?aoa?ao ia oaio:

«Aoi?/i? iaae? Oe?a?ie»

Aoi?/i? iaae? oe?a?inoaa. Iica Oe?a?iith i?iaeeaa? iaeaea i’yoa /anoeia
oe?a?ioe?a, cia/ia /anoea yeeo i?eiaaea? ia i?eeaae? ?aeiie, eio?? ?,
aeania, aoi?/iith oa?eoi???th oe?a?inueei? ethaeiino?.

C i?eaiaeo aoi?/ieo iaae ? aein? oi/aoueny iaoeia? aeeneon??,
caii/aoeiaai? ua o ieioeiio noie?oo? A.Iao?iaei ? i?ci?oa i?iaeiaaeai?
O.Iaeneiaieii, N.?oaeieoeueeei, I.Eooi??ii. O a?eueoino? eiioeaioe?e
i?aaaeththoue, ye i?aaeei, nooi oi?iaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aeaoi?/iino?
— e?euee?ni?, cie?aia oae?, ye eiiiaeoi?noue aoi?/iiai ianeao. I?e
oeueiio iaei? aeine?aeieee aaaaeathoue, ui eiiiaeoei aoi?/iei ianeaii ?
oa?eoi???, canaeai? i?aaenoaaieeaie iaeiiai aoiino ia 30% (A.Eieiaee,
I.Ei?aeoaa), ?io? — ia 50% (A.A?e?iiae/), o?ao? aeciathoue eeoa
aaniethoio a?eueo?noue (I.?onia).

Cae/aeii, i?aaenoaaieoeoai aoiino a?a? aaaeeeao ?ieue i?e aecia/aii?
aoi?/ii? oa?eoi???, i?ioa aiii iaiaei?iii ia? iia’ycoaaoeny c ?noi???th
?? canaeaiiy. Aaeaea a?aeiii, ui a?eueo?noue ia?eoa??eieo aoi?/ieo cii
Oe?a?ie, ye? iei? ia?aaoaathoue o neeaae? non?aei?o aea?aeaa, ?
niieiia?/ieie ?? caieyie, oi/a ia caaaeaee oai ia?aaaaeathoue oe?a?ioe?.
Ioaea, aoi?/iith oa?eoi???th ne?ae aaaaeaoe a?aae iniiaiiai aoi?/iiai
ianeao oa an? niieiia?/i? caie?, ye? ? eiai i?iaeiaaeaiiyi.

C iaeyaeo ia oaea aecia/aiiy ni?iao?ii noa?aeoa?ecoaaoe aoi?/i? iaae?
Oe?a?ie. Iaei?ioyaei?o? aiie ia noiae? ? aeeth/athoue Neia?aenueeo
Oe?a?io oa Aeiiueio.

Eieenue oe? niieiia?/i? caie? Oe?a?ie caaeeny «iieoaeiaaeie caieyie» oa
Cae?nueeith Oe?a?iith, a o a?eueo a?aeaeaeai? /ane — Noa?iaeoaueiith,
Niiaueiith, Iiaeiiiyi. O?eaaeee /an Aeiiueia ? Neiaiaeaiueia aoee
«aeeeei iieai» i?ae Oe?a?iith oa Iineia??th, c iaeiiai aieo, ?
e?einueeeie oaoa?aie — c ?ioiai. Ia?oei, ooi a?aeaaaeeany caoenoeoe oe?
caie? a?ae e?einueei? i?aee, aoa oe?a?inueeee eiycue Aeieo?i
Aeoiaaaoeueeee (Aaeaea), eio?e 1559 ?ieo «iiaea e?eioeia ia sseaea?a
aeecei Aciaa». A?aeoiae? oe?a?inuee? eicaee noaee iiaiii?aaieie
ainiiaea?yie o neia?aenueeeo caieyo. Oaea o 1599 ?. aiie canaeeee
Aaeoeee, a caiaeii — Ona?aeo, ssaeoiaaa, Ei?i/o; 587 eicaoeueeeo n?iae
iae?/oaaeiny o Oa?eia?; ia ii/aoeo ae OV?? no. ia a?eueieo caieyo
caniiaothoueny aeanyoee oe?a?inueeeo n?e. O?eueee ?aai Iacaia, eio?ee
iniaeeai oio?a ooaa?aeeoeny ia Neiaiaeaiuei?, iaa 49 n?e, naeeu oa
neia?ae, o yeeo iae?/oaaeiny 5136 naeyinueeeo aeai??a oa 968 aeai??a
«a?eueieo /a?ean?a».

