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Восприятие и понимание информации в процессе обучения

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AINEIIEOAO ?O II AUNOAIO IA?ACIAAIETH

NAIA?NEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OAOIE*ANEEE OIEAA?NEOAO

Eaoaae?a “Eiaeaia?ii-iaaeaaiae/aneia yeaeo?ioaoie/aneia ainieoaiea”

?AOA?AO

ii ineoieiaee e iaaeaaiaeea aunoae oeieu

AINI?EssOEA E IIIEIAIEA EIOI?IAOeEE
A I?IOeANNA IAO*AIEss

Auiieiee: Aiei/aiei A.A.,

anie?aio eaoaae?u iauae e

iai?aaie/aneie oeiee

I?eiye: Ianoa?aiei A.I., e.o.i.,

aeioeaio eaoaae?u

“Eiaeaia?ii-iaaeaaiae/aneia

yeaeo?ioaoie/aneia ainieoaiea”

NAIA?A

1996

Aini?eyoea e iiieiaiea eioi?iaoeee a i?ioeanna iao/aiey

1. Iiiyoea eioi?iaoeee, aa eeanneoeeaoeey e ineoieiae/aneay

no?oeoo?a

I?ioeann ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee eae ninoaaiay /anoue iao/aiey iiaeao e
aeieaeai iioeiece?iaaoueny n oeaeueth oeo/oaiey ea/anoaa iao/aiey. Iiae
eioi?iaoeeae a aeaiiii ?aoa?aoa iiieiaaony niiauaiea, caoeene?iaaiiia
eneonnoaaiii nicaeaiiuie ciaeaie (eee ciaeiauie nenoaiaie), aeinooiiia
aini?eyoeth e iiieiaieth aoaeeoi?eae, ia eioi?oth iii ?ann/eoaii.

Eoae, iiiyoea eioi?iaoeee caeanue e aeaeaa aoaeao oiio?aaeyoueny eae
neiiiei niiauaiey a aai ineoieiae/aneii niunea.

Iiae oi?iie oeenaoeee ciaiee, eee oi?iie i?aaeuyaeaiey eioi?iaoeee,
caeanue e aeaeaa iiieiaaony aai iauaeoeaaoeey i?e iiiiue oie eee eiie
ciaeiaie nenoaiu eee ia eaeii-ieaoaeue iaoa?eaeueiii iineoaea, iai?eia?
ia aoiaaa. Aeaei a oii, /oi ciaiea eae oaeiaia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
ineoe/aneee oaiiiai, yaeyaony aeinoiyieai ineoeee ioaeaeueiuo
eiaeeaeaeia e a oaeii ea/anoaa iaaeinooiii ae?oaei. Iinea aea aai
iauaeoeaaoeee (oeenaoeee) ia iaoa?eaeueiii iineoaea, neaaeai a oi?ia
oaenoa, /a?oaaea, oi?ioeu e o.i., niaea?aeaiea yoiai ciaiey
(?anniao?eaaaiiai eae eioi?iaoeey, niiauaiea) noaiiaeony aeinooiiui
iaia?aie/aiiiio /eneo aai iio?aaeoaeae, oaeiaii aeey ?ani?ino?aiaiey a
i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. Anyeay oi?ia oeenaoeee ciaiey anoue a oi aea
a?aiy e n?aaenoai eiiioieeaoeee.

A iaoai neo/aa i?e ?anniio?aiee eioi?iaoeee aeieaeiu o/eouaaoueny
aeaa ?acii?iaeiuo aniaeoa: naieioe/aneee e ineoieiae/aneee. N o/aoii
yoiai eioi?iaoeeth iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia o?e e?oiiuo eeanna:
neioaene/aneee, naiaioe/aneee e i?aaiaoe/aneee.

Neioaene/aneay eioi?iaoeey, eae e a neo/aa aeaoo inoaeueiuo eeannia,
ninoieo ec niaieoiiinoe ciaeia, iauaaeeiyaiuo a oio eee eiie aeoaaeo
(o.a. iieiue anni?oeiaio ii?aaeaeaiiuo ciaeia, iai?eia? aoeaaiiuo,
oeeo?iauo). A niiauaiee yoe ciaee ?annoaaeythony ia i?iecaieueii, ia a
neo/aeiii ii?yaeea. Iie eae-oi niioiinyony ae?oa n ae?oaii, iaoiaeyony a
ii?aaeaeaiiie nayce. Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue e ianoi eaaeaeiai ciaea
iaoneiaeaii onoaiiaeaiiuie i?aaeeaie. Yoe i?aaeea i/aiue aaaeiu: eo
ionoonoaea i?eaaei au e iaaiciiaeiinoe i?i/anoue niiauaiea (/a?oaae,
noaio, oaeno).

Naiaioe/aneay eioi?iaoeey – yoi eioi?iaoeey, i?aaeiieaaathuay
aeooaeueioth eee iioaioeeaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue ?ane?uoey iio?aaeoaeai
caeiaee?iaaiiiai oaie eee eiuie ciaeiauie n?aaenoaaie aa niaea?aeaiey,
niunea niiauaiey.

I?aaiaoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey iaoeaeaia ia oi, /oiau eieoeee?iaaoue
ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?ac iuneae, ii?aaeaeaiiia iiaaaeaiea, oi eee eiia
ninoiyiea.

