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Історія людства очима філософів (реферат)

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Iiooeiaa ?iaioa

ia oaio:

?noi??y ethaenoaa i/eia o?einio?a

Aeaeaoiee i?iaoeueeee o?einio-aec?noaioe?ae?no, Ea?e ssnia?n
(1883-1969) o nai?e i?aoe? “Aeoiee ?noi??? oa ?? iaoa” cai?iiiioaaa
nai???aeio eiioeaioe?th ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa.

Historia est magistra vitae. Oeae a?aeiiee aene?a /oaeiai ?ice?eaa?
iaoo iaienaiiy Ea?eii ssnia?nii eiai ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Oa?? i?enay/aiee aena?oeaiith oe?e?nii? eiioeaioe?? na?oiai? ?noi???,
cai?iiiiiaaii? naiei o?einioii, aea ae, ye ieoa a?i “eeoa ?noi??y
ethaenoaa iiaea aeaoe ianooaa aeey inieneaiiy no/aniino?”. Naia oiio,
i?ney ei?ioeiai, aea a?oioiaiiai iaeyaeo caaaeueieo ?noi?e/ieo i?ioean?a
ssnia?n caa?oa?oueny aei aiae?co no/anii? neooaoe??, a oaeiae ?iaeoue
ni?iao caa?iooeny aei iaeaooiueiai ethaenoaa. I?aenoiiao? oa?? ?icae?e ,
ui ?ice?eaa? ieoaiiy oe?eae ? i?ecia/aiiy ?noi???, ?? cia/aiiy oa
aeanoeainoae.

*anoeia ia?oa “Na?oiaa ?noi??y”

Ooo ssnia?n aeeeaaea? nai? iiaeyaee ia caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino?, ui
oa?aeoa?ecoaaee ?icaeoie ethaenoaa i?ioyaii oeo 5 oeny/ ?ie?a, ui
ioiieththoueny iiiyooyi ?noi??y (oiaoi uiaei yeeo ie ia?ii ienueiia?
na?ae/aiiy).

Oeae /aniaee i?ii?aeie, ia aeoieo o?einioa – eeoa ei?ioea ieoue i?ae
iaa?aeiieie aeoieaie ? oae naii iaa?aeiiei ieioeei. Oei ia iaio, eiai
iiaeia no?oeoo?ecoaaoe, aeae?eeoe a iueiio iaai? aoaie, a oaeiae
oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo, ia iniia? yeeo iiaeia aoaea ae?iaeoe a?iioace
uiaei iaeaooiueiai ethaenueei? oeea?e?caoe??.

ssnia?n aeae?ey? /ioe?e iaeaaaeeea?o? aoaie, ia eiaeiiio c yeeo ethaeeia
ii/eiaea ?oo oia?aae a?ae iiai? iniiae. Ianaiia?aae, oea aei?noi??y, aai
“i?iiaoa?anueea aeiaa” – ia??iae, eiee ethaeeia noa? ethaeeiith;
ianooiiith noiaeeieith ? aiioa aaeeeeo eoeueoo? aeaaieie, aiioa, eiee
aeania ? ?icii/eia?oueny ?noi??y; iaeaaaeeea?oa cia/aiiy ia? o?ao?e aoai
– oae caaiee inueiaee /an, ?ieue yeiai – o oi?ioaaii? ethaeeie no/aniiai
oeio, “iaeooioai?aii? ethaeeie”; ia?aoo?, inoaii?e aoai, yeee o?eaa? ?
aein?, ?icii/aany aeecueei 1500?. – oea iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia aiioa,
iniaeea?noue yei? ua e a oiio, ui naia ca?aene ?icii/eia?oueny aeania
na?oiaa ?noi??y, ?noi??y ethaenoaa a oe?eiio, a ia ie?aieo aea?aeaa.

C ?ioiai aieo, a ?noi??? ethaenoaa aeae?eythoueny aeaa “aeeoaiiy”.
Ia?oa ?icii/eia?oueny c iiyaith Homo Sapiens ? o?eaa? aei caaa?oaiiy
inueiaiai /ano, a ae?oaa aeeoaiiy ethaenoaa iia’ycaia c
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith aiioith (yea, ca eiioeaioe??th ssnia?na, ?
a?aeaeaeaiith aiaeia??th “i?iiaoa?anueei? aiioe”, aiioith a?aee?eooy
iiaeo iiaeeeainoae), ?, iaiaaia, iiia?aaeo ian i/?eo? ae?oaee inueiaee
/an ? iia? ci?ie o nooiino? ethaeeie, ia?ao?ae ?? ia ye?nii iiaee
??aaiue.

Ioaea, ?icaeyiaii 4 iniiai? aoaie ?noi??? iine?aeiaii.

1 . Aei?noi??y

Eiioeaioe?y ssnia?na : ethaenoai ia? ?aeei? aeoiee ? iaoo, ui iai
iaa?aeii? ? aei inieneaiiy yeeo ie i?aaiaii. Iaeiae, aeiaanoe iaoeiai
oea iieiaeaiiy iaiiaeeeai, oae naii ye iaiiaeeeai aeiaanoe cai?ioi?.
I?eiouaiiy oe??? ?aeiino? ssnia?n iaceaa? iinooeaoii a??e. Neiaie?/ii
oea iieacaii o A?ae?? : oeyo a?ae Aaeaia, iia’ycai?noue e?iaiith
nii??aeiai?noth an?o ethaeae. Oaeei /eiii, a?i /?oei cayaey? i?i naith
i?eoeeuei?noue aei ?ae?a?eii? o?aaeeoe?? o iiyniaii? ?noi?e/iiai
i?ioeano. ?noi??y, ca ssnia?nii, ia? na?e ii/aoie ? na?e e?iaoeue, a ??
?oo aecia/a?oueny neeith I?iaeae?iiy. I?aeoe/ia ao?eaiiy oeueiai
iinooeaoo iiaeia aeyaeoe, eeoa ia’?eoeaii ?icaeyioaoe ? i?iaiae?coaaaoe
?noi?e/iee oeyo ethaenoaa, a?ae naiiai eiai ii/aoeo.

Aaia?ao?/i? na?ae/aiiy aeathoue ciaiiy i?i iiyao ? ?icaeoie iaeaeaai?oeo
eoeueoo?. Ethaeeia iinooiiai canaeyth anth caiio eoeth, cia/aiiy i?e
oeueiio ia? i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua, eaiaeoaoo oa ?io? i?e?iaei? ?
nioe?aeuei? oaeoi?e. Ci?iththoue iaeia iaeia ??ci? aeaee aii?i?ae?a,
aeiee, ia?aoo?, aeecueei 20 oeny/ ?ie?a oiio ia c’yaey?oueny
e?iiaiueeiiaoeue. A?aeoiae? iiaeia aanoe iiao i?i ?icaeoie aeania
ethaeeie. Ca?aene ii/eia?oueny aei?noi??y.

I?aeoiae?a aei i?ciaiiy aei?noi??? ?nio? 3: 1) iaeaeaai?oee,
o?aaeeoe?eiee – /a?ac i?oe ? ia?ace; 2) no/aniee – /a?ac i?ciaiiy oiai,
ui aoei i?eoaiaiia aei?noi?e/i?e ethaeei? (a?oaieia?y); 3)aecia/aiiy
oiai, ui caeeoeeiny a ian a?ae aei?noi??? – ni?iae i?ciaoe nooi?noue
ethaeeie.

?icaeoie ethaeeie o aei?noi?e/io aiioo – oea noaiiaeaiiy ethaenueei?
i?e?iaee, oi?ioaaiiy ethaeeie ye aeaeo oeyoii oniaaeeoaaiiy iaaieo
yeinoae – o./. cae??iethaaeenue ooiaeaiaioaeuei? ?ene ethaeeie, yeei ia
caa?iaeo? cieeiaiiy ( a oie /an ye ?noi?e/i? yeino? iaaoaathoueny a
oiae? ia?aaea/? aeina?aeo ? iiaeooue aooe ao?a/ai?). Iaaeaaiiy oe???
aiioe i/aaeaei? – i?e?iaea noai?eea ? a?aeoe?ooaaea iano?eueee
noaa?eueiee i?aai?ci, ui a?i ia iio?aaoaaa iiaeaeueoeo oaeineiiaeaiue ?
aei nueiaiaei?, aaeaea i?ioyaii ?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo ethaeeia a?ieia?/ii
ia ci?ieeanue.

Ioaea, i?ioyaii aei?noi??? a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?oa noaiiaeaiiy ethaeeie:

A?ieia?/ia – oi?io?oueny ?? niaoeeo?/ia o?c?ieia?y. Ethaeeia
iinooia?oueny oaa?eiai a ie?aieo caeaoiinoyo, aea caaaeyee
ianiaoe?ae?ciaaiino? i?aai?cio ?icaeaa? cia?yaeaey, ieneaiiy,
aeooiai?noue. Iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo oaeoi??a a?ieia?/iiai oi?ioaaiiy
ethaeeie ? na?aaeiaeua, a yeiio i?ioiaeeoue 1e ??e ?? aeeooy. Ia
aeoieo ssnia?na, ethaeeia oaeiae ye?nii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioeo oi?i
aeeooy iayai?noth aeooo. sseee naia ci?no aeeaaea? o?einio o oeae oa?i?i
– aaaeei neacaoe, aea, i/aaeaeii, oea ia no?eueee aeooa a ?ae?a?eiiio
?icoi?ii?, ne?eueee iniaeeaa caeaoi?noue ethaeeie aei a?aeoai?aiiy
?aaeueii? ae?eniino? o nai?e na?aeiiino?, aei ieneaiiy ? aei aeeaieiai
aiioe?eiiai ia?aaeeaaiiy.

