NO?AOOAAIIss IAEIA A?IIAAessI

NO?AOOAAIIss AOAe?AAEUe

Aoae?ae? ca nooiaiai aaaeeeaino? iaeaaeaoue aei i??i?eoaoiiai iaeia.
Cieuaiiy aai iioeiaeaeaiiy aoaeue-yei? aoae?ae? caaaea? ?? aeanieeia?
aaee/acieo caeoe?a. Oiio eiaeiee aeaniee aoae?ae? /e aoae?aaeue iiaeiai
cacaeaeaa?aeue iiaeaaoe i?i oa, uia o ?ac? aeieeiaiiy oaeeo caeoe?a iaoe
ciiao iie?eoe ?o. O i?eaiae? ooo iiaeooue noaoe a?ioia? caiuaaeaeaiiy oa
no?aooaaiiy. I?e oeueiio no?aooaaiiy ia? ia?aaaae, ye? iieyaathoue o
oiio, ui ciaia’ycaiiy ca aeiaiai?ii no?aooaaiiy ii/eiathoue aeeiioaaoeny
c iiiaioo eiai oeeaaeaiiy. A aeey iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy cia/ieo caiuaaeaeaiue
iio??aiee o?eaaeee /an. Oiio no?aooaaiiy aoae?aaeue a?ae?a?a? aaeeeo
?ieue o caoeno? aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a a?iiaaeyi, ye? iiaeooue caciaoe
iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a oiane?aeie iaia?aaeaa/oaaieo iiae?e.

O no/anieo oiiaao o?ce/i? iniae, aeanieee aoae?aaeue aai iiaiie?oi?
/eaie ?oi?o ?iaeei, a oaeiae iniae, ye? oei/aniai ei?enoothoueny aai
?icii?yaeaeathoueny aoae?aeyie ia caeiiieo i?aenoaaao, iiaeooue aooe
no?aooaaeueieeaie e oeeaaeaoe aeiaiai?e aeia?ia?eueiiai no?aooaaiiy.

Aei ia?ae?eo ia’?eo?a, ui i?aeeyaathoue no?aoiaiio caoenoo, iaeaaeaoue
??ci? nii?oaee: aeeoeia?, naaeia? e aea/i? aoaeeiee, ainiiaea?nuee?
(na?a?, iia?aae, aa?aae?) oa ciai?oi? (o?iooa?e, oa?ane, iai?iae?,
ai?ioa) aoae?ae?, caaaeai? ia iino?eiiio i?noe?, o oiio /ene? e o?, i?ae
canoaao yeeo no?aooaaeueiee iaea?aeaa e?aaeeo a onoaiia? aaieo.
Iaeii/anii c aoae?aeyie i?eeia?oueny ia no?aooaaiiy aeiaeaoeiaa
iaeaaeiaiiy aei ieo (aacii?ia?ae, aiaeyi?, aacia? e?/eeueieee, a?aoe ia
a?eiao oiui). Aeiaiai?ii iiaeia ia?aaeaa/eoe no?aooaaiiy oeea?eueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? no?aooaaeueieea oa /eai?a eiai ?iaeeie ca oeiaeo,
yea iiaea aooe caiiae?yia i?e ei?enooaaii? (?icii?yaeaeaii?) aoae?aeyie.
I?e oeueiio no?aooaaeueiee ia? i?aai a?eueii aeae?aoe ia’?eo
no?aooaaiiy, a naia, a?i iiaea cano?aooaaoe:

on? aoae?ae?, ye? ?icoaoiaai? ia eiai caiaeuei?e ae?eyioe?;

ie?ai? aoae?ae? (eeoa aeeoeiaee aoaeeiie aai aa?aae);

ie?ai? eiino?oeoeai? aeaiaioe (o?eueee a?eia, aeaa?? aai aeao);

aoae?ae?, caaaeaiiy yeeo ia cae?i/aii.

Aeiyoeii c ia?ae?eo ia’?eo?a no?aooaaiiy ? aoae?ae?, ui i?aeeyaathoue
cianaiith, aeoaea noa??, aaa??ei?, a oaeiae o?, ui i?noyoueny a cii?,
ye?e caa?iaeothoue iaaaee, cnoae, iiaai? aai ?io? noeo?ei? eeoa, yeui
i?i oea iaieioaii a onoaiiaeaiiio ii?yaeeo. O ?aieao no?aooaaiiy
aoae?aaeue ia i?aeeyaa? no?aooaaiith ?ooiia iaeii, ui oai ia?aaoaa?.

A?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue no?aoiaeea c? no?aooaaiiy aoae?aaeue iieyaa? o
a?aeoeiaeoaaii? caeoe?a, ui aeieeee aiane?aeie noeo?eiiai eeoa (ao?y,
o?aaai, aeeneaaea, ceeaa, a?aae, iaaae, cnoa, naeue, aeo?ae
i?ae??oioiaeo aiae, in?aeaiiy ??oioo, iia?iue, caieao?on); iauaniiai
aeiaaeeo (iiaeaaea, aeaoo, aaa??y iiaethaaeueii? nenoaie,
aiaeii?ia?aeii? aai eaiae?caoe?eii? ia?aae?, i?iieeiaiiy aiaee ?c
non?aeiueiai i?ei?uaiiy, aeeeae aaco); iai?aaii??ieo ae?e o?ao?o in?a.

No?aooaaiiy aoae?aaeue ia ia?aaeaa/a? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoe?a, ui
aeieeee /a?ac aieooy, ciin, o?aaeaiiy aeiiiaei a?eaeii; eiino?oeoeai?
iaaeie?ee aoae?aaeue, ye? aoee a?aeii? no?aooaaeueieeia? aei ianoaiiy
no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo; iaaieni? ae?? no?aooaaeueieea; aaaeaiiy a?enueeiaeo
ae?e, aeieeiaiiy a?iiaaenueeeo caai?ooaiue, eiio?neaoe?th iaeia,
aeieia?/i? eaoano?ioe.

Aeiaia?? no?aooaaiiy oeeaaea?oueny ia i?aenoaa? onii? aai ienueiiai?
cayae no?aooaaeueieea oa?i?iii ia 1 ??e aai ia e?eueea i?nyoe?a.

Oeeaaeaoe aeiaia?? no?aooaaiiy ii/eiathoue c oaeeo ae?e:

ooi/iththoue oaeo iaeaaeiino? aoae?aaeue inia?, c yeith oeeaaea?oueny
aeiaia??;

c’yniaothoue, iaieioaii /e i? a aeai?e i?noeaaino? i?i caa?ico iaaaeo,
iiaai? aai ?ioiai noeo?eiiai eeoa. sseui i?i oaeo caa?ico iaieioaii,
aeiaia?? ia oeeaaea?oueny (e??i iiiiaeaiiy ia ua iaeei no?ie);

iaia’yceiai iaeyaeathoue aoae?ae? o i?enooiino? no?aooaaeueieea;

c’yniaothoue, /e caaacia/ai? aoae?ae? (iniaeeai naaeia?, aea/i?
aoaeeiee) iaeaaeiei aeiaeyaeii (iino?eia i?iaeeaaiiy, nenoaiaoe/ia
a?aea?aeoaaiiy, iaaeyae ?iaee/?a, non?ae?a ? o. ?i.);

aeathoue no?aoiao ioe?ieo aoae?aaeue, uia i?aaeeueii aecia/eoe no?aoiao
noio.

I?e oeeaaeaii? aeiaiai?o no?aooaaiiy aoae?aaeue ianaiia?aae aaaeeeai
aecia/eoe ?o aa?o?noue, oiaoi aeaoe a?aeiia?aeio no?aoiao ioe?ieo. Ia
i?aenoaa? no?aoiai? ioe?iee aecia/athoue ?ici?? no?aoiai? noie,
no?aoiaiai ieaoaaeo, a a ?ac? cieuaiiy aai iioeiaeaeaiiy aoae?aaeue —
?ici?? caeoeo oa no?aoiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy. E??i oiai, i?aaeeuei?noue
aecia/aiiy no?aoiai? ioe?iee aieeaa? ia caaaeuei? o?iainia? ?acoeueoaoe
no?aoiaeea.

Aeey aecia/aiiy aa?oino? aoae?aaeue no?aoiaeee ei?enoothoueny iineoaaie
aenia?o?a aai a?aeiia?aeieie ioe?iieie aeieoiaioaie ath?i oaoi?/ii?
?iaaioa?ecaoe??, i?aai?a eiioiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa, ui ?o ia? eiaeiee
aeaniee aoae?aaeue. Ioe?ii? aeieoiaioe neeaaeathoue ia i?aenoaa?
?iaaioa?ecaoe?eieo aeieoiaio?a (iiaa?oiaeo ieai?a, iieno aoae?aaeue ? o.
?i.). I?e ioe?ithaaii? aoae?aaeue aeei?enoiaothoueny ioe?ii? ii?ie, i?ae
yeeie ?icoi?thoue aa?o?noue o a?ioiaeo iaeeieoeyo iaaii? iaeeieoe?
aei??thaaiiy (iao?a eaaae?aoiiai, iao?a eoa?/iiai, iao?a iiaiiii?
aeiaaeeie) iiai? aoae?ae?. A ioe?iieo aeieoiaioao cacia/a?oueny ia?a?nia
oa ae?enia aa?o?noue aoae?aaeue. Ia?a?nia aa?o?noue — oea aa?o?noue
iiai? aoae?ae?, ia/eneaia ca?aeii c ?nioth/eie a aeaiiio ?aa?ii?
ioe?iieie ii?iaie. Ae?enia aa?o?noue ia/eneth?oueny a?aei?iaiiyi a?ae
ia?a?nii? aa?oino? noie ciino.

O no?aoia?e i?aeoeoe? canoiniaothoue e?eueea aa??aio?a aecia/aiiy
no?aoiai? ioe?iee aoae?aaeue.

Aa??aio ? — no?aoiaith ioe?ieith iiaea aooe ae?enia aa?o?noue aoae?aaeue
ia aeaiue oeeaaeaiiy aai iiiiaeaiiy aeiaiai?o.

Aa??aio JI — ia?aaeaa/a? aecia/aiiy no?aoiai? ioe?iee ?c canoinoaaiiyi
a?aeiia?aeieo ?eieiaeo oe?i, ui neeaeeny ia aoae?ae? a aeaiiio ?aa?ii?
(oiaoi ia?a?nii? aa?oino?). O oaeiio ?ac? ?aae?co?oueny i?eioeei iiaiioe
no?aoiaiai caoenoo. Eiee a ia ?nioaaei no?aooaaiiy ia aac? ?eieiai?
aa?oino?, no?aooaaeueieeia? aeiaaeiny a naiino?eii ianoe aeo?aoe, ye?
ia?aaeuothoue ae?enio aa?o?noue i?e a?aeaoaeia? aoae?aaeue.

