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Техники медитации в учении Гурджиева

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IINEIANEEE YENOA?IUE

AOIAIEOA?IUE OIEAA?NEOAO

Aeaaeaiey iaaeaaiaeee

Oaeoeueoao ineoieiaee

?aoa?ao ii eo?no “Oaoieee iaaeeoaoeee”

“Oaoieee iaaeeoaoeee a o/aiee Ao?aeaeeaaa”

Oaieeey, e.i. nooaeaioa

Nooaeai/aneee aeeao

I?aiiaeaaaoaeue ______________________

?aoeaicaio ______________________

1999

Niaea?aeaiea

Ii?iaoeaiay /anoue

?ieue iaaeeoaoeaiuo i?aeoee a aa?iiioeaio?enoneie eoeueoo?a OO aaea

Iniiaiua /a?ou aieueoeinoaa iaaeeoaoeaiuo i?aeoee

Iaaeeoaoeaiua i?aeoeee a eiaeoecia, eiaa, oaio?ecia

Aoaeaeeeneay iaaeeoaoeey eae iaoiae aeooiaiiai ?acaeoey

Iaaeeoaoeaiua i?aeoeee a aeainecia e aecyi-aoaeaeecia

Iaaeeoaoeaiua i?aeoeee a o?enoeainoaa

Iaaeeoaoeaiua i?aeoeee a eneaia: nooeci

Eioaa?aeueiay eiaa Ao?iaeiaei e O?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiay Iaaeeoaoeey
Iaoa?eoe

Aniaeou iaaeeoaoeaiie i?aeoeee a o?oaeao Aeaaioiaa e E?eoiaio?oe

Ioi ?aaeaeieo eae iuneeoaeue e nicaeaoaeue iaaeeoaoeaiuo oaoiee

Ea?ein Eanoaiaaea e aic?iaeaeaiea oaiaineeo ineoioaoiee iaae/aneiai
aeaenoaey e iaaeeoaoeee

Iaaeeoaoeaiua oaoieee a eeeie/aneie i?aeoeea e nenoaiao naiienoeaeaiey

Iaaeeoaoeey eae n?aaenoai naii?aaoeyoeee ineoe/aneeo ninoiyiee e o?iaiy
?aaioiniiniaiinoe

Oai?/aneay /anoue

Oaoieee iaaeeoaoeee a o/aiee Ao?aeaeeaaa

Ii?iaoeaiay /anoue

?acaeae 1. Iaaeeoaoeey: iiiaiia?acea ii?aaeaeaiee e i?aeoee.

?ieue iaaeeoaoeaiuo i?aeoee a aa?iiioeaio?enoneie eoeueoo?a OO aaea

No?anniaua neooaoeee, i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiia noa?aiea, ineoiniiaoe/aneea
aieacie, eioi?iaoeeiiiua ia?aa?ocee, auno?ue oaii aeecie e yeieiae/aneea
i?iaeaiu – yoiio iu iaycaiu yiioa iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee.
Oaoiie?aoe/aneee oa?aeoa? nia?aiaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee ii?iaeaeaao
ionoaeinoue a ?acaeoee aeooiaiie ninoaaeythuae /aeiaaea. Nia?aiaiiue
/aeiaae cao?oaeiyaony iaeoe ioaaou ia naie aii?inu a iaoea, eeoa?aoo?a
eee oeeinioee, e ?aoaiey i?iaeai aeooiaiiai ?acaeoey inoathony a
ca/aoi/iii ninoiyiee.

Eae ienae O?e Ao?iaeiaei, “aeooiaiinoue ia anoue eioaeeaeooaeueiinoue,
ia eaeaaeeci, ia iiai?io oia e yoeea, e /enoie ii?aee eee aneaoecio; yoi
ia anoue ?aeeaeiciinoue eee no?anoiue yiioeeiiaeueiue iiaeu?i aeooa…
Aeooiaiinoue a naiae nouiinoe anoue i?iaoaeaeaiea aioo?aiiae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iaoaai nouanoaa, iaoae aeooe…”

I?eoiae iaaeeoaoeee ia Caiaae iciaiaiiaaeny auno?ioie e ?aciaoii.
Iiyoiio iiiyoai e ii?aaaeai ?ino eioa?ana e iaaeeoaoeaiui i?aeoeeai,
eioi?ue a caiaaeiii iauanoaa aeoeaii ia/aeny a yiioo oeiie, “aeaoae
oeaaoia”, eiaaea ca?iaeeeinue aeaeaeaiea iueth-yeaeae e anaaiciiaeiua
einoeooou ?acaeoey niiniaiinoae /aeiaaea oeia Esalen e Big Sur.

Iniiaiua /a?ou aieueoeinoaa iaaeeoaoeaiuo i?aeoee

Eaeea /a?ou iaaeeoaoeaiuo i?aeoee iiaeii auaeaeeoue eae oa?aeoa?iua?

Ia/aei ethaie iaaeeoaoeee – eiioeaio?aoeey, nin?aaeioi/aiiinoue oia,
io?ao?iiinoue io anaai iinoi?iiiaai, /oi ia naycaii n iauaeoii
eiioeaio?aoeee, io anao aioo?aiieo, aoi?inoaiaiiuo ia?aaeeaaiee. Ia/eiay
ni n?aaeioi/aiey oia ia iauaeoa e i?ioiaey /a?ac yoai i?iieeiiaaiey a
iauaeo, i?aeoeeothuee iieiinoueth ?anoai?yaony a i?i, neeaaaony n iei –
iauaeo caiieiyao i?ino?ainoai niciaiey. Eae i?aaeei, oa?aeoa? iauaeoa
ii?aaeae?iiui ia?acii ia?aie/eaaao aeoaeio aeinoeaaaiie eiioeaio?aoeee.
Eae oieueei aieiaiea ioaeaeaaony io iauaeoa eiioeaio?aoeee,
iaaeeoe?othuee aeieaeai i?iecaieueiui oneeeai aiee aa?iooue aai e
iauaeoo. Iinoaiaiii, ii ia?a o?aie?iaie iiiaoe an? iaiueoa ioaeaeatho
aieiaiea e iauaeo inoa?ony oeaio?ii eiioeaio?aoeee. Ia yoii yoaia
aeiieie?otho /oanoaa yiooceacia, oaeiaeaoai?aiey, eiiaaea iaaethaeathony
naaoyueany ia?acu, iaiau/iua oaeaniua iuouaiey. Ii ia?a oaeoaeaiey
eiioeaio?aoeee /aeiaaea iiaoo iinauaoue aeaeaiey, iaioaeueiua i?ioeannu
a aeaea ia?acia iaeeaeythony i?e oiaiueoaiee noieone?iaaiiinoe. I?e
iineaaeothuai i?iaeaeaeaiee aicieeaao iiiaio, eiaaea en/acaao iauaeaiiia
niciaiea, iieiinoueth ?annaeaathony iuouaiey e iinoi?iiiea iunee. Aieaa
aeoaieea o?iaie eiioeaio?aoeee naycaiu n ia?auaieai oia e /oanoaai
ainoi?aa e aeaaeainoaa; iiyaeyaony iaaiciooeiinoue, niciaiea
aaneiia/iiai.

Ii iiaio iiaieth, yoi ?annaeaaiea iuouaiee e iinoi?iiieo iuneae a
i?ioeanna iaaeeoaoeee, nouanoaoao ai anao nenoaiao iaaeeoaoeee, oieueei
iacuaaaony ?aciuie eiaiaie: “inoaiiaea aioo?aiiaai aeeaeiaa” o
Eanoaiaaeu, iaoaie/aneee “iaioaeiue ?acaiai?” o Ao?aeaeeaaa e oae
aeaeaa.

Iacaaeneii io eaeaeiie iiaeiie?ee, i?aeoeeothuea iaaeeoaoeeth o/aony
eiio?iee?iaaoue e oi?aaeyoue oiii, /oi i?eaiaeeo e oeo/oaieth iaiyoe,
aieiaiey; i?eia?aoatho /oanoai aeoaeiiiai niieienoaey, ineoe/aneie
?aeaenaoeee, oeo/oatho ineoe/aneia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea, /oi a naith
i/a?aaeue aaae?o e oeo/oaieth niiaoe/aneiai ninoiyiey. Yoe iiiooiua
yooaeou ia yaeythony aaeeinoaaiiie oeaeueth iaaeeoaoeee. Iaeia ec iaueo
/a?o iaaeeoaoeaiuo i?aeoee – eaeay i oii, /oi iaaeeoaoeey aeieaeia
noaoue ia?acii aeecie i?aeoeeothuaai.

I?e anao aeaeao iaaeeoaoeee aeinoeaaaony yoai, eioi?ue iienuaaaony eae
i?ic?aiea, yenoac, i?inaaoeaiea, i?i?ua ca i?aaeaeu iau/iiai niciaiey,
ninoiyiey oia, “i?uaeie” a aanniciaoaeueiia, e aeoaeiiui ieanoai naiaai
nouanoaa, i?aauaaiea a noa?a niciaiey eae i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe noa?a
?annoaeea, oia.

Eceiaeaiiua iauea /a?ou iiaeii iaeoe eae a ae?aaiaeoeo oi?iao
iaaeeoaoeaiuo i?aeoee (aecyi, eiaa), oae e a nia?aiaiiuo oaoieeao
(aooio?aieia, o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiay iaaeeoaoeey).

?acaeae 2. Enoi?e/aneea iai?aaeaiey iaaeeoaoeaiie i?aeoeee.

Iaaeeoaoeaiua i?aeoeee a eiaeoecia, eiaa, oaio?ecia

Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey Eiaeee eniiaaaeoao eiaeoeci. Eae
?aeeaey eiaeoeci noi?ie?iaaeny e na?aaeeia 1-ai ouny/aeaoey aei i.y. ia
iniiaa aaaeeeneie ?aeeaee e a?aoiaiecia. A iniiaa nenoaiu eiaeoecia
eaaeao Aaaeu. Oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a nenoaia aaaeeeneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee
eiaao eiioeaioeey A?aoiaia – aunoae iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe, aacee/iiai
aeooiaiiai ia/aea, ec eioi?iai aicieeaao ie? ni anai a iei iaoiaeyueiny.
Aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey /aeiaa/aneiai aaeeinoaa iaiaoiaeeia i?aeoeea eiae.
Iniiaiay i?aeoeea aaaeeeneie eiae – aneaoe/aneay i?aeoeea e io?a/aiea io
ie?neeo aeaa. Iaeei ec iniiaiuo iaoiaeia ?aiiae eiae – iinoaiaiiia
ioeeth/aiea ?acoia io /oanoa e io iauaeoia aiaoiaai ie?a. Naiui oi?ioei
n?aaenoaii aeey yoiai n/eoaeinue nin?aaeioi/aiea ia A?aoiaia.

Nenoaia eiaeeeneie eiae ioee/aaony naie iiiaianiaeoiinoueth: oece/aneea
e ineoe/aneea naienoaa /aeiaaea iieo/atho a iae nai? aa?iiie/aneia
?acaeoea. Ana noi?iiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oece/aneiai oaea, oia e ineoeee
a eiaa aeaoaeueii niaeaniaaiu. Iaaeeoaoeaiay i?aeoeea a ?? ?aieao eiaao
no?iai ii?aaeae?iiia iieiaeaiea a iauae nenoaia oi?aaeiaiee.

Aieueoia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea oai?aoeei-oeeinioneiai ooiaeaiaioa eiae
ieacae o?aeoao “Eiaa-noo?a” Iaoaiaeaeaee. Iaoaiaeaeaee ii?aaeaeyao
nouiinoue eiae a i?ae?auaiee aeayoaeueiinoe oia, a onoie/eaii nio?aiaiee
/enoiou oia. Aeinoeaiooue yoiai iiaeii n iiiiuueth oi?aaeiaiee,
oinoaaiii-aeooiaiuo oneeee, aeinoeaaaiuo nin?aaeioi/aieai e
iaaeeoaoeeae. Niaeanii Iaoaiaeaeaee, aeey oiai, /oiau auyaeoue
aeooiaioth ninoaaeythuoth /aeiaaea, iaiaoiaeeii iuneaiii ioeacaoueny io
aini?eyoey c?eoaeueiuo, neooiauo e /oanoaaiiuo ia?acia.

