Уельс

Ci?no

1 Iioiaeaeaiiy iacae

2 ?noi??y

2.1 ?aii?e ia??iae

2.2 I?ney ii?iainueeiai caaithaaiiy

2.3 Iiaee /an

2.4 XX a?e

3 Aaia?ao?y

4 Aaei?i?no?aoeaiee ?iciiae?e

5 Iie?oeea

6 Ianaeaiiy

7 Ei?eni? eiiaeeie

8 Ainiiaea?noai ? aeiiii?ea

9 E?oa?aoo?a

10 Iineeaiiy

11 A?ae?ia?ao?y

12 I?ei?oee

Oaeuen (aaee. Cymru aiae. Wales, a noa??e ?in?enuee?e ia?aaea/? Aaiee?n;
ia? ?yae o?aaeeoe?eieo iaca ia ?ioeo iiaao ?a?iie, iai?eeeaae, o?. Pays
de Galles) — iaeia c /ioe?ueio aieiaieo aaei?i?no?aoeaii-iie?oe/ieo
/anoei Aaeeeia?eoai??, o ieioeiio eiiaeiia?ao iacaeaaeieo eaeueonueeeo
ei?ie?anoa. Oaeuen ?icoaoiaaiee ia i?aaeaiiiio caoiae? Aaeeeia?eoai??,
ia noiae? a?aie/eoue c aiae?enueeeie a?aonoaaie *aoe?, O?iioe?,
Oa?aoi?aeoe? ? Aeinoa?oe?, c o?ueio noi??i ioi/aiee ii?ai: ia i?aaei?
oea A??noieuenuee?e eaiae (ae?ei Naaa?ia), ia i?aaeaiiiio caoiae? —
i?ieeaoe Nayoiai Aai?aa, ia i?aii/? ? caoiae? — ??eaiaenueea ii?a, ia
i?ai?/iiio noiae? — ae?ei ??/ee Ae? (Afon Dyfrdwy).

Oi?iaeueia iacaa e?a?ie — «Eiyc?anoai Oaeuen» (Principality Wales,
Tywysogaeth Cymru), i?ioa aiii aeei?enoiao?oueny cae/aeii ??aeei. Oaeuen
i?eiee ia aoa noaa?aiiith aea?aeaaith a iei?oi?o iaaeao. I?aaaea,
i?eaeecii c 1057 ii 1063 ??e A??o?ae ai Ee?aae?i aieiae?a i?aeoe/ii
an?ia oeie caieyie, ui neeaaeathoue iei?oi?e Oaeuen. I?ney nia?o?
A??o?aea oaeiai aaea ia iiaoi?thaaeiny, ? aei /ano ii?iainueeiai
caaithaaiiy Cao?aeiiai Oaeueno a 1282 ?ioe? e?a?ia aaea ciia aoea
iiae?eaia i?ae aeae?eueeiia ei?ie?anoaaie. A 1400 ?. iauaaeie aeaio
noa?iaeaai?o ei?ie?anueeeo iieia?a Oaeueno, Ioai Ae?iaeo?, i/ieea
iianoaiiy i?ioe aiae?eoe?a ? aoa i?iaieioaiee ei?ieai Oaeueno, i?ioa
iiai?noth ao?aoea i?aeo?eieo aei 1410 ?. ? aoa aeiooaiee noiaaoeny.
Aaee?enuee? caeiie ia aoee iiai?noth aeoeniai? aiae?enueeeie aei 1542
?ieo. Eeoa a 1955 ?ioe? ei?ieaaa io?oe?eii i?iaieineea Ea?ae?oo
noieeoeath Oaeueno (aei oeueiai noieeoe? o e?a?ie i?inoi ia aoei), oi/a
I?eioe Oaeuenueeee cae/aeii i?ioiaeeoue ?iaanoeoo?o a Eae?ia?aiia.

A 1997 ?ioe? aoea noai?aia Iaoe?iiaeueia anaiaeay Oaeueno, ui ia? i?aai
aiineoe iii?aaee a caeiie, ye? i?eeia? ia?eaiaio Aaeeeia?eoai??. A 2006
?ioe? aoa i?eeiyoee ae?oaee Caeii i?i oi?aae?iiy Oaeuenii, ca?aeii yeiio
iiaiiaaaeaiiy Anaiaea? aoee ?icoe?ai?.

1. Iioiaeaeaiiy iacae

Iacaa «oaeuen» iioiaeeoue a?ae aiae. Wales, a oi, o naith /a?ao, a?ae
ae?.-aiae. Wealas, iiiaeeie neiaa Wealth. Inoaii? neiai ?
caaaeueiiaa?iainueeei ? a?aeaoaa?oueny, aeaeii, a?ae iacae ieaiai?
aieuee?a, oiaoi nii/aoeo aiii iicia/aei an?o eaeueo?a. I?ci?oa, i?ney
oiai, ye aa?iaioe? oa?eoee aei eiioaeoo c ?eiii, aiii noaei iicia/aoe ia
o?eueee eaeueo?a, aea ? ethaeae, aiai?y/eo ia eaoei?, i?ci?oa —
?iiainueeeo iiaao (n?. Aaeeii?y a Aaeuea??, Aaeaoey a ?oioi??). A
A?eoai?? neiai wealas iicia/aei a ia?oo /a?ao a?eoo?a, o oiio /ene?
aaee?eoe?a ? ei?ioe?a (iacaa Ei?ioieea i?noeoue oie aea ei??iue).
I?aaaea, a noa?iaiae?enueeeo iai’yoieeao ? ? i?eeeaaee oiai, ye oeae
ei??iue aeei?enoiao?oueny ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?eieyi.

