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Iineianeee Ainoaea?noaiiue Oieaa?neoao

eiaie I. A. Eiiiiiniaa

Oaeoeueoao ineoieiaee

Eaoa?a aic?anoiie ineoieiaee

?aoa?ao ia oaio:

“Ineoiaiaeec aeaonoaa”

Ei?iaaa Aeaenae

21 a?oiia

Iineaa

1997

Aaaaeaiea

A aeaiiie ?aaioa iu iiiuoaainy /anoe/ii inaaoeoue iaeei ec
ineoieiae/aneeo iiaeoiaeia e iiieiaieth aeaonoaa – ineoiaiaeeoe/aneee.
Eae ecaanoii, ineoiaiaeec aue nicaeai Ceaioiaeii O?aeaeii a ia/aea
iaoaai aaea. Ia/eiay n aai o/aiey a ineoieiae/aneie iaoee ia/aeinue
iniciaiea aaaeiinoe aeaonoaa aeey anae aeecie /aeiaaea e eco/aiea,
nenoaiaoecaoeey e ianoaeaeaiey yoiai ia?eiaea /aeiaa/aneie aeecie.
Aiineaaenoaee aicieeaee naiua ?aciua ineoieiae/aneea oai?ee aeaonoaa,
iaeioi?ua ec eioi?uo ai iiiaii eee iieiinoueth i?ioeaiiieiaea-iu
ineoiaiaeeoe/aneie, iaeiaei ii/oe ana i?eciatho aa cia/eiinoue.
Iai?eia?, E. N. Auaioneee a naieo ?aaioao (ni. “I?iaeaiu ?acaeoey
AIO”, aeaaa 1) ai iiiaii ia niaeaoaaony n oai?eae O?aeaea, iaeiaei,
caia/aao aa cia/eiinoue.

Ieaea iu ?anniio?ei o?ao aaoi?ia, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e ineoiaiaeeoe/aneie
oeiea, eioi?ua aianee naie aeeaae a iiieiaiea i?iaeai aeaonoaa a
ineoieiaee. Yoi auaeao, i?aaeaea anaai, nai Ceaioiae O?aeae – a naiae
oai?ee e i?aeoeea ii, eae i?aaeei, ia caieiaeny aeaoueie, iaeiaei any
aai oai?ey iaa?icia auoaeaao ec aeaoneeo ia?aeeaaiee, /oi iaoneaaeeaaao
ianuuaiiinoue aai ?aaio eioi?iaoeeae i aai acaeyaeao ia aeaonoai. Aoi?ie
aaoi?, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeai ieaea – yoi Aiia O?aeae, aei/ue Ceaioiaea.
Aa oai?ey eioa?ania iai iioiio, /oi iia, ii nooe aeaea, yaeeanue
iniiaiiieiaeieoeae aeaoneiai ineoiaiaeeca. Iaeiiaoe, caaa?oeo iao
e?aoeee iaci? oai?ey Y?eea Y?eeniia , aia?eeaineiai ineoiaiaeeoeea,
eioi?ue nicaeae naith, yieaaiaoe/aneoth oai?eth ?acaeoey /aeiaaea. Yoio
ineoiaiaeeoee oaea aeiaieueii neeueii ioioae ai iiiaeo naieo iieiaeaieyo
io i?oiaeienaeueiiai ineoiaiaeeca: iaeiaei, i?e yoii, a ioee/ee,
iai?eia?, io O?iiia ii inoaeny a aai ?aieao. Oai aieaa eioa?anii
?anniio?aoue aai oai?eth, iiiyoue oaeei ia?acii ?acaeoea ineoiaiaeeca.
Eoae, ia?aeaeai e eiie?aoiiio iaoa?eaeo.

Eeanne/aneee ineoiaiaeec Ceaioiaea O?aeaea.

