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Психология у Аристотеля

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Ana i?aaa ia ?ani?inoaiaiea aeaiiiai ?aoa?aoa i?eiaaeeaaeao
Aaae?aoiaiiao ?oneaio ([email protected])- iiiiao
ea/anoaaiii iaa?aoue, ?ania/aoaoue Aao oaeno, iiaeuuo ioaeiue Aai,
aaoi?neee, ?aoa?ao, oae (095)503-8753, ?oneai, aa/a?.

AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO AOIAIEOA?IUO IAOE

?AOA?AO

II I?AAeIAOO

«ENOI?Ess INEOIEIAEE»

«Ineoieiae/aneea iniiau a oeeinioee A?enoioaey»

?aaioo auiieiee

AAAe?AOIAIIA ?.?.

nooaeaio 3 eo?na OAEOEUeOAOA

INEOIEIAEE

Iineaa 1998

IEAI:

Aaaaeaiea

E?aoeay aeia?aoey A?enoioaey

O/aiea A?enoioaey i aeooa

Ianoi ineoieiaee n?aaee ae?oaeo iaoe

I?aaeiao ineoieiaee e iiiyoea i aeooa

Aeooa e oaei

Aeaeu aeooe

Aiinaieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey A?enoioaey

Aii?in i iiciaaaaiinoe ie?a

Ii?iaa?aeaiea neaioeoeecia e noauaeoeaiiai eaeaaeecia

O?oaeiinoe iiciaiey ie?icaeaiey

*oanoaaiiue yoai iiciaiey e ainoiaeaeaiey io iiciaiey /anoiiai e
iiciaieth iauaio

No?oeoo?a /aeiaa/aneie aeooe

?acoiiay /anoue aeooe

Yoeea A?enoioaey

Yoeea e aa i?aaeiao

Iiiyoea aeia?iaeaoaee

Aeaeu aeia?iaeaoaee

Aeeaiiyoe/aneea aeia?iaeaoaee eae enoi/iee aunoaai aeaaeainoaa

Naycue ?acoia e aeia?iaeaoaee

Aeaai eae aeaeaeouay neea a /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Aunoaa aeaai

E?aoeee iaci? iieeoeee A?enoioaey

Cia/aiea oai?/anoaa A?enoioaey

Ii/aio eiaiii A?enoioaeue noae iauaeoii iiaai ?aoa?aoa? Aaaeue ia yoii
/aeiaaea, eaaeaony iaienaii noieueei, /oi aeiaaaeoue /oi-oi aieueoa, ia
ia?aue acaeyae ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui. ss ia i?aoaiaeoth ia
«iiieiaiea» nianoaaiii eaeae A?enoioaey, nei?aa eeoue oieueei ia
«ciaiea» yoeo eaeae. *oiau iiiyoue oeeinioneia oa/aiea, noieue aeaeaeia
io naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy, iaiaoiaeeii, ia iie acaeyae, ia/oi aieueoaa,
/ai i?i/oaiea ia?o o/aaieeia e ia?aienoi/ieea.

A?enoioaeue yaeyaony iniiaiiieiaeieeii nianoaaiii iao/iie oeeinioee. Ii
ieacae naiia neeueiia ii n?aaiaieth ni naieie i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie aeeyiea
ia ?acaeoea /aeiaa/aneie iunee. A?enoioaeue eco/ae i?aeoe/anee ana
i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa, aaae oa?ieiieiaeth, ia
oo?aoeaooth naiaai cia/aiey e iiiuia. Aai iiaeii iacaaoue
iniiaiiieiaeieeii aieueoeinoaa iaoe, a oii /enea e ineoieiaee, aaea aio
i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia?aay oeaeinoiay oai?ey ineoe/aneeo yaeaiee.

A?enoioaeue No?aae?eo ?iaeeeny a 384 a. aei a No?aae?a. Aai ioaoe
Ieeiiao aue i?eaeai?iui a?a/ii iaeaaeiineiai oea?y Aieioa. Iinea nia?oe
?iaeeoaeae ainieouaaeny o I?ienaia ec Aoa?iay. Ia ainaiiaaeoeaoii aiaeo
aeecie aoaeouee oeeinio i?eaue a Aoeiu e anooiee a Aeaaeaieth Ieaoiia,
aaea i?iaue a oa/aiea 20 eao eae neooaoaeue, i?aiiaeaaaoaeue e
?aaiii?aaiue /eai niae?oaeanoaa oeeinioia ieaoiieeia. Iinea nia?oe
Ieaoiia a 335a. A?enoioaeue i?aaieciaae naia o/aaiia caaaaeaiea a Eeeaa
(Aoeiu). Iao/aiea i?ienoiaeeei ai a?aiy i?iaoeie, aeaaiaea?y /aio
iieo/eei iacaaiea «Ia?eiaoa». Iinea nia?oe Aeaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiineiai (ii
iaeioi?ui aeaiiui aeiie aeaaee oe?aia noae nai A?enoioaeue) A?enoioaey
i?aneaaeiaaee ca i?iiaeaaeiineoth i?eaioaoeeth, ii ioi?aaeeny a naia
aeaaeaiea a Oaeeeaea, aaea anei?a oia? io aeaeoaei/iie aieacie. «Aai
oa?aeoa?, – ieoao i iai Yaeoa?ae Oeaeea?,–eioi?ue oaea aeaaii iuoaeenue
i/a?ieoue aai iieeoe/aneea e iao/iua i?ioeaieee, neacuaaaony a aai
i?iecaaaeaieyo eae, aaconeiaii, aeaai?iaeiue e iao ie iaeiiai
aeinoiaa?iiai oaeoa, eioi?ue aeaaae au iai iniiaaiea ia aeiaa?youe yoiio
aia/aoeaieth. Aai iao/iia cia/aiea noieo aia anyeeo niiiaiee; ni/aoaiea
a iai /?acau/aeii ?aciinoi?iiieo ciaiee n naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth
noaeaeaiee, aeoaieie i?iieoeaoaeueiinoueth, oe?ieei oiic?aieai e
iaoiaee/aneei enneaaeiaaieai nicaeaao ec iaai yaeaiea noieue
eneeth/eoaeueiia…» (10)

A?enoioaeue, eae oaea auei neacaii auoa, n/eoaaony, a nouiinoe,
iniiaiiieiaeieeii ineoieiaee eae iaoee i aeooa. A o?aeoaoa «I Aeooa» ii
nenoaiaoece?iaae nouanoaiaaaoea acaeyaeu ia i?e?iaeo ineoe/aneiai,
auaaaey ia eo iniiaa nianoaaiioth oai?eth.