Aaee?enueea iacaa — Cymru — iioiaeeoue a?ae caaaeueiia?eonueeiai
kom-brogi (ii?. oaeiae eoia?eenueea iiaa, Eaiaa?eaiae). A?ae oeueiai
neiaa iioiaeeoue ? eaoeinueea iacaa Cambria. Ca?aeii Aaeueo??aeo
Iiiioonueeiio, Cambria iioiaeeoue a?ae i?o?/iiai ei?iey Eaiaa?a, aea oea
ne?aeo? aeciaoe ca aeaaaeeo.

2. ?noi??y

2.1 ?aii?e ia??iae

Ethaee canaeeee oa?eoi??th iei?oiueiai Oaeueno a e?ioe? inoaiiueiai
eueiaeiaeeiaiai ia??iaeo. Aeieoiaioaeuei? na?aeioeoaa c’yaeythoueny i?ae
/an ?einueei? ieoiaoe?? A?eoai??. O oie /an Oaeuenuee? caie? aoee
iiae?eai? i?ae aeae?eueeiia a?eooneeie ieaiaiaie, iae/eneaii?oeie ?
iiaooi?ie c yeeo aoee n?eo?u ia i?aaeaiiiio noiae? ? i?aeiaeee ia
i?ai?/iiio caoiae?. ?eieyie nii?oaeeee a iei?oiueiio I?aaeaiiiio Oaeuen?
aeae?eueea oi?o?a, naiei cao?aeiei c yeeo aoa Ea?ia?oai (Caerfyrddin,
eao. Maridunum), ? caeiaoaaee cieioi a Aeieaeeio? (iei? Ea?ia?oaioe?).
E??i oiai, aiie iiaoaeoaaee oi?oaoeth a Eae?eaiia (Isca Silurum), aea
caa??any aaee/iee aio?oaao?. ?eieyie i?inoioeeny ? aei I?ai?/iiai
Oaeueno, ? iaeia c na?aeiueiaae?eneeo iia?noae, «Nii Iaenaia» (Breuddwyd
Macsen) ia?aaea? eaaaiaeo, i?ae iaeei c inoaii?o ?einueeeo ?iia?aoi??a
Iaai Iaenei (?niaiaoeue, ui neoaeea aaia?aeii a A?eoai??), aoa
iae?oaeaiee ia aei/oe? i?noeaaiai aiaeaey c Naaiio?y, iei? Eae?ia?aii,
a?aonoai Aa?iaae. I?ae /an ?einueei? ieoiaoe??, i?eaeecii a IV noie?oo?
aei Oaeueno i?eeoei o?enoeyinoai.

I?ney a?aeoiaeo ?einueeeo a?enuee c A?eoai?? (aei 410), ?iiai?ciaai?
a?eooe noai?eee aace?/ ae??aieo ei?ie?anoa. Aea?aeaae i?aaeaiieo ?
no?aeieo ??aiei ino?iaa aoee oaeaeei caaieiaai? ianooiath/eie
aiaeinaenaie, aea ei?ie?anoaa, ?icoaoiaai? a ai?enoeo ?aeiiao I?ai?/ii?
Aiae?? ? iei?oiueiai Oaeueno iieieeeny a?eueo no?ee?. A?aoo?-?aoo,
a?eoonuee? ei?ie?anoaa i?aii/? aeiaeeie i?ae oaea?aie aiaeinaen?a ?
oioeaiaeoe?a, aea cao?aeiei a?eooai aaeaeiny cae??ieoeny a Oaeuen?.
I?ioa ao?aoa ?iaeth/eo caiaeue ? aaaaoeo i?no i?aaeaiiiai noiaeo ino?iaa
ia aeicaieeee ?i aoaeoeaii ai?ioeny ca iiaa?iaiiy oeeo oa?eoi??e.
I?eaeecii a 540 ?ioe? Aeeueaea I?aioae?ee ienaa:

Oaeei /eiii, aaaaoi ooi c iauanieo ooe?e?eeo, caoiieai? a ai?ao, aoa
ianiai cieuaiee; ?io?, aeniaaeai? aieiaeii, i?aeoiaeeee ? i?ioyaoaaee
?oee ai?iaai, uia iaa?ee noaoe ?aaaie, yeui, i?ioa, ?o ia aaeaaee
iaaaeii, ui aiie aaaaeaee ca iaeaeuo iee?noue. ?io? ae i?aaioee
caii?nueeeo iaeanoae c aaeeeei ?eaeaiiyi.