Ineoieiae/aneoth no?oeoo?o eioi?iaoeee iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea
o?aocaaiiie ea?a?oee: ciae – cia/aiea – niune.

?ieue ciaea caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau ?ai?acaioe?iaaoue, caiauaoue
eaeoth-eeai aauue, aunooiay “iiaeiaiaiiie” nouiinoueth yoie aaue, aeey
niciaiey. A iaeaieaa iauai aeaea ciae iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae n?aaenoai
eiiioieeaoeeiiiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey e iuoeaiey.

Iniiauaaynue ia ii?aaeaeaieyo iiiyoey “nenoaia”, iiae ciaeiaie
nenoaiie neaaeoao iiieiaoue i?aaieciaaiiia iiiaeanoai ciaeia n
ioiioaieyie e naycyie iaaeaeo ieie, ia?acothuaa ii?aaeaeaiioth
oeaeinoiinoue. I?eia?u ciaeiauo nenoai: oaeno, oaaeeoea, /a?oaae e o.ae.

N oi/ee c?aiey naieioeee cia/aiea ciaea iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae
eioi?iaoeeth, ianiioth ciaeii.

Iiiyoey ciaea e cia/aiey a nia?aiaiiie iaoea aua iaaeinoaoi/ii
noaaeeece?iaaeenue. Iao aaeeiiai oaeiaeaoai?ythuaai anao ii?aaeaeaiey.
Oai aieaa iaeuecy ioianoe e ?ac?yaeo oi/ii ii?aaeaeaiiuo iiiyoea niunea.
Niune – yoi eioeiii-ineoieiae/aneea, eioeiii-ee/iinoiua ia?aciaaiey,
eaeaaeueiue i?iaeoeo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey /aeiaa/aneiai iicaa. Naiue
no?iaee iao/iue aiaeec ia iaia?oaeeo niunea eee iunee ie a oaenoa, ie a
onoiie ?a/e, ie a /a?oaaea, ie a iocuea. Ii iaia?oaeeo eeoue oi, /oi oai
ia naiii aeaea anoue: caoeiaoth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue,
oa?aeoa?ecothuothny ii?aaeaeaiiuie cia/aieyie /anoiou, aeeeiu aieiu,
eioaineaiinoe e o.i., eee nenoaio a?aoe/aneeo iino?iaiee, i?aaieciaaiiuo
ii iaeioi?ui i?aaeeai – e oieueei. Ie a iaeiie oi?ia ia?aaea/e
naiaioe/aneie eioi?iaoeee iao e ia iiaeao auoue oiai, /oi iu iacuaaai
iuneueth. Eae aea oiaaea aiciiaeii, iai?eia?, iiieiaiea, iao/aiea? Ia
yoio aii?in iiaeii aeaoue iaeiicia/iue ioaao – aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi
iaeioi?ay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue caoeia, a?aoe/aneea iino?iaiey e o.i.
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ciaee, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiatho e cia/aiey.
Oneuoaa ii?aaeaeaiioth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue caoeia, /aeiaae ociaao a
ieo ciaee e a aai niciaiee anieuaatho naycaiiua n ieie cia/aiey. Yoa
niaieoiiinoue cia/aiee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaiin?aaenoaaiioth i?e/eio
aaia?e?iaaiey iunee (naiae iunee), aieaa eee iaiaa niaiaaeathuae n
iuneueth ae?oaiai /aeiaaea, eioi?oth ii caoeo?iaae caoeaie ?a/e, ienueia
e o.i. Oaeiio oeo?iaaieth iiaeaeathony ioithaeue ia ana eiiiiiaiou
iunee. Iai?eia?, iaeioi?ua ia?aciua e yiioeeiiaeueiua ninoaaeythuea
iunee i?aeoe/anee ia iiaeaeathony eiaee?iaaieth ?a/aauie n?aaenoaaie.

2. Aini?eyoea, iiieiaiea e iaaeyaeiinoue eioi?iaoeee

I?eai eioi?iaoeee /aeiaaeii ia/eiaaony n iuouaiey. Oae, iai?eia?, i?e
/oaiee iu aia/aea iuouaai iaeioi?oth iaiaeii?iaeiinoue oiia e iaianaiiuo
ia iai a?aoe/aneeo iino?iaiee, iioii ociaai aoeau e o.ae.

Anee iuouaiea – yoi io?aaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo naienoa i?aaeiaoia e
yaeaiee ie?oaeathuae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, oi aini?eyoea – yoi
iaaeyaeii-ia?aciia io?aaeaiea aeaenoaothueo a aeaiiue iiiaio ia i?aaiu
/oanoa i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe a niaieoiiinoe eo
?acee/iuo naienoa e oa?aeoa?enoee. I?iaeoeoii aini?eyoey anaaaea
aunooiaao aieaa eee iaiaa neiaeiue ia?ac i?aaeiaoa.

Niaeanii nia?aiaiiui i?aaenoaaeaieyi eioi?iaoeey a oeaio?aeueiie
ia?aiie nenoaia ioeaieaaaony ii aeaoi iniiaiui i?eciaeai: oece/aneei
naienoaai neaiaeia e cia/eiinoe niaea?aeaueony a ieo niiauaiee. Iaa
aeaea ioeaiee naycaiu n aeayoaeueiinoueth ?aciuo iicaiauo no?oeoo?.