Aieueoay caneoaa Iaoaiaeaeaee caeeth/aaony e a oii, /oi ii noi?ioee?iaae
eiioeaioeeth “ainueia?e/iiai iooe”, io?aaeathuoth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
nooiaiae i?aeoeee, iicaieythuoth caieiathueiny a iieiii niioaaonoaee n
i?e?iaeiuie i?eioeeiaie aeinoe/ue aunoeo o?iaiae oece/aneiai e
aeooiaiiai ?acaeoey.

Iiaeii auaeaeeoue ianeieueei niiniaia e o?iaiae iaaeeoaoeaiie i?aeoeee.
O?aaeeoeeiiii eo iiae?acaeaeytho ia 2 aieueoeo a?oiiu: “iaaeeoaoeey n
oi?iie” e “iaaeeoaoeey aac oi?iu”. A ia?aii neo/aa iaaeeoe?othuee
iai?aaeyao niciaiea ia ?aaioo n iauaeoii, eiathuei ii?aaeae?iioth oi?io
(oeaaoie, ieaiy naa/e e o.ae.), ai aoi?ii neo/aa iauaeoii iaaeeoaoeee
noaiiayony ia eiathuea oi?iu iauaeou (iiiyoey, eaeae e o.ae., iai?eia?,
iiiyoea A?aoiaia).

Iaio?a-eiaa ii?aaeaeyaony eae eneonnoai aeinoeaeaiey aeooiaiiai
i?ia?anna i?e iiiiue eiio?iey caoeiauo aea?aoeee niaoeeaeueiuo oi?i –
iaio?. Iiaeeoeeaoeey oinoaaiii-ineoe/aneiai ninoiyiey /aeiaaea
iin?aaenoaii iaio? iiaeao i?eaanoe e aicaoaeaeaieth eee oniieiaieth, e
aicieeiiaaieth iieeoaaiiiai iano?iy e o.ae. Iaio?a iiaeao ninoiyoue eae
ec ianeieueeeo caoeia, oae e ec ianeieueeeo neia. Iai?a?uaiia
i?iecianaiea iaio? a eiaa i?aeoeeoaony a aeaeaia-iaaeeoaoeee. enoiee
iaio?a-eiae ei?aiyony a ae?aaiai i?aaenoaaeaiee i anaeaineeo aea?aoeeyo.
A yio?a-eiaa iauaeoaie iaaeeoaoeee noaiiayony iniaua ecia?aaeaiey. A
iaaei-eiaa iauaeoaie iaaeeoaoeee yaeythony aioo?aiiea caoee. A
eoiaeaeeie-eiaa yooaeo iia?oaeaiey a ninoiyiea o?aina iaoneiaeai
niioaaonoaothueie i?e?iaie oi?aaeaiey ne?uoie yia?aee i?aaiecia.

Oaio?eci – ?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneia oa/aiea, ni/aoathuaa a naaa i?eioeeiu
aaaeeeneie eiae n iieiaeaieyie aoaeaeecia. E VII-VIII aaeai o/aiea
?aciaaeaaaeinue ia aeaa aaoae: oaio?eci Eaaie ?oee e oaio?eci I?aaie
?oee. O?eaaea “iuneue – neiai – aeaenoaea” i?eciaaaeanue ia?acaeaeueiuie
a?aiyie anaiauaiethuaai aaeeinoaa Anaeaiiie. Ana iniiaiua iieiaeaiey a
oaio?ecia iiae/eiaiu eaeaa oaniaeoae nayce iae?i- e iee?ieiniina.
Niaeanii i?aaenoaaeaieyi oaio?ecia, cao/aiea iaio? aucuaaao a oaea
aea?aoeeiiiua eieaaaiey, iaoneaaeeaathuea oa eee eiua ninoiyiey ?acoia e
niciaiey. Enoeiiia cia/aiea eaaeaeie iaio?u iicia?ony a i?ioeanna
iaaeeoaoeee iaae iae; oai naiui onoaiaaeeaaaony oaniia aaeeinoai iunee e
neiaa. A i?aeoeea oaio?ecia, eae e a ae?oaeo o/aieyo, aieueoia aieiaiea
oaeaeyaony aunoei niiniaiinoyi /aeiaaea (“neaeaeoe”).

Aoaeaeeeneay iaaeeoaoeey eae iaoiae aeooiaiiai ?acaeoey

I?aaeeueiia nin?aaeioi/aiea eiaao /aou?a nooiaie. Ia ia?aii yoaia oi
nin?aaeioa/eaaaony ia iniuneaiee e enoieeiaaiee enoei; ia aoi?ii yoaia
ioa?anuaathony eceeoiea oinoaiaaiea e aaniieienoai; ia o?aoueae nooiaie
eae?o inaiaiaeaeaiea io ?aaeinoe ?annaeaaiey niiiaiee e io iuouaiey
oaeaniinoe; iaeiiaoe, /aoa??oay nooiaiue – yoi aeinoeaeaiea iieiie
iaaiciooeiinoe, aac?acee/ey e io?ao?iiinoe.

I?ioeann nica?oeaiey (aeoueyia) iiaeao oaeaea auoue ?acaeae?i ia /aou?a
nooiaie:

niieieiia e naiaiaeiia io /oanoaaiiinoe enneaaeiaaiea i?aaeiaoa,
aua?aiiiai aeey nica?oeaiey;

iuneue inoa?ony nin?aaeioi/aiiie ia i?aaeiaoa nica?oeaiey, ii oi
inaiaiaeaeaaony io ?annoaeaeaiee;

oi iieiinoueth inaiaiaeaeaaony io anao no?anoae e eiaeeaeaeoaeecia;

i/euaiiinoue e aac?acee/iinoue oia ei anai aicaeaenoaeyi.

Iaaeeoaoeaiua o?aaeeoeee aoaeaeecia ia auee i?aaeiacia/aiu i?inoui
ethaeyi (?acaeaeaiea ia yecioa?e/aneia/ycioa?e/aneia o/aiea). Iaoiaeeea
aoaeaeeeneie iaaeeoaoeee eiaea cia/eoaeueii aieueoa neiaeiuo yeaiaioia e
i?yii naycaia n ae?oaeie ycioa?e/aneeie o?aaeeoeeyie Ainoiea. Iai?eia?,
oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia auea eiioeaio?aoeey ia oeaaoiuo e?oaao,
iaaeeoaoeey iaae io?aaeaieai Eoiu iaae iiaa?oiinoueth aiaeiie aeaaee, a
oaeaea i?aaenoaaeaiea naay ?acia?ii n ianaeiiia. Iinea oiai, eae
oaeaaaeinue aeiaeoueny iuouaiey ie?oaeathuaai ie?a n oi/ee c?aiey
iaeeiai ianaeiiiai, neaaeiaaei a i?ioeanna iaaeeoaoeee i?aaenoaaeoue
naay aaee/eiie n ai?o. N/eoaeinue, /oi aeaaiaea?y oaeie i?aeoeea
aeinoeaaaony einie/aneia ?anoe?aiea niciaiey.

Nica?oeaiea aeaeaeoueony aiae, aieienoie iiaa?oiinoe ai? a /?i-oi auei
aiaeiae/ii aeaenoaeth iocuee, oaioea, ?eoio i?iecianaiey iaio? – iii
au?uaaei /aeiaaea ec-iiae aeanoe ?aaeueiinoe, iia?oaeay a ninoiyiea
o?aina. Aini?eyoea ie?a a n?aaeiaaaeiaii Eeoaa auei iaaeeoaoeaiui,
ninouanoaoy ?yaeii n nica?oeaoaeueiuie oi?aaeiaieyie e oi?ie?oynue iiae
eo aeeyieai.

A aoaeaeecia iaaeeoaoeey – yoi ia i?inoi oi?aaeiaiea, eioi?ia
i?iaiaeeony a eiiiaoa e ia naycaii n aeeciueth. N oi/ee c?aiey
aoaeaeenoa – yoi ia/oi, /oi iiiiaaao naeaeaoue aeeciue eo/oa.

A i?ioeanna iaaeeoaoeee aeaeathony iaycaoaeueiua o?e aaue: eco/aiea
oiai, /ai caieiaaony i?aeoeeothuee; caoai iaaeoiuaaiea yoiai aei oao
ii?, iiea ii iiei?o; caoai ac?aueaaiea aeaaioai?iie i?eau/ee
iaaeeoe?iaaoue. A yoii i?ioeanna iaaeeoaoeey eioaa?e?oaony e noaiiaeony
/anoueth a? i?aeoeeothuaai. A aoaeaeecia ia i?aaeeaaaaony aeaeaoue
/oi-oi, enoiaey eeoue ec neaiie aa?u. Oieueei iiiya o/aiea e
oaaaeeaoenue a oii, /oi i?aeoeeothuee oi/ao aai i?eiaiyoue, ii ia/eiaao
iaaeeoe?iaaoue. Oaeei ia?acii, iaaeeoaoeey icia/aao ac?aueaaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiie aeaaioai?iie i?eau/ee, i?aa?auaiea aa a /anoue ian naieo.

Nai i?ioeann aoaeaeeeneie iaaeeoaoeee ninoieo ec aeaoo /anoae:

“aiaeeoe/aneay” iaaeeoaoeey;

“noaaeeece?othuay” iaaeeoaoeey.

Ia?aay /anoue iiiiaaao iaaeeoe?othuaio ?acee/eoue, oaeaeaoue aaue
iaeioi?ui aieaa aeaaioai?iui ia?acii, aeaeaoue ?aaeueiinoue, a ia
i?iaeoeee nianoaaiiuo oaioacee. Yoi aeaeaaony aeey oiai, /oiau
ii/oanoaiaaoue. Ia yoii o?iaia i?ioeann i?aeoeee ia aa?aaeai.
Iao/eaoenue niio?aoue ia ie?, /oanoaoy a naaa iiaeiaiua aeaaioai?iua
onoaiiaee, i?aeoeeothuaio iiaeii ia?aoiaeeoue e noaaeeece?othuae
nooiaie, eioi?ay ninoieo a oii, /oi iu iaeneiaeueii nin?aaeioa/eaaainy
ia oii, /oi ii aeaeeo.

I?e caiyoeyo iaaeeoaoeeae aaaeii iao/eoueny nin?aaeioa/eaaoueny,
ecaaaeoueny io iiiao, a aeey oiai, /oiau oaea?aeeaaoue nin?aaeioi/aiea,
ioaeii ei??aeoe?iaaoue naia aieiaiea, eiaaea iii ioaeaeaaony. A ?aciuo
aoaeaeeeneeo o?aaeeoeeyo yoi aeaeaaony ii-?aciiio. ?aeiiaiaeoaony ia
auoue i?eaycaiiui e aaeeinoaaiiie i?aeoeea.

A aoaeaeeeneeo i?aeoeeao nouanoaotho ?acee/iua oeiu iauaeoia, ia eioi?uo
iiaeii nin?aaeioa/eaaoueny a i?ioeanna iaaeeoaoeee: iai?eia?,
ii?aaeaeaiiue iauaeo, eee aeaaea nai oi, i?ioeann iuoeaiey. A i?aeoeeao
Iaoayiu i?aaeeaaaaony eiioeaio?e?iaaoue aieiaiea ia iaioaeueiuo
yaeaieyo. A oaio?a aeey nin?aaeioi/aiey eniieuecoaony aecoaeecaoeey
naieo naay a ia?aca Aoaeaeu.

Iaaeeoaoeaiua i?aeoeee a aecyi-aoaeaeecia

Ei?ie aecyi auee caeiaeaiu a Eeoaa Aiaeoeaeoa?iie, eioi?ue i?eoae a
Eeoae ec Eiaeee a 6 aaea. Aiineaaenoaee, a 12 noieaoee, o/aiea Aecyi
i?iieeei e a ssiiieth. Aecyi iienuaaee eae “iniaia o/aiea aac nayuaiiuo
oaenoia, aia neia e aoea, eioi?ia o/eo i nouiinoe /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia,
i?iieeay i?yii a aai i?e?iaeo, e aaaeao e i?inaaoeaieth”.