Aeania, oe?a?inueea eieii?caoe?y Neiaiaeaiueie aeaea ciiao Iineianuee?e
aea?aeaa? ia?anoiooe ?? i?aaeaii? ei?iaeiie a?ae Iooeaey aei A?enueea
Caii??cueeiai, iinooiiai canaeyth/e iia? caie? ?in?enueeeie a?enueeiaeie
iinaeaioeyie. I?ioa iniiaiei ?o ianaeaiiyi caeeoaeeny oe?a?ioe?. Ca
aeaieie ia?aieno 1897 ?., c 2 492 316 aeeoae?a Oa?e?anueei? aoaa?i??
oe?a?ioe?a aoei 2 009 411; ?c 1 967 054 iaoeaioe?a Ai?iiacueei? — iaeaea
iieiaeia (854 093); c 1 604 515 aeeoae?a Eo?nueei? aoaa?i?? 523 277 aoee
oe?a?ioeyie.

Oaeee aoi?/iee ?iceeaae ianaeaiiy neoaoaaa i?aenoaaith aeey
?iciaaeoaaiiy ei?aeii?a i?ae oe?a?inueei? Neiaiaeaiueiith ? ?in??th, ui
?iaeeiny a?ae?aco i?ney ethoiaai?, a iio?i ? i?ney aeiaoiaai?
?aaiethoe?e 1917 ?. Ae?oeo 1918 ?. ii/aeeny ia?aaiai?e i?ae ?in?enueeith
oa oe?a?inueeith aeaeaaaoe?yie. Inoaiiy i?iiiioaaea anoaiiaeoe oae?
ei?aeiie: ia oa?eoi??? Eo?nueei? aoaa?i?? — a?ae Iiaoeiae/?a aei
Aeooeiaa ? Noa?iai Ineiea, a iaaeao Ai?iiacueei? aoaa?i?o — a?ae
Oaoae?aee aei ei?aeiio c A?enueeii Aeiinueeei. I?ioa ?in?enueea noi?iia
oeeo i?iiiceoe?e ia i?eeiyea, ia?aaiai?e caoyaioeeny, a iio?i ? cian?i
aoee i?eieiai?.

Ii/eiath/e c OV??? no. ?ioaineaii eieii?cothoueny oe?a?ioeyie ?
i?aaeaii? oa i?aaeaiii-no?aei? caie? (oae caaia Noaiiaa Oe?a?ia).
I?eaaaeaeii: oea aoea /aoaa?oa a ?noi??? aaeeea eieii?caoe?eia oaeey ia
niieiia?/i? caie? neia’yinoaa. Iai?ee?ioe? OV??? no. ia?aaaaeio
a?eueo?noue ianaeaiiy e?ath aaea noaiiaeyoue oe?a?ioe? (71,5%). I?ioean
oe?a?i?caoe?? Noaiiai? Oe?a?ie iniaeeai iineeeany o O?O no. ca
noaoenoe/ieie aeaieie 1861-1897 ??., iaaaaeaieie A.Na?a?e/oeii, na?aae
11 944 ia?anaeaioe?a aei Ia??oiieuenueeiai iia?oo Eaoa?eiineaanueei?
aoaa?i?? aaniethoio a?eueo?noue — 8 764 iniae — noaiiaeee i?a?aioe c
Iieoaaueie, Ee?aueie oa *a?i?a?aueie. Ca?aeoe eoia iniiaiee iio?e
ia?anaeaioe?a ? aei Oa?niiueie. Iaa?oue E?ei, i?ney eiai caaithaaiiy
?in??th ? aenaeaiiy cia/ii? /anoeie i?noeaaeo oaoa? oa a?ae?a, aeoeaii
inaithaaany oe?a?ioeyie, iniaeeai o noaiia?e /anoei?. Eeoa c e?ioey
OV??? no. aei 1861 ?. nthaee ia?anaeeeiny aeecueei i?eueeiia ethaeo.

Caaaeueia aeeiai?ea i?aaenoaaieoeoaa oe?a?inoaa o i?aaeaiii-no?aeieo
?aeiiao oe?a?inueeiai aoi?/iiai ianeao aeaeyaea? oaeei /eiii: o 1926 ?.
oe?a?ioe? neeaaeaee oai 71,3%, o 1959 — 71,8, o 1970 — 68,4, 1979 —
65,5% ? a 1989 ?. — 56,9%. Oaeee ?iceeaae a?aeaeaa? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueio
neooaoe?th o aeacaiiio ?aa?ii? — ?ioaineaio ?oneo?eaoe?th ianaeaiiy. ??
aeoiee nyaathoue e?ioey OVIII no., eiee aoea e?ea?aeiaaia Caii??cueea
N?/ ? cia/ia /anoeia oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa aoea ia?anaeaia o
I?e/i?iiii?’y oa Eoaaiue. Iei? ae yae?ii iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
o ia?eoa??eieo c iniiaiei oe?a?inueeei aoi?/iei ianeaii no?aeieo ?aeiiao
noa? naia eicaoeoai — Eoaai? oa Oa?aeo.