A?enoioaeue ioaa?aaao e iaoa?eaeenoe/aneea o/aiey i Aeooa (aeooa eae
?aciiaeaeiinoue iaoa?ee) e eaeaaeenoe/aneea (aeooa–aanoaeaniay
nouiinoue). Ii A?enoioaeth, aeooa naycaia n iaeiie noi?iiu n iaoa?eae, n
ae?oaie–n aiaii, o.i., ineoieiaey caieiaao n?aaeiea iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo
oeceeie e oaieiaeae. “A?enoioaeue ioe?ue iiaoth yiioo a iiieiaiee aeooe
eae i?aaeiao ineoieiae/aneiai ciaiey. Ia oece/aneea oaea e ia
aanoaeaniua eaeae noaee aeey iaai enoi/ieeii yoiai ciaiey , ii i?aaieci
aaea oaeaniia e aeooiaiia ia?acotho ia?acaeaeueioth oeaeinoiinoue “ (7)

«?anniio?aiea aeooe a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo ninoaaeyao i?aaeiao oeceee,
eiaiii [eiaaea aeaei eaeao ioiineoaeueii] oie /anoe aeooe, eioi?ay ia
auaaao aac iaoa?ee»(1). Iaeiaei, oieueei aeooa naycaia n iaoa?eae,
iiyoiio oeceea enneaaeoao aeooo eae aeaeaeouaa ia/aei, nouiinoue, ia/aei
aeaeaeaiey eioi?ie a iae naiie.

Ii naiaio i?aaeiaoo ineoieiaey (a oece/aneie aa /anoe) niaiaaeaao n
aeieiaeae (oioy a ioee/ea io iaa eco/aao ia iaoa?eaeueiua, a oeaeaaua,
aeaeaeouea i?e/eiu aeeaiai). Ii A?enoioaeth eaeaeiia aiaaonoai ie?a
ne?uoi a /oanoaaiii aini?eieiaaiuo caiiuo aauao e ?ane?uaaaony a
i?yiii, iie?athuainy ia iiuo, iauaiee n ieie. Oaeei ia?acii, caeanue
aiciiaeii iaaethaeaiea, iienaiea e aiaeec eiie?aoiuo aeeciaiiuo
i?iyaeaiee e o aeeaioiuo e o /aeiaaea, /oi ninoaaeyao iiuoiue
iauaeoeaiue iaoiae eco/aiey. Iaeiaei aianoa n oai A?enoioaeue caia/aao,
/oi aeiaeoueny /aai-oi aeinoiaa?iiai a eco/aiee aeooe (iniaaiii
iaiaoa?eaeueiie aa /anoe) i/aiue neiaeii, ia iiiaea aii?inu ioaaoeoue
ii/oe iaaiciiaeii. Enneaaeiaaoue i?e?iaeo iiaeii iooai iaaethaeaiey e
iiuoia, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e iaiauaieth ciaiey. Iiyoiio ineoieiae/aneia
o/aiea A?enoioaey no?ieony ia iaiauaiee aeieiae/aneeo oaeoia. Iao?ianeee
ieoao, /oi yoi iaiauaiea i?eaaei e i?aia?aciaaieth aeaaiuo
iauynieoaeueiuo i?eioeeiia ineoieiaee: i?aaiecaoeee, ?acaeoey e
i?e/eiiinoe.

Naii iiiyoea «aeooa» A?enoioaeue ?anniao?eaaao n oi/ee c?aiey naiaai
o/aiey i eaoaai?eyo: ana aaue anoue ni/aoaiea iaoa?ee (aauanoaa) e oi?iu
(aa/iie nouiinoe aaue), eioi?ua ia?aiia/aeueii i?aaenoaaeyee niaie ia
naycaiiua ae?oa n ae?oaii aiciiaeiinoe, a aaeeinoaa aea ninoaaeytho
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. E aeeaia nouanoai oiaea «ninoaaeyao nouiinoue»,
ninoiyuoth ec iaoa?ee (oaei) e oi?iu (aeooa). A o?aeoaoa «I aeooa»
A?enoioaeue ii?aaeaeyao yoi iiiyoea oae: «Aeooa iaiaoiaeeii anoue
nouiinoue a niunea oi?iu anoanoaaiiiai oaea, iaeaaeathuaai a
aiciiaeiinoe aeeciueth. Nouiinoue aea (eae oi?ia) anoue yioaeaoey; noaei
auoue, aeooa anoue ia?aay yioaeaoey oaeiai oaea… Aeooa anoue nooue
auoey e oi?ia…oaeiai aea anoanoaaiiiai oaea, eioi?ay a naiii naaa eiaao
ia/aei aeaeaeaiey e iieiy» (1).

A?enoioaeai aia?aua a enoi?ee /aeiaa/aneie aeecie auea auaeaeiooa eaeay
i ia?acaeaeeiinoe aeooe e aeeaiai oaea. «Neacaoue /oi aeooa aiaaaaony,
?aaiineeueii oiio, oae anee au eoi neacae, /oi aeooa caieiaaony oeaiueai
eee iino?ieeie aeiia» (1). Aeooa ii A?enoioaeth, iaioaeaeeia io oaea,
iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia/oi i?eiaaeeaaeauaa aio, a iiyoiio i?aauaaao a
niioaaonoaothuai ae oaea (a ia a ?aciuo). Eae yioaeaoey oaea, aeooa
nia?oia aianoa n iei. Ii iiaieth Iao?ianeiai, oacen A?enoioaey i
ia?acaeaeeiinoe aeooe e oaea n?aco aeaeaao aanniuneaiiuie ana aii?inu,
noiyaoea a oeaio?a o/aiey Ieaoiia i i?ioeii e aoaeouai aeooe.

Ana aeeaua oaea–i?oaeea aeooe, nouanoaothuea ?aaee iaa. I?e yoii
A?enoioaeue ?acaeaeyao ianeieueei aeaeia aeooe. Iineieueeo
aeooa–nouiinoue aeecie, oi iia i?enoua anai aeeaui nouanoaai. Aaea anoue
aeeciue,–anoue e aeooa. A «ia/oi aeeaao e oiaaea, eiaaea o iaai
iaee/anoaoao oioy au iaeei ec neaaeothueo i?eciaeia: oi, iuouaiea,
aeaeaeaiea a niunea ieoaiey, oiaaeea e ?inoa». Oaeei ia?acii, e ?anoaiey
iaaeaeaiu aeeciueth e iaeooaaeaiu. ?anoeoaeueiay aeooa–ia?aay e naiay
iauay nooiaiue, aa ooieoeee–aini?iecaaaeaiea e ieoaiea. Iaeiaei,
?anoaiey ia niiniaiu iuouaoue, eo acaeiiaeaenoaea n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie
no?iai iaoa?eaeueii. Niiniaiinoue aini?eieiaoue oi?iu iuouaaiiai aac aai
iaoa?ee iiyaeyaony o aoi?iai oeia aeooe–aeooe aeeaioiie. E, iaeiiaoe,
/aeiaa/aneay aeooa iaeaaeaao e?iia ooieoeee ?anoeoaeueiie e aeeaioiie,
?acoiii. Yoi o/aiea i «eanoieoea aeoo» aia?aua aianei a oai?eth
ineoe/aneiai i?eioeei ?acaeoey–aunoea niiniaiinoe aicieeatho ec iecoeo e
ia eo iniiaa; a /aeiaaea aea i?aaenoaaeaiu i?aaeoanoaothuea o?iaie
?acaeoey aeecie e ineoeee. Ooieoeee aeooe noaiiayony o?iaiyie a?
?acaeoey. I?aaaea, ii A?enoioaeth, nouanoaoao aua e aia – iaeaunoay ec
oi?i, «iuneue iuneae», –eioi?ue anoue /enoue ?acoi. Ii /aeiaaea
A?enoioaeue n/eoaao niaa?oaiiaeoei ec iaoa?eaeueiuo oae. Anoanoaaiii,
eaaeaeue /aeiaae i?e aai i?aa?auaiee ec ieaaeaioea a c?aeia nouanoai
i?ioiaeeo ana oa i?aaeuaeouea nooiaie, eioi?ua i?aiaeieae ca anth
enoi?eth i?aaie/aneee ie?. A?enoioaeue, neaaeoy i?eioeeio ?acaeoey,
no?aieeny iaeoe caaiuey, aaaeouea io iaeiie nooiaie e ae?oaie. Ei auea
iienaia iniaay iaeanoue ineoe/aneeo ia?acia, eioi?ua aicieeatho aac
i?yiiai aicaeaenoaey aauae ia i?aaiu /oanoa–oaioacee, (aieaa ecaanoiua
iai eae i?aaenoaaeaiey iaiyoe e aiia?aaeaiey), eioi?ua iiae/eiaiu
iaoaiecio annioeeaoeee.

