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Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Iiaineae?neee Aoiaieoa?iue Einoeooo

Ineoieiai – oeeinioneee oaeoeueoao

OAIA

O?ainaeoiue aiaeec eae ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneia n?aaenoai a ?aaioa n
eeeaioii

Auioneiay eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiay ?aaioa

nooaeaioee 5-ai eo?na

cai/iiai iao/aiey

A?ei/aiei Naaoeaiu Ieeieaaaiu

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

a?a/ – ineoioa?aiaao

Eaa/aiei Eaai Eaaiiae/

Aeaoa caueou

Ioeaiea

Iiaineae?ne 2001

NIAeA?AEAIEA:

Aaaaeaiea………………………………………………………
………………………………………….3

Aeaaa I. Ineoioa?aiey eae oieaa?naeueiia n?aaenoai oi?ie?iaaiey

ineoe/aneiai caei?iauey
ethaeae……………………………………………………….6

§ 1. Ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneia aicaeaenoaea ia
ee/iinoue…………………………………6

§ 2. O?ainaeoiue
aiaeec…………………………………………………………
………………15

§ 3. A?a/aaii – ineoieiae/aneee oeaio? “Ee/iinoue”,

i?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou e
oaoiieiaey……………………………………………………..
23

Aeaaa II. I?aeoeea o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca

Yenia?eiaioaeueiia
enneaaeiaaiea……………………………………………..26

§ 1. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay oa?aiey o?ainaeoiiai
aiaeeca………………………………….26

§ 2. Auyaeaiea yai-ninoiyiee a a?oiiiaie oa?aiee OA,

aiaeec acaeiiaeaenoaee, aiaeec
ea?……………………………………………………35

Caeeth/aiea…………………………………………………….
………………………………………..43

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie
eeoa?aoo?u……………………………………………………..
……46

I?eeiaeaiea
1……………………………………………………………..
…………………………….48

I?eeiaeaiea
2……………………………………………………………..
…………………………….50

I?eeiaeaiea
3……………………………………………………………..
…………………………….54

I?eeiaeaiea
4……………………………………………………………..
…………………………….55

I?eeiaeaiea
5……………………………………………………………..
…………………………….56

I?eeiaeaiea
6……………………………………………………………..
…………………………….57

Neiaa?ue oa?ieiieiaee
OA…………………………………………………………….
……………60

AAAAeAIEA

“…o eaaeaeiai a?aiaie naie iaa?icu –

e eaaeaeiio a?aiaie o?aaoaony naiy

ineoioa?aiey.”

Aeeoi? O?aiee

Naaiaeiy a iaoae no?aia iii?inoo o?oaeii ano?aoeoue /aeiaaea aac i?iaeai
ineoieiae/aneie aaeaioaoeee eee aea ineoe/aneeo ?anno?ienoa. O eiai ia
iaia?oaeeaaaony iacaaiiuo ia?ooaiee, oa /anoi aeaiiino?e?otho
caaeneiinoue io ineoe/anee aeoeaiuo aauanoa.

AEeciue iauanoaa naaiaeiy o?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue aac aeeiaiey, oaaaea.
Ana aieaa aeanoii cayaeytho i naaa ia?eioeee. “Eiaaea o /aeiaaea ia
auyaeyaony ineoieiae/aneeo i?iaeai, ineoe/aneie aaeaioaoeee eee
caaeneiinoae io ineoe/anee aeoeaiuo aauanoa, aaaeii ecia?eoue aai
eioaeeaeo. E anee ?acoeueoaou ecia?aiey eioaeeaeoa iieacuaatho ii?io,
iiaeii aiai?eoue i /aeiaaea, ninoaaeythuai n/anoeeaia eneeth/aiea ec
aeanoeeo i?aaee iaoaai auoey”, – oae n/eoaao i?ioanni?, i?aceaeaio
ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneie eeae A.A. Iaea?ia.

A iaoae no?aia, eae e ae?oaeo, naiui aeaaiui iaoeeiiaeueiui aiaaonoaii e
iniiaiuie iaoeeiiaeueiuie ?ano?naie yaeythony ethaee, a?aaeaeaia no?aiu.
Ianeieueei iieieaiee ethaeae a iaoae no?aia auee caaeaou, ca/a?iaaiu,
caii?iaeaiu iaeiei, i?eciaiiui aaeeinoaaiii i?aaeeueiui, acaeyaeii ia
aaue, ia aeeciue, ia naay e ae?oaeo ethaeae. E yoi i?eaiaeeei a ooiee.

O?e eee aeaaea /aou?a iieieaiey aeeoaeae iaoae no?aiu aeeee a niaaoneoth
yiioo, a?aiy, aiieia aeinoaoi/iia aeey oiai, /oiau yoe ethaee noaee
iineoaeyie iniaiai ie?iaicc?aiey, caiyaoaa i?i/iia ianoi a niciaiee e
aanniciaoaeueiii.

Aeey oi?ie?iaaiey aeeciaiiiai noeaia?ey eee iainiciaaaaiiai ieaia aeecie
ioaeii o?e iieieaiey, /oi oaaaeeoaeueii iieacae Y. Aa?i (1971). Yoi
ioe?uoea ii au?acee a e?aoeie o?aca: “Aeey oiai, /oiau ainieoaoue eaaee,
ioaeii ia/aoue n aaaooee.”

Ii iaoei aeaiiui, naaiaeiy oaea ?iaeeeenue yoe naiua aaaooee, aio/ee
eioi?uo niiaoo noaoue eaaee. Nae/an ei, yoei aaaooeai, ia aieaa
naie-ainueie eao.

Oaia?ue iu aeeaai a eiie ?aaeueiinoe eee aeaaea a eiuo ?aaeueiinoyo,
?acei ioee/athueony io niaaoneeo. I?ioeai?a/ey neiaeeaoeony aeeciaiiuo
noeaia?eaa e o?aaiaaiee nioeeaeueiie aeecie i?eaiaeyo e ineoieiae/aneie
ianoaaeeueiinoe, e ineoiniiaoe/aneei, ineoe/aneei e ia?eieiae/aneei
?anno?ienoaai. E aeaaea anee a aeecie iaoae no?aiu aieueoa ia aoaeao
noieue ?aceeo iio?ynaiee e iiai?ioia, oi aunieay iio?aaiinoue a
niaoeeaeenoao a iaeanoe ineoe/aneiai caei?iauey aoaeao oaea?aeeaaoueny
ia i?ioyaeaiee aeecie ia iaiaa /ai o?ao-/aou?ao iieieaiee, oi anoue a
oa/aiee oeaeiai aaea.

Ianeieueei iieieaiee ethaeae a iaoae no?aia aeeee a iaeiie ?aaeueiinoe –
a ?aaeueiinoe iino?iaiey eiiioiecia… E eiiioienoe/aneay eaeaieiaey
caieiaeanue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui ainieoaieai /aeiaaea a aeooa
eieeaeoeaecia.

Iinea ?ac?ooaiey eaeaieiaee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia ?acaeoea /aeiaaea o ian a
no?aia noaei ie/ueae oa??eoi?eae. A iaaeaeo oai yoa oa??eoi?ey aeieaeia
i?eiaaeeaaeaoue eoeueoo?a. Ineoioa?aiey e ninoaaeyao cia/eoaeueioth
/anoue eoeueoo?u.

Ineoioa?aiey – yoi, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ie?iaicc?aiea e oeeinioey aeecie,
n ae?oaie noi?iiu – iaai? i?aeoe/aneeo i?eaiia e oaoiieiaee aeinoeaeaiee
iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae. Ana yoi i?eaaei e iiauoaiiiio eioa?ano a iaoae
no?aia e ?acee/iui ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneei iai?aaeaieyi, a /anoiinoe – e
?ac?aaioaiiiio Y. Aa?iii iaiaa iieoaaea iacaae o?ainaeoiiio aiaeeco,
eioi?ue naaiaeiy i?eciai ai anai ie?a e ao?ii i?ia?anne?oao, iiyoiio
aua?aiioth iiith oaio eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiie ?aaiou “O?ainaeoiue aiaeec eae
ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneia n?aaenoai a ?aaioa n eeeaioii” n/eoath aeooaeueiie
aeey iaoaai a?aiaie.

Iauaeoii aeaiiie ?aaiou yaeyaony oai?ey e i?aeoeea nia?aiaiiie
ineoioa?aiee.

I?aaeiaoii yaeyaony o?ainaeoiue aiaeec a eiioaenoa ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneiai
aicaeaenoaey ia ee/iinoue e iaaeee/iinoiua ioiioaiey.

Oeaeue ?aaiou:

oai?aoe/aneia iainiiaaiea iaoiaeee o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca ?aciuie
aaoi?aie;

yenia?eiaioaeueiay i?iaa?ea ia iniiaa ?aaiou ineoieiae/aneiai oeaio?a
“Ee/iinoue” iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii ineoioa?aiaaoa Eaa/aiei E.E.

Caaea/e:

ia iniiaa eco/aiey ineoieiae/aneie eeoa?aoo?u i?iaiaeece?iaaoue yoe
oeaee;

eco/eoue iiuo i?aaiecaoeee ?aaiou e oaoiieiaee oeaio?a “Ee/iinoue”,
?aniieiaeaiiiai ii aae?ano: a. Iaaeiaea?, oe. Oi?aeau?iaa 81;

i?ineaaeeoue yenia?eiaioaeueioth i?aeoeeo ?aaiou a?a/a-ineoioa?aiaaoa
Eaa/aiei E.E.

?aaioa a oeaio?a “Ee/iinoue” i?iaiaeeeanue a oa/aiea oanoe ianyoeaa. A
i?ioeanna nai?a eioi?iaoeee auea noi?ioee?iaaia aeiioaca i oii, /oi
o?ainaeoiue aiaeec yaeyaony oieaa?naeueiui n?aaenoaii (ioe?uoui e
aeinooiiui) a ?ac?aoaiee aioo?eee/iinoiuo i?iaeai e iaaeee/iinoiuo
ioiioaiee.

AEAAA I. INEOIOA?AIEss EAE OIEAA?NAEUeIIA N?AAeNOAI OI?IE?IAAIEss
INEOE*ANEIAI CAeI?IAUess ETHAeAE

§ 1. Ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneia aicaeaenoaea ia ee/iinoue

Ineoioa?aiey eae iaiouaieaiay /anoue eoeueoo?u e naiinoiyoaeueiay
i?ioanney a iaoae no?aia oieueei ia/eiaao ?acaeaaoueny. Aei ianoiyuaai
a?aiaie iia auea ioaeaia iaaeeoeeia (Aaeueaianeee E.C., 1966; Ii?icia
A.A., 1977; Eaaaiia I.I., 1978; ?iaeiia A.A., 1979 e ae?.), a aioo?e
iaaeeoeeiu noaea ioaeaeueiie niaoeeaeueiinoueth oieueei a 1985 aiaeo. E
ia ioae?aii, /oi a?a/e – oe?o?ae, aeooa?u, eioaeoeeiienou e ae?oaea – ia
n/eoatho ineoioa?aieth iieiinoueth iaaeeoeeineie niaoeeaeueiinoueth.

A eiioea 70-o aiaeia iaoe caia/aoaeueiua ineoieiae A.A.Caeaa?iee e N.E.
?oaeiooaei inoi?iaeii iiaeiyee aii?in i i?aaa ineoieiaia caieiaoueny
ineoioa?aieae, ii eieoeeaoeaa ia i?ioea. Ia oi, /oiau ana ieacaeinue
iai?anii – iao. Ineoieiae ia?anoaee auoue iocaeiie ?aaeeinoueth, a
iaaeeoeeia iiyaeeanue niaoeeaeueiinoue – iaaeeoeeineay ineoieiaey,
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eioi?ie iiaee noaoue e ineoieiae, e a?a/e. Ii eueaeioth
aeieth iaaeeoeeineie ineoieiaee ninoaaeyee ineoiaeeaaiinoeea e
aeaaeaie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey.

A iaoa a?aiy ?aaeueiay neooaoeey noaea cia/eoaeueii oe?a e aea/a
eino?oeoeee, e i?aeoe/anee ineoieiae naaiaeiy ?aaioatho eae
ineoioa?aiaaou aeaaea /aua a?a/ae.

Aio /oi ii yoiio iiaiaeo aiai?eo i?ioanni? A.A, Iaea?ia :”Eaaeaeue
/aeiaae, ii ?iaeo naiae aeayoaeueiinoe nii?eeanathueeny n ethaeueie,
caieiaaony ineoioa?aieae! E aeaeaao yoi aa?aaeueii e iaaa?aaeueii,
iniciaii eee aanniciaoaeueii, i?eiiny naieie aeaenoaeyie iaeaa/aiea e
iieueco ethaeyi eee onoaoaeyy eo i?iaeaiu. Eaaeaeia acaeiiaeaenoaea
iaaeaeo ethaeueie ianao a naaa e ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneia iineaiea. E
aaaeii, eae aeiii? ia?aaeaao yoi iineaiea, a ?aoeeieaio i?eieiaao aai”
[18, c.8].

Iniiaiua oeaee ineoioa?aiee – ainieoaiea aeaeinoe, oiaiey iaoiaeeoue
iiaua, yooaeoeaiua no?aoaaee iiaaaeaiey; iaeaieeaaoue e ?aoeeiiaeueii
eniieueciaaoue yia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu; ecuneeaaoue, nio?aiyoue e
?acaeaaoue ?ano?niua ninoiyiey; iaania/eaaoue aeoeaiinoue, yiooceaci,
iioeieci, nio?aiyoue e ?acaeaaoue caei?iauea.

A 1966 aiaeo a Iineianeii Oeaio?aeueiii einoeoooa oniaa?oainoaiaaiey
a?a/ae auea ioe?uoa eaoaae?a ineoioa?aiee. Aa caaaaeothuei noae
i?ioanni? A.A. ?iaeiia.

Ia aaca eaoaae?u a iineaaeothuai aue noi?ie?iaai Ananithciue oeaio?
ineoioa?aiee. Eaoaae?a e oeaio? caieiaeenue a iniiaiii aeiiicii,
aooiaaiiie o?aie?iaeie, ?aoeeiiaeueiie e a?oiiiaie ineoioa?aieae.

Neiaeeaoayny oeiea ineoioa?aiee iacuaaeanue Iineianeie. Iia
niioaaonoaiaaea caeaco oioaeeoa?iiai iauanoaa, ii, ianiio?y ia yoi, a aa
iaae?ao neeaaeuaaeenue iiaua, aaoi?neea iai?aaeaiey ineoioa?aiee.
Iai?eia?, ?acaeaaeanue eiioeaioeey yiioeeaiaeueii-no?anniaie
ineoioa?aiee, eeeie/aneay oa?aiey aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u.

Eiie oi/ee c?aiey i?eaea?aeeaaeenue o/aiua a Eaieia?aaeneie oeiea
ineoioa?aiee. Iiiaea ec ieo ?aaioaee a Iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneii
ineoiiaa?ieiae/aneii einoeoooa ei. A.I. Aaooa?aaa e ?acaeaaee eaeae A.I.
Iyneuaaa. Caeanue ecaaaaee aeiiica e caieiaeenue
ee/iinoii-i?eaioe?iaaiiie ineoioa?aieae, i?e/ai eae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie,
oae e a?oiiiaie.

E?iia aeaoo aeaaiuo, ioeoeeaeueiuo oeie, ?acaeaaeenue e ae?oaea
iai?aaeaiey a ineoioa?aiee.

N?aaee ieo a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue “Iaoiae eioaineaiie ineoioa?aiee aeecie”
aeieoi?a A.A. Aeaenae/eea ec Aeeueithna e “Nianeoaeueiue e?oa” aeieoi?a
I.I. Iayeeia ec Ieaeiaai Iiaai?iaea.

I?eiaieoaeueii e naaiaeiyoiaio aeith e a Iineaa, e a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa
nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneeo ia/eiaiee, iai?aaeaiee,
eiioeaioeee, eieeaeoeaia e a?oii.

Iu aeeaai a iaaa?iyoiia a?aiy, eiaaea enoi?ey aeaeaaony eaaeaeue aeaiue,
i?yii o ian ia aeacao e ca/anooth n iaoei o/anoeai. A aieueoae ia?a yoi
eanaaony e ineoioa?aiee. Ec anao iaaeeoeeineeo niaoeeaeueiinoae, caiyouo
ineoe/aneei caei?iaueai, ineoioa?aiey i?aoa?iaea iaeaieueoea eciaiaiey.

A iaoae ioeoeeaeueiie, i?ioanneiiaeueiie eeoa?aoo?a iaeiiaoe-oi
iiyaeeenue iienaiey nia?aiaiiuo caiaaeiuo iaoiaeia ineoioa?aiee. Iaeia
ec ia?auo, auoaaeoeo a naao, auea eieaa i?ioanni?a A.Ae. Ea?aana?neiai
“Ineoioa?aiey”. A eieaa iao/ii eceaaaeenue eiioeaioeee e iiaeoiaeu,
i?eaiaeeeenue oaeou.

Niaoeeaeenou e iauanoaaiiinoue iaoae no?aiu ia/eiatho n ainoi?aii
ciaeiieoueny n caiaaeiuie iaoiaeaie ineoioa?aiee.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu inaiaieai iiauo iaoiaeia aeoeaii caieiaeenue e
ainoaea?noaaiiua, e iaainoaea?noaaiiua o/aaiua no?oeoo?u ii anae no?aia.
A /enea iaoiaeia, i?eia?aooeo noaaeeueioth iiioey?iinoue iiaeii
iacaaoue: aaooaeueo-oa?aieth, a?oii-aiaeec, iae?ieeiaaenoe/aneia
i?ia?aiie?iaaiea, ineoiae?aio, ineoineioac, oaeanii i?eaioe?iaaiioth
ineoioa?aieth, o?ainia?niiaeueioth ineoioa?aieth, o?ainaeoiue aiaeec,
ineoiaiaeec (i?aceaeaio ?innee a 1996 aiaeo ecaeae niaoeeaeueiue Oeac i
?acaeoee ineoiaiaeeca).