Ceaioiae O?aeae, iniiaaoaeue ineoiaiaeeca – iaeei ec ia?auo ineoieiaia,
ia?aoeaoee aieiaiea ia i?iaeaio eco/aiey aeaonoaa. Ecia/aeueii
ineoiaiaeec ?acaeaaeny eae iaoiae ea/aiey – eneeth/eoaeueii i?aeoe/aneia
iai?aaeaiea, ii anei?a ii noae aiaaoui enoi/ieeii ineoieiae/aneeo
oaeoia. A /anoiinoe, iaeuecy auei ia caiaoeoue ia?iiioth ?ieue aeaonoaa,
aeaoneeo ia?aaeeaaiee ai anae aeaeueiaeoae aeecie /aeiaaea. Aeaeueiaeoea
enneaaeiaaiey e oai?aoe/aneea ?ac?aaioee i?eaaee O?aeaea e oiio, /oi yoe
aeaoneea ia?aaeeaaiey eiatho naenoaeueioth ie?aneo e yoio iiuo ieacuaaao
iainiciaiiia aeeyiea ia iiaaaeaiea e aeeciue ac?ineiai /aeiaaea.
Iainiciaiiue iiuo ii O?aeaeo yaeyaony niaea?aeaieai iaeiie ec o?ao
eiiiiiaio /aeia/aneie ee/iinoe – aanniciaoaeueiiai eee “Iii”. Aeaa
ae?oaea eiiiiiaiou – yoi “ss” e “Naa?o-ss”. “Iii” – e??aoeeiiaeueiia
ia/aei a /aeiaaea, iiae/eiythuaany i?eioeeio oaeiaieuenoaey, “Naa?o-ss”
– ia?aie/eaaao aea/aiey aanniciaoaeueiiai, yaeyynue iineoaeai ii?aeueiuo
ii?i, a “ss” neaaeoao i?eioeeio ?aaeueiinoe e iiiiaaao noauaeoo
aeaenoaiaaoue aaeaeaaoii aiaoiae neooaoeee. Eae iiaeii oaeaeaoue,
niaea?aeaieai “Iii” e “Naa?o-ss” iaiieiyaony a aeaonoaa – “Iii”, eae
neacaii auoa, i?aaenoaaeyao aaniciaoaeueiua aea/aiey, aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua
aeaoneeie ia?aaeeaaieyie, a “Naa?o-ss” – ?iaeeoaeueneia ia/aei,
oeaici?a, e?eoeea, o/eoaey, a i?aaenoaaeaiea i ii?iao, cai?aoao, oaao
oaeaea caeeaaeuaaaony a aeaonoaa.

Aua iaeei aaaeiue iiiaio oai?ee O?aeaea – yoi aai i?aaenoaaeaiea i
eeaeaeeiiciie yia?aee – aeaeaeouae neea einoeieoeaiiai ia/aea a
/aeiaaea. Yoa, ii aai iiaieth, neea a aieueoie noaiaie ii?aaeaeythuay
iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea. ?acaeoea /aeiaaea a aai oai?ee naiaeeony e noaaeeyi
ia?aiauaiey e i?aia?aciaaiey yoie yia?aee. A niioaaonoaee n ia?aiauaieai
eeaeaeeiiciie yia?aee ii y?iaaiiui ciiai (a iiieiaiee O?aeaea y?iaaiiua
yiiu – oa, eioi?ua /oanoaeoaeueiu e noeioeo). Aio e?aoeia iienaiea yoeo
noaaeee ?acaeoy aeaoneie naenoaeueiinoe:

I?aeueiay noaaeey (0-1 aiae). Iniiaiay y?iaaiiay ciia – ?ioiaay
iaeanoue, naycaiiay n ei?ieaieai. O?aeae auaeaeye a yoie noaaeee 2
iiaenoaaeee – ?aithth e iicaeithth. Naenoaeueiui i?iyaeaieai ?aaaiea ia
?aiiae iiaenoaaeee yaeyaony ninaiea, a ia aieaa iicaeiae e iaio
aeiaaaeyaony oeon. Ia aeaiiie noaaeee cae?aieythony iniiaiua, naiua
aeoaeiiua einoeieou “Iii”, “ss”, ecia/aeueii ionoonoaoauaa o ?aaaiea,
eeoue ia aoi?ii iieoaiaeee aeecie ?aaaiea ia/eiaao auaeaeyoueny ec
“Iii”. Einoaioeey “Naa?o-ss” ia yoie noaaeee aua ionoonoaoao.

