Happy New Year

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Happy New Year

 

At midnight on 31st December bells will ring out around the world to
welcome the New Year. Although certain countries and religions calculate
time by other calendars most countries in the world now number their
years according to the Gregorian calendar introduced in the 16th century
by Pope Gregory XIII. This calendar was intended to overcome the
confusion caused by calculating time according to the moon’s phases.

 Bell ringing is one way of celebrating the arrival of a new year which
is common to all countries welcoming it at this time; but it is the
differences in their celebrations and customs which are intriguing.

 In Europe traditions vary considerably, but most of them involve a meal
or special food. Swiss housewives bake special bread, rich in butter,
eggs and raisins. They also cook roast goose. Children go from house to
house greeting the occupants and receiving invitations to come inside.
People in Italy hold all-night parties, where salt pork lentils are
included on the menu. Lentils are supposed to be lucky and bring money —
perhaps because they look like small piles of gold coins. There is a
practical reason for meals featuring in these new year festivities. Most
people stay up all night, or at least until midnight to «see the New
Year in», so sustenance is essential. Also there is common superstition
that if the new year begins well it will continue like that.

 So great efforts are made to provide an atmosphere of goodwill and
plenty. Parties are arranged a drink flow freely. In Spain it is a
custom to eat , grapes at midnight and toast the new year in champagne.
at family gatherings. Groups of friends visit restaurants in Turkey
intending to spend the night in celebrations which include present
giving. So a people in Greece play cards, hoping that a win will bring
them luck for a whole year.

***

At midnight on 31st December bells will ring out around the world to
welcome the New Year. Although certain countries and religions calculate
time by other calendars most countries in the world now number their
years according to the Gregorian calendar introduced in the 16th century
by Pope Gregory XIII. This calendar was intended to overcome the
confusion caused by calculating time according to the moon’s phases.

Bell ringing is one way of celebrating the arrival of a new year which
is common to all countries welcoming it at this time; but it is the
differences in their celebrations and customs which are intriguing.

In Europe traditions vary considerably, but most of them involve a meal
or special food. Swiss housewives bake special bread, rich in butter,
eggs and raisins. They also cook roast goose. Children go from house to
house greeting the occupants and receiving invitations to come inside.
People in Italy hold all-night parties, where salt pork lentils are
included on the menu. Lentils are supposed to be lucky and bring money —
perhaps because they look like small piles of gold coins. There is a
practical reason for meals featuring in these new year festivities. Most
people stay up all night, or at least until midnight to «see the New
Year in», so sustenance is essential. Also there is common superstition
that if the new year begins well it will continue like that.

So great efforts are made to provide an atmosphere of goodwill and
plenty. Parties are arranged a drink flow freely. In Spain it is a
custom to eat , ^ grapes at midnight and toast the new year in
champagne. at family gatherings. Groups of friends visit restaurants in
Turkey intending to spend the night in celebrations which include
present giving. So a people in Greece play cards, hoping that a win will
bring them luck for a whole year.

***

New Year is the time at which a new calendar year begins and the
calendar’s year count is incremented. In many cultures, the event is
celebrated in some manner.[1] The New Year of the Gregorian calendar,
today in worldwide use, falls on 1 January, as was the case with the
Roman calendar. There are numerous calendars that remain in regional use
that calculate the New Year differently.

The order of months in the Roman calendar was January to December since
King Numa Pompilius in about 700 BC, according to Plutarch and
Macrobius. According to Catholic tradition, 1 January is the day of the
circumcision of Jesus (on the eighth day from his birth), when the name
of Jesus was given to him (Luke 2:21).

It was only relatively recently that 1 January again became the first
day of the year in Western culture. Until 1751 in England and Wales (and
all British dominions) the new year started on 25 March – Lady Day, one
of the four quarter days (the change to 1 January took place in 1600 in
Scotland).[2] Since then, 1 January has been the first day of the year.
During the Middle Ages several other days were variously taken as the
beginning of the calendar year (1 March, 25 March, Easter, 1 September,
25 December).[citation needed][where?] In many countries, such as the
Czech Republic, Italy and the UK, 1 January is a national holiday.

For information about the changeover from the Julian calendar to the
Gregorian calendar and the effect on the dating of historical events
etc., see Old Style and New Style dates.

With the expansion of Western culture to many other places in the world
during recent centuries, the Gregorian calendar has been adopted by many
other countries as the official calendar, and the 1 January date of New
Year has become global, even in countries with their own New Year
celebrations on other days (such as China and India). In the culture of
Latin America there are a variety of traditions and superstitions
surrounding these dates[clarification needed] as omens for the coming
year. The most common modern dates of celebration are listed below,
ordered and grouped by their appearance relative to the conventional
Western calendar.