Ie? ineoioa?aiee ia i?inoi ?aciiia?acai – ii iaiaic?ei. Eaaeaeue
niaoeeaeeno aeaeeo eeoue eaeoth-oi aai /anoue. E iacuaaao oieueei yoo
/anoue ineoioa?aieae. Nouanoaoao aaeeeia iiiaeanoai ii?aaeaeaiee
ineoioa?aiee.

Aio, iai?eia?, /oi ienae I.N. Eaaaaeeineee a 1959 aiaeo:

“Ineoioa?aieae yaeyaony oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia, ieaiiia?iia, o/eouaathuaa ia
oieueei iniaaiiinoe e ninoiyiea i?aaiecia a oeaeii, ii e nioeeaeueioth
i?e?iaeo, ee/iinoue /aeiaaea, a?a/aaiia aicaeaenoaea ia ineoeeo a oeaeyo
ea/aiey aai ineoeee, aai ia?aiie nenoaiu, a niioaaonoaothueo neo/ayo e
anaai i?aaiecia a oeaeii.”

Ii iiaieth A.I. Nayaeiua, eioi?ia ii noi?ioee?iaae a 60-o aiaeao,
ineoioa?aiey – yoi ea/aiea eioi?iaoeeae.

I.E. Aoeue a 1974 aiaeo caiaoee, /oi “iniiaa ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneiai
aicaeaenoaey – ?a/aaia aicaeaenoaea a?a/a aai a?a/aaiui neiaii.”

Ia/eiay n 70-o aiaeia o ian a no?aia auei i?eiyoi ii?aaeaeaiea A.A.
?iaeiiaa: “Ineoioa?aiey anoue eiiieaeniia ea/aaiia aicaeaenoaea n
iiiiuueth ineoe/aneeo n?aaenoa ia ineoeeo aieueiiai, a /a?ac iaa e ia
aanue aai i?aaieci n oeaeueth ono?aiaiey aieaciaiiuo neiioiiia e
eciaiaiey ioiioaiey e naaa, naiaio ninoiyieth e ie?oaeathuae n?aaea.”

Anee aaeyaeaoueny, aaeoiaoueny a yoe ii?aaeaeaiey, iiaeii caiaoeoue, /oi
ana iie oae eee eia/a niaea?aeao a naaa iauea eeth/aaua neiaa, ?enothuea
ineoioa?aieth eae ninoaaioth /anoue iaaeeoeeiu: aieueiie, a?a/, ea/aiea.

Ii naaiaeiy, eiaaea e aeaeaciue, e eaeaieiae/aneee caiaaanu n aeecie
niyou, eiaaea iai noae aeinooiai aanue ?aiaa ne?uoue eee cai?auaiiue
iiuo ie?iaie ineoieiaee e ineoioa?aiee, ineoeao?u – ineoioa?aiaaou – oa,
eoi, ii au?aaeaieth I.A. Ao?ii, “iniiaaoaeueii iiaa?eeenue a eioea
aieueoie ineoeao?ee”, i?eoee e caeeth/aieth, /oi “aunieay ineoioa?aiey
anoue, a nouiinoe, oeaeaaiia iao/aiea iaoeeaioa eneonnoao aeecie e
ea/aiea n?aaenoaaie aeooe” [9, c.16].

ss iieiinoueth niaeania n yoei ii?aaeaeaieai, a aua iia i?aaeony oi/ea
c?aiey i?ioanni?a A.A. Iaea?iaa. Ii n/eoaao, /oi: “…ineoioa?aiey – yoi
i?ioeann ineoieiae/aneiai oii?yaei/aiey i?ioeiai, ianoiyuaai e
aoaeouaai, aeinoeaeaiea aa?iiiee n niaie e ie?ii a ianoiyuai.”

Aa?iiiey n niaie e ie?ii a ianoiyuai iiaeao auoue iieo/aia a neo/aa
iieiie naii?aaeecaoeee, iieiy, aeinoeaeaiey n/anouey. Aa iiaeii
noi?ioee?iaaoue e eae aunaiaiaeaeaiea iioaioeeaea /aeiaaea,
naiiaeooaeecaoeee e iiceoeaiie naii?aaoeyoeee, aeinoeaeaiey
aooaioe/iinoe, iiaeeeiiie /aeiaa/iinoe. Oaeia e?aoeia e aianoa n oai
oe?ieia iiieiaiea ineoioa?aiee iiaeao iaania/eoue aa ?acaeoea a
?acee/iuo iai?aaeaieyo [18, c.26].

I?eaaaeai e aieaa o?aaeeoeeiiiia, aeaoaeece?iaaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea.
Ineoioa?aiey – nenoaia ineoe/aneiai (ineoieiae/aneiai) aicaeaenoaey
neiaii, ieieeie, iie/aieai i?e iiiiue oaoiee, eciaiythueo ineoe/aneea
i?ioeannu e niiaoe/aneia ninoiyiea, aicaeaenoaey a?oiiu, niaoeeaeueii
i?aaieciaaiiie n?aaeu, ia ineoeeo, a /a?ac iaa e aanue i?aaieci /aeiaaea
eee a?oiio n oeaeueth ea/aiey eee i?ioeeaeoeee caaieaaaiey e ninoiyiee
aeacaaeaioaoeee, ?acaeoey caei?iauey eee aeinoeaeaiey ae?oaeo
noi?ioee?iaaiiuo oeaeae.

Yoi yeeaeoe/iia ii?aaeaeaiea, neiino?oe?iaaiiia n o/aoii i?aaenoaaeaiee
?yaea aaoi?eoaoiuo enneaaeiaaoaeae, a /anoiinoe, A.A. ?iaeiiaa e A.Ae.
Ea?aana?neiai, io?aaeaao ?acee/iua aniaeou i?aaeiaoa [18, c.27].

Iiaeii auaeaeeoue oanoue iiaeaeae oa?aiee: iaaeeoeeineoth,
ineoieiae/aneoth, iaaeaaiae/aneoth, oeeinioneoth, nioeeaeueioth e
iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiioth [Iaea?ia A.A., 1999].

Iieueneee ineoioa?aiaao Noaieneaa Eaaea? iienae /aou?a iniiaiua iiaeaee
ineoioa?aiee:

ineoioa?aiey eae iaoiae ea/aiey, aeeythuee ia ninoiyiea e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i?aaiecia a noa?a ineoe/aneeo e niiaoe/aneeo ooieoeee
(iaaeeoeeineay iiaeaeue ineoioa?aiee);

ineoioa?aiey eae iaoiae iaieioee?iaaiey, iinyuee oa?aeoa? eino?oiaioa e
neoaeauee oeaeyi iauanoaaiiiai eiio?iey (nioeeieiae/aneay iiaeaeue);

ineoioa?aiey eae eiiieaen yaeaiee, i?ienoiaeyueo a oiaea acaeiiaeaenoaey
iaaeaeo ethaeueie (oeeinioneay iiaeaeue ineoioa?aiee);

ineoioa?aiey eae iaoiae, eioi?ue i?eaiaeeo a aeaenoaea i?ioeann iao/aiey
(ineoieiae/aneay iiaeaeue).

Nouanoaiaaiea yoeo iiaeaeae, iauynieiia aicaeaenoaeai ?aciiia?aciuo
nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo, yeiiiie/aneeo e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia, ieacuaathueo
aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea ineoioa?aiee a nia?aiaiiii ie?a, caino?yao aii?in i
nioeeaeueiie ?aeaaaioiinoe oeaeaauo onoaiiaie a ineoioa?aiee, aa
ii?iaoeaiii aniaeoa. Yoio aniaeo io/aoeeai aunooiaao a ?aaioao E.E.
Ieaoiiiaa (1974), A.A. Oi?ioiaie (1978), A.I. Ecooeeia (1982), [10, c.
8].

ss inoaiiaethnue oieueei ia ineoieiae/aneie iiaeaee a ineoioa?aiee,
eioi?ay i?aaeiacia/aia aeey ?aoaiey i?iaeai, ia aeinoeaathueo o?iaiy
iaoieiaee, iaeiaei aeeythueo ia ?acaeoea ineoieiae/aneeo ooieoeee,
ee/iinoiue ?ino.

Auaeaeythony /aou?a aa?eaioa ineoioa?aiee ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe:
oa?aiey naa?oei?ioeay (naa?oauno?ay), ei?ioeay (auno?ay), aeeeoaeueiay
(iaaeeaiiay), naa?oaeeeoaeueiay (naa?oiaaeeaiiay), [18, c.33].

naa?oei?ioeay oa?aiey aeeeony ieioou e /anu, iai?aaeaia ia ?ac?aoaiea
aeooaeueiuo, eciee?iaaiiuo i?iaeai e eiioeeeoia; aeoaieeie ee/iinoiuie
i?iaeaiaie iia ia caieiaaony. Aa yooaeo iiaeao ioee/aoueny
ianoieeinoueth. I?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue iae?ieeiaaenoe/aneia
i?ia?aiie?iaaiea.

Ei?ioeay oa?aiey aeeeony a oa/aiea /ania e aeiae. Ee/iinoiui
niaea?aeaieai caieiaaony a i?aaeaeao iaiaoiaeeiiai ieieioia aeey ?aoaiey
aeooaeueiie i?iaeaiu. Aa yooaeoeaiinoue /anoi aieaa noieeay. Oa?aeoa?ii,
/oi iia eae au caioneaao i?ioeann eciaiaiey, eioi?ue i?iaeieaeaaony e
iinea caaa?oaiey oa?aiee. I?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue iaoiae
e?enoaeeecaoeee i?iaeai.

Iaaeeaiiay oa?aiey aeeeony ianyoeu. Iia caieiaaony ee/iinoiui
niaea?aeaieai i?iaeai. I?i?aaaouaaao iiiaeanoai aeaoaeae. Aa yooaeo
?acaeaaaony iaaeeaiii e iineo noieeee oa?aeoa?. I?eia?ii yaeyaony
o?ainaeoiue aiaeec.

Naa?oiaaeeaiiay oa?aiey aeeeony aiaeu. Iia caieiaaony niciaoaeueiui e
aanniciaoaeueiui eeeaioa. Iiiai a?aiaie iinayuaao aeinoeaeaieth
iiieiaiey nooe ia?aaeeaaiee. Iau/ii aieueooth ?ieue ioaiaeeo ?aiiaio
iiuoo /aeiaaea. Yooaeo naa?oiaaeeaiiie oa?aiee ?acaeaaaony iinoaiaiii,
iineo aeeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. A ?yaea neo/aaa ii caaeneo io nio?aiaiey
eiioaeoa iaaeaeo oa?aiaaoii e eeeaioii. I?eia?ii yaeyaony eeanne/aneee
ineoiaiaeec.

O eaaeaeiai iiaeoiaea nouanoaotho naie aaciaua oaoieee e i?eaiu.

Nouanoaotho oaeaea o?e aeaaiuo iiaeoiaea e i?ioannee ineoioa?aiaaoa:

i?eaa?aeaiiinoue iaeiie oai?ee, iaeiiio iiaeoiaeo;

yeeaeoeci – i?eaa?aeaiiinoue iiiaei iiaeoiaeai;

iauaoai?aoe/aneay i?eaioaoeey.

I?eaa?aeaiiinoue iaeiiio iiaeoiaeo aeaao, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aeoaieia
i?iieeiiaaiea a i?aaeiao, en/a?iuaathuea ciaiey oai?ee e i?aeoeee, a n
ae?oaie noi?iiu – ia?aie/aiey, naycaiiua eae ?ac n aiciiaeiinoyie
iaeiiai iiaeoiaea, iaeiiai iaoiaea.

Yeeaeoeci i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi niaoeeaeeno ciaao eia-/oi auai?i/iia ec
?acee/iuo oai?ee e i?aeoee. Ii iiaeao aeinoeaaoue yooaeoeaiinoe,
iniaaiii ia ia/aeueiuo yoaiao ?aaiou. E ana aea yoio niaoeeaeeno
aeinoaoi/ii nei?i noieeiaony n iaaeinoaoeaie naiae iiaa?oiinoiie
iiaeaioiaee, n ionoonoaeai iniiaiuo, noa?aeiaauo, aaciauo
i?aaenoaaeaiee.

Iauaoai?aoe/aneay i?eaioaoeey, eee iauee eiioeioaeueiue iiaeoiae, eee
nenoaiaoe/aneee yeeaeoeci – yoi oaeie i?ioanneiiaeueiue iiaeoiae, aaea
aia/aea niaoeeaeeno yaeyaony iineaaeiaaoaeai iaeiie oai?ee, eco/aao ana,
/oi ecaanoii a aeaiiie iaeanoe. A oaea caoai, i?eia?aoay
i?ioanneiiaeueiue ooiaeaiaio, ia/eiaao auoiaeeoue ca i?aaeaeu aeaiiie,
aaciaie aeey iaai oai?ee. Oaeie i?ioanneiiae iiaeao eniieueciaaoue
eiioeaiooaeueiua i?aaenoaaeaiey iaeieo oai?ee, a oaoie/aneea e
i?aeoe/aneea iiaeoiaeu ae?oaeo. A naiai i?ioanneiiaeueiii ?acaeoee ii
no?aieony e nicaeaieth iaoaoai?ee ineoioa?aiee. Yoi ai iiiaii
iauyniyaony oai, eae caia/aao C. Neiaea (1979), /oi ia/oie eaaeaeiai
/anoiethaeaiai ineoioa?aiaaoa yaeyaony nicaeaiea iiaiai, iaiau/iiai
i?eaia, aianaiea naiaai i?eaeiaeueiiai aeeaaea a enoi?eth ineoioa?aiee
[10, c.61].

Yooaeoeaiinoue ineoioa?aiee naycaia ni niaoeeoe/aneei aicaeaenoaeai
eiie?aoiuo iaoiaeia ineoioa?aiee.

Iai?eia?, e ineoioa?aiaaoo i?eoiaeeo iaoeeaio n ino?i aicieeoeie
no?aoaie e ?aaeoeeyie iaieee. Oa?aiaao i?e iiiiue oaoiee
iae?ieeiaaenoe/aneiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey eee aaooaeueo-oa?aiee iiaeao
niyoue yoe ?aaeoeee, a caoai oaea ?aaioaoue n iaoeeaioii a iaeiie ec
ee/iinoii-i?eaioe?iaaiiuo eiioeaioeee.

Eee aea oa?aiaao i?aaeeiaeeo iaoeeaioo eeanne/aneee ineoiaiaeec. E
oiaaea /a?ac iieaiaea oa?aiee iie iiaoo iiaeieoe e i?e/eiai no?aoia e
?aaeoeee iaieee.

Oae iiaeii i?ieiiiaioe?iaaoue yooaeoeaiinoue ineoioa?aiee.

Enneaaeiaaoaee iacuaatho io 500 aei 700 ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo a ie?a
iaoiaeia oa?aiee. A iaoae no?aia eo, ?acoiaaony, cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa.
Oae, a i?ia?aiia “Aanaiiaai aeaeaaeieea” a a. Iaaeiaea?a a 2000 aiaeo
auei i?aaenoaaeaii anaai 24 iaoiaea. Yoi o?ainaeoiue aiaeec,
yecenoaioeeiiaeueii-aoiiaienoe/aneay ineoioa?aiey, o?ainia?niiaeueiay
ineoioa?aiey, y?eeniiianeay oa?aiey, iae?ieeiaaenoe/aneia
i?ia?aiie?iaaiea, aaooaeueo-oa?aiey, ?aoeeiiaeueii-yiioeaiay oa?aiey,
aieio?iiiia aeuoaiea, naiaiaeiia aeuoaiea, oaeanii-i?eaioe?iai/iay
ineoioa?aiey, ea?iaay ineoioa?aiey, iaoiae e?enoaeeecaoeee i?iaeai,
a?o-oa?aiey, oa?aiey oai?/aneei naiiau?aaeaieai, naiaeiay ineoioa?aiey,
iiceoeeiiiay ineoioa?aiey, ?aaaoeia, oaioeaaaeueiay oa?aiey,
yecenoaioeeiiaeueiay oa?aiey e ae?.

Aeaeaaeieee – yoi neioac niaoeeaeecaoeee, iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee,
iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee, naieia?a ii iaiaio iiuoii, o?aieiaia.

A aeey oao, eiio yoi aaaeii – ?ac?aoaiey i?iaeai a oa?aiee. A
eioi?iaoeeiiiii iioiea aaaeoueo oeie, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo eae ia Caiaae, oae
e ia Ainoie, eaaeaeue o/anoiee iaoiaeeo naie eioa?anu. Eaaeaeue iieo/aao
aiciiaeiinoue oaeiaeaoai?eoue naie naiua ianouiua iio?aaiinoe, oaeaeaoue
ia?niaeoeau naiaai ?acaeoey.

Ec anao ia?a/eneaiiuo ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneeo iai?aaeaiee a naiae
eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiie ?aaioa y inoaiiaethnue ia o?ainaeoiii aiaeeca eae
iaeaieaa eioa?aniii aeey iaiy aiaeeca acaeiiaeaenoaee e iiaie
aiciiaeiinoueth ei??aeoeee ineoieiae/aneeo i?iaeai. ?ac?aaioaiiue Y.
Aa?iii iaiaa iieoaaea iacaae, o?ainaeoiue aiaeec naaiaeiy i?eciai ai
anai ie?a e ao?ii i?ia?anne?oao.

§ 2. O?ainaeoiue aiaeec

Aoi?ay iieiaeia naieaeanyouo e ainueieaeanyoua aiaeu ioe?uee o?ainaeoiue
aiaeec. Yoa ie?iaicc?ai/aneay eiioeaioeey a iaoae no?aia i?eoea ec
aeenneaeaioneiai aeaeaeaiey.

