?oueny ia ia?aeiiaiino? ? nayoino? o?aaeeoe?e
? caeiiiino? ?ai?acaioiaaieo ieie i?aai?a. Oey aeaaea ia? aea?
iiaeeo?eaoe??:

aaco?oueny ia iao??a?oaeueiiio iaioaaii?, aecia/a?oueny i?ei?oeaiith
caiaeith c i?iaeeeoiaaiei aeaaeith ia?aa?aii noni?eueieo i?ioean?a ?
ia?oi?yaeiith cia/ou?noth i?e oeueiio iao??a?oa ye aieiaea?y;

aaco?oueny ia noaiiaiio iaioaaii? c i?eoaiaiiith eiio ???a?o??th,
ae?aaeaiith a ii?aeuei?e oa iaeiia?e ia??aiino? noai?a i?e oaioaaii?
?nioth/eo cae/a?a ? aieiaea?y.

Oa?eciaoe/ia aeaaea ia?aaeaa/a? aacoiiaio oa ???aoe?iiaeueio a??o a
iaaei?e?iaei? yeino? aieiaea?y. Oa?i?i “oa?ecia” caiice/aiee c ?noi???
o?enoeyinueei? oea?eae, aea eiai aeei?enoiaothoue aeey iicia/aiiy
i?iiia?aeiee?a, eio?? iaee aea? aaciina?aaeiueiai ni?eeoaaiiy c
aiaeanoaii ? iaieiaee i?e oeueiio io?oe?ei? ?ae?a?ei? ?inoeoooe??. A
iie?oe/i?e i?aeoeoe? i?ae oa?eciith ?icoi?thoue nayuaiiee aea?,
aeeeth/i? yeino? ea??aieea.

Eaaaeueia aeaaea aai ?aoe?iiaeueii-i?aaiaa aaco?oueny ia ?aoe?iiaeueii
c?icoi?eiio ?ioa?an?. Aeey oeueiai oeio oa?aeoa?ia ia?aeiiai?noue a
caeiiiino? anoaiiaeaieo ii?yaee?a. Aeey caaacia/aiiy oaeiai oeio
iaioaaiiy iaiao?aeiee i?ioan?eiee aia?ao. Ci?noii oe??? aeaaee ?
aeciaiiy aaaeeeaino? caeii?a. Ethaee i?aeei?ththoueny ia iniaenoino?, a
caeiiai, a iaaeao yeeo iae?athoueny ? ae?thoue i?aaenoaaieee aeaaee.

4 IIE?OE*I? A?AeIINEIE OA IIE?OE*IA AEEOOss NONI?EUeNOAA

Eiie?aoiei i?iyaii iie?oeee oa aeaaee a noni?euenoa? ? iie?oe/i?
a?aeiineie oa iie?oe/ia aeeooy. Iie?oe/i? a?aeiineie ae?aaeathoue
no?eeee oa?aeoa? aca?iica’yce?a i?ae niaith oa c ?inoeoooaie aeaaee. A
ci?noiaiiio ieai? aiie oa?aeoa?ecothoue ??ciiiai?oi? aca?iiae?? ae?oe ?
aeaeoi?aoo, ae?oe ? eiio?ae?oe, e?aea??a ? a?oi i?aeo?eiee, nioe?aeueieo
? iaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiinoae, ??ciiiai?oieo a?oi ?ioa?an?a ? iie?oe/ieo
?inoeooo?a.

Aaaeeeaei iieacieeii iie?oe/iiai aeeooy ? oa?aeoa? iie?oe/ieo a?aeiinei,
yeee a?aeaeca?eaeth? aeii?ioth/? neeaaeia? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee, ye oi: /e oi iai?eie?aiia ai?ioueaa iie?oe/ieo ?ioa?an?a ?
ia?o?e, /e oi i?aaiaiiy oeeo noi??i aei noni?eueii? caiaee ? ii?icoi?iiy
aeey ae??oaiiy caaaeueieo i?iaeai; /e oi a?iiaaeyinueea a?eia, /e oi
a?iiaaeyinueeee ie?; /e oi iino?eia i/?eoaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai aeaooo o
aoaeue-ye?e oi?i?, /e oi noaa?euei?noue ? ii/ooo? aaciaee.