?noi?e/ia – cae?enith?oueny ia?aaeaaaiiy c iieie?iiy o iieie?iiy
aeina?aeo, iaaieo ii?aeueieo ianoaiia, oi?iue oiui. Aecia/aeueieie
caeiaooeaie o i?ioean? oaeiai oi?ioaaiiy ethaeeie noaee ianaiia?aae:

aeei?enoaiiy aiaith ? cia?yaeue

iiyaa iiae

cae?eniaiiy ianeeey iaae niaith, yea oi?io? ethaeeio. I?iyae oaeiai
ianeeey – o anoaiiaeaii? iaaieo i?aaee, iaiaaeaiue, o a?ae?ea? a?ae
i?e?iaeieo ei?ai?a. Ca aeneiaii ssnia?na, ”i?e?iaea ethaeeie – a ??
iai?e?iaeiino?”

ooai?aiiy a?oi ? ni?eueiio, iaoo yeiai ethaeeia inieneth?. Oea ia
cae/aei? oaa?eii? noaaea, ye? oi?iothoueny noeo?eii, a neeo aeeoo?ai?
iaiao?aeiino?, oea ia’?aeiaiiy aeey ni?eueiiai ia?aoai?aiiy na?oo, aeey
ni?eeoaaiiy. I?ae ethaeueie ?nio? aeeaiea a?ieia?/ia nii??aeiai?noue,
aea iaa?oue ia oea, a caeaoi?noue c?icoi?oe iaeia iaeiiai caaaeyee
ieneaiith ? iia? a?ae?a?a? ae??oaeueio ?ieue o aca?iiiia(ycaiino?
ethaeae.

ae?iaeaiiy i?o?a, ia?aciiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy na?oo. I?oieia?y yaeea
niaith oi?io noni?eueii? na?aeiiino?, iaaiee niin?a iiyniaiiy na?oo ?
i?noey a iueiio ethaeeie.

An? oe? ci?ie i?aeaiooaaee a?oio aeey anooio ethaenoaa ia ye?nii iiaee
aoai ?icaeoeo.

2.Aaeee? eoeueoo?e aeaaieie.

Ia oeueiio aoai? ?nioaaee 3 aaeee? eoeueoo?e: 1) ooia?i-aaaeeiinueea,
?aeiaonueea oa aee?inueea ia Caoiae?, 2) aeia??enueea eoeueoo?a ?iaeo,
3) a?oa?/iee Eeoae. An? aiie cieeathoue a inueiaee /an.

Oeae ia??iae aoa ii/aoeii ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa. Eiai
iiioiaioaeuei?noue, a?aiae?ici?noue ia iiaee cieeiooe aacne?aeii –
/eneaii? a?oaieia?/i? ? aeieoiaioaeuei? iai’yoee aeiiinyoue aei ian
a?aeiiino? i?i o? noie?ooy.

Na?aae iiae?e, ui iaee aecia/aeueia cia/aiiy ia aoai? ca?iaeaeaiiy
ethaenueei? ?noi??? Ea?e ssnia?n iaceaa? : i?aai?caoe?th ??eaaoe?eii?
nenoaie ? iia’ycaio c iath iaiao?aei?noue ae?iaeaiiy aia?aoo oi?aae?iiy
oa aea?aeaaii? i?aai?caoe??; iiyao ienaiiino?, ui aeicaieeei o?enoaaoe
iiaiio?eiaia ciaiiy ? ia?aaeaaaoe eiai; iiyao ia?iae?a ? oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo?; noaiiaeaiiy na?oiaeo ?iia??e; aeei?enoaiiy
eiiae – aaeaea aa?oiee aia?oa ii/eia? ona?aeiiethaaoe iainyaei?noue
i?inoi?o, ae?eaa?oueny c oiai na?aaeiaeua, aea a?i ae??n, i?cia?
naiaiaeo ? ?icoe?th? ia??? naiai ieneaiiy. Ia?ao?ae aei ?noi???
caaacia/o?oueny ? ia?aaeaaaiiyi aeooiaieo iaaeaaiue, ?aoe?iiae?caoe??th
anueiai iaaeaaiiai ca aeiiiiiaith oaoi?ee, ae?yeuei?noth aeaeaoieo in?a,
ui aenooiathoue c?aceaie aeey ian ? ?ooathoue ?o oia?aae.

“?noi?e/iee i?ioean – oea aacia?a?aia ia?aoai?aiiy oiia, ciaiiy,
ci?noo a ?o aaciina?aaeiueiio yaeaii?, i?e yeiio iaiao?aeia a?aeiioaiiy
anueiai aei anueiai, anacaaaeueia eiioi?eaoe?y,” – aecia/a? aaoi? . Aea
ia aeaiiio aoai? oea ia?aoai?aiiy eeoa ii/eia?oueny. Aaeee? eoeueoo?e
aeaaieie aoee noaa?eueieie, noaeeie ooai?aiiyie, caeeoeaie noa?iai
na?oo, yeee iaieio/a iaa caaeiooe c ia?aoiaeii ethaenoaa ia iiao
noiaeeieo. A oeae ia?ao?ae aaea ?icii/eiaany – oi?ioaaeany no/ania
ethaeeia: iaaoaaee ci?noo ?? noanoaioe?aeuei? iiaeeeaino?, i?eoiaeeei
ona?aeiieaiiy ieiouino? anueiai oiui.

Inueiaee /an

A?aeaoaa?oueny aaeeeee i?i?ea – iinay/aiiy ethaenoaa o oa?iieoeth
iaa?aeiieo aein? iiaeeeainoae.

Caeaaeii a?ae noaaeaiiy aei ?noi?e/iiai /ano, ia?iaee iiae?eythoueny
ia inueia? ia?iaee oa ia?iaee, ui ia cae?enieee i?i?eao. O ianooii?
noie?ooy ?noi?e/ieie aenooiathoue eeoa o? ia?iaee, ui ni?eeiyee i?i?ea,
?aooa caeeoa?oueny ia ia?a?niiio ??ai?.

A?nue na?oiai? ?noi??? o aecia/aii? ssnia?na, – oaeo, cia/ouee aeey an?o
(iai?eeeaae, o cao?aei?e ?noi??? oaeith a?nnth aoei I?eoanoy O?enoa).
Oea ? ia??iae ae. 500 ?. aei i.a. – iiyaa ethaeeie no/aniiai oeio (aanue
i?ioean a?aeaoaaany i?ioyaii 800 – 200 ?. aei i.a.).

O oeae ia??iae a ??cieo /anoeiao na?oo aeeee ? ae?yee Eiioooe?e,
Aoaeaea, Aiia?, ?nay oa ?io? aeaeaoi? iniae, a?aeaoaa?oueny caaaeueia
aeooiaia i?aeianaiiy, iiyaa aeaeaoieo oai??a. Aeaye? a/ai? noeeuei?
?icaeyaeaoe oea ye cae/aeiee ca?a, aea ia aeoieo aaoi?a, oea na?ae/eei
i?i i?i?ea o na?aeiiino? ethaeeie – ii/eia?oueny inieneaiiy aoooy a
oe?eiio, naii? ethaeeie oa ?? iaae. Eiee ethaeeia inyaioea aaee/ na?oo,
c(yaey?oueny aeao ? a?ae/oooy aeanii? aacii?aaeiino?. Oea, a naith
/a?ao, coiiaeth? ?aoeaen?th, naiiona?aeiieaiiy ethaeeie, “na?aeii?noue
ona?aeiieth? na?aeii?noue” ? o./. noai?ththoueny oiiae aeey ao?oeeaiai
?icaeoeo aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e, caeeaaeathoueny iniiae na?oiaeo ?ae?a?e,
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?ao?ae aei oi?aa?naeueiino? o ieneaii?. Aiaeii/an o
nioe?aeueiiio aeeoo? – ai?ioueaa an?o i?ioe an?o, aeoeaia ni?eeoaaiiy
i?ae eoeueoo?aie, caaaeueia eiioi?eaoe?y, ui coiiaeth? ?ioaineaiee
aeooiaiee ?oo. Ethaee aia?oa ?ici??eiaothoue iaae ?noi???th ?
iaiaaathoueny iaaiei /eiii iiaioaaoe o?ae iiae?e

Ana oea – iaeooioai?aiiy ethaeeie. Aiia aaea ia caieea?oueny o nia?, a
ii/eia? ni?eeiaoe iiaa. Ethaeeia i?neyinueiaiai ia??iaeo – a?aee?eea
aeey naaa na?o ciai?oi?e ? na?o aioo??oi?e – na?e aeaniee na?o.
Naiiona?aeiieaiiy iniaenoino? caaino?th?oueny, ethaeeia ona?aeiieth?
oaiae?oi?noue naiai aoooy, ia?aae iath iinoathoue aeeoo?ai aaaeeea?
ieoaiiy : i?i nain ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy, i?i nain aoooy.

Iaeaea iaeii/anii ia Caie?, iacaeaaeii iaeia a?ae iaeiiai, ooai?eeinue
aeae?eueea aioo??oiueinii??aeiaieo aeooiaieo oeaio??a. Iniiaia, ui
caeeaeoaaei ?o, ? ui, a?aeiia?aeii, aoei iniiaiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith
“inueiai? aiioe” – oea i?i?ea i?oieia?/iiai na?oiniiaeyaeaiiy, ui
neeaaeaei iniiao aeiinueiaeo eoeueoo?. Ethaeeia, i?ae aia?oa,
i?iaoaeaeo?oueny aei yniiai ieneaiiy, aeieeea iaaeia??a aei
aaciina?aaeiueiai aii??e/iiai aeina?aeo, a oaeiae ?aoe?iiae?caoe?y
noaaeaiiy aei na?oo ? aei nia? iiae?aieo. Naia o oeae ia??iae
c(yaeythoueny o?einioe, aia?oa iinoa? i?iaeaia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ethaeeie
? na?oo.

Ioaea, c(yaeythoueny ?icoi ? iniaeno?noue – oa, ui aea? iai ciiao
oaa?aeeoe i?i iiyao ethaeeie oaei?, yeith aiia ? nueiaiaei?.

Inueiaee /an aea? ciiao c?icoi?oe anth ethaenueeo ?noi??th, ??
no?oeoo?o. Oei, ui a?aeaoeinue oiae?, ethaenoai aeeaa ? nueiaiaei?.
Aiioe A?ae?iaeaeaiiy – oea iiaa?iaiiy aei inieneaiiy inueiaiai /ano. Ia
iiaeia aaniethoecoaaoe aeinyaiaiiy inueiaiai /ano, ne?ae aeciaoe, ui ?
i?ci?o? aiioe i?eianee iaiaei aeooiaieo caeiaooe?a. Aea a?i aea? ianooaa
aeey ioe?iee oeeo i?ci?oeo aiio, aeey aeyaeaiiy oiai, ui ae?enii aoei
aeooiaiith oe?ii?noth.

Inueiaee /an iaiaaeo?oueny 3ia noa?aie : Eeoae, ?iae?y, Cao?ae, aea
?noi?e/ii noaa anaioiiethth/ei: aei?noi?e/i? ia?iaee aai ni?eeiathoue
eiai, aai aeie?athoue.

