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?aoa?ao ii eo?no Naiaeiay ineoioa?aiey

“Naiaeiay ineoioa?aiey”

Naiaeiay ineoioa?aiey

?acaeoea naiaeiie ineoioa?aiee

Iai?aaeaiey a naiaeiie ineoioa?aiee

1. Oeiea Iaei Aeoi

2. Naiaeiay ineoiaiaeeoe/aneay ineoioa?aiey

3. Naiaeiay nenoaiiay ineoioa?aiey

No?aoaae/aneay naiaeiay ineoioa?aiey

Naiaeiay iiaaaeai/aneay ineoioa?aiey

6. Ae?oaea iai?aaeaiey

Noi?oaeaneay ineoioa?aiey

Naiaeiia eiinoeueoe?iaaiea

Ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneay ei??aeoeey ioiioaiee a naiueyo

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

Naiaeiay ineoioa?aiey

Naiaeiie ineoioa?aieae iacuaaaony iniaue aeae ineoioa?aiee, iai?aaeaiiue
ia ei??aeoeeth iaaeee/iinoiuo ioiioaiee e eiathuee oeaeueth ono?aiaiea
yiioeeiiaeueiuo ?anno?ienoa a naiuea, iaeaieaa au?aaeaiiuo o aieueiiai
/eaia naiuee.

A oiaea naiaeiie oa?aiee, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue eioi?ie iiaeao
eieaaaoueny io ianeieueeeo iaaeaeue aei aeaaea ianeieueeeo eao,
auaeaeytho ?yae yoaiia. A? aeeeoaeueiinoue iaoneiaeeaaaony oyaeanoueth
ineoe/aneeo ?anno?ienoa o “iineoaey neiioiia”, au?aaeaiiinoueth
iaaeee/iinoiuo eiioeeeoia a naiuea, iioeaaoeeae /eaiia naiuee e
aeinoeaeaieth oa?aiaaoe/aneeo eciaiaiee. Aia/aea naiaeiay oa?aiey
i?iaiaeeony n /anoioie 1-2 naaina a iaaeaeth, a caoai ano?a/e
i?ienoiaeyo 1 ?ac a 2 iaaeaee, a aeaeaa – 1 ?ac a 3 iaaeaee.

*anoi a naiaeiie oa?aiee auaeaeytho 4 yoaia (Yeaeaieeea?, THnoeoeeen):

naiaiue aeeaaiic, aeeaaiinoe/aneee yoai;

eeeaeaeaoeey naiaeiiai eiioeeeoa;

?aeiino?oeoeaiue;

iiaeaea?aeeaathuee.

Iiae naiaeiui aeeaaiicii iiieiaaony oeiecaoeey ia?ooaiiuo naiaeiuo
ioiioaiee n o/?oii eiaeeaeaeoaeueii-ee/iinoiuo naienoa /eaiia naiuee.
Aeeaaiinoeea naiaeiuo ioiioaiee inouanoaeyaony a i?ioeanna
i?eniaaeeiaiey e naiaeiie a?oiia ineoioa?aiaaoa, auaeaeaathuaai e
i?iaa?ythuaai i?iaeaiiua aeeaaiinoe/aneea aeiioacu. Iniaaiiinoue
i?ioeaaeo?u naiaeiie aeeaaiinoeee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iia
nii?iaiaeaeaao naiaeioth oa?aieth ia anao yoaiao e i?aaeii?aaeaeyao
auai? ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneeo oaoiee. A? ae?oaay iniaaiiinoue ninoieo a
iaiaoiaeeiinoe niioianaiey iieo/aiiie io iaeieo /eaiia naiuee
eioi?iaoeee i i?ienoiaeyuai n eioi?iaoeeae io ae?oaeo /eaiia naiuee e
nianoaaiiiai aia/aoeaiey ineoioa?aiaaoa, eioi?ia neiaeeeinue ia
iniiaaiee ?anni?ina e iaaethaeaiey ca iiaaaeaieai o/anoieeia i?ioeanna
ineoioa?aiee (“naiuey aeacaie ?aa?iea”, “naiuey aeacaie ineoioa?aiaaoa”,
“eaeea iu ia naiii aeaea”).

Ia aoi?ii yoaia a oiaea iaeiinoi?iiieo ano?a/ ineoioa?aiaaoa n eeeaioii
e /eaiaie aai naiuee i?ienoiaeeo auyaeaiea e i?iyniaiea enoieia
naiaeiiai eiioeeeoa e eeeaeaeaoeey aai iin?aaenoaii yiioeeiiaeueiiai
io?aaae?iaaiey eaaeaeiai /eaia naiuee, aiaea/?iiiai a eiioeeeo, a
?acoeueoaoa onoaiiaeaiey aaeaeaaoiiai eiioaeoa n ineoioa?aiaaoii.
Ineoioa?aiaao iiiiaaao o/anoieeai eiioeeeoa iao/eoueny aiai?eoue ia
ycuea, eioi?ue iiiyoai anai. E?iia oiai, ii aa??o ia naay ?ieue
iin?aaeieea e ia?aaea?o a niaeaniaaiiii iau?ia eioi?iaoeeth i eiioeeeoa
io iaeiiai /eaia naiuee e ae?oaiio. Iaaa?aaeueiue eiiiiiaio yoie
eioi?iaoeee iiaeao auoue ia?aaeai ineoioa?aiaaoii ia naaina naiaeiie
ineoioa?aiee, aeey /aai eniieuecoaony i?e?i “?iaio-iaieioeyoi?”, eiaaea
ineoioa?aiaao ia?aaiaeeo i?ioeai?a/eaia niiauaiea o/anoieea naaina ia
ycue aeanoa, niia?acoy au?aceoaeueiinoue aeanoa n /oanoaeoaeueiinoueth e
oiea?aioiinoueth o/anoieeia. Eoae, ia yoii yoaia naiaeiie oa?aiee
aaaeoueie ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneeie iaoiaeaie yaeythony: iaaee?aeoeaiay
ineoioa?aiey, iaoeaeaiiay ia aa?aaeecaoeeth iainiciaaaaiuo ioiioaiee
ee/iinoe, a oaeaea niaoeeaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiua iaoiaeu aicaeaenoaey
/eaiia naiuee ae?oa ia ae?oaa.

Ia yoaia ?aeiino?oeoeee naiaeiuo ioiioaiee inouanoaeyaony a?oiiiaia
ianoaeaeaiea aeooaeueiuo naiaeiuo i?iaeai eeai a ioaeaeueii acyoie
naiuea, eeai a ia?aeeaeueiuo a?oiiao eeeaioia ni noiaeiuie i?iaeaiaie e
eo ?iaenoaaiieeia. A yoeo aea a?oiiao i?iaiaeeony ?ieaaie iiaaaeai/aneee
o?aieia e iao/aiea i?aaeeai eiino?oeoeaiiai nii?a.

Iiaeaea?aeeaathuee yoai naiaeiie oa?aiee ninoieo a cae?aieaiee
i?eia?ao?iiuo ia i?aaeuaeoueo yoaiao iaaueia yiiaoe/aneiai iauaiey e
?anoe?aiiiai aeeaiaciia ?ieaaiai iiaaaeaiey a anoanoaaiiuo naiaeiuo
oneiaeyo. Oaeaea i?iaiaeyony eiinoeueoe?iaaiea e ei??aeoeey
i?eia?ao?iiuo iaaueia iauaiey i?eiaieoaeueii e ?aaeueiie aeecie.