*aeiaa/aneea ooieoeee aeooe (oi, iuoeaiea, ?annoaeaeaiea, niiniaiinoue e
oiic?aieth), ii iiaieth A?enoioaey, ninoaaeytho niaa?oaiii eiie ?iae
aeooe e «oieueei yoe niiniaiinoe iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue ioaeaeueii, eae
aa/iia–ioaeaeueii io i?aoiaeyuaai». A?enoioaeue caia/aao, i?aaaea, /oi
aua ia ynii, iiaoo ee iie auoue iacaaeneiu io oaea, ii ia iaoiaeeo
iniiaaiee n/eoaoue oi e niaaeeiaiiui n oaeii, iineieueeo eia/a ii eiae
au ii?aaeaeaiiue i?aai e iaeaaeae eaeeie-oi ea/anoaaie (iai?eia?, iia au
auoue oaieui eee oieiaeiui). A?enoioaeue io?eoeaao nouanoaiaaiea
oaeaniiai i?aaia aeey iuoeaiey. Iii, ii aai iiaieth, aaoiiiiii e, a
ioee/ee io aeooe aannia?oii.

Aieueoia cia/aiea aeey ?acaeoey ineoieiaee eiatho enneaaeiaaiey
A?enoioaey a iaeanoe aiinaieiaee–oai?ee iiciaiey. Oeeinio enoiaeeo ec
iunee i oii, /oi ie? iiciaaaai e nouanoaoao iauaeoeaii, iacaaeneii io
aeoa iiciaiey; ie? ia?ae/ai, a niciaiea aoi?e/ii.

Aii?in i iiciaaaaiinoe ie?a A?enoioaeue ia n/eoaao aeeneonneiiiui.
Niiiaiee a iauaeoeaiinoe iiciaiey o iaai, aeaeeii iao. «Ana ethaee io
i?e?iaeu no?aiyony e ciaieth»–ieoao ii a «Iaoaoeceea». Ii aai iiaieth,
ethaiciaoaeueiinoue–naienoai ethaeae e aeeaioiuo, aeaiiia ei io
?iaeaeaiey. A?enoioaeue oaaaeaeai, /oi ie? /aeiaaea e ie?icaeaiea
aaeeiu, a oi?iu e caeiiu auoey e iuoeaiey a naiae nouiinoe
oiaeaeanoaaiiu e eiatho iaeei e oio aea enoi/iee.

A?enoioaeue ii?iaa?aaao oi/eo c?aiey neaioeeia, oi anoue oao, eoi
«ie/aai ia i?eieiaao ca enoeiiia». *aeiaaeo ia ana ?aaii, /oi n iei
neo/eoueny: oiaaeao ee ii a eieiaeacue e a i?iianoue eee iao, ii ana aea
i?iyaeyao inoi?iaeiinoue. Cia/eo, /aeiaae ciaao, /oi aeey iaai
iauaeoeaii eo/oa, a /oi ooaea. Cia/eo, ia ana a iaeeiaeiaie ia?a
enoeiii. «Aeaaaeaeu aeaa–iyoue» aieaa enoeiii, /ai «aeaaaeaeu
aeaa–ouny/a». Yoe «aieaa» eee «iaiaa», ii A?enoioaeth, nouanoaotho a
naiie i?e?iaea aauae. A anee iaeii noaeaeaiea anaaaea aieaa enoeiii, /ai
ae?oaia, oi oacen i oii, /oi iao ie/aai enoeiiiai a oii niunea, /oi ana
iaeeiaeiai eiaeii, ii?iaa?aioo.

Iieiaeaiea aea «ana enoeiii» (o I?ioaai?a) A?enoioaeue oiaea ia
i?eieiaao. Anee ana iaeeiaeiai enoeiii, cia/eo, enoeiii ana, /oi
i?eoiaeeo /aeiaaeo ia oi. Ii ana ethaee iuneyo ii naiaio, aeaoi ethaeyi
ia iaeiii e oii aea yaeaiee iiaeao i?aaenoaaeoueny ia/oi i?yii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiia. Oaeei ia?acii, ia?ooaaony ia?aiaeneiia i oii, /oi
iaeii e oiaea ia iiaeao iaeiia?aiaiii e nouanoaiaaoue, e ia
nouanoaiaaoue.

Anoue aic?aaeaiey o A?enoioaey e i?ioea noi?iiieeia noauaeoeaiiai
eaeaaeecia, eae iicaeiaa auei iacaaii o/aiea i nicaeaiee ioaeaeueiiai
/aeiaaea a ea/anoaa iniiau nouanoaothuaai ie?a. A?enoioaeue niaeanai,
/oi, ia aoaeue iaeooaaeaiiuo nouanoa, ia auei au e /oanoaaiiuo
i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?aaeiaoao. Ii oi, /oi i?e yoii ia auei au e naieo
i?aaeiaoia, A?enoioaeue n/eoaao ia aa?iui. «*oanoaaiiia aini?eyoea, naii
niaie ?acoiaaony, ia eiaao naiei i?aaeiaoii naii naay, ii anoue e /oi-oi
ae?oaia, iiieii aini?eyoey, /oi aeieaeii nouanoaiaaoue ?aiueoa iaai»
(2).