Aecyineee iau/ae naiiiiciaiey /a?ac iaaeeoaoeeth aeey ?aaeecaoeee
ianoiyuae i?e?iaeu /aeiaaea, n aai i?aiaa?aaeaieai e oi?iaeecio, n aai
o?aaiaaieai naiiaeenoeeieeiu e i?inoiou aeecie, a eiia/iii n/aoa
caaiaaae iiaeaea?aeeo ciaoe e i?aayueo e?oaia ssiiiee e aeoaieia
oaaaeaiea anao neiaa oeeinioneie aeecie Ainoiea.

Aeoo Aecyi noae icia/aoue ia oieueei iiieiaiea ie?a, ii e i?aaeaiiinoue
eneonnoao e ?aaioa, aiaaonoai niaea?aeaiey, ioe?uoinoue eiooeoeee,
au?aaeaiea a?iaeaeaiiie e?aniou, iaoeiaeiia i/a?iaaiea ianiaa?oainoaa.
Aecyi eiaao iiiai cia/aiee, ii ie iaeii ec ieo ia ii?aaeaeaii
iieiinoueth.

Aecyi-aoaeaeeci ieacae cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea eeoaeneie e
yiiineie eoeueoo?u. Yoi oa/aiea aicieeei eae ycioa?e/aneay naeoa. Neiai
“aecyi” (aeoueyia) icia/aao “nica?oeaiea, naiiiia?oaeaiea”. Eiaiii ia
aiacaiiii ica?aiee a ?acoeueoaoa eiooeoeaiiai oie/ea aeoeaioe?oao
iniiaiia aieiaiea aecyi-aoaeaeeci, iauyaeyy aoaeaeeeneea ia?yaeiinoue,
eoeueou e o?aiu ionoie o?aoie a?aiaie.

Iaeii ec iieiaeaiee aecyi-aoaeaeecia ninoieo a oii, /oi Enoeia e Aoaeaea
anaaaea n iaie, oieueei iaaei oiaoue eo iaeoe, ociaoue, iiiyoue. Enoeia
ninoieo a ica?aiee, eioi?ia aicieeaao aiacaiii, eae aioo?aiiee
eiooeoeaiue oie/ie, eioi?ue iaeuecy au?aceoue neiaaie.
E??aoeeiiaeueiinoue aecyineiai iiaeoiaea ninoieo a oii, /oi /aeiaaeo
iaiaoiaeeii aeaeaoue naiaai /ana, e iinea ?aciuoeaiee a no?aieaiee
iinoe/ue iaiinoeaeeiia aai aae?oa inaieo ia/oi, iinaoeo iaiiaaiiia
ica?aiea, e ii iinoeaiao Enoeio. Niune yoiai ninoieo a ?acaeaeaeaiee
a?aieoe iuoeaiey, a auoiaea ca i?aaeaeu /oanoaaiiiai yiie?e/aneiai
iiuoa.

Iaaeeoaoeaiay i?aeoeea aecyia niaea?aeeo iiiaeanoai iaoiaeee ia?ano?ieee
eioaeeaeooaeueiie, aeooiaiie e oaeaniie no?oeoo?u /aeiaaea: oaiu aeey
?aciuoeaiey (eiaiu), aeeaeiae n ianoaaieeii, noeioee?othuea aeaenoaey,
iaiaeeaeaiiua aicaeaenoaey (?aceea ie?eee, aiacaiiua oaea?u e o.ae.).
Aeey noeioeyoeee iai?yae?iiie ?aaiou iicaa, ?acaeoey oinoaaiiiai iienea
eniieueciaaeanue i?aeoeea caaaaeie, iiae?acoiaaaaoay iaaeeoaoeeth iaae
niaoeeaeueiuie oi?ioeaie eee aeaonoeoeyie. Oi?aaeiythuaiony iaaei auei
iaeoe aioo?aiiee niune caaaaeee. Ae?oaay /anoue iiaeaioiaee –
eiooeoeaiua aeeaeiae o/aieea n ianoa?ii (iiiaei), a eioi?uo ia?iiiue
iannea eioi?iaoeee ia?aaeaaaeny o/aieeo ca naeoiaeu. Oeaeue iiiaei –
aucaaoue a niciaiee o/aieea ?aciiain n niciaieai ianoa?a, aucaaoue o
ia/eiathuaai i?inaaoeaiea eee iiaeaioiaeoue aai e ica?aieth.

I?ioeann iaaeeoaoeee inouanoaeyeny a niaoeeaeueiuo neaey/eo iicao
(aeca-aecyi). Iicaiii/iee i?e yoii aeieaeai auoue aui?yieaiiui,
iaoiaeynue ia iaeiie eeiee n aieiaie. Iaeia ec oeie aecyi (nioi),
eniieuecoao niinia iaaeeoaoeee neaey eeoeii e noaia, eiaaea
iaaeeoe?othuee no?aieony caauoue anyeea nianoaaiiua ia?aaeeaaiey,
ioaeaeeoueny io naiiai naay. Nia/aea i?aeoeeothuee nin?aaeioa/eaaaony ia
iuoa/iie ?aeaenaoeee, caoai – ia ?eoieea aeuoaiey, iaaethaeay ca iei.
Iinoaiaiii aieiaiea ia?aiineony ia oinoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue. Ii oiaeo
a?aiaie oinoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue oa?yao eiae/aneoth
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue e annioeeaoeaiinoue. Iinea nenoaiaoe/aneeo
o?aie?iaie aeinoeaaaony niiniaiinoue aucuaaoue ninoiyiea, i?e eioi?ii
niciaiea i?aeoeeothuaai inaiaiaeaeaaony io iinoi?iiieo iuneae, i?e yoii
iuouaaony aioo?aiiaa niieienoaea e oaa?aiiinoue. Iie?aynue ia yoi
ninoiyiea, i?aeoeeothuee iiaeao inouanoaeyoue niciaoaeueiue ineoe/aneee
i?ioeann n aieueoie aeoaeiie eiioeaio?aoeee ia ?aaeueiuo eee aano?aeoiuo
iauaeoao.

Iaaeeoaoeaiua i?aeoeee a o?enoeainoaa

N onoaiiaeaieai e anaiauae iiaaaeie o?enoeainoaa a Aa?iia iniiaiie
aeoeaio iaaeeoaoeaiie i?aeoeee nianoeeny a noi?iio aeeeoaeueiuo iieeoa e
noieanoe/aneeo ?annoaeaeaiee. Iieeoau aeeeeenue eiie ?ac ianeieueei
/ania, /oi i?aaenoaaeyei niaie aeae iaaeeoaoeee. Aieaa neiaeiua
iaaeeoaoeaiua i?aeoeee nouanoaiaaee a cae?uouo aeooiaiuo i?aeaiao
(aeiieieeaioeaa, oaiieea?ia, ainieoaeuea?ia).

Auaiae i iaee/ee niaoeeaeueiuo oi?aaeiaiee iiaeii naeaeaoue, enoiaey ec
iaeioi?uo auneacuaaiee (iai?eia?: “Eue nie?iaeua a na?aeoea nai?i” o
oaiieea?ia, /oi iieiinoueth niioaaonoaoao iiiaei ainoi/iui o/aieyi),
nouanoaiaaiey “Eiain-iaaeeoaoeee”, i?aaineaaiie “Eenoniaie iieeoau”,
eacoeoneeo “yeca?oeeoeee”. Anoue nouanoaaiiua niaiaaeaiey iaaeaeo
iniiaiuie yeaiaioaie yoeo oi?aaeiaiee e i?aeoeeie eiae/aneie
iaaeeoaoeee. Oi aea iiaeii neacaoue i i?iaeieaeeoaeueiuo iieeoaao
i?aiiaeiaiiai Na?aoeia Na?ianeiai. “Eenoniaa iieeoaa” iiaoi?yeanue ei
iiiaie?aoii, iiaeiaii i?aeoeea aani?a?uaiiai /oaiey iaio? a
aeaeaia-iaaeeoaoeee.

Iiiaea o?enoeaineea iuneeoaee auoiaeeee ca oaniua ?aiee o/aiey,
iai?eia?, Iaenoa? Yeoa?o. Ii Yeoa?oo, /aeiaae niiniaai iiciaoue Aiaa
aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi a naiii /aeiaaea caeiaeaia “enei?ea”, aaeeiinouay
Aiao. Io?aoaynue io naiaai “ss”, niaaeeiyynue n Aiaeanoaaiiui “ie/oi”,
aeooa /aeiaaea yaeyaony n?aaenoaii ii?iaeaeaiey Aiaii naiiai naay.

E niaeaeaieth, e ii nae aeaiue iiyaeythony “aieinoaothuea” eee neeoeii
ia?aie/aiii iiieiathuea aoeao O/aiey – oaeia iuouaiea o iaiy aicieeei
i?e i?i/oaiee eieae “I?aaineaaea e ?aeeaey aoaeouaai” ea?iiiiaoa
Na?aoeia ?ioca (1934-1982). A yoii o?oaea Na?aoei ?ioc aunooiee n
e?eoeeie ia oieueei iaaeeoaoeee, ii oaeaea aieueoeinoaa i?aeoee
ee/iinoiiai ?acaeoey, iiiaeo ?aeeaee e eiioannee (yeoiaiecia,
iyoeaeanyoieeia e o.ae.).

Iaaeeoaoeaiua i?aeoeee a eneaia: nooeci

Iiaeiaii iiiaei aa?io/aieyi, a eneaia iiaeii auaeaeeoue aiaoithth
noi?iio, ?ann/eoaiioth ia iannu aa?othueo, e aioo?aiithth,
ycioa?e/aneoth – nooeci. Ia?aua nooeeneea iaueiu iiyaeeenue a ia/aea
VIII aaea a E?aea. Neiai “noo” icia/aei a?oaoth oeaiue, oae eae
ao?eaooii nooecia auea aneaoe/aneay i?aeoeea. Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau
nooecia auee caeiaeaiu a IX aaea.

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey nooecia naiaeyony e neaaeothuaio. Aaniethoiay
?aaeueiinoue eiaao i?aainoiaenoai iaae ie?ii iuouaiee. Aeaaiay caaea/a –
iaeoe Aiaa a naaa, ?acaeaaoue ethaiaue e iaio, i?aa?aoeoue an? ee/iia e
nioeeaeueiia a eino?oiaio Aeeaoa. Aaeeinoaaiiue iooue e Aeeaoo –
iaaeeoaoeey, eiooeoeaiua iienee, aneaoe/aneay i?aeoeea e o.ae. A
aeooiaiii ?acaeoee /aeiaaea auaeaeyaony ianeieueei nooiaiae (io 3 aei
12). Ia?aay nooiaiue iinayuaiey (oa?eao) noaaeea oeaeueth eco/aiea ii?i
eneaia. Aoi?ay nooiaiue (Oa?eeao) icia/aea, /oi o/aiee anoaaae ia
i?aaeeueiue iooue e noaiiaeeny ith?eaeii. Ia o?aoueae nooiaie (ia?eoao)
nooee oiae neeaaoueny n Aeeaoii a yenoaoe/aneii o?aina. *aoa??oay,
aunoay nooiaiue (oaeeeao) icia/aea iinoeaeaiea enoeiu e neeyiea n Aiaii,
/oi noaiiaeeinue aeinooiii iaiiiaei. Iooue nooey ?aaeeciauaaeny iau/ii a
nooeeneeo iiianou?yo, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo i?eaeaaae naie ioee/eoaeueiua
/a?ou; iiyoiio nooeci ia yaeyao niaie aaeeioth nenoaio i?aeoeee.

A o/aiee nooecia iniaoth ?ieue caieiatho iaaeeoaoeaiua oaoieee.
?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneia o/aiea i naaoa e ienoe/aneii ica?aiee (eo?ae)
?anniao?eaaeinue a nooecia eae enoeiiue iooue e nianaiea e ainoiaeeo e
ci?iano?ecio e iaieoaenoao. Eo?ae yoi eiooeoeaiia iuoeaiea, aeinoeaaaiia
aneaoeciii e iaaeeoaoeeae, aeathuaa iieiia e enoeiiia ciaiea.