Auaeaeaiea yoaiia iicaieyao no?oeoo?e?iaaoue i?ioeann naiaeiie oa?aiee,
iainiiauaaao iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue i?eiaiaiey ?acee/iuo
ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia a caaeneiinoe io oeaeae e iau?ia
aeeaaiinoe/aneeo naaaeaiee. I?e?iu, eioi?ua iaeaieaa /anoi i?eiaiythony
a naiaeiie ineoioa?aiee:

Yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea iie/aiey;

Oiaiea neooaoue;

Iao/aiea n iiiiuueth aii?inia;

Iiaoi?aiea;

Noiie?iaaiea, ?acthie?iaaiea;

Ooi/iaiea (i?iyniaiea) e io?aaeaiea aooaeoa;

Eiio?iioaoeey, oi anoue i?aaeuyaeaiea noi?oaeaneie ia?a iainiciaaaaiuo
eee aiaeaaeaioiuo onoaiiaie, ioiioaiee eee noa?aioeiia iiaaaeaiey n
oeaeueth eo iniciaiey e i?i?aaioee;

I?iea?uaaiea ?ieae;

Nicaeaiea “aeeauo neoeueioo?”;

Aiaeec aeaeaicaiene.

?acaeoea naiaeiie ineoioa?aiee

A iineaaeiae /aoaa?oe XIX aaea aicieeei o/aiea i “naiaeiie aeeaaiinoeea”
e “naiaeiii ea/aiee” ?acee/iuo ineoe/aneeo ?anno?ienoa. Iiaeeeiiui
iniiaiiieiaeieeii naiaeiie oa?aiee a ?innee e iaeiei ec ia?auo a ie?a
n/eoaaony E.A. Iaey?aaneee, eioi?ue a 1882 aiaeo a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa
iniiaae a?a/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiia caaaaeaiea aeey ineoe/anee aieueiuo
aeaoae e iiae?inoeia, ia?niiae eioi?iai oaeaeye aieueoia aieiaiea
aeeaaiinoeea acaeiiioiioaiee a naiueyo ineoe/anee aieueiuo, ?iee
aeenaa?iiie/iiai ainieoaiey a oi?ie?iaaiee oao eee eeiuo i?iyaeaiee
aeooaaiuo aieaciae. N ?iaenoaaiieeaie aieueiuo aeaoae i?iaiaeeeinue oae
iacuaaaiia “naiaeiia ainieoaiea”, yaeyaoaany i?iia?acii nia?aiaiiie
naiaeiie oa?aiee.

Iio?aaiinoue a naiaeiie oa?aiee aic?anoaea, iniaaiii ia/eiay n 40-uo
aiaeia OO aaea, iinea caaa?oaiey 2-ie ie?iaie aieiu. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
auaeaeytho ianeieueei iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee a naiaeiie oa?aiee:
ineoiaeeiaie/aneia, nenoaiiia e no?aoaae/aneia, a oaeaea yeeaeoe/aneia.
Enoi?e/anee ia?aui noaei ineoiaeeiaie/aneia iai?aaeaiea, au?inoaa ec
aiaeeca O?aeaea neo/ay “iaeaiueeiai Aaina”. Oiaaea auee noi?ioee?iaaiu
iniiaiua /a?ou ineoiaeeiaie/aneiai iiaeoiaea, a eiaiii aiaeec
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeiai /eaiia naiuee, eo iainiciaiiuo aeaeaiee,
ineoieiae/aneeo i?iaeai e acaeiiuo i?iaeoeee. Caaea/ae ineoioa?aiee
yaeyeinue aeinoeaeaiee einaeoa – oi anoue iniciaiey oiai, eae ia?ao?iiua
a i?ioeii i?iaeaiu aeeytho ia acaeiiioiioaiey a naiuea a aeaiiue iiiaio
e eae ec yoiai ia?ooaiiiai eiioaenoa ioiioaiee aicieeatho iaa?ioe/aneea
neiioiiu e iaeiino?oeoeaiua niiniau aaeaioaoeee e aeecie o iaeioi?uo a?
/eaiia. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oaeie iiaeoiae, o?aaothuee aieueoeo oneeee eae
ni noi?iiu ineoioa?aiaaoa, oae e ni noi?iiu /eaiia naiuee, n/eoaaony
yeiiiie/anee iaiaa oeaeaniia?aciui, oioy e aunieiyooaeoeaiui.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aieaa iieiaeiu naiaeiuo ineoioa?aiaaoia ?aaioatho a
?onea nenoaiiie naiaeiie oa?aiee, /aoaa?oue i?aaenoaaeytho
ineoiaeeiaie/aneia iai?aaeaiea. Noi?iiieee yeeaeoe/aneiai iai?aaeaiey
niaaeeiytho a ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneie ?aaioa ?acee/iua ii ea/aaiui
iaoaieciai iaoiaeu: aeiiic, aooiaaiioth o?aie?iaeo, iaaeeoaoeeth,
aeiiaoiea caaeaiey ii iiaeeoeeaoeee iiaaaeaiey, aiaeec e eioa?i?aoaoeeth
acaeiiioiioaiee, a?oiiiaua aeeneonnee e ae?oaea.

Iai?aaeaiey a naiaeiie ineoioa?aiee

E?aoei ?anneaaeo i iai?aaeaieyo e oeieao ca?oaaaeiie naiaeiie
ineoioa?aiee.

1. Oeiea Iaei Aeoi

Aeaeae Oaeee, i?aaenoaaeoaeue oeieu Iaei Aeoi, noae aaoi?ii iaoiaea
“i?iaeaii?aoathuae oa?aiee”. Iiiaea iaoiaeeee ei auee iicaeinoaiaaiu o
Ieeoiia Y?eeniia. Oaeee n/eoae, /oi ioiioaiey a naiuea ii?aaeaeythony
enoiaeii ai?ueau noi?oaia ca eiio?ieue iaae ae?oaeie /eaiaie naiuee.
Neiioii – iaeei ec niiniaia eiio?iee?iaaoue iiaaaeaiea ie?oaeathueo. Ii
iiaieth Aeaeay Oaeee, caaea/a ineoioa?aiee ninoieo a i?aaeinoaaeaiee
ethaeyi ae?oaeo niiniaia aicaeaenoaey. Ea/aaiue yooaeo naiaeiie oa?aiee
cia/eoaeueii aic?anoaao, anee ia oa?aiaaoe/aneie nannee niae?athony ana
/eaiu naiuee. Aeeaaeii Oaeee a naiaeioth ineoioa?aieth noaee ?acee/iua
aee?aeoeau (caaeaiey) /eaiai naiuee. Auiieiaiea caaeaiee iaania/eaaei
?aaainoai, eaaeaeue /eai naiuee eiae i?aai auneacaoue nai? iiaiea eee
/oi-oi naeaeaoue. Ineoioa?aiaao aea?o caaeaiey eae ai a?aiy naaina, oae
e ia aeii. Oeaeue yoeo caaeaiee:

eciaieoue iiaaaeaiea /eaiia naiuee;

iaeoe aeiiieieoaeueiue noeioe aeey iino?iaiey ioiioaiee ineoioa?aiaaoa n
/eaiaie naiuee;

eco/eoue ?aaeoeee /eaiia naiuee i?e auiieiaiee eie caaeaiee;

inouanoaeoue iiaeaea?aeeo /eaiia naiuee, o.e. ai a?aiy auiieiaiey
caaeaiee ineoioa?aiaao eae au iac?eii i?enoonoaoao.