Aei VIII noie?ooy no?aeia iaaea Oaeueno a?eueo-iaio anoiyea.
O?aaeeoe?eii aaaaea?oueny, ui Iooa, ei?ieue Ia?ne?, iiaoaeoaaa
aaee/aciee caieyiee aae ii iaae? nai?o aieiae?iue, uia a?aeae?eeoe a?ae
Oaeueno canaeaio a iniiaiiio aaee?eoeyie /anoeio Iio?na, yeo a?i
caaithaaa. Aae Iooe /anoeiai caa??any aei iaoeo aei?a, a aaee?eoe?
aeioaia? ?iiae?, a?aei?aaeyth/enue aei Aiae??, aiai?youe, ui
ia?aoeiathoue Aae Iooe (croesi Clawdd Offa).

Iaee?oii?oeie ei?ie?anoaaie aoee Aa?iaae (i?ai?/iee cao?ae Oaeueno),
Aeaoaeaa?o (i?aaeaiiee cao?ae) ? Iio?n (no?ae ? i?ai?/iee no?ae).
A?eueo?noue ?o i?aaeoae?a iioiaeeea c aoaeeieo ?iae?? Aaeeeiai. Oi/a
Oaeuen ia aoa ?aeeiith aea?aeaaith, a ei?ie?anoaa /anoi ai?iaoaaee i?ae
niaith (i?eaa?oath/e ia naith noi?iie aiae?eoe?a, ??eaiaeoe?a ?
neaiae?iaa?a), e?a?ia aoea c’?aeiaia caaaeueiith eoeueoo?iith
niaaeueiith, a oaeiae caaaeaiiyi caeii?a, eiaeeo?eoth/eo Oeaaeii
Aeia?ei.

2.2 I?ney ii?iainueeiai caaithaaiiy

Caie?, ui iinooieeeny aiaeinaenai, iaea?aeaee iacao Lloegyr (a no/ani?e
iia? — Lloegr). A oie aea /an ii/eia? ?icaeaaoeny aeania aaee?enueea
?aeaioe/i?noue, a oaenoao ana /ano?oa cono??/a?oueny neiai Cymry
«ni?aa?ae/ecieee».

Caiie Aeiea?aeaeai, iiaoaeiaaiee Ee?aae?iii ai ?i?aa?oii ia ii/aoeo XIII
noie?ooy, uia ioi?iiyoe iaeio c aeieei, ui aaaeooue a Niioaeii?th.

I?ney ii?iainueeiai caaithaaiiy Aiae?? a 1066 Oaeuenuee? ei?ie?anoaa
noae? iinooiiai iiiaaeaoe i?ae aieea no?aeieo non?ae?a, ia aeeaey/enue
ia ii?? aaee?enueeeo i?aaeoae?a. A?eueaaeuei Caai?aaoaeue ni?iaoaaa
i?aeii?yaeeoaaoe aaee?eoe?a, noai?eaoe aeae?eueea iiaooi?o oaiaeaeueieo
aieiae?iue ia iaae? c Oaeuenii. Ei?aee oae caaii? Aaee?enueei? ia?ee
aaeeeith i??ith caa??aaee iacaeaaei?noue aei /ano i?aae?iiy Aai??oa
VIII. Aeaye? aaee?enuee? i?aaeoae?, oae? ye Ioaei Aa?iaae, ?en ai
A??o?ae, Ee?aae?i ai ?i?aa?o, a ??ciee /an ia’?aeioaaee i?ae nai?th
aeaaeith cia/io /anoeio e?a?ie, i?ioa ia’?aeiaiiy Oaeueno oae ? ia
a?aeaoeiny. A 1282 ?ioe?, i?ney oiai, ye Ee?aae?i ai A??o?ae, ui
iaieinea naaa i?aaeoaeai anueiai Oaeueno, caaeioa, a eiai a?ao ocyoee a
iieii ? no?a/aiee, a?enueea Aaeoa?aea I caoiieee anth oa?eoi??th
Oaeueno. Aiae?eoe? caaee aeae?eueea iiaooi?o caie?a (cie?aia, Eae?ia?aii
? Eiio? ia i?aii/? Oaeueno, a?ey ei?ie?anueei? noieeoe? Aa?iaaea
Aa?o-Eae?i), uia eiio?iethaaoe i?noeaaa ianaeaiiy. Inoaii?i iiaooi?i
iianoaiiyi aoei iianoaiiy Ioaeia Ae?iaeo?a, ui o?aieeiny ia noie?ooy
i?ci?oa. Aaee?enueea n?i’y Othaei?ia, aeoeaii ui a?aea o/anoue o A?ei?
ssne?aai-/a?aiii? ? A?ei? o?iyiaee, a 1485 ?ioe? noaea oea?thth/ith
aeeiano??th a Aiae??. Inoaoi/ia th?eaee/ia ceeooy eiyc?anoaa Oaeuen c
Aiae??th a?aeaoeiny a i?e Aai??oo VIII i?ney ooaaeaiiy ?yaeo caeii?a,
ca?aeii yeei aaee?enueea i?aai a Oaeuen? cai?ithaaeiny aiae?enueeei.