Iocuea iacuaaaony o nooeaa “ieua aeooe”. Nooee anaaaea niio?aee ia
iocueo, eae ia naiia ecethaeaiiia n?aaenoai aeey aeinoeaeaiey aeooiaiiai
?acaeoey. Nia?aiey n iocueie e oaioeaie iacuaathony “nyia”. Nooee,
iaoiaeynue a ninoiyiee aeooiaiiai yenoaca, nin?aaeioi/eaaao aieiaiea
naiaai na?aeoea ia naiiio?a/aiiii aniiieiaiee Aiaa.

Nooeci ieacae cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia yoeeo, eeoa?aoo?o e eneonnoai
Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea, N?aaeiae Acee.

?acaeae 3. Nia?aiaiiua iai?aaeaiey iaaeeoaoeaiie i?aeoeee.

Eioaa?aeueiay eiaa Ao?iaeiaei e O?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiay Iaaeeoaoeey
Iaoa?eoe

Iaeia ec iaeeanne/aneeo eia, aicieeoeo a XX aaea, – Eioaa?aeueiay eiaa,
?ac?aaioaiiay O?e Ao?iaeiaei Aoioai. A? eiaeeeneee neiiiei – Io?ia-eiaa
(iieiay, niaa?oaiiay). Enoiaeiue aniaeo a iae – naiioaeoaeaiea e
nin?aaeioi/aiea ia Aaciieaee, a iniiaiuie oai?aoe/aneeie i?aaeiinueeaie
neoaeao i?aaenoaaeaiey i ?acee/iuo o?iaiyo niciaiey, caaea/a iieiiai
?ane?uoey /aeiaa/aneiai “ss” a i?ioeanna aeoeaiiai i?aia?aciaaiey
aioo?aiiaai e aiaoiaai ie?a.

O?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiay iaaeeoaoeey ?ac?aaioaia eiaeeeneei eiaii (oi/iaa,
auaoei oeceeii) Iaoa?eoe Iaoao Eiae. Ia?aiia/aeueii iia
?ani?ino?aiyeanue ei a ?iaeiie Eiaeee, ii ia iieo/eea eiiia?/aneiai
oniaoa. Iiyoiio Iaoa?eoe ?aoee iiiuoaoue n/anouey a ooaoa Eaeeoi?iey,
NOA, ni?eaioe?iaaaoenue a neooaoeee oaea/aiey ainoi/iuie o/aieyie. N
na?aaeeiu 60-uo aei na?aaeeiu 70-uo aue ia?eiae iaeaieueoaai eioa?ana e
OI, eiaaea ath oaeaeaeenue ia oieueei i?inoua aia?eeaioeu, ii e a?oenou,
iocueaiou (iai?eia?, a?oii The Beatles, Rolling Stones). Iinea ii/oe
aeanyoeeaoiaai aoia eioa?an e OI noae nieaeaoueny.

O?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiay iaaeeoaoeey – yoi iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiay
iaio?a-iaaeeoaoeey, i?eniiniaeaiiay e caiaaeiie eoeueoo?a. Oai?aoe/aneie
a? iniiaie yaeyaony o/aiea aaeaaeoa aaaeaiou Oaiea?a/a?uee, a nai? a?aiy
aic?iaeeaoaa eiaeoeci a Eiaeee a oneiaeyo ainiiaenoaiaaaoaai oiaaea
aoaeaeecia. Oeaeueth eniiaaaeothuaai aai e anooieaoaai ia yoio iooue
yaeyaony iauaaeeiaiea oia n aaneiia/iui niciaieai; ia ia/aeueiii yoaia –
inaiaiaeaeaiea io aeaienoaaiiinoe niciaiey, eioi?ia n/eoaaony aeaaiie
i?e/eiie /aeiaa/aneeo no?aaeaiee. Oaoieea o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiie
iaaeeoaoeee – yoi i?e?iu eiioeaio?aoeee aieiaiey, o.a. i?aeoeea aeoueyiu
(aeoeaiu). Iaoiaeeeo OI ioee/atho i?inoioa e ioiineoaeueiay e?aeinoue
auiieiaiey. Aeey ia/eiathuaai naiia aaaeiia – ia eanaoueny
eioaeeaeooaeueiie iaeanoe, ia aeoiaoue. Ia?ae/iue eo?n OI ia o?aaoao
iaeaaeaiey niaoeeaeueiuie iicaie e i?iaiaeeony neaey ia nooea eee e?aea.
Iinea anooieoaeueiuo caiyoee aeaeathuea caieiaoueny aeaeueoa i?ioiaeyo
ia?yae “iinayuaiey” (oaeoe/anee iieeiiaiea eiaeoenoneei aiaai e
iaiaeanoaeaiea ao?o). A iineaaeothuai OI i?iaiaeeony ?aaoey?ii aeaaaeaeu
a aeaiue ii 20 ieioo. O/aiee iaaeeoe?oao, iai?a?uaii iiaoi?yy naith
ee/ioth iaio?o, aeaaay oio iieioth naiaiaeo. I?e i?iaaaeaiee OI
?aeiiaiaeoaony ecaaaaoue aieueoeo oneeee a eiioeaio?aoeee aieiaiey. I?e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiie o?aie?iaea o/aiee auoiaeeo ia iniaue o?iaaiue
niciaiey, eioi?ia a OI iienuaaaony eae ninoiyiea iieiiai
oaeiaeaoai?aiey, aeaaeainoaa, aaniethoiiai iniciaiey nouaai. A
iineaaeothuai noaaeony oeaeue – eniieueciaaoue OI eae n?aaenoai
oi?aaeaiey /oanoaaie e oiii i?e nio?aiaiee aeoeaiiai ia?aca aeecie.

A ineoioa?aiee OI eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec iaoiaeia
ineoe/aneie naii?aaoeyoeee aeey niyoee o?aaiae e iai?yaeaiey.

Aniaeou iaaeeoaoeaiie i?aeoeee a o?oaeao Aeaaioiaa e E?eoiaio?oe

O?aioeocneee oeeinio e aeooiaiue o/eoaeue Ii?aai Ieeayeue Aeaaioia
(1900–1986) ?iaeeeny a Aieaa?ee e aeee ai O?aioeee n 1937 aiaea. Ai anao
aai i?iecaaaeaieyo ii?aaeaao iiiaiia?acea oi/ae c?aiey, n eioi?uo ii
?anniao?eaaao aaeeinoaaiioth i?iaeaio: /aeiaae e aai niaa?oainoaiaaiea.
Oaiu, eioi?ua ii cao?aaeaaao, iaeciaiii o?aeoothony n iiceoeee iieuecu,
eioi?oth iiaeao ecaea/ue /aeiaae aeey naiiiiciaiey,
naiiniaa?oainoaiaaiey e eo/oae i?aaiecaoeee naiae aeecie.

Nouanoaiaaiea cea a eaeaaeueii nicaeaiiie Aiaii anaeaiiie yaeyaony
caaaaeeie, ia?aae eioi?ie oeeinioee e ?aeeaee ieeiaaea ia i?ae?auaee
neeiiyoueny a iieneao iauyniaiee. I?eieiay ca iniiao
eoaeaenei-o?enoeaineoth o?aaeeoeeth, O/eoaeue Ii?aai Ieeayeue Aeaaioia
ianoaeaaao i?aaeaea anaai ia oii, /oi enoeiiua ioaaou ia aii?inu
i?iaeaiu cea ioaeii eneaoue ia a iiiuoeao iauyniaiey nouiinoe cea, a a
iaoiaeao ?aaiou ni ceii. Eaeiai au ie auei aai i?ienoiaeaeaiea, cei
yaeyaony aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae ?aaeueiinoueth, n eioi?ie iu aaeaaeiaaii
noaeeeaaainy e aeieaeiu iao/eoueny ?aaioaoue iaae iae.

I.I. Aeaaioia n/eoae, /oi aaeaaeiaaiay ?aaeueiinoue aeieaeia neoaeeoue
i?ino?ainoaii aeey aeooiaiie ?aaiou:

“…Naeaeaeoa iaaeeoaoeeth naiae i?eau/eie, yoi i/aiue aaaeii. (…)
Iie niaao oaeia: i?iaeieaeaeoa ca?aaaouaaoue aeaiueae, iauaeoanue n oaie
ae?ocueyie, n eioi?uie oioeoa, aeaeaeoa ana, /oi aeaeaaoa, ii inoaaueoa
aeinoaoi/ii a?aiaie, /oiau i?eia?anoe eaeioynnaioeeth aeecie. Iioiio /oi
aeaaea, anee au aeaaeaaoa anai ie?ii, aac eaeioynnaioeee au neaaeaoa:
“Ca/ai yoi iia? Yoi neeoeii iiiai”, e au aoaeaoa ian/anoiu. (…) Anee
au ia eiaaoa eaeioynnaioeee, aai ie/aai ia aeano iaeaaeaiea oeaeui
ie?ii. Oieueei iuneueth iiaeaoa i?eia?anoe au eaeioynnaioeeth”.

A i?iaeieaeaiea iunee, Aeaaioia ioia/aao /oi iaaeeoaoeey e nica?oeaiea
ioaeiu, /oiau iiaeiyoue naay ia aieaa aunieee o?iaaiue, a caoai
aa?iooueny iacaae, i?eiiny a ?aaeueioth aeeciue ?acee/iua eo/oea oi?iu,
e?eoa?ee e ?acia?u. A yoii niune e oeaeue ianoiyuae iaaeeoaoeee:

“Ianoiyuay iaaeeoaoeey, ianoiyuaa nica?oeaiea icia/aao iiaeiyoueny ia
aieaa aunieee ieai, a ie?, eioi?ue i?aainoiaeeo ian, caiieieoue naay aai
/oaeanaie, a caoai io?aceoue yoi /oaei. Anee iinea iaaeeoaoeee au
inoaiaoanue oieiaeiui e ooiui, anee au ia aaeioiiaeaiu, iiaeaoa auoue
oaa?aiu, /oi aaoa iaaeeoaoeey auea aac?acoeueoaoia. Iaaeeoaoeey eee
iieeoaa aeieaeiu aucuaaoue o?ainoi?iaoeeth, eciaiyoue aao acaeyae,
oeuaeo, aeanou, iioiaeeo, i?eaaaeyoue oioy au iaeaiueeoth /anoeoeo
/aai-oi iiaiai, /aai-oi aea?e?othuaai a oaeo ni anai aiaeanoaaiiui
ie?ii. Yoi e?eoa?ee noaeaeaiey, iaaeeoe?iaae /aeiaae eee iao”.

Aeaeeaeaeo E?eoiaio?oe (1896-1986) – auaeathueeny aeooiaiue o/eoaeue
iaoeo aeiae. A aeaoneii aic?anoa ii aue iaia?oaeai oainioii Eaaeaeoa?ii
a Eiaeee, caoai Oainioneia iauanoai ai aeaaa n A. Aacaio i?iaicaeaneei
aai a ea/anoaa iiaiai Iannee (Ia?o?aee). A 1929 aiaeo E?eoiaio?oe ioio?e
io Oainioneiai iauanoaa e ioeacaeny io ?iee Iannee a ?acoeueoaoa
ia?aaa?ioaoaai aai aeeciue aeooiaiiai iiuoa. Ii noae i?iiiaaaeiaaoue
nianoaaiiia o/aiea, ia naycaiiia n i?oiaeienaeueiie ?aeeaeae eee
naeoaionoaii. Aeaaiie oeaeueth aai o/aiey auei aunaiaiaeaeaiea
/aeiaa/anoaa ec ieia, ioaeaeythueo ethaeae ae?oa io ae?oaa – oaeeo, eae
?anu, ?aeeaee, iaoeeiiaeueiinoue, eeanniainoue, n oai, /oiau
o?ainoi?ie?iaaoue /aeiaa/aneoth ineoeeo.