Oaeee oaeaea i?eiaiye iaoaoi?e/aneea e ia?aaeienaeueiua caaeaiey. Ia?aua
no?ieeenue ia iieneao aiaeiaee iaaeaeo niauoeyie e iinooieaie, eioi?ua
ia ia?aue acaeyae nianai ?aciua; aoi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oaeea
eino?oeoeee, eioi?ui /eaiu naiuee nii?ioeaeythony e oai naiui iaiytho
nai? iiaaaeaiea a ioaeiii iai?aaeaiee.

Ae?oaie e?oiiie oeao?ie a oeiea Iaei Aeoi aue Ith??ae Aioyi, eioi?iai
n/eoatho iaeiei ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia naiaeiie oa?aiee a NOA. E na?aaeeia
60-uo aiaeia 20-ai aaea ei aue ?ac?aaioai iaoiae naiaeiie ineoioa?aiee,
ninoiyuee ec 4-o i?eioeeiia:

Ii?aaeaeaiea e i?iyniaiea ioiioaiee.

“Iaaiaea/aiea a o?aoaieueiee” (Aioyi ?aeiiaiaeiaae ineoioa?aiaaoai ia
aiaeaeaoueny yiioeeiiaeueii a eiioeeeou, a nin?aaeioi/eaaoue nai?
aieiaiea ia i?ioeanna ioiioaiee);

Iao/aiea noi?oaia yooaeoeaiiio yiioeeiiaeueiiio iauaieth;

Caiyoea “ss-iiceoeee”.

2. Naiaeiay ineoiaiaeeoe/aneay oa?aiey

Oeaeueth ineoiaiaeeoe/aneie naiaeiie oa?aiee yaeyaony eciaiaiea ee/iinoe
o/anoieeia ineoioa?aiee oaeei ia?acii, /oiau iie auee a ninoiyiee
acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue eae oeaeinoiua caei?iaua ee/iinoe ia aaca iuiaoiae
?aaeueiinoe, a ia ia aaca iainiciaaaaiuo ioiioaiee i?ioeiai.
Ineoiaiaeeoe/anee-i?eaioe?iaaiiua oa?aiaaou oaeaea iaiaa aee?aeoeaiu,
/ai i?aaenoaaeoaee ae?oaeo oeie.

Neaaeothuea oaoieee eniieuecothony a yoii oa?aiaaoe/aneii iai?aaeaiee:
eiio?iioaoeey, eea?eoeeaoeey, eioa?i?aoaoeey e ia?a?aaioea iiuoa,
oaoieee oeo/oaiey eiiioieeaoeaiuo niiniaiinoae, oaoieea “naiaiaeiuo
annioeeaoeee”. Ineoiaiaeeoeee i?aaeii/eoatho iaaethaeaoue e neooaoue,
?acei inoaiaaeeaay ionoia ianoaeaeaiea aii?inaie.

3. Naiaeiay nenoaiiay ineoioa?aiey

E?oiiaeoea i?aaenoaaeoaee yoiai iai?aaeaiey – Ia?a
Naeueaeie-Iaeaoeoeiee, Eeo Iaaeaian, Naeueaaaei? Ieiooei e ae?. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy nenoaiiia iai?aaeaiea n/eoaaony iaeiei ec iaeaieaa
oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiiuo, ia?niaeoeaiuo, yeiiiie/anee oeaeaniia?aciuo e
oa?aiaaoe/anee yooaeoeaiuo iai?aaeaiee naiaeiie oa?aiee. Cia/eoaeueiia
aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea yoiai iai?aaeaiey ieacaee iieiaeaiey iauae oai?ee
nenoai Eeuee I?eaiaeeia.

A nenoaiiie naiaeiie ineoioa?aiee naiuey ?anniao?eaaaony eae oeaeinoiay
nenoaia, eioi?ay no?aieony e nio?aiaieth e yaiethoeee neiaeeaoeony
naycae. Ia an?i i?ioyaeaiee naiaai nouanoaiaaiey naiuee i?ioiaeyo /a?ac
caeiiiia?iua e?ecenu ?acaeoey (anooieaiea a a?ae, ioaeaeaiea io
?iaeeoaeueneeo naiae, aa?aiaiiinoue, ?iaeaeaiea ?aa?iea, iinooieaiea
?aa?iea a aeioeieueiua/oeieueiua o/?aaeaeaiey, ieii/aiea ei oeieu e
auai? naiaai aeeciaiiiai iooe, ?ac?ua n ?iaeeoaeyie, ooiae ?iaeeoaeae ia
iaineth e o.ae.) Eiaiii ia yoeo io?aceao naiaai nouanoaiaaiey naiuee
ieacuaathony ianiiniaiuie ?ac?aoaoue iiaua i?iaeaiu i?aaeieie niiniaaie
e iiyoiio anoatho ia?aae iaiaoiaeeiinoueth oneiaeiyoue naie
i?eniiniaeoaeueiua ?aaeoeee.

Iniiaiua oaae naiaeiie nenoaiiie ineoioa?aiee auaeyaeyo neaaeothuei
ia?acii:

Iauaaeeiaiea ineoioa?aiaaoa n naiue?e, i?eniaaeeiaiea aai e
i?aaeuyaeyaiie naiueae no?oeoo?a ?ieae.

Oi?ioee?iaaiea ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneiai cai?ina.

?aeiino?oeoeey naiaeiuo ioiioaiee.

Caaa?oaiea ineoioa?aiee e ioniaaeeiaiea.

Ia?a Naeueaeie-Iaeaoeoeiee aaaea oaeie i?eioeei ?aaiou, eiaaea a?eaaaea
oa?aiaaoia ?aciiai iiea ?aaioatho n naiue?e, a ae?oaea iaaethaeatho ca
eo ?aaioie, iaoiaeynue ca iaeiinoi?iiia-i?ic?a/iui ca?eaeii. Aaeeieoeae
ineoioa?aiee yaeyaony o/anoea ia anao nanneyo anao eaiia naiuee,
aeeaoueo iiae iaeiie e?uoae. *anoioa ano?a/ auea 1 a ianyoe, anaai aei
10 nannee. A? iaoiae aue e?aoie e aiacaiai, iia eniieueciaaea iaoiae
ia?aaeienaeueiuo i?aaeienaiee, no?aieeanue aucuaaoue eciaiaiey a naiuea
aiacaiiui ?aoathuei aeaeaeaieai. Ia?aaeienaeueiia caaeaiea (eia/a
“eiaa?eaioiia i?aaeienaiea”) ?ac?aaaouaaeinue i/aiue ouaoaeueii e
aiaeaeaei anao /eaiia naiuee a na?eth aeaenoaee, i?ioeai?a/aueo
neiaeeaoeiny a naiuea ?eaeaeiui i?aaeeai e ieoai.