A Oe?a?i? no?aoiaa noia aecia/a?oueny ie?aii aeey eiaeii? aoae?ae?, ui
i?eeia?oueny ia no?aooaaiiy, ca aeiiiaeai?noth no?aooaaeueieea c?
no?aoiaeeii, aea ia iiaea ia?aaeuoaaoe ae?enii? aa?oino? aoae?ae?
(no?aoiaa ioe?iea). Eiee aeiaia?? oeeaaeaii ia no?aoiao noio, ui iaioa
ca no?aoiao ioe?ieo, no?aoiaee iana i?iii?oe?eio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue,
oiaoi no?aoiaa a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aeiea/o?oueny o ?ici???, iaioiio a?ae
caiiae?yieo caeoe?a, i?iii?oe?eii aei a?aeiioaiiy No?aoiaa noia /
Ae?enia aa?o?noue aoae?ae?

sseui no?aooaaeueiee ia? iai?? ca?eueoeoe no?aoiao noio a ia??iae ae??
aeiaiai?o no?aooaaiiy (/a?ac ?ioeyoe?eia c?inoaiiy aa?oino? aoae?ae?, o
ca’yceo c i?eaoaeiaith aei inoaiiuei? aai a ?ac? no?aooaaiiy ia ia iiaio
aa?o?noue), oeeaaea?oueny aeiaeaoeiaee aeiaia?? ia oa?i?i, ui caeeoeany
aei e?ioey /eiiino? iniiaiiai aeiaiai?o. I?e oeueiio caaaeueia no?aoiaa
noia ca iniiaiei oa aeiaeaoeiaei aeiaiai?aie ia iiaeiia ia?aaeuoaaoe
ae?enii? aa?oino? aoae?aaeue.

No?aoia? ieaoaae? aecia/athoue ca ?ici??ii no?aoiai? noie, oa?i?iii
no?aooaaiiy oa nooiaiai ?eceeo c iaeii/aniei aeei?enoaiiyi a?aie/ieo
?ici???a oa?eoieo noaaie: ia aoae?ae? a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? — a?ae
0,2 aei 0,45% no?aoiai? noie; ia aoae?ae? a i?nuee?e i?noeaaino? — a?ae
0,18 aei 0,4% no?aoiai? noie. sseui no?aoiaee ieao?ae noaiiaeoue cia/io
noio, no?aooaaeueieeia? iiaea aooe iaaeaia i?aai nieaoeoe ?? ye
iaeii?aciai, oae ? /anoeiaie: o aeaa aai o?e no?iee. Nieaoa iiaeeeaa
aio?aeith — i?aaenoaaieeia? no?aoiaeea aai aacaio?aeiaa — /a?ac
aooaaeoa??th i?aei?e?inoaa, aea i?aoeth? no?aooaaeueiee. I?e nieao?
ieaoaaeo aio?aeith no?aooaaeueiee iaeii/anii iaea?aeo? no?aoiaa
na?aeioeoai iaaii? oi?ie. Aeey oiai uia nieaoeoe ieao?ae aacaio?aeiaa,
no?aooaaeueiee iiaea? aei?o/aiiy aei aooaaeoa??? i?aei?e?inoaa, yea ia?
oo?eiaoe ieao?ae ?c eiai ca?ia?oii? ieaoe oa ia?a?aooaaoe ia ?aooiie
no?aoiaeea a onoaiia? aaieo. No?aoiaa na?aeioeoai aeaea?oueny
no?aooaaeueieeia? a iaoiiaeaiee aeiaiai?ii oa?i?i i?ney iaaeoiaeaeaiiy
ieaoaaeo ia ?aooiie no?aoiai? eiiiai??. O ?ac? iaia?a?aooaaiiy
no?aoiaiai ieaoaaeo ca no?aooaaeueieea, yeee iiaeaa aei?o/aiiy, aeiaia??
no?aooaaiiy aaaaea?oueny oaeei, ui ia a?aeaoany.

Aeiaia?? no?aooaaiiy iaae?a? /eiiino? c ianooiiiai aeiy, yeui a?i
niea/o?oueny aio?aeith, aai c aeiy iaaeoiaeaeaiiy eiai ia ?aooiie
no?aoiaeea — o ?ac? aacaio?aeiaiai ?ic?aooieo. Oaeee ii?yaeie anooio
aeiaiai??a o neeo noino?oueny aeiaiai??a, ye? oeeaaeathoueny aia?oa /e
iiiiaeththoueny ia iiaee no?ie i?ney cae?i/aiiy ae?? iiia?aaeiueiai
aeiaiai?o, a oaeiae aeiaeaoeiaeo aeiaiai??a, oeeaaeaieo o ca’yceo c?
ca?eueoaiiyi no?aoiai? noie. Ae?y aeiaiai?o no?aooaaiiy i?eieiy?oueny
/a?ac oaeee no?ie, ia yeee eiai aoei oeeaaeaii, o aeaiue, ui ia?aaeo?
/eneo, c yeiai aeiaia?? iaa?aa /eiiino?. Aiaeii/an i?eieiy?oueny ae?y
aeiaeaoeiaiai aeiaiai?o. sseui no?aooaaeueiee ia nieaoea /a?aiai?
/anoeie ieaoaaeo, ae?y aeiaiai?o i?eieiy?oueny ianooiiiai aeiy i?ney
/enea, cacia/aiiai o no?aoiaiio na?aeioeoa? aeey nieaoe ieaoaaeo. Ae?y
oaeiai aeiaiai?o iiaea aooe iiiiaeaia, yeui i?ioyaii iaaiiai
(ia?aaeaa/aiiai eiai oiiaaie) oa?i?io, c aeiy, aecia/aiiai aeey nieaoe
/a?aiaiai ieaoaaeo, no?aooaaeueiee caa?ioany ?c cayaith i?i iiiiaeaiiy
aeiaiai?o, no?aoiaee iaeyioa aoae?ae? ? ca /an i?ino?i/ee nieaoe
no?aoiaiai ieaoaaeo ia noaeiny no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo.

Ia?aaeaa/a?oueny oaeiae oiiaa aeino?ieiaiai ?ic??aaiiy aeiaiai?o
no?aooaaiiy c ?i?oe?aoeae no?aooaaeueieea (iai?eeeaae, ao?aoa i?aaa
aeaniino? o ?ac? i?iaeaaeo aai aea?oaaiiy aoae?aaeue ? o. ?i.). Oiae?,
yeui ca ia??iae no?aooaaiiy ia aoei no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo,
no?aooaaeueieeia? iiaa?oa?oueny /anoea niea/aiiai ieaoaaeo.
Ia/eneth?oueny aiia i?iii?oe?eii aei iaaeei?enoaiiai no?ieo, ca yeee
no?aoiaee ia? ianoe a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, c? ciaioaiiyi ia iaaio noio,
aeei?enoaio aeey aaaeaiiy ni?aae no?aoiai? eiiiai??. O ?ac? ci?ie
no?aooaaeueieeii aoae?aaeue (cai?noue i?iaeaieo aoae?aaeue i?eaeaai?
?io?) oeeaaea?oueny iiaee aeiaia??. No?aoiaee ieao?ae ia/eneththoue
oiae? ia i?aenoaa? oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaeo aoae?aaeue c o?aooaaiiyi
iaaeei?enoaii? /anoee ieaoaaeo ca iiia?aaei?i aeiaiai?ii.

Uia caioioeoe no?aooaaeueiee?a aei iiaeaeueoi? ni?ai?aoe?, no?aoiaeee
ia?aaeaa/athoue ??ci? i?eueae. Iino?eiei no?aooaaeueieeai, ye? i?ioyaii
e?eueeio ?ie?a aacia?a?aii oeeaaeaee aeiaiai?e no?aooaaiiy aoae?aaeue,
iiaea aooe iaaeaiee i?eueaiaee no?ie aeey oeeaaeaiiy iiaiai aeiaiai?o.
Oaeee aeiaia??, iacaeaaeii a?ae aeiy nieaoe no?aoiaeo ieaoaae?a,
aaaaea?oueny iiiiaeaiei ? iaae?a? /eiiino? c aeiy cae?i/aiiy ae??
iiia?aaeiueiai aeiaiai?o. sseui a oaeee i?eueaiaee no?ie noaiaoueny
no?aoiaee aeiaaeie, a aeiaia?? no?aooaaiiy ia iiiiaeaii, no?aoiaa
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aeiea/o?oueny ca?aeii c oiiaaie, onoaiiaeaieie
iiia?aaei?i aeiaiai?ii. I?e oeueiio iino?eiei no?aooaaeueieeai, ye? ca
/an no?aooaaiiy ia io?eioaaee no?aoiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy, o ?ac?
iiiiaeaiiy aeiaiai??a iiaeooue iaaeaaaoeny cieaeee a iaaiiio ?ici???
a?ae no?aoiaiai ieaoaaeo.

Oeeaaeaiee aeiaia?? no?aooaaiiy na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui a ?ac? ianoaiiy
no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo no?aooaaeueieeia? aoaea a?aeoeiaeiaaii caeoie.
Iia?aoeaia ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy i?i aeieaoo no?aoiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
noai?th? ni?eyoeea? ia?aaeoiiae aeey oaeaeeiai a?aeiiaeaiiy iaeiiaiai
noaio no?aooaaeueieea, ui eiai a?i iaa aei no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo. A oiio,
yeui no?aoiaee aeiaaeie ianoaia, no?aooaaeueiee ia? aaeeoe caoiae?a
uiaei ciaioaiiy caeoe?a, caaaeaieo no?aoiaei aeiaaeeii; iia?aeiieoe
i?ioyaii aeiae eiiiaoaioi? i?aaie (caeaaeii a?ae iiae?? — iiaeaaeiee
iaaeyae, i?aaie i?e?oe?? ? o. ?i.); ienueiiai iia?aeiieoe i?i
aoaeue-yeee aeiaaeie no?aoiaeea; aeaoe ciiao i?aaenoaaieeia? no?aoiaeea
iaeyiooe iioeiaeaeai? aoae?ae?, ia aeeiioth/e ?ia?o c ?o a?aeiiaeaiiy. O
?ac? iaaeeiiaiiy no?aooaaeueieeii cacia/aieo aeiia no?aoiaee ia? i?aai
ia aeiea/oaaoe no?aoiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy.

Iaia’ycee no?aoiaeea:

i?eeiyoe oa ca?a?no?oaaoe cayao no?aooaaeueieea i?i cieuaiiy aai
iioeiaeaeaiiy aoae?aaeue;

cai?ineoe iniao, a?aeiia?aeaeueio ca caiiae?yio oeiaeo (yeui oaea ?),
aeey neeaaeaiiy no?aoiaiai aeoa;

neeanoe no?aoiaee aeo;

i?e iio?aa? i?i ?ioi?iaoe?th, iia’ycaio c? no?aoiaei aeiaaeeii, c?iaeoe
caieo aei eiiiaoaioieo i?aai?a aai naiino?eii c’ynoaaoe i?e/eie oa
ianoaaeie no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo;

ia/eneeoe noio caeoeo oa no?aoiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy;

aeieaoeoe no?aooaaeueieeia? no?aoiaa a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy;

ia noio aeiea/aiiai no?aoiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy i?aae’yaeoe aeii?e inia?
(yeui oaea ?) ?aa?aniee iicia.

?ici?? caiiae?yiiai no?aooaaeueieeia? caeoeo oa no?aoiaiai
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aecia/a?oueny ia i?aenoaa? no?aoiaiai aeoa.

Ia eiaeiee no?aoiaee aeiaaeie, aiane?aeie yeiai aoei cieuaii aai
iioeiaeaeaii aoae?ae?, no?aoiaee neeaaea? aeo iaaii? oi?ie, a yeiio
aa?ooue o/anoue no?aooaaeueiee aai iiaiie?oi?e /eai eiai ?iaeeie, aeai?
na?aee?a oa aeiia iniaa (yeui oaea ?).