I?ae 3ia noa?aie ?nioaaei aeeaiea aca?ii?icoi?iiy ? noiae?noue, aiie
yaeythoue niaith aaaaoiiai?oi?noue iaeiiai e oiai ae o 3o ei?aiyo
?noi???, yea noa? ?aeeiith eeoa o no/anio aeiao, I?ae ieie ia eeoa
ie?ai? ni?aiaaeaiiy, a aeeaieee ia?aeae?ci (eeoa o oeae ia??iae).

O aeyaeaii? i?e/ei oeueiai yaeua ?niothoue ??ci? i?aeoiaee:

aeinyaiaiiy ethaeeiith iaaiiai nooiaith aeooiaiiai ? o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo;

aca?iii?iieeiaiiy eoeueoo?, iai?i caeiaooeaie;

iaaia iaa?aeiia nii??aeiai?noue oeeo eoeueoo?;

A.Aaaa? : ei/ia? ia?iaee c? nai?i ona?aeiieaiiyi aeaea/eie,
oaiae?oiino? na?oo i?eianee aa?i?/io eoeueoo?o, yea anooieea a ai?ioueao
c iao??a?oaeueieie eoeueoo?aie aeaaieie;

ni?euei? nioe?aeuei? oiiae.

AEiaeia c iiyniaiue, ia aeaeue , ia ni?iiiaeia aeyaeoe anth iiaiioo
i?e/ei ? ia?aaeoiia, iiynieoe an? oa?iieoe? oiai /ano. ssnia?n o nai?e
?iaio? ia aea? aeaniiai iiyniaiiy, a?i aeoeaioo? oaaao ia oiio, ui oaea
neeaaei?noue i?iaeaie na?ae/eoue i?i neeaaei?noue ?icaeyaeo ?noi???
acaaae?, ui ?icaeoie ethaenoaa ia iiaea aooe cia?aaeaiee i?inoei
iinooiaeueiei a?ao?eii.

Cia/aiiy inueiaiai /ano aeey ethaeeie (nueiaiaei?): a)aeae?eaiiy oiai,
ui aeanoeaa anueiio ethaenoao iiaea i?ecaanoe aei ia(?aeiaiiy ethaenoaa
ia i?aenoaa? ni?eueiiai aeina?aeo (ssnia?n acaaae? noeeueiee
i?iaiicoaaoe aeineoue ?aeee?/ia iaeaooi?, yea oi/a e caeaaeeoue a?ae
ethaeae, aea ca nai?th ?aea?th a?aeiia?aea? i?i?ioeoaai A?ae??);

a)?nioaaiiy 3o iiaee-o?eaoe?e caeeeea? aei
eiioi?eaoe?? i?ae ethaeueie ??cieo eoeueoo?, ??cieo a??oaaiue. Aeeaieee
aiae?c aeina?aeo inueiaiai /ano, eiee o o?ueio ?aa?iiao ieaiaoe
ia?aeaeueii aeieeaee ? ?icaeaaeeny aeooiai? ? ?ae?a?ei? eiioeaioe??
iaaecae/aeii aenieiai ??aiy, i?aeooiaoia ethaeae aei a?aeiiae a?ae
aiaaiaiino? o aeiyoeiaino? yeiainue a??oaaiiy.

I?iaoaeaeaiiy aeooo, aaaaea? ssnia?n, ? ii/aoeii aoooy caaaeueii?
?noi??? ethaenoaa, yea aei oeueiai aoei iiae?eaia ia eieaeuei?
eoeueoo?e. C oiai /ano ethaenoai iaooeeueii eaea oeei ni?eueiei oeyoii.
Oiio anoaiiaeaiiy aca?ii?icoi?iiy, a?aee?eo?noue ??cieo oei?a
noni?euenoaa, ?ae?a?e ? eoeueoo? ? aeeoo?ai iaiao?aeiei aeey ethaeeie.
Ca?aene aeieeaa? iniaeeaa ?ieue o?einio??, yea ca aeiiiiiaith
o?einionueei? a??e, ui a?aee?eaa? nain ? i?ecia/aiiy ?noi???, iieeeeaia
ia’?aeioaaoe ethaenoai ia ni?eueieo aeooiaieo iniiaao.

I?ney caaa?oaiiy inueiaiai ia??iaeo ethaenoai i?iaeiaaeo? ?icaeaaoenue,
iia? ia?iaee i?eeiathoue Aaeeeee i?i?ea ? oaeei /eiii iiaa aiioa
iioe?th?oueny iaeaea ia anth caiio eoeth. Oeyoe o?ueio ai?oeaio??a
i?i?eao ?icoiaeyoueny. ?iae?y ? Eeoae o nai?io ?icaeoeo iiaoi?ththoue /e
i?iaeiaaeothoue nai? ieioea, ?o iinooiaeueiee ?oo oiia?eueith?oueny.
Cao?aeia eoeueoo?a ?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo ia?iae?a o oeae ia??iae ii/eia?
a?ae?a?aaaoe i?ia?aeia cia/aiiy. ?a?iiaeoe? ii/eiathoue iiaiiaoaaoe
na?o.

O ca’yceo c aecia/aeueiith ?ieeth Caoiaeo Ea?e ssnia?n i?eae?ey?
aeineoue cia/io oaaao aena?oeaiith oaiaeaioe?e eiai ?icaeoeo. Ia eiai
aeoieo, a?nnth cao?aeii? ?noi??? ? O?enoin ? naia o?enoeyinueea oea?eaa
? iaeaeuith oi?iith i?aai?caoe?? ethaenueeiai aeooo (aiia oa?a?aea ?ene
iiia?aaei?o eoeueoo?, aenie? ?aeaaee). Oeth aeoieo ia iiaeia
a?aeeeaeaoe, ine?eueee o?enoeyinoai, aacoiiaii, cae?enieei ae??oaeueiee
aieea ia ?icaeoie Cao?aeii? eoeueoo?e ia eeoa o aeooiai?e, a e o
iie?oe/i?e noa??. Caaaeyee eiio ?noi??y Caoiaeo iia(ycaia c
aoiai?noe/iith oi?iith na?aeiiino?.

Nai???aei?noue Caoiaeo aecia/a?oueny aaaaoueia oaeoi?aie:

aaia?ao?/ia ?icia?ooy noaei ia?aaeoiiaith aeey ?icia?ooy iia ? ia?iae?a,
ye? ?icaeaaeenue a ?a?ii?. ?iae?y ? Eeoae oaae iaiaeii??aei? a aoi?/iiio
?icoi?ii?, aea a ?a?ii? a?aei?iiino? i?ae ia?iaeiinoyie iaaoee
iano?eueee aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy, ui noaee i?aenoaaith aeey aeieeiaiiy
ie?aieo aea?aeaa c ianoiaeeie eoeueoo?aie;

?aeay iie?oe/ii? naiaiaee . Aia?oa aiia ca?iaeaeo?oueny a Noa?iaeaai?e
A?aoe?? ? ? oi?eaeueiith. No?aeia oeea?e?caoe?y ?? ia ciaea;

?aoe?iiaeuei?noue, eia?ea. Caeaoi?noue aei ieneaiiy, ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
inieneaiiy ae?eniino? oa?aeoa?ia aeey an?o ethaeae, aea o cao?aeieo
ethaeae aiia noaea ia?aaaaeaoe iaae ?ioeie ?enaie;

ona?aeiieai?noue aioo??oiuei? aeeaeie aoooy iniaenoino?. ?a?iia?oeue
noeeueiee aei caio?aiiy o aeeaeie naiai “y”. A?i ona?aeiieth?
neeaaei?noue ? aaciaaei?noue aioo??oiueiai na?oo, eiai iaiiaoi?i?noue (
oea oaeiae ni?e/eiy? iaaei??iee ?iaeea?aeoae?ci);

ona?aeiieaiiy ?aaeueiino? na?oo, a yeiio noaa?aeaeo? naaa ethaeeia ?
noai?aiiy ia oe?e iniia? o?aaaae??;

anacaaaeueia ia iineoue oa?aeoa?o aeiaie, aeiioneathoueny aeiyoee, oiio
– iino?eiee ianiie?e, iacaaeiaieaiiy cao?aeii? eoeueoo?e. Cao?aeia
eoeueoo?a iaa?oue o o?enoeyinoa? ia aoea iine?aeiaiith: aace?/ iai?yie?a
? oiio aeieacii. Aeinyaoe ?aeaaeo, yeee aoa ae ni?eeiyoee on?ia ?ac ?
iacaaaeaee, aeey oeueiai na?oo, iaiaaii, iaiiaeeeai.

i?aoaic?y ia aeiyoeiao ?noeii?noue ?ae?a?eieo a/aiue, ui ni?e/eiy?
iineeaiiy iai?oae a cao?aeiiio na?o?, i?ioenoiyiiy, yea ii?iaeaeo? ?oo,
iiooee. ? oe? iiooee /anoi i?ecaiaeyoue aei iiaeo i?i?ea?a o na?aeiiino?
ethaeae, aeiaoiae? eiii?ii?nieo ??oaiue. Aiaeii/an i?ioenoiyiiy
iia’ycai? c aa?an??th, ui ia? o?aa?/i? iane?aeee;

??oo/?noue (i?iaeaie aeiaiaeyoueny aei eia?/iiai caaa?oaiiy).
?a?iiaenueea eoeueoo?a ia ni?eeia? iai?aoii?a, iai?a??oaiue, ? oea oaae
? iiooiaoii aeey i?ioenoiyiue ? iiooe?a.

?icia?ooy naiiaooi?o ?iaeea?aeoaeueiinoae. AEiaeia c? no?aeieo eoeueoo?
ia a?aecia/a?oueny oaeith e?euee?noth aeaeaoieo in?a. Cao?aeio ae
?noi??th ?ooathoue oia?aae neeuei? iinoao?.

?iaeea?aeoaeueia ethaia.

?a?iia?oeue a?ae??ciy?oueny, aea ia ia? ia?aaaa iaae ?ioeie ia?iaeaie.
Aiaeii/an aeey cao?aeii? eoeueoo?e No?ae caaaeaee aenooiaa iaaiith
i?ioeeaaei?noth, iiey?i?noth. ?a?iiaeoe? caa?oathoueny aei Ac?? ca oei,
/iai ?i ia aenoa/a?.

Aecia/aeueia ?ieue ?iiaii-aa?iainueeeo ia?iae?a – o noai?aii? iaoee ?
oaoi?ee, ? oei naiei cae?eniaii? i?i?eao aeiaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o.
Cie?aia, a ?noi??? ?a?iie ae?oaith a?nnth noaee 1500-1800 ??
(iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? ? eoeueoo?i? aeinyaiaiiy), eiee aoee caeeaaeai?
i?aea?oioy no/anii? eoeueoo?e.