Eaeaioeoeeaoeey iauaeoa aini?eyoey – yoi iiiciaiea noeioea eae
aeaiiiai. Iiiciaiea iauaeoa i?aaeiieaaaao oi?ie?iaaiea aai
ia?oeaioeaiiai ia?aca e nee/aiea aai n ?aiaa noi?ie?iaaiiuie e
o?aiyueieny a iaiyoe “yoaeiiiuie”, a iaiyoe o?aieony ia iaeei yoaeiiiue,
a iaeioi?ia i?aaieciaaiiia a nenoaio iiiaeanoai ia?acia.

Aiciiaeiinoe /aeiaaea i?e eaeaioeoeeaoeee iauaeoa aeiaieueii
ia?aie/aiu. Oae, niaeanii aeaiiuo ?yaea enneaaeiaaiee i?e iiiciaiee
?aciiia?aciuo iauaeoia /enei yoaeiiiuo ia?acia, n eioi?uie nee/aaony
ia?oeaioeaiue, ia i?aauoaao naie-ainueie a neo/aa iaee/ey iaeiiai
?acee/eoaeueiiai i?eciaea. Yoa aaee/eia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeeeio
iia?aoeaiiai aeoaaeoa e niioaaonoaoao iauaio iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe.
Oaaee/aiea /enea ?acee/iuo i?eciaeia oaaee/eaaao eioi?iaoeeiiioth
aieinoue iauaeoa. *aeiaaeo ?aaeei i?eoiaeeony noaeeeaaoueny n
iaeiiia?iuie noeioeaie. Iauaeou iaoaai aini?eyoey, eae i?aaeei,
iiiaiia?iu. I?e iiiciaiee oaeeo iauaeoia ii iiaeao nee/aoueny n ?aciuie
nenoaiaie iia?aoeaiuo aeoaaeoia (o.a. nenoaiaie yoaeiiiuo ia?acia) – a
caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeea i?eciaee auaeaeythony eae aeaaiua a i?ioeanna
aini?eyoey.

Nia?aiaiiua oai?ee e iiaeaee iiiciaiey aua ia iiaoo
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii ?aoeoue i?iaeaio aeoaaeoa i?eciaeia, eioi?uie
iieuecoaony /aeiaae i?e iiiciaiee ciaeiauo iauaeoia e aiiaua i?aaeiaoia.

Aeaeiaee?iaaiea – caeeth/eoaeueiay oaca i?ioeanna iiiciaiey (e
aini?eyoey) – a iniiaiii caeeth/aaony a “ia?aaiaea” aini?eieiaaiuo
ciaeia a oa aaeeieoeu aioo?aiiae ?a/e, eioi?ua iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiu
n i?aaenoaaeaieyie e iuoeaieai.

Iiieiaiea – yoi niaoeeoe/aneee iiciaaaoaeueiue i?ioeann, neiaeiia,
ea?a?oe/anee iino?iaiiia ineoe/aneia io?aaeaiea iauaeoia iiciaiey, a
?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai nicaeathony iiaua e ainnicaeathony noa?ua, ii
ii-iiaiio aeaeeiua, oae eee eia/a yiioeeiiaeueii ie?aoaiiua nenoaiu
eiioeaioia e ia?acia, iauaaeeiythuea a naaa nianoaaiii i?iaeoeo yoiai
io?aaeaiey n niioaaonoaothueie yeaiaioaie ee/iuo ciaiee.

Iai?eia?, i?inoua i?aaeiaoiua neooaoeee iiieiathony ia o?iaia
aini?eyoey, oi oi?ioea, eae i?aaeei, – ia o?iaia iuoeaiey.

Oeaeaniia?acii ?acee/aoue aeaa i?eioeeieaeueii ?aciuo neo/ay:
iiieiaiea ciaeiauo e iaciaeiauo iauaeoia. Anee a ia?aii caaea/a
iiieiaiey ninoieo a ?ane?uoee, oyniaiee, ia?acii au?aaeaynue, eai-oi
caeiaeaiiiai a iauaeo niunea, aeaeiaee?iaaiee aai, oi ai aoi?ii naie ii
naaa iauaeou, eae i?aaeei, niunea ia eiatho (anee ia n/eoaoue oaeeo, eae
iaoeiu, i?eai?u, nii?oaeaiey e ae?oaea i?iaeoeou /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, aaea n ii?aaeaeaiiuie iaiai?eaie iiaeii n/eoaoue, /oi
i?e eo nicaeaiee a ieo aue “caeiaeai niune”) e /aeiaae a yoie aoi?ie
neooaoeee iiieiaiey niiinoaaeaieai, n?aaiaieai e o.i. naycae e ioiioaiee
iauaeoa eae au i?eaiineo a iaai “iiaue niune”, i?eia?eaaao naie
i?eaianaiiue a iauaeo iiieiaiey niune e a neo/aa oaea/iinoe oaeie
i?eia?ee n/eoaao iauaeo iiiyoiui.