A i?aaenoaaeaiee E?eoiaio?oe, ooiaeaiaioaeueiay enoeia caeeth/aia a oii,
/oi oi, aeaaeaeouee ana aieaa oe?ieeo e aeoaieeo ia?aaeeaaiee, anaaaea
aeea?o a naieo ainiiieiaieyo. Ii caaenei io ia?aaeeaaiee, auciaia,
eioi?ua iiaeaea?aeeaatho ian a ninoiyiee aiae?noaiaaiey. Oaeoe/anee yoa
caaeneiinoue io ia?aaeeaaiee oieueei i?eooieyao oi. E?eoiaio?oe caaea?o
aii?in, iiaeii ee nio?aieoue ninoiyiea iieiiai aiae?noaiaaiey, auoue
iieiinoueth aiae?noaothuei aac anyeeo auciaia e ia?aaeeaaiee? Ioaao
caeeth/?i a oii, /oi aeey yoiai o?aaoaony aieueoay oece/aneay e
ineoe/aneay aini?eei/eainoue. Yoi icia/aao, /oi /aeiaae aeieaeai auoue
naiaiaeiui io anyeeo iio?aaiinoae, eai a oio iiiaio, eiaaea ii
eniuouaaao iio?aaiinoue, e aicieeaao aeaeaiea eniuoaoue ia?aaeeaaiea.
*oiau auoue naiaiaeiui io iio?aaiinoae e eo oaeiaeaoai?aiey, iaiaoiaeeii
enneaaeiaaoue a naiii naaa e iiiyoue anth i?e?iaeo iio?aaiinoe e aa
oeaeinoiinoue.

“Iaaeeoaoeey yoi iiieiaiea aeecie a aa oeaeinoiinoe, iiieiaiea, a
eioi?ii ana oi?iu o?aaiaioe?iaaiey i?ae?aoeeenue. Iaaeeoaoeey – ia
eiio?ieue ca iuneueth (…) Iaaeeoaoeey aeieaeia auoue iniciaieai
eaaeaeie iunee, eaaeaeiai /oanoaa, i?e eioi?ii ieeiaaea ia neaaeoao
aiai?eoue, /oi yoi i?aaeeueii eee iai?aaeeueii. Ioaeii eeoue
iaaethaeaoue eo e aeaeaaoueny aianoa n ieie. I?e oaeii iaaethaeaiee au
ia/eiaaoa iiieiaoue oeaeinoiia aeaeaeaiea iunee e /oanoa. E ec yoiai
iniciaiey aicieeaao aaciieaea,…yoi aaciieaea anoue iaaeeoaoeey, a
eioi?ie iaaeeoe?othuee iieiinoueth ionoonoaoao, iioiio /oi oi
inaiaiaeee, iionoioee naay io i?ioeiai. (…) Iaaeeoaoeey yoi ninoiyiea
oia, eioi?ue niio?eo ia ana n iieiui aieiaieai, oeaeinoii, a ia auaeaeyy
eaeea-oi /anoe”.

Aeey E?eoiaio?oe aaaeii, /oi iaaeeoaoeey ia eiaao oaoieee. Ei
i?aaeeaaaaony iaaeeoaoeey eae iaaethaeaiea niciaiey aac niciathuaai,
nica?oeaiey aac nica?oeathuaai: “Anee au eco/aaoa naay, iaaethaeaaoa ca
niaie, ca oai, eae au aaeeoa, eae aiai?eoa, eae au aieoaaoa,
iaiaaeaeeoa, ?aaioaoa, anee au iniciaaoa yoi ana a naaa, aac auai?a, yoi
anoue /anoue iaaeeoaoeee”.

E?eoiaio?oe n?aaieaaao iaaeeoaoeeth n ethaiaueth, iioiio /oi ethaiaue –
ia i?iaeoeo nenoaiu i?eau/ae, ia ?acoeueoao neaaeiaaiey iaoiaeo.
Ethaiaue iiaeao i?eaeoe, eiaaea nouanoaoao iieiia aaciieaea, aaciieaea,
a eioi?ii iaaeeoe?othuee niaa?oaiii ionoonoaoao; a oi iiaeao auoue
aaciieaiui oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea ii iiieiaao naia nianoaaiiia
aeaeaeaiea – iunee e /oanoaa. *oiau iiiyoue yoi aeaeaeaiea iunee e
/oanoaa, i?e aai iaaethaeaiee ia aeieaeii auoue inoaeaeaiey.

Ioi (Aoaaaai O?e ?aaeaeieo) eae iuneeoaeue e nicaeaoaeue iaaeeoaoeaiuo
oaoiee

Ioi (Aoaaaai O?e ?aaeaeieo) ?iaeeeny a 1931 aiaeo a Eiaeee. N ?aiiaai
aeaonoaa ii i?iyaee iacaaeneiue aeoo, ianoaeaay ia ee/iuo ia?aaeeaaieyo
enoeiu, eioi?ua noaaee iiiai auoa, /ai ciaiey e oaaaeaeaiey,
caeinoaiaaiiua o ae?oaeo. Ii i/aiue iiiai /eoae – ana, /oi iiaei
?anoe?eoue aai iiieiaiea nenoaiu oaaaeaeaiee e ineoieiaee nia?aiaiiiai
/aeiaaea. Ii iieo/ee aeaaeaie/aneia ia?aciaaiea e i?aiiaeaaae oeeinioeth
a oieaa?neoaoa, iiiai iooaoanoaiaae ii Eiaeee, aunooiae n eaeoeeyie,
aucuaae ia nii? a ioaee/iuo aeeneonneyo i?oiaeienaeueiuo ?aeeaeiciuo
eeaea?ia, iiaeaa?aae niiiaieth o?aaeeoeeiiiua aa?iaaiey e ano?a/aeny n
ethaeueie ec naiuo ?aciuo neiaa iauanoaa. A eiioea oanoeaeanyouo aiaeia
Ioi ia/ae ?acaeaaoue naie oieeaeueiua aeeiaie/aneea iaaeeoaoeeiiiua
oaoieee. A ia/aea naieaeanyouo aiaeia ia?aua ethaee n Caiaaea noaee
i?eacaeaoue e Ioi, a a 1974 auea iniiaaia eiiioia (ao?ai).

A i?ioeanna naiae ?aaiou Ioi cao?aaeaae oaeoe/anee ana aniaeou ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey. Ii auaeaeye iniiaiia, aaaeiia aeey aeooiaiiai
iienea nia?aiaiiiai /aeiaaea, iniiauaaynue ia iiuoa nianoaaiiiai
nouanoaiaaiey. Ii ia i?eiaaeeaaeae ie e eaeie o?aaeeoeee. Ii aiai?ee:

“Iia iineaiea – ia aeieo?eia, ia oeeinioey. Iia iineaiea – yoi naiaai
?iaea aeoeiey, iaoea o?ainoi?iaoeee, iiyoiio eeoue oio, eoi noiaao
oia?aoue oaeei, eaeia ii anoue e aic?iaeeoueny ianoieueei iaiiaeaiiui,
/oi ia iiaeao naaa yoi nae/an aeaaea i?aaenoaaeoue… oieueei oa
iaiiiaea niaeue/aee aoaeoo aioiau oneuoaoue, eai neuoaoue – cia/eo eaeoe
ia ?ene. Neooay, au aeaeaaoa ia?aue oaa e iiaiio ?iaeaeaieth. Oae /oi
yoi ia oeeinioey, eioi?ie iiaeii iieueciaaoueny, eae iaaeaaeiui
oe?uoeai, eee eioi?ie iiaeii iioaanoaoueny ia?aae ae?oaeie. Yoi ia
aeieo?eia, aeathuay ooaoeoaeueiua ioaaou ia o?aaiaeauea aii?inu… Iao,
iia iineaiea – aiiaua ia ?aciiaeaeiinoue neiaaniiai iauaiey. Iii
ai?acaei iianiaa. Yoi ia aieaa, ia iaiaa, /ai nia?oue e aic?iaeaeaiea”.

Niaeanii Ioi, iaaeeoaoeey – yoi ninoiyiea “ia-oia”, yoi ninoiyiea
/enoiai niciaiey aac niaea?aeaiey:

“Eiaaea iao oie/ae, e aeoiaiea i?ae?aoeeinue, ie iaeia iuneue ia
aeaeaeaony, ie iaeii aeaeaiea ia oaea?aeeaaaony, au iieiinoueth
iie/aeeau – oaeia iie/aiea e anoue iaaeeoaoeey”.

Ioi n/eoae, /oi oi yaeyaony iaanoanoaaiiui ninoiyieai, a ioee/ea io
iaaeeoaoeee, eioi?ia ei yaeyaony e eioi?ia iu oo?aoeee, a ?acoeueoaoa
/aai /aeiaae noae yooaeoeaiui iaoaieciii. (ss aeaeo caeanue
naiaia?acioth eioa?i?aoaoeeth eaeae A.E. Ao?aeaeeaaa, eae ai?i/ai, e a
ae?oaeo iieiaeaieyo o/aiey Ioi e oaoieeao iaaeeoaoeee).

Aaeaaeiaaiie oo?aiiae iaaeeoaoeeae a ao?aia Ioi auea oae iacuaaaiay
aeeiaie/aneay iaaeeoaoeey, i?iaeieaeaaoayny iaeei /an e auiieiyaiay ia
ainoiaea Nieioea, i?aaeii/oeoaeueii a a?oiia. Aeeiaie/aneay iaaeeoaoeey
ninoieo ec iyoe noaaeee. Iia iai?aaeaia ia eciaiaiea iniciaiey
oaeaniinoe.

Aieueoia aieiaiea Ioi oaeaeye oiio, eae naeaeaoue iaaeeoaoeeth noeeai
aeecie, caia/ay, /oi anee iau/iay aeeciue ia eniieuecoaony eae iaoiae
iaaeeoaoeee, oi iaaeeoaoeey noaiiaeony aeaeii aaanoaa io
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Aiiaua aiai?y, ei auei nicaeaii e iienaii iiiaeanoai
oaoiee iaaeeoaoeee ?acee/iie iai?aaeaiiinoe; oi?ioei i?eia?ii iiaeao
neoaeeoue “I?aiaeaaay eieaa. Iaaeeoaoeeiiiua oaoieee”.

Ea?ein Eanoaiaaea e aic?iaeaeaiea oaiaineeo ineoioaoiee iaae/aneiai
aeaenoaey e iaaeeoaoeee

Aeaeaiea ie?a aeiia Ooaia Iaoona ooiaeeo naieie ei?iyie a aeoaue aaeia,
a aai iniiaa eaaeao i?aaenoaaeaiey iiiaeo ia?iaeia Iaciaia?eee. Eaeay i
?aaeueiinoe, ninoiyuae ec yia?aaoe/aneeo iieae (“yiaiaoeee I?ea”)
eiooeoeaii iinoeaaeanue /aeiaa/anoaii ia i?ioyaeaiee aaeia e
iienuaaeanue /a?ac oaiiiaiu ?aeeaeiciuo aeaeaiee, a ainoi/iuo oeeinioeyo
eiae e eiaeoecia, a nia?aiaiiuo oai?eyo oeceee e oeeinioee. Oi, /oi
ii?aaeaeyao, eaeea eiaiii yiaiaoeee a aeaiiue iiiaio aini?eyoey aoaeoo
ioia?aiu, iacuaaaony oi/eie nai?ee; aa iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae
naienoai iniciaiey ioae?aoue niioaaonoaothuea yiaiaoeee aeey iaania/aiey
iaeiia?aiaiiiai aini?eyoey anao yeaiaioia, ia?acothueo aini?eieiaaiue a
aeaiiue iiiaio ie?. Eae ooaa?aeaeaao Eanoaiaaea, eiia/iay oeaeue yoie
nenoaiu ciaiey – ?acaeoea niiniaiinoe niciaoaeueii ia?aiauaoue oi/eo
nai?ee, /oiau aueoe ca i?aaeaeu oceeo ?aiie iauaeaiiiai aini?eyoey. Ia
yoi i?eaioe?oaony ana o/aiea aeiia Ooaia.

Aioo?aiiee aeeaeia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iuneaiiue ?acaiai?, eioi?ue iu
iinoiyiii aaaeai naie n niaie, e yaeyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiiui au?aaeaieai
?aaeueiinoe, aini?eieiaaiie eaaeaeui ec ian. Aai aeaaiay caaea/a –
caueuaoue iienaiea ?aaeueiinoe, iiaeieouaay aai nianoaaiiui
niaea?aeaieai (iuneyie) e niinianoaoy niaa?oaieth iinooieia,
oneeeaathueo aai. (Yoa eaeay nicao/ia eaeayi Ao?aeaeeaaa). Aeii Ooai
aiai?eo ia inoaiiaea aioo?aiiaai aeeaeiaa eae i eeth/a, ioe?uaathuai
aeaa?e iaaeaeo ie?aie.