*anoeia ae?oaa – “No/ania ? iaeaooi?”

Ooo iiaea?oueny aiae?c ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa ia inoaii?e oac? eiai
?nioaaiiy.

I/aaeaeii, ui i?eioeeiiai iiaeie ? aecia/aeueieie oaeoi?aie ia oeueiio
aoai? noathoue ianaiia?aae iaoea ? oaoi?ea, oiio ssnia?n i?eae?ey?
aeeaieo oaaao ?ice?eooth an?o i?iaeai, iiceoeaieo ? iaaaoeaieo ci?i,
iia’ycaieo c aeieeiaiiyi oa aaiethoe??th oeeo oaiiiai?a.

I?e/eie aeieeiaiiy no/anii? iaoee, ia aeoieo ssnia?na, aei e?ioey ia
?ice?eo?. A oeueiio a?aeiioaii? iiaeia aeacaoe eeoa ia ?yae nioe?aeueieo
oiia (naiaiaea aea?aeaa ? i?no, oaoi?/i? iio?aae, eiieo?aioe?y,
i?n?iia?noai, aaaioth?eci ? o. i.), a oaeiae aeae?eeoe iioeae, ui
i?ecaaee aei aeieeiaiiy iaoee:

ia?noi?e/i? – o. ca. aiey aei aeaaee. Ciaiiy ii?aeio? ona?aeiieaiiy
neee, ni?yiiaaia ia i?aeoe/ia oai?aiiy ? aieth aei i?ciaiiy. Iani?aaae?
– oea aiey aei aeinoia??iino?. Aa?aneai?noue ia ? oa?aeoa?iith ?enith
iaoee.

?noi?e/i? – iia’ycai? c a?aeaenueeith ?ae?a??th : a) aoin ?ae?a??
aeiaaa? ?noeiiino?, iiooe yei? – iaeaaaeeea?oa aeey ethaeeie ni?aaa; a)
na?o ? ana ?nioth/a noai?aia Aiaii, ioaea, iaia? i?/iai, ia a?aeiiai
i?ciaiiy. I?ciaiiy ni?yiiaaia ? ia i?ae?ania ? ia iioai?ia. Aoooy na?oo
i?eiee ia iiaea aooe inyaiooi ye e?ia/ia, aaniethoia ae?eni?noue, ai
iniiaa na?oo – Aia; a) ae?eni?noue niiaiaia aeaoo aeey ethaeeie. Aia
aeiaaa? i?ciaiiy, aea eiai ci?no caeioaa/o? Aiaa – ni?eea?noue i?ciaiiy.

No/aniee na?o anthaee noai?th? iacaeaaei? iaoee, ni?euei? ca aeooii.
?iioeuenii, ye i?aaeei neoao? aaaeaiiy io?eiaoe c? ciaiiy ei?enoue aeey
cae?eniaiiy iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo oe?eae, aea iaaaeiac? c(yaey?oueny
?ioa?an aei naiiai i?aaeiaoo aea/aiiy.

Iniaeeainoyie no/anii? iaoee ? ?? oi?aa?naeuei?noue (noa?a iaoeiaeo
?ioa?an?a – oea aanue na?o, ? ia ?nio? ieoaiue, ia a?aeieo ?icaeyaeo),
i?eioeeiiaa iacaaa?oai?noue: ?? ?aeay – aacia?a?aiee i?ia?an (ia
a?aei?io a?ae ?aii?o iaoe, iaoith oi?oe?a yeeo aoei aeinyaiaiiy noaei?,
aa?iii?eii?, caaa?oaii? nenoaie), aiia i?aaia aeyaeoe nai? anaa?/i?
ca’ycee: aeine?aeeoe aanue einiin iaoe, iia’ycaieo /a?ac
aca?iii?aeo?eieo ia iniia? ?iioeueno aei oi?aa?naeueiiai ciaiiy, oiui.

Ia aeaeue, oi/a nueiaiaei? iaoea anthaee iioe?aia ? aeciaia, aea
ii-ni?aaaeiueiio aiia a?aeiia iaaaaaoueii. Ethaee eeoa canaiththoue
oaoi?/i? ?noeie, caeeoath/enue iica iaoeith. Aiane?aeie oeueiai aeieea?
o.ca. “iaoeiaee caaiaii”: ethaee i/?eothoue a?ae iaoee oiai, /iai aiia
cae?enieoe ia iiaea, iio?i ?ic/a?iaothoueny ? aeieea? i?ace?noai aei
iaoee.

Ioaea, aaaaea? ssnia?n, iaiao?aeii noai?eoe iaoeo, yea a /?oei
ona?aeiiethaaea nai? iaae?, aiaeii/an i?ciath/e oa, ui iiaeia i?ciaoe.

Oaoi?ea – oea noeoii?noue ae?e ieney/i? ethaeeie, ni?yiiaaieo ia
iaioaaiiy iaae i?e?iaeith. ?o iaoa – iaaeaoe ethaenueeiio aeeooth oaeee
aeaeyae, ui aeicaieea ae neeiooe oyaa? ceeaei?a ? io?eiaoe iaiao?aeio
oi?io ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Nueiaiaei? aiioa ia?aoai?aiue iineoue ?oei?aiee oa?aeoa?, ii-iiaiio
aeyaey?oueny ca’ycie ethaeeie ? i?e?iaee, noai?aia ethaeeiith “ae?oaa
i?e?iaea” noa? oe?aiii. Ethaeeia ao?a/a? i?aea?oioy, aeoo caiaeeoueny
aei caeaoiino? iaa/aoeny ? noai?thaaoe ei?enia.

Aieea oaoi?/ii? aiioe ia ethaeeio ssnia?n ?ice?eaa? /a?ac aiae?c oaeiai
oaiiiaio, ye i?aoey. A?i i?aee?aneth?, ui “a?ae oa?aeoa?o i?aoe?
caeaaeeoue no?oeoo?a noni?euenoaa ? oa?aeoa? aeeooy ethaeae a on?o eiai
?icaaeoaeaiiyo”, ui i?aoey – oea nooi?nia ?ena ethaeeie, yea oai?eoue
na?e na?o. Aea o i?aoe? i?enooi?e aeaiaio aea?oiaiino?, a?aeiiae a?ae
noa’?eoeaiino?, ? a oiiaao oaoi?caoe?? oea iaaoaa? eaoano?io?/iiai
oa?aeoa?o.

I?e/eia, cie?aia, a oiio, ui oaoi?ea ci?ith? oa?aeoa? i?aoe?, ?iaeoue ??
iaoai?ciaaiith, ? oiio aiia c oai?/iai caiyooy ia?aoai?th?oueny ia
eiiaae??. Ethaeeia, caeiyoa o no/aniiio ae?iaieoeoa?, a?ae/oaa? naaa
aaeioeeii iaeiiai aaeeeiai iaoai?cio, ?? ?ieue o noni?euenoa? i?ae
caiaeeoueny aei oni?oiiai aeeiiaiiy aei?o/aii? ?e iia?aoe??. Any aia?a?y
eaea naia ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy a yeino? aeaiaioo neeaaeii? i?aai?caoe??
oaoi?ciaaiiai noni?euenoaa, ? oiio ?aeei? iio?aae, ye? caeeoathoueny –
oea a?aeii/eiie ? ii?oe?y aae?aiae?io. Ana oea ia iiaea ia i?ecaiaeeoe
aei eaoano?io?/iiai aeooiaiiai coaiae?iiy ethaenoaa.

ssnia?n iaaieioo? ia oiio, ui aaeeeith i??ith ethaenoai naia aeiia o
noai?aii? oaei? neooaoe??, ai ia ona?aeiieth? iaiaaeaiino? oaoi?ee. A
oey iaiaaeai?noue ?nio?. Ia?o ca ana, oaoi?ea – anueiai eeoa can?a, yeee
iiaeiai iaeaaeiei /eiii nea?iaoaaoeny, a?i ia ?nio? ie?aii a?ae
ethaeeie. Aaee/ ? aeaaea oaoi?ee i?iyaey?oueny eeoa uiaei iaaeeaiai,
ni?iae iioe?aiiy oaoi?caoe?? ia aeeaa i? aei /iai aeia?iai ia
i?ecaiaeyoue. Oaoi?ea – oea can?a aeey oai?aiiy oeiiai? i?iaeoeoe??,
aiia, ye i?aaeei, ia i?eaeaoia aeey noai?aiiy eoeueoo?ieo iaaeaaiue.
Oaoi?ea ooieoe?iio? eeoa aeiee iayai? iaoa??aee oa aia?a?y, a aiie ia ?
iaae/a?iieie. O?einio canoiniao? ii a?aeiioaiith aei oaoi?ee ai?oao
“aeaiii?/ia”, i?aaio/e aeneiaeoe aeoieo, ui i?ney noai?aiiy oaoi?ee, yea
a?aeaoeinue iaeaea aeiaaeeiai, aiia cae?enith? iiaooi?e aieea ia naiai
oai?oey, oiiae?aith? ethaeeio nia?. Ethaenoai ca?ac caeaaeia a?ae nai?o
oaoi?/ieo caeiaooe?a, iicaaaeaia ?o, aiii iieieoueny o eaoano?io?/iiio
noai?.

Ioaea, oaoi?ea, a i?ioean? ia?aoai?aiiy i?e?iaee, ia?aoai?th? ? naio
ethaeeio, aea ssnia?n ia noeeueiee aaaaeaoe ?? yeithnue iaiiai?iith
neeith. A?i noaa?aeaeo?, ui ethaenoai ia? caoenoeoe nai? iaeaooi?,
noai?eaoe iaae?ei? caniae aeey nea?iaoaaiiy neooaoe??, aaeeaoe caoiae?a
aei aoiai?caoe?? ? iaeooioai?aiiy i?aoe? oiui.

?ice?eaoe ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c iaoeith ? oaoi?eith, aaoi? caa?oa?oueny
aeania aei no/anii? neooaoe??, yea, ca eiai neiaaie, “yaey? niaith
?aaeueio ?aei?noue ethaeae ia caie?”. Ia oeueiio aoai?, aaeeeith i??ith
caaaeyee inoaii?i aeinyaiaiiyi ethaeeie, ieaiaoa ia?aoai?eeanue ia
oe?e?niee na?o, eiaeia oi/ea yeiai eaaei aeinyaeia aeey ethaeeie. O
ca’yceo c oeei, a?aeie?aieaia aeeooy ie?aieo iauei, ia?iae?, e?a?i noa?
oaeoe/ii iaiiaeeeaei. An? i?iaeaie iaaoaathoue aeiaaeueiiai, oiaoi
anaethaenueeiai cao/aiiy, ? ?ica’ycaiiy ?o iiaeeeaa oaeiae eeoa oeyoii
ia(?aeiaiiy coneeue anueiai ethaenoaa.