Naaiaeiy o?ainaeoiue aiaeec i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeei ec eeanne/aneeo
aa?eaioia nia?aiaiiiai ineoiaiaeeca. Aai ?acaeoea oei no?aieoaeueii,
aaaeue ia?aia oiiieiaiea eaeae o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca ioiineony e 1957
aiaeo.

Ii ?ac?aaioai eae niaoeeaeueiue iaoiae a?oiiiaie ineoioa?aiee, aaea
acaeiiaeaenoaea eiaeeaeaeia aiaeece?oaony n oi/ee c?aiey o?ao iniiaiuo
ninoiyiee “ss”. A aaeeieoea acaeiiaeaenoaey auea iacaaia o?ainaeoeeae.

Niaeanii eiioeaioeee Aa?ia, eaaeaeue /aeiaae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
o?aieeeua noa?aioeiia, iaoneiaeaiiuo niaoeeoeeie ainieoaiey a naiii
oe?ieii niunea yoiai neiaa. E iaeiia?aiaiii anoue a eaaeaeii /aeiaaea
ia/oi oaeia, /oi oieeaao aai ia niiioaiiua iinooiee e aeaenoaey,
iaoneiaeaiiua aeaoneei “oi/o” eee “ia oi/o” (yiioeee, eiioeuenu e
o.ae.). A ?aaeueiie aeecie ethaee iuoathony niioiineoue “oi/o” e
“aeieaeii”, i?e/ai oa, eiio yoi oaeaaony naeaeaoue a iaeeo/oae noaiaie,
aieaa aa?iiie/ii aienuaathony a ie?oaeathuee ie?. Iie i?aaenoatho ia?aae
ie?oaeathueie /aua anaai ?acoiiuie e i?aoniaaathueie ethaeueie, iiaoo
caieiaoue a aeecie oi?ioaa nioeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea. Niaieoiiinoue
onoiyaoeony noa?aioeiia Y. Aa?i iacuaaao ninoiyieai “?iaeeoaeue”, a
o?acaiai “aaniaueea”, niecia?ythuaai “oi/o – ioaeii”, – neiaii
“Ac?ineue”. A iaoe yiioeee e eiioeuenu – “?aaaieii”. Oae aea, eae e o C.
O?aeaea, no?oeoo?a ee/iinoe o Y. Aa?ia o?aoeiiiiiaioia. A eaaeaeii
/aeiaaea naiui neiaeiui ia?acii ia?aieaoaiu yoe o?e ninoiyiey:
“Ac?ineiai”, “?iaeeoaey”, “?aaaiea” [1, c. 367], (ni. i?eeiaeaiea 1).

Iauaiea n ethaeueie (ia/aeueieeii ia ?aaioa, i?iaeaaoeii a iaaaceia,
ae?oaii, nineoaeeaoeai e o.ae.) iiaeao no?ieoueny ii ?aciiio, a
caaeneiinoe io ineoieiae/aneiai ninoiyiey /aeiaaea, io oaiu iauaiey e –
/oi i/aiue aaaeii – io oiai, yaeyaony ee acaeiiaeaenoaea aanei?unoiui
eee /aeiaae oi/ao /aai-oi aeiaeoueny io naiaai niaanaaeieea. Iaaei
o/eouaaoue, /oi i?e yoii aeeth/athony ?acee/iua ineoieiae/aneea
iaoaieciu, eioi?ua aucuaatho o /aeiaaea aeiieie?iaaiea oiai eee eiiai
ninoiyiey, eaaeaeia ec eioi?uo iieuecoaony naiei iniaaiiui “ycueii”
neia, aeanoia e iinooieia.

I?e iaiaia o?ainaeoeeyie y neaiaeece?oth i oii, /oi i?eciath aan, a au
aica?auaaoa yoi i?eciaiea. A ycuea o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca ethaie aeo
i?eciaiey iacuaaaony iiaeaaeeaaieai. Ethaee ioaeaeathony a
iiaeaaeeaaieyo aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey naiaai oece/aneiai e ineoe/aneiai
caei?iauey.

Eiiioieeaoeey iiaeao auoue yooaeoeaiie a oii neo/aa, anee iia aaaeaony
ia iaeiii e oii aea “ycuea”, oi anoue (ii oa?ieiieiaee Y. Aa?ia), eiaaea
“?aaaiie” ?acaiaa?eaaao n “?aaaieii”, “?iaeeoaeue” n “?iaeeoaeai”, a
“Ac?ineue” ni “Ac?ineui”. Aaeo?iay eiino?oeoeey iauaiey i?eia?aoaao
oaioe/aneea /a?ou Aaaeeiineie aaoie, anee iaeei ec niaanaaeieeia aiai?eo
ia ycuea “?iaeeoaey”, a ae?oaie – ia ycuea “?aaaiea” e o.ae. [1, c.
265], (ni. i?eeiaeaiea 2).

Y. Aa?i iieaaae, /oi ethaee ea?atho a ?acee/iua ea?u, eioi?uie caiieiaia
a iniiaiii any aeeciue /aeiaa/anoaa. Naiie no?aoiie ea?ie ia Caiea, ii
au?aaeaieth naiiai Aa?ia, yaeyaony aieia. A nayce n yoei i/aiue aaaeii
ioiaoeoue, /oi a?oiiiaay ineoioa?aiey (ii Y. Aa?io) aeieaeia
neeaaeuaaoueny ia o?iaia “Ac?ineue – Ac?ineue”. Oeaeue ninoieo a oii,
/oiau iao/eoueny auaeaeyoue ninoiyiey “Ac?ineiai” eae a naiai
nianoaaiiii niciaiee e iiaaaeaiee, oae e a niciaiee e iiaaaeaiee ae?oaeo
ethaeae, aeiaeaaynue iauaiey ia o?iaia “Ac?ineue – Ac?ineue”.

Oaeea o?ainaeoeee, eae ?eooaeu, niaianoiua caiyoey e ?acaea/aiey,
iai?aaeaiu ia aeinoeaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaeae – no?oeoo?e?iaaiea
a?aiaie e iieo/aiea aicaeaenoaee io ie?oaeathueo. Yoi “/anoiua”
o?ainaeoeee, eioi?ua ia i?aaeoniao?eaatho iaieioeyoeeth ae?oaeie. Ea?u
aea “ia/anoiu” a naiie naiae iniiaa. Ea?u – yoi na?ee ne?uouo
o?ainaeoeee, aaaeoueo e ii?aaeaeaiiiio, /anoi iaaaoeaiiio ?acoeueoaoo, a
eioi?ii caeioa?aniaai oio eee eiie ea?ie. Aa?i n iiiiuueth naiaai
Iaeaiueeiai I?ioanni?a i?eaeoiae iiiaeanoai eiei?eoiuo iacaaiee, aeey
oaeeo ineoieiae/aneeo ea?, iai?eia?: “Aeeiaieee”, “Iieeoeaeneea e ai?u”,
“Oaei y oaay”, “Ii/aio au e iao?” e o.ae.

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo iaoaai iauanoaa iiaeii auei au i?aaenoaaeoue
iaiaei neooaoeee a aeaea ea?, iai?eia?: “Ea?a a ianeoaeeaaiea”, “Auaea/a
ni?aaie”, “I?iaeaiu ath?ie?aoee” e o.i.

Ea?a – yoi iiaoi?ythuayny iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue o?ainaeoeee, a
?acoeueoaoa eioi?ie iaa noi?iiu eniuouaatho ?yeaoiua /oanoaa (eiaeiua
/oanoaa) [29, c. 5].

A iniiaa o?ainaeoeee eaaeeo oae iacuaaaiue noeaia?ee – aaia?aeueiue
ieai, iiaeaeue eioi?iai iaia/aaony a ?aiiea aeaoneea aiaeu. Noeaia?ee –
yoi ia?niiaeueiue ieai aeecie, au?aaioaiiue a ea/anoaa no?aoaaee
auaeeaaiey.

Ii Aa?io, iaeaieaa aaaeiua ?aoaiey, ii?aaeaeythuea ioiioaiea e aeecie,
i?eieiathony a ia?aua aeaa-o?e aiaea, a aieueoay /anoue noeaia?eaa
onaaeaaaony aei oanoe eao. Iniiaiuie aeaoa?ieiaioaie noeaia?eaa
yaeythony Aeaoneea ninoiyiey “Yai” aai ?iaeeoaeae, eioi?ua aiaae?ythony
a niciaiea ?aaaiea iin?aaenoaii cai?aoia. A oi a?aiy eae iaeioi?ua
cai?aou au?aaeathony aeinoaoi/ii /aoei, iai?eia?, “Iaeuecy ieaeaoue ia
aeacao o anao” eee “Iaeuecy aeoue oao, eoi iaiueoa oaay”, ae?oaea iiaoo
eeoue iiae?acoiaaaoueny. Iai?eia?, ?aaaieo, eioi?iai ?aniaeatho ca
ioe?iaaiiua i?iyaeaiey /oanoa, aiieia iiaeao auoue aiooaii “ia
/oanoaoe”. Oaeea /anoi ano?a/athueany aiooaiey, eae “ou ieeiaaea ie/aai
ia aeiaueaoueny”, “ieeiio iaeuecy aa?eoue” eee “io oaay oieueei a?aae”
o?ainoi?ie?othony iau/ii a neaaeothuea aeeciaiiua noeaia?ee: “y ieeiaaea
ieeiio ia aoaeo aa?eoue”, “y aeieaeai noaoue neeueiui” e oae aeaeaa.

Noeaia?ee, a naith i/a?aaeue, oneeeaatho aeeyiea aiooaiiuo cai?aoia..
Oaeei ia?acii, e?oa caiueaaony. Aua?aiiue noeaia?ee aeecie niioaaonoaoao
aeeciaiiie iiceoeee. Ii Aa?io, noeaia?ee i?iyaeyaony a aeaeaeaieyo,
aeanoao, iicao, iaia?ao /aeiaaea, a oaeaea aaaeioth ?ieue a nicaeaiee
noeaia?eaa ea?atho caiiiieaoeany n aeaonoaa oaioacee e aieoaaiua neacee.

A ?aaioa “i?eioeeiu a?oiiiaiai ea/aiey” Aa?i eniieuecoao iaoaoi?o i
“eyaooeao e i?eioeannao”. Ii n/eoaao, /oi, /oiau “auea/eoueny”,
iaiaoiaeeii na?ineoue oeo?o eyaooee e i?iaeieaeeoue i?a?aaiiia ?acaeoea
eae i?eioea eee i?eioeannu, a oi a?aiy eae “i?ia?ann” a ea/aiee icia/aao
eeoue oi, /oi /aeiaae noaiiaeoueny eeoue aieaa eiioi?oaaaeueiie
eyaooeie.

A ?aaioa “*oi au aiai?eoa iinea oiai, eae aiai?eoa “Cae?aanoaoeoa” Aa?i
naycuaaao ecea/aiea n iieiui ?ac?uaii ni noeaia?eai e au?aaioeie iiaiai
iooe ?acaeoey [3, c.364].

Nia?aiaiiue o?ainaeoiue aiaeec i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oai?eth ee/iinoe,
oai?eth eiiioieeaoeee, aiaeec neiaeiuo nenoai e i?aaiecaoeee, oai?eth
aeaoneiai ?acaeoey e oai?eth ineoiiaoieiaee. A i?aeoe/aneii i?eiaiaiee
ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaio ineoioa?aiee, eniieuecoaioth i?e ea/aiee
anao aeaeia ineoe/aneeo ?anno?ienoa, io iauaeaiiuo aeeciaiiuo
?anno?ienoa aei ineoicia, iaoiae ea/aiey ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae,
noi?oaeaneeo ia?, naiae e a?oii.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay annioeeaoeey o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca ii?aaeaeyao aai eae
oai?eth ee/iinoe e nenoaiioth ineoioa?aieth n oeaeueth ?acaeoey e
eciaiaiey ee/iinoe [18, c.142].

Yeae A., Yeae A., Naeiae-Aeiiieia E. (1987) ieooo i o?ainaeoiii aiaeeca
neaaeothuaa: “O?ainaeoiue aiaeec iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae aeeiaie/aneoth
ineoioa?aieth O?aeaea, a ni/aoaiee n aieaa aoiaienoe/aneei oeeinioneei
iiaeoiaeii, iniaui aieiaieai e eciaiaieth iiaaaeaiey e iuoeaiey a
ni/aoaiee n oi?ioae iiaea/ae iaoa?eaea. O?ainaeoiue aiaeec – ioee/iue
i?eia? oa?aiee, aace?othuaeny ia i?ae?aniie oai?ee, ioe?uoi
?ane?uaathuee ia?aae iauanoaii naie aicc?aiey. O?ainaeoiue aiaeec
aaaeiay /anoue ia?aciaaiey oi?ioaai oa?aiaaoa.”

Iaeiie ec aaaeiuo iiceoeaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca yaeyaony
aai niiniaiinoue e aioiaiinoue eiei?ii?e?iaaoue a naay eaeae e oaoieee
ae?oaeo iai?aaeaiee, aeaaea niia?ie/athueo n oai?aoe/aneeie iniiaaie
o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca [18, c.143].

Aio /oi ieooo Eai Nouetha?o e Ayii Aeaeiein a naiae eieaa “Nia?aiaiiue
OA”: “… a ?acoeueoaoa yoiai nia?aiaiiue oa?aiaao o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca
iaeaaeaao aieueoei, aeaeei iaai?ii ?acee/iuo oaoiee, eioi?ua iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue a caaeneiinoe io iio?aaiinoae eeeaioa. Aieueoeinoai
i?aeoeeia o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca i?ioei oaeaea iiaeaioiaeo a ae?oaeo
iaeanoyo e i?eaianee iaeiieaiiue iiuo a oa?aieth o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca.
Yoi iauaaeeiaiea o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca n aaooaeueo-oa?aieae… eiioeaioeee
e oaoieee, acyoua ec ineoiaiaeeca e e?aoeia?aiaiiie oa?aiee,
aeiyia?aaoeee, iae?ieeiaaenoe/aneiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey, oai?ee nenoai,
aecoaeecaoeee e iiaeeoeeaoeee ia?aca – ss, y?eeniiianeie oa?aiee,
aeoaaei?enoneie ineoieiaee e iiiaeo ae?oaeo iaeanoae a caaeneiinoe io
ia?aciaaiey e eioa?ania oa?aiaaoa. Ianiio?y ia ana yoi, iiaeaeue
yai-ninoiyiee e oai?ey aeeciaiiiai noeaia?ey anaaaea eaaeao a iniiaa
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo i?eioeeiia, eioi?uie ?oeiaiaenoaothony i?e
eniieueciaaiee a ?aieao o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca yoeo ?aciiia?aciuo oaoiee e
iaoiaeee.”

A nia?aiaiiii o?ainaeoiii aiaeeca nouanoaotho o?e oeieu, eaaeaeay ec
eioi?uo eiaao naith nianoaaiioth oai?aoe/aneoth iiaeaeue e
i?aaeii/eoaaiue iaai? oa?aiaaoe/aneeo oaoiee.

Eeoue iaiiiaea oa?aiaaou o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca i?eiaaeeaaeao a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy oieueei e eaeie-oi iaeiie ec yoeo o?ao “oeie”.

N oi/ee c?aiey eeanne/aneie oeieu iaeia ec aaaeiuo caaea/ aeey oa?aiaaoa
ninoieo a oii, /oiau aeaoue eeeaioo iiaua ?iaeeoaeueneea iineaiey.

Iyo E?inniai i?aaeeiaeee “o?e ie” (o?e aiaeeeneeo neiaa, ia/eiathueany
ia aoeao “ie”), auiieiaiea eioi?uo aeieaeai iaania/eoue oa?aiaao aeey
aeinoeaeaiey yooaeoeaiiai ?acoeueoaoa: ?ac?aoaiea, caueoo e neeo
(aeanoue).

Aia e Iy?e Aoeaeeia auaeaeioee iiaue oa?aiaaoe/aneee iaoiae, eioi?ue
ni/aoaao a naay oai?eth o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca e oaoieeo
aaooaeueo-oa?aiee, ?ac?aaioaiioth O. Ia?enii. Aoeaeeiae aianee naie
aeeaae a oai?eth Ia?ena a oii ioiioaiee, /oi noaee ?anniao?eaaoue ooiee
eae ai?ueao iaaeaeo aeaoiy ?acee/iuie yai-ninoiyieyie. A oa?aiee
?ac?aoaiea eee auoiae ec ooieea aeinoeaaaony n iiiiuueth
aaooaeueo-oa?aiee, ecaanoiie eae “?aaioa n aeaoiy nooeueyie”. A yoii
neo/aa eeeaio i?aaenoaaeyao naaa, /oi ia nooeueyo neaeyo ?acee/iua
ai?thueany ae?oa n ae?oaii /anoe naiiai naay, ii i/a?aaee “noaiiaeony”
eaaeaeie ec ieo, inouanoaeyy aeeaeia n oeaeueth ?ac?aoaiey eiioeeeoa.
I?e yoii aeiaieueii /anoi a i?ioeanna ?aaiou ia iiaa?oiinoue auoiaeyo
iiaeaaeaiiua /oanoaa aai ?aaaiea [29, c.344].