I?iaeaia iaaeyaeiinoe ia?aiia/aeueii, aua a aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe,
aicieeea a nayce n o?oaeiinoyie i?aaenoaaeaiey iiiaeo o?aaiaioia
?acee/iuo eoeueoia e oeaeuo ?aeeaee.

N oao aeaeaeeo a?aiai aieioue aei ia/aea iaoaai noieaoey i?iaeaia
iaaeyaeiinoe auea aaeeinoaaiii i?iaeaiie iaaeaaiae/aneie i?aeoeee. Ii a
ia/aea aaea iia noaea oaeaea i?iaeaiie i?aeoeee ?aeeaiu e i?iiaaaiaeu, a
a 20-a – 30-a aiaeu neiaeeeanue aeenoeeieeia – iaaeaaiae/aneay
ineoieiaey.

A i?ioeanna ?acaeoey oeeaeeecaoeee iia?e?iaaiea ciaeaie iaiaauaei eo
niaea?aeaieai, oaaee/eei aiciiaeiinoe iuneeoaeueiuo i?ioeannia. Aianoa n
oai ciaee, anee ia n/eoaoue iaiiiaeo iiae?aaeaoaeueiuo caoeia e
ecia?aceoaeueiuo aeanoia, ia/enoi oo?aoeee eaeia-eeai iiaeiaea, nayce eo
n i?aaeiaoaie, eioi?ua auee ieie icia/aiu. Oaeei ia?acii, i?aeiouanoaa
iiaie, iniiaaiiie ia i?eiaiaiee ciaeia iiciaaaoaeueiie no?oeoo?u
aeinoaeenue /aeiaa/anoao ia “aanieaoii” – iie auee eoieaiu oo?aoie
iaaeyaeiinoe cia/eoaeueiie /anoe ciaiee.

Iaaeyaeiinoue – yoi oaeia ea/anoai iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia
/aeiaaea, i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee eioi?iai ni ciaeiauie nenoaiaie, i?e
ecaea/aiee e ia?a?aaioea eioi?iaoeee ec yoeo nenoai a niciaiee
aaia?e?othony iaaeyaeiua ia?acu.

I?e iino?iaiee niiauaiee iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue i?aeoe/aneia i?aaeei:
i?eiaiyaiia n?aaenoai iaaeyaeiinoe auiieiyao naith ooieoeeth oieueei a
oii neo/aa, anee iie?aaony ia i?i/ii onaiaiiua ciaiey e ia?acii
?ane?uaaao iineaaeothuaa eceiaeaiea. Aaaeue aanniuneaiii iaiiiyoiue
iaoa?eae “?acuyniyoue” iin?aaenoaii noieue aea iaiiiyoiiai. Ionthaea
auoaeaao iaaeaeaoaeueiinoue, ineoieiae/aneay iaiainiiaaiiinoue oaeiai
ii?yaeea eceiaeaiey iaoa?eaea, eiaaea yoi eceiaeaiea ia/eiaaony n iaeeo
iaiauathueo iieiaeaiee, i?aaee, ii?aaeaeaiee, oi?ioee?iaie e o.i., e
oieueei caoai ?ane?uaaaony eo niune, i?eaiaeyony iainiiaaiey,
aeieacaoaeuenoaa; yoi ia?ooaao anoanoaaiiue ii?yaeie /aeiaa/aneiai
iiciaiey (a oii /enea e a i?ioeanna iao/aiey) e iioiio nicaeaao
aeiiieieoaeueiua o?oaeiinoe iiieiaiey iaoa?eaea.

N?aaenoaa iaaeyaeiinoe auiieiytho oaeaea neaaeothuea ooieoeee:

– niinianoaotho aieaa iieiie e oi/iie ia?aaea/a iunee;

– neoaeao iniiaiui aeiaiaeii a neiaaniii aeieacaoaeuenoaa;

– eeethno?e?otho ?acee/iiai ?iaea caaeneiinoe e niioiioaiey,
eioi?ua o?oaeii i?aaenoaaeiu a neiaaniii iienaiee.

E. Yeea? i?aaeeiaeee niinia iaicia/aiey iauaia iiiyoee ie?oaeiinoyie,
iinea /aai ioiioaiea iiiyoee, noaeaeaiee e aeaaea any neeeiaenoeea n?aco
aea noaee yniuie, iaaeyaeiuie e eaaeeie aeey iiieiaiey.

Aianoa n oai iaeuecy oioneaoue ec aeaeo oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi anoue
e anaaaea aoaeoo ii?aaeaeaiiua ianneau eioi?iaoeee, iioeiaeueiie, anee
ia aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiie ec anao ecaanoiuo oi?iie oeenaoeee e
ia?aaea/e eioi?uo anoue oaeno. I?e yoii auei au ioeaeie niio?aoue ia
oaeno eae ia i?eioeeieaeueii iaiaaeyaeioth nouiinoue.

3. Ieeoia?aoe/aneea ciaeiaua nenoaiu

A aeaiiii ?aoa?aoa y ia ?anniao?eaath oaenoiaua oi?iu oeenaoeee
ciaiee, a ia?aie/eaathnue eeoue aeaoiy – ieeoia?aoe/aneie (io eaoeineiai
pictus – ?eniaaiiue, ecia?aaeaiiue) e eaeaia?aoe/aneie (io a?a/aneiai
idea – iiiyoea).