2.3 Iiaee /an

I?ney aoiaeaeaiiy Oaeueno aei neeaaeo Aiae?? ? neanoaaiiy Aaee?enueei?
ia?ee a?aeaoaa?oueny iinooiiaa ?oeioaaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo ii?yaee?a:
aaee?enuee? aeai?yie ia?aeiathoue niin?a aeeooy aiae?enueeeo neaae??a,
aaaaoi aaee?eoe?a ia?a?caeyoue aei Eiiaeiia, aea aeiaeaathoueny cia/ieo
oni?o?a, ye Aeaeii Ae?. Aiae?enueea iiaa cai?ith? aaee?enueeee ia
o?eueee a aea?aeaaiiio oi?aae?ii? ? noaei/einoa?, i?ioa a oiae?
?aoi?iaoe?? ? aaaaeaiiy o Aaeeeia?eoai?? aiae?eainoaa aoa i?iaaaeaiee
ia?aeeaae ia aaee?enueeo iiao A?ae?? ? ?yaeo aiaineoaeaaieo oaeno?a
(aaaeeeao ?ieue ooo c?a?aee O?eueyi Nienaa?? ? O?eueyi Ii?aai).

A XVII ? XVIII noie?ooyo a Oaeuen? iaae?athoue neeo ??ci?
iiieiioi?i?none? ?ooe, a ia?oo /a?ao iaoiaeeci, i?e iiieiioi?i?none?
eaieeoeyo ?niothoue iaae?euei? oeiee c aeeeaaeaiiyi ia aaee?enuee?e
iia?. A e?ioe? XVIII noie?ooy i?aaeaiue Oaeueno noa? iaeiei c oeaio??a
i?iieneiai? ?aaiethoe??: aeyaeaiiy caian?a eai’yiiai aoa?eey, cae?ciyeo
? ieiaa i?eaiaeeoue aei a?aee?eooy e?oiieo noaeaeeaa?ieo oeaio??a
Aeioeaen ? Eeaa?oaa (Ia?o??-O?aea?e), a oaeiae aoa?eueieo oaoo, ye? ?o
ianeoaiaoaaee. O iiooeao ?iaioe a aeieeie I?aaeaiiiai Oaeueno i?eaoaa?
aace?/ ethaeae ye c naiiai Oaeueno, oae ? c ?ioeo /anoei Aaeeeia?eoai??
? c ??eaiae??. A oie aea /an aaaaoi aaee?eoe?a a?aei?aaeythoueny aei
Aiae??, cie?aia, a ii?o E?aa?ioeue, ui ?inoa. A XIX noie?oo?
i?iieneia?noue I?aaeaiiiai Oaeueno ia?ai???ioo?oueny ia aeaeiaooie
aoa?eey aeey ia?iaeo iaoei, yea eaea ye ia aioo??oi? a?eoainuee? ?eiee,
oae ? ia aenii?o: ia?e?c A’thoue i?aeo?eio? ?icaeoie Ea?ae?ooa, yeee
noa? iaea?eueoei aoa?eueiei ii?oii ie?o ? iaeaaaeeea?oei i?noii Oaeueno.
Ia i?aii/? e?a?ie aeoeaii ?icaeaa?oueny caeiae/ neaioe?a aeey
aoae?aaeueii? aaeoc?. Aaaaoi i?no ia i?ai?/iiio ? cao?aeiiio iiaa?aaeae?
iaaoaathoue iiioey?i?noue ye eo?i?oe (Eeaiae?aeii, ??e, Aaa?ae?a? ?
?i.). Oie?oaae noa? aaaeeeaei o?ainii?oiei oeaio?ii ye i?noea
a?aei?aaeaiiy ii?iia aei ??eaiae??, a?i c’?aeio?oueny c Eiiaeiiii
nii/aoeo aeee?aeainiei, a i?ci?oa ? cae?cie/iei iia?aeiieaiiyi.

Ao?oeeaa c?inoaiiy i?iieneiaino? ? i?eoieo ianaeaiiy ia i?aaei? Oaeueno
aoee iia’ycaii c i?aai?caoe??th ?iai/iai ?ooo. A 1830-o ?ieao a Oaeuen?
a?aeaoaathoueny aeaa e?oiieoiiaoaiiue: iianoaiiy a Ia?o??-O?aea?ea 1831
?iee ? /a?oenonueea iianoaiiy a Iuethii?oa 1839 ?ieo. Aoa?euei? aeieeie
i?aaeaiiiai Oaeueno noae? iaei??? c eieenie ?ooo /a?oenoa, a i?ci?oa —
o?aae-thi?ii?cio. A e?ioe? XIX noie?ooy oai aea ca?iaeaeo?oueny ?
iaae?a? neeo Eaeai?enonueea ia?o?y. Oaeiae a Oaeuen? aoee neeuei?
iiceoe?? e?aa?ae?a, iaea?aeii?oei c yeeo aoa aeo?aeaoeue c Oaeueno
Aeaa?ae Eeieae Aeaei?aeae, ii/aoeiai ui caeiaoa iiioey?i?noue nai?th
ae?yeuei?noth a iaoe?iiaeueiiio ? ?iai/iio ?on?.