Iaeii ec aeinoieinoa no?oeoo?iiai aiaeeca ninoieo a oii, /oi /eaiu
a?oiiu ociatho a niioiioaieyo nee naieo ninoiyiee yai e iiaoo
caeeth/aoue eiio?aeou, oeaeueth eioi?uo aoaeao aeinoeaeaiea ?aaiiaaney
iaaeaeo ninoiyieyie yai. Iai?eia?, i?a/iue naiie?eoe/iue /aeiaae iiaeao
aicuiaoue aeaeaiea oneeeoue a naaa Anoanoaaiiiai ?aaaiea e oaeei ia?acii
iicaieeoue naaa auoue aanaeaa. A iaoai iauanoaa oaeea neooaoeee ia?aaeee
n?aaee ioae/ei, oae eae iie oyaioatho e ninoiyieth neeueiuo Ac?ineuo e
ei ioaeii ?acaeaaoue a naaa Caaioeeaiai ?iaeeoaey e aieiaoaeueiaa
ioiineoueny e /oanoaai Anoanoaaiiiai ?aaaiea. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
aeaiueiu eiatho oaiaeaioeeth eceeoia ?acaeaaoue a naaa Caaioeeaiai
?iaeeoaey, nieaeay oai naiui ?ieue Ac?ineiai e i?aiyonoaoy i?iyaeaieth
?aoeeiiaeueiiai ia/aea. Oai, eiio a iaeiii ec ninoiyiee yai i?eoiaeeony
noaeeeaaoueny n neeueiui i?aiaa?aaeaieai, iiaeao i?eianoe iieueco
“?aia?aioe?iaaiea” (ia?a?iaeeoaeuenoaiaaiea), i?eaioe?iaaiiue ia
o?ainaeoiue aiaeec iaoiae ea/aiey, ?ac?aaioaiiue Aeaeaee Oeooii [23,
c.273].

Iaeioi?ua aaaeiua aeinoeaeaiey nia?aiaiiiai o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca eaaeao
ca i?aaeaeaie a?aieoe ethaie eo “o?ao oeie”. Oaeeie i?eia?aie iiaoo
neoaeeoue Nenoaia ?yeaoa ?. Y?neeia e I. Caeueoeiai.

Oiian Oa??en a naiae eieaa “ss aeaaiiieo/ai – ou aeaaiiieo/ai” iienuaaao
/aou?a oeene?iaaiiuo yiioeeiiaeueiuo onoaiiaee eee aeeciaiiuo iiceoeee.

A aeaaiay oeaeue caiyoee a a?oiiao o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca ninoieo a oii,
/oiau au?aaioaoue o /eaiia a?oiiu aeeciaiioth iiceoeeth oeia “Ni iiie
ana oi?ioi, e n aaie ana oi?ioi” [31, c.3].

Eco/aiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai iaioaeeoaoa iicaieeei A.A. Iaea?iao iienaoue
aeeciaiiua noeaia?ee iaoeo niioa/anoaaiieeia. A. A. Iaea?ia auaeaeyao
o?e o?iaiy yecenoaioeeiiaeueiuo onoaiiaie: iaoaea/ieee, na?aaeiyee e
oaea/ieee. Eaaeaeue o?iaaiue iiae?acaeaeyaony ia o?e iiaeo?iaiy.
Ineoioa?aiey ii A.A. Iaea?iao iai?aaeaia ia ia?aoiae /aeiaaea a /enei
oaea/ieeia eee ia?aoiae aioo?e a?oiiu ia aieaa aunieoth nooiaiue [18,
c.163].

Eoae, ?anniio?aa ?acee/iua iiaeaee o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca, iiaeii
auaeaeeoue iauea oeaee a oa?aiee OA. E?aoein?i/iay oeaeue o?ainaeoiiai
aiaeeca ninoieo a aeinoeaeaiee oeaeae, iaiai?aiiuo a eiio?aeoao,
aeieain?i/iay – a ia?aienuaaiee noeaia?eaa aeecie. Eciaiaiea noeaia?eaa
aeeth/aao ?aaioo ii eo ia?ai?eaioaoeee e i?eiaiaiea niaoeeaeueiuo
n?aaenoa iao/aiey, iai?eia?, ae?aiaoe/aneiai o?aoaieueieea N. Ea?iiaia
(ni. i?eeiaeaiea 3).

?aaioa a a?oiiao o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca eiaao iiciaaaoaeueioth e
ia?aciaaoaeueioth iai?aaeaiiinoue, a nicaeaaaaiay a?oiiie ianoaiiaea
niinianoaoao ?aaioa ii eiio?aeoai e ?aaeecaoeee Ac?ineiai “Yai” /eaiia
a?oiiu.

I?aeoeea oa?aiee OA aace?oaony ia iineaaeiaaoaeueiii oai?aoe/aneii
iiaeoiaea, iniiaiuie no?ieoaeueiuie aeieaie eioi?iai yaeythony iiaeaeue
yai-ninoiyiee e eiioeaioeey noeaia?ey aeecie.

Ae?oaeie i?eciaeaie oa?aiee OA yaeyaony aa i?eaioe?iaea ia eciaiaiea, a
ia i?inoi ia aeinoeaeaiea einaeoa eee i?inaaoeaiey.

Eiia/ii, OA aucuaaao no?ann i?e iiieiaiee i?e?iaeu e enoi/ieeia i?iaeai,
iaeiaei yoi iiieiaiea ieeiaaea ia ?anniao?eaaaony eae eiia/iay oeaeue.
Iai?ioea, iniciaaaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eino?oiaio eciaiaiey ee/iinoe,
a eciaiaiea naii ii naaa ninoieo ec i?eiyoey ?aoaiey ia eciaiaiea, a
caoai aeoeaiue i?ioeann ii aai aiieiuaieth a aeeciue.

I?e oaeii iiaeoiaea i?aeoeee OA ieeiaaea ia i?eaeaaaee oeaiiinoe
aeeeoaeueiie oa?aiee ?aaee naiie oa?aiee. Aeey aeinoeaeaiey einaeoa,
iinea eioi?iai eeeaio iiaeao eciaieoueny, ia iaycaoaeueii ioaeii
e?iiioeeai ?aaioaoue a oa/aiee iiiaeo ianyoeaa e eao. Yoo iuneue Aa?i
iniaaiii iiae/a?eeaae a naiai ciaiaieoii niaaoa eeeaioai: “Nia/aea
ii/oanoaoeoa naay eo/oa, a oae iioii iiniio?ei, oioeoa ee au
ii-i?aaeiaio eciaieoueny eee iao.”

A oi aea naiia a?aiy e?aoeia?aiaiiay oa?aiey ia yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui
iiaeoiaeii a OA. Aeey ?aoaiey oeaeiai ?yaea i?iaeai eeeaio e oa?aiaao
iiaoo eiiaaea ?aaioaoue a oa/aiee aeeeoaeueiiai i?iiaaeooea a?aiaie, /oi
oaeaea aiciiaeii a ?aieao oai?ee OA.

§ 3. A?a/aaii-ineoieiae/aneee oeaio? “Ee/iinoue”, i?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou e
oaoiieiaey

A?a/aaii-ineoieiae/aneee oeaio? “Ee/iinoue” i?aaieciaai a 1996 aiaeo
aaaeouei ineoioa?aiaaoii ai?iaea Iaaeiaea?a, a?a/ii E.E. Eaa/aiei.
Eeoeaicey I ? 23.

Oeaio? “Ee/iinoue” aeeth/aao a naay neaaeothuee aeeaiacii
i?ioanneiiaeueiie eiiiaoaioiinoe:

o?iie/aneay ineoieiae/aneay onoaeinoue;

iaa?icu e iaayc/eaua ninoiyiey;

ineoiniiaoe/aneea caaieaaaiey;

ee/iinoiua i?iaeaiu e i?iaeaiu ioiioaiee;

oa?aiey noi?oaeanoaa;

naenoaeueiua ?anno?ienoaa, i?iaeaiu iieiaiai nic?aaaiey e iieiaiai
oaanaiey;

oa?aiey caaeneiinoae (ia?eiiaiey, aeeiaieeci, oaaaeieo?aiea);

aecianeiinoeueoe?iaaiea.

Ethaee, ia?aoeaoeany nthaea, iieo/atho eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia
eiinoeueoe?iaaiea e ?acee/iua aeaeu oa?aiaaoe/aneie ei??aeoeee, oaeea,
eae y?eeniiianeee aeiiic, aieio?iiiia aeuoaiea, o?ainaeoiue aiaeec,
oeaaoioa?aiey, iocueioa?aiey, ineoiioieoo?a e ae?oaea aeaeu oa?aiee.

Oeaio? eiaao i?eaiiue eaaeiao, eaaeiao ineoioa?aiee, i?ioeaaeo?ioth
eiiiaoo. A ?aaioa n eeeaioii eniieuecothony ?acee/iua iaoiaeu
o?aaeeoeeiiiie ineoioa?aiee e iiaaeoea iaoiaeu ineoiaeeaaiinoeee.

ssaeyynue /eaiii I?ioanneiiaeueiie ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneie eeae (IIE) e
iaeaaeay aa?iiaeneei na?oeoeeaoii ii ineoioa?aiee, E.E. Eaa/aiei
i?eaea?aeeaaaony i?eioeeia ioe?uoiai aeey eeeaioia oa?aiaaoa, /oi
icia/aao iano?ie ia ia?oia?neea ioiioaiey n iaoeeaioii, i?eniaaeeiaiea e
iaio, ?ane?uoea naieo /aeiaa/aneeo ea/anoa, niiniaiinoue oaaaeaeaoue e
oaea/ue naiei i?eia?ii.

Oa?aiaao e iaoeeaio aiai?yo ia i?inoii ycuea, iau/iuie neiaaie. Caiene
oa?aiaaoa anaaaea ioe?uou aeey eo eco/aiey eeeaioii. Aieueoia cia/aiea a
naiae ?aaioa E.E. Eaa/aiei oaeaeyao oaeiio iaoiaeo ineoioa?aiee, eae
o?ainaeoiue aiaeec, eiia/iay oeaeue eioi?iai – iao/eoue /aeiaaea aeeoue,
iieiinoueth ?aaeecoy naay, e auoue n/anoeeaui a eciaiythuainy ie?a. A oi
aea a?aiy, eniieuecoy yeaiaiou eeanne/aneiai o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca, a
oeaio?a “Ee/iinoue” oniaoii ?aaioaao yeeaeoe/aneay iiaeaeue
ineoioa?aiee, eiaaea o?ainaeoiue aiaeec aeeth/aao a naay oaoieee ae?oaeo
iai?aaeaiee.

I?ioiaey i?aeoeeo a ineoieiae/aneii oeaio?a “Ee/iinoue”, iia
i?aaenoaaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue o/anoaiaaoue a yenia?eiaioaeueiie
ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneie ?aaioa n eeeaioii eiaeeaeaeoaeueii, a oaeaea a
a?oiiao. A ?acoeueoaoa i?i?aaaouaaeenue oaeea iniiaiua i?ioeaaeo?u, eae
auyaeaiea yai-ninoiyiee, aiaeec acaeiiaeaenoaee, aiaeec ea?, aiaeec
aeeciaiiuo noeaia?eaa, ninoaaeaiea eiio?aeoia, a oaeaea i?eiaiyeenue
iaoiaeu a?oii ano?a/, aaooaeueo-oa?aiee, oaeaniie oa?aiee, ineoiae?aiu e
ae?oaea iaoiaeu.

Iaauee, iieo/aiiua ia caiyoeyo, iicaieeee ii?aaeaeeoue oeaee
o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca. E?aoein?i/iay oeaeue ninoieo a aeinoeaeaiee
oeaeae, iaiai?aiiuo a eiio?aeoao, aeieain?i/iay – a ia?aienuaaiee
noeaia?eaa aeecie. A iniiaa anae oa?aiee o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca eaaeeo
oaaaeaeaiea a oii, /oi noeaia?iua iaooa?iu iiaaaeaiey, iuneae e /oanoa
iiaoo auoue eciaiaiu.

Oeaeueth o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca oaeaea yaeyaony aeinoeaeaiea /aeiaaeii
iacaaeneiinoe e aaoiiiiee, i?eiyoea ioaaonoaaiiinoe, aeaaeaiea niaie,
naiinoiyoaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea naiae noaeueau, aeeth/aiiinoue a
ianoiyuaa, naiaiaeiua io ea? acaeiiaeaenoaey, aeiioneathuea
ioe?iaaiiinoue e aeecinoue.

Eoiaii anae ?aaiou yaeeanue yenia?eiaioaeueiay /anoue ia iniiaa aiaeeca
i?aeoeee o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii a?a/a-ineoioa?aiaaoa
Eaa/aiei E.E., eioi?ay aoaeao iienaia ai aoi?ie aeaaa.

AEAAA II. I?AEOEEA O?AINAEOIIAI AIAEECA.

YENIA?EIAIOAEUeIIA ENNEAAeIAAIEA

§ 1. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay oa?aiey o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca

?anniio?ei eiie?aoiue i?eia? eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie oa?aiee a ineoieiae/aneii
oeaio?a “Ee/iinoue”.

Iieoai ?aieey C., 22 aiaea. AEaeiau ia cao?oaeiaiey n ?a/ueth, no?ao
iauaiey n ae?oaeie ethaeueie, niaciu a ai?oaie, iaoaaoea aicaeooa.
I?iaeaiu ia/aeenue n ?aiiaai aic?anoa. Iaoue -aniueue/eaay, aeanoiay,
?acae?aaeeoaeueiay, naiei iiaaaeaieai no?aieony ia?aoeoue ia naay
aieiaiea ie?oaeathueo, iaaethaeathony /anoua aooaeoiua n?uau. Ioaoe ii
oa?aeoa?o i/aiue iyaeee, aacaieueiue, a aii?inao ainieoaiey aeaoae
oeaeeeii iieaaaeny ia aeaio. Noa?oay nano?a ?aieey /anoi iiaeaaeyea aai,
ianiaoaeanue iaae aai canoai/eainoueth, n ?ac?aoaiey iaoa?e aeanoiei
iaeacuaaea aai ca iaeaeoea i?iaeiiinoe. ?aieeue /oanoaiaae, /oi yaeyaony
iaaeaeaiiui ?aaaieii, e aua aieueoa caiueaeny. Aia?aua ii/oanoaiaae
niaciu a ai?ea e iaoaaoeo aicaeooa, eiaaea iinea i/a?aaeiiai neaiaeaea
iaoue cayaeea: “Ou i?ieeyouea ia iaoai ?iaeo”. Nano?a /anoi ia?uaaea
aai, eiaaea ii iuoaeny aic?aaeaoue, oaeeie neiaaie, eae : “Ou aeo?ae”,
“*oi oiiiai ou iiaeaoue neacaoue”.

A ea?ao ni naa?noieeaie no?aieeny e eeaea?noao eee iieoeeaea?noao, ii,
i?eoiaey aeiiie, iiyoue iuouae iiaeaaeythuoth aeanoue nano?u e caiueaeny
a naaa. Oaea o/anue a oeiea, eiaaea ioaa/ae o?ie, ii/oanoaiaae no?ao
neacaoue /oi-oi ia oae, iiyaeeenue niaciu, noae caeeaoueny.

N oao ii? yoe yaeaiey iiaoi?yeenue anyeee ?ac, eiaaea ?aieeue C. iuoaeny
anooieoue a aeeaeia eee aunooieoue ia ioaeeea.

Iinea aanaaeu n eeeaioii, a nthaea aoiaeeo: ia?ae/iia eioa?aueth,
i?eniaaeeiaiea, nai? eioi?iaoeee (iauai?eiyoua caeiiiia?iinoe iienaiu a
eieaa ?. Ea/thiana “Iniiau ineoieiae/aneiai eiinoeueoe?iaaiey”), iu
ii?aaeaeyai iiaeaeue ie?a eeeaioa, aai oeene?iaaiioth onoaiiaeo,
aeeciaiiue noeaia?ee, eoaea aoiaeyo: aiaeec aeaonoaa, neacee, oaioacee
eeeaioa, aeaoneea aia/aoeaiey, ioiioaiey n iaoa?ueth e ae?oaeie
ia?aioaeueiuie oeao?aie, ?aiiea ?aoaiey, cai?aou, ?ac?aoaiey.

Aianoa n ?aieeai iu aiaeece?oai aai ?aiiea aeaoneea aia/aoeaiey,
niiinoaaeyai eo n aai naaiaeiyoieie ia?aaeeaaieyie e iiaaaeaieai, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai o eeeaioa i?ienoiaeeo ?yae eaoa?nenia n iniciaieai e
iiieiaieai ei?iae naieo i?iaeai.

Aaaeii oaeaea ioiaoeoue , /oi ai a?aiy naainia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie
ineoioa?aiee i?eiaiyaony iaaee?aeoeaiay y?eeniiianeay oa?aiey. Eaeao
?aaioa n iaoaoi?aie eciaiaiey, i?e yoii o/eouaathony eioa?anu eeeaioa,
aai i?ioanney, oiaae, iaauee. I?eiaiyy iaoaoi?u, oa?aiaao eniieuecoao
?a/aaua iai?iou eeeaioa, aai neiaa. N naiiai ia/aea ineoioa?aiaao
no?aieony caeeth/eoue n eeeaioii eiio?aeo Ac?ineiai oeia, o/eouaay
iauaeoeaiua iio?aaiinoe eeeaioa.

Oa?aiaao: *oi Au oioeoa aeey naay?

?.C.: Oi/o ecaaaeoueny io no?aoia, ethaeoue aeeciue, naiaiaeii
au?aaeaoue naie iunee, iio?aaiinoe, aeaeaiey e oiaoue eo ?aaeeciauaaoue.

Oa?aiaao: *oi iaaei aeey yoiai naeaeaoue?

?.C.: ?ac?aoeoue naaa yoi aeaeaoue.

Oa?aiaao: *oi Au oioeoa io naay?

?.C.: I?eiyoue ie? oaeei eae ii anoue, auoue ?aaiii?aaiui /eaiii
iauanoaa.

Oa?aiaao: *oi Au iaeeaeaaoa io oa?aiaaoa?

?.C.: Nio?oaeie/anoaa, eiiiaoaioiuo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee.

Yoi, ii nouanoao, eiio?aeo iaaeaeo Ac?ineui e Ac?ineui. E ineoioa?aiaao,
e eeeaio ciatho, ?aaee /aai iie ?aaioatho e ynii i?aaenoaaeytho naaa,
eaeei ia?acii aeieaeai eciaieoueny eeeaio.