Anee caaeaoueny oeaeueth iino?ieoue ?yae oi?i ieeoia?aoe/aneie
eioi?iaoeee, iai?eia? ii i?eciaeo oaaee/eaathuaeny ciaeiainoe eee, /oi
oi aea, – aic?anoaiey aano?aeoiinoe, oi oi?iu i?aaeuyaeaiey eioi?iaoeee,
?anniao?eaaaiua a yoii ?acaeaea, auno?iyony a oaeie ?yae: oioia?aoey >
oaoie/aneee ?enoiie > /a?oaae > noaia.

Oioia?aoey

Oioia?aoey eae niinia ecia?aaeaiey e eae n?aaenoai oeenaoeee
io?aaeaiey ?aaeueiuo i?aaeiaoia iauaeoeaii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
ieineinoiia ecia?aaeaiea, e ana aea /aeiaae a ninoiyiee i?aaeeueii
aini?eieiaoue ecia?aaeaiea iauaeoa – aaeaeo oiai, /oi ia oioia?aoee
noaaouaaaony i?ino?ainoaaiiia niioiioaiea iauaeoia aiaeiae/ii
/aeiaa/aneiio aeaeaieth.

I?e aini?eyoee iauaeoa iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui ieacuaaaony aai
oioia?aoey aac ooieoeeiiaeueiiai oiia; iyaeia ecia?aaeaiea, nio?aiythuaa
ana iieooiiiaua ia?aoiaeu, aini?eieiaaony ooaea, /ai eiio?anoiue
oioinieiie.

Oaoie/aneee ?enoiie

Eae i?aaeei, oaoie/aneee ?enoiie iiaeao iaania/eoue aeinoaoi/ioth
iao/ioth e oaoie/aneoth aeinoiaa?iinoue, oi/iinoue, /aoeinoue e yniinoue
ecia?aaeaiey iauaeoa. Ia oaoie/aneii ?enoiea ia i?inoi aini?iecaiaeyo
iniaaiiinoe ecia?aaeaaiiai iauaeoa, a, niciaoaeueii i?eiaiyy
iaiaoiaeeiue auai? inae, eo iieiaeaiey e ?acia?iua ioiioaiey ii inyi,
oi/ii ia?aaeatho oi?io, iauaiiinoue, iniiaiua i?iii?oeee e iacia/aiea
i?aaeiaoa, /oi iicaieyao eco/eoue aai ii a?aoe/aneiio ecia?aaeaieth.

Ineoieiae/anee iaeeo/oei ii aini?eyoeth neaaeoao n/eoaoue ia
eciiao?e/aneia eee aeeiao?e/aneia, a ia?niaeoeaiia ecia?aaeaiea
i?aaeiaoa.

Iiieiaiea oaoie/aneeo ?enoieia, a iauai, ia eiaao nouanoaaiiuo
?acee/ee n iiieiaieai oioia?aoee aiaeiae/iuo iauaeoia ia iaeo?aeueiii,
“ionoii” oiia.

*a?oaae

*a?oaae iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae a?aoe/aneia iino?iaiea, niaea?aeauaa
oneiaiia ecia?aaeaiea i?aaeiaoa, iieo/aiiia iaoiaeaie i?iaoee?iaaiey a
aeaea?oiaie nenoaia eii?aeeiao.

Eae neaaeoao ec yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee, iaee/ea /a?oaaeae a
ia/aoiii oaenoiaii niiauaiee niinianoaoao aai aieaa aeoaieiio
iiieiaieth. I?e/ai aeaaea iaee/ea eee ionoonoaea iiae?enoii/iiai
iienaiey ono?ienoaa e aai /anoae ia ieacuaaei nouanoaaiiiai aeeyiey ia
aeoaeio iiieiaiey niiauaiey.

Noaia

Ethaay noaia, ioia?aaeathuay oaoie/aneee iauaeo, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
i?iaeoeo aano?aae?iaaiey n oeaeueth iieaca eeoue naiiai nouanoaaiiiai,
i?eioeeieaeueiiai a iai. ?aaioa ni noaiie i?aaeiieaaaao ii?aaeaeaiiue
o?iaaiue ?acaeoey i?ino?ainoaaiiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee e iuoeaiey. *oaiea
noai i?aaeiieaaaao iaeioi?ia ecia/aeueiia iiieiaiea acaeiiioiioaiee
iaaeaeo ii?aaeaeaiiuie oaoie/aneeie iauaeoaie eee oceaie iaeiiai
iauaeoa.

Oaeei ia?acii, /oaiea noai naycaii n niioianaieai aa ciaeiauo oi?i n
?acee/iuie eiino?oeoeeyie, o.a. ciaeiaiai e ?aaeueiiai, a a ?yaea
neo/aaa oaeaea n iia?e?iaaieai i?ino?ainoaaiiuie aeeiaie/aneei ia?acaie.
Ia i?aaeeueiinoue aini?eyoey e iiieiaiey noaiu eae iaeiiai ec aaaeiaeoeo
aeaeia iaiauaiiie iaaeyaeiinoe ieacuaaao aeeyiea e ?acee/iia
?aniieiaeaiea oneiaiuo ecia?aaeaiee.

Enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua eniuooaiua i?e ?aoaiee
noaiiuo caaea/ eniieuecotho onaiaiiua ?aiaa aioiaua i?eaiu e iia?e?otho
ia yeaiaioaie, a oceaie noai. A neo/aa cao?oaeiaiey i?e ?aoaiee caaea/ n
iiiiuueth aioiauo i?eaiia iie i?eaaaatho e iaoiaeo i?ia e ioeaie eee
ya?enoe/aneiio. Iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua eniuooaiua /aua eniieuecotho iaoiae
i?ia e ioeaie, ii n i?eia?aoaieai iaeioi?iai iiuoa ia?aoiaeyo e
ya?enoe/aneiio.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi nouanoaotho eeannu iauaeoia, iiaeaeathueony
au?aaeaieth oieueei a aeaea noaiu, e eeannu iauaeoia, eioi?ua iiaeii
iiaeaoue oieueei a aeaea /a?oaaea.

Iaaeaeo yoeie a?aie/iuie eeannaie anoue iaoe?iue eeann iauaeoia,
aeiioneathuee ioia?aaeaiea eae a aeaea noaiu, oae e a aeaea /a?oaaea.

Noaia iiaeao ecia?aaeaoue ia oieueei i?aaeiaou, aauiua iauaeou, ii e
i?ioeannu, eiiioieeaoeee, o?aaeoi?ee aeaeaeaiey e ae?.

Eiyooeoeeaio eioi?iaoeaiie cia/eiinoe (ioiioaiea aeiee nouiinoiie
eioi?iaoeee e iieiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie aieinoe niiauaiey) aeey noaiu,
i/aaeaeii, aoaeao aeecie e aaeeieoea, a aeey /a?oaaea cia/eoaeueii
ieaea.

Ieeoia?aiia

Yoa oi?ia i?aaeuyaeaiey eioi?iaoeee auiieiyao ianeieueei ooieoeee:

1. a ia?aciie, a?inathuaeny a aeaca oi?ia iieacaoue eiee/anoaaiiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee eaeiai-eeai yaeaiey, i?ioeanna, iauaeoa;

2. iieacaoue ianoi?aniieiaeaiea oiai eee eiiai iauaeoa;

3. iieacaoue ooieoeeiiaeueiia iacia/aiea i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey eee
eiaeeeaoeee;

4. iieacii neooaoeee eee iauaeoa einie?e?iaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiue oei
iiaaaeaiey ?aoeeieaioa eee aicaea?aeaiea io ii?aaeaeaiiuo iinooieia;

5. neoaeeoue oiaa?iui ciaeii.

4. Eaeaia?aoe/aneea ciaeiaua nenoaiu

E iei ioiinyony: a?aoee, aenoia?aiia, aeeaa?aiia, oaaeeoea, oi?ioea,
iiiia?aiia.

Eaeaia?aoe/aneee aeae naiaioe/aneie eioi?iaoeee ii n?aaiaieth n
ieeoia?aoe/aneei niiniaai e ia?aaea/a aieaa ne?uouo io
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aini?eyoey naienoa e iniaaiiinoae eco/aaiiai iauaeoa
eee aai o?aaiaioa.

A?aoee

Iiae a?aoeeii iau/ii iiieiatho niaieoiiinoue ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii
i?aaieciaaiiuo eeiee, au?aaeathueo eiee/anoaaiioth caaeneiinoue
acaeiinaycaiiuo aaee/ei.

A?aoeee aeatho aiciiaeiinoue iaaeyaeiiai aini?eyoey ?aciiai ?iaea
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo caaeneiinoae, a oii /enea e oaeeo, eioi?ua
i?eioeeieaeueii iaaiciiaeii iaaethaeaoue aecoaeueii.

Iaeaieueoae yooaeoeaiinoueth iaeaaeatho a?aoeee n iaeiie
ia?aiao?e/aneie eeieae, caoai – n iyoueth, iioii – n o?aiy.

A?eoiaoe/aneee ianooaa ii n?aaiaieth n eiaa?eoie/aneei iiauoaao
yooaeoeaiinoue a?aoeeia aieaa, /ai a 3 ?aca.

Eii?aeeiaoiay naoea oaaee/eaaao yooaeoeaiinoue a?aoeeia
i?eaeeceoaeueii ia 30%.

Iiaeii ecia?aceoue oaeou i?e iiiiue a?aoeeia eee aeeaa?aii oaeei
ia?acii, /oi i?aaenoaaeaiea i ieo aoaeao niaa?oaiii iaaa?iui, oioy a
naieo ?enoieao iiaeao e ia auoue ie/aai ia/anoiiai. *anoi iai?aaeeueii
aua?aiiue ianooaa iaeiie ec inae a?aoeea (eee niioiioaiea ianooaaia
inae) yaeyaony i?e/eiie eiaeiuo aia/aoeaiee i i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ia
a?aoeeao caaeneiinoyo.

Ianooaa aeieaeai auoue ianoieueei aieueoei, /oiau auea aiciiaeiinoue
naiaiaeii ?acee/aoue nouanoaaiiua aeey aeaiiiai a?aoeea caaeneiinoe, ii
ia a oaeie ia?a aieueoei, /oiau “auiy/eaaoue” ianouanoaaiiua
eiee/anoaaiiua eee ea/anoaaiiua aai oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Aenoia?aiia

Aenoia?aiiu i?eiaiythony a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ia iaeiie ec inae –
eee ia iaaeo – ioeiaeaiu aeene?aoiua aaee/eiu.