O no?aoiaiio aeo?, ui neeaaea?oueny ia i?noe? no?aoiai? iiae??, o
?acoeueoao? ?aoaeueiiai iaeyaeo iioeiaeaeaii? (cieuaii?) aoae?ae?
iiaea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea aeiaaeeo, yeee noaany; cacia/athoueny ?ici??e
aoae?ae? oa aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee ?? eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a;
iaaiaeyoueny a?aeiiino? i?i ?ici?? cieuaieo aai iioeiaeaeaieo
aoae?aaeue; ia?ae?/othoueny ?iaioe c ?yooaaiiy aoae?aaeue;
eiinoaoo?oueny iayai?noue caeeoe?a cieuaii? aai iioeiaeaeaii? aoae?ae?,
i?eaeaoieo aeey iiaeaeueoiai aeei?enoaiiy.

Cacia/ai? aeai? ? aacith aeey ?ic?aooieo noie caeoeo. Aecia/eoe noio
caeoeo oa no?aoiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy — iaeneeaaei?oa oa
iaea?aeiia?aeaeuei?oa ?iaioa no?aoiaeea, ui ia?aaeaa/a? oae? iine?aeiai?
aoaie:

onoaiiaeaiiy oaeoo caaeaae? aai iioeiaeaeaiiy aoae?aaeue;

aecia/aiiy i?e/eie caaaeaiiai caeoeo oa ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy i?i iayai?noue
no?aoiaiai aai iano?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo;

aecia/aiiy nooiaiy cieuaiiy aai iioeiaeaeaiiy aoae?aaeue.

I?e ioe?ithaaii? nooiaiy cieuaiiy aai iioeiaeaeaiiy aoae?ae?
?ic??ciythoue oioaeueiee oa /anoeiaee caeoie.

Oioaeueiee caeoie, aai cieuaiiy aoae?ae?, eiinoaoo?oueny oiae?, eiee
aa?o?noue a?aeiiaethaaieo ?ia?o c o?aooaaiiyi aa?oino? caeeoe?a oa
aeo?ao, iiianaieo no?aooaaeueieeii c iaoith caiia?aaiiy caeoeai aai ?o
ciaioaiiy, ia?aaeuo? ae?enio aa?o?noue aoae?ae?. Caeeoee a?ae cieuaieo
aoae?aaeue oa ie?aieo eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a aa?ooueny aei oaaae eeoa
a oiio ?ac?, eiee aiie i?eaeaoi? aeey iiaeaeueoiai aeei?enoaiiy ca
i?ecia/aiiyi, ? a?aoiaothoueny ca e?euee?noth aoae?aaeueiiai iaoa??aeo
(oeaaee, eaiaith, ieeiiaoa??ae?a, oeoa?o ? o. ?i.), ui eiai iiaeia
iaea?aeaoe i?e ?icae?aii? c?oeiiaaii? aoae?ae? aai ie?aii? ?? /anoeie.

?ici?? oioaeueiiai caeoeo aecia/a?oueny:

i?e iiaiiio cieuaii? aoae?ae? aac caeeoe?a aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a,
i?eaeaoieo aeey aoae?aieoeoaa, — ye noia aa?oino? (ioe?iee) aoae?ae? c
o?aooaaiiyi noie ciino oa aeo?ao c ?yooaaiiy aoae?ae?;

yeui aoae?aeth cieuaii, aea ? caeeoee aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a,
i?eaeaoieo aeey aoae?aieoeoaa, — ye ??cieoey i?ae noiith aa?oino?
aoae?ae? (c o?aooaaiiyi noie ciino) oa aeo?ao c ?? ?yooaaiiy ? noiith
aa?oino? caeeoe?a iaoa??ae?a (?c noiith ciino) c o?aooaaiiyi ?o
ciaoe?iaiiy aiane?aeie no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo. Noia caeoeo iaae?a? oaeiai
aeaeyaeo:

3=A-?+?-A,

aea A-ia?a?nia aa?o?noue aoae?ae?;

? — noia ciino;

? — aeo?aoe c ?yooaaiiy aoae?ae?;

A — aa?o?noue caeeoe?a, i?eaeaoieo aeey aoae?aieoeoaa.

I?e /anoeiaiio caeoeo (iioeiaeaeaii? aoae?aaeue) iniiaith aeey
aecia/aiiy ao?ao ? aa?o?noue a?aeiiaeaiiy (?aiiioo) aoae?ae? c
o?aooaaiiyi noie ciino oa aa?oino? caeeoe?a a?ae iioeiaeaeaieo
(cieuaieo) eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a. Aa?o?noth a?aeiiaeaiiy aoae?ae? ?
aeo?aoe, iaiao?aei? aeey oiai, uia i?eaanoe aoae?aeth aei noaio, eiee
aiia aoaea i?eaeaoiith aeey aenieoaoaoe??», aiaeia?/ii oiio, a yeiio
aoae?aey ia?aaoaaea aei ianoaiiy no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo.

Aa?o?noue a?aeiiaeaiiy iioeiaeaeaii? aoae?ae? aecia/a?oueny iaeiei ?c
niinia?a: aeei?enoaiiyi iaeeie/ieo ?icoe?iie ia cai?io /e a?aeiiaeaiiy
eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a, ia i?aenoaa? yeeo ?ic?iaeaii ioe?ii? ii?ie a
aeai?e i?noeaaino?, aai aeei?enoaiiyi a?aenioeiaiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
(ieoiii? aaae) aa?oino? ie?aieo eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a aei caaaeueii?
aa?oino? aoae?aaeue. Iaoiae ?ic?aooieo aa?oino? a?aeiiaeaiiy aoae?ae?
no?aoiaee iae?a? naiino?eii c iaeyaeo ia oa?aeoa?, nooi?iue oa ianya
iioeiaeaeaiue, neeaaei?noue eiino?oeoe?e aeaii? aoae?ae? oa iayai?noue
a?aeiia?aeii? oaoi?/ii? oa ioe?iii? aeieoiaioaoe??.

?ici?? noie caeoeo ? aeo?aeiei iieacieeii aeey ?ic?aooieo noie
no?aoiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy. Ine?eueee aoae?ae? no?aoothoueny ca
nenoaiith i?iii?oe?eii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ianya no?aoiaiai
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeaaeeoue ia eeoa a?ae ia?aoiaaii? noie caeoeo, a e
a?ae ?ici??o noie, ia yeo cano?aoiaaii aoae?aeth. Oiio noia no?aoiaiai
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aecia/a?oueny caeaaei?noth

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aea 3 — noia caeoeo;

N — no?aoiaa noia ca aeiaiai?ii;

I — no?aoiaa ioe?iea.

sseui aoae?ae? cano?aoiaai? ia iiaio aa?o?noue, oi a?aeaoaa?oueny iiaia
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoeo.

I?eeeaae. I?e ae?eni?e aa?oino? 32000 a?i. aeeoeiaee aoaeeiie aoa
cano?aoiaaiee ia noio 20000 a?i. *a?ac ianoaiiy no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo
aa?o?noue a?aeiiaethaaeueieo ?ia?o c o?aooaaiiyi ciino aeinyaea 1400e
a?i. O oaeiio ?ac? no?aooaaeueiee io?eia? no?aoiaa a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy a
noi? 8750 (14000 — 20000 : 32000). sseae no?aoiaa noia noaiiaeea 32000
a?i., oi no?aooaaeueiee io?eiaa ae 14000 a?i.

No?aoiaa a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aeiea/o?oueny no?aooaaeueieeia? i?ioyaii
iaoiiaeaiiai aeiaiai?ii oa?i?io (aeaio, o?ueio aei?a) i?ney iaea?aeaiiy
an?o iaiao?aeieo aeieoiaio?a.

Iiaeaeueoa ae?y aeiaiai?o no?aooaaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae ?ici??o
aeiea/aiiai no?aoiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy. O ?ac? aeieaoe no?aoiaiai
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy a iiai?e no?aoia?e noi? ae?y aeiaiai?o i?eieiy?oueny, a
yeui aeiea/aii eeoa /anoeio no?aoiai? noie, — ae?y aeiaiai?o
i?iaeiaaeo?oueny aei e?ioey cacia/aiiai a iueiio no?ieo, o ?ici???
??cieoe? i?ae no?aoiaith noiith oa noiith aeiea/aiiai no?aoiaiai
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy.

Iia?aoe?? c? no?aooaaiiy aoae?aaeue oa?aeoa?i? aeey an?o ?icaeiaieo
e?a?i. Oae, no?aooaaiiy ioiieth? iaeaea an? aeaee ia?ooiiiai iaeia. Aea
eiaeia e?a?ia ia? nai? iniaeeaino? uiaei i?aai?caoe?? i?iaaaeaiiy
oeueiai aeaeo no?aooaaiiy.

O Oaaeoea??? aoae?ae? caaacia/othoueny no?aoiaei caoenoii o ?ac?
ianoaiiy iiaeaae?, aeeneaaee, aeaooo, noeo?eiiai eeoa, iaae?iiy
e?oaeueieo aia?ao?a; iioeiaeaeaiiy aiane?aeie eaiaiiy; caoiieaiiy (on?
aeaee aaa??e). I?e no?aooaaii? aeeoeiaeo aoae?aaeue a?ae noeo?eieo eeo
canoiniao?oueny o?aioeca: o ?ici??? 10 % a?ae no?aoiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
aai a aaniethoi?e noi?, i?i?iaeueiee ?ici?? 200 o?aie?a, a iaeneiaeueiee

2000 o?aie?a. No?aoia? i?ai?? niea/othoueny ca oa?eoieie noaaeaie,
?ici?? yeeo caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaiy ?eceeo, iai?eeeaae a?aoiaothoueny
oei aoae?aaeue, ?o eiino?oeoeai? iniaeeaino? (ieine? aeaoe, ia?a??a
/a?ac i?aeeiao aai noaeth, iayai?noue ?ioeo ia?a??aaeueieo onoaiiaie).

No?aoiaee caoeno aoae?aaeue o Aaeee?e A?eoai?? ia? nai? i?aai?caoe?ei?
iniaeeaino?, iia’ycai? c aaaaoia?eiaith o?aaeeoe??th no?aoiai? ni?aae.
No?aooaaiiy iioe?th?oueny ia nai? aoae?ae?, ia ciai?oi? /anoeie
aeaniino? (aei??aeee, i?ae’?ci? aei?iae, oa?ane; eiioi?eaoe?? i?ae
caieath, ia ye?e ?icoaoiaai? aoae?ae?), a oaeiae ia an? eiioi?eaoe??, ui
aaaeooue aei eiaeii? aoae?ae?, ia ?? oaoi?/ia iaeaaeiaiiy.

Noaiaea?oiei iie?nii no?aooaaiiy aoae?aaeue iaoiiaeth?oueny eiie?aoii
eiaeiee aeae ?eceeo: aiaiiue, aeeneaaea, aeaoo, caeoee, ui ? iane?aeeii
aee?aaeaiiy iaeia. I?ioe eiaeiiai ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?eceeo
cacia/athoueny aeiyoee c a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? no?aoiaeea.

Iniiaith aeey aecia/aiiy no?aoiai? noie ? ae?enia aa?o?noue aoae?aaeue.
A?eueo?noue aeiaiai??a no?aooaaiiy oeeaaeathoueny c o?aioecith a ?ici???
50 ooio?a noa?e?ia?a i?e no?aooaaii? an?o ?ecee?a.