A XIX noie?oo? iaae?a? neeo iaoe?iiae?noe/iee ?oo. ?icaeoie eaeueoieia??
noeioeth? ?ioa?an aei aaee?enueeeo ?noi??? ? eoeueoo??, noai?th?oueny
?yae iao??ioe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e, oaeeo ye «Iieiaeee Oaeuen» (aaee. Cymru
Fydd), a ?iaio? yeiai a?aa o/anoue Eeieae Aeaei?aeae, ? Noni?euenoai
nayoiai Aeaaeaea. A 1893 ?ioe? caniiaaiee Oi?aa?neoao Oaeueno c
eieaaeaeaie a Aaa??noo?oa, Aaiai?a ? Ea?ae?ooa, cia/ia iioe?aiiy iaaoaa?
aaee?enueea ia??iaee/ia i?ana. Aeai?ae Ioai noai?th? ia?o? no/ani?
?iiaie ia aaee?enuee?e iia?.

Cia/ia ?iciianthaeaeaiiy a Oaeuen? iaea?aeo? ?aaa?, ? ca??ia e?a?ie
aeiaeaa?oueny e?oiieo oni?o?a i?ioyaii XIX ? XX noie?oue.

2.4 XX noie?ooy

Ia ii/aoeo XX noie?ooy i?iieneiaa c?inoaiiy Oaeueno i?iaeiaaeo?oueny. A
1914 ?ioe? i?eeia?oueny caeii, ca?aeii yeiio Oea?eaa Aiae?? ia?anoa?
aooe aea?aeaaiith oea?eaith a Oaeuen?, i?ioa a?i iaaoaa? /eiiino? eeoa a
1920 ?ioe?, i?ney cae?i/aiiy I na?oiai? a?eie.

I?ney cae?i/aiiy a?eie a Oaeuen?, ye ? ii an?e Aaeeeia?eoai??,
a?aeaoaathoueny cia/i? nioe?aeuei? ci?ie, ca’ycai?, cie?aia, ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi caeiyoino? ae?iie. C iie?oe/ii? oi/ee ci?o i?iaeiaaeo?oueny
c?inoaiiy iiioey?iino? Eaeai?enonueei? ia?o??. A 1925 ?ioe? caniiaaia
aaee?enueea iaoe?iiae?noe/ia Ia?o?y Oaeueno ia /ie? c Niiaea?nii
Eth?nii. C 1930-o ?ie?a o ca’yceo c Aaeeeith aeai?an??th ? nei?i/aiiyi
aenii?oieo ?eie?a ii/eia?oueny oiaaeie Oaeuenueei? aoa?eueii? ?
iaoaeo?a?eii? i?iieneiaino?.

A oiae? Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie ?yae i?no Oaeueno, a ia?oo /a?ao Noiine,
cia/ii iino?aaeaeaee a?ae iaeueio?a i?iaoeueei? aa?aoe??.

I?ney a?eie i?iaeiaaeo?oueny oiaaeie o?aaeeoe?eii? aaaeei?
i?iieneiaino?, i?ioa a oe?eiio, ye ? ii an?e Aaeeeia?eoai??,
niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia c?inoaiiy aeia?iaooo, cie?aia, ca o/anoth
aaee?enueeiai i?aaenoaaieea eaeai?eno?a Aiae??ia Aaaaia noai?th?oueny
Iaoe?iiaeueia neoaeaa ioi?iie caei?ia’y. A 1953 ?ioe? noieeoeath Oaeueno
io?oe?eii i?iaieioaiee Ea?ae?oo.

C 1960-o ?ie?a a noni?euenoa? ii/eiathoue a?aoe aaaeeeao ?ieue ieoaiiy
iaoe?iiae?cio, ui ca’ycaia, cie?aia, ?c ciaiaieoith iiaith Niiaea?na
Eth?na «Aeiey iiae» (aaee. Tynged yr Iaith), i?ney yei? noai?th?oueny
Oiaa?enoai aaee?enueei? iiae (aaee. Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg).
Oi?aa??uanoai i?iaaei ?yae aeoe?e a?iiaaeyinueei? iaiiei?e, aeiaaath/e
aeoaethaaoe aei?iaei? iieaae/eee ia aaee?enuee?e iia?. Na?aae ?ioeo
aaaeeeaeo iiae?e iiaeia iacaaoe i?ioanoe i?ioe caoiieaiiy naea
Eaiae-Eae?i (aea an? aeeoae? aiai?eee ia aaee?enuee?e iia?) aiaeieieu,
caaacia/oth/ei aiaeith aiae?enueeee E?aa?ioeue, ? ai?ioueao ca
noai?aiith aaee?enueeiai oaeaeaiaeo (a?aee?eoee a 1982 ?ioe?). A 1979
?ioe? aoa i?iaaaeaiee ?aoa?aiaeoi i?i aaoiiii?th ? noai?aiiy
Oaeuenueeiai ia?eaiaioo, i?ioa cia/ia a?eueo?noue aeai?oe?a aeneiaeeany
i?ioe oeueiai ieaio.

