Great Britain (перевод)

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Great Britain

Britain is very small compared with many other countries in the world,
yet it is a surprisingly varied land in many different ways: the
diversity of landscape in different parts of the country; a long history
that is rich in great events, a varied cultural heritage; long-lived
customs and traditions; a rich mixture of peoples who live in the
country; the great cities of London, Edinburgh, Oxford and Stratford.
All together they make the image of Britain fascinating and exiting. All
together they make the image of Britain fascinating and exiting. The
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland with an area of
some 244.000 square miles is situated on the British Isles which are
separated from the European continent by the North Sea, the Strait of
Dover and the English Channel. Britain’s population is over 57 million.
For out of every five people live in towns. The UK is a constitutional
monarchy: the head of the state is a king or a queen. In practice, the
Sovereign reins, but doesn’t rule: the UK is governed by the Government-
a body of Ministers who are the leading members of the political party
in power and who are responsible to Parliament. The present Sovereign is
Queen Elisabeth 11. The territory of Great Britain is small. Yet the
country has a wide variety of scenery. Britain is divided into four
parts: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. England is often
subdivided into three parts: the South, the Midlands and the North. The
South. The landscape is varied. Te climate is warmer than in the other
areas. There are hundreds of miles of sea coast which vary from flat,
sandy or stony beaches to high rocky cliffs. The mild and sunny climate
makes the south coast popular with holiday-makers. Some coastal resorts
are famous, Brighton among them. Somerset, Devon, and Cornwall are rural
counties, tucked away with hidden fishing hamlets and Britain’s warmest
weather in winter. There are high bare hills, rock and deep wooded
valleys. Inland, the landscape is gentle and green; it is famous for its
countryside. One of the most beautiful countries in the South of England
is certainly Kent. It is known as the Garden of England, because it is
famous for it picturesque orchards witch produce a lot of fruit and
vegetables. Another area which has some of the richest farmland in the
country is known as the fens and lies to the east of Cambridge. This
land was drained and now the Fen Country consists of miles of flat land
with almost no tree or hedges. In general, the South is wealthier than
other areas of Britain. Work of all kinds is provided on the land, in
trade and industry. British Aerospace has factories building aeroplanes
in several parts of the South. Lots of people are involved in service
industries including financial, business and government services,
computer services and information systems. There are science-based
companies and research organizations. The Midlands. The Midlands Region
has much farming land, but this part of the country is better known as
an industrial area, one of the England’s most productive regions. Derby
is an engineering centre. Rolls Royce make aero engines and cars there.
Birmingham, which is often called “the Big Heart of England”, is the
most important city of the Midlands. It is the second largest city in
the UK. It’s famous for engineering, especially car production. The
Potteries is another industrial area in the midlands. It lies around the
city of Stoke-on-Trent and produces china, crockery and all kinds of
ceramics, some of which are famous worldwide, Wedgwood among them. The
North. The weather is considerably colder. There is almost always snow
in winter. This is a region of great natural beauty although industry of
some kind has existed here for hundreds of years. There is great
contrast in the North between the beautiful open, hilly countryside and
the industrial towns and mining villages. In parts of the North – in
Yorkshire particularly – there are gentle wooded valleys and green
pastures and excellent farming land. West Yorkshire is very good country
for sheep-farming, and it has long been Britain’s most important area
for the wool industry. Coal is one of the few natural resources found in
the North of England. Some famous industrial cities in North are
Manchester, Sheffield, Leeds and Newcastle-on-Tyne The national symbol
of England is the red rose. Wales is the most westerly part of mainland,
bordered on the east be England. It is the smallest land of the United
Kingdom, but has considerable variety, from the picturesque mountains of