NO?AOOAAIIss OAA?EI

No?aooaaiiy oaa?ei — aeae iaeiiaiai no?aooaaiiy, yeee caaacia/o?
no?aoiaee caoeno aeanieeai ia aeiaaeie caaeaae? oaa?ei. Iei? oeae aeae
no?aooaaiiy ia iaaoa iaeaaeiiai ?icaeoeo ia a?o/eciyiiio no?aoiaiio
?eieo. Aea aaaeaiiy aeaniee?a oaa?ei ca?o/eoeny caoenoii ia aeiaaeie
iiaeeeaeo ao?ao a?aee?eaa? oe?ie? iiaeeeaino? aeey no?aoiaeo eiiiai?e o
?icaeoeo oaeiai aeaeo no?aooaaiiy.

Aeiaiai?e aeia?ia?eueiiai no?aooaaiiy oaa?ei oeeaaeathoueny c o?ce/ieie
iniaaie, ye? ? aeanieeaie oaa?ei.

Oa?aeoa? no?aooaaiiy oyaia ca niaith ?yae iaia’yceiaeo aeiia aei
oeeaaeaiiy aeiaiai??a.

1. Aecia/a?oueny ia’?eo no?aooaaiiy (oea iiaeooue aooe caei?ia? oaa?eie
c iaaieie a?eiaeie iaiaaeaiiyie):

aaeeea ?iaaoa ooaeiaa, eii? — a?eii a?ae 1 i?nyoey;

naei? — a?ae a i?nyoe?a;

ioee oa iaaaeeea ?iaaoa ooaeiaa: a?aoe?, eice, a?nethee — a?ae iaeiiai
?ieo;

ooo?ia? ca???: ioo???, e?ie? — c 45-aeaiiiai a?eo;

niaaee-a?ae 6 i?nyoe?a aei 10- 12 ?ie?a;

aaeaeiein?i’?, eioe, aeaei?aoeai? ioaoe: iaioae, oii’yee;

aecioe/i? oaa?eie: iaaie, ci?? ? o. ?i.

Ia no?aooaaiiy ia i?eeiathoueny oaa?eie oai??, aeniaaeai?, a oaeiae o?,
ye? ia?aaoaathoue o i?noeaaino?, aea iaieioaiee ea?aioei (e??i oaa?ei
oeo aeae?a, ye? aei aeaiiai caoai?thaaiiy iani?eeiyoeea?).

2. Oae? oaa?eie, ye niaaee, i?eeiathoueny ia no?aooaaiiy, yeui aiie
ca?a?no?iaai? o ni?eoe? niaaeiaiae?a-aiaoi??a. Oe?a?inueeiio oiaa?enoa?
ieneeaoe?a oa ?eaaeie aai a Oiaa?enoa? ni?eyiiy iai?ii? Oe?a?ie; a
aaeaeiein?i’? — i?ney ia?aa??ee aaoa?eia?ii-nai?oa?iiai ianii?oa ian?ee
(oa?aeoa?enoeee ian?ee, aaoa?eia?ii-nai?oa?iiai noaio).

3. Aeanieee oaa?ei ciaia’ycai? noai?i aeiaea?aeoaaoe onoaiiaeaieo o
aeai?e i?noeaaino? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei aeiaeyaeo ca oaa?eiaie, ?o
aiae?ae? e oo?eiaiiy, a oaeiae aaeeoe an?o caoiae?a, aae iiia?aaeeoe ?o
caoai?thaaiiy oa caaeaaeue. Oiio aei oeeaaeaiiy aeiaiai?o no?aoiaee
iiaeiai ia?aa??eoe, /e iiaeia i?eeiyoe ia no?aooaaiiy oaa?ei o aeaiiio
ainiiaea?noa?. sseui a ainiiaea?noa? ia aeiaea?aeothoue cacia/aieo oiia,
aeiaia?? no?aooaaiiy ia oeeaaea?oueny.

?eceee, iia’ycai? c? no?aooaaiiyi oaa?ei, iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia /ioe?e
a?oie.

1. No?aooaaiiy ia aeiaaeie caaeaae? aai iaaeaaeo oaa?ei a?ae oai?ia /e
noeo?eiiai eeoa (iia?iue, iaaae, aeeneaaea, ao?y, o?aaai, a?aae,
caieao?on); iauanieo aeiaaee?a (ae?? aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio, caia?caiiy,
caaeooaiiy, io?o?iiy o?aaaie, oeono ci?e aai io?oeieo eiiao, ooiieaiiy,
iiiaaeaiiy i?ae can?a o?ainii?oo, iiiaaeaiiy a ouaeeio oa ?io?
o?aaiaoe/i? iioeiaeaeaiiy).

2. No?aooaaiiy ia aeiaaeie aeiooaiiai caaith oaa?eie, yeui aiia
o?aaiiaaia /a?ac iauaniee aeiaaeie ? oea oiaiiaeeeaeth? iiaeaeueoa ??
aeei?enoaiiy. Aai yeui aeiooaiee caa?e (ca ?icii?yaeaeaiiyi niaoe?ae?noa
aaoa?eia?ii? neoaeae) iia’ycaiee ?c aaeeooyi caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia
ai?ioueao c ai?ciio??th aai iaaee?eiaiith oai?iaith, ui oaeiae aeeeth/a?
iiaeaeueoo iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy oaa?eie.

3. No?aooaaiiy ia aeiaaeie e?eoaaiiy oaa?eie a?ae oai?iae /e o?aaie,
iaea?aeaii? aiane?aeie iauaniiai aeiaaeeo. O aeaiiio ?ac? eaeaoueny i?i
iai?yi? caeoee o aeaeyae? aeiaeaoeiaeo aeo?ao ia oo?eiaiiy oaa?eie.

4. No?aooaaiiy ia aeiaaeie aee?aaeaiiy aai iaaienieo iai?aaii??ieo ae?e
o?ao?o in?a.

O no?aoia?e i?aeoeoe? ?niothoue ??ci? aa??aioe ianyao
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, aea aiie ??ciyoueny i?ae niaith e?euee?noth
?ecee?a, uiaei yeeo oeeaaea?oueny aeiaia??.

Aeiaia?? no?aooaaiiy oeeaaea?oueny ia i?aenoaa? onii? aai ienueiiai?
cayae no?aooaaeueieea, ye i?aaeei no?ieii ia 1 ??e, c iaia’yceiaei
iaeyaeii oaa?ei, ca oiiae no?aooaaiiy an?o iayaieo o ainiiaea?noa?
oaa?ei aeaiiai aeaeo. Eiee a ainiiaea?noa? ? oaa?eie ??cieo aeae?a
(iai?eeeaae, aaeeea ?iaaoa ooaeiaa, naei?, e?ie?), ca aaaeaiiyi
no?aooaaeueieea iiaeooue aooe cano?aoiaai? oaa?eie an?o aeae?a aai eeoa
iaeei aeae (neaae?ii, aaeeea ?iaaoa ooaeiaa).

No?aoiaee caoeno oaa?ei iaiaaeo?oueny oa?eoi???th (aeeoeia? oa
aeiiii?aei? i?ei?uaiiy, i?enaaeeaia ae?eyiea no?aooaaeueieea),
iaoiiaeaiith ye i?noea no?aooaaiiy, oiaoi ca aae?anith, cacia/aiith o
no?aoiaiio na?aeioeoa?.

sseui oaa?eie ia ia?aaoaathoue ca i?noeai no?aooaaiiy, no?aoiaee caoeno
i?eieiy?oueny.

No?aoiaa noia anoaiiaeth?oueny ia eiaeio oaa?eio ie?aii, i?e/iio ??
iaeneiaeueiee ?ici?? ia iiaea ia?aaeuoaaoe ?eieiai? aa?oino? oaa?eie
(no?aoiaa ioe?iea). Aeey an?o oaa?ei iaeiiai aeaeo oa a?eiai? a?oie
no?aoiaa noia ia? aooe iaeiaeiaith.

No?aooaaiiy oaa?ei ? aeineoue iaaacia/iei ?eceeii, aaeaea eiaeiee aeae
oaa?ei iio?aao? ??ciiai ianyao no?aoiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. Oe? oa
?io? oaeoi?e coiiaeththoue aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo oa?eoieo noaaie, ?ici??
yeeo iiaea noaiiaeoe ? — 10 % a?ae no?aoiai? noie. Aiaeii/an,
no?aooaaiiy aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae cae?enith?oueny ca a?aie/ieie
?ici??aie no?aoiaeo oa?eo?a — a?ae 2 aei 5 % a?ae no?aoiai? noie; c?
no?aooaaiiy eiiae — a?aeiia?aeii a?ae 3 aei 7 %.

No?aoiaee ieao?ae no?aooaaeueiee iiaea nieaoeoe aio?aeith,
i?aaenoaaieeia? no?aoiaeea iaeii/anii c oeeaaeaiiyi aeiaiai?o aai
aacaio?aeiaa /a?ac aooaaeoa??th i?aei?e?inoaa, aea a?i i?aoeth?, ia
?aooiie no?aoiaeea a onoaiia? aaieo. Eiee no?aoiaee ieao?ae noaiiaeoue
cia/io noio, no?aooaaeueieeia? iaaea?oueny i?aai aianoe no?aoiaee
ieao?ae a aeaa aai o?e no?iee.

Iniaeea?noue no?aooaaiiy oaa?ei, yea a?ae??ciy? oeae aeae no?aooaaiiy
a?ae ?ioeo, iia’ycaia c? no?ieaie a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? no?aoiaeea. Oae,
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue no?aoiaeea c aeieaoe no?aoiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy i?e
caaeaae? oaa?ei a?ae oai?iae ianoa? /a?ac e?eueea (iai?eeeaae, 10) aei?a
c iiiaioo ii/aoeo ae?? aeiaiai?o, oiaoi i?ney nieaoe no?aoiaiai
ieaoaaeo. Oaea a?aeno?i/aiiy aea? ciiao oieeiooe aeieao ca oaa?ei, ye?
i?e oeeaaeaii? aeiaiai?o aoee oai?? ? ia iiaeii? aoee i?eeiaoeny ia
no?aooaaiiy. I?ioa oea iaiaaeaiiy noino?oueny eeoa iiaeo oa aeiaeaoeiaeo
aeiaiai??a. sseui ae?th/ee aeiaia?? iiiiaeaii ia /a?aiaee no?ie,
no?aoiaee aac aoaeue-yei? ia?a?ae iana no?aoiao a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue. Ca
aeiaaeee caaeaae? aai aeiooaiiai caaith oaa?ei aiane?aeie iauanieo
aeiaaee?a, noeo?eiiai eeoa oa ae?? o?ao?o in?a a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
no?aoiaeea ii/eia?oueny oa i?eieiy?oueny ca?aeii c oiiaaie no?aooaaiiy
aoae?aaeue.

Aeey iino?eieo no?aooaaeueiee?a no?aoia? eiiiai?? i?iiiiothoue ??ci?
i?eueae: cieaeee noi no?aoiaeo ieaoaae?a, aeiaeaoeiaee i?ny/iee oa?i?i
aeey iiiiaeaiiy aeiaiai?o.