Aiaeueiay noaaeey (1-3 aiaea). Ia aoi?ie noaaeee eeaeaeeiiciay yia?aey
eiioeaio?e?oaony aie?oa aiona. Aeaoneay naenoaeueiinoue, ii iiaieth
O?aeaea, oaia?ue oaeiaeaoai?yaony i?e iiiiue iaeaaeaiey i?ioeannaie
auaeaeaiey. “ss” ee/iinoe ?aaaiea ia yoie noaaeee oaea iieiinoueth
noi?ie?iaaia, iia ia/eiaao eiio?iee?iaaoue eiioeuenu aanniciaoaeueiiai.
Iiae aeeyieai oaeeo nee, eae no?ao iioa?youe ?iaeeoaeae, no?ao
iaeacaiey, nioeeaeueiia i?eioaeaeaiea, ia/eiaao iinoaiaiii
oi?ie?iaaoueny einoaioeey “Naa?o-ss”.

Aaieoaeueiay noaaeey (3-5 eao). Ii iiaieth O?aeaea, yoi aunoay nooiaiue
aeaoneie naenoaeueiinoe. Aaaeiaeoae y?iaaiiie ciiie ia yoie nooiaie
?acaeoy ?aaaiea noaiiayony aaieoaeueiua i?aaiu. Naenoaeueiinoue
ia?anoaao auoue aooiy?ioe/iie, aeaoe ia?aoaaeoea ia yoo oaco ?acaeoey
ia/eiatho eniuouaaoue naenoaeueioth i?eaycaiiinoue e ac?ineui ethaeyi.
Eiaiii ia yoie noaaeee, eae n/eoae O?aeae, ia?acoaony Yaeeiia eiiieaen o
iaeue/eeia e eiiieaen Yeaeou o aeaai/ae – nooue eo caeeth/aaony a
naenoaeueiie i?eaycaiiinoe ?aaaiea e ?iaeeoaeth i?ioeaiiieiaeaiiiai iiea
e aini?eyoey aoi?iai ?iaeeoaey eae niia?ieea. I?e ii?iaeueiii ?acaeoee
?ac?aoaiea yoiai eiiieaena, ii O?aeaeo, i?ienoiaeeo iiae aeeyieai no?aoa
eano?aoeee, eioi?ue canoaaeyao iaeue/eea ioeacaoueny io naenoaeueiiai
aea/aiey e iaoa?e e eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue naay n iooeii. ia yoie noaaeee
o?e einoaioeee ee/iinoe /aeiaaea caeai/eaatho naia oi?ie?iaaiea.

Eaoaioiay noaaeey (5-12 eao). Ia yoie noaaeee “ss” iieiinoueth
eiio?iee?oao “Iii”, /oi iaoneaaeeaaao nieaeaiea iieiaiai eioa?ana
?aaaiea. Yia?aey eeaeaei iaoiaeeo ae?oaea iooe ?aaeecaoeee – iia
ia?aiineony ia inaiaiea /aeiaa/aneiai iiuoa, iauaiea ni naa?noieeaie e
ac?ineuie e o. i.