Ieaie o?yaeo Ia?aa?ao Oao/a? ii i?eaaoecaoe?? aoa?eueii? aaeoc? a
na?aaeei? 1980-o ?ie?a i?eaaee aei aaeeeiianooaaieo no?aee?a a
I?aaeaiiiio Oaeuen?, i?ioa i?ioanooth/? ia aeiaeeeny nai?? iaoe.

A 1993 ?ioe? i?eeiyoee caeii i?i aaee?enueeo iiao, ca?aeii ye?e
aaee?enueeee iaea?aeo? a iaaeao Oaeueno ??aiee noaoon c aiae?enueeith
iiaith; a 2001 ?ioe? ia?aien ianaeaiiy cao?enoaaa ca?eueoaiiy /enea
ethaeae, ui aieiae?thoue aaee?enueeith iiaith. A 1997 ?ioe?
i?iaiaeeoueny iiaoi?iee ?aoa?aiaeoi i?i aaoiiii?th, ? iaaaeeea
a?eueo?noue i?iaieinoaaee aenooieea ca noai?aiiy Oaeuenueei? anaiaea?.
?iaioa Anaiaea? ii/aeany a 1999 ?ioe?.

3. Aaia?ao?y. Ea?oa Oaeueno

Oaeuen ?icoaoiaaiee ia i?aino?ia? ia caoiae? ino?iae Aaeeeia?eoai?y.
Caaaeueia ieiua e?a?ie neeaaea? aeecueei 20 779 ei?. I?ioyaei?noue
e?a?ie c i?aii/? ia i?aaeaiue — 274 ei, ?c caoiaeo ia no?ae — 97 ei.
Oaeuen a?aie/eoue c noiaeo c Aiae??th, c o?ueio noi??i ioi/aiee ii?ai.
Caaaeueia aeiaaeeia aa?aaiai? e?i?? — a?eueoa 1 200 ei. A?ey aa?aa?a
Oaeueno ?icoaoiaaii aeae?eueea ino?ia?a, iaea?eueoee c yeeo — Aiaene
(Ynys Mon) ia i?ai?/iiio caoiae?.

Ianaeaiiy ? i?iieneiaa ae?iaieoeoai cina?aaeaeaii a iniiaiiio ia i?aaei?
Oaeueno, a i?noao Ea?ae?oo, Noiine, Iuethii?o ? i?eeaaeeo iaeanoyo.
Ii??aiyii ?iaeono??ae?coaaa ? i?ai?/iee no?ae (?aeii ?aenaia); oeaio? ?
i?ai?/iee cao?ae — aa?a?i? ?aeiie.

Aaeeeo /anoeio ieiu? Oaeueno caeiathoue ai?e, iniaeeai ia i?aii/? ? a
oeaio??. Aiie ooai?eeeny i?ae /an inoaiiueiai eueiaeiaeeiaiai ia??iaeo,
a oiae? aeaaiinueeiai caeaaeai?iiy. Naiee aenie? ai?e — a Niioaeii?? (Yr
Eryri), ai?a Niioaeii (Yr Wyddfa, 1085 i iaae ??aiai ii?y) — iaeaeua
oi/ea Oaeueno. A??nueeee ianea a oeaio?? Oaeueno iaceaa?oueny
Eaia??enuee?i? ai?aie. Ia i?aaei? ?icoaoiaai? ai?e A?aeii-A?eiic (Bannau
Brycheiniog), ii??aiyeueii iieiaeyoa a ii??aiyii? c Eaia??enuee?i? ? ui
i?noyoue cia/i? caiane aoa?eey. Eaia??enuee?? ai?e aeaee naith iacao
iaeiiio c ia??iae?a iaeaicith — eaia??th. Niioaeii, iaeaeua ai?a Oaeueno

A na?aaeei? XIX noie?ooy aeaio aeaeieo aaieia?a, ?iaea??e Io?/enii ?
Aaeai Naaeaea?e aea/aee aaieia?th Oaeueno, uia aecia/eoe aeaye?
i?eioeeie no?aoea?ao?? ? iaeaiioieia??. I?ney oe? aeaa ia??iaee
iaeaicith — i?aeia?e ? n?eo? — aoee iacaai? ia /anoue eaeueonueeeo
ieaiai, ui iaoeaee a oeueiio ?aeii?.

Oaeuen a?aee?eoee a?o?ai c Aoeaioe/iiai ieaaio, oiio ee?iao oai a
iniiaiiio ii?nueeee. Ia cao?aeiiio iiaa?aaeae? aeiaaea? ca ??e aei 1270
ii iiaae?a, a ia no?ae a?ae a?? oe? oeeo?e aeaui ieae/a (aei 723
ii/??e), a a naieo ai?ao — aeua (aei 2540 ii/??e). Na?aaeiy oaiia?aoo?a
eeiiy neeaaea? 15,6° C, n?/iy — 5,6°C.