I?e ianoaii? no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo ia no?aooaaeueieea iieeaaeathoueny
iaai? iaia’ycee (?o iaaeeiiaiiy iiaea noaoe i?aenoaaith aeey a?aeiiae o
aeieao? no?aoiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy), a naia:

aaeeoe caoiae?a uiaei ciaioaiiy caeoe?a, caaaeaieo aiane?aeie ianoaiiy
no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo;

o aeiaiaee oa?i?i cayaeoe i?i caaeaaeue oaa?eie niaoe?ae?noo
aaoa?eia?ii? neoaeae;

o ?ac? aee?aaeaiiy oaa?eie, cieuaiiy aai o?aaioaaiiy aiane?aeie
iaaienieo iai?aaii??ieo ae?e o?aouei? iniae c?iaeoe a aeiaiaee oa?i?i
cayao aei i?aai?a i?e?oe??;

ienueiiai a aeiaiaee oa?i?i cayaeoe i?i aoaeue-yeee no?aoiaee aeiaaeie
no?aoiaeeia?.

No?aoiaee i?ney io?eiaiiy cayae no?aooaaeueieea i?i no?aoiaee aeiaaeie
iaia’yceiai neeaaea? no?aoiaee aeo o aecia/aiee oiiaaie no?aooaaiiy
oa?i?i (1 — 3 aei?) o i?enooiino? no?aooaaeueieea aai iiaiie?oiueiai
/eaia eiai n?i’? oa aeaio na?aee?a. A aeo? cacia/athoueny aeae oa a?e
caaeaei? oaa?eie, ?? ianoue oa i?eeiaoe, eiee caaeioea (caoai??ea)
oaa?eia, eiee ? eiio i?i oea cayaeaii, i?e/eie oa ianoaaeie, ui i?ecaaee
aei ?? caaeaae? (aeiooaiiai caaith, aee?aaeaiiy, caoai?thaaiiy), a
oaeiae aecia/a?oueny noia caeoeo e no?aoiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy.

Aeey onoaiiaeaiiy oaeoo oa i?e/eie caaeaae? oaa?eie no?aoiaee
ei?enoo?oueny aeieoiaioaie eiiiaoaioieo i?aai?a, a naia: aeniiaeii
niaoe?ae?no?a aaoa?eia?ii? neoaeae, aeia?aeeith i?aai?a
a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/ii? neoaeae, iiaeaaeiiai iaaeyaeo, i?e?oe??, noaeo.

Noia caeoeo aecia/a?oueny:

o ?ac? caaeaae? aai aee?aaeaiiy oaa?eie — o ?ici??? ?eieiai? aa?oino?
oaa?eie (no?aoiaa ioe?iea), ui neeaeany a aeaiiio ?aa?ii?;

i?e aeiooaiiio caai?:

a) uiaei aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae, eiiae, naeiae, iaaoeue, e?c — o
?ici??? ??cieoe? i?ae ?eieiaith aa?o?noth oaa?eie oa aa?o?noth
i?eaeaoiiai aei aaeeaaiiy a ?aeo i’yna;

a) iooieo ca???a — o ?ici??? ??cieoe? i?ae ?eieiaith aa?o?noth oa
aa?o?noth oeo?ee ? i?eaeaoiiai aei aaeeaaiiy a ?aeo i’yna. A iaio
aeiaaeeao aa?o?noue cacia/aiiai i’yna anoaiiaeth?oueny ia i?aenoaa?
aeieoiaioa i?aai?caoe??, eio??e i?iaeaii i’yni. sseui niaoe?ae?noii
aaoa?eia?ii? neoaeae i’yni aeciaia iiai?noth iai?eaeaoiei aei ?ae?, noia
caeoeo aecia/a?oueny oae, ye ca caaeaeo oaa?eio;

o ?ac? e?eoaaiiy oaa?eie a?ae oai?iae aai o?aaie — o ?ici??? aa?oino?
e?eoaaiiy, ui cacia/aia a aeia?aeoe? niaoe?ae?noa aaoa?eia?ii? neoaeae.

E??i oiai, aeey ?ic?aooieo ?ici??o caeoeo iaiao?aeii ciaoe, ne?eueee
oaa?ei (iniaeeai naeiae, iaaoeue, e?c, iaioa) aoei o no?aooaaeueieea i?e
oeeaaeaii? aeiaiai?o oa a ?ac? ianoaiiy no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo. sseui ia
aeaiue caaeaae? oaa?eie o ainiiaea?noa? no?aooaaeueieea /enei oaa?ei
aeaiiai aeaeo oa a?eo ia?aaeuoaaei e?euee?noue cano?aoiaaieo ? ia iiaeia
anoaiiaeoe, yea naia c ieo aoea cano?aoiaaiith, ?ici?? caeoeo
aecia/a?oueny ae?eaiiyi caaaeueii? aa?oino? an?o cano?aoiaaieo oaa?ei
aeaiiai aeaeo oa a?eo ia oaeoe/io e?euee?noue oaa?ei ia aeaiue
no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo.

No?aoiaa caaacia/aiiy i?e no?aooaaii? oaa?ei aaco?oueny ia nenoai?
ia?oiai ?eceeo. Oea icia/a?, ui a ?ac? cieuaiiy (aeiooaiiai caaith,
aee?aaeaiiy aai e?eoaaiiy) oaa?eie no?aoiaa a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
aeiea/o?oueny no?aooaaeueieeia? a ?ici??? noie caeoeo, aea ia a?eueoiio
ca no?aoiao noio.

I?eeeaae 1. A?iiaaeyiei oeeaa aeiaia?? no?aooaaiiy ei?iae ia no?aoiao
noio 400 a?i., aa?o?noue ei?iae noaiiaeea 600 a?i. Noia caeoeo
aiane?aeie caaeaae? aoea aecia/aia a 600 a?i. No?aoiaa a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
i?aeeyaa? aeieao? a ?ici??? 400 a?i.

I?eeeaae 2. A?iiaaeyiei iaa aeiaia?? ia no?aooaaiiy /ioe?ueio ioo??e, ia
caaaeueio no?aoiao noio 80 a?i., aa?o?noue iaei??? ioo??? noaiiaeea 20
a?i. I?ney oeeaaeaiiy aeiaiai?o no?aooaaeueiee eoiea ua iaeio ioo??th.
*a?ac oai?iao iaeia ioo??y caaeioea. ?ici?? caeoeo oa no?aoiaiai
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy noaiiaeoeia 16 a?i. (80 : 5).

Aeo i?i caaeaaeue (aeiooaiee caa?e) oa aeia?aeea eiiiaoaioieo i?aai?a,
ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? no?aoiaee aeiaaeie, ? aieiaieie aeieoiaioaie, ia
i?aenoaa? yeeo no?aooaaeueiee io?eio? no?aoiaa a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy. I?ioa
no?aoiaee iiaea a?aeiiaeoe o a?aeoeiaeoaaii? caeoeo, yeui oaa?eio caaeoi
c ainiiaea?nueeeo i??eoaaiue (aeey ?aae?caoe?? i’yna, /a?ac noa??noue ?
o. ?i.); no?aooaaeueiee ii?ooea oa?i?i, a yeee a?i ia? iiaeaoe cayao i?i
no?aoiaee aeiaaeie; oaeo no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo ia i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
eiiiaoaioieie i?aaiaie; caaeaaeue oaa?eie ? iane?aeeii a?enueeiaeo ae?e,
?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy, iaaienieo ae?e no?aooaaeueieea aai
iiaiie?oiueiai /eaia eiai ?iaeeie.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui no?aooaaiiy oaa?ei ia? aeaaith ?noi??th, oeae
aeae no?aooaaiiy ua e aein? eeoa?oueny iacae/iei aeey oe?a?inueeiai
no?aoiaiai ?eieo. I?ioa a ??cieo ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao no?aooaaiiy
oaa?ei ? aeineoue iiioey?iei aeaeii no?aooaaiiy. Iniaeeaiai ?icaeoeo
oeae aeae no?aooaaiiy iaaoa o Aaeee?e A?eoai??. Aa?c aei?iaeo ii??ae
ooaeiae oa aecioe/ieo oaa?ei ? i?aaiaiiy caiia?aoe iaaiei caoai?thaaiiyi
oaa?ei ni?e/eieeeny aei iiyae iiieoo ia no?aoiaee caoeno oaa?ei.

No?aooaaiiyi ioiieaia aaeeea ?iaaoa ooaeiaa, eii?, a?aoe?, naei?, eioe,
niaaee. No?aoiaeee a?aeiia?aeathoue ca caeoee, ui aeieeee aiane?aeie
oai?iae, aee?aaeaiiy oa iauanieo aeiaaee?a. Ca aeiaeaoeiao no?aoiao
i?ai?th aei ianyao a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? no?aoiaeea iiaeooue aooe
aeeth/ai? ?eceee ia?aaacaiiy ii?nueeei aai iia?o?yiei o?ainii?oii oa
aeaye? o??o?a?/i? iia?aoe??. No?aoiaa noia anoaiiaeth?oueny a iaaeao
?eieiai? aa?oino? oaa?ei.

Aeaye? no?aoia? eiiiai?? i?iiiiothoue eiia?iiaai? iie?ne c ?aeeiith
no?aoiaith i?ai??th, nooi?noue yeeo iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia no?aooaaiiy
i?eeiathoueny e?eueea aeae?a oaa?ei. No?aoiaee caoeno iiaea iaaeaaaoeny
o aeaeyae? oe?eiai iaeaoa ??cieo aeae?a no?aoiaiai iie?eooy.

Iei? o Aaeee?e A?eoai?? niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei ca?eueoaiiy
iiieoo ia no?aooaaiiy eio?a oa niaae. O oeueiio ca’yceo no?aoiaeee
i?iiiiothoue aaaaoi aeae?a no?aoiaiai iie?eooy. Na?aae ieo:

ieaoa ca iineoae aaoa?eia??a;

nia?oue a?ae oai?iae;

nia?oue a?ae iauanieo aeiaaee?a;

aee?aaeaiiy;

a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ia?aae o?ao?ie iniaaie

Ia?oee aeae no?aoiaiai iie?eooy ia?aaeaa/a? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aeo?ao ia
iineoae aaoa?eia?a, ui aoee iaaeai? iei i?e iauaniiio aeiaaeeo aai
caoai?thaaii? oaa?eie. Ae?oaee, o?ao?e ? /aoaa?oee aeaee no?aoiaiai
iie?eooy ia?aaeaa/athoue a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoe?a no?aooaaeueieeia? aei
500 ooio?a noa?e?ia?a oiane?aeie nia?o? oaa?eie a?ae oai?iae, iauaniiai
aeiaaeeo aai aee?aaeaiiy. Nooi?noue no?aoiaiai iie?eooy
(a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ia?aae o?ao?ie iniaaie) iieyaa? o a?aeoeiaeoaaii?
o iaaeao 1 000 000 ooio?a noa?e?ia?a caeoe?a, ui ?o no?aooaaeueiee iiaea
caaaeaoe caei?ia’th aai iaeio o?aouei? iniae.

NO?AOOAAIIss AeIIAOIUeIAI IAEIA

Aeey ianaeaiiy aeaaii noaee cae/ieie oae? neeaaei? oa oe?ii? iiaooia?
i?aaeiaoe, ye oaeaa?ci?e, oieiaeeeueieee, oa ?io? i?aaeiaoe
aeiaaino?ieiaiai ei?enooaaiiy. Oiio i?e?iaeiei ? iaiaaaiiy aeaniee?a
aeiiaoiueiai iaeia caoenoeoe naaa a?ae aoaeue-yeeo aeiaaeeiainoae.
Ae??oeoe oe? i?iaeaie iiaeia ca aeiiiiiaith aeia?ia?eueiiai no?aooaaiiy
aeiiaoiueiai iaeia.