Neaaeothuei yoaiii ?aaiou aoaeao aiaeec aeeciaiiiai noeaia?ey ?aieey
C.

A.A. Iaea?ia aian a o?ainaeoiue aiaeec naith iiaeaeue oi?ie?iaaiey
aeeciaiiiai noeaia?ey, eioi?ue iaoaoi?e/anee i?aaenoaaeai a aeaea
aea?aaa (ni. i?eeiaeaiea 4).

Iinea iino?iaiey “aea?aaa Iaea?iaa”, iieaciui niiniaii
eiioeaiooaeecaoeee ninoiyiee yai yaeyaony ninoaaeaiea aeeaa?aii.

Ineoioa?aiaao i?ineo eeeaioa ninoaaeoue yaia?aiio, eaeay eioi?ie
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau ia?eniaaoue noieaee iaae iacaaieai eaaeaeiai
yai-ninoiyiey. Aunioa noieaeea oeacuaaao ia oi, neieueei a?aiaie au
iaoiaeeoanue a eaaeaeie ooieoeeiiaeueiie /anoe.

YAIA?AIIA ?AIEEss C.

E? A? A

AAe

NAe

aaea, E? – eiio?iee?othuee ?iaeeoaeue;

A? – ainieouaathuee ?iaeeoaeue;

A – ac?ineue;

NAe – niiioaiiue ?aaaiie;

AAe – aaeaioe?iaaiiue ?aaaiie

Aunioa eaaeaeiai noieaoea aiai?eo ia ioiineoaeueiii a?aiaie, eioi?ia
?aieeue i?iaiaeeo a yoie /anoe yai-ninoiyiey a oa/aiea nooie. Oi/iay
aunioa eaaeaeiai noieaeea ia oae oae aaaeia. Aeaaiia ioiineoaeueiay
aunioa eaaeaeiai noieaeea ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie.

Ec yaia?aiiu aeaeii, /oi aieueooth /anoue a?aiaie ?aieeue C. iaoiaeeony
ai ac?ineii ninoiyiee e aaeaioe?iaaiiii ?aaaiea. E ?aaeei iaoiaeeony a
ainieouaathuai ?iaeeoaea e aua ?aaea a niiioaiiii ?aaaiea. Caeanue
oa?aiaao aeaao ?aeiiaiaeaoeeth – oaaee/eoue iiaaaeaiea niiioaiiiai
?aaaiea. Eiaaea iaeii yai-ninoiyiea oaaee/eaaaony ii eioaineaiinoe,
ae?oaia eee ae?oaea aeieaeiu oiaiueoaoueny n oeaeueth eiiiainaoeee.
Eciaiaiea a ?ani?aaeaeaiee ineoe/aneie yia?aee i?ienoiaeeo oaeei
ia?acii, /oi iauaa eiee/anoai yia?aee inoaaony eiinoaioiui (Ae. Aethnae
“Aeiioaca eiinoaioiinoe”), [29, c. 32].

A aeaiiii neo/aa niaea?aeaiea yai-ninoiyiey ?aaaiea i?eieiaaony ca
niaea?aeaiea Ac?ineiai, oiaaea n/eoaaony, /oi Ac?ineue eiioaieie?iaai
(ni. i?eeiaeaiea A).

Iieaaeai yoi ia noaia eiioaieiaoeee ?aaaieii.

I?ienoiaeeo eae aoaeoi au aoi?aeaiea iaeiiai yai-ninoiyiey a a?aieoeu
ae?oaiai. Cae?aoaiiue o/anoie icia/aao eiioaieiaoeeth.

I?e eiioaieiaoeee ?aaaieii o ?aieey C. i?ienoiaeeo caooiaieaaiea
ac?ineiai iuoeaiey caaeoaeaeaieyie (aeaoneeie i?aaenoaaeaieyie) ec
aeaonoaa. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oaioacee, i?eieiaaiua ca ?aaeueioth
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. Eiaaea ii neuoeo, /oi ethaee ca aai nieiie
niathony, ii aeoiaao: “Iie niathony iaaei iiie!”

A yoio iiiaio ii i?iea?uaaao iaeei neo/ae ec naiaai ?aiiaai aeaonoaa,
eiaaea ii, ia caaeoiuaaynue, ?aoee: “ss ooaea ae?oaeo. Ana ciatho a /ai,
e?iia iaiy. Ii ieeoi iia ia yoii ia neaaeao.”

Ii ia iniciaao, /oi yoi i?iea?uaaiea neooaoeee. I?e eiioaieiaoeee
?aieeue ioeai/ii i?eieiaao yoo aeaoneoth neooaoeeth ca ?aaeueioth
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue.

Oa?aiaao iauyniyao aio, /oi anee aeaaea ethaee niayeenue iaae oiaie,
iiaeii aueoe ec eiioaieiaoeee, iniciaa neaaeothuaa: “Io e /oi? Anee iie
oioyo niayoueny iaaei iiie, yoi eo aeaei. ss ana ?aaii I,eae.”

A aeaeueiaeoai ?aeiiaiaeoaony aeaeaoue neaaeothuaa oi?aaeiaiea:

?anneaaueoanue, acaeioieoa e a oa/aiea iaeioi?iai a?aiaie iniao?eaaeoa
eiiiaoo, a eioi?ie au iaoiaeeoanue. Aeey oiai, /oiau iiii/ue naaa aieoe
ai Ac?ineiai, nyaeueoa ia nooea no?iai aa?oeeaeueii. Iiae iinoaaueoa
ieioii ia iie. Aicueieoa eenoie aoiaae e icaaeaaueoa aai: “ss /aeiaae,
eioi?ue…” Eaaeaeue aa?eaio caeii/aiiiai aaie i?aaeeiaeaiey i?iaa?ueoa
ioiineoaeueii oiai, yaeyaony ee ii io?aaeaieai ?aaeueiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eee eiioaieiaoeeae ?aaaiea. Auaeaeeoa
eiioaieie?iaaiiua ?aaaieii neiaa e oiio?aaeoa neiaa Ac?ineiai.

?aieeue C. “ss /aeiaae, eioi?ue ia oiaao eaaeeoue n ethaeueie”, yoi
i?aaeeiaeaiea iiaeii ia?aaeaeaoue e iaienaoue “ss ?acoiiue e
ae?oaeaethaiue /aeiaae e y aiieia niiniaai eaaeeoue n ethaeueie” e o.ae.

Yoi oi?aaeiaiea i?eiineo ?aaeinoue e iieueco. Aeey aiaeeca noeaia?ey
oaeaea iiaeii i?eiaieoue noeaia?ioth iao?eoeo Eeiaea Noaeia?a, eioi?ay
n/eoaaony iaeiie ec oeaio?aeueiuo iiaeaeae a OA.

Noeaia?iay iao?eoea

Iaoue ?aieeue Nano?a

eiio?i?eeacaiey

i?ia?aiia

i?eeacaiey –

?ac?aoaiey +

“ou ie ia /oi ia niiniaai”

“aio oae iaaei”

“ia auniauaaeny”

“ia aoaeue ?yaeii ni iiie”

eiio?i?eeacaiey

i?ia?aiia

i?eeacaiey –

?ac?aoaiey +

I?eeacaiey / ?ac?aoaiey ia?aaeathony a ?aiiai aeaonoaa, a
eiio?i?eeacaiey a aieaa iicaeiai aic?anoa. A iniiaiii ?aaaiie
aini?eieiaao i?eeacaiey e ?ac?aoaiey aei oiai, eae ii ia/eiaao
aiai?eoue. I?eeacaiey iiaoo aini?eieiaoueny aei oanoe – ainueie eao, a
eiio?i?eeacaiey ia?aaeathony io o?ao aei aeaaiaaeoeaoe eao.

Aiaeece?oy noeaia?ee ?aieey C. ii “aea?aao Iaea?iaa e noeaia?iie
iao?eoea, iiaeii caiaoeoue, /oi aeeciaiiue noeaia?ee i?ienoiaeeo /a?ac
?iaeeoaeueneea iineaiey, i?eeacaiey. ?iaeeoaeueneay aee?aeoeaa, cai?ao
aoi?iai o?iaiy ii ?. Aoeaeeiao, i?iyaeyaony i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee
Aeaoneiai yai ?iaeeoaeae eee ia?aioaeueiie oeao?u (a aeaiiii neo/aa
nano?u) e Aeaoneiai yai ?aaaiea, e yaeyaony aieaa aeano?oeoeaiui.

A ioaao ia iineaiea iaoa?e, eioi?ia yaeyaony aanniciaoaeueiui “Ia aoaeue
aeecie e ae?oaei ethaeyi”, ?aaaiie i?eieiaao iaoieiae/aneia ?aoaiea: “ss
ieeiaaea ia aoaeo aeecie n ethaeueie”, “ss ia aoaeo aa?eoue ie iaeiiio
/aeiaaeo”. Ia iieo/ay aeecinoe a naiuea, ii ?aoaao, /oi “iao niunea
anooiaoue a aeeceea ioiioaiey n ae?oaeie ethaeueie.” ?aaaieii ii ?aoee
neaaeothuaa: “Ni iiie /oi-oi ia oae”. A aeaonoaa ?aieeue /anoi
eaeaioeoeoee?iaae naay ni neaceie i “Eiiueea – ai?aoiea”, e oaioace?iaae
i oii, eae naeaeaoue aeeciue eae a neacea. Aeaaiay i?iaeaia ninoieo a
oii, /oi neacea canoaaeyao aa?eoue a oi, /oi aeey oiai, /oiau noaoue
n/anoeeaui, iaiaoiaeeii nia/aea ec?yaeii iino?aaeaoue.

Ana yoi ineoioa?aiaao iauyniyao eeeaioo, /oiau i?iecioei iniuneaiea e
auoiae ec noeaia?ey. *anoue ?aaiou ii auoiaeo ec noeaia?ey caeeth/aaony
a ioeaca io aa?u a neaci/iue (eaeaaeueiue) ie?. Aeey yoiai ioaeii
ia/aoue eniieueciaaoue aeey ?aoaiey i?iaeai iioaioeeae iaoaai Ac?ineiai
e aeiaeaaoueny oaeiaeaoai?aiey iaoeo iio?aaiinoae a iaoai aeaeaei ia
eaeaaeueiii ie?a, ii ana aea i?ae?aniii e ?aaeinoiii.

Ec aiaeeca noeaia?ey aeaeii, /oi ?aieeue aua?ae aeeciaiioth onoaiiaeo
iaoaea/ieea, o.a. “ss ia aeaaiiieo/ai – Au aeaaiiieo/iu” e aanue naie
noeaia?ee ii iiaeno?aeaaao iiae yoo iiceoeeth. Ii iaaeinoaoi/ii oaa?ai a
naaa, ia i?aoaiaeoao ia oniao, iiaeaa?aeai no?annai, /anoi aieaao.
Caaea/a oa?aiaaoa iiii/ue iniciaoue yoo iiceoeeth e auaanoe aa ia aieaa
aunieoth nooiaiue oaea/eeainoe. Oai?aoe/anee eciaiaiey i?ienoiaeyo,
eiaaea aiaae?aiiay a ?aaaiea eioi?iaoeey noaiiaeony iniciaiiie e
aeinooiiie aeey Ac?ineiai.

A i?ioeaiaan ?iaeeoaeueneei ae?aeaa?ai iiaaaeaiey “Aoaeue eo/oei!”
ineoioa?aiaao aeaao ?ac?aoaiea – “Ou e oae aeinoaoi/ii oi?io”, “Ioe?uoi
aiai?e i naieo aeaeaieyo!”, “Aeaeae yoi!”

A i?ioeanna ineoioa?aiee i?ienoiaeeo iniciaiea nianoaaiiuo iaooa?iia
noeaia?ey, inouanoaeyaony eiio?ieue Ac?ineiai iaae naiei iiaaaeaieai e
?ac?ooaiea yoeo iaooa?iia, o.a. auoiae ec noeaia?ey e aaoiiiiey.

I?e caaa?oaiee aiaeeca noeaia?ey eeeaioa, iiaeii neacaoue aio: “Eiaaea
aaoe i?iaeaiu aoaeoo ?aoaiu, iio?aaiinoe oaeiaeaoai?aiu, a oeaee
aeinoeaioou, eae au aoaeaoa auaeyaeaoue, aeinoeaioa naieo oeaeae? *oi
auneaaeaoa e eae aoaeao cao/aoue aao aiein? Aieaeeoa aioo?ue yoiai
ia?aca. Ii/oanoaoeoa nae/an oi, /oi aoaeaoa /oanoaiaaoue oiaaea!
Oaeanony ee aai iuooeoue oaeiaeaoai?aiea, niieienoaea?”

Caeanue iaie eniieuecoaony iaeei ec aa?eaioia oaoiieiaee
naii?aaeecothueony i?i?i/anoa. Oi, /oi naaa i?i?i/anoaoao, n /ai
niaeaoaaony, /oi ie?aoeaaao iieiaeeoaeueiuie yiioeeyie, oi e naa?oaaony.
Aeey yoiai /aeiaae neiioeaio?e?oao cia/eoaeueioth /anoue naiae yia?aee,
ae?oaeo ee/iinoiuo ?ano?nia e aoaeao iniciaiii e aanniciaoaeueii
no?aieoueny e aeinoeaeaieth oeaee.

Naii?aaeecothueany i?i?i/anoaa – yoi iaeei ec aa?eaioia eiino?oe?iaaiey
aoaeouaai. Aeey eo cae?aieaiey ?aieeth C. e i?iaaaeaia oaoieea IEI
ioi?ieaiey aeaeaaiiai ?acoeueoaoa, e auei ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aanoe aeiaaiee
aoaeouaai, eoaea au caienuaaeenue oa niauoey, eioi?ua aeieaeiu
i?iecieoe, a oaeaea iaycaoaeuenoaa, iaiai?aiiua a eiio?aeoa.

Ca aeaa iaaeaee oa?aiee o ?aieey C. iaia/aeinue caiaoiia oeo/oaiea,
niaciu noaee ana ?aaea, /a?ac ianyoe ii/oe en/acee. Nai iaoeeaio
aiai?eo, /oi iniciaiea nianoaaiiiai noeaia?ey e no?aieaiea aueoe ec
iaai, iiaeaenoaiaaei ia iaai /oaeaniui ia?acii e ii iiaeao neacaoue, /oi
noae nianai ae?oaei /aeiaaeii. Ii ooae ec naiuee ?iaeeoaeae, noae
iaeaaeeaaoue naith ee/ioth aeeciue, noae aieaa naiaiaeii iauaoueny n
ae?oaeie ethaeueie.

Caeanue iu aeaeei, eae oa?aiey o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca niinianoaiaaea ?inoo
ee/iinoe, iiaeaea?aeaea naiioaaaeaiea e aeaea naiaiaeo auai?a eeeaioo.

§ 2. Auyaeaiea yai-ninoiyiee a a?oiiiaie oa?aiee OA, aiaeec
acaeiiaeaenoaee, aiaeec ea?

Ia?aue oaa ?oeiaiaeeoaey a?oiiu a oa?aiee OA ninoieo a oii, /oiau
iiii/ue o/anoieeai caiyoee iao/eoueny ?acee/aoue niiniau iiaaaeaiey
?iaeeoaey, ?aaaiea e Ac?ineiai. *oiau iiii/ue /eaiai a?oiiu iao/eoueny
eiio?iee?iaaoue aioo?aiiea ineoe/aneea i?ioeannu a no?anniauo
neooaoeeyo, eniieuecoaony no?oeoo?iue aiaeec.

Oae eae eaaeaeiio yai-ninoiyieth i?enou ii?aaeaeaiiue iaooa?i /oanoa,
ia?aaeeaaiee e iiaaaeaiey, aeey iaeaa/aiey ?aaiou a a?oiia iiaeii
ninoaaeoue oaaeeoeo oaeoi?ia “yai-ninoiyiee”.

Oaaeeoea

Iiaaaeai/aneee aeeaaiic yai-ninoiyiee

Oaeoi?u E? A? A NAe AAe

1 2 3 4 5 6

Neiaa “Ia aeaeae yoiai”, “I?ae?aoe”, “Ou aeieaeai” “Oi?ioi”, “Ou
iiaeaoue” “*oi?”, “Aaea?”, “Eiaaea?”, “Iieacii”, “I?aeoe/ii”
“Caei?iai!”, “Oi/o!”, “Aeane!” “Anee iaaei”, “Eae au neaaeaoa”, “Io anee
ioaeii”

Oii aieina Aeoaieee, ?aceee, na?aeeoue Oaieue, iyaeee ?iaiue, aac
yiioeee A?iieee I?inyuee, aeaeiaiue

AEanou Iaeueoeu aea?aeeo aianoa, “a?iceo iaeueoeai”, iaoao ?oeaie Oe?iei
?ani?inoa?oua ?oee ?oee iiaeie?atho iiaeai?iaeie, “iaia?a iuneeoaey”,
aeano “ie?aieaeu” I?iecaieueiua, iiaoo oiiaoue iiaie, ea/aoueny,
aa?oaoueny a ?aciua noi?iiu “Eeaaiea aieiaie”, ?acaiaeeoue ?oeaie

Iieiaeaiea oaea Ii?ieeaeuaathnue aeoaiei iacaae ?anneaaeai-iia I?yiia,
?aaiiia?ii ?aniieiaeaiiia ioiineoaeueii iicaiii/ieea ?anea/eaath-uaa,
iiaa?iooi a ?aciua noi?iiu Iea/e i?eiiaeiyou e iai?aaeaiu aia?aae

Au?aaeaiea eeoea Eii/eee ?oa iiouaiu, a?iae iiaeiyou Iaeia?aiea, oaieee
?oa iiaeiyou ?io neaaea iai?yaeai, aeaca iai?aaeaiu aaa?o e a noi?iio
Auno?ia eciaiaiea Acaeyae nieco aaa?o

?oeiaiaeeoaeue a?oiiu aeey aeeaaiinoeee ninoiyiee yai i?eiaiyao i?eaiu,
acyoua ec aaooaeueo-oa?aiee, iai?eia?, iaoiae “ionouo nooeueaa” –
o/anoiee aeieaeai “?annaaeeoue” ana ninoiyiey yai ii nooeueyi e
i?ecaaoue eo e acaeiiaeaenoaeth. I?e eniieueciaaiee ae?oaiai i?eaia,
ecaanoiiai eae “?aiaoeoeey noeaia?ey”, aeaa eee aieaa o/anoieeia
?acua?uaatho noeaieo, eeethno?e?othuoth iaeoth i?iaeaio, aaaeioth ii
e?aeiae ia?a aeey iaeiiai ec ieo. Oai a?aiaiai iaeie /eaiu a?oiiu noiyo
?yaeii e ea?atho ?ieue ?iaeeoaey, ae?oaea ?aaaiea, a o?aouee aeaeatho
caia/aiey eae Ac?ineua.