No/ania iaaea i?ae Aiae??th ? Oaeuenii aaeueie aeia?eueia: o caaaeueieo
?enao aiia aoea anoaiiaeaia a XVI noie?oo?, ia iniia? iaae oaiaeaeueieo
aieiae?iue. Ia i?ioyc? i?eaeecii 64 e?eiiao??a aiia aeineoue oi/ii
ne?aeo? Aaeo Iooe. I?ioa iio?i aiia eaea a?eueo oeia?ii: iai?eeeaae,
?icae?ey? naei Iaeoii a Iio?na ? ?? cae?cie/io noaioe?th, ?iaeoue naei
*a?/-Noioe oaeoe/ii Oaeuenueeei aeneeaaii a Aiae?? ? i?ioiaeeoue i?yii
/a?ac naei Eeai?i?iao (ioaea i?noeaaee iaa /anoeiith ciaoiaeeoueny a
Aiae??, a /anoeiith — a Oaeuen?).

Aaeeeo /anoeio oa?eoi??? Oaeueno iie?eaathoue iaoe?iiaeuei? ia?ee
(Niioaeii?y, A?aeii-A?eiic, iiaa?aaeaey Iaia?oeoe?a) ? oae caai?
«Iaeano? aeaeaoii? i?e?iaeii? e?ane» (aiae. Areas Outstanding Natural
Beauty), iai?eeeaae i?aino??a Aioa?.

4. Aaei?i?no?aoeaiee ?iciiae?e

Iaeano? ? a?aonoaaie, yeui ia iii?/ai? * (aeey i?no) aai † (aeey
i?no-a?aonoa). A aeoaeeao, aeai? iaeiaioaaiiy ia aaee?enuee?e iia?

Ia?o??-O?aea?e (Merthyr Tudful) †

Eae?o?ee? (Caerffili) †

Aeaeiae-Aaaio (Blaenau Gwent)†

Oi?aaei (Tor-faen) †

Iiiioooe? (Sir Fynwy)

Iuethii?o (Casnewydd) *

Ea?ae?oo (Caerdydd) *

Aeieeia Aeaii?aai (Bro Morgannwg) †

A??aeaeaiae (Pen-o-bont ar Ogwr) †

?iioa-Eeiii-Oaa (Rhondda Cynon Taf) †

I?o-Ii?o-Oieaio (Castell-nedd Port Talbot) †

Noiine (Abertawe) *

Ea?ia?oaioe? (Sir Gaerfyrddin)

Ea?aae?aeii (Ceredigion)

Iio?n (Powys)

?aenai (Wrecsam) †

Oe?iooe? (Sir o Fflint)

Aeaia?oe? (Sir Ddinbych)

Eiio? (Conwy) †

Aa?iaae (Gwynedd)

Ino??a Aiaene (Ynys Mon)

Iaia?oeoe? (Sir Benfro)

5. Iie?oeea

Oaeuen ? /anoeiith Niieo/aiiai Ei?ie?anoaa, ? aeaaith eiai ?
a?eoainueeee iiia?o, a aeaiee /an — ei?ieaaa ?eecaaaoa II. Caeiiiaeaa/a
aeaaea, aeaea?aeii yei? ? iiia?o, ciaoiaeeoueny a ?oeao a?eoainueeiai
ia?eaiaioo, a /anoeia ?? ia?aaeaia o??th, ui ciaoiaeeoueny a Ea?ae?ooa
Iaoe?iiaeuei?e anaiaea? Oaeueno. Ia?eaiaioo a Eiiaeii? iaeaaeeoue i?aai
i?eeiaoe oae caai? «ia?aeii? caeiie» (? i?a?iaaoeaith caeiiiaeaa/i?
aeaaee), ui iathoue a?aeiioaiiy aei Oaeueno. Anaiaeay iiaea ?aaoethaaoe
?o aaeeaaiiy ? i?eeiaoe «aoi?eii? caeiie», iaiaaeaiei /eiii aieeaath/?
ia ae?th ia?aeiieo. Oaeuenueea Anaiaeay ia ?, no?iai eaaeo/e, noaa?aiiei
i?aaiii aeaaee, ? a oai??? a?eoainueeee ia?eaiaio iiaea a?aei?ieoe
aoaeue-yea ?? ??oaiiy aai iaa?oue ?icionoeoe ??. I?ioa ca?aeii iiaiio
Caeiio i?i oi?aae?iiy Oaeuenii (2006) Anaiaeay iaea?aeo? a?eueoa i?aa.

Anaiaeay ii/aoeo i?aoethaaoe a 1998 ?ioe?, i?ney ooaaeaiiy ia?oiai
Caeiio i?i Oi?aae?iiy Oaeuenii. A Anaiaea? 60 i?noeue, 40 aeaiooao?a
iae?athoueny ca nenoaiith i?inoi? a?eueoino?, ua 20 — ca ?aa?iiaeueieie
nieneaie (ii /ioe?e aeaiooaoe a?ae eiaeieo c i’yoe ?aa?ii?a). Ia?o?y, ui
iaea?aeaea a?eueo?noue a Anaiaea?, iae?a? ia?oiai i?i?no?a, yeee noa?
aeaaith O?yaeo Anaiaea?, i?aaio aeeiiaanueei? aeaaee. A?eueo?noue
iiaiiaaaeaiue Anaiaea? oi?iaeueii ia?aaeaia O?yaeo.