No?aooaaeueieeaie aeiiaoiueiai iaeia iiaeooue aooe o?ce/i? iniae —
aeanieee aeiiaoiueiai iaeia.

No?aooaaiiyi ioiieth?oueny ??cia iaeii, ui iaeaaeeoue ia i?aa? i?eaaoii?
aeaniino? no?aooaaeueieeia? ? /eaiai eiai ?iaeeie, ye? ?acii c iei
i?iaeeaathoue ? aaaeooue ni?eueia ainiiaea?noai. Cie?aia, oea oaea
iaeii: iaae?, ?aae?i-, a?aeai- ? oaeaaia?aoo?a, aeaeo?ii?eeaaee,
eeeeiia? ae?iae, iaeya, a?eecia, acoooy, ae?iae c aei?iaioe?iieo
iaoae?a, i?aaeiaoe aeiiaoiueiai ainiiaea?noaa oa aaeeoeo,
ainiiaea?nueeee oa nii?oeaiee ?iaaioa?; eieae, i?aaeiaoe ia?acioai?/iai
ienoaoeoaa oiui. Ia no?aooaaiiy i?eeiathoueny ia eeoa i?aaeiaoe
aeiiaoiuei? ianoaiiaee, iiaooo oa iniaenoiai niiaeeaaiiy, a e
aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee, ei?ie, iaeeai, n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?
eoeueoo?e, aeaiaioe icaeiaeaiiy oa iaeaaeiaiiy aeeoeiaeo ?
ainiiaea?nueeeo i?ei?uaiue o aoaeeieao aea?aeaaiiai, a?iiaaenueeiai
oiiaeo, aeeoeiai-aoae?aaeueieo eiiia?aoea?a, i?eaaoeciaaieo eaa?oe?, a
oaeiae oeea?eueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue no?aooaaeueieea ca oeiaeo, yeo
a?i iiaea caaaeaoe o?ao?e inia?.

Ia no?aooaaiiy iiaea i?eeiaoeny ana aeiiaoi? iaeii, yea ? a
ainiiaea?noa?, ie?ai? a?oie i?aaeiao?a (iai?eeeaae, iaae?, iaeya,
?aae?i-, oa-ea-, a?aeaiaia?aoo?a) aai ie?ai? i?aaeiaoe (neaae?ii, eeoa
ia?niiaeueiee eiii’thoa? aai oaeaa?ci?). Iniaeeai oe?iia iaeii (ae?iae c
aei?iaioe?iieo iaoae?a, eiooiaia, iai?aeiooiaia eai?iiy, ea?oeie,
eieaeoe??, oi?eaeuei? oa aioeeaa?i? ?a/? oiui) iiaea i?eeiaoeny ia
no?aooaaiiy ca niaoe?aeueiei aeiaiai?ii.

*eneaii?noue ia’?eo?a no?aooaaiiy coiiaeth? iayai?noue aaeeei?
e?eueeino? iiae?e, o ?ac? yeeo aeiea/o?oueny a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy. No?aoiaee
a?aeiia?aea? ca caeoee, ui aeieeee aiane?aeie cacia/aieo aeae? i?e/ei.

Noeo?eia eeoi: iia?iue, ao?y, o?aaai, ceeaa, a?aae, iaaae, cnoa, aeo?ae
i?ae??oioiaeo aiae, in?aeaiiy ??oioo, iaaiaeie, iacae/i? aeey aeaii?
i?noeaaino? o?eaae? aeiu? oa aaeee? ni?aiiaaee, naeue, aeeneaaea,
caieao?on.

Iauaniee aeiaaeie: iiaeaaea, aeaoo, aaa??y iiaethaaeueii? nenoaie,
aiaeii?ia?aeii? aai eaiae?caoe?eii? ia?aae?, i?iieeiaiiy aiaee ?c
non?aeiueiai i?ei?uaiiy, aeeeae aaco, ?aioiaa c?oeioaaiiy iniiaieo
eiino?oeoe?e aeeoeiaeo aai i?aeniaieo i?ei?uaiue. o Aee?aaeaiiy aai
iai?aaii??i? ae?? o?ao?o in?a. I?e oeueiio caeaaeii a?ae eiie?aoieo
iio?aa o no?aoiaiio caoeno? no?aooaaeueiee iiaea cano?aooaaoe aeiiaoi?
iaeii iae?aco a?ae on?o aai e?eueeio cacia/aieo ?ecee?a; ?eceee iiaeooue
oaeiae aooe ca?oiiaai? ca aa??aioaie, iai?eeeaae: 1-e aa??aio —
ia?aaeaa/a? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue no?aoiaeea ca a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoeo,
ui noaany aiane?aeie aoaeue-yeiai aeiaaeeo, oiaoi a?ae noeo?eiiai eeoa,
iauaniiai aeiaaeeo, aee?aaeaiiy; 2-e aa??aio — eeoa a ?ac? noeo?eiiai
eeoa aai iauaniiai aeiaaeeo; 3-e aa??aio-o?eueee a ?ac? aee?aaeaiiy ? o.
?i.

Na?aae oaei? e?eueeino? ia’?eo?a no?aooaaiiy oa no?aoiaeo aeiaaee?a
ia?aaeaa/athoueny iaai? iaiaaeaiiy uiaei i?eeiyooy aeiiaoiueiai iaeia ia
no?aooaaiiy oa ianyao no?aoiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. Oae, no?aooaaiiy ia
iioe?th?oueny ia ??ci? aeieoiaioe, oe?ii? iaia?e, a?ioia? ciaee,
?oeiiene, oioici?iee, e?iiaoi? ?ineeie, caiani? /anoeie, aeaoae?,
i?eeaaeaey aei o?ainii?oieo cania?a oa ?ioa iaeii, no?aooaaiiy yeiai
i?iaaaeeoueny ca ?ioeie i?aaeeaie. E??i oiai, ia aaaaeathoueny
cano?aoiaaieie i?aaeiaoe, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny c eiia?oe?eiith /e
i?ioan?eiith iaoith, /e ia iaeaaeaoue no?aooaaeueieeia? aai /eaiai eiai
n?i’? ia i?aaao iniaenoi? aeaniino? (iai?eeeaae, ?a/?, ui acyo?
iai?ieao, o oei/aniaa ei?enooaaiiy aai ia caa??aaiiy a?ae ?ioeo in?a).
E??i oiai, ia i?eeia?oueny ia no?aooaaiiy aeiiaoi? iaeii, ui ia?aaoaa? a
aaa??eieo aai aeoaea noa?eo aoae?aeyo /e a cii?, ye?e caa?iaeothoue
iiaai?, cnoae, iaaaee oa ?io? noeo?ei? eeoa, c iiiaioo iaieioaiiy o
anoaiiaeaiiio ii?yaeeo i?i oaeo caa?ico. O oae?e cii? aeiiaoi? iaeii
i?eeia?oueny ia no?aooaaiiy eeoa a ?ac?, eiee no?aooaaeueiee iiiiaeth?
aeiaia?? no?aooaaiiy ia iiaee oa?i?i aei cae?i/aiiy oa?i?io ae??
iiia?aaeiueiai aeiaiai?o.

Aei ianyao no?aoiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ia aeeth/athoueny caeoee, ye?
aeieeee aiane?aeie aaaeaiiy a?enueeiaeo ae?e, aaaaeaiiy a?enueeiaiai
noaio, ciino, oaoi?/iiai a?aeo, oaoi?/ieo iieiiie, ia?aaeuaiiy no?ieo
aenieoaoaoe?? aeiiaoiueiai iaeia, iaaienieo ae?e no?aooaaeueieea aai
/eaia eiai ?iaeeie.

Ae?y aeiaiai?o no?aooaaiiy o i?inoi?? iaiaaeaia i?noeai no?aooaaiiy.
Ioaea, ioiieaia no?aoiaei caoenoii aeiiaoi? iaeii i?aeeyaa? no?aooaaiith
eeoa ca cacia/aiith a aeiaiai?? no?aooaaiiy aae?anith, oiaoi ca i?noeai
i?iaeeaaiiy no?aooaaeueieea aai ?icoaooaaiiyi naaeiaiai (aea/iiai)
aoaeeiea (?aeaoueny i?i an? aeeoeia? oa i?aeniai? i?ei?uaiiy aai
a?aee?eo? ae?eyiee naaeeae). sseui iaeii ia?ai?uo?oueny ca ?ioith
aae?anith, oi ae?y aeiaiai?o no?aooaaiiy i?eieiy?oueny. I?ioa a iaaieo
aeiaaeeao, iaoiiaeaieo aeiaiai?ii, iiaeeeaa a?eueia ia?ai?uaiiy iaeia c
i?noey no?aooaaiiy. Iai?eeeaae, iaeii iiaea aooe cano?aoiaaiei ia
aoeeoe?, ia ?iaio? no?aooaaeueieea aai i?ae /an eiai o?ainii?ooaaiiy
(cae?cie/iei, aaoiiia?eueiei oa ?ioeie aeaeaie o?ainii?oo) o ca’yceo c?
ci?iith no?aooaaeueieeii iino?eiiai i?noey i?iaeeaaiiy a iaaeao
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, e??i aeiaaee?a, eiee caeiiiaeaanoaii aai aeiaiai?ii
ia?aaacaiiy anoaiiaeaia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue o?ainii?oii? onoaiiae ca
oe?e?ni?noue iaeia, ui ia?aaiceoueny.

No?aoiaa noia eiaeiiai cano?aoiaaiiai i?aaeiaoa aeiiaoiueiai iaeia ia?
a?aeiia?aeaoe no?aoia?e ioe?ioe?. No?aoiaith ioe?ieith iiaea aooe
iiaiaeaeaia noi?iiaie no?aooaaiiy, ae?enia aai ia?a?nia aa?o?noue iaeia
c o?aooaaiiyi aeo?ao, iia’ycaieo c eiai ?yooaaiiyi aai i?eaaaeaiiyi o
ii?yaeie i?ae /an no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo. Ca aaaeaiiyi no?aooaaeueieea
aeiiaoi? iaeii iiaea aooe cano?aoiaaii ia iiaio ae?enio (ia?a?nio)
aa?o?noue aai ia iaaio /anoeo a?ae oe??? aa?oino?. O?eueee eieaeoe??,
ea?oeie, oi?eaeuei? oa aioeeaa?i? ?a/? i?eeiathoueny ia no?aooaaiiy a
?ici??? ?o iiaii? aa?oino? ca?aeii c aenia?oiith ioe?ieith a?aeiia?aeieo
eiiiaoaioieo i?aai?a.

sseui ia no?aooaaiiy i?eeiathoueny ie?ai? a?oie iaeia aai ie?ai?
i?aaeiaoe, oi no?aoiao noio anoaiiaeththoue, aeoiaey/e c aa?oino?
eiaeii? a?oie iaeia aai i?aaeiaoa ie?aii.