Aeey ?icoi?iiy nooiino? iie?oe/iiai aeeooy i?eioeeiiai aaaeeeaei ? oa,
ui ?ioa?ane ethaeeie a iie?oeoe? a?eueoith i??ith iinyoue
iaaeia?niiaeueiee oa?aeoa?, oiaoi iathoue cia/aiiy aeey o??? /e ?ioi?
/anoeie ianaeaiiy. Oe? ?ioa?ane aca?iiae?thoue c ?ioa?anaie ?ioeo
noni?eueieo a?oi, oiio aeey ii?iae?caoe?? i?aeiaoe?iiaeueii? aca?iiae??
(iie?oe/iiai aeeooy) iniaeeaa cia/aiiy ia? o/anoue o ieo aea?aeaae.

Aeey iie?oe/iiai aeeooy Oe?a?ie inoaii?i /anii oa?aeoa?i? iia?
oaiaeaioe??. Ea?aeeiaeuei? ci?ie a iueiio a?aeaoeeny c ?iciaaeii N?N?.
Ci?ieeany naia noaia aca?iia?aeiinei ethaenueeiai caaaeo: a?aeo?ae a?ae
i??i?eoaoo i?aeia?iaeieo i?iaeai (”N?N? – i?aeia?iaeia eiei”) aei
i??i?eoaoo aioo??oi?o i?iaeai. Oaeeo ye: a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai –
aea?aeaaia aeaaea, ?? oi?ia, ?? aeiiii?/ia, eoeueoo?ia, ina?oiy,
iaoe?iiaeueia, aeieia?/ia oa ?ioa iie?oeea. C oeeo aca?iia?aeiinei
i?ia?aeieie noathoue iie?oe/i?. *a?ac oa, ui a?ae ieo (? oea caiaeii
?icoi?thoue on?) caeaaeeoue oni?o ae??oaiiy on?o ?ioeo ieoaiue.

AENIIAEE

Iie?oeea aeieea? ia aecia/iiio aoai? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa, eiee
?icia?ooy ?ioa?an?a oa ii?iaeaeoaai? ieie eiioe?eoe noai?ththoue caa?ico
noni?eueiiio oe?eiio. Aea?aeaaa, ui oi?io?oueny ?acii ?c iie?oeeith ?
neeith, yea i?iaiaeeoue a noni?euenoa? caaaeyee i?eiono
caaaeueiiiaia’yceiao iiaeaeue iiaaae?iee aeey an?o /eai?a nioe?oio.
Iie?oeea ? aea?aeaaa iia’ycai? ?c aeaaeith oa aeaaeieie a?aeiineiaie,
ye? ? aneiao?e/ieie, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ni?iiiaei?noth noa’?eoa aeaaee
aieeaaoe ia iiaaae?ieo ia’?eoa aeaaee. Iie?oeea – oea ae?yeuei?noue oa
a?aeiineie c i?eaiaeo ?aae?caoe?? aeaaee a noni?euenoa?. Aiia yaey?
niaith noa?o oe?eani?yiiaaii? aca?iiae?? nioe?aeueieo a?oi aeey
aeei?enoaiiy ?inoeooo?a ioae?/ii? aeaaee ?c iaoith aeinyaiaiiy nai?o
?ioa?an?a, cai?in?a, iio?aa. Naia iie?oeea, aaaaoi a /iio, caaacia/o?
i?ia?aneaiee ?icaeoie noni?euenoaa, noaa?aeaeo? noaa?euei?noue,
ii?yaeie, ii?icoi?iiy. Iaeiae, iaaoaeoeaia iie?oeea iiaea iaa?iooeny
aeey noni?euenoaa ?aa?anii, noaoe iaoe?iiaeueiith o?aaaae??th. Ia
caaaae? oeei iaaaoeaiei yaeuai iiaeooue noaoe ?icaeoie ciaiue i?i
iie?oeeo, caoe?eaaeai?noue iath oa o/anoue o iie?oe/iiio i?ioean?.

?AEIIAIAeIAAIA E?OA?AOO?A

Aaaa? I. Iieeoeea eae i?ecaaiea e i?ioanney // Aaaa? I. Eca?. i?ieca. —
I., 1990.

Oaeae O. Iaaoaiay naiiiaaeayiiinoue. — I., 1992.

Aiaeoai AE. Anooi aei iie?oieia??. — E., 1995.

Iniiae iie?oieia??: Eo?n eaeoe?e / I?ae ?aae. I. Naciiiaa. — O., 1993.

Ioaa/aa A., Nieiaueaa A. Aaaaeaiea a iieeoieiaeth. — I., 1995.

Oaoenia A.N. Iieeoe/aneay aeanoue: i?iaeaiu eaaeoeiiinoe // Nioe.-iieeo.
aeo?iae. — 1995. — ?3.

Aeanoue: Na. — I., 1989.

Iiiia? E. Ioe?uoia iauanoai e aai a?aae. — I. 1993. A 2 o.

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