4. No?aoaae/aneay naiaeiay ineoioa?aiey

Yoio iaoiae naiaeiie oa?aiee oaeaea iacuaaaony “i?iaeaii?aoathuay”,
“ei?ioeay”, oae eae ii i?eaioe?iaai ia ?aoaiea i?iaeai. Iaeaieaa
ecaanoiua oeao?u yoiai iai?aaeaiey – Aeaeae Oaeee, Ea?e Oeoaea?, Eeo
Iaaeaian. A naiae ?aaioa ineoioa?aiaaou yoiai iai?aaeaiey ia
eiioeaio?e?othony ia iniaaiiinoyo ee/iinoe /eaiia naiuee. Aeaiiue
iiaeoiae oa?aeoa?ecoaony /?acau/aeiui aieiaieai e aeaoaeyi neiioiia e
iaiueoei eioa?anii e naiuea. Oe?ieoth iiioey?iinoue yoi iai?aaeaiea
i?eia?aei e 1970 a. Iiiaea eaeae i?aaenoaaeoaee yoiai iaoiaea ii/a?iioee
ec iiuoa ?aaiou Ieeoiia Y?eeniia. Aeey aai i?aeoeee oa?aeoa?iu aeaa
iiaeoiaea: eniieueciaaiea einaaiiuo iaoiaeia aicaeaenoaey e i?eiyoea
anaai, /oi i?aaeeaaaao eeeaio.

Nooueth no?aoaae/aneiai iiaeoiaea yaeyaony ?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee aeey
?aoaiey i?iaeai, oae eae eciaiaiey a naiuea aaaeiaa, iaaeaee iiieiaiea
i?e/ei ia?ooaiee. No?aoaae/aneea oa?aiaaou enneaaeotho oaeoi?u,
iaania/eaathuea onoie/eainoue i?iaeaiu, eioi?ay iiaeaea?aeeaaaony
nouanoaothuei acaeiiaeaenoaeai a naiuea, e iiyoiio no?aiyony auyaeoue oi
iiaaaeaiea, eioi?ia iiaee?aieyao i?iaeaio. Iiiaea no?aoaae/aneea
ineoioa?aiaaou iieaaatho, /oi ii?iaeueii ooieoeeiie?othuay naiuey – yoi
oa, eioi?ay ecaaaaao neiioiiia e niiniaia ooieoeeiie?iaaoue a
niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie iaiythueony ianoiyoaeuenoa.

5. Naiaeiay iiaaaeai/aneay ineoioa?aiey

Naiaeiay iiaaaeai/aneay oa?aiey eae naie iniiaiie i?eioeei aeaeeo
iiaee?aieaiea iiaaaeaiey iineaaenoaeai, ec /aai neaaeoao, /oi iaooa?i
iiaaaeaiey nii?ioeaeyaony eciaiaieyi ai anao neo/ayo, e?iia oao, eiaaea
aicieeioo aieaa aeaaii?eyoiua iineaaenoaey. I?aaenoaaeoaeae yoiai
iai?aaeaiey eioa?anoao aiaeec iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe iinooieia. Ca iniiao
aa??ony iieiaeaiey, /oi oaeiaeaoai??iiinoue a a?aea a cia/eoaeueii
aieueoae noaiaie iaoneiaeaia ionoonoaeai acaeiiuo o?ono?aoeee, iaaeaee
iau?iii aeinoaaeyaiuo ae?oa ae?oao oaeiaieuenoaee.

Iaeiie ec iaeaieaa /anoi i?eiaiyaiuo oaoiee yaeyaony iiaaaeai/aneee
o?aieia ?iaeeoaeae. I?ioeann ineoioa?aiee ia/eiaaony n oiai, /oi
oa?aiaao ia?aoi?ioee?oao i?aaenoaaeaiey eeeaioa i nouiinoe i?iaeaiu e
aiciiaeiuo iooyo a? ?aoaiey. Iiaaaeai/aneea ineoioa?aiaaou iaeieie ec
iaiiiaeo ia i?eaeaoatho anth naiueth ia ea/aiea, a eeoue ?aa?iea e
eiai-ieaoaeue ec ?iaeeoaeae. Iiaaaeai/aneee o?aieia ?iaeeoaeae
i?aneaaeoao oeaeue iiauoaiey eo eiiiaoaioiinoe a aii?inao ainieoaiey
aeaoae, ?aniiciaaaiey e iiaeeoeeaoeee iaooa?iia
yiioeeiiaeueii-iiaaaeai/aneiai ?aaae?iaaiey.

Iaeaieaa iiioey?iu neaaeothuea oaoieee ?aaiou:

oi?ie?iaaiea (shaping) – aeinoeaeaiea aeaeaaiiai iiaaaeaiey iaaieueoeie
ii?oeeyie /a?ac iineaaeiaaoaeueiia iiaee?aieaiea;

aeaoiiiay nenoaia – eniieuecoao aeaiueae eee i/ee a ea/anoaa
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey aeaoae ca oniaoiia iiaaaeaiea;

eiio?aeoiay nenoaia – aeeth/aao a naay niaeaoaiea n ?iaeeoaeyie ia
eciaiaiee eo iiaaaeaiey neio?iiii n eciaiaieai iiaaaeaiey ?aa?iea;

iaiai eciaiaieyie ca aiciaa?aaeaeaiea;

i?a?uaaiea (timeout) – iaeacaiea a aeaea ecieyoeee.

Naiaeiay iiaaaeai/aneay ineoioa?aiey – yoi iaeei ec naiuo iiioey?iuo
iaoiaeia aaeaeo naiae i?inoiou e yeiiiiiinoe, oioy /anoi oa?aiaaoe/aneea
eciaiaiey ieacuaathony iaeiiaieeie eee e?aoeia?aiaiiuie.

6. Ae?oaea iai?aaeaiey

Naiaeiay eiiioieeaoeaiay oa?aiey auaeaeeeanue ec iai?aaeaiey Iaei Aeoi.
Aaaeoueie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie a? yaeythony I. Aaoeeaaee, Ae. Aeaeaenii e
ae?oaea. Oeaeueth naiaeiie eiiioieeaoeaiie oa?aiee yaeythony eciaiaiea
niiniaia eiiioieeaoeee, eee “niciaoaeueiua aeaenoaey n oeaeueth
eciaieoue ieioi ooieoeeiie?othuea ia?acoeu eioa?aeoeee”. Nia/aea
i?aaenoaaeoaee yoiai iai?aaeaiey, iai?eia?, Ae?aeaeeiey Naoe?, noaaeee
oeaeueth i?inoi oeo/oaiea eiiioieeaoeee a naiuea, caoai yoa eaeay
noceeanue aei eciaiaiey eiaiii oao niiniaia eiiioieeaoeee, eioi?ua
iiaeaea?aeeaatho neiioii. Iniiaiuie a?oiiaie oaoiee naiaeiie
eiiioieeaoeaiie oa?aiee yaeythony: iao/aiea /eaiia naiuee i?aaeeai yniie
eiiioieeaoeee; aiaeec e eioa?i?aoaoeey niiniaia eiiioieeaoeee a naiuea;
iaieioeyoeey eiiioieeaoeeae a naiuea n iiiiuueth ?aciuo i?e?iia e
i?aaee. Yoio aeae naiaeiie ineoioa?aiee ia niia ooaa?aeeoueny eae
aunieiyooaeoeaiie iaoiae.

Ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae iai?aaeaiey naiaeiie ineoioa?aiee, iniiaaiiie ia
iiuoa, iaeaieaa ecaanoiu Ea?e Oeoaeea? (Carl Whitaker) e Iaano Iaie?
(August Napier). Yoio iaoiae iniiaai “ia iiuoa e cae?aaii niunea”
(Yeaeaieeea?, THnoeoeeen, “Ineoieiaey e ineoioa?aiey naiuee”, 1999).

Noi?oaeaneay ineoioa?aiey

Noi?oaeaneie ineoioa?aieae iacuaaaony oi?ia ineoioa?aiee, eioi?ay
i?eaioe?iaaia ia naiaeioth ia?o, iiiiaaao ae a i?aiaeieaiee naiaeiuo
eiioeeeoia e e?eceniuo neooaoeee, a aeinoeaeaiee aa?iiiee ai
acaeiiioiioaieyo, iaania/aiee acaeiiiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae.
Iia iiaeao ?aaioaoue eae naiinoiyoaeueiue iaoiae e eae yoai naiaeiie
ineoioa?aiee.

?aaioa i?iaiaeeony eeai n noi?oaeaneie ia?ie, eeai n iaeiei ec
ia?oi??ia, eioi?ue i?eo?e ia i?e?i e ineoioa?aiaaoo. I?e yoii aa?eaioa
noi?oaeaneie ineoioa?aiee n ineoioa?aiaaoii ianoaeaeathony ia i?iaeaiu
noi?oaa, a eeoue oa iunee, /oanoaa, ia?aaeeaaiey, eioi?ua anoue o
cayaeoaey i?iaeaiu ii iiaiaeo aai (a?) noi?oaeanoaa.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a noi?oaeaneie ineoioa?aiee iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu
aeeiaie/aneee, iiaaaeai/aneee e aoiaienoe/aneee iiaeoiaeu.

I?e aeeiaie/aneii iiaeoiaea noi?oaeaneay aeenaa?iiiey ?anniao?eaaaony n
oi/ee c?aiey aioo?aiiae iioeaaoeee iiaaaeaiey iaieo ia?oi??ia.
I?ineaaeeaaaony aeeiaieea iaaeee/iinoiuo ioiioaiee e a? naycue n
aeeiaieeie ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia.

Oeaeueth iiaaaeai/aneiai iiaeoiaea a noi?oaeaneie ineoioa?aiee yaeyaony
i?aaeaea anaai eciaiaiea iiaaaeaiey ia?oia?ia, i?e yoii eniieuecothony
iaoiaeu iaoneiaeeaaiey e iao/aiey, /oi iaania/eaaao:

Oi?aaeaiea acaeiiui iieiaeeoaeueiui iiaaaeaieai noi?oaia;

I?eia?aoaiea iaiaoiaeeiuo nioeeaeueiuo ciaiee e iaaueia, iniaaiii a
iaeanoe iauaiey e niaianoiiai ?aoaiey aicieeathueo i?iaeai;

Au?aaioeo e ?aaeecaoeeth noi?oaeaneiai niaeaoaiey i acaeiiii eciaiaiee
naiaai iiaaaeaiey.

Iiaaaeai/aneia iai?aaeaiea a noi?oaeaneie ineoioa?aiee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
yaeyaony iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?ai?iiui. Naiua iiioey?iua aai oi?iu –
caeeth/aiea noio?aeaneeo eiio?aeoia, eiiioieeaoeaiua o?aieiae,
eiino?oeoeaiue nii?, i?e?iu ?aoaiey i?iaeai e o.ae. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
iiiaea niaoeeaeenou eniieuecotho eioaa?aoeaiue iiaeoiae, ni/aoay /aua
anaai iaoiaeu eiaieoeaii-iiaaaeai/aneie oa?aiee e nenoaiiie
ineoioa?aiee.

A iniiaa eiio?aeoa eaaeeo niaeaoaiea, a eioi?ii noi?oae /?oei
ii?aaeaeytho naie o?aaiaaiey a oa?ieiao iiaaaeaiey e acyoua ia naay
ianoiyoaeuenoaa. I?e oi?ioee?iaaiee o?aaiaaiee ?aeiiaiaeoaony
eniieueciaaoue neaaeothuee ii?yaeie: iauea aeaeiau, aeaeaa eo
eiie?aoecaoeey, aeaeaa iieiaeeoaeueiua i?aaeeiaeaiey, iaeiiaoe, aeiaiai?
n ia?a/eneaieai iaycaiiinoae eaaeaeiai ec noi?oaia.

A aoiaienoe/aneii iiaeoiaea e ineoieiae/aneie ei??aeoeee noi?oaeaneeo
ioiioaiee aaaeoueie yaeythony i?aaenoaaeaiey i oii, /oi a iniiaa
aa?iiie/iiai a?aea eaaeao ioe?uoinoue, aooaioe/iinoue, oiea?aioiinoue,
iio?aaiinoue a naiiau?aaeaiee, i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe ae?oaiio e iacaaeneiia
?acaeoea ee/iinoe eaaeaeiai. Yoio iiaeoiae ?acaeeny eae
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue aeeiaie/aneiio, eioi?ue eceeoia i?eaioe?iaai ia
aeeyiea enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeiai noi?oaa e aai ?iaeeoaeueneie naiuee, oae
e neeoeii iaieioeyoeaiiio iiaaaeai/aneiio iiaeoiaeo. Caeanue
ineoioa?aiaao nicaea?o oneiaey, a eioi?uo noi?oae no?aiyony e
aa?aaeecaoeee naieo /oanoa e oai naiui e oeo/oaieth acaeiiiiieiaiey.
Auee noi?ioee?iaaiu i?eioeeiu ioe?uoiai a?aea, nicaeathuaai iaeaieaa
aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey ee/iinoiiai ?inoa ia?oi??ia:

I?eioeei ?aaeueiinoe, “caeanue e nae/an”;

Oaaaeaiea e ee/iie aeecie ia?oi??a;

Ioe?uoia iauaiea – ia “/eoaoue iunee” ae?oaiai, a ioe?uoi aiai?eoue i
naieo /oanoaao e aeaeaieyo;

Iiaeaeaeiinoue a eniieiaiee naiaeiuo ?ieae;

?aaiii?aaea;

Aeiaa?ea;

Aooaioe/iinoue – ciaoue naay e naith oeaio, oeaieoue i?aai ae?oaiai
aeeoue niaeanii naiei i?aaenoaaeaieyi;

Ioe?uoia ia?oi??noai – eaaeaeue eiaao i?aai ia nianoaaiiua eioa?anu e
oaea/aiey.

Naiaeiia eiinoeueoe?iaaiea

Naiaeiia eiinoeueoe?iaaiea – yoi iaeia ec ?aciiaeaeiinoae naiaeiie
ineoioa?aiee, eioi?ay eiaao naie ioee/eoaeueiua i?eciaee e a?aieoeu
oa?aiaaoe/aneiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa. Naiaeiia eiinoeueoe?iaaiea ?acaeaaeinue
ia?aeeaeueii n naiaeiie oa?aieae, acaeiii iaiaauay ae?oa ae?oaa.
Iniiaiie oeaeueth, noiyuae ia?aae naiaeiui eiinoeueoe?iaaieai, yaeyaony
eco/aiea i?iaeaiu /eaia eee /eaiia naiuee aeey eciaiaiey acaeiiaeaenoaey
a iae e iaania/aiey aiciiaeiinoae ee/iinoiiai ?inoa.