***

New Year New Year is the principal winter holiday, as opposed to
Christmas. It is universally recognized as such by both secular and
religious people. Whereas New Year is mostly an occasion merely for
parties and drinking in the West, most of the traditions associated with
Christmas fall on New Year in Russia. The welcoming of the new year is
considered the most significant occasion of the

winter. The New Year’s tree is identical to a Christmas tree in the
West. It is decorated in the same way, with ornaments, lights and
garland. Stars are usually perched atop the tree rather than angels, and
ornaments of a religious nature as well as nativity scenes are notably
absent. Folklore holds that Ded Moroz («Grandfather Frost») is charged
with the responsibility for delivering presents

on New Year’s Eve. He is a large, bearded and grandfatherly man
resembling Santa Claus, although he has no saintly identity, nor sleigh
nor reindeer. He is sometimes said to be dressed in blue rather than red
— this is a point of contention. Either way, he emerges on New Year’s
Eve with a gargantuan, overflowing sack of gifts and dispenses them to
each family. The actual procedure of doing this is not a significant
component of the mythology;

he doesn’t come down the chimney, but it doesn’t really matter how he
gets into your dwelling. Perhaps through the front door, perhaps through
the window — who knows? Instead of elves to help him, Ded Moroz has his
grand-daughter Snegurochka («Snowy»), with whom he lives somewhere in
the northern forest. Snegurochka is generally portrayed as an attractive
young blonde girl, often dressed in light winter

attire and sometimes a red cap. Presents are also given on New Year.
There is no requirement of waiting until the morning of New Year’s Day
to open them; instead, they are usually presented and opened shortly
after greeting the New Year at midnight.

HAPPY NEW YEAR

 

    At midnight on 31st December bells will ring out around the world to
welcome the New Year. Although certain countries and religions calculate
time by other calendars most countries in the world now number their
years according to the Gregorian calendar introduced in the 16th century
by Pope Gregory XIII. This calendar was intended to overcome the
confusion caused by calculating time according to the moon’s phases.

    Bell ringing is one way of celebrating the arrival of a new year
which is common to all countries welcoming it at this time; but it is
the differences in their celebrations and customs which are intriguing.

    In Europe traditions vary considerably, but most of them involve a
meal or special food. Swiss housewives bake special bread, rich in
butter, eggs and raisins. They also cook roast goose. Children go from
house to house greeting the occupants and receiving invitations to come
inside. People in Italy hold all-night parties, where salt pork lentils
are included on the menu. Lentils are supposed to be lucky and bring
money — perhaps because they look like small piles of gold coins. There
is a practical reason for meals featuring in these new year festivities.
Most people stay up all night, or at least until midnight to «see the
New Year in», so sustenance is essential. Also there is common
superstition that if the new year begins well it will continue like
that.

    So great efforts are made to provide an atmosphere of goodwill and
plenty. Parties are arranged a drink flow freely. In Spain it is a
custom to eat , ^ grapes at midnight and toast the new year in
champagne. at family gatherings. Groups of friends visit restaurants in
Turkey intending to spend the night in celebrations which include
present giving. So a people in Greece play cards, hoping that a win will
bring them luck for a whole year.

 

NEW YEAR’S DAY IN ENGLAND

 

    The celebration of New Year’s day varies according to the district.
In the south of England, the festival of Christmas, lasting 12 days from
December 25th, runs on well into the New Year. The decorations of
coloured streamers and holly, put up round the walls, and of course the
fir-tree, with its candles or lights, are not packed away until January
5th. On the evening of December 31st, people gather in one another’s
homes, in clubs, in pubs, in restaurants, and hotels, in dance halls and
institutes, to «see the New Year in». There is usually a supper of some
kind, and a cabaret, or light entertainment. The bells chime at
midnight. The people join crossed hands, and sing «Auld lang syne», a
song of remembrance.

    On New Year’s day all English schoolchildren make New Year
resolutions. They make up lists of shortcomings which they intend to
correct. The chil’ dren. their mothers and fathers, and their friends
laugh and have a good time when they read them The children promise to
keep them.

    In the north, and in Scotland, particularly, the Year known as
Hogmanay, is very well kept up. The ceremonies are similar, but they
have an added called «first foot». This means opening your door to
anyone who knocks it after midnight, and who will then enter the house,
carrying a piece of coal or wood, or bread. The visitor is entertained
with cakes and ale.

e

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a?It is brought into the banqueting-hall or dining room to the
accompaniment of the bagpipes. Considerable quantities of good Scotch
whiskey are consumed during these celebrations.

 

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