Aaieoaeueiay noaaeey (12-18 eao). Iiauoaaony naenoaeueiue eioa?an
?aaaiea. Ii iiaieth O?aeaea, ia aeaiiie noaeee ii?iaeueiue iiae?inoie
no?aieony e iaeiie oeaee – ii?iaeueiiio naenoaeueiiio iauaieth. A neo/aa
cao?oaeiaiee a ?aaeecaoeee yoie oeaee iiaeao iaaethaeaoueny ?aa?ann eee
oeenaoeey ia iaeiie ec i?aaeuaeoueo noaaeeyo ?acaeoey. Ia aeaiiii yoaia
“ss” aeieaeii naea?aeeaaoue iniaaiii aa?anneaiua i?iyaeaiey e eiioeuenu
“Iii”.

Eiaaea ?aaaiie noaiiaeony ac?ineui (O?aeae ia auaeaeye oaeie noaaeee, iu
iicaieai naaa yoi aeey oaeianoaa eceiaeaiey), aai oa?aeoa? ii?aaeaeyaony
?acaeoeai e acaeiiaeaenoaeai o?ao iniiaiuo einoaioeee. I?e ii?iaeueiii
?acaeoee eo ii?iaeueiia acaeiiaeaenoaea iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny, ii
iiaieth O?aeaea, n iiiiuueth caueoiiai iaoaiecia noaeeiaoeee. Eae ienae
aiineaaenoaee Y. Y?eenii (?a/ue i eioi?ii a aeaeueiaeoai), i?aaeeueiay e
oianoiay noaeeiaoeey iaiaoiaeeia ee/iinoe, /oiau ii?iaeueii ?acaeaaoueny
– yoi iaeii ec aaaeiaeoeo e iaeaieaa niaeuo iieiaeaiey O?aeaeianeie
oai?ee. Iaoieiae/aneia ?acaeoa oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaee/eai oaeeo caueoiuo
iaoaieciia, eae auoaniaiea, ?aa?anney, ?aoeeiiaeecaoeey e o. i.

A iniiaiii Ceaioae O?aeae ?aaioae ni ac?ineuie iaoeeaioaie, iaeiaei,
eiiaaea ii caieiaeny e aeaoueie. Iaeei ec iaeaieaa ecaanoiuo,
o?anoiiaoeeiuo i?eia?ia aeaoneiai ineoiaiaeeca o O?aeaea – yoi oiaey
iaeaiueeiai Aaina (“Aiaeec oiaee iyoeeaoiaai iaeue/eea”). ?anniio?ei
e?aoei yoio neo/ae a ea/anoaa i?eia?a ?aaiou n ?aaaieii a eeanne/aneii
ineoiaiaeeca.

Aieaciue iaeue/eea caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi ii “iaia?oaeeaaao aanueia
niaoeeoe/aneee no?ao, /oi aai oeoneo aaeay eioaaeue”. O?aeae caia/aao a
naiae ?aaioa, /oi ?acee/iiai ?iaea no?aoe – i/aiue ?aiino?aiaiiiia
i?iyaeaiea iaa?icia. Ii ieoao, /oi ?acee/iua oiaee iiaoo auoue
i?iyaeaieai ?aciiia?aciuo iaa?icia, iaeiaei iaeaieaa /anoi (eae e a
neo/aa n Aainii) – yoi oae iacuaaaiay “enoa?ey no?aoa”. Yoa enoa?ey
no?aoa, eae i?aaeei, ia?a?anoaao a oiaeth ca eneeth/aieai oao neo/aaa,
eiaaea auoaniaiiay yia?aey eeaeaei eiiaa?oe?oaony, a ia inoaaony
naiaiaeiie a aeaea no?aoa. Aeey ecea/aiey io enoa?ee no?aoa i?eaiaeai
eeoue ineoiaiaeeoe/aneee iaoiae – oieueei ii iicaieyao ioe?uoue aeinooi
e auoaniaiiui aeaeaieyi ?aaaiea e oaeei ia?aci iiii/ue aio. O?aeae
aeinoaoi/ii iiae?iaii iienuaaao oiae aieacie iaeue/eea e i?ioeaaeo?o
aiaeeoe/aneie ?aaiou n iei. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea i?eaiu,
eniieuecoaiua a aeaiiii neo/aa (eae iu oaeaeei a aeaeueiaeoai, yoe
i?eaiu iieo/eee naia ?acaeoea a ?aaioao A. O?aeae):

Eco/aiea naaaeaiee, niiauaaiuo ?iaeeoaeyie – iie iiiiaatho iiiyoue
aiciiaeiua i?e/eiu iaa?ica, iaeoe iaoiaaiiua neooaoeee a i?ioeie aeecie
?aaaiea.