Na?aae oaeeo i?iaeai Ea?e ssnia?n iaceaa?, ianaiia?aae, oie oaeo, ui
ia?iaee ia?aoai?ththoueny ia iane, aiey yeeo noa? ae??oaeueiei oaeoi?ii
o no/aniiio na?o?. “Iane aeieeathoue oai, – aaaaea? a?i, – aea ethaee
iicaaaeai? naiai ?noeiiiai na?oo, ei??iiy ? i?aea?oioy, aea ieie
ea?othoue ? cai?iththoue iaeia iaeiei”. Iana iicaaaeaia aeanieo iciae,
aiia ?ic/eiy? a nia? ie?aieo ethaeae, ui ao?a/athoue naith
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue, ?ioeie neiaaie, iana – oea ionoioa. Iaaaciaea ?? ?
a oiio, ui aiia ? ia’?eoii ia?aeiiaiiy ? i?eiono, ia a?aea?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ? aeeaa ia iaeieae/iio ??ai? na?aeiiino?. Aeia?a
a?aeii? iaeiio?ieueiaai?noue iaoiaio, aacaeooiai?noue “ioae?ee” (ia
aaey/ieo neooa/?a, a naia ioae?ee, a?ae naaa?eueii? aie? yei? caeaaeeoue
aeiey ieooe?a); iane ii?aeiothoue a nia? ?o iaaaoeae ? aeiaeathoue
nai?o, noath/e neiaieii nueiaiaei?oiuei? aeiae.

ssnia?n iaceaath iiaeeea? oeyoe ?ica’ycaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie, oae? ye
iaeooioai?aiiy ian /a?ac aeoiaaiiy ? ina?oo eiaeii? ethaeeie,
i?aeaeuaiiy i??e naiaiaee. Aea iiee oe? oaeoi?e ia ni?aoeueiaothoue,
a?aeaoaa?oueny eaoano?io?/iee ?iciaae o?aaeeoe?eieo oe?iiinoae, ia?ao?ae
a?ae ?ae?a?? aei aaca??’y, i?a?e?cio. A??a caiaiaaea?, ? o oeueiio
i?ioean? iiaeia aeae?eeoe ?yae oeiiaeo oaiaeaioe?e : ae?iaeaiiy
ieneaiiy, caniiaaiiai ia ?aeaieia??, aeiaaeueia ni?iuaiiy (i?eeeaaeii ?
aace?ia/i? eicoiae, inaaaeiiaoeia? oai???), caia?a/aiiy ye iniiaa
na?oiaeyaeo.

Oaea e?eca iia’ycaia ia eeoa c oaoi?/iei ia?aai?ioii. ?? ia?aaeoiiaaie
aoee e ?io? oaeoi?e, ?noi?e/i? iiae??. Oae, ia aeoieo ssnia?na, aiioa
I?ina?oieoeoaa, yea ?ice?eea aeey ethaeae iia? eoeueoo?e ? ?ae?a??,
aein? iaa?aeii?, o ii?aeiaii? c iaiiaiioith ? iaaeineiiae?noth ina?oe,
aeeeeeaea iaaeia??’y aei nai?? aeanii? ?ae?a??, iaaiee neainen. Aaeeea
O?aioeocueea ?aaiethoe?y c ?? aeiaaeueiith ia?aioe?ieith oe?iiinoae,
noaa?aeaeaiiyi anaiiaooiino? ?icoio, o?einionueeee ?aeaae?ci c eiai
aeaeei?noth oioaeueiiai ciaiiy oaae c?iaeee na?e aianie o oi?ioaaiiy
aaca??’y.

O?einio aaaaea?, ui ae/a?iii aena?oeeoe an? i?e/eie ? ia?aaeoiiae
oeueiai yaeua iaiiaeeeai, ? oiio a?i eeoa eiinoaoo?, ui nueiaiaei?oiy
neooaoe?y ?acii c aeiaaeueiei oaoi?/iei ?icaeoeii ? ana c?inoath/ith
?aei?noth na?oo a?aecia/a?oueny ? aeeaieei aeooiaiei ? aeooaaiei
?aa?anii, nionoioai?noth ye iciaeith aiioe.

?noi?e/ia eiioeaioe?y ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy a eiai oe?e?niino? iiaeiia
aeeth/aoe ? iaeaooi?, ai a?aeiiaa a?ae iaeaooiueiai i?ecaiaeeoue aei
iacaaa?oaiino?, ioaea, iai?aaaeeaino? ia?aco ieioeiai.

O?ao?e ?icae?e ae?oai? /anoeie eieae i?enay/aiee naia aa/aiith o?einioii
iaeaooiueiai. Cae/aeii ae, c oiaaiai?noth eacaoe uinue noiniaii
iaeaooiueiai ie ia iiaeaii, ? ana ae, ia aeoieo ssnia?na, ciaiiy i?i
no/ania ? ieioea (a ioaea, ?icoi?iiy oeo caaaeueieo oaiaeaioe?e, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie a oe?eiio) aeicaiey? c?iaeoe iaai?
i?iaiice. Iaoa i?iaiicoaaiiy caa?iaia o no/ania: aaeaea i?iaiicoth/a
?noi?e/ia ieneaiiy aecia/a? iao? ae??.

Aaoi? cae?enith? iaaaeeeee aeneo?n a ?noi??th, iaaiaeeoue aeae?eueea
??ciiieaiiaeo i?iaiic?a, c?iaeaieo ii/eiath/e c 18 noie?ooy uiaei iaoi?
no/aniino? o?einioaie ? iaoeiaoeyie. Ci?no oeeo i?iaiic?a – ??ciee;
aeaye? ia?aaeaa/athoue oioaeueio iaoei?caoe?th noni?euenoaa, iaioaaiiy
aeooiaiiai i?a?e?cio , ?io?, iaaiaee, iiaeathoue iioei?noe/i? ea?oeie
iaeaooiueiai ia iniia? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, ? ?yae i?iaiic?a
uiaei ci?ie a?ieia?/ieo yeinoae ethaeeie, aea iaea?eueoa oaaae i?eae?ey?
ssnia?n oei c ieo, ui iiia?aaeaeathoue i?i iiaeeea?noue ao?aoe
ethaeeiith nai?? nooiino?, anooi ?? o “oea?noai /i?ii? ceiae, ui ia
cia? aoiaiiino?”. I/aaeaeii, aaoi? ienaa oeae oa?? , ia?aaoaath/e i?ae
aeeaieei a?aaeaiiyi a?ae no?aoiiai aeina?aeo Ae?oai? Na?oiai? a?eie, ?
cie?aia, eiioeaio?aoe?eieo oaai??a, aea ethaee ? ae?enii ao?a/aee naaa,
ia?anooiaee ca iaae? ethaenueeiai ( ? oea ia iaia’yceiai aoee ye?nue
iiino?e, a iaa?oue ? ie?i? ath?aa?e, neooiyi? /eiiaieee). AEao, yeee
i?eianea a?eia, ia? aooe ona?aeiieaiee ethaenoaii, ? i? a yeiio ?ac? ia
caaooee, – eeoa a oeueiio aeiaaeeo ? iaae?y, ui a?i ia iiaoi?eoueny.
I?ioenoiyoe caa?icai iaeaooiueiai ethaeeia iiaea eeoa o ai?iouea? c
iiaeeea?noth cea o na?o? . “Eeoa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca no/ania
aeicaiey? iai a?ae/ooe a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iaeaooi?”.

Ioaea, ciia ia? i?noea caa?iaiiy aei no/aniino?. Oeueiai ?aco aaoi?
caa?oa? oaaao ia c, ia eiai iiaeyae, ae??oaeuei? oaiaeaioe??, ye?
iiaeooue aeicaieeoe c?iaeoe iaai? aeniiaee uiaei ia?niaeoea ethaenoaa.
Oeeie oaiaeaioe?yie ? ;

nioe?ae?ci (ye ?aeay ni?aaaaeeeai? i?aai?caoe?? ian),

?aei?noue na?oo ( iioya on?o aei ie?iiai ?nioaaiiy, yea iiaea
?aae?coaaoeny o oi?i? na?oiai? ?iia???, aai ae “na?oiaiai ii?yaeeo”),

a??a (oa anaioiiethth/a ia/aei, yea iiaeiia eyaoe a iniiao ia?oeo
aeaio).

Nioe?ae?ci – oea oi?aa?naeueia oaiaeaioe?y noni?euenoaa, ni?yiiaaia ia
noai?aiiy oaei? i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe? ? oaeiai ?iciiae?eo i?iaeoeo?a
i?aoe?, ye? a caaacia/oaaee naiaiaeo an?o ethaeae. ssnia?n a oe?eiio
iiceoeaii noaaeoueny aei nioe?ae?cio, aea iaaieioo? ia iio, ui eiai
i?ia?aei? iieiaeaiiy /anoi i?aei?iththoueny nai?th aaniethoecaoe??th, ?
oiae? ?aeay iinooiiaiai cae?eniaiiy ni?aaaaeeeaiai iaeaooiueiai o nithc?
c aeaiie?ao??th, ia iniia? ?icoiiiai ? iaiaaeaiiai ieaioaaiiy,
?iciiae?eo aeaa, cai?ith?oueny ia eiioi?ci, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? oaeaeeee
no?eaie aei “uaneeaiai iaeaooiueiai” /a?ac anoaiiaeaiiy aeeeoaoo?e
i?ieaoa??aoo ? oioaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy. ssnia?n i?aee?aneth?, ui
nioe?ae?noe/i? aeiiae ? ?icoiieie ? ?aoe?iiaeueieie eeoa o iaaieo
iaaeao, a ia oeyoo i?eiono, aeeeoaoo aiie aaaeooue aei ?aanoaa. A?i
?ice?eaa? aeeaie? iaaeie?ee oioaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy, iaaiaey/e a?aoiaioe
ye nooi aeiiii?/i? ( aeia?a a?aeii? ia?aaaae a?eueii?
eiieo?aioe?? ? ?eieo), oae ? aeooiai? (aaeaea oioaeueia ieaioaaiiy ia
iaiaaeo?oueny eeoa ae?iaie/eie a?aeiineiaie). Naia ?aeay oioaeueiiai
ieaioaaiiy ? iai?eaeaoiith, ai aiii iiaeiia aeoiaeeoe c oioaeueiiai
ciaiiy, ui ? iaiiaeeeaei. Ca oiiae a?aooaaiiy iaaaciae iiae?aii?
aaniethoecaoe??, nioe?ae?ci iiaea iaoe i?noea, aaeaea a?i nai ii nia?
aeeth/a? ?aea? naiaiaee ? ni?aaaaeeeaino? ? i?aaia aeaoooaaoe iaoa
?nioaaiiy.