Iniiaioth o?oaeiinoue iiciaiey ie?icaeaiey A?enoioaeue aeaeeo a oii, /oi
nouiinoue aauae ia eaaeeo ia eo iiaa?oiinoe. Oeeinio ?acee/aao «aieaa
yaiia e ecaanoiia aeey ian» (oi anoue oi, /oi aeeaea e /oanoaaiiiio
aini?eyoeth) e «aieaa yaiia e ecaanoiia n oi/ee c?aiey i?e?iaeu aauae»
(nooue auoey e i?e/eiu ioaeaeueiuo aauae e yaeaiee, aiiaua ia?aiia/aea e
ia?aii?e/eiu). Yoi iineaaeiaa A?enoioaeue n/eoaao iaeaieaa o?oaeiui aeey
/aeiaa/aneiai iiciaiey, iineieueeo ia?aiia/aea iaeaieaa oaeaeaiu io
/oanoaaiiiai aini?eyoey. Ii aianoa n oai A?enoioaeue n/eoaao yoe
ia?aiia/aea iaeaieaa iiciaaaaiuie, iineieueeo iie eo/oa aini?eieiathony
iuneueth. Ia?aiia/aea, «iaeneiaeueii iiciaaaaiue i?aaeiao», iinoeaaaony
oieueei iuneueth–cia/eo, iiciaaony oeaeeeii e iieiinoueth, oiaaea eae
oi, /oi aeeaea e /oanoaaiiiio aini?eyoeth o?oaeiaa aeey iunee. A yoii
niunea ia?aiia/aea iaeaieaa o?oaeiu aeey iiciaiey, eaeouaai io
/oanoaaiiiai aini?eyoey.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii caiaoeoue, /oi ia?ae/iie iiciaaaoaeueiie
niiniaiinoueth A?enoioaeue n/eoaao iuouaiea. I?e/ai oeeinio ia
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao /oanoaaiiia e ?acoiiia, eae yoi aeaeaee aei iaai
Ia?iaieae e Ieaoii. Ii no?aieoueny e aaeeinoao e oiai, e ae?oaiai.

A?enoioaeue ia oieueei ioia/aao cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue /oanoaaiiiai
aini?eyoey a iiciaiee, ii e iuoaaony auynieoue aai iaoaieciu. A
ianeieueeeo aeaaao o?aeoaoa «I aeooa» A?enoioaeue iiae?iaii aiaeece?oao
/oanoaa, naienoaaiiua ia oieueei /aeiaaeo, ii e aeeaioiiio: inycaiea,
iaiiyiea, aeon, neoo, c?aiea, auyaeyao eo ?ieue a /oanoaaiiii
aini?eyoee, e?iia oiai, noaaeo aii?in, eae aea ana-oaee iii
i?ienoiaeeo. «Ioiineoaeueii ethaiai /oanoaa iaiaoiaeeii aiiaua
i?eciaoue, /oi iii anoue oi, /oi niiniaii aini?eieiaoue oi?iu
iuouaaiiai aac aai iaoa?ee, iiaeiaii oiio, eae aine i?eieiaao ioia/aoie
aac aeaeaca eee cieioa» (1). I?aai /oanoaa oiaeaeanoaaiai ni
niiniaiinoueth iuouaiey, ii nouanoai aai eiia, aaaeue eia/a iuouaiea
auei au i?ino?ainoaaiiie aaee/eiie. *oanoaaiiia ciaiea aaeaeaaoii e
iauaeoeaii. Aeaaiaea?y aio /aeiaae niiniaai aini?eieiaoue ?acee/iua
naienoaa oae. Iauea aea naienoaa–aaee/eia, /enei, aaeeinoai, aeaeaeaiea,
iieie–aini?eieiathony, ii A?enoioaeth, anaie i?aaiaie /oanoa, iniaiai
i?aaia aeey ieo iao.

Iuouaiey inoaaeytho neaae a aeaea i?aaenoaaeaiee. Aei A?enoioaey
oeeiniou ?acee/aee oieueei iuouaiea e iuoeaiea. Ei aea auei ioe?uoi, /oi
nouanoaoao iaeanoue i?aaenoaaeaiee eae ia?acia oao i?aaeiaoia, eioi?ua
i?aaeaea aicaeaenoaiaaee ia i?aaiu /oanoa. Ii ioe?ue oaeaea, /oi yoe
ia?acu niiniaiu niaaeeiyoueny a o?ao iai?aaeaieyo: ii noiaenoao,
niaaeiinoe e eiio?anoo. Oai naiui A?enoioaeue aia?aua oeacae iniiaiua
aeaeu annioeeaoeee (naycae) ineoe/aneeo yaeaiee (7).

Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi /oanoaa niiniaiu aeaoue aaeaeaaoiia
cia/aiea aaeeie/iiai, A?enoioaeue ia i?eaeaao ei aieueoiai cia/aiey.
«*oanoaaiiia aini?eyoea iaui anai, a iioiio yoi aauue eaaeay, e
ioae?inoe a iai iao ieeaeie» (2).

N /oanoaaiiuo aini?eyoee, eioi?ua» ninoaaeytho naiua aeaaiua iaoe
ciaiey ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aauao» eeoue ia/eiaaony, ii A?enoioaeth,
ainoiaeaeaiea iiciathuaai noauaeoa e iiciaieth iauaai. Aeaeueoa iiciaiea
iiaeieiaaony ia nooiaiue iiuoa, eioi?ay yaeyaony iauae aeey /aeiaaea e
iaeioi?uo aeeaioiuo. Nai iiuo, ii A?enoioaeth, aiciiaeai aneaaenoaea
iiaoi?yaiinoe /oanoaaiiuo aini?eyoee e iaeiieaieth eo a niciaiee
aeaaiaea?y iaiyoe. «?yae ainiiieiaiee ia iaeiii e oii aea i?aaeiaoa
eiaao a eoiaa cia/aiea iaeiiai iiuoa» (1). N iiuoii, aeathuei ciaiea
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aauae, A?enoioaeue naycuaaao i?aeoe/aneoth
aeaenoaaiiinoue ciaiey. Aeaeueiaeoay nooiaiue ainoiaeaeaiey–«eneonnoai»,
eioi?ia, a ioee/ea io iiuoa (ciaiey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aauae), yaeyaony
oaea ciaieai iauaai e i?e/ei. Ciaiea aea iauaai i?ienoiaeeo ec iaiauaiey
ciaiey aaeeie/iiai, oi anoue aicieeaao ec iiuoa a ?acoeueoaoa
aano?aae?othuae ?aaiou iuoeaiey. Oae, eneonnoai iiyaeyaony, ii
A?enoioaeth, oiaaea, eiaaea «a ?acoeueoaoa ?yaea oniio?aiee iiuoa
onoaiiaeony iaeei iauee acaeyae ioiineoaeueii noiaeiuo i?aaeiaoia»(1).
Aua aieaa aunieay nooiaiue iiciaiey–iaoee, aunoay ec eioi?uo–oeeinioey,
iiciathuay i?eioeeiu.

Eioa?anii, /oi ii A?enoioaeth, iaoea ioee/aaony io eneonnoaa ia
aiinaieiae/anee, a nioeeaeueii: iia nouanoaoao ?aaee naiie naay e, a
ioee/ea io eneonnoaa, ia neoaeeo iieueca, i?aeoeea. Oeaeueth iaoee
A?enoioaeue aeaeeo iiciaiea ia /anoiiai (/oi aaaeii a i?aeoeea), a
iauaai. Ciaiea iauaai naii ii naaa caeiaeaii a ?acoiiie aeooa.