Aiaeec e eioa?i?aoaoeey aeaoneeo oaioacee. O?aeae i/aiue aeoeaii e niaei
eioa?i?aoe?oao ana oaioacee e auneacuaaiey iaeue/eea, aai iiaaaeaiea e
iinooiee.

Iinoaiaiii aiaeeoee i?eoiaeeo e iiieiaieth i?e/ei aieacie naiaai
iaeaiueeiai iaoeeaioa. I?e/eia yoa – Yaeeiia eiiieaen. O?aeae i?eoiaeeo
e auaiaeo, /oi aaeay eioaaeue aeey iaai neiaieece?oao iooea, eioi?iai ii
ia naiii aeaea aieony. I?e/eia yoiai no?aoa – a iiaeaaeyaiii
naenoaeueiii aea/aiee e iaoa?e. Aea/aiea yoi iaino?yaony iinea
?iaeaeaiey nano?u – a ?acoeueoaoa yoiai iaeaiueeiio Aaino iaoue ia/eiaao
oaeaeyoue iaiueoa a?aiaie. Aei ii?aaeaeaiiiai iiiaioa ia?aaeeciaaiiay
yia?aey eeaeaei iaoiaeeo naie auoiae, noaeeie?oaony: iaeue/ee aiceony n
ae?oaeie aeaoueie ia ae/aa, i?aaenoaaeyy, /oi yoi aai nianoaiiua aeaoe.
Ii iinea ia?aacaea a ai?iae auoiae yia?aee cae?uaaaony – e eae
?acoeueoao aicieeaao oiaey. A i?ioeanna ?aaiou O?aeae iinoaiaiii
iiaeaiaeeo Aaina e iniciaieth i?e/ei naiae aieacie.

Oaeei ia?acii, a naiae aeinoaoi/ii iaoe?iie oai?ee (eioi?ay, ia iao
acaeyae a iaoa a?aiy ia?anoaea auoue noaoai ineoieiae/aneie e yaeyaony
ii?aaeaeaiiie oeeinioeae), aeiaieueii iiae?iaii iienae naie acaeyaeu ia
?acaeoea ?aaaiea. Ia?aeaeai oaia?ue e ?anniio?aieth oi/ee c?aiey aai
ianeaaeieoeu (e a i?yiii e a ia?iiniii niunea ) – e Aiiu O?aeae, eioi?ay
noiaea ?acaeoue ineoiaiaeec eiaiii a iai?aaeaiee aeaonoaa, aiieioea ia
i?aeoeea oai?eth Ceaioiaea O?aeaea.

Aeaoneee ineoiaiaeec Aiiu O?aeae

Iaeiei ec iineaaeiaaoaeae O?aeaea, ?acaeaaoeo ii iai?aaeaiea aeaoneiai
ineoiaiaeeca, yaeyaona aai aei/ue Aiia O?aeae. Iia iieiinoueth
nin?aaeioi/eea naia aieiaiea ia i?iaeaiao e iaoiaeao ineoiaiaeeca,
i?eiaiyaiiai e aeaoyi. A naieo eaeoeeyo , auoaaeoeo a iineaaenoaee a
aeaea ioaeaeueiie eieae “Aaaaeaiea a aeaoneee ineoiaiaeec, iia
?anniio?aea neaaeothuea i?iaeaiu:

?aaaiie, a ioee/ee io ac?ineiai, ieeiaaea ia yaeyaony eieoeeaoi?ii
ia/aea aiaeeca – ?aoaiea i iaiaoiaeeiinoe aiaeeca anaaaea i?eieiatho aai
?iaeeoaee eee ae?oaea ie?oaeathuea aai ethaee. Ii neiaai Aiiu O?aeae,
iaeioii?ua aeaooneea ineoiaiaeeoeee (iai?eia? Iaeaiey Eeaei) ia n/eoatho
yoi na?ueaciui i?aiyonoaeai a ?aaioa, iaeiaei ii aa iiaieth, aiieia
oeaeaniia?acii iinoa?aoueny eaeei-ieaoaeue ia?acii aucaaoue a ?aaaiea
caeioa?aniaaiiinoue, aioiaiinoue e niaeanea ia ea/aiea. Yoo /anoue
ineoiaiaeeoe/aneie ?aaiou iia auaeaeyao a ioaeaeueiue ia?eiae aeaoneiai
ineoiaiaeeca – iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue. A oa/aiea yoiai ia?ieaea
iaiin?aaenoaaiii aiaeeoe/aneie ?aaiou ia aaaeaony, i?inoi i?ienoiaeeo
“ia?aaiae ii?aaeaeaiiiai iaaeaeaoaeueiiai ninoiyiey a ae?oaia
aeaeaoaeueiia ninoiyiea n iiiiuueth anao n?aaenoa, eioi?uie ?aniieaaaao
ac?ineue a ioiioaiee e ?aaaieo”. Aaoi? auaeaeyao o?e i?aaeaa?eoaaeueiua
oneiaey, iiaoiaeeiia aeey ia/aea aiaeeca: iniciaiea aieacie, aeiaa?ea e
aiaeeoeeo e ?aoaiea ia aiaeec. A ea/anoaa i?eia?ia Aiia i?eaiaeeo
neaaeothuea neo/ae:

Iaeia aa oanoeeaoiyy iaoeeaioea niiaueea ae: “Ai iia neaeeo /a?o.
Iiaeii ee auiooue aai?”. Ioaao aue oaeia: aea, iiaeii, ii anee iu ?aoei
aianoa yoi naeaeaoue, oi i?eaeaony auieiieoue iiiaeanoai ia neeoeii
i?eyoiuo aauae. Aeaai/ea, iiaeoiaa, niaeaneeanue – oae auei aeinoeaiooi
niaethaeaiea aaaeiiai i?aaeea oa?aiee – aeia?iaieueiia niaeanea
iaoeeaioa.

Ae?oaay iaoeeaioea, eioi?oth i?eaaee ?iaeeoaee, niaeaneeanue ?aaioaoue
aianoa n ineoiaiaeeoeeii, noa?aynue i?eia?anoe nithcieea a ai?ueaa n
ieie, iiaeiaii oiio, eae ia?aay aeaai/ea noa?aeanue caiieo/eoue
nithcieea a aieia n “/a?oii”.

Aeiaieueii /anoi ?aaaiie ia niaeaoaaony oae i?inoi ?aaioaoue n
aiaeeoeeii. A oaeeo neo/ayo, ii neiaai Aiiu O?aeae, eiaao niune a
oa/aiee iaeioi?iai a?aiaie iinoa?aoueny aeiaeoueny ?aniieiaeiaiey
?aaaiea – a i?eaaaeaiiii i?eia?a iia iienuaaao neo/ae n aeanyoeeaoiei
iaeue/eeii, eiaaea i?eoeinue aia/aea aeiaeaaoueny i?inoi eioa?ana
iaeue/eea e ee/iinoe oa?aiaaoa, caoai iinoa?aoueny iieacaoue, /oi
iauaiea iiaeao auoue ia oieueei eioa?aniui, ii e iieaciui e, iaeiiaoe,
aeaoue iiiyoue , /oi iiaeaa?aaoueny aiaeeco icia/aao iieo/aoue
iiiai/eneaiiua i?aeiouanoaa. Iinea yoiai ?aaaiie ia/eiaao iniciaaaoue
aeaenoaeoaeueioth iieueco i?iaaaeaiey ineoiaiaeeoe/aneie ?aaiou.