?aei?noue na?oo – oea aeiaaeueia oaiaeaioe?y, aeaiaioe yei?
i?inoaaeothoueny c inueiaiai /ano, eiee a?aeaoaaeanue aeoeaia
eiioi?eaoe?y i?ae eoeueoo?aie. Iai?i iaoa??aeueieie ? aeooiaieie
oe?iiinoyie nueiaiaei? iaaoaa? ieaiaoa?iiai cia/aiiy. Oeae i?ioean, ia
aeoieo ssnia?na, c iaiao?aei?noth ia? i?ecaanoe aei iiaeaeueoiai
ia’?aeiaiiy ethaenoaa a ?aeeio ni?eueiioo. Iinoa? ieoaiiy : yeei aoaea
oea ia’?aeiaiiy. Iai?ee?ioe? inueiaiai /ano a?aeaoeinue ooai?aiiy
na?oiaeo ?iia??e, ui aae i?ye ia ni?eyei aeooiaiiio i?ia?ano. Nueiaiaei?
?niothoue aeaa a??ia?aei? oeyoe : aai na?oiaa ?iia??y, aai oae caaiee
na?oiaee ii?yaeie (?? i?ioeeaaei?noue). Ia?oa iiaeeea?noue aeinyaa?oueny
iaoiaeii ianeeey ? aaaea aei cieuaiiy naiaiaee. Ae?oaa aeinyaa?oueny
ie?iei oeyoii, /a?ac ia?aaiai?e, naiiiaiaaeaiiy oeo, ooi ia? aeaaeo,
a?aeiiao a?ae eieaeueieo noaa?ai?oao?a ca?aaee ni?eueiiai noaa?ai?oaoo.
Ethaenoao aaea a?aeiiee i?eeeaae oaeiai ia’?aeiaiiy – Niieo/ai? Ooaoe
Aia?eee, a o iaeaooiueiio iiae?aiee i?ioean ia? i?ecaanoe aei iaaii?
oi?ie na?oiaiai oaaea?ae?cio. Cae/aeii, ia oeyoo aei na?oiaiai
ii?yaeeo, o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae, ?niothoue aaaii? iaaaciaee : oea ?
iaoa?iey/?noue ie?aieo i?aaeoae?a, ? iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeaiiy
aeeeoaoo?e (ssnia?n, aoaeo/e ciaeiiee eeoa c aeina?aeii I?ia//eie ?
?oae??, aaaaea?, ui aeeeoaoo?a ia iiaea aooe iiaaeaia cna?aaeeie.
Aeina?ae N?N? na?ae/eoue i?i cai?ioia, oi/a, oei ia iaio, ne?ae
iiaiaeeoeny c oei, ui anoaiiaeaiiy iiae?aiiai ?aaeeio ia an?e ieaiao?
iaei a cia/ii neeaaei?o? iane?aeee). ?nio? oaeiae ? iaaaciaea iiaiiai
cieuaiiy – o aeiaaeeo ?ica’ycaiiy na?oiai? a?eie (a oiiaao, eiee
aea?aeaae-e?aea?e aieiae?thoue yaea?iith, aaeoa??ieia?/iith oa ?ioeie
ca?iyie, iane?aeee oaei? a?eie no?aoii ia?aaeaa/eoe, oei a?eueoa ui
iiae?aia oaoi?ea iiaea iio?aieoe a ?oee ? iaio oeea?e?ciaaieo aea?aeaa,
aai iaa?oue aeei?enoaia iniaith aiaeaa?eueiith). A?aoiaoth/e ana oea,
na?oiaee ii?yaeie iiaea ? ia ?aae?coaaoeny, aea, ia aeoieo o?einioa,
aaea naia ?aeay aeiiiiaaa? ethaeyi a?aeiaeoe nain aeeooy.

A??a – oea “oa anainyaeia, ui ea?o? iaie, iaiiaith? nie?iaaii? aeeaeie
ethaeeie”. Ethaeeia ia iiaea aeeoe aac a??e – ia?aeiiaiee Ea?e ssnia?n.
Aac a??e iaia? aeinooio aei aeoie?a ethaenueeiai aoooy. AEiaeia c
?ae?a?e, aeiaeia c eieaeueieo a?? ia iiaea i?aoaiaeoaaoe ia
aeiyoeia?noue ? ia iiaea ia’?aeiaoe ia?iaee, ??ci? eoeueoo?e ?
oeea?e?caoe??. Ci?no a??ia/aiue /anoi neoaoaaa aeaea?aeii ?ica?aoo ?
iaii?icoi?iiy i?ae ethaeueie.

Oei ia iaio, ?niothoue iaai? eaoaai??? a?/ii? a??e. Ieie, ianaiia?aae, ?
:

( a??a a Aiaa – ye oyaeaiiy i?i iayai?noue o?ainoeaiaeaioiiai,
iayai?noue iaea?/iiai aeuiai niieith, yeee caaaeaee caeaoiee caoenoeoe
ethaeeio;

( a??a a ethaeeio, yea ii noo? ? a??ith o iiaeeea?noue naiaiaee aeey
ethaeeie;

( a??a o iiaeeeaino? ethaeeie o oeueiio na?o?.

Oe? oyaeaiiy aeieeathoue ia aeiaaeeiai ? iathoue iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy aeey ?nioaaiiy ethaeeie, ethaenoaa a oe?eiio. Ianaiia?aae, c
a??e ethaeeia ii/a?io? neeo; oey neea aeicaiey? ?e aeieaoe o?
?inoeieoe, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue oaa?eiia a ethaeei?, ioaea, aeicaiey?
ethaeei? aooe niaith, aeae?eyoeny c i?e?iaeiiai na?oo. A??a oaeiae iana
oa?iei?noue. Oi/a i?aaenoaaieee ie?aieo ?ae?a?e /anoi aoaathoue
iaoa?ieieie iaeia aei iaeiiai, aea caaaeii a??oth/a ethaeeia eaaoa
ni?eeia? o? i?iaeaie, ye? aiia cono??/a? o aeeoo?. Ia?aoo?, a??a
i?eiineoue iaeooioai?ai?noue ae?yeueiino?. Ana oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui
a??a ia? caa?aaoeny ? o iaeaooiueiio. I?e/iio ssnia?n noeeueiee
aaaaeaoe, ui oea aoaea ia ?aeeia aeey an?o a??a, a noeoii?noue ??cieo
a??ia/aiue, ye? caeeoaoeiooueny a?eueieie o i?ioean? eiioi?eaoe??.

I?ney aeineoue aeaoaeueiiai aiae?co eiaeii? c o?ueio oaiaeaioe?e,
ssnia?n ?ice?eaa? i?iaeaie, iia’ycai? c? naiaiaeith, – oiaoi c oei
oaiiiaiii, yeee, ia eiai aeoieo ia’?aeio? an? noia?a/eea? aeiiae.

Eeoa naiaiaeo ne?ae aaaaeaoe noa?ith ?noeiiiai aoooy ethaeeie.

C oi/ee ci?o o?einio?? naiaiaeo iiaeia aecia/eoe ye :

Iiaeieaiiy ciai?oiueiai i?eiono ? aioo??oiuei? naaaie? ethaeeie. Oea
iiaeieaiiy cae?enith?oueny o ia?ic?eai?e ?aeiino? c i?aaiaiiyi aei
?noeiiiai. Naia o iiooeao ?noeiiiai (ye? caaaeaee ? iacaaa?oaieie, a
oiio ? naiaiaea ?aae?co?oueny eeoa ye i?ioean) ethaeeia eaea aei
naiaiaee. I?e/iio naiaiaea iaeiiai ?iaeea?aea iaiiaeeeaa, oea iiiyooy
caaaeaee ia? i?noea eeoa a noeoiiino? ethaeae. Aeaiaio naiiiaiaaeaiiy ?
iaiao?aeiith ia?aaeoiiaith naiaiaee. Oiaoi ethaeeia ?iaeoue ia oa, ui ?e
oi/aoueny (oea naaa?eey), a oa, ui ? ?noeiiei, i?aaeeueiei ia eeoa aeey
ia? iaeii?, aea ? aeey o??? noeoiiino?, a iaaeao yei? aiia naaa
?aae?ciao?.

Naiaiaea ?ice?eaa?oueny o na?o? , aea ?niothoue ? ciaaathoueny
iiey?iino?, i?ioeeaaeiino?. Ia iiaea aooe naiaiaee oai, aea iaia?
iiaeeeaino? aei aeai?o, aea iaia? aioo??oiuei? ai?ioueae a ethaeei?.
Aiia ia? i?noea eeoa a oiiaao iaeneiaeueii? a?aee?eoino?, – caieiaia
nenoaia ia cia? naiaiaee.

Naiaiaea ona?aeiieth? nai? iaae?. Oea ia icia/a?, ui a?eueia ethaeeie
a?ae/oaa? naaa a’yciai, aea oey ethaeeia iiaeiia ?icoi?oe nooi?noue
naiaiaee, ?? iaiaaeai?noue aeey eiaeiiai eiie?aoiiai ?iaeea?aea.

Naiaiaea – oea caaaeaee i?ioean, a?i ia? ae?aeaeoe/iee oa?aeoa?, oea
?oo. Oae naii ye ia ?nio? aaniethoii? ?noeie o iiai?e ?? ?aae?caoe??,
oae ? ia ?nio? aaniethoii? naiaiaee. Ni?aaaeiy naiaiaea aeieea? eeoa o
i?ioean? eiioi?eaoe?? i?ae ethaeueie, yea ni?yiiaaia ia iiooe ?noeie.