Caeanue iu iiaeoiaeei e oai?ee A?enoioaey i no?oeoo?a aeooe, iienaiiie a
«Yoeea». A aeooa ii auaeaeyao ?acoiioth e ia?acoiioth /anoe,
iineaaeithth aea a naith i/a?aaeue aeaeeo ia ?anoeoaeueioth e no?anoioth
(no?aiyuothny). ?acoiiay /anoue aeooe, ii A?enoioaeth, ?aniaaeaaony ia
?annoaeie e nianoaaiii ?acoi, oi anoue, ia i?aeoe/aneee e oai?aoe/aneee
?acoi. I?aeoe/aneee, aaea ca?iaeaeaaony aiey, aeieaeai aeanoaiaaoue iaae
no?anoiie /anoueth aeooe, ii?iaeaeathuae no?anoiua no?aieaiey.
Oai?aoe/aneee, «nica?oeathuee oi», eioi?ue, niaeanii A?enoioaeth, «ia
iuneeo ie/aai ioiinyuaainy e aeayoaeueiinoe e ia aiai?eo i oii, /aai
neaaeoao ecaaaaoue eee aeiaeaaoueny», ia eiaao ioiioaiey e no?anoiie
/anoe aeooe. Iaaeaeo oai, eiaiii no?aiyuayny /anoue aeooe (a ni
niiniaiinoueth no?aieaiey naycaiu o A?enoioaey e iuouaiey), aeaeaeao
aeooie, eae e i?aeoe/aneee ?acoi («oi, ?aciuoeythuee i oeaee, oi anoue
iai?aaeaiiue ia aeayoaeueiinoue»). Io «nica?oeathuaai» ii ioee/aaony
eiaiii «naiae iai?aaeaiiinoueth e oeaee». I?e yoii A?enoioaeue caia/aao,
/oi oi i?aaeeai anaaaea, a no?aieaiey–iao.

Oai?aoe/aneee aea ?acoi i?aaenoaaeyao niaie /enoue noauaeo iiciaiey.
Eiaiii yoo /anoue aeooe A?enoioaeue iieaaaao aa/iie: «/oi eanaaony oia,
oi ii…ia ?ac?ooaaony…Oi aea anoue, iiaeaeoe, ia/oi aieaa aiaeanoaaiiia
e ie/aio ia iiaeaa?aeaiiia». A oai?aoe/aneii oia, eae e anao i?aaeiaoao,
A?enoioaeue auaeaeyao iaoa?eth–ianneaiue, aini?eieiathuee oi, e
oi?io–aeoeaiue, niceaeathuee. Aeoeaiue oi eae ?ac e «nouanoaoao
ioaeaeueii e ia iiaeaa?aeai ie/aio, ii ie n /ai ia niaoai, aoaeo/e ii
naiae nouiinoe aeayoaeueiinoueth…yoio oi ia oaeia, /oi eiiaaea iuneeo,
eiiaaea ia iuneeo. Oieueei nouanoaoy ioaeaeueii, ii anoue oi, /oi ii
anoue, e oieueei yoi aannia?oii e aa/ii». A /enoii aeaea e a iieiie ia?a
oaeie aeae oia i?enou oieueei aiao. *aeiaae aea iaaeaeai ia neieueei ei,
neieueei aini?eieiathuei oiii. Ii aea i?aoiaeyu e ia iiaeao iuneeoue aac
aeayoaeueiiai oia. Ii, ianneaai, iineieueeo, i?aoa?iaaay aicaeaenoaey
ecaia, «noaiiaeoueny anai»; yoie aea aiciiaeiinoueth ii iaaeaeai iioiio,
/oi a iai iioaioeeaeueii caeiaeaiu ana oi?iu auoey. Iiae iuneyuae
/anoueth aeooe iiieiaaony, ii-aeaeeiiio, ianneaiue oi, eee eioaeeaeo.
Caeanue A?enoioaeue niiaa ioia/aao iaiaoiaeeiinoue e?iia
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai iuoeaiey aua e /oanoaaiiie nooiaie iiciaiey:
«nouanoai, ia eiathuaa iuouaiee, ie/aio ia iao/eoueny e ie/aai ia
iieiao. Eiaaea nica?oeatho oiii, iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau a oiaea a?aiy
nica?oeaee a i?aaenoaaeaieyo». ?aaeueiia iiciaiea iaaiciiaeii aac
i?aaeoanoaothuaai iuouaiey, ooaa?aeaeaao A?enoioaeue, /aeiaae iiciaao
iauaa eeoue /a?ac niioaaonoaothuea i?aaenoaaeaiey. Iaeiaei,
i?aaenoaaeaiey ia i?aa?auathony a iiiyoey: iie oieueei niinianoaotho
oiio, /oiau caeiaeaiiua a aeooa oi?iu ia?aoee ec ninoiyiey iioaioeee a
ninoiyiea aeoa.

*oiau ia?aaanoe ciaiea iauaai ec ninoiyiey iioaioeee a ninoiyiea
yioaeaoee, inouanoae?iiinoe, iaiaoiaeeiu eae aeoeaiinoue, oae e
ianneaiinoue oia. Ii i?aaeii/oaiea A?enoioaeue ioaeaao ana aea
aeoeaiinoe.

Eaaeaeie ec oai?aoe/aneeo iaoe A?enoioaeue niiinoaaeyao i?aeoe/aneoth.
Aeey ineoieiaee yoi yoeea.

Aiiaua oai?aoe/aneea iaoee, niaeanii A?enoioaeth, yaeythony iaoeaie i
aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiiua ni naiaiaeiui auai?ii /aeiaaea. Yoeea e
iieeoeea–yoi «oeeinioey, eanathuayny /aeiaaea». Oae eae iniiaiie
i?aaeiao yoeee–i?aanoaaiiinoue, oi e iia oaeaea eiaao aeaei ni
naiaiaeiui auai?ii: «A iaoae aeanoe auoue i?aanoaaiiuie eee ii?i/iuie
ethaeueie».

A yoie nayce A?enoioaeue ?anniao?eaaao iiiyoey «i?iecaieueiia»,
«i?eioeei eiaai iaoiaeeoueny a naiii aeaenoaothuai eeoea, e eioi?ia
niaa?oaaony, eiaaea ana ianoiyoaeuenoaa, eanathueany eaeiai-eeai
aeaenoaey, ecaanoiu aeaenoaothuaio eeoeo», e «iai?iecaieueiia», /oi
niaa?oaaony ii ianeeeth eee iaciaieth.

I?aanoaaiiinoue–i?eia?aoaiiia eiee/anoai aeooe. *aeiaae ia auaaao
oi?ioei i?inoi io ?iaeaeaiey–io i?e?iaeu aeaaony eeoue aiciiaeiinoue
i?eia?anoe aeia?iaeaoaeue. Oaeei ia?acii, aeia?iaeaoaeueth A?enoioaeue
iacuaaao «iioaaeueiua i?eia?aoaiiua ea/anoaa aeooe».