Aeiaia?? no?aooaaiiy oeeaaea?oueny ia i?aenoaa? onii? aai ienueiiai?
cayae no?aooaaeueieea, ye i?aaeei, c iiaeeeaei iaeyaeii iaeia, ui eiai
cae?enith? i?aaenoaaiee no?aoiaeea o i?enooiino? no?aooaaeueieea, aae
aiaaieoeny, ui cayaeaia no?aoiaa noia a?aeiia?aea? iayaiino? oa aa?oino?
iaeia, yea i?eeia?oueny ia no?aooaaiiy. No?ie no?aooaaiiy noaiiaeoue
caeaa?eueoiai 1 ??e, aea iiaeooue aooe onoaiiaeai? ?io? no?iee
no?aooaaiiy ca?aeii c eiie?aoieie caieoaie no?aooaaeueieea. O oaeiio
?ac? iio??aiee iaeyae iaeia, yeee cae?enith? i?aaenoaaiee no?aoiaeea o
i?enooiino? no?aooaaeueieea, aae ia?aeiiaoeny, ui cayaeaia no?aoiaa noia
a?aeiia?aea? iayaiino? oa aa?oino? aeiiaoiueiai iaeia, yea i?eeia?oueny
ia no?aooaaiiy. ?ici?? oa?eoii? noaaee anoaiiaeth?oueny o a?aenioeao
a?ae no?aoiai? noie ca ??e ? caeaaeeoue a?ae ianyao a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
no?aoiaeea, aeaeo aeiiaoiueiai iaeia, oeio aoae?ae?, a ye?e i?noeoueny
iaeii, oiia aeiaea?aeaiiy aaciaee aeeoea oa ?ioeo oaeoi??a.

Ii?yaeie nieaoe no?aoiaeo ieaoaae?a ? no?iee ae?? aeiaiai?o
caeaa?eueoiai a?aeiia?aeathoue oiiaai, ye? ia?aaeaa/ai? a ?ac?
no?aooaaiiy aoae?aaeue.

O i?aeoeoe? no?aooaaiiy ia?aaeaa/a?oueny iaaeaiiy no?aooaaeueieeai
??cieo i?euea, ye? iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia oae? a?oie: i?eueae ca
aaccaeoeiaa no?aooaaiiy oa i?eueae ??ciei a?oiai no?aooaaeueiee?a.

I?eueae ca aaccaeoeiaa no?aooaaiiy iaaeathoueny iniaai, ye? i?ioyaii
aeaio-o?ueio ?ie?a no?aooaaee aeiiaoi? iaeii, ia iaea?aeoth/e no?aoiaiai
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy. Oaeei no?aooaaeueieeai iaaea?oueny cieaeea a?ae 10 aei
40 % no?aoiaiai ieaoaaeo.

I?eueae, ui iaaeathoueny ??ciei a?oiai no?aooaaeueiee?a, oaeiae
noinothoueny cieaeie c? no?aoiaeo ieaoaae?a oa i?eueaiaiai oa?i?io aeey
iiiiaeaiiy aeiaiai?o. Cieaeee c? no?aoiaeo ieaoaae?a iiaeooue
iaaeaaaoeny ie?aiei no?aooaaeueieeai:

ca eiiieaeni?noue no?aooaaiiy. Oiiaith io?eiaiiy oaei? i?eueae ia? aooe
iayai?noue aeiaiai??a no?aooaaiiy ca ?ioeie aeaeaie no?aooaaiiy a iaei?e
no?aoia?e eiiiai??. Iai?eeeaae, ie??i aeiaiai?o no?aooaaiiy aeiiaoiueiai
iaeia no?aooaaeueiee ia? aeiaia?? no?aooaaiiy o?ainii?oiiai caniao oa
aeiaia?? no?aooaaiiy a?ae iauanieo aeiaaee?a;

ca aaciaeo aeeoea, oiaoi ca aeei?enoaiiy no?aooaaeueieeaie iaae?eieo
caie?a ? nenoai neaiae?caoe?? aeeoea.

Iino?eiei no?aooaaeueieeai iiaea iaaeaaaoeny i?eueaiaee (iai?eeeaae,
i?ny/iee) oa?i?i aeey oeeaaeaiiy iiaiai aeiaiai?o. Iiaee aeiaia??,
oeeaaeaiee a iaoiiaeaiee i?eueaiaee oa?i?i, iacaeaaeii a?ae aeiy
aianaiiy no?aoiaeo ieaoaae?a, aaaaea?oueny iiiiaeaiei ? iaaoaa? /eiiino?
c iiiaioo cae?i/aiiy ae?? iiia?aaeiueiai aeiaiai?o. sseui i?ioyaii
i?eueaiaiai oa?i?io noaiaoueny no?aoiaee aeiaaeie, a iiaee aeiaia?? ia
aoaea iiiiaeaii, no?aoiaa a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aeiea/o?oueny, ca?aeii /
oiiaaie no?aooaaiiy, onoaiiaeaieie inoaii?i aeiaiai?ii.

Aca?iia?aeiineie noi??i o ?ac? ianoaiiy no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo
??oioothoueny ia aeeiiaii? no?aooaaeueieeii oa no?aoiaeeii iaaieo
ciaia’ycaiue. No?aooaaeueiee, aae ?aae?coaaoe nai? i?aai ia
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy, ia? ae?yoe oae:

aaeeoe caoiae?a uiaei caiia?aaiiy oa ciaioaiiy caeoe?a, caaaeaieo
aiane?aeie ianoaiiy no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo;

o ?ac? aee?aaeaiiy iaeia, cieuaiiy aai iioeiaeaeaiiy eiai aiane?aeie
iaaienieo iai?aaii??ieo ae?e o?aouei? iniae — cayaeoe a i?aaie i?e?oe??,
o ?ac? iiaeaae? — a i?aaie iiaeaaeiiai iaaeyaeo, o ?ac? aaa??? /e
aeaooo-o a?aeiia?aei? i?aaie aaa??eii? neoaeae ? o. ?i.;

iaaaeii (iai?eeeaae, i?ioyaii o?ueio aei?a) iia?aeiieoe no?aoiaeeia? i?i
aoaeue-yeee no?aoiaee aeiaaeie;

iiaeaoe ia?ae?e cieuaiiai, iioeiaeaeaiiai aai aee?aaeaiiai aeiiaoiueiai
iaeia no?aoiaeeia?;

caa?aaoe iioeiaeaeai? i?aaeiaoe iaeia aai iayai? caeeoee a?ae ieo oa
iieacaoe ?o i?aaenoaaieeia? no?aoiaeea i?e neeaaeaii? no?aoiaiai aeoa.

Iaia’ycee no?aoiaeea i?e ianoaii? no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo caeaa?eueoiai
a?aeiia?aeathoue iieiaeaiiyi, ui ae?thoue c? no?aooaaiiy aoae?aaeue.

O ?ic?aooieo ?ici??o caeoeo ? ?icaeyioo? aeae? iniaeeaino?.

?ici?? caeoeo aecia/a?oueny ie?aii ca eiaeiei i?aaeiaoii aeiiaoiueiai
iaeia.

Caeoie aecia/a?oueny ie?aii ca eiaeiei ?eceeii cieuaiiy aai
iioeiaeaeaiiy aeiiaoiueiai iaeia (iii?e iaeii/ani?noue ?o no?aooaaiiy),
ine?eueee ao?aoe a iaio aeiaaeeao aoaeooue ??ci?. Aaeaea cieuaiei iaeii
aaaaea?oueny oiae?. eiee aiii noaei oe?eeii iai?eaeaoiei aeey
aeei?enoaiiy, ca ii/aoeiaei i?ecia/aiiyi; iioeiaeaeaiei aiii
aaaaea?oueny oiae?, eiee ye?noue i?aaeiaoa iia??oeeany, aea i?e oeueiio
iiaeeea? eiai a?aeiiaeaiiy c aeiiiiiaith ?aiiioo oa iiaeaeueoa
aenieoaoaoe?y ca i?ecia/aiiyi.

C iaeyaeo ia neacaia caeoie aecia/a?oueny:

o ?ac? cieuaiiy iaeia — o ?ici??? ae?enii? (ia?a?nii?) aa?oino?
cano?aoiaaiiai iaeia c o?aooaaiiyi caeeoe?a (yeui oae? ?).

I?eeeaae. O ?acoeueoao? iiaeaae? cieuaii oaeaa?ci?. Aa?o?noue iiaiai
oaeaa?ci?a — 500 a?i. Ciin ia aeaiue eeoa noaiiaeoue 18 %. Ae?enia
aa?o?noue oaeaa?ci?a c o?aooaaiiyi ciino — 410 a?i. (500 o 82 : 100).
Ine?eueee a?ae oaeaa?ci?a ia aoei caeeoe?a, noia caeoeo noaiiaeoeia 410
a?i.

O ?ac? aee?aaeaiiy — oea ae?enia aai ia?a?nia aa?o?noue iaeia.

O ?ac? iioeiaeaeaiiy iaeia — ao?a/aia aa?o?noue, ui aecia/a?oueny ye
??cieoey i?ae ae?eniith aa?o?noth oa aa?o?noth c o?aooaaiiyi
ciaoe?iaiiy, oiaoi ao?aoe yeino? oa oe?iiino? iaeia /a?ac no?aoiaee
aeiaaeie.

I?eeeaae. Iioeiaeaeaii eeeeiiaa iie?eooy aa?o?noth 350 a?i., ciin ia
aeaiue iioeiaeaeaiiy — 5 %, ae?enia aa?o?noue — 332 a?i. 50 eii. (350 o
o 95 : 100), ciaoe?iaiiy eeeeiiaiai iie?eooy aiane?aeie no?aoiaiai
aeiaaeeo noaiiaeei 10 % eiai ae?enii? aa?oino?. Noia caeoeo neeaaea 32
a?i. 25 eii. (332,5 o 10: 100).

Ca oaeeie i?aaeiaoaie aeiiaoiueiai iaeia, ye oieiaeeeueieee,
eiii’thoa?e, oaeaa?ci?e, iaai?oioiie oa ?ioa iiaooiaa oaoi?ea, noiith
caeoeo ? aa?o?noue ?aiiioo oeeo i?aaeiao?a. Aa?o?noue ?aiiioo
ia/eneth?oueny ca ?icoe?ieaie, ui ae?yee ia aeaiue no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo ?
anoaiiaeai? aeey a?aeiia?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e iiaoona?a?no.

I?eeeaae. Iioeiaeaeaii oieiaeeeueiee. Eiai aa?o?noue o iiaiio noai? 700
a?i. Ciin ia aeaiue no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo aei??aith? 15 %. Aa?o?noue
?aiiioo oieiaeeeueieea — 150 a?i. Noia caeoeo noaiiaeoeia- 127 a?i. 50
eii. ( 150-85 : 100).

O ?ac? cieuaiiy aai iioeiaeaeaiiy aeaiaio?a icaeiaeaiiy /e iaeaaeiaiiy
aeeoeiaeo ? ainiiaea?nueeeo i?ei?uaiue — aa?o?noue ?aiiioo
(a?aeiiaeaiiy) eaa?oe?e ca ?icoe?ieaie, ui ae?thoue ia aeaiue no?aoiaiai
aeiaaeeo ? canoiniaothoueny aoae?aaeueieie i?aai?caoe?yie c iaaeaiiy
iineoa ianaeaiith. Aa?o?noue ?aiiioo aeeth/a? a naaa aa?o?noue iiaeo
iaoa??ae?a (oa?ae, oiaea?e, e?iieaoi, a?eiiia neei ? o. ?i.) oa
aa?o?noue ?aiiioieo ?ia?o (iioa?aoaaiiy no?i, i?aeeiae, iaeeathaaiiy
oiaea?aie oiui), iaiao?aeieo aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy aeaiaio?a icaeiaeaiiy oa
iaeaaeiaiiy eaa?oe?e.