the north to the mining and industrial areas of the south. The main
areas of settlement are in the southern and coastal areas. Where two
thirds of the population live. The chief cities are Cardiff, Swansea and
Newport. In 1955 Cardiff was declared the capital of Wales. Wales is a
principally (a country ruled by a prince, or from which he takes his
title). The title of’ Prince of Wales is traditionally given by the
British sovereign to his or her eldest son, who is heir to the throne.
Wales is divided geographically into the industrial south, the central
plateaux and lakes, and the mountainous north. South Wales. The economy
of Wales is based on coal, iron, and steel which are traditional
industries in this part of the United Kingdom. The valleys to the north
of Cardiff are the heart of the Welsh coal and steel industries. South
Wales remains the principal industrial area. Today Wales is developing
as an important centre for electronics, and several new high technology
businesses in electronics and related industries have been established.
Agriculture occupies about 80 per cent of the land area; the main
activities are sheep and cattle rearing in the hill regions and dairy
farming in the lowland. North Wales is famous for the wild beauty of its
mountains, lakes and waterfalls/ With its good coastal resorts, famous
for their sandy beaches, and three national parks (Snowdonia, The Brecon
Beacons and the Pembrokeshire Coast), as well as other areas of
picturesque hill, lake and mountain country, Wales and attracts,
especially for outdoor holidays. The national symbol of Wales is a leek
or daffodil. The ocean bounds Scotland on all sides except for its
southern, sixty-mile-long border with England. Most of the country is
within forty miles of salt water. On the west coast there are a lot of
sea lochs and islands. Most of Scotland’s 787 islands are off the
northwest coast. The country may be divided into the Highlands and the
Lowlands. However, not all of the Lowlands are really ‘low’. The highest
peak in the Highlands and in all Britain is Ben Nevis (4406 feet = 1343
m) with its head in cloud and snow towering above the little town of
Fort William. No month has an average temperature below freezing. During
the winter months there is usually sufficient snow for skiing. The east
coast is drier that the west, where even in summer are frequent.
Scotland is famous the world over as a land of beautiful scenery – of
hills and valleys, of misty lochs and tumbling rivers, unspoilt beaches
and charming fishing villages. Fishing remains an important activity in
Scotland. More than half of the total landings of fish in Britain are
made at Scottish ports. Scotland has about one-third of Britain’s total
agricultural land, but 71 per cent consists of hill grazing for cattle
and sheep. But modern Scotland is also a land of steel and ship, coal
and iron. Some of the traditional Scottish industries, such as coal.
Steel and shipbuilding, are declining. Other traditional manufactures,
such as high quality tweeds and other textiles, and food and drink
products, remain important. Much is being done to modernize Scotland
industry. The electronics sector has greatly contributed to the
country’s development. The national symbol of Scotland a thistle. The
landscape of Northern Ireland is gentle. It is green because it rains a
lot. But the rain showers quickly change to sunshine – and back to rain
again. The mountains roll down to the sea. Northern Ireland is a land of
lakes, rivers and a varied sea coast. It is a great place for tourism.
Population and industry are concentrated on the eastern seaboard, while
of Northern Ireland remains predominantly rural and relies mainly upon
agriculture for its livelihood. The traditional important industries are
shipbuilding and linen. Other industrial activities include the
manufacture of textile machinery and a wide range of engineering
products, tobacco and clothing. There has also been extensive
development in oil-well equipment, electronics, telecommunications
equipment, and carpets. Britain lives a complex modern life in which
traditional values and love of the past side by side with a desire for
change. Today’s Britain has a reputation for scientific innovations, for
business, commerce and trade. It plays an important role in the
political life of the world. However, the end of the 20th century is a
time of transition for Britain in which her past position in the world
as a political and economic power is being challenged by other
countries. The question for the future is to find a new role in the
world for herself. This time is giving rise to various economic and
social, some of which still remain unsolved.