Aeaeaiea ie?a ii aeiio Ooaio aeoaeueii: aai eiioeaioeey ?aaeueiinoe
au?aaeaaony a oa?ieiao “oiiaeue” e “iaaoaeue”. Oiiaeue aeeth/aao a naay
ana, /ai yaeyaony /aeiaae, ana, i /ai ii aeoiaao e /oi aeaeaao. Iaaoaeue
iaeuecy iiiyoue eee au?aceoue neiaaie, oai ia iaiaa, ii iiaeao
aini?eieiaoueny /aeiaaeii e noaoue /anoueth aai iiuoa. A yoii
caeeth/aaony iaeia ec iniiaiuo oeaeae iaaa.

Iaeia ec oeaio?aeueiuo oai eiea Eanoaiaaeu – iooue e ee/iie Neea (iooue
aieia). Aiei iaoiaeeony a iinoiyiiie ai?ueaa n nianoaaiiie neaainoueth e
ia?aie/aieyie, ai?aony i?ioea nee, eioi?ua i?aiyonoaotho ?inoo aai
ciaiee e Neeu, i?e/ai neeu yoe ii?iaeaeaiu iaoae ee/iie enoi?eae e
ianoiyoaeuenoaaie. N?aaee iniiaiiieaaathueo eiiiiiaioia, aeinooiii e
eioi?ui iaeaaeaao aiei, iiaeii auaeaeeoue aieth eae oo Neeo, /oi
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie yiaiaoeeth nianoaaiiiai “y”, iaiaoiaeeioth, /oiau
i?eeiniooueny e ie?o e iuooeoue aai, a eiiaaea e aeoeaii ia iaai
aicaeaenoaiaaoue.

Niaeanii acaeyaeai noi?iiieeia o/aiey aeiia Ooaia ia
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, ia?aeeaeueii n iaoae iau/iie ?aaeueiinoueth
nouanoaoao eiay, ioaeaeueiay ?aaeueiinoue. Ioaeaeueiay ?aaeueiinoue
i?eaeaoaao aieia ia?anoe naiaiaeo. Aeii Ooai oeacuaaao aeaa iooe,
aaaeouea e niauaieth oi/ee nai?ee: eneonnoai niiaeaeaiey e eneonnoai
noaeeeiaa. Eneonnoai noaeeeiaa i?eiaiyaony a iianaaeiaaiie ?aaeueiinoe;
iii ninoieo a /?acau/aeii inoi?iaeiii e eiiiaoaioiii ia?auaiee n iau/iie
?aaeueiinoueth, i?e yoii eiia/iie oeaeueth eneonnoaa noaeeeiaa yaeyaony
i?iieeiiaaiea a ioaeaeueioth ?aaeueiinoue. Noaeea? – iai?aacieaeaiiue
i?aeoee, ii i?aa?auaao iianaaeiaaiue ie? a iiea aiy, aaea eaaeaeue aai
iinooiie, eaaeaeia acaeiiaeaenoaea n ae?oaeie ethaeueie noaiiayony
/anoueth no?aoaaee. Noaeeeia – no?aoaae/aneia oi?aaeaiea iaoei
nianoaaiiui iiaaaeaieai. Aai iaeanoue aeaenoaey – acaeiiaeaenoaea,
i?ienoiaeyuaa iaaeaeo /aeiaa/aneeie nouanoaaie (aoaeue iie aieiaie eee
iau/iuie ethaeueie). Iioiio noaeea? ia ecaaaaao iauanoaaiiie aeecie, ii
iia?oaeaaony a iaa e iieuecoaony ath aeey ainieoaiey aeooa, i?eia?aoaiey
yia?aee e auoiaea ca i?aaeaeu ia?niiaeueiie enoi?ee. Iaoiae noaeea?a
yaeyaony iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui niiniaii acaeiiaeaenoaey n ethaeueie a
iianaaeiaaiii iauaiee. Iinooiee noaeea?a iniiauaathony ia iaaethaeaiee,
a ia ia oii, /oi ii aeoiaao, aini?eyoea ei aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
?anoe?yaony, iineieueeo niauaaony oi/ea nai?ee.

Iaaeaeaiea – iniiaiay no?aoaaey, eioi?oth iaa eniieuecoao aeey
aoiaeaeaiey a ioaeaeueioth ?aaeueiinoue. Iiae eiaiai yoie no?aoaaee
iauaaeeiaiu ?acee/iua oaoieee, a eo /enea noaeeeia e niiaeaeaiea.
Iaaeaeaiea nianoaaiiiai “y” ia?acoao iniaoth iaeanoue a niaieoiiinoe
oaoiee noaeeeiaa, iai?eia?, noe?aiea ee/iie enoi?ee.

Ioeac io /oanoaa nianoaaiiie aaaeiinoe – iaeii ec aaaeiaeoeo caaea/
aieia, iineieueeo yoi iuouaiea iiaeiuaao aieueooth /anoue aai yia?aee.
Ec-ca /oanoaa nianoaaiiie aaaeiinoe iu o/einy aini?eieiaoue ie? oae, /oi
ieacuaaainy ia?aae iinoiyiiie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth caueuaoue naith
ee/iinoue (yai).

Oaeaea aaaeiui n?aaenoaii a aeinoeaeaiee aioo?aiiae oeoeiu e i?ae?auaiee
aioo?aiiaai aeeaeiaa yaeythony oaoieee oiaeueau e aaaa. Aeaaiua eaeae:
eiioeaio?aoeey aieiaiey ia naiii i?ioeanna oiaeueau e ia nin?aaeioi/aiee
aieiaiey, aeaeaeaiea a iieiii iie/aiee, ioeac io iiiuoie inoaiiaeoue
iioie iuneae, ?iaiue oaii oiaeueau, oii?yaei/aiea ?eoia aeuoaiey e
eiioeaio?aoeey aieiaiey ia i?i, aieiaiea e nianoaaiiui iuouaieyi e ei
i?ienoiaeyuaio aie?oa. (Aaoi?o ?aoa?aoa caeanue aeaeyony i?yiua
ia?aeeaee n “iaaeeoaoeeae i?e oiaeueaa” aueaoiaineiai aaoi?a Ooeo Iao
Oaia e iaoiaeeeie eiaeeeneeo eiaia “eoiaiiia”).

Eae y oiiieiae auoa a ?aoa?aoa, iaeii ec aeaoo iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee a
i?aeoeea aieia – eiio?iee?oaiua niiaeaeaiey (“niiaeaeaiea – eo/oee iooue
e ia?aoaieth Neeu”). Aeinoeaeaiea eiio?iee?oaiiai ninoiyiey nia o?aaoao
eiio?iey, oi anoue ouaoaeueiie iiaeaioiaee eee i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie
iaaeeoaoeee.

?acaeae 4. I?eeeaaeiua aniaeou iaaeeoaoeaiie i?aeoeee.

Iaaeeoaoeaiua oaoieee a eeeie/aneie i?aeoeea e nenoaiao naiienoeaeaiey.

A ineoioa?aiee iaaeeoaoeaiua oaoieee eniieuecothony iau/ii aeey ?aoaiey
aieaa ia?aie/aiiuo caaea/, anee n?aaieaaoue n aeooiaiuie nenoaiaie,
iai?eia? – niyoea ia?aii-ineoe/aneiai iai?yaeaiey, iaeaa/aiea iniciaiey
ia?aii-ineoieiae/aneeo i?iaeai. I?ioeann iaaeeoaoeee iiaeao auoue i/aiue
yooaeoeaiui oa?aiaaoe/aneei iiaeoiaeii i?e /?acia?iii no?anna.

Iaaeeoaoeey iicaieyao aeenoaioee?iaaoueny io aeooaeueiie i?iaeaiu,
iono?ai?iii iaaethaeaoue naay e nai? iiaaaeaiea a neiaeiie neooaoeee, a
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo – iiiyoue i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey e ?acaeoea yoie
neooaoeee, yiioeeiiaeueii io?aaae?iaaoue a?, eciaieoue ioiioaiea e iae e
iaeoe iiaua niiniau a? ?aoaiey.

Eae ninoaaiay /anoue iaaeeoaoeey aoiaeeo a aooiaaiioth o?aie?iaeo a
?acee/iuo a? iiaeeoeeaoeeyo, a oaoieeo eiiieaeniie aooiaaiiie
o?aie?iaee, eniieuecoaony a naiiaeiiica e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo iaoiaeao
ineoe/aneie naii?aaoeyoeee.

A ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneeo oeaeyo i?eiaiythony n?aaieoaeueii i?inoua
oaoie/anee i?e?iu iaaeeoaoeee: eiioeaio?aoeey ia aeuoaiee, ia
nianoaaiiii oaea, ia iica, ia i?aaeiaoa. I?e iaeaaeaiee eie
?oeiaiaenoaothony neaaeothueie i?aaeeaie:

iaaeeoaoeey i?iaiaeeony a oeoii e o?ieii iiiauaiee;

iaaeeoaoeey i?iaiaeeony iaoiuae eee ia ?aiaa iieooi?a /ania iinea aaeu;

caiyoey aeieaeiu auoue ?aaoey?iuie, ii?yaeea 3-4 ?ac a iaaeaeth ii 15-45
ieioo; i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa aaeaaeiaaiua ei?ioeea caiyoey, iaaeaee ?aaeeea
e aeeeiiua;

iaaeeoaoeeth iaaei i?iaiaeeoue n onoaiiaeie ianneaiiai i?eiyoey anaai
i?ienoiaeyuaai (i?aaeinoaaeoue niauoeyi eaeoe naiei /a?aaeii,
eneeth/eoue e?eoeeo e aiaeec).

I?e i?iaaaeaiee iaaeeoaoeee eniieuecothony i?inoua iicu, ia aucuaathuea
iai?yaeaiey a oaea e i?eau/iua aeey caieiathuaainy – iai?eia?, neaey ia
nooea ni nieieie eee e?aea ia nieia. Ia ia?auo yoaiao i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa
caiyoey a a?oiiao iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii o?aia?a, aeaaeathuaai oaoieeaie
iaaeeoaoeee.

Neiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eiie?aoiua oi?iu iaaeeoaoeee, eioi?ua eo/oa anaai
iiaeoiaeyo aeey oao eee eiuo eiaeeaeaeia. Iiyoiio aieueoaai yooaeoa
aeiaeaathony, i?aaeeiaeea iaoeeaioo ianeieueei iaaeeoaoeaiuo iaoiaeee.
Eiaiii ineoioa?aiaao aeieaeai ioeaieoue oeaeaniia?aciinoue i?eiaiaiey
iaaeeoaoeee a caaeneiinoe io eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae iaoeeaioa.

Iaaeeoaoeey eae n?aaenoai naii?aaoeyoeee ineoe/aneeo ninoiyiee e o?iaiy
?aaioiniiniaiinoe

Nouanoaotho iiiai/eneaiiua ioaeeeaoeee, a eioi?uo eco/aaony, eaeia
ineoieiae/aneia e oeceieiae/aneia aeeyiea ieacuaaao iaaeeoaoeey, eae iia
iiaeao iiii/ue /aeiaaeo a iiauoaiee o?iaiy ?aaioiniiniaiinoe, a
?aaoee?iaaiee naieo ineoe/aneeo ninoiyiee. ?acee/iua oaoieee
iaaeeoaoeee, a /?i-oi niaiaaeay ae?oa n ae?oaii, iiaoo aeaaaoue ?aciue
yooaeo.

Niaeo? ia?aaeeaaiee, eioi?ua aicieeatho i?e iaaeeoaoeee, oe?ie: iie
iiaoo auoue i?eyoiuie eee iao, iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue /a?aaeiaaiea
neeueiuo yiioeee oeia ethaae eee aiaaa n ninoiyieai iieiy e
o?aaiiaaoaiiinoe. A oiaea i?aeoeee iaaeeoaoeaiua ninoiyiey ia/eiatho
oyaioaoue e aieueoaio iieith, iieiaeeoaeueiui yiioeeyi, e aieueoae
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe a aini?eyoee e eio?iniaeoeee, a aeaeueiaeoai aeioiaey
aei oaeeo, eae aeoaieay oie?ioai?aiiinoue, eiioeaio?aoeey,
iieiaeeoaeueiua yiioeee ?aaeinoe, ethaae e nino?aaeaiey, aeoaieia
i?iieeiiaaiea a i?e?iaeo oia e aeaaea ?acee/iua o?ainoeaiaeaioiua
ninoiyiey.