No?aooaaiiy aeiiaoiueiai iaeia cae?enith?oueny ca i?eioeeiii ia?oiai
?eceeo. Oea icia/a?, ui no?aoiaa a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aeiea/o?oueny ca
cieuaia (aee?aaeaia aai iioeiaeaeaia) iaeii a ?ici??? noie caeoeo, aea
ia aeui? ca no?aoiao noio.

Iai?eeeaae, yeui aeiiaoi? iaeii aa?o?noth 10 000 a?i. cano?aoiaaii ia
noio 5000 a?i., oi i?e cieuaii? oeueiai iaeia iiaeaaeath no?aooaaeueiee
iaea?aeeoue 5000 a?i.

*ei aeeae/a no?aoiaa noia ca aeiaiai?ii no?aooaaiiy aei ae?enii?
aa?oino? aeiiaoiueiai iaeia, oei a?eueoa aa?aio?e uiaei iiaiiai
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoeo. Oiio aeanieeia? iaeia aeioe?eueii no?aooaaoe
eiai ia a /anoeia?e, a a iiai?e aa?oino?.

No?aoiaee aeiea/o? no?aoiaa a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaii? cayae
no?aooaaeueieea i?i no?aoiaee aeiaaeie, ia?ae?eo cieuaieo, aee?aaeaieo
aai iioeiaeaeaieo i?aaeiao?a aeiiaoiueiai iaeia, aeoo i?i cieuaiiy
(iioeiaeaeaiiy) iaiia, aeia?aeee eiiiaoaioieo i?aai?a, ye:

i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oaeo oa ianoaaeie no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo.

I?ioa a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao i?e aeieao? no?aoiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
a?aoiaothoueny iaai? ianoaaeie.

Ii-ia?oa, i?e aee?aaeaii? (cieuaii?, iioeiaeaeaii?) aeiiaoiueiai iaeia,
ocyoiai i?ae ioi?iio i?aaiaie aioo??oi?o ni?aa c aeiiiiiaith cania?a
neaiae?caoe??, a?ae noie no?aoiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy a?aei?iathoue noio,
ui ?? no?aooaaeueiee io?eiaa a?ae i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa. I?e oeueiio
a?ae noie, niea/aii? i?aaiaie aioo??oi?o ni?aa, a?aeeeaea?oueny
aa?o?noue aee?aaeaieo i?aaeiao?a, ui ia aoee cano?aoiaai?.

Ii-ae?oaa, iaaienia aianaiiy no?aooaaeueieeii aei ia?ae?eo cieuaiiai
(iioeiaeaeaiiai, aee?aaeaiiai) iaeia i?aaeiao?a, ye? oaeoe/ii ia aoee
cieuai? (iioeiaeaeai? aai aee?aaeai?), aea? i?aenoaao no?aoiaeeia?
ciaioeoe ?ici?? no?aoiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aai acaaae? a?aeiiaeoe o
aeieao? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy.

Ii-o?ao?, no?aooaaeueiee ao?a/a? i?aai ia io?eiaiiy a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy,
yeui caeoie iiai?noth a?aeoeiaeiaaii iniaith, a?aeiia?aeaeueiith ca
caiiae?yiee caeoie. sseui caeoie ia a?aeoeiaeiaaiee aeiiith iniaith,
no?aoiaee aeiea/o? no?aooaaeueieeia? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy, a aeii?e inia? ia
noio aeiea/aiiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy iiaea?oueny ?aa?aniee iicia. Iae/ano?oa
oea noino?oueny aeiaaee?a iioeiaeaeaiiy iaeia aiane?aeie iiaeaae?,
i?iieeiaiiy aiaee ?c non?aei?o i?ei?uaiue, a oaeiae aee?aaeaiiy iaeia.

O ?ac?, eiee i?ney aeieaoe no?aoiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy no?aooaaeueieeia?
aoei iiaa?iaii aee?aaeaia aeiiaoi? iaeii, a?i ciaia’ycaiee i?ioyaii
aecia/aiiai oiiaaie no?aooaaiiy oa?i?io i?ney eiai iiaa?iaiiy iiaa?iooe
no?aoiaeeia? io?eiaia ca oea iaeii no?aoiaa a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy, ca aeiyoeii
iia’ycaieo c aee?aaeaiiyi aeo?ao ia ?aiiio oa aii?yaeeoaaiiy iiaa?iaieo
i?aaeiao?a.

O no?aoia?e i?aeoeoe? canoiniaothoueny eiiieaeni? aeaee no?aooaaiiy.
Iaeiioe?ai?oeie aeaeaie eiiieaeniiai no?aooaaiiy ? eiiieaenia
no?aooaaiiy aoae?aaeue oa aeiiaoiueiai iaeia. No?aooaaiiy iaeia ia
iiaea??’? (no?aooaaiiy aoae?aaeue, aeiiaoiueiai iaeia, oaa?ei,
aaaaoi??/ieo ianaaeaeaiue). Nooi?noue eiiieaeniiai no?aooaaiiy iieyaa? a
oiio, ui ca iaeiei aeiaiai?ii aaaaea?oueny cano?aoiaaiei ia iaeei, a
e?eueea aeae?a iaeia. Iniiai? oiiae eiiieaeniiai no?aooaaiiy i?noyoue
oiiae eiie?aoieo aeae?a no?aooaaiiy, ui aoiaeyoue oaeaio eiia?iaoe?th.

I?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae no?aooaaiiy aeiiaoiueiai iaeia ia? aeaaith
?noi??th. Oeae aeae no?aooaaiiy aeiaie? iioe?aiee o NOA, Aaeee?e
A?eoai??, I?ia//ei?, Oaaeoea??? oa ?ioeo ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao. I?ioa aeey
eiaeii? e?a?ie oa?aeoa?i? iaai? iniaeeaino?.

O I?ia//ei? no?aooaaiiy aeiiaoiueiai iaeia iaeaaeeoue aei iiioey?ieo
aeae?a no?aoiaeo iineoa, ui iaaeathoueny a?iiaaeyiai. Ia no?aooaaiiy
i?eeia?oueny ana iaeii, eio?a iaeaaeeoue aeiiaoiueiio ainiiaea?noao
(aeeth/ath/e aio?aeo aei 1000 ia?ie oa oe?ii?-iaia?e). No?aoiaee caoeno
iaaea?oueny a?ae o?aaeeoe?eieo ?ecee?a: iiaeaae?, noeo?eiiai eeoa,
iauanieo aeiaaee?a. Ae?y aeiaiai?o no?aooaaiiy ia iaiaaeo?oueny i?noeai
no?aooaaiiy. Iaeii aaaaea?oueny cano?aoiaaiei, ye i?aaeei, oai, aea aiii
?icoaoiaaia. Neeaaeiaith /anoeiith aeiaiai?o ? no?aooaaiiy oeea?eueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? no?aooaaeueieea.

Iniaeea?noth no?aooaaiiy aeiiaoiueiai iaeia o Aaeee?e A?eoai?? ? oa, ui
a on?o iie?nao a?aeie?aieth?oueny oe?iia iaeii, a naia: ae?iae ?c cieioa
oa n??aea; ea?oeie, oai?e ienoaoeoaa, aioeeaa?i? ?a/?; iano?ii? oa
ia?o/i? aiaeeiieee; oaeaa?ci?e, ?aae?ii?eeia/?, a?aeaiiaai?oioiie oa
caienoth/a iaeaaeiaiiy; oioiaia?aoe. E?i?o a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca oaeeie
i?aaeiaoaie aaoiiaoe/ii iie?eaa?oueny no?aoiaei iie?nii o iaaeao 1/3
a?ae caaaeueii? no?aoiai? noie, i?ioa iiaea aooe anoaiiaeaia o?eniaaia
noia.

No?aooaaiiy cae?enith?oueny c onoaiiaeaiiyi o?aioece a ?ici??? 50 ooio?a
noa?e?ia?a, a oaeiae c iaaeaiiyi cieaeie c? no?aoiaeo i?ai?e, cie?aia ca
aacaaa??ei?noue, aeey iie?nio?eia/?a, ye? ia caa?oaeeny c iiciaii
a?aeoeiaeoaaoe caeoie i?ioyaii aeaio-o?ueio ?ie?a; aeey
no?aooaaeueiee?a, ye? ia eo?youe; aeey no?aooaaeueiee?a, ye aeinyaee
iaaiiai a?eo (iaaea?oueny noa?o?e a?eia?e a?oi? oa iain?iia?ai).

Aeinoaoiuei aaeeeee aeina?ae a i?aai?caoe?? i?iaaaeaiiy no?aooaaiiy
aeiiaoiueiai iaeia ia? Oaaeoea??y. No?aooaaiiyi ioiieai? an? i?aaeiaoe
aeiiaoiueiai iaeia, a oaeiae i?aaeiaoe, yeeie no?aooaaeueiee
ei?enoo?oueny ia i?aaao i?aiaee aai i?ieaoo. A?aeoeiaeoaaiith
i?aeeyaathoue caeoee, caaaeai? iiaeaaeath, e?aae?aeeith, iia?aaoaaiiyi,
caoiieaiiyi, noeo?eiei eeoii. I?e a?aeoeiaeoaaii? caeoe?a, ui aeieeee
aiane?aeie iia?aaoaaiiy iica i?noeai no?aooaaiiy, no?aooaaeueiee io?eio?
no?aoiaa a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy a ?ici??? ia a?eueo ye 10 oen. o?aie?a, c ieo
ia eiiiainaoe?th aio?aee ia?aaeaa/a?oueny ia a?eueo i?ae 3 oen. o?aie?a.
Iaiaei?iiith oiiaith no?aooaaiiy ? o/anoue no?aooaaeueieea o
a?aeoeiaeoaaii? caeoe?a (o?aioeca) o ?ici???, ia iaioiio ca 200 o?aie?a.

Ia iniaeeaeo oiiaao i?aeeyaathoue no?aooaaiith oae? oe?iiino?: ae?iae c
aei?iaioe?iieo iaoae?a oa eiooiaiiai eai?iiy, ooo?i, ioceeaeuei?
?ino?oiaioe, ea?oeie, aioeeaa?i? ?a/?. No?aoiaa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
iioe?th?oueny ia caeoee, ui noaee iane?aeeii e?aae?aeee, ?ica?eiiai
iaiaaeo, i?iiaae?, ?oeioaaiiy, iioeiaeaeaiiy. I?e oeeaaeaii? aeiaiai?o,
ca yeei no?aoiaa noia ie?aii? oe?iiino? ia?aaeuo? 50 oen. o?aie?a aai
caaaeueia no?aoiaa noia ia?aaeuo? 250 oen. o?aie?a, no?aooaaeueiee
iiaea? aieaoo-cayao c aeieeaaeiei iienii i?aaeiao?a aai ?o oioia?ao??.
?ici?? no?aoiai? noie aecia/a?oueny ia i?aenoaa? oi?aiaaeueiiai /aea aai
ienueiiaiai i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaaoeai aa?oino? i?aaeiao?a.

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