*ai ioee/athony naiaeiia eiinoeueoe?iaaiea e naiaeiay oa?aiey?
Ai-ia?auo, naiaeiia eiinoeueoe?iaaiea ia i?eieiaao eiioeaioeeth aieacie.
Ai-aoi?uo, iii noaaeo aeoeaio ia aiaeeca neooaoeee e aniaeoia ?ieaaiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey a naiuea. A-o?aoueeo, iii i?ecaaii iiii/ue a iieneao
ee/iinoiiai ?ano?na noauaeoia eiinoeueoe?iaaiey e ianoaeaeaiee niiniaia
?ac?aoaiey neooaoeee.

A /enea aaaeoueo oai?aoe/aneeo eiioeaioeee naiaeiiai eiinoeueoe?iaaiey
i?eaiaeyony eiaieoeaii-iiaaaeai/aneay oa?aiey,
?aoeeiiaeueii-yiioeeiiaeueiay oa?aiey e ae?oaea. Yoei iaoneiaeaii oi
?aciiia?acea i?e?iia e iaoiaeia, eioi?ua eiathony a aai a?naiaea.

Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu e i?aaeea naiaeiiai eiinoeueoe?iaaiey naiaeyony e
neaaeothuei ioieoai:

Onoaiiaeaiea eiioaeoa e i?eniaaeeiaiea eiinoeueoaioa e eeeaioai.
Aeinoeaaaony n iiiiuueth niaethaeaiey eiino?oeoeaiie aeenoaioeee,
niinianoaothuae iioeiaeueiiio iauaieth, a oaeaea i?e?iia neio?iiecaoeee
ieieee e aeuoaiey eiinoeueoaioa e eiinoeueoe?oaiiai, eniieueciaaiey
eiinoeueoaioii ?a/aauo oi?i, io?aaeathueo aeiieie?othuoth
?ai?acaioaoeaioth nenoaio oiai, eoi niiauaao i naiae naiaeiie i?iaeaia.

Nai? eioi?iaoeee i i?iaeaia eeeaioa n eniieueciaaieai i?e?iia
iaoa-iiaeaee?iaaiey (IEI) e oa?aiaaoe/aneeo iaoaoi?. *oiau aeinoe/ue
yoie oeaee, eiinoeueoaio iiaeao caaeaaaoue ooi/iythuea aii?inu oeia:
“Eaeiai ?acoeueoaoa Au oioeoa aeinoeaiooue?”, “*aai Au oioeoa?”,
“Iii?iaoeoa neacaoue ia yoii aac io?eoeaoaeueiie /anoeoeu “iao”, oi
anoue neiaaie, iienuaathueie iieiaeeoaeueiue ?acoeueoao”.

Ianoaeaeaiea ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneiai eiio?aeoa, /oi yaeyaony iaeiie ec
aaaeiaeoeo caaea/ naiaeiiai eiinoeueoe?iaaiey. Ia yoii yoaia i?ienoiaeeo
ianoaeaeaiea oiai, eae aoaeao ?ani?aaeaeyoueny ioaaonoaaiiinoue iaaeaeo
eeeaioii e aai eiinoeueoaioii. Iai?eia?, eiinoeueoaio ioaa/aao ca
oneiaey aaciianiinoe naiaeiiai eiinoeueoe?iaaiey, ca oaoiieiaee aeinooia
e ?ac?aoaieth i?iaeaiu eeeaioa. A naith i/a?aaeue, eeeaio noaiiaeony
ioaaonoaaiiui ca nianoaaiioth aeoeaiinoue, ene?aiiinoue a aeaeaiee
eciaieoue nai? ?ieaaia iiaaaeaiea e oae aeaeaa. Iinea oniaoiiai
i?ioiaeaeaiey yoie oacu o/anoieee aeiaiaa?eaathony i
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ?aaiou (iai?eia?, 3-6 /ania), aeeeoaeueiinoe
i?iaaaeaiey iaeiiai naaina e ia?eiaee/iinoe oa?aiaaoe/aneeo ano?a/
(iai?eia?, nia/aea 1 ?ac a iaaeaeth, aiineaaenoaee oaea ?aaea – 1 ?ac a
2-3 iaaeaee). Iaeiiaoe, ianoaeaeathony oneiaey iieaou, a oaeaea naieoeee
ca ia?ooaiea noi?iiaie oneiaee eiio?aeoa.

Aeaeaa i?ienoiaeeo ooi/iaiea i?iaeaiu eeeaioa, oaeaea ii?aaeaeythony
?ano?nu naiuee a oeaeii e eaaeaeiai a? /eaia a ioaeaeueiinoe. Yoiio
niinianoaotho aii?inu iaiiaeiaea: “Eae au ?aiueoa ni?aaeyeenue n
o?oaeiinoyie? *oi aai a yoii iiiiaaei?”, “A eaeeo neooaoeeyo au auee
neeueiuie? Eae au eniieueciaaee naith neeo?”

I?iaaaeaiea nianoaaiii eiinoeueoaoeee. Caeanue iaiaoiaeeii oe?aieoue
aa?o eeeaioia a oniaoiinoue e aaciianiinoue i?ioeaaeo?u
eiinoeueoe?iaaiey: “Aaoa aeaeaiea inouanoaeoue eciaiaiey, aao i?aaeiee
iiuo, aeoeaiinoue e ene?aiiinoue a ni/aoaiee n aeaeaieai eiinoeueoaioa
nio?oaeie/aoue n aaie, aai i?ioanneiiaeueiua ea/anoaa e iiuo ?aaiou
aoaeoo iaae?aeiie aa?aioeae oniaoiinoe ?aaiou”. N o/anoieeaie
eiinoeueoe?iaaiey ianoaeaeatho iieiaeeoaeueiua e io?eoeaoaeueiua noi?iiu
neiaeeaoeony noa?aioeiia iiaaaeaiey, iai?eia?, n iiiiuueth oaeeo
aii?inia: “*oi, ii aaoaio iiaieth, yaeyaony naiui iaaaoeaiui a
neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee? A /oi naiia oi?ioaa a yoeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao?”
Inouanoaeyaony niaianoiue iiene iiauo oaaeiiia iiaaaeaiey. Eiinoeueoaio
i?aaeeaaaao neaaeothuea aii?inu: “*aai au au? ia aeaeaee, /oiau
?ac?aoeoue i?iaeaio? Eae aaee naay cia/eiua aeey aan ethaee, anee
ieacuaaeenue a noiaeiie neooaoeee? Niiaee au au oae iinooieoue?” eee
“*oi iiiiaeao aai niaa?oeoue oaeie aea iinooiie?” Eiinoeueoaio iiaeao
eniieueciaaoue i?e?iu aecoaeecaoeee: eeeaiou, iaoiaeynue a o?aina,
nicaeatho ia?ac iiaie neooaoeee, oeene?oy i?e yoii aicieeathuea
eeianoaoe/aneea iuouaiey.