Oeo/oaiea niiniaiinoe e aini?eyoeth aea?o aiciiaeiinoue ?anniio?aoue
nianoaaiiua i?eau/ee e ineoieiae/aneea i?ioeannu. Iaaeeoe?othuee
iaia?oaeeaaao, /oi iau/iia ninoiyiea oia aaneiio?ieueii, aanniciaoaeueii
e iaiieiaii oaioaceyie, i?aaenoaaeaieyie.

Iaaeeoaoeey iieiaeeoaeueii aeeyao ia oai?/aneea niiniaiinoe
(e?aaoeaiinoue), oaaee/eaaao /oanoaeoaeueiinoue aini?eyoey, yiiaoeth,
/oanoai naiieiio?iey. Oaeaea iaaeeoaoeey niiniaia onei?eoue aeinoeaeaiea
c?aeinoe, /oi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony ecia?aieyie ii oeaeai ?acaeoey «yai»,
ii?aeueiiai e eiaieoeaiiai ?acaeoey, oinoaaiiuo niiniaiinoae,
aeaaeaie/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee, naiiaeooaeecaoeee e ninoiyiee niciaaaiey.

Iiaeii i?eaanoe a i?eia? ?acoeueoaou ineoieiae/aneiai oanoe?iaaiey
aini?eyoey, i?iaaae?iiiai n?aaee i?aeoeeothueo aoaeaeeeneoth
iaaeeoaoeeth. Eniuooaiua ?aaioaee n oanoii ?i?oaoa, i?e/?i ia/eiathuea
iieacuaaee iau/iua ?aaeoeee (ia?acu aeeaioiuo, ethaeae e o.i.), a oi
a?aiy eae eniuooaiua, iaeaaeathuea aieueoie noaiaiueth eiioeaio?aoeee,
aeaeaee ia ea?oao ?i?oaoa oieueei naaoeua e oaiiua oci?u. Oaeei ia?acii,
eo oi ieacaeny iaiaa neeiiai e i?aia?aciaaieth yoeo no?oeoo? a
i?aaieciaaiiua ia?acu, e yoi icia/aao, /oi eiioeaio?aoeey a i?ioeanna
iaaeeoaoeee oieone?oao oi e oiaiueoaao /enei annioeeaoeee.

O ethaeae, i?aeoeeothueo iaaeeoaoeeth, iinoaiaiii nieaeaaony neeiiiinoue
e ineoieiae/aneei caueoai, iie iaiueoa anooiatho a eiioeeeou. Ae?oaeie
neiaaie, iie i?eieiaee naie iaa?icu aanueia niieieii. Enoaoe,
aicaeaenoaeth iaaeeoaoeee iiaeaa?aeaia na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoay nenoaia; ai
a?aiy iaaeeoaoeee ii?iaeueiue ?eoi na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee caiaaeeyaony, a
?aaoey?iay i?aeoeea aaaeao e iiieaeaieth e?iayiiai aeaaeaiey.

Iiiaea aicaeaenoaey iaaeeoaoeee eaaeoony aeaaii?eyoiuie e enneaaeiaaoaee
iieaaatho, /oi iia iiaeao ea/eoue ?acee/iua ineoieiae/aneea e
ineoiniiaoe/aneea ia?ooaiey. Eiathony a aeaeo oaeea ineoieiae/aneea
ia?ooaiey, eae o?aaiae, oiaee, iinoo?aaiaoe/aneea no?annu, iuoa/iia
iai?yaeaiea, aanniiieoea e neaaay aeai?anney.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaaeeoaoeey niiniaia ieacuaaoue ?aciiia?aciia
aicaeaenoaea ia ethaeae, a /anoiinoe, a? aeaenoaea io?aaeaaony ia iauai
oeo/oaiee ineoe/aneiai e oece/aneiai caei?iauey e naii?aaoeyoeee. Ii
n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie iaoiaeaie i?aeoeea iaaeeoaoeee yaeyaony aieaa
iniuneaiiie, i?eiineo aieueoa ?aaeinoe, eaa/a iiaeaea?aeeaaaony e
niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth eioa?ana e naiiiiciaieth. Eiia/ii,
iaaeeoe?othuea, eae e ana iau/iua ethaee, iiaoo ia?aaeeaaoue
ineoieiae/aneea o?oaeiinoe ia ?acee/iuo noaaeeyo. “I?iaeaeiooua”
i?aeoeee oaeaea iiaoo eniuouaaoue o?oaeiinoe, oioy e aieaa ooii/?iiua,
aeeth/athuea yecenoaioeeaeueiua eee aeooiaiua i?iaeaiu.

Iiaeuoiaeeaay, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ethaeyi, eoi i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia
a?aiy e n oniaoii i?aeoeeotho iaaeeoaoeeth, naienoaaiiu iaeioi?ua iauea
/a?ou: iiauoaiiue eioa?an ei aioo?aiiaio iiuoo, ioe?uoinoue e iaiau/iui
ia?aaeeaaieyi, naiieiio?ieue, niiniaiinoue e eiioeaio?aoeee,
oiaiueoaiiay neeiiiinoue e iaa?icai e aieueoay ioe?uoinoue e i?eiyoeth
iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oa?aeoa?enoee ee/iinoe.

Oai?/aneay /anoue

“Oaoieee iaaeeoaoeee a o/aiee A. Ao?aeaeeaaa”

Aai?aee Eaaiiae/ Ao?aeaeeaa (Ath?aeaeeaa) (1877-1949) –
oeeinio-ieeoeueoeno a?aei-a?iyineiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Ii ia/oae ia
ioe?uoee Einoeooo aa?iiie/aneiai ?acaeoey /aeiaaea, /oi aio e oaeaeinue
naeaeaoue nia/aea a Oeoeena (1919), caoai a Oiioaiaei iiae Ia?eaeai
(1922). Ia o/aiea Ao?aeaeeaaa neeueiia aeeyiea ieacaee eaeae nooecia, i
eioi?uo oaea aiai?eeinue a ?aoa?aoa. ssaeyynue iineaaeiaaoaeai iaeiiai
ec nooeeneeo i?aeaiia, ii iniiaae o/aiea i neioaoe/aneii iooe
naiioniaa?oainoaiaaiey e ie?iiiciaiey – “*aoaa?oii iooe”. Ii n/eoae, /oi
o?e ia?auo iooe (oaee?a, iiiaoa e eiaa) yaeythony iaeiinoi?iiieie.
“*aoa??oue iooue” aue iniiaai ia i?aaenoaaeaiee i aaeeinoaa iae?ieinia e
iee?ieinia e aa?iiie/aneie ea?a?oee caeiiia Anaeaiiie. Oaeaea a /enea
iiaeeyaoeo ia o/aiea Ao?aeaeeaaa iacuaathony aaaeae?ayia (oeaaoneee
aoaeaeeci) e ycioa?e/aneia o?enoeainoai.

*aoaa?oue iooue aeooiaiiai ?acaeoey i?aeoe/ai e ?aaeenoe/ai. A ethaii
aeaea /aeiaae aeieaeai aeaenoaiaaoue ?oeiaiaenoaoynue ciaieai e iiuoii.
*oiau /aeiaae iia ?acaeaaoueny, ii aeieaeai ciaoue ia oieueei ono?ienoai
naiaai i?aaiecia e aai ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ia iiiaeo o?iaiyo, ii e
?aaeueiia ninoiyiea “/aeiaa/aneie iaoeiu”. A yoii neo/aa ynii, eaeea
naie aeaao iaoeia e eae ono?aieoue oaeea iaiieaaeee. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiua
nooiaie iao/aiey aeeth/atho: iieioth iaeo?aeecaoeeth aeieia
io?eoeaoaeueiuo yiioeee, onoie/eaia naiiainiiieiaiea, iaeo?aeecaoeeth
eiaeiie ee/iinoe, i?aiaeieaiea yaiecia, aunieoth noaiaiue eiioeaio?aoeee
aieiaiey.

Ii Ao?aeaeeaao, ?acieoea iaaeaeo oai, /oi i naaa aeoiaao /aeiaae, e oai,
/ai ii yaeyaony a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iaeaieaa i/aaeaeii i?iyaeyaony a
i?aaenoaaeaieyo /aeiaaea i naiae ee/iinoe, ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca naie
aeaenoaey e naiaiaea aiee. Eaaeaeue /aeiaae aeoiaao, /oi ii yaeyaony
iaeiei e oai aea iinoiyiiui /aeiaaeii, ca eneeth/aieai enoa?e/aneeo
?anuaieaiee ee/iinoe. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ineoieiae/aneay no?oeoo?a e
ooieoeey /aeiaaea eo/oa iauyniyaony i?e acaeyaea ia aai iiaaaeaiea a
oa?ieiao iiiaeo “y”, /ai eae iaeii “y”. Oi anoue /aeiaae ia auae?aao,
eaeiio “y” auoue eee e /aio ii neeiiai: neooaoeey auae?aao ca iaai. Aai
iiaaaeaiea e oi, /oi n iei neo/aaony, neo/aaony oeaeeeii aneaaenoaea
aiaoieo aeeyiee e “neo/aeiuo” annioeeaoeee aai iaoneiaeaiiie enoi?ee.
Au?aaeaynue neiaaie Ao?aeaeeaaa, /aeiaae – iaoeia, oioy e i/aiue
neiaeiay e caiooaiiay.

Aaaeiue yeaiaio a o/aiee Ao?aeaeeaaa – o?e oeaio?a, o?e ioaeaeueiuo
o?iaiyo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey /aeiaaea. Aa?oiee yoaae – eioaeeaeooaeueiue
oeaio?, n?aaeiee yoaae – yiioeeiiaeueiue oeaio?, e ieaeiee yoaae –
ianoiiieiaeaiea eiio?iey iaae o?aiy ooieoeeyie; a ieaeiai yoaaea
iaoiaeeony aeaeaaoaeueiue oeaio? e iieiaie oeaio?. A aeiaaaeaiea e yoei
iyoe oeaio?ai, aeaenoaothuei a eaaeaeii ii?iaeueiii /aeiaaea, anoue au?
aeaa oeaio?a, eioi?ua, oioy iie e iieiinoueth noi?ie?iaaiu e aeaenoaotho
iinoiyiii, ia eiatho nayce n ae?oaeie. Yoi aunoee eioaeeaeooaeueiue
oeaio? a aunoai yoaaea e aunoee yiioeeiiaeueiue oeaio? – a n?aaeiai
yoaaea. A iau/iii /aeiaaea iyoue oeaio?ia ooieoeeiie?otho eaaeaeue nai
ii naaa e ia aa?iiie?otho ae?oa n ae?oaii, a aunoea oeaio?u ia
eniieuecothony. Eco/aiea iai?aaeeueiie ?aaiou oeaio?ia – iaeei ec
eeth/ae e iiieiaieth iaoaieee /aeiaa/aneie ineoieiaee. I?aiyonoaeai e
aunoei o?iaiyi niciaiey yaeyaony eciaeeea a iianaaeiaaiie aeecie e
ioiaeaeanoaeaiea, a ninoiyiee eioi?iai /aeiaae “ia iiiieo naay”.