I?eaaaeai i?eia? oi?aaeiaiey, i?iaiaeeiiai a oeaio?a “Ee/iinoue”, oeaeue
eioi?iai – iieo/eoue i?aeoeeo a aeeaaiinoeea ninoiyiee yai e
yaeythuaainy aaaaeaieai e o?ainaeoeeyi iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie ninoiyieyie
yai.

Eoae, aeaenoaothuea eeoea: iaoue, ioaoe, aei/ue iaeeiiaaeoeaoe eao.

Aei/ue (ia/oaoaeueii): O Aaeee ?iaeeoaee ia iaaeaeth oacaeatho. Iie n
a?aoii oeaeoth iaaeaeth iaeie aoaeoo, io ?iaeeoaeae ioaeioioo…
(?aaaiie).

Iaoue (iiia?oioaoenue): Io ?iaeeoaeae? Ioaeioioo? (?iaeeoaeue).

Aei/ue: Io aea! Yoi aea oae caei?iai – iiaeeoue naiei. Ei inoaayo aaeo,
a /oi aua iaaei? (?aaaiie).

Ioaoe (iia?aaeea aeaio): Ou au oiaea oioaea iiaeeoue iaeia? (Ac?ineue).

Iaoue: Eae – iaeia?

Aei/ue: A /oi? ss ni?aaethnue (?aaaiie).

Ioaoe: Aio e ioee/ii. (Ia?auaaony e aeaia): Iia eae ?ac naaiaeiy
i?aaeeiaeeee iaaei?iaie oo? ia aeaa iaaeaee aeey ian n oiaie. Iiaoaee?
ss oaea o?e aiaea a ioionea ia aue (Ac?ineue).

Iaoue (aeeth/eaoenue): Ciaaoue, y iiaeoiaea nae/an, /oi ou i?aaa. Iai,
iaaa?iia, e i?aaaea iaaei ae?oa io ae?oaa iaiiiai ioaeioiooue… (Ac?ineue
– Ac?ineiio).

Iiaeii nua?aoue ana iyoue ninoiyiee yai ee/iinoe.

Iai?eia?: Nooaeaioea ianoaeaeaao naith ninaaeeo ii eiiiaoa a iauaaeeoee:
“Yoi aeoiay, aacioaaonoaaiiay, eaaeiiuneaiiay aeaa/iiea (E?eoe/iue
?iaeeoaeue). Iia i?eoiaeeony aianoi naieo i?iaeai caieiaoueny aa aeaeaie
(Caaioeeaue ?iaeeoaeue). Eiiaaea iia yoi eaaeaony i?inoi aeoiui
(Ac?ineue), ii y aaaeue aeieaeia iiiiaaoue ae?oaei, iaiy aea iaia yoiio
o/eea (Aaeaioe?iaaiiue ?aaaiie). Iaeiaei eiie ?ac iia oae oi/aony ae
neacaoue, /oiau iia io iaiy ioaycaeanue (Naiaiaeiue ?aaaiie).

Ec i?eaaaeaiiuo i?eia?ia aeaeii, /oi aeeaaiic ninoiyiee yai yaeyaony
ia/aeueiui yoaiii aiaeeca acaeiiaeaenoaee. Aeaenoaea ia/eiaaony, eiaaea
aeaa /aeiaaea ieacuaathony aianoa. Yai eaaeaeiai eiaeeaeaea iiaeao
iaoiaeeoueny a ninoiyieyo ?iaeeoaey, Ac?ineiai eee ?aaaiea; oaeei
ia?acii, eiaaea aeaa /aeiaaea iaoiaeyony iaaaeeia a iaeiie eiiiaoa, oai
a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?enoonoaoao oanoue eeoe, eaaeaeia ec eioi?uo
iiaeao aiacaiii iiyaeoueny.

Acaeiiaeaenoaea ninoieo ec noeioea ni noi?iiu iaeiiai /aeiaaea e
niioaaonoaothuae ?aaeoeee ae?oaiai. Iiiaea acaeiiaeaenoaey i?inou e
iaiin?aaenoaaiiu, iai?eia?:

Ia/aeueiee: Eioi?ue /an? (Noeioe)

Nae?aoa?oa: *aou?a /ana (?aaeoeey)

Nae?aoa?oa

(eiiieeiaioa?iua o?ainaeoeee)

Ioaao iiaeao enoiaeeoue io ae?oaeo ninoiyiee yai, e oiaaea iieiaeaiea
iaiyaony.

Aii?in: Eioi?ue /an?

Ioaao: O aan ia a ii?yaeea /anu?

Nae?aoa?oa

(ia?ae?anoiua o?ainaeoeee)

Yoio ioaao iiaeao i?eaanoe e eiioeeeoo, e oiaaea nae?aoa?oa ia oaeanony
nio?aieoue naith aeieaeiinoue.

Anee aea ia/aeueiee ia/iao ioaa/aoue, eae ?aaaiie, oi ?acaiai? iiaeao
i?iaeieaeaoueny neieue oaiaeii. Iai?eia?:

Ia/aeueiee: Ciaaoa, y caaue /anu aeiia.

Nae?aoa?oa: Io e ?annayiiue aea Au.

Ia/aeueiee: ss oae oi?iieeny

Nae?aoa?oa

Eae aeaeii ec i?aaeuaeouaai i?eia?a, iiaaaeaiea ethaeae ia anaaaea
niioaaonoaoao eo iauanoaaiiiio iieiaeaieth. Ia nioeeaeueiii o?iaia
ia/aeueiee inoaaony ia/aeueieeii, ii ineoieiae/anee ii iiaeao auoue
iaeaiueeei iaeue/eeii eee ia?oia?ii a ea?a. Acaeiiaeaenoaey iiaoo
i?eieiaoue aua aieaa neiaeiue e ne?uoue oa?aeoa?, /ai a i?aaeuaeouai
i?eia?a, e iiiaea ec ian iiaoo i?eiiiieoue neooaoeee, a eioi?uo /aeiaae
aaaeao ?acaiai? ia iaeiii o?iaia e iaeiia?aiaiii – ne?uoia
acaeiiaeaenoaea ia ae?oaii, iai?eia?:

Nioeeaeueiue o?iaaiue:

I?iaeaaaoe: “Yoa aauue oi?ioay, ii aoaeao aeey aan neeoeii aei?iaa!”

Iieoiaoaeue: “Yoi eiaiii oi, /oi iia ioaeii!”

Ineoieiae/aneee o?iaaiue:

I?iaeaaaoe: “O oaay aeaiaa ia oaaoeo ia oaeoth aauue”!

Iieoiaoaeue: “Aio aa-oi y e aicueio!”

Iieoiaoaeue

Oaeea ne?uoua acaeiiaeaenoaea ia aeaieiii o?iaia ii?iaeaeatho ea?u.
Ea?ai anaaaea i?enoua eaii?e?iaaiea ia ineoieiae/aneii o?iaia. Ia
nioeeaeueiii o?iaia ea?iee aini?eieiatho ea?o eae iaiai eioaineaiuie
iiaeaaeeaaieyie. Ea?u caieiatho aieueooth /anoue a no?oeoo?e?iaaiee
a?aiaie. Ea?u iau/ii yaeythony aeeaeaeoei aanniciaoaeueiui, a eiaaea
iniciathony, oi ?ac?ooathony. Ea?u anaaaea ia/anoiu, iie aeeth/atho a
naay acaeiiaeaenoaey, niaea?aeauea neaaeieo, eiaooeo, ioaao, oaea?,
?anieaoo, aiciaa?aaeaeaiea.

Iaeaieaa oi?ioi ea?u ?aniiciathony a ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneeo neooaoeeyo,
i?e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie e iniaaiii a?oiiiaie ineoioa?aiee. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
a?oiiu iiiiaaao ?aniiciaoue ea?o e i?ae?aoeoue aa, ioia/ay i?e yoii
ineoieiae/aneoth eee nioeeaeueioth iieueco aeaiiie ea?u aeey anao /eaiia
a?oiiu.

?anniio?ei iaeio ec ecaanoiuo ea?, ?acua?aiiuo a oa?aiaaoe/aneie a?oiia
iiae iacaaieai “Ii/aio au aai ia?…” – “Aea, ii…”

Eaai: Ia ciath, eae iia ieii/eoue aia?aiy eiio?ieueioth ca yoio naiano??

Iaoa: Ii/aio au oaaa ia ia/aoue aa naaiaeiy aea aa/a?ii?

Eaai: Aea, ii y ia niae a/a?a anth ii/ue.

Iaoa: Ii/aio au oaaa ia ia/aoue oiaaea caao?a?

Eaai: Aea, ii iia iaaei eaeoe a oeie/aneoth eaai?aoi?eth.

Iaoa: Ii/aio au oaaa ia auiieieoue aa a eiioea iaaeaee?

Eaai: Aea, ii y aeieaeai iaaanoeoue naiueth.

Iaoa: Ii/aio au oaaa ia iii?ineoue o i?aiiaeaaaoaey ion?i/ee?

Eaai: Aea, ii ii neacae oaea: “Eneeth/aiee ia aoaeao.”

Iau/ii ea?a caaa?oaaony iie/aieai, eiaaea ana o/anoieee naeathony Eaai
auea?uaaao.

Ii aeaeaao cai?in eae Ac?ineue, ii ioa?anuaaao ana i?aaeeiaeaiey,
iiaeiaii iaeaiueeiio iaeue/eeo.

Aai ?aaaiie aaiaeee a caaeoaeaeaiea ?iaeeoaeae, ae?oaeo /eaiia a?oiiu,
auioaeaeay eo ia ne?uoii ineoieiae/aneii o?iaia oaeaeyoue aio aieiaiea.
A yoii e ninoiye aai auea?uo. Oa?aiaao iieacae, eae i?ae?aoeoue ea?o e
iaeo?aeeciaaoue aai ?aaaiea. Aeey yoiai ia ioaeii aeaaaoue niaaoia e ia
noaiiaeoueny ia iiceoeeth ?iaeeoaey. Oiaaea aanaaea aoaeao i?ioaeaoue
neaaeothuei ia?acii:

Eaai: Ia ciath, eae iia ieii/eoue aia?aiy eiio?ieueioth ca yoio naiano??

Iaoa: Aea,. Yoi i?iaeaia neiaeiay. E /oi aea ou niae?aaoueny
i?aaei?eiyoue?

Eaai: Ia ciath, y aaaeue ia niae a/a?a anth ii/ue.

Iaoa: Aea, yoi i/aiue ieioi!

Eaai: *oi ou iia iiniaaooaoue?

Iaoa: Oia ia i?eeiaeo!

Iineieueeo ea?u iniiauaathony ia ?aoaieyo ?aiiaai aeaonoaa, io ieo
iiaeii ioo/eoue, e eeeaio iiaeao i?eiyoue ae?oaia ?aoaiea. Iiaeii eeai
iieiinoueth ioeacaoueny io ea?u, eeai caiaieoue aa ae?oaie ea?ie, iaiaa
a?aaeiie.

Eiaaea ia neaaeothuai naaina Eaai iiiuoaeny caiiai ia/aoue “Ii/aio au
Aai ia?…” – “Aea, ii…”, ineoioa?aiaao oaeeaee aai naiae ?aaeoeeae.

Eaai: ss ieeae ia iiao aia?aiy i?eeoe ia eaeoeeth.

Ineoioa?aiaao: Ii aaaeue o Aan anoue e eioa?aniua i?iaeaiu, ia i?aaaea
ee?

Iu aeaeei, /oi ?oeiaiaeeoaeue a?oiiu ioeacaeny anooieoue n Eaaiii a ea?o
e aeae aio iiiyoue, /oi ii iia au iaeoe eaeie-ieaoaeue ae?oaie niinia
iauaiey n ethaeueie. Yoi iinoaaeei iiae oa?ico ?aoaiea Eaaia, e eiaaea
ii ieii/aoaeueii ?annoaeny n “Ii/aio au Aai ia?…” – “Aea, ii…”, aai
ee/iinoue oaea eciaieeanue.

Eoae, iu iciaeiieeenue n iaeaieaa aaaeiuie /anoyie o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca
a a?oiiiaie e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie oa?aiee ia aaca ineoieiae/aneiai oeaio?a
“Ee/iinoue”. Nthaea aioee: auyaeaiea yai-ninoiyiee, iiaaaeai/aneee
aeeaaiic e aiaeec acaeiiaeaenoaee, ?anoeo?iaea aeeciaiiiai noeaia?ey e
aiaeec ineoieiae/aneeo ea?. Iaeioi?ua ae?oaea oaoieee e i?aeoe/aneea
oi?aaeiaiey, i?eiaiyaiua a oa?aiee oeaio?a “Ee/iinoue”, i?eaaaeaiu a
i?eeiaeaiee 6.

CAEETH*AIEA

A caeeth/aiee oi/aony neacaoue, /oi o?ainaeoiue aiaeec iiceoeaai e
iioeienoe/ai. N iienaiiuie auoa a?oiiaie aai iauaaeeiyao iai?aaeaiiinoue
ia oi, /oiau aeaoue o/anoieeai aiciiaeiinoue i?eieiaoue naiinoiyoaeueiua
?aoaiey. O?ainaeoiue aiaeec eiaao aanueia oe?ieee niaeo? i?eiaiaiey, i
/ai naeaeaoaeuenoaoao aai eniieueciaaiea a a?oiiao eae caei?iauo
eiaeeaeaeia, oae e ethaeae n yiioeeiiaeueiuie ?anno?ienoaaie. OA
i?ia?aiiaoe/ai. OA aace?oaony ia ianeieueeeo oeeinioneeo iinueeao,
eioi?ua aeeth/atho a naay auneacuaaiey i ethaeyo, aeeciyo e oeaeyo
eciaiaiey.

Yoeie oeeinioneeie iinueeaie OA yaeythony:

ana ethaee – “I,eae”;

eaaeaeue /aeiaae iaeaaeaao niiniaiinoueth aeoiaoue;

ana ethaee ii?aaeaeytho naith noaeueao, e yoe ?aoaiey iiaoo auoue
eciaiaiu.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy o?ainaeoiue aiaeec yaeyaony aiieia eiae/anee
caaa?oaiiie eiioeaiooaeueiie nenoaiie. A yoii ieaia OA iiaeao yooaeoeaii
eniieueciaaoueny i?aeoe/anee a ethaie iaeanoe, a eioi?ie ethaee
acaeiiaeaenoaotho n ae?oaeie ethaeueie.

O?ainaeoiue aiaeec ?acee/iui ia?acii i?eiaiyaony a ia?aciaaiee e
i?aaiecaoeeyo, i?e/ai eaaeaeia i?eiaiaiea eiaao naie nianoaaiiua
oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou e i?eioeeiu.

A i?aaiecaoeeyo e ia?aciaaiee i?aeoee aunooiaao nei?aa a ?iee iiiiuieea
e o?aia?a, iaaeaee a ?iee oa?aiaaoa, i?e yoii ii aoaeao /aua
i?aaeeaaaoue /eaiai a?oiiu ianoaeeoue i?ienoiaeyuaa ia nioeeaeueiii, a
ia ia ineoieiae/aneii o?iaia. I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi i?aaiecaoeee, oaeaea
eae e eiaeeaeaeooiu, iiaoo eiaoue ?ac?ooeoaeueiua eee iayooaeoeaiua
iaooa?iu iiaaaeaiey, aiaeiae/iua noeaia?iiio iiaaaeaieth eaeiai-eeai
/aeiaaea. I?e yoii auoiae ec “noeaia?ey i?aaiecaoeee” iiaeao iiaea/ue ca
niaie oeo/oaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?aaiecaoeee a aeinoeaeaiee aeaeaaiuo
?acoeueoaoia. Aeaaiaea?y ciaieth iiaeaee yai-ninoiyiee iiaeii a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue oeo/oeoue eiiioieeaoeeth e acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo
eiaeeaeaeooiaie a i?aaiecaoeee. Iai?eia?, iaiaaeaea?u iiaoo iniciaoue,
/oi iie aaaeoo naay eae Iaaaoeaiue ?iaeeoaeue, a oi a?aiy eae eo
iiae/eiaiiua ?aaae?otho ia ieo ec iaaaoeaiiai Aaeaioe?iaaiiiai ?aaaiea,
aoiooy i?ioea ieo eee ai anai n ieie niaeaoaynue. A yoii neo/aa aeey
oiai, /oiau iiaeiyoue yooaeoeaiinoue, eae iaiaaeaea?ai, oae e
iiae/eiaiiui iaiaoiaeeii aeoeae?iaaoue e aieueoa eniieueciaaoue naiaai
Ac?ineiai. N iiiiuueth oaeeo iaoiaeia, eae oeo/oaiea inaauaiiinoe e
eiioi?oaaaeueiinoe ?aai/aai ianoa, iiaeii aaeioiiaeoue e iiiu?eoue
Naiaiaeiiai ?aaaiea, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue a ?aaioa.