“Yeieiae/aneay i?iaa?ea”. Eiinoeueoaio i?aaeeaaaao /eaiai naiuee
i?aaenoaaeoue naay a noiaeiie neooaoeee /a?ac 5-10 eao e enneaaeiaaoue
nai? ninoiyiea.

I?eaeeaeaynue e caaa?oaieth naiaeiiai eiinoeueoe?iaaiey, eiinoeueoaio
i?aaei?eieiaao oneeey ii “no?aoiaaieth” ?acoeueoaoia. Yoi naycaii n oai,
/oi eeeaiou eiiaaea ioaeaeathony a aeaenoaeyo, iiiiaathueo ei ia?anoe
oaa?aiiinoue i?e inaiaiee iiauo oaaeiiia iiaaaeaiey. Iie iiaoo iieo/eoue
io eiinoeueoaioa eaeia-ieaoaeue aeiiaoiaa caaeaiea e i?eaeaoaiea i?eeoe
ia iiaoi?ioth eiinoeueoaoeeth nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy aeey ianoaeaeaiey
iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia.

Ioniaaeeiaiea. Oaeay i?ioeaaeo?a ieacuaaaony ioaeiie a ?yaea neo/aaa.
Iai?eia?, a eeoa?aoo?a iienuaaaony, eae yoi aeaeae Aeaeae Oyeee n
iiiiuueth “ia?aaeienaeueiiai caaeaiey”, oi/iia auiieiaiea eioi?iai
i?eaiaeeo e i?ioeaiiieiaeiiio ?acoeueoaoo. Iieiaeui noi?oaai, n eioi?uie
i?iaiaeeeanue eiinoeueoaoeey ii iiaiaeo au?aaeaiey naieo /oanoa, auei
i?aaeeiaeaii nni?eoueny ii /ano a aeaiue “aeey i?iaa?ee naiaai
yiioeeiiaeueiiai ?aaae?iaaiey”. Oyeee o/eouaae oaeei ia?acii
/aeiaa/aneoth i?e?iaeo, ciay, /oi ieeoi ia aoaeao niciaoaeueii a?aaeeoue
naaa. Noi?oae iii?iaiaaee auiieiyoue caaeaiea e a?ineee aai, o ieo
oe?aieeinue aeaeaiea oeaieoue ae?oa ae?oaa, e iie i?eiyee ?aoaiea
ioeacaoueny io oneoa “iiaeoiaaoaai eiinoeueoaioa”, oaeei ia?acii,
niaa?oeeinue “ioniaaeeiaiea”.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy naiaeiia eiinoeueoe?iaaiea yaeyaony oe?iei
aino?aaiaaiiui aeaeii ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneie iiiiue n?aaee ianaeaiey
?innee. Naiaeiua eiinoeueoaiou ?aaioatho a ineoieiae/aneeo oeaio?ao, a
eiinoeueoaoeeyo, aeaenoaothueo a nenoaia ieienoa?noaa nioeeaeueiie
caueou e eiieoaoia ii io?aia naiuee e aeaonoaa, a oaeaea a ae?oaeo
o/?aaeaeaieyo.

Ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneay ei??aeoeey ioiioaiee a naiueyo

Iaiin?aaenoaaiii naiaeiay ineoioa?aiey ia/eiaaony, eiaaea ineoioa?aiaao,
eco/ea naiueth e onoaiiaea naiaeiia ia?ooaiea, i?aaiecoao aicaeaenoaea
ia naiueth e a? ioaeaeueiuo /eaiia n oeaeueth aeinoeaeaiey aeaeaoaeueiuo
eciaiaiee a eo aeecie. I?e yoii aicieeatho i?iaeaiu e caaea/e, eioi?ua
oneiaii ?acaeaeytho ia 3 a?oiiu (Yeaeaieeea?, THnoeoeeen, 1999):
oi?ie?iaaiea i?aaeeueiiai ioiioaiey naiuee e naiaeiie oa?aiee; iauea
aii?inu i?iaaaeaiey oa?aiee; iaeiiaoe, iaoiaeeee naiaeiie ineoioa?aiee.

Oi?ie?iaaoue iiceoeaiia ioiioaiea e i?ioeanno naiaeiie ineoioa?aiee
iaiaoiaeeii, oioy e iai?inoi aeey /eaiia naiuee – a? o/anoieeia,
aneaaenoaea i?e/ei i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo, yiioeeiiaeueiuo e
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo. Iiyoiio ineoioa?aiaaoo iaaei oi?ie?iaaoue neeueioth e
onoie/eaoth iioeaaoeeth e o/anoeth a ineoioa?aiee.

Eae i?aaeei, ia?aay ano?a/a yaeyaony ii?aaeaeythuae aeey aeaeueiaeoaai –
ai a?aiy a? auyniyaony noaiaiue neiaeiinoe i?iaeai, n eioi?uie
noaeeeaaaony ineoioa?aiaao, a eeeaiou (/eai naiuee) iieo/atho ia?aia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i naiaeiie ineoioa?aiee e ?aoatho, i?iaeieaeaoue ee a iae
nai? o/anoea. Aiiaua, caaea/a ineoioa?aiaaoa a oiaea ia?aie ano?a/e –
iiii/ue eeeaioo a ei?ioeee n?ie iiiyoue, /oi iaiaoiaeeia na?ue?ciay e
aeeeoaeueiay ?aaioa e /oi io iaai iio?aaothony aeoeaiinoue e /oanoai
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca oniao ineoioa?aiee. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeei oi?ioi
?ac?aaioaiiue ieai ia?aie ano?a/e n /eaiii naiuee. Nia/aea ineoioa?aiaao
aeieaeai iciaeiieoueny n i?iaeaiaie eeeaioa, aeooaeece?iaaoue aai
yiioeeiiaeueiua ia?aaeeaaiey, naycaiiua n naiue?e e o.ae., aeaoue
eeeaioo oaeaeaoue niaieoiiinoue o?ono?aoeee, n eioi?uie ii eiaao aeaei a
iianaaeiaaiie aeecie. Aeaeueiaeoay caaea/a ineoioa?aiaaoa – nicaeaiea o
eeeaioa i?aaenoaaeaiey i oii, /oi naiaeiay ineoioa?aiey aeano
aiciiaeiinoue iaeoe ?aoaiea aai i?iaeai, o.e. iineaaeiee au? ieioi
i?aaenoaaeyao naaa naiaeioth ineoioa?aieth. Ineoioa?aiaao aeieaeai
eniieueciaaoue ninoiyiea eeeaioa aeey nicaeaiey iioeaia e o/anoeth a
ineoioa?aiee, a oae aea, /oi ia iaiaa aaaeii, i?i?aaioaoue iioeau,
i?aiyonoaothuea o/anoeth, oaeaeaoue aoaeouea neiaeiinoe e iaeoe iooe
aeey eo ?aoaiey. Au? iaeei aaaeiue aniaeo yoie ano?a/e – noi?ie?iaaoue o
eeeaioa aeoeaiue eioa?an e naiiio niaea?aeaieth ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, /oiau ecaaaeaoue a aoaeouai neooaoeee, eiaaea eeeaio
ianneaii aeae?o iiiiue io ineoioa?aiaaoa. Aianoi yoiai ii iano?aeaaaony
ia aeoeaiue iiene ?aoaiey naieo naiaeiuo i?iaeai n iiiiuueth
ineoioa?aiaaoa.