Ii Ao?aeaeeaao, oie/ie eee iiaoaeaeaiea e ?aaioa iaae naiiniciaieai
iiaeao aicieeiooue oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea eeethcey eiathueony o ian
niiniaiinoae, eioi?uie iu aeaenoaeoaeueii ia aeaaeaai, i?iiaaeaao.
Ae?oaay oa?aeoa?enoeea iau/iiai aiae?noaothuaai ninoiyiey – yoi
iaoaie/aneee iaioaeiue ?acaiai?, eioi?ue aucuaaao aaniieacioth ooa/eo
yia?aee e yaeyaony i?aiyonoaeai e ?acaeoeth aunoeo ninoiyiee niciaiey.
Iia naycaia n ae?oaie aieaciueth – iaioaeiuo oece/aneeo aeaeaeaiee e
iai?yaeaiee a oaea: iiaea?aeaaiee, noaoeeauo aeaeaeaiee, iinooeeaaiey
iaeueoeaie, i?eoiiuaaiey iiaaie, a?eianie/aiey e o.i., eioi?ua neoaeao
aeey oiai, /oiau enoiuaoue aaeaaeiaaioth ii?oeeth yia?aee, eioi?ay iiaea
au auoue eniieueciaaia, anee oieueei /aeiaae ciaao, eae, aeey iiauoaiey
o?iaiy iieaciiai aieiaiey.

Ioiioaiey nouiinoe e ee/iinoe – au? iaeei eeth/aaie iiiaio. Niaeanii
Ao?aeaeeaao, iau/iue /aeiaae ia?aaeeaaao ie? oaeei ia?acii, /oi ii
aeiaieai naiei iieiaeaieai, iieo/aao ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai
oaeiaieuenoaey e ianeaaeaeaiey e iaoiaeeo niiniie aeeciue aac aeaeaeaiey
e naii?aaeecaoeee. Oi anoue, iau/iue /aeiaae oa?yao niiniaiinoue
eniieueciaaoue ee/iinoue aeey auiieiaiey aeaeaiee naiae nouiinoe. O
aieueoeinoaa ethaeae ee/iinoue yaeyaony aeoeaiie, a nouiinoue –
ianneaiie: ee/iinoue ii?aaeaeyao eo ioeaiee e aa?o, i?ioanneth, ?aeeaeth
e oeeinioeth aeecie. Nouiinoue yoi oi, /oi yaeyaony nianoaaiii
/aeiaaeii. Ee/iinoue – yoi oi, /oi ia yaeyaony aai nianoaaiiui, /oi
iiaeao auoue eciaiaii i?e eciaiaiee oneiaee. Ee/iinoue e nouiinoue iaa
iaiaoiaeeiu aeey naii?acaeoey, oae eae aac ee/iinoe ia aoaeao aeaeaiey
aeinoe/ue aunoeo ninoiyiee niciaiey, ia aoaeao iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe
iianaaeiaaiui nouanoaiaaieai, a aac nouiinoe ia aoaeao iniiaaiey aeey
?acaeoey.

*oi eanaaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaaeeoaoeee a nenoaia Ao?aeaeeaaa. ?aaioa
iaae niaie iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoii i?ioaeaao a oneiaeyo, eioi?ua yaeythony
aeey /aeiaaea iianaaeiaaiuie. *aoaa?oue iooue o?aaoao, /oiau /aeiaae aue
“a ie?a, ii ia io ie?a”, eae aeaneo nooeeneay iineiaeoea. Ia?aay eeiey
?aaiou – yoi aeeeoaeueiay iiiuoea iineaaeiaaoue ae?aaiaio ec?a/aieth
“iiciae naiiai naay” (naiiiaaethaeaiea, naiianiiieiaiea). Nicaea?ony
“o?aiea”, aioo?aiiyy ai?ueaa iaaeaeo niciaieai e aaoiiaoe/aneei
iiaaaeaieai – iai?eia?, a aeaea eniieiaiey i?eau/iuo aeaenoaee iaiau/iui
ia?acii. Aoi?ay eeiey ?aaiou nicaeaao iniaua oneiaey e iiaeaea?aeeo a
oneeee noaoue niciathuei iooe nianoaaiiiai ioiioaiey e ae?oaei ethaeyi e
aeaao aiciiaeiinoue i?aeoeeiaaoue iiaia ioiioaiea e ae?oaei. Ia o?aoueae
eeiee ?aaiou, eioi?ay yaeyaony ?aaioie ?aaee eaeae naiie ?aaiou,
aeiioneaaony e aeaaea iiiu?yaony eieoeeaoeaa, a ee/iue ?ino eee
aeinoeaeaiea ia yaeythony aeaaiie oeaeueth oneeey.

Oneeey aniiieiaoue naay a oa/aiea aeiy iiaeaea?aeeaathony /a?ac naycue n
ninoiyieai, aeinoeaaaiii a niieieiie, ianneaiie iaaeeoaoeee eaaeaeia
oo?i ia?aae ia/aeii aeiaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Nia/aea yoio ia?eiae
neaeaiey a iaaeeoaoeee aoaeao caeeth/aoueny oieueei a caeeth/aiee
oece/aneie ?aeaenaoeee e oaaee/aiee iauaai niciaaaiey oece/aneiai
ninoiyiey oaea i?e oieone?iaaiiii aieiaiee ia oece/aneeo iuouaieyo. I?e
aeinoeaeaiee i?ia?anna e oaa?aiiinoe, /oi onoaiiaeaii oaa?aeia iniiaaiea
a iuouaiee oaea, a aeaeueiaeoai a i?aeoeea “*aoa??oiai Iooe” aaiaeyony
ae?oaea oaoieee. Eiiaaea eniieuecothony oaoieee aeinoeaeaiey “ionoiai
oia” (io iuneae) ai a?aiy niieieiiai neaeaiey; iiaeao auoue
eniieueciaaia oae iacuaaaiay “Aoia aa/a?a” (iaaeeoaoeey ia enoeiiia
“ss”), caeeth/athuayny a iaaeeoaoeaiii ?aciuoeaiee iaae aii?inii “Eoi
y?”.

I?ia?ann ai aioo?aiiai ?acaeoee i?e i?eiaiaiee ?acee/iuo iaaeeoaoeaiuo
i?aeoee neaaeoao iauaio eo?no. Nia/aea oi iaoiaeeony a aieueoie
aeoeaiinoe, e aai aieoiaiy ia iiaeaeaaony ieeaeei iiiuoeai
i?iaeaeiooueny e aioo?aiiae oeoeia e i?inoiio aieiaieth e oece/aneiio
oaeo. Ni a?aiaiai e iinoaiaiii aeeceia ciaeiinoai n aioo?aiiei
i?ioeannii aeiioneaao iaeioi?ia inaiaiaeaeaiea io ioiaeaeanoaeaiey n aai
eai?ecaie, e caeanue iiyaeythony iiiaiou yniiai niciaiey. Eiaaea
ianneaiay iaaeeoaoeey oaeoaeyaony, iiiaiou naiiainiiieiaiey a oa/aiea
aeoeaiie aeecie iiaoo auoue naycaiu n yoei iaaeeoaoeaiui ninoiyieai, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai iie noaiiayony aieaa neeueiuie e aieaa aeinoiaa?iuie.

?eoie/aneea aeiianoe/aneea aeaeaeaiey e oaioeu, acyoua Ao?aeaeeaaui ec
?acee/iuo o?aaeeoeee Ainoiea, eniieuecothony a ea/anoaa iiiiue a ia?aie
eeiee ?aaiou. Iie yaeythony ii?aaeae?iiie oi?iie iaaeeoaoeee –
iaaeeoaoeee a aeaenoaee (iiaeii n?aaieoue n aeeiaie/aneie iaaeeoaoeeae
?aaeaeieoa), a oi aea a?aiy iie eiatho ioiioaiea e eneonnoao e ycueo.
I?e i?aeoeea yoeo aeaeaeaiee aieiaiea aeieaeii auoue ?acaeaeaii iaaeaeo
auiieiyaiuie aeaeaeaieyie e ainiiieiaieai naay; aieiaa, ?oee e iiae
aeieaeiu neaaeiaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiui, /anoi aanueia neiaeiui ?eoiai, e aac
aieueoiai iai?yaeaiey aieiaiey auiieiyoue yoe aeaeaeaiey niaa?oaiii
iaaiciiaeii. Aeey eo auiieiaiey iaiaoiaeeia i?aaeeueiay ?aaioa oeaio?ia
e iineaaeiaaoaeueiia iniciaiea eaaeaeiai aeaeaeaiey. Aeaeaeaiey
i?iecaiaeyony iiae iocueo, eioi?ay aiaeaeaao a aeaenoaea yiioeeiiaeueiue
oeaio?, niaaeeiaiiue n eioaeeaeooaeueiui oeaio?ii, e aeaeaaoaeueii –
einoeieoeaiue o?iaaiue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, eioi?ue aeieaeai eaeoe i?ioea
ee/iiai e eaeeineie?ace/aneiai ioeeiiaiey, e ii aeaeaao aeaeaeaiey
oi/ii, eae oeacuaaaony.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u:

TH. Eaioai. “Iniiau iaaeeoaoeee”. Naia?a, 1992

“Ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneay yioeeeeiiaaeey”. NIa, 1998

Aeae.N. Yaa?ee, ?. ?icaioaeueae. “Iaaeeoaoeey”.

“Iooe ca i?aaeaeu yai”. I, 1996.

A. Aa?cei. “Iauee iaci? aoaeaeeeneeo i?aeoee”, 1993 (aeaaa
“Iaaeeoaoeey”).

Ioi. “*oi oaeia iaaeeoaoeey”

Ioi. “I?aiaeaaay eieaa. Ecia?aiey iaaaaeiiiai”. 1991

Ioi. “Ionoay eiaeea”

Eaeo ?eiii/a. “Iniiaaiea aoaeaeenoneie iaaeeoaoeee”.

Ooeoue Iyo Oaiue. “?oeiaiaenoai ii iaaeeoaoeee i?e oiaeueaa”. NIa, 1994

Naaie Aeaeaiaiae Na?anaaoe. “Aeaa aanaaeu i aeaeaia-iaaeeoaoeee”.

Ae. Noaecoee. “Iniiau aecyi-aoaeaeecia” // “Aecyi-aoaeaeeci”. Aeoeae,
1993

?ai Aeann. “Ca?ii ia iaeueieoeo” (aeaau i iaaeeoaoeee)

Eiaeyo Oai. “Nooeeneia iineaiea i naiaiaea aeooa”. NIa, 1991

I.I. Aeaaioia. “Iniiaiie eeth/ aeey ?aoaiey i?iaeai nouanoaiaaiey”.

I.I. Aeaaioia. “Einie/aneea caeiiu ii?aee”.

?. Eaoi?o. “O/eoaey Ao?aeaeeaaa”.

K. ?ei?aeai. “Ao?aeaeeaa”.

Aeae. E?eoiaio?oe. “Naiaiaea io ecaanoiiai”

Aeae. E?eoiaio?oe. “Ia?aay e iineaaeiyy naiaiaea. Iaano?a/o aeecie”.
Oa?ueeia, 1994

I. Eaoueain. “AEeciue e nia?oue E?eoiaio?oe”. I, 1993

Ae. Oeeueyin. “Ia?anaeay a?aieoeo: ineoieiae/aneia ecia?aaeaiea iooe
ciaiey Ea?eina Eanoaiaaeu”. Ai?iiaae, 1994

A. Nai/an. “O/aiea Aeiia Ea?eina: I?aeoe/aneia eniieueciaaiea oaoiee
Ea?eina Eanoaiaaeu”. I, 1996

E. Eanoaiaaea. Nia?aiea ni/eiaiee (1-12 eieae). Eeaa, 1992-1998.

O. Aaaaei. “Niceaeathuay aecoaeecaoeey”

N. A?io. “Iooaoanoaea a iieneao naay”. I, 1994

Aeae. ?aeioioa?. “Yoi a aaoeo neeao: Eae noaoue nianoaaiiui
ineoioa?aiaaoii”. I, 1992

TH. Eaioai. “Iniiau iaaeeoaoeee”. n.8.

A. Aa?cei. “Iauee iaci? aoaeaeeeneeo i?aeoee”. 1993. (aeaaa
“Iaaeeoaoeey”).

I.I. Aeaaioia. “Einie/aneea caeiiu ii?aee”

Aeae. E?eoiaio?oe. “Naiaiaea io ecaanoiiai”. E, 1991. n.81.

Aeae. E?eoiaio?oe. “Naiaiaea io ecaanoiiai”. E, 1991. n.82.

Ioi. “Ionoay eiaeea. Aanaaeu n o/aieeaie.”

Ioi. “I?aiaeaaay eieaa”. n.4.

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