Oaeei ia?acii, ii iiaieth Aiiu O?aeae, ia?aui e iaiaeiaaaeiui ioee/eai
aeaoneiai ineoiaiaeeca io eeanne/aneie aai oi?iu yaeyaony iaee/ea
iniaie, iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie noaaeee, ia eioi?ie ?aaaiie aeieaeai
i?eciaoue naith i?iaeaio e i?eiyoue ?aoaiea ia aiaeec. Ii neiaai aaoi?a,
“o iaeaiueeiai caiouaiiai iaa?ioeea aianoi niciaiey aieacie …
aicieeaao /oanoai enii?/aiiinoe, eioi?ia noaiiaeony … iioeaii aeey
i?iaaaeaiey aiaeeca”.

Iinea oaeiai anooieaiey Aiia O?aeae i?enooiaao e oa?aeoa?enoeee oaea
iaiin?aaeaenoaaiiie i?ioeaaeo?u aeaoneiai ineoiaiaeeca. Iinea oiai, eae
aiaeeoeeo oaeaeinue caaiaaaoue aeiaa?ea e ?aniieiaeaiea iaeaiueeiai
iaoeeaioa, aicieeaao aii?in i iaoiaeao e oaoie/aneeo i?eaiao, eioi?ua
iiaoo auoue i?eiaiaiu e ?aaaieo a oa/aiea ineoiaiaeeoe/aneie ?aaiou.
Aiia i?eaiaeeo 4 iniiaiuo i?eaia eeanne/aneiai ineoiaiaeeca e
?aaniao?eaaao eo i?eiaieoaeueii e aeaoneiio:

Ainiiieiaiea iaoeeaioa. A aeaoneii aiaeeca ia i?eoiaeeony neeueii
?ann/eouaaoue ia nianoaaiiua ainiiieiaiea ?aaaiea. Iaeiaa?iyoii, /oi ii
noiaao ?anneacaoue aiaeeoeeo aeinoaoi/ii i naiae aieacie. Iiyoiio aaoi?
i?aaeeaaaao aeoeaii niae?aoue e eniieueciaaoue naaaeaiey eniieueciaaoue
naaaeaiey io ?iaeeoaeae. I?e yoii iaaei o/eouaaoue ana iaoi/iinoe e
eneaaeaiey, aiciiaeii iaoneiaeaiiua ee/iinoiuie iioeaaie.

*oi eanaaony oieeiaaiey niiaeaeaiee, oi caeanue, ii iiaieth Aiiu O?aeae,
aiieia i?eiaieiu oa aea i?eaiu, /oi eniieuecothony a ?aaioa ni ac?ineuie
ethaeueie. *anoioa niiaeaeaiee o ?aaeaaiea ia iaiueoa, /ai o ac?ineiai.
Aiia ?aneacuaaao, /oi a ?aaioa iia niiauaao iaeuoo, /oi “naii
niiaeaeaiea ie/aai ia iiaeao naeaeaoue, eaaeaeoth naith /anoue iii
ioeoaea-ieaoaeue aea acyei”, a caoai iie aianoa “ioi?aaeythony ia
iienee”. A yoo aea a?oiio i?eaiia auaeaeyaony aiaeec “niia ia yao”,
ia/ou aeaoae, eioi?uie iie aeaeyony aieaa ioioii, /ai ac?ineua
iaoeeaiou. A eieaa i?eaiaeeony ianeieueei y?eeo i?eia?ia oaeeo aeaoneeo
oaioacee, a eioi?uo i/aiue yaii i?iniao?eaaaoy naycue n eaeie-oi (oiaea
“i?inaa/eaathuae”) i?iaeaiie. Ano?a/athon oaeaea “niu ia yao n
i?iaeieaeaieai” – oaioacee, naycaiiua ii nthaeaoo, eioi?ua ?aaaiie
?anneacuaaao io naaina e naaino. A naiuo oaea/iuo neo/ayo, aiaeeoee
iiaeao aieoe n ?aaaieii a ianoieueei oaniue eiioaeo a naiii ia/aea
aiaeeca, /oi ii [?aaaiie] aoaeao ?anneacuaaoue aaeaaeiaaii i?iaeieaeaiea
naiaai nia ia yao, /oi yaeyaony i/aiue oaeiaiui e aeinoiaa?iui
enoi/ieeeii eioi?iaoeee ia aeooaeueiii aioo?aiiai ninoiyiee ?aaaiea. Aua
iaeei niaoeeoe/aneee aeey aeaoneiai ineoiaiaeeca i?eai – yoi eco/aiea e
oieeiaaiea ?enoieia aeaoae – aeaoe ioioii e iiiai ?enotho e, iiae/an,
i?iyaeytho aanniciaoaeueiua aeaeaiey, /oanoaa eiaiii a ?enoieao.