A aeaiee /an Ia?oei i?i?no?ii Oaeueno ? ?iae?? Ii?aai, /eai Oaeuenueeiai
a?aeae?eaiiy Eaeai?enonueei? ia?o??. Ae?oaa ca /enaeuei?noth ia?o?y a
Anaiaea? — Plaid Cymru («ia?o?y Oaeueno»), aenooiath/a ca iacaeaaei?noue
e?a?ie a ?aieao ?a?iiaenueeiai nithco. A aeaiee /an o?yae Oaeueno ?
eiae?oe?eiei, a iueiai aoiaeyoue i?aaenoaaieee eaeai?enonueei? ia?o?? ?
Plaid Cymru, aeaaa yei? — ??eai Aei Oiian — noaa canooiiee?a ia?oiai
i?i?no?a.

A Anaiaea? oaeiae i?aaenoaaeai? Eiina?aaoeaia ia?o?y,
E?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ia ia?o?y (ui noi?ioaaea a Anaiaea? ia?oiai
neeeeaiiy eiae?oe?eiee o?yae c eaeai?enoaie). A aeaiee /an aeoeaii
iaaiai?th?oueny ieoaiiy, /e ne?ae ?icoe?thaaoe iiaiiaaaeaiiy Anaiaea?
(iai?eeeaae, /e iio??aii aeaoe ?e i?aai i?iaiaeeoe ia?aeiia
caeiiiaeaanoai, iiae?aii oiio, ye oea c?iaeaii c oioeaiaenueeei
ia?eaiaioii).

A Iaeao? iauei a?eoainueeiai ia?eaiaioo Oaeuen i?aaenoaaeaia 40
aeaiooaoaie (c 646). A eaa?iao i?i?no??a Aaeeeia?eoai?? aoiaeeoue oaeiae
Aea?aeaaiee nae?aoa? ii Oaeueno, a iaia’yceo yeiai aoiaeeoue
i?aaenoaaeyoe o?yaeo ni?aae, iathoue a?aeiioaiiy aei oe??? /anoeie
ei?ie?anoaa. A aeaiee /an oeth iinaaeo iin?aea? I?oa? Oaei.

6. Ianaeaiiy

I?ioeaioia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aieiae?th/eo aaee?enueeith iiaith a ??cieo
a?aonoaao Oaeueno

1905 (ii ANAA) — 1,8 iei aeeoae?a

1973 (ii ANA) — 2,7 iei aeeoae?a

2001 (ia?aien) — 2,9 iei aeeoae?a

Iniiai? ia?iaee — aaee?eoe? ? aiae?eoe?. *anoeia aaee?eoe?a (a naia 29 %
a?ae anueiai ianaeaiiy Oaeueno, ii ia?aieno 2001) a o?e /e ?io?e i???
caa??aa? naith iiao. Ia aaee?enuee?e iia? a Oaeuen? aeoiaeyoue CI?
(i?ana, oaeaaa/aiiy, ?aae?i), ?nio? iaiaei ?ioa?iao-naeo?a. Oaeuenuee?
ae?aeaeoe aiae?enueei? iiae oaeiae iathoue ?yae iniaeeainoae.

7 Ei?eni? eiiaeeie

Oaeuen aaaaoee neaioeai, eai’yiei aoa?eeyi, cae?cii (Aeaii?aai),
a?ao?oii, naeioeai. Ia i?aaei? ?icoaoiaaiee I?aaeaiii-oaeuenueeee
eai’yii-aoa?eueiee aanaei.

8. Ainiiaea?noai ? aeiiii?ea

Ea?ae?oo, noieeoey Oaeueno

Aieiai? caiyooy: a??nueea ni?aaa ? i?iieneia?noue, e??i oiai,
caiea?ianoai ? neioa?noai (19 % i?ae ??eeath, 10 % i?ae eoaaie, 3 % i?ae
ianiaeuai, 31 % i?ae e?nii).

Aeaeiaooie eai’yiiai aoa?eey — ?iioa;

*i?ia iaoaeo?a?y — Ii?o-Oieaio, Iuethii?o, Eeaiaee?, Ea?ae?oo,
Aaao-Aaee;

Eieuei?iaa iaoaeo?a?y — Noiine, Eeaiaee?;

Iaooiia?a?iaea — Eeaiaea?ne, I?eoi?ae-Oaeaai, Iaia?oe, Aa???;

Iaooio?i?/ia ? o?i?/ia i?iieneia?noue — Aaaeai-aae, Aa???;

N?euenueea ainiiaea?noai, a?a/a?noai, i’ynia ? iiei/ia oaa?eiieoeoai.

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