Aeia?iaeaoaee iiae?acaeaeythony ia aeaa aeaea ii oeiai aeooe.
(?anoeoaeueiay aeooa ia eiaao ie aeia?iaeaoaeae, ie ii?ieia, «eai io
iaa aiana ia caaeneo iaoa aeayoaeueiinoue eee aacaeaenoaea»). Ia?aue
aeae aeia?iaeaoaee–aeeaiiyoe/aneea, eee eioaeeaeooaeueiua
aeia?iaeaoaee, naienoaaiiua ?acoiiie /anoe aeooe: ioae?inoue,
?acoiiinoue e aeaai?acoiea. Aoi?ie aeae–yoe/aneea, eee aieaaua
aeia?iaeaoaee oa?aeoa?a–ii?iaeaeathony no?anoiie /anoueth aeooe.
Eioaeeaeooaeueiua aeia?iaeaoaee i?eia?aoathony iooai iao/aiey, a
yoe/aneea–a ?acoeueoaoa ainieoaiey, au?aaaouaathuaai a /aeiaaea oi?ioea
i?eau/ee. Iai?eia?, ni?aaaaeeeaui /aeiaae noaiiaeoueny, niaa?oay
ni?aaaaeeeaua aeaea; ioaeanoaaiiui–aeaenoaoy a iianiuo neooaoeeyo e
i?eaueay ia eniuouaaoue no?ao.

Yoe/aneoth aeia?iaeaoaeue A?enoioaeue ii?aaeaeyao eae «na?aaeeio aeaoo
ii?ieia»: ecauoea e iaaeinoaoea eaeiai eeai ea/anoaa. Iai?eia?,
ioaeanoai–na?aaeeia iaaeaeo o?oninoueth (aa iaaeinoaoeii) e aacoiiie
ioaaaie (aa ecauoeii), uaae?inoue–iaaeaeo neoiinoueth e
?anoi/eoaeueiinoueth, iaaiaeiaaiea–iaaeaeo caaenoueth e cei?aaenoaii e o
ae. Oaeei ia?acii, aeia?iaeaoaeue oa?aeoa?a ii A?enoioaeth,
–«i?aaeiaia?aiiia, niciaoaeueiia, i?eia?aoaiiia ea/anoai aeooe,
ninoiyuaa a noauaeoeaiie na?aaeeia e ii?aaeaeaiiia ?acoiii, e i?eoii
ii?aaeaeaiiia oae, eae au aa ii?aaeaeee aeaai?acoiiue /aeiaae, na?aaeeia
aeaoo cie–ecauoea e iaaeinoaoea» (1).

Iaeiaei, A?enoioaeue i?eciaao, /oi ia anyeee ii?ie iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue
eae ioeeiiaiea io na?aaeeiu a oo eee eioth noi?iio, oae, iai?eia?,
aannouaenoai, ai?ianoai, oaeenoai ia eiatho naiae na?aaeeiu.

?acoiioth aeooe A?enoioaeue aeaeeo ia aeaa /anoe, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo
eiaao naith eioaeeaeooaeueioth aeia?iaeaoaeue e ii-naiaio ioiineoueny e
yoe/aneei aeia?iaeaoaeyi.

?annoaei/iay /anoue ?acoiiie aeooe eiaao aeaei n /aeiaaeii, aai
aeeciueth e aeayoaeueiinoueth. Yoi i?aeoe/aneee ?acoi, i?aeoe/aneay
enoeia, ioiinyuayny e ethaeneei aeaeai, o a. e /anoiiio, iiyoiio iia
oanii naycaia n iiuoii. I?eiaiyoue iauea ciaiey e /anoiiio i?eoiaeeoueny
eiaiii yoie /anoe aeooe, eae e inouanoaeyoue auai?. A?
aeia?iaeaoaeue–i?aeoe/iinoue. A?enoioaeue ii?aaeaeyao aa eae «?acoiii
i?eia?aoaiiia naienoai aeooe, inouanoaeythuaa ethaeneia aeaai».
I?aeoe/ai, ii aai iiaieth, oio, eoi niiniaai ioeaieaaoue ianoiyoaeuenoaa
e ?ann/eouaaoue n?aaenoaa aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae e aeaenoaey, aaaeouea
e aeaaiiieo/eth. Aeey i?aeoe/iinoe iaiaoiaeeiu oaeea aeia?iaeaoaee, eae
iiuo (iioiio iieiaeua ethaee ia iiaoo auoue i?aeoe/iuie) e
oia?aiiinoue, iineieueeo, ii A?enoioaeth, i?aeoe/aneee oi oo?a/eaaaony
i?e ecauoea ianeaaeaeaiey eee no?aaeaiey. N i?aeoe/iinoueth A?enoioaeue
naycuaaao aeia?ue niaao, ?annoaeeoaeueiinoue, i?iieoeaoaeueiinoue e
ecia?aoaoaeueiinoue. ?annoaeeoaeueiinoue ii n/eoaao ia eo/oae noi?iiie
i?aeoe/iinoe, iineieueeo, a ioee/ea io iineaaeiae, eioi?ay i?eeacuaaao,
?annoaeeoaeueiinoue oieueei e?eoeeoao. Ecia?aoaoaeueiinoue aea,
ninoiyuay a aeiauaaiee iiaeoiaeyueo n?aaenoa aeey iaeie oeaee,
iioaaeueia, ii oieueei anee iioaaeueia naia oeaeue, a i?ioeaiii neo/aa
iia iiania. Iiyoiio ecia?aoaoaeueiinoue aeieaeia neoaeeoue i?aeoe/iinoe,
oae aea eae i?aeoe/iinoue neoaeeo aeia?iaeaoaee. I?e yoii, iaaeaeo
iineaaeieie nouanoaoao oaniay acaeiinaycue: iaeuecy auoue aiieia
aeia?iaeaoaeueiui aac i?aeoe/iinoe, ii iaeuecy e auoue i?aeoe/iui aac
aeia?iaeaoaee, eioi?ay i?aaeiieaaaao ia?o a no?anoyo. I?aaaea,
A?enoioaeue iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi i?aeoe/iinoue eeoue iecoee aeae
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iineieueeo «eeoaia iieiy, no?aieoueny
anaaaea e ecaanoiie oeaee e aeaeaoaeueia ia ?aaee aa naiie», iia i?enoua
iecoae /anoe ?acoiiie aeooe.

Auoa i?aeoe/iinoe–ioae?inoue eae aeia?iaeaoaeue ?acoiiie /anoe ?acoiiie
aeooe. Yoa /anoue aeooe, a ioee/ea io i?aaeuaeouae, nica?oeaao
iaeciaiiua i?eioeeiu auoey, aaea iao auai?a, a nouanoaoao eeoue ciaiea
eee iaciaiea. A oai?aoe/aneii iuoeaiee aeaai e cei aunooiatho eae enoeia
e caaeoaeaeaiea. Aeayoaeueiinoue aea ?acoiiie /anoe ?acoiiie aeooe
A?enoioaeue aeaeeo a iaoea, iineieueeo aa i?aaeiao–iauaa, oi anoue
aa/iia. E i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe yoa /anoue aeooe ia niiniaia: oai
o?aaoaony i?aeoe/aneia iuoeaiea e no?aieaiey, i?enouea aooaeoeaiie /anoe
aeooe, ii ?acoiiay /anoue aeooe niiniaia ?oeiaiaeeoue i?aeoe/aneie
(i?aanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie) aeayoaeueiinoueth.