Aiaeec o?ainaeoeee oaeaea ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?eiaiyoue i?e iiaeaioiaea
ia?niiaea, ?aaioa eioi?iai iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaia n ethaeueie –
nae?aoa?yie e i?iaeaaoeaie. A i?ioeanna iao/aiey iie o/aony oiio, eae
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ?iaiue e i?eyoiue ?acaiai? n iiiiuueth ia?aeeaeueiuo
o?ainaeoeee eee eae ia aeiionoeoue aiciiaeiiai nii?a ?iaeeoaeue –
?aaaiie aeaaiaea?y ia?anaeathuaeny o?ainaeoeee.

Aiaeec iaooa?iia iiaeaaeeaaiee i?eiaiyaony i?e iiauoaiee iioeaaoeee e
?aaioa. Yoi aea i?eiaieii e a ia?aciaaiee. Iao/aiea iiaeao noaoue
yooaeoeaiaa oiaaea, eiaaea iii ia?auaii ei anai o?ai yai-ninoiyieyi, i?e
yoii iaiaoiaeeii ia caauaaoue i oii, /oi Naiaiaeiue ?aaaiie yaeyaony
enoi/ieeii oai?/anoaa e yia?aee ee/iinoe e aai iaiaoiaeeii aeeth/aoue a
i?ioeann iao/aiey.

Nooaeaiou iiaoo ea?aoue a ea?u oeia: “Aeoiue;, “Ou ia iiaeaoue iaiy
canoaaeoue” eee “Iiiiae iia”. O/eoaey iiaoo ea?aoue a ea?u: “Iiniio?e,
eae y noa?aeny”, “Ii/aio au oaaa ia…” eee “Iaaeieoaeue”. Iiyoiio ciaiea
aiaeeca ea? iicaieyao nooaeaioai e i?aiiaeaaaoaeyi ecaaaaoue iiaeiaiuo
iai?iaeoeoeaiuo acaeiiioiioaiee e caieiaoueny iai?yioth i?ioeannii
iao/aiey e iiciaiey.

Eoae, i/aaeaeii, /oi o?ainaeoiue aiaeec oieaa?naeai e aeinooiai ai anao
noa?ao aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe, e aiieia caeiiiia?ii, /oi eiioeaioeey,
i?aaeeiaeaiiay Y. Aa?iii e ?acaeoay ae?oaeie aaoi?aie, yaeyaony,
aaconeiaii, ?acoiiie e iieaciie, a oeaee ineoioa?aiee OA aoiaiiu e
aeaai?iaeiu.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

Aa?i Y. Ea?u, a eioi?ua ea?atho ethaee. Ethaee, eioi?ua ea?atho a ea?u.
NIa, 1992

Aa?i Y. Aaaaeaiea a ineoeao?eth e ineoiaiaeec aeey iaiinayuaiiuo.
Neioa?iiieue, 1998

Aa?i Y. *oi au aiai?eoa iinea oiai, eae aiai?eoa “Cae?aanoaoeoa.” – I.,
1984

Ao?ea/oe E.O., Ii?icia N.I. Neiaa?ue-ni?aai/iee ii ineoieiae/aneie
aeeaaiinoeea. Eeaa, 1989

A?eiae E.I. ?aca?au /aeiaa/aneie ineoeee: Aaaaeaiea a ineoieiaeth
aeoeaiinoe. – I.: Iieeoecaeao, 1989

A?aiianeay ?.I. Yeaiaiou i?aeoe/aneie ineoieiaee. – E., 1988

Aeaeaein I., Aeaeaiaaa?ae Ae. ?iaeaeaiiua auea?uaaoue. O?ainaeoiue
aiaeec n aaooaeueo-oi?aaeiaieyie. Ia?. N aiae./iau. ?aae. e iineane.
E.A. Iao?ianeie – I., 1993

Eii E. A iieneao naay. – I., 1984

Eaaai A.A. Ineoioa?aiey aeey anao e aeey eaaeaeiai. – I.: YENII – I?ann,
1998

Ea?aana?neee A.Ae. Ineoioa?aiey. – I.: Iaaeeoeeia, 1985

Ea?aana?neee A.Ae. Iaaeeoeeineay ineoieiaey. – E.: Iaaeeoeeia, 1985

Ea/oian ?. Iniiau ineoieiae/aneiai eiinoeueoe?iaaiey. – I.:
Aeaaeaie/aneee i?iaeo, 1999

Eiiae?aoaiei A.A. Iniiau ineoioa?aiee. – I., 1995

Eae iino?ieoue naia “ss”/ iiae ?aae. A.E. Cei/aiei – I., 1991

Eaa?ei Y. O?aineiiioieeaoeey e ee/iinoiia ?acaeoea. Oiine, 1992

E?ieue E.I., Ieoaeeiaa A.E. *aeiaae-i?eano?, iee?ono?oeoo?a iauaiey I.,
1993.

Eeoaae I.A. Anee oi/aoue auoue n/anoeeaui. – ?inoia i/Ae.: “Oaieen”,
2000

Iaea?ia A.A. Eca?aiiua eaeoeee ii ineoioa?aiee. – I., 1999

Ie?aiaa?a Ae., Eaea?a A. *eoaoue /aeiaaea eae eieao. – I., 1990

Iaiia I.N. Iauea iniiau ineoieiaee a 3-o o. – I., 1992, – o. 3

Iniiau ineoiaeeaaiinoeee (iiae ?aae. Oiaeaaa), ?inoia-ia-Aeiio, 1996

I?oo/aieia A.N. O?aieia eiiioieeaoeaiuo oiaiee. I. – 1993

?oaeanoai E. A?oiiiaay ineoioa?aiey – NIa, Ieoa? Eii, 1999

?iaiaA.E. Ineoieiaey /aeiaaea – I.: “Aeaaein”, 1999

?aoiaoiaaa A. Auoue a aa?iiiee n niaie e ae?oaeie. Ano?aoaiue, 1993

Noiey?aiei E.Ae. Iniiau ineoieiaee. ?inoia – ia – Aeiio, “Oaieen”, 1997

Noiey?aiei E.Ae. Ineoieiae/aneee i?aeoeeoi. ?inoia – ia – Aeiio,
“Oaieen”, 1997

Niniiaieeiaa TH.A. Ineoe/aneea ninoiyiey /aeiaaea, eo eeanneoeeaoeey e
aeeaaiinoeea. Ai?ueeee, 1975

Nouetha?o e. Aeaeiein A. Nia?aiaiiue OA: ia?. n aiae. – Eanueyiia Ae.Ae.
Eaieia?aae, 1987

O?aiee A. *aeiaae a iieneao niunea. – I., 1990

Oa??en Oiian A. ss aeaaiiieo/ai, ou aeaaiiieo/ai. – E?aniiy?ne, 1993

Oieaeo ?. Eneonnoai iauaiey. – I., 1992

I?eeiaeaiea 1

No?oeoo?iay aeeaa?aiia ia?aiai ii?yaeea. Iiaeaeue yai-ninoiyiee

Yai-ninoiyiea Ac?ineiai (iiaaaeaiea, iunee e /oanoaa, eioi?ua yaeythony
i?yiui ?aaae?iaaieai ia caeanue e oaia?ue)

Yai-ninoiyiea Aeeoy (iiaaaeaiea, iunee e /oanoaa, i?iea?uaaaiua ec
aeaoneiai aic?anoa)

Y. Aa?i ia ?ac iiae/a?eeaae, /oi ?iaeeoaeue e ?aaaiie yaeythony yoii
i?ioeiai. A ?aaaiea y i?iea?uaath iiaaaeaiea, iunee e /oanoaa ec iiaai
nianoaaiiiai i?ioeiai – iiaai aeaonoaa. A yai-ninoiyiee ?iaeeoaey y
i?iea?uaath iiaaaeaiea, iunee e /oanoaa, eioi?ua y neiie?iaae a i?ioeii
n iieo ?iaeeoaeae e ia?aioaeueiuo oeao?. Eeoue ai Ac?ineii y ?aaae?oth
ia neooaoeeth ni anai iiei ianoiyuei iioaioeeaeii ac?ineie ee/iinoe.

No?oeoo?iay iiaeaeue iieacuaaao, /oi ec naay i?aaenoaaeyao eaaeaeia yai
ninoiyiea. Ooieoeeiiaeueiay iiaeaeue aeaeeo yai-ninoiyiea ia /anoe n
oai, /oiau iieacaoue, eae iu eo eniieuecoai.

No?oeoo?a = “/oi” = niaea?aeaiea

Ooieoeey = “eae” = i?ioeann

Ooieoeeiiaeueiue aiaeec yai-ninoiyiee

Ac?ineue

Aaeaioe?iaaiiue ?aaaiie (Aeeoy)

Naiaiaeiue ?aaaiie

Naiaiaeiue ?aaaiie niiioaiai, eiioeueneaai, iacaaenei, yaioeaio?e/ai e
iano?iai oai?/anee.

Aaeaioe?iaaiiue ?aaaiie ia?aie/ai, ii ia aeeyieai Ac?ineiai, a ?aieaie
?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aaee e cai?aoia. Onooi/eainoue Aaeaioe?iaaiiiai ?aaaiea
iiaoaeaeaao aai oaiaeaeaoue ae?oaei. N yoei naycaiu /oanoaa no?aoa,
nouaea e aeiu.

Ooieoeeiiaeueii ?iaeeoaeue iiaeao aunooiaoue a ?iee Caaioeeaiai
?iaeeoaey, eioi?ue caueuaao, iiaeaea?aeeaaao, aaniieieony, iaeia?yao, e
E?eoe/iiai, eee Eiio?iee?othuaai ?iaeeoaey. E?eoeea ni noi?iiu
Eiio?iee?othuaai ?iaeeoaey iiaeao auoue eae eiino?oeoeaiie, oae e
aeano?oeoeaiie. E? i?iyaeyao naay i?iecaieueiuie e iaii?aaaeaiiuie
cai?aoaie e onoaiiaeaie.

Ii/aio oae aaaeii i?aaeeueii ?acee/aoue no?oeoo?o e ooieoeeth?

Anaaaea, eiaaea iu aiai?ei i acaeiiaeaenoaee iaaeaeo ethaeueie
(iaaeee/iinoiua aniaeou), iu aeieaeiu eniieueciaaoue ooieoeeiiaeueioth
iiaeaeue. No?oeoo?iay iiaeaeue i?eiaiyaony oiaaea, eiaaea iu
aiaeece?oai, /oi i?ienoiaeeo aioo?e /aeiaaea (eio?aineoe/aneea aii?inu).

I?eeiaeaiea 2

O?ainaeoeeth iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae o?ainaeoeeiiaeueiue noeioe iethn
o?ainaeoeeiiaeueiay ?aaeoeey. Y. Aa?i n/eoae o?ainaeoeeth “iniiaiie
aaeeieoeae nioeeaeueiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey”.

No- “noeioe”

?en. 1. Ia?aeeaeueiay o?ainaeoeey Ac?ineue – Ac?ineue

?en. 2. Ia?aeeaeueiay o?ainaeoeey ?(Ae, Ae(?

?en. 3. Ia?aeeaeueiay o?ainaeoeey NAe(A?, A?(NAe

Ia?aia i?aaeei eiiioieeaoeee

Aei oao ii?, iiea o?ainaeoeee inoathony ia?aeeaeueiuie, eiiioieeaoeey
i?iaeieaeaaony aaneiia/ii aeieaia a?aiy.

?en. 4. Ia?anaeathuayny o?ainaeoeey A(A, ?(Ae

?en. 5. Ia?anaeathuayny o?ainaeoeey ?(Ae, A(A

Aoi?ia i?aaeei eiiioieeaoeee

I?e ia?anaeathuaeny o?ainaeoeee i?ienoiaeeo ?ac?ua eiiioieeaoeee, i?e
yoii aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey eiiioieeaoeee iaeiiio eee iaaei ethaeyi
iaiaoiaeeii aoaeao eciaieoue naie yai-ninoiyiey.

A ne?uoie o?ainaeoeee iaeiia?aiaiii ia?aaeathony aeaa niiauaiey. Iaeii
ec ieo – ioe?uoia niiauaiea eee niiauaiea nioeeaeueiiai o?iaiy, ae?oaia
– ne?uoia niiauaiea eee niiauaiea ineoieiae/aneiai o?iaiy.

?en. 6. Aeaieiay ne?uoay o?ainaeoeey: nioeeaeueiue o?iaaiue A(A, A(A;

ineoieiae/aneee o?iaaiue ?(Ae, Ae(?

?en. 7. Oaeiaay ne?uoay o?ainaeoeey

O?aouea i?aaeei o?ainaeoeee

Iiaaaeai/aneee ?acoeueoao ne?uoie o?ainaeoeee ii?aaeaeyaony ia
ineoieiae/aneii, a ia ia nioeeaeueiii o?iaia.

N. Ea?iiai n/eoae, /oi iu iiaeai naie auae?aoue o?ainaeoeee e iauaoueny
oae, eae iu oioei. A iniaaiiinoe iu iiaeai ecae?aoue iiaua niiniau
iauaiey n oai, /oiau neiiaoue iau/iua iai?eyoiua, “caieiooua”
acaeiiaeaenoaey n ae?oaeie ethaeueie. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii canoaaeoue
ae?oaiai /aeiaaea aueoe ec aai yai-ninoiyiey, eee eciaieoue naia
nianoaaiiia yai-ninoiyiea, eee oi e ae?oaia. Ii auaeaeyao /aou?a
oneiaey, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu aeey inouanoaeaiey yoie no?aoaaee:

iaeii eee iaa yai-ninoiyiey aeieaeiu ?aaeueii eciaieoueny;

o?ainaeoeey aeieaeia auoue iaia?anaeathuaeny;

iaiaoiaeeii eciaieoue i?aaeiao ?acaiai?a;

i?aaeuaeouee ?acaiai? (oaia) aeieaeai auoue caauo.

I?eeiaeaiea 3

Ae?aiaoe/aneee o?aoaieueiee

Noeaai Ea?iiai ?ac?aaioae i?inooth, ii /?acau/aeii yooaeoeaioth
aeeaa?aiio aeey aiaeeca ea? – ae?aiaoe/aneee o?aoaieueiee (?en. 1)

(I?aneaaeiaaoaeue)

(Nianeoaeue)

(AEa?oaa)

?en. 1

Aa eaeay caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi a ea?ao ethaee ea?atho iaeio ec
neaaeothueo noeaia?iuo ?ieae: I?aneaaeiaaoaey, Nianeoaey eee AEa?oau.

I?aneaaeiaaoaeue – /aeiaae, eioi?ue oieaeaao e i?eieaeaao ae?oaeo
ethaeae, n/eoathueie eo noiyueie ieaea naay e ia “I,eae.”

Nianeoaeue oaeaea n/eoaao ae?oaeo ieaea naay e ia “I,eae”, iaeiaei
i?aaeeaaaao naith iiiiuue, enoiaey ec naiaai aieaa aunieiai iieiaeaiey.
Ii n/eoaao: “ss aeieaeai iiiiaaoue anai yoei ethaeyi, oae eae iie naie
ia a ninoiyiee naaa iiii/ue!”

AEa?oaa naia iuouaao naia i?eieaeaiiia iieiaeaiea e naie ia “I,eae”.
Eiiaaea AEa?oaa euao I?aneaaeiaaoaey n oai, /oiau ii oiecee aa e
iinoaaee aa ia ianoi. A ae?oaeo neo/ayo AEa?oaa euao Nianeoaey, eioi?ue
iiiiaeao ae e iiaeoaa?aeeo oaaaeaeaiea AEa?oau a oii, /oi “ss ia niiao
nai ni?aaeoueny ni naieie i?iaeaiaie.”

A ae?ooicii ?acua?uaaaiie ea?a aiciiaeii ia?aiauaiea iaaeaeo aa?oeiaie
o?aoaieueieea. A oaeii neo/aa AEa?oaa iiaeao noaoue I?aneaaeiaaoaeai, a
Nianaoaeue AEa?oaie e o.ae.

*oiau i?ana/ue iiaeiaiua ?acaeoey niauoee, iaiaoiaeeii aai iniuneeoue e
i?aaei?eiyoue niciaoaeueiua oneeey aeey auoiaea ec ii?i/iiai e?oaa.

I?eeiaeaiea 5

Eiioaieiaoeey

Aei neo ii? iu i?aaeiieaaaee, /oi anaaaea iiaeii /aoei ioee/aoue
niaea?aeaiea iaeiiai yai-ninoiyiey io ae?oaiai.

Iaeiaei, /oi i?ienoiaeeo, anee aeaa yai-ninoiyiey niaoaiu ae?oa n
ae?oaii? Eee, eiaaea /aeiaae ia iiaeao aieoe eee aueoe ec eaeiai-oi
yai-ninoiyiey? Y. Aa?i iacaae yoe aeaa i?iaeaiu eiioaieiaoeeae e
eneeth/aieai (aueeth/aieai). Iaa yoe yaeaiey eiatho iauaa iacaaiea –
no?oeoo?iay iaoieiaey.

Eiiaaea y iiao i?eiyoue niaea?aeaiea yai-ninoiyiey iiaai ?aaaiea eee
?iaeeoaey ca niaea?aeaiea Ac?ineiai. A yoii neo/aa n/eoaaony, /oi iie
Ac?ineue eiioaieie?iaai.