Naiaeiiio ineoioa?aiaaoo i?eoiaeeony i?e i?aaiecaoeee naiae ?aaiou
?aoaoue i?iaeaiu ?aciiai aeaea, iai?eia?:

?aaioaoue iaeiiio eee i?eaeaneoue ei-oa?aiaaoa?

Eaeiaa iioeiaeueiay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ineoioa?aiee?

Aaea ?aaioaoue n naiue?e – a eaaeiaoa eee ii ianoo a? aeeoaeuenoaa?

I?iaiaeeoue ee caiyoey ni anae naiue?e n?aco eee nia/aea n ioaeaeueiuie
/eaiaie naiuee?

Eaeiau iaeeo/oay /anoioa e aeeeoaeueiinoue ano?a/?

N eaeeo i?iaeai ia/aoue, n /anoiuo eee naiaeiuo?

?ac?aaaouaaoue ee iiae?iaiue ieai aeaenoaee eee iieiaeeoue ia yeni?iio?

Niinia i?aaiecaoeee e i?iaaaeaiey naiaeiie ineoioa?aiee ia aeieaeai
ii?aaeaeyoueny “iao/iuie aicc?aieyie” naiaeiiai ineoioa?aiaaoa. A
eaeaaea auai? niiniaa i?aaiecaoeee naiaeiie ineoioa?aiee aeieaeai
caaenaoue io iniaaiiinoae naiuee. Oaeaea ethaie naiaeiue ineoioa?aiaao
aeieaeai auoue a ?aaiie ia?a aioia e i?eiaiaieth naiuo ?acee/iuo noeeae
ineoioa?aiee (e eo niaiu) a caaeneiinoe io naiuee, ioaeaeueiuo a?
/eaiia, a? i?iaeaiu e naiaeiuo oneiaee. Aiciiaeii, /oi n iaeiei /eaiii
naiuee i?aaeii/oeoaeai aaoi?eoa?iue noeeue, n ae?oaei – iaaee?aeoeaiue.
Eoae, ioaao ia ana yoe noiyuea ia?aae ineoioa?aiaaoii aii?inu caaeneo io
anae niaieoiiinoe oneiaee.

Aeaeaa ?anniao?eaaaony aii?in, eaeea iaoiaeeee naiaeiie ineoioa?aiee
iaeaieaa i?eiaieiu. Iaoiaeeea naiaeiie ineoioa?aiee – yoi oeiiaay
niaieoiiinoue aeaenoaee, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo ineoioa?aiaao ?aoaao
ii?aaeae?iioth ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneoth caaea/o. Naiaeiay ineoioa?aiey ca
a?aiy naiaai ?acaeoey i?eia?aea aieueoia /enei ?acee/iuo oaoiee,
i?eoaaeoeo ec iiuoa aiiaue iiyaeaoeony oeie. Ia?a/eneth iniiaiua aeaeu
ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneeo oaoiee, iaeaieaa oe?iei i?eiaiyaiuo a naiaeiie
ineoioa?aiee.

Aee?aeoeau (eee oeacaiey) – yoi i?yiua, eiie?aoiua oeacaiey i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ii?aaeae?iiuo aeaenoaee ni noi?iiu anae naiuee eee
ioaeaeueiuo a? /eaiia aeey oiai, /oiau iie aeiaeeenue naieo oeaeae. Yoi
iiaoo auoue oeacaiey naeaeaoue /oi-oi; aeaeaoue /oi-oi eia/a, /ai aei
neo ii?; ia aeaeaoue /oi-oi, /oi aeaeaee aei yoiai. A neo/aa oae
iacuaaaiie ia?aaeienaeueiie aee?aeoeau enoeiiay a? oeaeue
i?ioeaiiieiaeia i?iaicaeaoaaiie. Yooaeoeaiinoue i?eiaiaiey aee?aeoea
?aoathuei ia?acii caaeneo io i?aaeeueiinoe a? i?eiaiaiey, o?aaoao
ouaoaeueiiai eco/aiey naiuee, ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ia
naiueth i?eia?ii naiiai ineoioa?aiaaoa, a aeaaiia, aeinoaoi/iiai
aaoi?eoaoa ineoioa?aiaaoa.

Iaoiae naiaeiie aeeneonnee oiaea oe?iei i?eiaiyaony a i?aeoeea naiaeiie
ineoioa?aiee. Ai a?aiy a? i?iaaaeaiey /eaiu naiuee ianoaeaeatho oe?ieee
e?oa i?iaeai, eanathueeny a? aeecie, e niiniau ?aoaiey ?acee/iuo
naiaeiuo aii?inia. Aeeneonney iiaeii i?aneaaeiaaoue iiiai/eneaiiua
oeaee: iai?eia?, eni?aaeaiea iai?aaeeueiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i naiaeiuo
acaeiiioiioaieyo eee iao/aiea /eaiia naiuee iaoiaeai aeeneonnee.
Oi?aaeaiea aeeneonneae o?aaoao io ineoioa?aiaaoa aeieaeiiai oiaiey. A
/enea iniiaiuo i?e?iia, eniieuecoaiuo i?e aaaeaiee naiaeiuo aeeneonnee,
iacuaathony yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea iie/aiey, oiaiea neooaoue,
iao/aiea n iiiiuueth aii?inia, iiaoi?aiea, iaiauaiea, eiio?iioaoeey n
ii?aaeae?iiui iiaieai eee /eaiii naiuee e o.ae.

Iiae/an auyniyaony, /oi o /eaiia naiuee iaaeinoaoi/ii ?acaeou oa iaauee
e oiaiey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey oniaoiie naiaeiie aeecie; a oiaea naiaeiie
ineoioa?aiee yoe iaaeinoathuea iaauee oi?ie?othony n iiiiuueth
?aciiia?aciuo ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneeo oaoiee, niaoeeaeueiuo oi?aaeiaiee e
“o?aie?iaie”: oi?ie?iaaiea aa?neiiiiai iuoeaiey, i?iea?uaaiea naiaeiuo
?ieae e o.ae. Iauee eo i?eioeei ninoieo a oii, /oi ia?aae /eaiii naiuee
noaaeony ii?aaeae?iiay caaea/a, iai?eia?, a aeaea oiaiey eee iaauea,
eioi?ue ii aeieaeai noi?ie?iaaoue, e niiauaaony e?eoa?ee, n iiiiuueth
eioi?iai ii noaeeo i oii, oaeaeinue ee aio (ae) ni?aaeoueny n caaeaieai.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u:

Y. Yeaeaieeea?, A. THnoeoeeen. Ineoieiaey e ineoioa?aiey naiuee. N-Ia,
1999.

Ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneay yioeeeeiiaaeey (iiae ?aaeaeoeeae A. Ea?aana?neiai).
NIa, 1998.

E. Iaaeaian. Nenoaiiay naiaeiay ineoioa?aiey. I, 1999.

I. Iyii. Naiaeiay oa?aiey e a? ia?aaeienu. I, 1998.

N. Ieiooei, *. Oeoiai. Oaoieee naiaeiie oa?aiee. I, 1998.

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