Ioae?inoue, «ciaiea e iiieiaiea iaeaieaa aaaeiiai a i?e?iaea»,
yaeyaony, ii iiaieth A?enoioaey, oie aeia?iaeaoaeueth, eioi?ay a
ni/aoaiee n aeayoaeueiinoueth i?eiineo aunoaa aeaaeainoai. Oaeie
aeayoaeueiinoueth oeeinio aeaeeo nica?oeaiea. «Aeayoaeueiinoue
Aiaeanoaa, aoaeo/e naiie aeaaeaiiie, anoue nica?oeaoaeueiay
aeayoaeueiinoue, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e ec ethaeneeo aeayoaeueiinoae
iaeaieaa aeaaeaiia oa, eioi?ay ?iaenoaaiiaa anaai aiaeanoaaiiie».

A?enoioaeue ia aiieia niaeanai n oacenii Nie?aoa: «ieeoi, iaeaaeay
ciaieai, ia noaiao i?ioeaiaeaenoaiaaoue aeia?o». Ii caia/aao, /oi eiaoue
ciaiea i aeia?a e cea e eniieueciaaoue aai–?aciua aaue. Ethaee ii?i/iua,
eiay yoi ciaiea, ia iieuecothony ei iaia?aiii, iaaicaea?aeaiiua a
ninoiyiee aooaeoa caauaatho i iai. I?e yoii A?enoioaeue aiai?eo i oii,
noi, iaaicaea?aeaiiue /aeiaae eo/oa iaiaocaeaiiiai: ia?aue ia oi/ao
iinooiaoue ieioi, aoi?ie aea aeaenoaoao ieioi ec i?eioeeia,
niciaoaeueii. Iioiio iaaicaea?aeaiiinoue A?enoioaeue ia n/eoaao
ii?i/iinoueth. Iaaicaea?aeaiiue ia ii?i/ai, a ia oiai–anee iiae oiii
iiieiaoue ia oieueei ciaiea, ii e oiaiea i?eiaieoue aai ia i?aeoeea.
Naii aea ciaiea (?acoi)–iaiaoiaeeiia, ii ia aeinoaoi/iia oneiaea aeey
aeia?iaeaoaee, eai aua ia oiaoue i?eiaieoue aai ia aeaea, aiiny a
aooaeou ia?o, i?eiaiyy iauaa ciaiea e eiie?aoiui aeeciaiiui neooaoeeyi.
Iioiio A?enoioaeue ieoao: «Nie?ao iieaaae, /oi aeia?iaeaoaee nooue
ea/anoaa ?acoia (eai ana iie ciaiey), iu aea iieaaaai, /oi iie
nii?yaeaiu n ?acoiii»(2).

Oaeei ia?acii aeia?iaeaoaeue naia ii naaa ia a ?acoiiie e ia a no?anoiie
/anoe aeooe, a a niioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ieie, oi anoue a oii, /oiau ?acoi
ainiiaenoaiaae iaae no?anoyie: /oiau no?aiyuayny /anoue aeooe
iiae/eiyeanue ?acoiiie. Ii yoiio iiaiaeo A?enoioaeue ni?aaaaeeeai
caia/aao, /oi «aeia?iaeaoaeue o?oaeia…iaeoe na?aaeeio a /ai au oi ie
auei o?oaeii…Iiyoiio-oi i?aanoaaiiia niaa?oainoai–ia/oi ?aaeeia,
iioaaeueiia e i?ae?aniia» (2).

Aeaeaeouae neeie a /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe A?enoioaeue n/eoaao
oaeiaieuenoaea, aeaai (aunoaa aeaai- n/anouea). I?e yoii ii ioia/aao,
/oi /aeiaae i?e?o/aaony e aeayoaeueiinoe a ii?aaeaeaiiie iaeanoe, anee
iieo/aao io ia? oaeiaieuenoaea. Yoio i?eioeei ii n/eoaao iniiaiui a
ainieoaiee.

Iaeiaei A?enoioaeue io?eoeaoaeueii iocuaaaony ia iauaeaiiii
i?aaenoaaeaiee i aeaaa, iieaaay aai iiaieai ia?acoiiie oieiu. Oieia aea
aeaeeo aeaai oieueei a /oanoaaiiii ianeaaeaeaiee. Aii?aee iiaieth
iaeioi?uo oeeinioia, iai?eia? Aaaeiena, A?enoioaeue aeaeeo a yoii eeoue
i?iyaeaiea ?aaneeo, eee aeaaea aeeaioiuo /a?o. Ii aiiaua ia n/eoaao
ianeaaeaeaiea aeaaii, oi/iaa aunoei aeaaii, eae e aiaaonoai: ia?ac
aeecie /aeiaaea, iinayoeaoaai naay eneeth/eoaeueii iaaeeaa, A?enoioaeue
iacuaaao “iaanoanoaaiiui e ianeeuenoaaiiui”. Ii i?eciaao, /oi /aeiaae
ioaeaeaaony a iaeioi?uo iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaaao, ii aiaaonoai, ii aai
iiaieth, an? aea aiaoiaa oneiaea, a ia naii n/anouea. O?aoueei aeaaii,
ii i?eciaieth oieiu, neoaeao ii/anoe. Iaeiaei e eo i?eciaoue aunoei
aeaaii A?enoioaeue ia iiaeao: ethaee, aeaaeaeouea ii/anoae,, /anoi
no?aiyony e iei eeoue aeey oiai, /oi au oaaaeeoue naay a naiae
aeia?iaeaoaeueiinoe, oi anoue ii iiaieth oeeinioa, noaayo aeia?iaeaoaeue
ieaea /anoe.

A?enoioaeue ia niaeanai e n Ieaoiiii, iieaaathuei aunoaa aeaai a iauai
(a eaeaa). Oaeia aeaai iaaeinoeaeeii aeey /aeiaaea, n/eoaao A?enoioaeue,
neaaeoao aea eneaoue aeinoeaeeiia. Ieaoii ioiineo aeaai eneeth/eoaeueii
e eaoaai?ee auoey: ii aai iiaieth, yoi aia e ?acoi. Ii, aic?aaeaao aio
A?enoioaeue, aeaai iiaeao auoue e a ae?oaeo eaoaai?eyo: ea/anoaa –
aeia?iaeaoaeue, eiee/anoaa – ia?a, a?aiaie – oaeiaiue neo/ae,
i?ino?ainoaa – i?eyoiia ianoii?aauaaiea e o.ae. Iiyoiio aeaai
A?enoioaeai iiieiaaony ia eae ia/oi iauaa, iiaeoiaeyuaa iiae iaeio
eaeath, a ia/oi ?acee/iia. Aunoaa aea aeaai, n/anouea, yaaeaiiiey, ii
aai iiaieth, ninoieo a inouanoaeaiee nooe /aeiaaea a niioaaonoaee n
i?eioeeiii oi?iu (aeooe), oi anoue niia?aciay n aeia?iaeaoaeueth
aeayoaeueiinoue, ec eioi?ie i?eiinyuay iaeaunoaa aeaaeainoai – iuoeaiea
e iiciaiea. Aeaaeainoai aea, ii A?enoioaeth,–oi, /oi naii ii naaa
aeaeaao aeeciue aeaeaiiie, naiioaeiaeaoai?aiiie, n/anoeeaie.