Перевод текста: Great Britain

о населения. Главные города – Кардифф, Суонси и Ньюпорт. В 1955 Кардифф
был объявлен капитал Уэльса. Уэльс – преимущественно (страна, которой
управляет принц, или от которого он берет его название). Название’
Принца Уэльского традиционно дается британским сувереном его или её
самому старшему сыну, который является наследником трона. Уэльс разделен
географически в индустриальный юг, центральные плато и озера, и гористый
север. Южный Уэльс. Экономика Уэльса основана на угле, железе, и стали,
которые являются традиционными отраслями промышленности в этой части
Великобритании. Долины на север Кардиффа – сердце уэльсского угля и
сталелитейных промышленностей. Южный Уэльс остается основной
индустриальной областью. Сегодня Уэльс развивается как важный центр
электроники, и несколько новых фирм высокой технологии в электронике и
связанных отраслях промышленности были установлены. Сельское хозяйство
занимает приблизительно 80 процентов области земли; главные действия –
овцы и выращивание рогатого скота в областях холма и молочном
животноводстве в низменности. Северный Уэльс известен дикой красотой его
гор, озер и водопадов / С его хорошими прибрежными курортами, известен
их песчаными берегами, и тремя национальными парками (Snowdonia, Маяки
Брекона и Побережье Pembrokeshire), так же как другие области
живописного холма, озера и страны горы, Уэльса и привлекает, специально
для наружного отпуска. Национальный символ Уэльса – лук – порей или
нарцисс. Океан ограничивает Шотландию на всех сторонах за исключением ее
южной, границы шестьдесят миль длиной с Англией. Большинство страны – в
пределах сорока миль воды соли. На западном побережье есть много моря
lochs и островов. Большинство 787 островов Шотландии – от
северо-западного побережья. Страна может быть разделена на Горную
местность и Среднешотландскую низменность. Однако, не вся
Среднешотландская низменность ‘действительно низка’. Самый высокий пик в
Горной местности и во всей Великобритании – Бен-Невис (4406 футов = 1343
m) с его головой в облаке и снегу, возвышающемся выше небольшого города
Форт-Уильяма. Никакой месяц не имеет среднюю температуру ниже
замораживания. В течение зимних месяцев есть обычно достаточный снег для
лыжного спорта. Ист-Кост более сух, что запад, где даже летом часты.
Шотландия известна во всем мире как земля красивого пейзажа – холмов и
долин, туманного lochs и кувыркающихся рек, неиспорченных берегов и
очаровательных рыбацких деревень. Лов рыбы остается важной деятельностью
в Шотландии. Больше чем половина полных приземлений рыбы в
Великобритании сделана в шотландских портах. Шотландия имеет
приблизительно одну треть британской полной пахотной земли, но 71
процент состоит из задевания холма для рогатого скота и овец. Но
современная Шотландия – также земля стали и судна, угля и железа.
Некоторые из традиционных шотландских отраслей промышленности, типа
угля. Сталь и судостроение, уменьшаются. Другое традиционное
изготовление, типа высокого качества tweeds и другого текстиля, и пищи и
продуктов напитка, остается важным. Очень делается, чтобы
модернизировать промышленность Шотландии. Сектор электроники очень внес
свой вклад в развитие страны. Национальный символ Шотландии чертополох.
Пейзаж Северной Ирландии нежен. Зелено, потому что идет дождь много. Но
ливневые дожди быстро изменяются на свет – и назад идти дождь снова.
Горы катятся вниз к морю. Северная Ирландия – земля озер, рек и
различного морского побережья. Это – большое место для туризма.
Население и промышленность сконцентрированы на восточном побережье, в то
время как из Северной Ирландии остается преобладающе сельским и
полагается главным образом на сельское хозяйство за его средства к
существованию. Традиционные важные отрасли промышленности – судостроение
и полотно. Другие индустриальные действия включают изготовление
текстильных машин и широкого диапазона технических продуктов, табака и
одежды. Также было обширное развитие в оборудовании нефтяной скважины,
электронике, телекоммуникационном оборудовании, и коврах. Великобритания
живет сложной современной жизнью в который традиционные ценности и
любовь к прошлому бок о бок с желанием изменения. Сегодняшняя
Великобритания имеет репутацию научных новшеств, бизнеса, торговли и
торговли. Это играет важную роль в политической жизни мира. Однако,
конец 20-ого столетия – время перехода для Великобритании, в которой ее
прошлое положение в мире, поскольку политической и экономической власти
бросают вызов другие страны. Вопрос для будущего должен найти новую роль
в мире для себя. Это время дает начало различный экономический и
социальный, некоторые из которых все еще остаются нерешенными.

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