Cao?aei? aoi?/i? iaae? oe?a?inoaa aeeeiththoueny a oa?eoi??? non?aei?o
aea?aeaa: Iieueu?, Neiaa//eie, ?oioi??. Oe? caie?, ye ie cia?ii, eieenue
aoee neeaaeiaeie Ee?anueei? ?on?, aea caiaeii iaaeiaai aoee a?ae??aai?
a?ae iaoa?einueeiai aoi?/iiai ?aa?iio.

A noi?aeieo c Oe?a?iith ?aeiiao Iieueu? oaeeie oa?eoi??yie ? eieeoi?
«/a?aii? caie?», cie?aia Oieiueia, Ia?aieoeyiueia, /anoeiai Aiee?aueia,
Eaie?aueia oa Iaaenyiiy. E??i oeeo caiaeue, ye? ? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi
aoi?/iiai ianeao oe?a?ioe?a, o Iieueu? ?nio? e ?yae ?aeii?a ?c
ia?aaaaeii oe?a?inueeei ianaeaiiyi, ooai?aieo aiane?aeie aai i?e?aeiaiiy
aei Iieueu? ie?aieo oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, aai i?a?aoe?e. Aei ?a/?, ne?ae
iaaieineoe, ui aea?aeaaiee ei?aeii i?ae Iieueuath oa N?N?, yeee aoa
anoaiiaeaiee o 1939 ?., a?eueoa a?aeiia?aeaa aoi?/iei iaaeai oe?a?ioe?a,
ai?ae ei?aeii 1946 ?ieo. Oae, Cao?aeia Aaee/eia, ianaeaia ia?aaaaeii
oe?a?ioeyie, a?ae?eoea aei Iieueu?, a i?ae oei o?eueee o
Ia?aieoeyinueeiio iia?o? oe?a?ioe? neeaaeaee 80,8%, Oeaoai?anueeiio —
72,9, E?nueeiio — 74,4, Nyiioeueeiio — 55,5. Iniaeeai ae?aiaoe/ii
neeaeany aeiey eaie?a — aoiia?ao?/ii? a?oie oe?a?ioe?a, eio?a ii
cae?i/aii? ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie iaeaea iiai?noth iieieeany o Iieueu?.
Eeoa o 1947 ?. c? nai?o niieiia?/ieo caiaeue aoei i?eioniai ia?anaeaii
140 oen. eaie?a. Oey iia?aoe?y («A?nea») o?eaaea aae aei 1950 ?. Iei? o
Iieueu? iaoea? iiiaae 350 oen. oe?a?ioe?a.

A ?oioi?? aoi?/i? iaae? aaoiooiiiiai oe?a?inoaa aeeth/athoue aeaa
?aeiie I?aaeaiii? Aoeiaeie: Ia?aii?io/eio oa No/aaueio. Ia?oa iaaeo? c
*a?i?aaoeueeith, ae?oaa — ?c Caea?iaonueeith iaeanoyie Oe?a?ie. Oi/ieo
aeaieo i?i e?euee?noue oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy a oeeo ?aeiiao iaia?,
oi/a ??ci? aeaea?aea iaaiaeyoue oeeo?e o 70-100 oen. Ie??i oiai, a
?oioi?? ? ua aeaa oe?a?inueeeo ?aeiie — Aaiao oa Aeia?oaeaea o ae?e?
Aeoiath. Aei Aaiaoo o OV???-O?O no. ia?anaeeeany /anoeia aooeoe?a i?ae
/an i?a?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a a Aano??enuee?e ?iia???; o Aeia?oaeaeo —
eieeoi? eicaee Caii??cueei? N?/?, e?ea?aeiaaii? iai?ee?ioe? OV??? no.

I?iaeiaaeaiiyi iniiaiiai aoi?/iiai ianeao oe?a?ioe?a ia caoiae? ?
?aeiie No?aeii? Neiaa//eie — I?yo?aueia, Eioeoea, Noa?a Ethaiaia,
Aa?ae??a, Aoiaiia, Naeaeiee. Oe? caie?, c aeaai?o-aeaaai ianaeai?
?oneiaie, ia?aaoaaee o oaiaeaeuei?e caeaaeiino? a?ae Oai?ueie (c O?
no.), a ii/eiath/e c OV? no. — Aano??enueei? (c 1867 ?. —
Aano?i-Oai?nueei?) ?iia???. C ooai?aiiyi *aoineiaaoeueei? aea?aeaae aiie
noaee ?? neeaaeiaith. Oe?a?ioe? i?iaeeaathoue ? a ?ioeo ?aeiiao *ao?? oa
Neiaa//eie (a iniiaiiio oea ia?anaeaioe? 1917-1920 ??. ?c Aaee/eie).
Caaaeii o *ao?? oa Neiaa//ei? ?o iei? iiiaae 100 oen., aea? o?aoeie c
ieo — o Neiaa//ei?.

Aaoiooiiia oe?a?inueea ianaeaiiy caa?aaeiny oaeiae a Oai?uei?, ocaeiaae
na?aaeiuei? oa/?? Oene, ui iaaeo? ?c Caea?iaooyi.

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