Naieioe/aneee aiaeec aenoia?aii iieacuaaao, /oi eo eioi?iaoeeiiiua
aiciiaeiinoe iaiueoa, /ai o a?aoeeia. Iai?eia?, cao?oaeieoaeueii
iino?ieoue aenoia?aiio n aieueoei eiee/anoaii noieaeeia. Oaeea
aenoia?aiiu, e?iia oiai, oa?ytho naia iniiaiia i?aeiouanoai –
iaaeyaeiinoue – e o?oaeiiaini?eieiaaiu.

Ii e?eoa?eth yooaeoeaiinoe aenoia?aiiu a ii?yaeea oaaee/eaathuaeny
o?oaeiinoe ?ani?aaeaeythony oae: noieaeeiaay, iieeoaeoi?iay, neiaeiay,
e?oaiaay.

Aeeaa?aiia

Aeeaa?aiia – a?aoe/aneia iino?iaiea, iaaeyaeii iieacuaathuaa
niioiioaiea iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie aaee/eiaie. Eae i?aaeei, iia ia eiaao
inae n iaianaiiuie ia ieo oeaeaie. Ia aeeaa?aiia eaaeaeay aaee/eia
i?aaenoaaeaia i?yiieeiaeiui io?aceii, aaiiao?e/aneie oeao?ie
(i?yiioaieueieeii, e?oaii eee aieaa neiaeiui aaiiao?e/aneei
iino?iaieai).

Naieioe/aneee aiaeec aeeaa?aii iieacuaaao, /oi iie eae oi?ia
i?aaeuyaeaiey eioi?iaoeee auiieiytho ii/oe ana ooieoeee, auiieiyaiua
aenoia?aiiaie. Iaeiaei ionoonoaea eii?aeeiaoiuo inae n iaianaiiuie ia
ieo oeaeaie eae au eeoatho aeeaa?aiiu “iauaai ciaiaiaoaey”, o.a. ciaiey
i aeeeia aeoaaeoa, aeeaiaciia aiciiaeiuo eciaiaiee ia?aiao?e/aneeo
oi/ae.

A ii?yaeea oaaee/aiey a?aiaie aini?eyoey oeiu aeeaa?aii
?ani?aaeaeythony oae: noieaeeiaua > eaioi/iua > e?oaiaua.

Iaeioi?ia i?aeiouanoai ii e?eoa?eth yooaeoeaiinoe eiatho aeeaa?aiiu n
eiaeeeaoeeae ia ecia?aaeaiee ii n?aaiaieth n auianaiiie. Eiaeeeaoeey
aeeaa?aii (eae, enoaoe, e oeaeu a?aoeeia e aenoia?aii) aeieaeia auoue
iaeneiaeueii /eoaaaeueiie.

Oaaeeoea

Oaaeeoea – naiae /eneiauo (eiiaaea aoeaaiiuo) aeaiiuo, ?anienaiiue ii
a?aoai (noieaeeai) e no?ieai. Oaaeeoeu auaatho iaeiiiai?aaeaiiua,
aeaoiai?aaeaiiua e iiiaiiai?aaeaiiua.

Aii?in i i?aaeii/oeoaeueiinoe a?aoeea (aenoia?aiiu, aeeaa?aiiu) eee
oaaeeoeu nii?ai.

A?aoeee eiatho oi aeinoieinoai, /oi onoaiaaeeaatho caaeneiinoue
iaaeaeo aeaoiy eee ianeieueeeie ia?aiaiiuie, e i?aa?auay oeeo?u a eeiee
eee aeiee, eo/oa iicaieytho aeiaaeueii ioaaoeoue iiiaeanoai
?acoeueoaoia, /ai oaaeeoeu, /anoi ia?aa?oaeaaiua neeoeii iieiie
eioi?iaoeeae.

O. ?inn Yoae n/eoaao, /oi oaaee/iay oi?ia i?aaenoaaeaiey eioi?iaoeee
iaeaaeaao iaeiei i/aiue aaaeiui i?aeiouanoaii: iia niaea?aeeo oieueei
oaeou e ie/aai aieueoa.

Ae.E. Iaiaeaeaaa, i?eaaaioa e oaaee/iiio iaoiaeo, ioe?ue
ia?eiaee/aneee caeii, onoaiiaee naycue iaaeaeo ecaanoiuie a aai a?aiy
oeie/aneeie yeaiaioaie, ii e oniaoii i?iaiice?iaae ioe?uoea iiauo
yeaiaioia, oeacaa eo aaaeiaeoea oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Naieioe/aneee aiaeec, iniiaaiiue ia ?anniio?aiee nouiinoiuo
iniaaiiinoae a?aoeeia e oaaeeoe n oi/ee c?aiey eo eioi?iaoeaiuo
aiciiaeiinoae, iieacuaaao neaaeothuaa.

Oaaeeoeu e a?aoeee (aenoia?aiiu, aeeaa?aiiu) acaeiii o?ainoi?ie?oaiu,
eiaa?niu a oii niunea, /oi anth eioi?iaoeeiiioth aieinoue oaaeeoeu
iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea a?aoeea.