Eiioaieiaoeey ?iaeeoaeai

Iai?eia?:

“*a?iiiacua – Eaioye”

“Aaeua – Yenieoaoaoi?u”

“Ie? oaeanai”

Eiioaieiaoeey ?aaaieii

Iai?eia?:

“ss ieioi ieoo”

“ss ooaea ae?oaeo”

“ss ?iaeeeny aee?iui”

“ss ia iiao a?ineoue eo?eoue”

Aeaieiay eiioaieiaoeey

Iai?eia?:

(?) “Ethaeyi iaeuecy aeiaa?youe”, a ni/aoaiee n:

(Ae) “ss ieeiio ieeiaaea ia aa?th”

eee:

(?) “Aeaoae ioaeii aeaeaoue, ii ia neuoaoue”,

a ni/aoaiee n:

(Ae) “*oiau ii?iaeueii aeeoue, y aeieaeai iie/aoue”

Iaeioi?ua nia?aiaiiua aaoi?u OA n/eoatho ana eiioaieiaoeee aeaieiuie.
Aeey ieo niaea?aeaiea aeaieiie eiioaieiaoeee ninoieo ec anao noa?uo,
eneaaeaiiuo oaaaeaeaiee, eioi?ua /aeiaae eiaao i naaa, ae?oaeo ethaeyo e
i ie?a. A OA iie iieo/eee iacaaiea noeaia?iuo oaaaeaeaiee.

I?eeiaeaiea 6

I?aeoe/aneea oi?aaeiaiey aeey a?oii o?ainaeoiiai aiaeeca

Caeeth/aiea eiio?aeoa a OA

Oeaeue. Yoi oi?aaeiaiea aioiaeo e caeeth/aieth eiio?aeou e iiaoaeaeaao e
ia?aiaiai, iai?aaeaiiui ia aeaeueiaeoee ee/iinoiue ?ino e aeinoeaeaiea
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe.

Iaiaoiaeeiia a?aiy. 1 /an e aieaa.

Iiaeaioiaea. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue aeieaeai auoue ciaeii n i?ioeannii
caeeth/aiey eiio?aeoa.

I?ioeaaeo?a. Iaieoeoa ia aoiaaa aaoe nianoaaiiua ioaaou ia neaaeothuea
aii?inu:

*oi au au oioaee eiaiii aeey naay oaeiai, /oi naeaeaei au aaoo aeeciue
aieaa iieiie? *oi iaaei naeaeaoue, /oiau oae e iieo/eeinue? *oi au
aioiau naeaeaoue? Eae au naie e ae?oaea iieiaoa, /oi yoa oeaeue
aeinoeaiooa? Eaeea o aan anoue niiniau naaioe?iaaoue ?aaioo iaae niaie?

Ioaaou ia yoe aii?inu yaeythony yoaiaie caeeth/aiey oi?ioaai
OA-eiio?aeoa ii aeinoeaeaieth ia?aiai a naiae ee/iinoe. Eiaaea ana a
a?oiia eii/ao ia ieo ioaa/aoue, inoaeueiia a?aiy caiyoey iiaeii
iio?aoeoue ia iaiai iiaieyie i eiio?aeoao e ia eo oyniaiea.

Eaeaioeoeeaoeey noeaia?eaa

Oeaeue. Yoi oi?aaeiaiea yaeyaony aaiaeiui a caaea/o iiieiaiey aeeciaiiuo
noeaia?eaa e iicaieyao o/anoieeai ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeea oi?iu iiaaaeaiey
iie oioaee au o naay eciaieoue.

Iaiaoiaeeiia a?aiy. 1 /an.

Iaoa?eaeu. Ia o?aaothony.

Iiaeaioiaea. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue aeieaeai auoue iiuoiui, iioiio /oi yoi
oi?aaeiaiea iiaeao aucaaoue neeueiua yiioeee.

I?ioeaaeo?a. ?acaaeoanue ia iiaea?oiiu ii /aou?a-iyoue /aeiaae. A
eaaeaeie iiaea?oiia iiaeoiaeoa iaae ioaaoaie ia oaeea aii?inu:

*oi neo/aaony n ethaeueie a?iaea iaiy? Anee y e aeaeueoa aoaeo oaeei,
eae anoue, /ai yoi ii eiaeea aeieaeii eii/eoueny? *oi i?e yoii neaaeoo
iai iia ae?oaea?

A i?aaeaeao iiaea?oiiu iiaeaeeoanue ioaaoaie ia aii?inu ia aii?inu,
ianeieueei ni/oaoa ioaeiui. Yoe ioaaou iiaoo eiaoue i?ienoiaeaeaieai oa
?aoaiey, eioi?ua au i?eiyee eiaaea-oi a aeaonoaa. Oaia?ue o aan iiaeao
iiyaeoueny aeaeaiea ia?aniio?aoue yoe ?aoaiey.

Neaaeothuea aii?inu oaeaea iiaoo auoue iieaciu a eaeaioeoeeaoeee
aeeciaiiuo noeaia?eaa e aeiaaaeaiu e oi?aaeiaieth.

Eaeay o aan a aeaonoaa auea ethaeiay enoi?ey eee aieoaaiay neacea?

*oi ?anneacuaaee a naiuea i aaoai ?iaeaeaiee?

Eae auei aua?aii aaoa eiy?

Eaeay iaaeienue ia aaoai iaaea?iaee iiaeaaea au eoia aaoae aeecie?

Oa?aeoa? naiaeiuo aicaeaenoaee

Oeaeue. Yoi oi?aaeiaiea ?ac?aaioaii ia iniiaa ?aaiou Aoeaeeiaa e
Aoeaeeiaa (1979). Iii i?eiaiyaony, /oiau oneeeoue iniciaiea oiai, eae
naiaeiua aicaeaenoaey iiaee?aieytho iuouaiey n/anouey e ian/anouey.

Iaiaoiaeeiia a?aiy. 45 ieioo.

Iaoa?eaeu. Ia o?aaothony.

Iiaeaioiaea. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue aeieaeai auoue iiuoiui, iineieueeo yoi
oi?aaeiaiea iiaeao aucaaoue neeueiua yiioeee.

I?ioeaaeo?a. I?eieoa oaeiaiia iieiaeaiea e cae?ieoa aeaca.
I?aaenoaaueoa, eae au noieoa aicea aeiia, aaea aeeee, eiaaea auee
iaeaiueeeie. Oaia?ue i?aaenoaaueoa, /oi au oiaee e ?aciae?aee eieaii. Au
n ?uaeaieyie aaaeeoa a aeii, a ii iiaai o aan noaeaao iaeaiueeay eaiey
e?iae. Iiniio?eoa ia au?aaeaiey eeoe /eaiia aaoae naiuee. *oi iie
aiai?yo aai? Eaeea /oanoaa iie eniuouaatho? *oi iie aeaeatho?

Iiaoi?eoa yoi oi?aaeiaiea a neaaeothueo aiia?aaeaaiuo neooaoeeyo:

Au aaaaaaoa a aeii ceui e iea/ouei, iioiio /oi eoi-oi ec aeaoae iinoa?oa
ioia?ae o aan ea?ooeo.

Au aaaaaaoa a aeii a neeueiii enioaa, iioiio /oi oaeaeaee aieueooth
niaaeo.

Au aaaaaaoa a aeii, niaynue e ?aaeoynue oiio, /oi iieo/eee a oeiea i?ec.

Ii caaa?oaiee yoiai oi?aaeiaiey ioe?ieoa aeaca e ?acaaeoanue ia ia?u.
Iiaeaeeoanue aia/aoeaieyie. Neo/aeinue aai eniuouaaoue /oanoai, eioi?ia
a aaoae naiuea n/eoaeinue iai?eaieaiui e eioi?ia au oaia?ue
ioeacuaaaoanue o naay i?eciaaaoue? Auee ee o aan /oanoaa, eioi?ua
iiiu?yeenue e n iiiiuueth eioi?uo au oaia?ue iaieioee?oaoa ae?oaeie,
/oiau aeiaeaaoueny oiai, /oi aai ioaeii?

Neiaa?ue oa?ieiieiaee OA

Aaoiiiiey – ea/anoai, eioi?ia au?aaeaaony a ?ane?uoee eee ainnoaiiaeaiee
o?ao neaaeothueo niiniaiinoae: iniciaiey, niiioaiiinoe e eioeiiinoe;
ethaia iiaaaeaiea, iuoeaiea eee /oanoaa, eioi?ua yaeythony ?aaeoeeae ia
?aaeueiinoue caeanue e oaia?ue, a ia ia noeaia?iua oaaaeaeaiey.

Aaeaioeaiue ?aaaiie – /anoue ?aaaiea a ooieoeeiiaeueiie iiaeaee,
oeacuaathuay, eae /aeiaae iiaeao eniieueciaaoue yoi yai-ninoiyiea i?e
acaeiiaeaenoaeyie n i?aaeeaie e o?aaiaaieyie iauanoaa.

Ainieouaathuee ?iaeeoaeue – noaiiae?acaeaeaiea ?iaeeoaey a
ooieoeeiiaeueiie iiaeaee, oeacuaathuay ia oi, eae /aeiaae iiaeao
eniieueciaaoue yoi yai-ninoiyiea, ainieouaay, caaioynue e iiiiaay
ae?oaei.

A?aiyi?iaiaeaeaiea – niinia no?oeoo?e?iaaiey a?aiaie, eiaaea ethaee
aiai?yo i /ai-oi, iaeiaei, ie/aai ia i?aaei?eieiatho a ioiioaiee yoiai.

Aeayoaeueiinoue – niinia no?oeoo?e?iaaiey a?aiaie, i?e eioi?ii ethaee
no?aiyony aeinoeaiooue ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaee a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue oiio,
eiaaea ia yoii oieueei aiai?yo.

Ae?aiaoe/aneee o?aoaieueiee – aeeaa?aiia, iieacuaathuay, eae ethaee
iiaoo caieiaoue, a oaeaea ia?aiauaoueny ec iaeiie ec neaaeothueo ?ieae a
ae?oaoth (I?aneaaeiaaoaeue, Nianeoaeue e AEa?oaa).

Aeoiaoue ii-Ia?neainee – iauyniaiea iiaaaeaiey e iauaiey ethaeae,
aeeth/athuaa a naay iaaethaeaiea, a eioi?ii ionoonoaotho
i?aaeoaaaeaeaiey (aiia?oeaioeey).

Anoanoaaiiue ?aaaiie – oi aea, /oi e Naiaiaeiue ?aaaiie.

AEeciaiiay iiceoeey – iniiaiua oaaaeaeaiey e iiiyoey /aeiaaea i naaa e
ae?oaeo ethaeyo, eioi?ua i?ecaaiu ii?aaaeuaaoue ?aoaiey e iiaaaeaiea
/aeiaaea; iniiaiiieaaathuay iiceoeey /aeiaaea, caeeth/athuayny a aai
ioiioaiee e naaa e ae?oaei ethaeyi.

Ea?a – i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue ?yae aeaenoaee (o?ainaeoeee), /anoi cao/aiiuo
n ii?aaeaeaiiie ne?uoie oeaeueth, aeaeaeoueony e ii?aaeaeaiiiio enoiaeo,
eee iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeaenoaee, /anoi cao/aiiuo, ia ia?aue acaeyae
i/aaeaeiuo, ii ni ne?uoie iioeaaoeeae.

Eioeiiinoue – niinia no?oeoo?e?iaaiey a?aiaie, i?e eioi?ii ethaee
au?aaeatho ae?oa ae?oao aooaioe/iua /oanoaa e aeaeaiey aac eaeie-eeai
oeaico?u.

Eiioaieiaoeey – /anoue niaea?aeaiey yai-ninoiyiey ?aaaiea eee ?iaeeoaey,
eioi?ia /aeiaae ioeai/ii aini?eieiaao eae niaea?aeaiea naiaai Ac?ineiai.

Eiio?aeo – /aoei au?aaeaiiay aeaonoi?iiiyy i?eaa?aeaiiinoue
ii?aaeaeaiiiio ieaio aeaenoaee, i?eaa?aeaiiinoue Ac?ineiai naiiio naaa
eee eiio-eeai ae?oaiio n oeaeueth aeinoeaeaiey eaeiai-eeai eciaiaiey.

Eiio?iee?othuee ?iaeeoaeue – noaiiae?acaeaeaiea ?iaeeoaey a
ooieoeeiiaeueiie iiaeaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuaany oai, eae /aeiaae iiaeao
eniieueciaaoue yoi yai-ninoiyiea n oeaeueth eiio?iey, oi?aaeaiey e
e?eoeee.

Eiio?i?eeacaiey – noeaia?iua iineaiey, enoiaeyuea io ?iaeeoaey e
o?aieiua ?aaaieii a ?iaeeoaea.

E?th/ie – o?ainaeoeeiiiue noeioe, eioi?ue ia ineoieiae/aneii o?iaia
yaeyaony i?eaeaoaieai e ea?a.

Iaeaiueeee i?ioanni? – Ac?ineue a ?aaaiea.

Ia?ea – ?yeaoiia /oanoai, eioi?ia /aeiaae niae?aao n oeaeueth
iineaaeothuaai aai iaiaia ia iaaaoeaioth ?anieaoo.

Iiaeaeue yai-ninoiyiee – iiaeaeue, io?aaeathuay ee/iinoue a oa?ieiao
yai-ninoiyiey ?iaeeoaey, Ac?ineiai e ?aaaiea.

Ia?aeeth/aiea – iieiaeaiea a ea?a, eiaaea ea?ie iaiyao naith ?ieue n
oeaeueth iieo/eoue naith ?anieaoo.

Iiaaaeeoaeue – /aeiaae, eioi?ue aeinoeaaao iinoaaeaiiie oeaee.

Iiaeaaeeaaiea – aaeeieoea i?eciaiey.

Iineaiea ia nioeeaeueiii o?iaia – ioe?uoia iineaiea, eioi?ia iau/ii
ia?aaeaaony n iiiiuueth neia.

I?eeacaiey – iaaaoeaiua, ia?aie/eaathuea noeaia?iua iineaiey, enoiaeyuea
ec ?aaaiea ?iaeeoaey e o?aieiua a ?aaaiea ?aaaiea.

?ac?aoaiey (a noeaia?ee) – iiceoeaiua, inaiaiaeaeathuea noeaia?iua
iineaiey, enoiaeyuea ec ?aaaiea ?iaeeoaey e o?aieiua ?aaaieii a ?aaaiea.

?anieaoa – ?yeaoiia /oanoai, eniuouaaaiia ea?ieii a eiioea ea?u (i
noeaia?ee) caaa?oathuay noeaia noeaia?ey.

?aoaiea – iiaiea /aeiaaea i naay. ae?oaeo ethaeyo e i aeecie a oeaeii,
i?eiyoia a aeaonoaa eae iaeeo/oee eiathueeny a iaee/ee niinia auaeeaaiey
e oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae, naycaiiue n ia?aie/aiiuie aiciiaeiinoyie
aeey ?aaaiea /oanoaiaaoue e oanoe?iaaoue ?aaeueiinoue.

?eooae – niinia no?oeoo?e?iaaiey a?aiaie, i?e eioi?ii ethaee
iaiaieaathony oi?ioi ecaanoiuie e ca?aiaa cai?ia?aiie?iaaiiuie
iiaeaaeeaaieyie.

Naiaiaeiue ?aaaiie – /anoue ?aaaiea a ooieoeeiiaeueiie iiaeaee,
iieacuaathuaa, eae /aeiaae iiaeao eniieueciaaoue yoi yai-ninoiyiea i?e
au?aaeaiee naieo /oanoa e aeaeaiee aac anyeie eo oeaico?u e nnueeaie ia
i?aaeea e o?aaiaaiey iauanoaa.

No?oeoo?a – eeanneoeeaoeey iiaaaeaiey, /oanoa e ia?aaeeaaiee n iiiiuueth
yai-ninoiyiee.

No?oeoo?e?iaaiea a?aiaie – oi, eae ethaee i?iaiaeyo a?aiy, iaoiaeynue a
ia?ao eee a?oiiao.

Noeaia?ee aeecie – aanniciaoaeueiue ieai aeecie, i?eiyoue a aeaonoaa,
oneeeaaaiue ?iaeeoaeyie, “ii?aaaeuaaaiue” oiaeii niauoee e aeinoeaathuee
eoeueieiaoeee a aua?aiiie aeueoa?iaoeaa.

O?ainaeoiue aiaeec – (ii?aaeaeaiea Aa?ia) (1) – nenoaia ineoioa?aiee,
iniiaaiiay ia aiaeeca o?ainaeoeee eee na?ee o?ainaeoeee, eioi?ua eiatho
ianoi ai a?aiy ea/aiey; (2) – oai?ey ee/iinoe, iniiaaiiay ia eco/aiee
ioaeaeueiuo yai-ninoiyiee; (3) – oai?ey nioeeaeueiiai aeaenoaey, a
iniiaa eioi?ie eaaeeo aiaeec yai-ninoiyiee; (4) – aiaeec ioaeaeueiuo
o?ainaeoeee n iiiiuueth o?ainaeoeeiiaeueiuo aeeaa?aii.

O?ainaeoeey – o?ainaeoeeiiaeueiue noeioe iethn o?ainaeoeeiiaeueiay
?aaeoeey – iniiaiay aaeeieoea nioeeaeueiiai iauaiey.

Oaeiaay o?ainaeoeey – ne?uoay o?ainaeoeey, aeeth/athuay a naay o?e
yai-ninoiyiey.

Ooiae – niinia no?oeoo?e?iaaiey a?aiaie, i?e eioi?ii /aeiaae ia iauaaony
n ae?oaeie ethaeueie.

Yaia?aiia – aeeaa?aiia a aeaea noaiu n eieiieaie, iieacuaathuay
eiooeoeaioth ioeaieo /aeiaaeii aaaeiinoe eaaeaeiai noaiiae?acaeaeaiey
iiaeaee yai-ninoiyiee a ee/iinoe /aeiaaea.

Yai-ninoiyiea – iinoiyiiue iaooa?i /oanoa e ia?aaeeaaiee,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiiue n niioaaonoaothuei iinoiyiiui iaooa?iii
iiaaaeaiey.

PAGE 2 .

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