Oey i?iaeaia caaaeaee aenooia? i?aaeiaoii aeeneon?e, aea ianaiia?aae
ethaenoai oo?ao? ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c iie?oe/iith naiaiaeith, aaeaea ??
caa?aaeaiiy a no/anieo oiiaao – e?eoe/ia ieoaiiy. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a,
iie?oe/ia naiaiaea – oea naiaiaea ethaeeie o i?aaia?e ? noaa?aii?e
aea?aeaa?. . Neea aioo??oiuei? iie?oe/ii? naiaiaee ae?inoa? eeoa c
iie?oe/iiai naiiaeoiaaiiy iaoe??, aiia caaaeaee ia?aaoaa? o i?ioenoiyii?
c? aeaaeith, iiaeieaiiy naaa?eey yei? iiaeeeaa eeoa ca aeiiiiiaith
caeiio, /a?ac ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?eioeeio eaa?oeiiino?. Eaa?oeii?noue – oea
?aeeiee oeyo, ia yeiio ethaeeia ia a?ae/oaa? no?aoo. Oai, aea ?? iaia?,
cieuo?oueny naiaiaea.

Aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ia naiaiaea caaacia/o?oueny iiaoaeiaith i?aaiai?
aea?aeaae (yea /a?ac ?aaeaiaioaoe?th caeiiaie on?o noa? noni?eueiiai
aeeooy, cae??ieaiiy i?aa, naiaiae ? iaia’yce?a noa’?eo?a, cae?enith?
caoeno ianaeaiiy a?ae naaa?eey) oa iaioaaiiyi aeaiie?ao?? (
ia?iaeiaeaaeaey, caaaeyee ?nioaaiith ??cieo iaoai?ci?a ?aaeueiiai
aieaaeyaeaiiy ia?iaeo, aa?aioo? cia/ou?noue iiaeyae?a ? aie? eiaeii?
ie?aii? ethaeeie). Ine?eueee i?aaiaiiy aei caoenoo a?ae ianeeey ? aei
?aae?caoe?? nai?o iiaeyae?a ? aie? aeanoea? ? ? aaaeeeaeie aeey
ethaeeie, oi iie?oe/ia naiaiaea aenooia? ye aa?aio?y ?aae?caoe??
ethaeeie.

Naiaiaea aeiaaa? aeeneon??, ?nioaaiiy ??cieo iiaeyae?a. Oaeee ieth?ae?ci
aeoiie caaacia/o?oueny ?nioaaiiyi ??cieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, ye? aaaeooue
ai?ioueao ? ia caeiiieo ia/aeao i?eoiaeyoue aei i?aai?a aeaaee.
Iaeaaaeeea?oei aeaea?aeii eaa?oeiiino? o oeueiio aeiaaeeo ?, cae/aeii,
aeai?e.

ssnia?n aenooia? i?eoeeueieeii aea?aeaaii-i?aaiai? oai??? ae?o o ??
aeaiie?aoe/i?e ?ioa?i?aoaoe??. A?i aaaaea?, ui i?e aecia/aii? eiea in?a,
ye? i?eoiaeyoue aei aeaaee, ia?aaaaa iiaeiia iaaeaaaoenue
a?enoie?aoe/iiio i?ioa?eia? ( ia i?ioeaaao canoaeaeoaaii? ua o?einioaie
aioe/iino? ioeie?ao?? – aeaaee iaoiaio). I?e oeueiio a?enoie?ao?y – oea
ia niaaeeiaee, caieiaiee noai, a eiio?ieueiaaiee /a?ac aeai?e,
a?aee?eoee aeey i?eeiyooy iiaeo ? iiaeo /eai?a i?ioa?ie, ia?aaaaa yeiai
– o aenieiio ??ai? ina?oe, i?ioan?iiae?cio, aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo.

I?aea?oioyi iie?oe/ii? naiaiaee ?, cae/aeii, a?aeiia?aeiee noni?eueiee
eaae, a?aeiia?aeia noni?eueia na?aeii?noue, aeey yeeo oa?aeoa?i?
a?aeie?aieaiiy iie?oeee a?ae ?ae?a?? ? acaaae? na?oini?eeiyooy, aoin
ni?eueiiai aeeooy, aoiaii?noue ? o.i.

?aeath i?i aeiaaeueia cia/aiiy naiaiaee ssnia?n aeneiaeth? oae : “Aooe
ethaeeiith – icia/ath aooe a?eueiith, noaoe ni?aaaeiueith ethaeeiith –
oea niene ?noi???.”

Caaa?ooth/e ?icae?e, i?enay/aiee no/aniiio ? iaeaooiueiio ethaenoaa,
o?einio i?aenoiiao? eiai aeoieith i?i oa, ui ethaenoai eaea o iaeaooi?,
caoeuath/enue a?ae ai?ia?a ?noeie ? i?eneooiaoth/enue aei aeoiie
i?i?ie?a. O ii?aeiaii? c o?einionoaoaaiiyi oea i?eaaaea ian ia oeyo, aea
ethaia io?eio? naith aeeaeio o ni?aaaei?e eiioi?eaoe??, aea ethaee
iiaa/aoue ?noeio, ui ian ia’?aeio?.

Ia?aae iaee//yi iiaeeeaiai anoaiiaeaiiy na?oiai? oioae?oa?ii? ?iia??? oa
a?aeiia?aei?e ?e oioae?oa?ii? ?noeie ie?ai?e ethaeei? caeeoa?oueny eeoa
iaae?y caa?aaoe noa?o o?einionueeiai ieneaiiy, yeith a aocueeith aiia ia
caeeoaeanue. Oiae? inoaii?i i?eooeeii ethaeeie noaia ?? aeeaiea
aioo??oiy iacaeaaei?noue a?ae aea?aeaae ? a?ae oea?eae, naiaiaea eiai
aeoo?, ui ii/a?io? neeo o aaeeeeo o?aaeeoe?yo ieioeiai.

*anoeia o?aoy “Niene ?noi???”.

Aaea c naii? iacae eaaei aecia/eoe eiei ieoaiue, i?i ye? eaeaoueny o
oeueiio ?icae?e?: oea, ianaiia?aae, ?ieue ? cia/aiiy ?noi???, ??
oa?aeoa?i? ?ene.

ssnia?n ?ice?eaa? naith oaco i?i cia/ou?noue ?noi???. Ca eiai neiaaie,
aiia yaey? niaith iniiao, ca’ycie c yeith ie caa??aa?ii, yeui ia oi/aii
cieeiooe aacne?aeii. Eeoa o eiioaeno? ?noi?e/iiai ciaiiy iiaeeeai i?eeoe
aei ?icoi?iiy i?e?iaee ethaeeie. Naia oiio ?noi?e/ia ia ? aeey ian
/eiinue aaeaeoaeei, a aenooia? iiiaioii iaoiai aeeooy.

Oaeee ca’ycie i?iyaey?oueny, cie?aia, o oiio, ui ?acii c ?noi???th
ci?ith?oueny ? iaoa ?noi?e/ia ieneaiiy. Oae, nueiaiaei? aiii
aecia/a?oueny ona?aeiieaiiyi e?ece (iiaa i?i oeth e?eco aaea eoea o
iiia?aaei?e /anoei? eieae). C?icoi?oe, a?ae/ooe oeth e?eco aeiiiiaaa?
iai ciaiiy ?noi???.

Iaeia iiaeiii caa?aaoeny a on?o eaoaee?ciao: ethaeeia, ye oaea, ? ??
naiiinieneaiiy a o?einionoaoaaii?, yea a iiooeao nai?? iniiae aeeaeoueny
o iaeaooi?, ia i?i?ieoth/e, aea a??y/e.

?noi??y – oea oa, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny. Aiii ia?aoeia? /an, cieuo? eiai ?
nyaa? a?/iiai. ?noi??y – oea caaaeaee i?ioean, ? ana iiaeiii iino?eii
ci?ithaaoenue. ?noi??y ia iiaea aooe caaa?oaiith.

ssnia?n aeae?ey? o?e, ia eiai iiaeyae, iaeaaaeeea?o? aeanoeaino?
?noi???:

?noi??y ia? iaae?, ui a?aeie?aieththoue ?? a?ae ?ioeo ?aaeueiinoae :
i?e?iaee ? Einiino.

I?e?iaea. ?noi??y ?nio? ia naia ii nia?, a ia iniia? i?e?iaee. Aea
i?e?iaea – ia?noi?e/ia yaeua, ?? ?icaeoie yaey? niaith eeoa i?inoa
iiaoi?aiiy iaeiiai e oiai ae ( a oie /an ye ?noi?e/iei ? eeoa
ia?aoai?aiiy yaeua o na?aeiii i?iaaaeaieo nieneiaeo ca’yceao).
Ii?aeiaiiyi oeeo aeaio oaiiiai?a ? ethaeeia. Aaeaea aiia ? iaeii/anii ?
i?e?iaeith, ? ?noi???th. Oae, o nooiino? ethaeeie noaa?eueiino?
niaaeeoaaiiy (i?e?iaeia) i?ioenoi?oue i?ieea?noue o?aaeeoe??
(?noi?e/ia). ssnia?n ia?aeiiaiee, ui ?noi?e/iee i?ioean ia?a?aaoueny,
yeui aeinyaiooa iaie i?ioyaii ?noi??? cieeia c aeeooy.

Einiin. Iniiaiei oaeoii iaoiai ?nioaaiiy ? iaoa iiaeeeaa ?cieyoe?y a
Einiin?. Oey ?cieueiaai?noue noaiiaeoue ?aaeueio iaaeo ?noi??? (iica
ethaenueeei aeeooyi ia Caie? ?nio? eeoa ionoa o aeooiaiiio ?icoi?ii?
na?oiaoaeiaa).

2) a ?noi??? ? aioo??oi? no?oeoo?e, ui oi?iothoueny oeyoii ia?aoai?aiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai. ?noi??y yaey? niaith ia?ao?ae.

Ie iaceaa?ii ?noi???th oa, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny o i?inoi?? ? /an? a iaaiiio
i?noe?. Aeey oiai, uia aooe ?noi?e/iei, ?iaeea?ae iiaeiai aooe
iaeeie/iei, iaiiaoi?iei. Oaeo iaeeie/i?noue iiaeia ciaeoe eeoa a
ethaeei? – o ?icoi?ii? ethaeeie ia ye i?e?iaeii?, a?ieia?/ii?, a
ianaiia?aae ye aeooiaii? ?noioe. Ethaeeia i?e?iaeia aenooia? eeoa
i?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy, a ethaeeia o iiaiiio cia/aii? oeueiai neiaa ?
iin??i naiaiaee ? iacaeaaeiino?, ao?eaiiyi aecenoaioe??, aeooo.

?noi?e/ia – oea ia i?inoi ?aaeueiee ?iaeea?aeooi, ninoae anacaaaeueiiai,
– oea ae?eni?noue, yea iaeooioai?y? oea anacaaaeueia. Oa, ui ie i?cia?ii
ye ?noi?e/ii iniaeeaa, aeicaiey? iai ?ooaoeny aei ?noi??? ye ?aeeiiai
?iaeea?aeooio.