Auaeaeaay oacen i i?eia?aoaiee aeia?iaeaoaee iooai oi?aaeiaiee e
i?aanoaaiiuo iinooieia, A?enoioaeue auneacuaaao iuneue i oii, /oi
ethaiai /aeiaaea iiaeii naeaeaoue o?aa?ui, ni?aaaaeeeaui e oae aeaeaa.
Yoi aeaei ainieoaoaey, a ei A?enoioaeue aeaeeo ainoaea?noai e aai
caeiiiaeaoaeae.

Aiiaua oeaeueth iieeoeee A?enoioaeue aeaeeo “aeaai, i?eoii
ni?aaaaeeeaia, oi anoue iauaa aeaai”. I?e yoii ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi
oeeinio ?anniao?eaaao /aeiaaea eae “zoom politicon” (“iauanoaaiiia
aeeaioiia”), oi anoue ia iuneeo aai aia iauanoaa. Oai naiui i?iaeaia
iaeiiai /aeiaaea onooiaao i?iaeaia ainoaea?noaa.

E ana aea iniiaiay oeaeue iieeoeee – ainieoaoaeueiay e ninoieo a oii,
/oiau i?eaeaoue a?aaeaeaiai oi?ioea ea/anoaa, naeaeaoue eo ethaeueie,
iinooiathueie i?ae?anii. Ii iieeoee anaaaea aeieaeai eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi
/aeiaae iiaeaa?aeai no?anoyi e /oi /aeiaa/aneay i?e?iaea aiiaua
enii?/aia, a oaeaea oi, /oi yoe/aneea aeia?iaeaoaee, oioy e
i?eiaaeeaaeao anai, ii ia a ?aaiie noaiaie: anoue ?acee/ey ii aic?anoo,
iieo, nioeeaeueiiio iieiaeaieth (ainiiaeei–?aa).

A?enoioaeue ?acee/aao aeia?iaeaoaee /aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaieia. Iineaaeiea
ieaea yoe/aneeo (a oai aieaa eioaeeaeooaeueiuo) e ninoiyo a niiniaiinoe
iiaeiiaaoueny aeanoyi e caeiiai. I?e yoii aeey niiniaiinoe aeanoaiaaoue
ioaeiu ia neieueei iie, neieueei aeia?iaeaoaee /aeiaaea, oae /oi
aeanoaothuee iaae ethaeueie nai aeieaeai auoue niaa?oaiiui /aeiaaeii.

Ainoaea?noai A?enoioaeue ?anniao?eaaao aeinoaoi/ii ?aaeenoe/anee: ii aai
iiaieth, ainoaea?noaaiiue aeayoaeue ia iiaeao aeaeaoue, iiea ianooiyo
eaeaaeueiua iieeoe/aneea oneiaey, a aeieaeai, enoiaey ec aiciiaeiinoae,
iaeeo/oei ia?acii, a oneiaeyo eo/oae eiinoeoooeee oi?aaeyoue ethaeueie-
oaeeie, eaeiau iie anoue, e i?aaeaea anaai caaioeoueny i oece/aneii e
ii?aeueiii ainieoaiee iieiaeaaee. Iaeeo/oeie ainoaea?noaaiiuie oi?iaie
A?enoioaeue n/eoaao iiia?oeth, a?enoie?aoeth, oia?aiioth aeaiie?aoeth,
iai?ioiie noi?iiie eioi?uo yaeythony oe?aiey, ieeaa?oey, ioeie?aoey.

A?enoioaeue ieacae ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia oeeinioneea iai?aaeaiey
n?aaeiaaaeiauey e iiaiai a?aiaie. Aai o/aiea, a eioi?ii ii no?aieony
naycaoue neeueiua noi?iiu o/aiey Aeaiie?eoa n aeinoeaeaieyie Ieaoiia,
aeiioneaao e iineaaeiaaoaeueii-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia, e
iauaeoeaii-eaeaaeenoe/aneia enoieeiaaiea. Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay ia?a?aaioea
ia/aeanue a aai oeiea oaea No?aaiiii e i?eaaea a a?aaneie oeeinioee
Aaeoeaiiu e Aaa??iyna e iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiio iaioaecio (11). O/aiea i
aannia?oiie /anoe aeooe auei eniieueciaaii noieanoeeie, e any oeeinioey
A?enoioaey auea eaiiiece?iaaia Aeueaa?oii Aaeeeei e Oiiie Aeaeineei.
Aieueoia aeeyiea ieacae A?enoioaeue e ia iiaoth noieanoeeo (O.
A?aioaii), a oaeaea ia nia?aiaiiue iaioiieci (5). O/aiea A?enoioaey i
aeooa e caeiiiia?iinoyo iiciaaaoaeueiuo e aooaeoeaii-aieaauo i?ioeannia
ieioue aei XVII aaea yaeyeinue iniiaie aeey oao, eoi eco/ae i?iaeaiu
aeooe, e auei anneieee?iaaii iineaaeothueie iao/iuie enneaaeiaaieyie
ineoeee.

AEAEEIA?AOEss

A?ENOIOAEUe, ni/eiaiey a 4-o oiiao, iiae ?aaeaeoeeae A.O.
Aniona, o1, I., Iuneue, 1976

A?ENOIOAEUe, ni/eiaiey a 4-o oiiao, iiae ?aaeaeoeeae A.E
Aeiaaoo?a., I., Iuneue, 1984

ENOI?Ess OEEINIOEE, o1, iiae ?aaeaeoeeae Aeuiieeiaa, I., AI NNN?,
1957

E?AOEAss OEEINIONEAss YIOeEEEIIAAeEss, I., 1994

EINAA A. O., OAOI-AIAeE A.A. Ieaoii, A?enoioaeue, I., 1993

IE? OEEINIOEE. A 2-o /anoyo, I., 1991

IAUAss INEOIEIAEss, iiae ?aaeaeoeeae A.Iao?ianeiai, I., 1970

INEOIEIAE*ANEEE NEIAA?Ue, iiae ?aaeaeoeeae Cei/aiei A.I. e Iaua?yeiaa
A.A., I., 1996

NEIAA?Ue AIOE*IINOE, ia?. n iai., I., 1989

OeAEEA? Y. I/a?e enoi?ee a?a/aneie oeeinioee, ia?. n iai. O?aiea, I.,
1996

*AIUOAA A. I. A?enoioaeue, I., 1981

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