I?e n/eouaaiee eioi?iaoeee ec oaaeeoe yenia?eiaioaeueii ia
iaia?oaeaia caaeneiinoue eiee/anoaa ioeaie io eiee/anoaa a?ao a
oaaeeoea.

Ia n/eouaaiea iieacaiee oaaeeoeu ooiaeeo i?eia?ii a 2,5 ?aca aieueoa
a?aiaie, /ai ia n/eouaaiea iieacaiee a?aoeeia.

N?aaeiyy ioiineoaeueiay ioeaea i?e n/eouaaiee iieacaiee a?aoeeia
i?eia?ii a 4 ?aca auoa, /ai i?e n/eouaaiee eioi?iaoeee ec oaaeeoe.

Oi?ioea

Iiae oi?ioeie iau/ii iiieiatho iauaa oi?iaeeciaaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea
eaeiai-eeai i?aaeea, ioiioaiey, caeiia, no?oeoo?iie noaiu aauanoaa e
o.i., i?eiaieiia a ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo ei anai /anoiui neo/ayi,
au?aaeaiiia /eneaie eee aoeaaie (eee oai e ae?oaei) e niaaeeiaiiia
iaoaiaoe/aneeie ciaeaie e neiaieaie.

Iaeaieaa iioeiaeueiia oiio?aaeaiea iaoaiaoe/aneie neiaieeee – yoi
aeiiieiaiea aa neiaaniuie iiyniaieyie.

Naieioe/aneee aiaeec i?aeiouanoa e iaaeinoaoeia oi?ioe iicaieytho
naeaeaoue oaeea auaiaeu.

Oi?ioea, eae i?aaeei, eiaao cia/eoaeueii aieueooth eioi?iaoeaioth
aieinoue, /ai oaaeeoea eee iiiia?aiia, iineieueeo iia aieaa
oieaa?naeueia. Oieaa?naeueiinoue oi?ioeu, ?acoiaaony, ia aaca?aie/ia –
iia eiaao /aoei i/a?/aiiue aeeaiacii i?eiaieiinoe.

Noaiaiue iaaeyaeiinoe oi?ioeu e oaaeeoeu i?eia?ii iaeeiaeiaa, ii
noaiaiue “iaaeyaeiinoe” oi?ioeu ii?aaeaeyaony o?iaiai iaoaiaoe/aneie
iiaeaioiaee noauaeoa, a o?aaiaaiey e iiaeaioiaea noauaeoa i?e aini?eyoee
oaaeeoeu cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa.

Iaaeyaeiinoue eae oaaeeoe, oae e oi?ioe ia iaiin?aaenoaaiia, iia
i?iaeoeo aiaeeoe/aneie ?aaiou iuoeaiey.

Nouanoaaiiue iaaeinoaoie oi?ioe ii n?aaiaieth n oaaeeoeaie oio, /oi
oi?ioea niinianoaoao ia?aciaaieth eeethcee iai?a?uaiinoe
ooieoeeiiaeueiie caaeneiinoe – aeaaea a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea aa iao.

Niaeanii yenia?eiaioaeueiui aeaiiui oaaee/aiea a oi?ioea /enea
ia?aiaiiuo io 2 aei 4 aucuaaao oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa ioeaie aieaa, /ai a
2 ?aca; io 4 aei 6 – aieaa, /ai a 6 ?ac.

Ia au/eneaiey ii oi?ioeai ooiaeeo i?eia?ii a 20 ?ac aieueoa a?aiaie,
/ai ia n/eouaaiea iieacaiee oaaeeoe.

Oi?ioea – iaeaieaa eiioeaio?e?iaaiiay, iaeaieaa aieay oi?ia
i?aaeuyaeaiey eioi?iaoeee.

Iiiia?aiia

Yoi iniaia a?aoe/aneia iino?iaiea, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai ii
iaiai?aiiui i?aaeeai iiaeii aac au/eneaiee iieo/aoue ?aoaiea o?aaiaiee
(oi?ioe), aeey eioi?uo iiiia?aiiu niaoeeaeueii iino?iaiu. Iiiia?aiia –
yoi aaiiao?e/aneay iiaeaeue oi?ioeu.

Yenia?eiaio iieacuaaao, /oi iiiia?aiiu ianeieueei (nianai
iacia/eoaeueii) i?iea?uaatho ia?aae oi?ioeaie a oi/iinoe, ii
cia/eoaeueii auea?uaatho a auno?ioa ?aoaiee.

Anoue niune no?ieoue (e i?eiaiyoue) iiiia?aiiu aeey oi?ioe, eiathueo
ia aieaa 6-7 ia?aiaiiuo. I?e aieueoai eo eiee/anoaa ?acei nieaeaaony
oi/iinoue ?aoaiey e aic?anoaao aeeeoaeueiinoue iienea ioaaoa.

Iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?acii no?ieoue niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua iiiia?aiiu aeey
oi?ioe n 2-3 ia?aiaiiuie, eiaaea aeeaiacii aiciiaeiuo eciaiaiee
ia?aiaiiuo iaaaeee.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Aioiiia A.A. Eioi?iaoeey: aini?eyoea e iiieiaiea. Eeaa: Iaoeiaa
aeoiea, 1988.

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