?noi??y yaey? niaith ?oo, ? /ei ?aaeeeaeuei?oee ? oeae ?oo, oei aeeao?
ieanoe ?noeie a?aee?eaathoueny iai. Iaea?eueo yne?aaei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi
oe??? oace o?einioa ? ia?ao?aei? aiioe, eiee o iiiaio iaeaeuiai
iai?oaeaiiy ethaenoai noai?thaaea aecia/i? aeooiai? aeinyaiaiiy. Oae,
iaiiaoi?ia a?aoeueea o?aaaae?y ? ii?iaeaeaiiyi aiioe, eiee a?aeaoaaany
ia?ao?ae a?ae i?oieia?? aei o?einio?? ye iiai? oi?ie noni?eueii?
na?aeiiino?, iiaiai niiniao inyaiaiiy. na?oo. I?iaoeueeee ?aeaae?ci
(eeane/ia i?iaoeueea o?einio??) noai?aiee ia ceai? i?ae a??ith ?
aaca??’yi. Aea, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ia?ao?ae ia eieae?co?oueny aeeeth/ii
ia yeeoinue iaaieo aoaiao ?noi???, – a?i i?enooi?e caaaeaee. Aoaeue-yea,
iaa?oue aaee/ia, caa?iaia o a?/i?noue iiae?y, ? eeoa ia?ao?aeiei yaeuai.
Naia oiio ie ia iiaeaii ciaeoe aeey naaa c?acee aeineiiaeino? /e
aaniethoo o aeinyaiaiiyo iiia?aaei?o aiio; aiie noai?thaaeenue o /an,
eiee ?oi? oai?oe? aaea a?ae/oaaee iaaeeaeaiiy iiaiai ? iaa?oue a iiiaio
noai?aiiy ii/eiaee naith caaeaaeue. ?noi??? acaaae? ia aeanoeaa
o?eaae?noue, aiia naia ? ia?ao?ae. C oeueiai iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
?nioaaoeia e?iaoeue ?noi???, ye eieenue ?nioaaa ?? ii/aoie.

?aei?noue ?noi???.

Oey aeanoea?noue ?noi??? ? ia’?eoii iaea?eueoi? oaaae ssnia?na, aiia
eaaeeoue a iniia? an??? eiai ?noi?e/ii? eiioeaioe??. A?i iaaieioo? ia
oiio, ui i?e anueiio ?icia?oo? ethaeae, eoeueoo?, ?noi?e/ieo aiio ?nio?
aeaui ?noioia, ui ?o ia’?aeio?: ethaee cia/ou? iaeia aeey iaeiiai.
Cono??/ath/enue, ethaee i?ciathoue naaa a ?ioiio ? naia yaeua “ethaeeia”
? ?oo aei ?aeeiiai. O?einio i?iiiio? oe?eee ?yae oaeo?a, ye?, ia eiai
aeoieo na?ae/aoue i?i ?nioaaiiy oaei? ?aeiino?. AEiaeai c ieo eiai aei
e?ioey ia aeaooiao?, aea o eiaeiiio a?i ciaoiaeeoue iaaiee aniaeo
caaaeueii? ?aeiino?:

( ?aei?noue ethaenueei? i?e?iaee, yea ia ci?ieeanue i?ioyaii ?noi???. O
oea iiiyooy aoiaeyoue iao?eueee ? ia no?eueee a?ieia?/ia /e ineoieia?/ia
?aei?noue, aea yaeua aeuiai ii?yaeeo, yea neiaie?/ii a?aeia?aaea?oueny a
?aea? noai?aiiy Aiaii ethaeeie ca nai?i ia?acii ? iiaeiaith ? a ?aea?
a??oiiaae?iiy. Naia oe? aeoiee ethaenoaa ooiaoathoue ian aei
eiioi?eaoe??. I?iyaaie oeueiai ? oa, ui a) ethaeeia ooaa?aeaeo? naaa a
?noi???, aeoiaey/e ca iaae? i?e?iaeii? aeaiiino? ? ?ooath/enue aei
?aeiino?; a) eiaeia ethaeeia ? iaeeie/iith a ae?eniino?, aea ca nai?ie
iiaeeeainoyie aiia iiaea ana; a) aoaiaie ia oeyoo aei ?aeiino? ? iaai?
oai?/? aeoe, i?i?eae.

( oi?aa?naeuei?noue – aeecuee?noue ?ae?a?eieo oyaeaiue, oi?i ieneaiiy,
cia?yaeue ? o.i. ?niothoue iaai? caeiiii??iino? o oa?aeoa?? ?aae?caoe??
a?ieia?/ii? ? nioe?aeueii? i?e?iaee ethaeeie . Aea caaaeaee aeieeathoue
iaai? a?aeoeeaiiy, ye? iiaeooue oaeiae ao?ethaaoe a nia? ?noi?e/ia.

( i?ia?an – ?aeeia e?i?y ana c?inoath/iai iaaoooy ethaeeiith iiaiai. Aea
oey aeanoea?noue noino?oueny eeoa ciaiiy ? oi?iiy, noa?e ratio, a ia
noanoaioe?? ethaeeie, ?? aeooiaieo yeinoae.

( ?aei?noue o i?inoi?? ? /an?. Ethaenoai ia’?aeiaia aaea naiith
oa?eoi???th ieaiaoe Caiey, a oaeiae iaaieie /aniaeie iaaeaie. Aaea iaeia
oea c iaiao?aei?noth coiiaeth? eiioi?eaoe?th, iai?i aeinyaiaiiyie i?ae
ethaeueie. Aea ? oeae oaeo iaia? aecia/aeueiiai cia/aiiy, ine?eueee a?i
oa?aeoa?iee aeey anueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?oo Caie?, a ia aeeeth/ii aeey
ethaeeie.

( ?niothoue ? iniaeea? aeaee ?aeiaiiy – ?aei?noue ie?aieo eoeueoo?,
?aei?noue ia?iae?a caeaaeii a?ae iiae, iioiaeaeaiiy, aeie?, ?aei?noue
?ae?a?e o ?o na?oiaiio cia/aii?, ?aei?noue aea?aeaae. Aea oe? ?aeiino?
ia iiaeooue aeaoe oyaeaiiy i?i oe?e?niee oaiiiai ?aeiino? ?noi???
ethaenoaa.

Ine?eueee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae aeyaey?oueny iai?eaeaoiei aeey c’ynoaaiiy
aeaea?ae oaei? ?aeiino?, ssnia?n aeei?enoiao? ?ioee i?aeo?ae, oaeiae
aeineoue a?aeiiee a ?noi??? ethaenueei? aeoiee. A?i ?iaeoue ni?iao
aecia/eoe ?aei?noue ye iaoo, oe?eue, ui ae?inoa? c? nieneo, aei yeiai
i?aaia ?noi??y. A?i iaaiaeeoue aeae?eueea eiioeaioe?e oioaeueii?
?noi???, a yeeo a?aeia?aaea?oueny i?aaiaiiy ?noi?e/iiai ciaiiy a?aeiaeoe
na?e niene, aea ciia i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui aeiaeia c iiae?aieo
eiino?oeoe?e ia aea? ae/a?iii? a?aeiia?ae? ia iinoaaeaia caieoaiiy.

I?e/eia oaei? neeaaeiino? o aena?oeaii? i?iaeaie a oiio, ui
aeei?enoaiiy eiaeii? c ie?aieo e?i?e ?icaeoeo, eiaeii? a?oie oaeo?a i?i
??ci? ?aeiino? – oea ni?iuaiiy, ? caaea/a aeine?aeieea iieyaa? a
ii?aeiaii? ??cieo aniaeo?a, inyaiaii? an??? aaaaoiiai?oiino? e?i?e ?
ia?ac?a.

Oaeei /eiii, noai?aiiy eiioeaioe?? anana?oiuei? ?noi??? caeeoa?oueny
eeoa caaea/ath; ??, cie?aia, ? iaiaaaany ?ica’ycaoe ssnia?n. Noai?aia
iei noaia na?oiai? ?noi???, ia eiai aeoieo, iaea?eueo a?aeiia?aea?
aeiiaai a?aee?eoino?, ?aeiino? ? aii??e/ii? ?aaeueiino?. A?i
iaiaaa?oueny aeinyaoe ?noi?e/ii? ?aeiino? ca aeiiiiiaith aecia/aiiy
ni?eueiiai aeey ethaenoaa inueiaiai ia??iaeo. ?aaeueiee inueiaee /an –
oea ao?eaiiy ?aeaaeueii? a?n?, iaaeiei yei? ?ooa?oueny ia’?aeiaia
ethaenoai, ooo ?ice?eaa?oueny oa, ui ? ni?eueiei oa ?noioiei ey an?o,
aca?iica’ycie ethaenoaa ciaoiaeeoue na?e ae?ac o aaciaaei?e
eiioi?eaoe??. Cai?iiiiiaaia noaia aeicaiey? eeoa aecia/eoeny c
?aei?noth iiia?aaeiuei? ?noi???, aea ?aei?noue ?noi??? o ?icoi?ii?
iiaiiai ?aeiaiiy ethaenoaa i?eiee ia aoaea caaa?oaia. Oaea ?aei?noue, ia
aeoieo ssnia?na, ? iaaeath ?noi???, ?? ii/aoeii ? e?ioeai.

Oaeei /eiii, i?aoey yaey? niaith a?oioiaia aeine?aeaeaiiy iaea?eueo
aaaeeeaeo i?iaeai, ye? iinoathoue i?e caa?iaii? aei ?noi???. Ea?e
ssnia?n ia eeoa oa?aeoa?eco? i?ia?aei? ia??iaee ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa c
oi/ee ci?o ?aae?caoe?? aeooiaii? oa nioe?aeueii? nooiino? ethaeeie, ia
eeoa ?iaeoue ni?iao iaeaaaeeea?o? oaiaeaioe?? no/aniino?, ye? aeathoue
iai ciiao iaaiith i??ith ni?iaiicoaaoe iaeaooi?, aea e ?ice?eaa? o?
aeeaeii? nooi?ni? ?ene ?noi???, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?noi?e/iee i?ioean
a oe?eiio. Ca eiai aeanieie neiaaie, aaoi? ?ic?iaea oe?e?nio
eiioeaioe?th o?einio?? ?noi???, ni?yiiaaio ia oa, uia aena?oeeoe no/anio
neooaoe?th o iaaeao na?oiai? ?noi???.

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