Eanaynue iaoiaea naiaiaeiuo annioeeaoeee, Aiia O?aeae caia/aao, /oi o
?aaaiea, eae i?aaeei, ionoonoaoao aioiaiinoue e annioeee?iaaieth. Eiaiii
ii yoiio, ii aa iiaieth, aeaoneee aiaeec n/eoaaony (ia iiiaio iaienaiey
eieae) iniaaiii o?oaeiie iaeanoueth i?eiaiaiey o/aiey Ceaioiaea
O?aeaea. Iaeiaei, eiiaaea iiaeii “ni?iaioee?iaaoue” ?aaaiea aeaaaoue
iaaeioi?ua annioeeaoeee. Oae, iai?eia?, a i?aeoeea aaoi?a aue neo/ae,
eiaaea oaeaeinue ?ac?aoeoue i?iaeaio, eniieuecoy iaoiae naiaiaeiuo
annioeeaoeee, eiaaea aeaai/eo i?ineee “nanoue ia ei?oi/ee n cae?uouie
aeacaie ia ei?oi/ee e i?eneooaoueny e oiio, /oi i?ienoiaeeei a iae”.
Aeaai/ea, iaeaaeay (/oi aaaeii) i?ae?aniie c?eoaeueiie iaiyoueth, ioioii
auiieiyea yoo eino?oeoeeth e ?anneacuaaea ana, /oi “i?eoiaeaeeei ia oi
“. Oaea a oi a?aiy auee iiiuoee caiaieoue naiaiaeiua annioeeaoeee ea?ie
( aeieoi? Aaeueioo, Iaeaiey Eeaei). Eae iu oaeaeei ieaea, yoe iaoiaeu
iieo/eee oe?ieia ?acaeoea, iai?eia?, aai aeoeaii i?eiaiye a naiae
i?aeoeea Y?ee Y?eenii.

Ioaeaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeyao Aiia O?aeae ?iee ia?aiina (eee
ia?aianaiey) eae oaoie/aneiai i?eaia a aeaoneii ineoiaiaeeca. Ia?aia,
/oi ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea, yoi, oi, /oi iaiaoiaeeiinoue
caeioa?aniaaoue ?aaaiea ia?aae ia/aeii aiaeeca (ni. ioieo 1) n)
icia/aao, a ia?aaiaea ia aiaeeoe/aneoth oa?ieiieiaeth, nicaeaoue
iieiaeeoaeueiia ia?aianaiea. Oaeei ia?acii, iieiaeeoaeueiia ia?aianaiea
yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai n naiiai ia/aea ?aaiou. Io?eoeaoaeueiua
aea ia?aianaiey i?e aeaoneii aiaeeca yaeyththony, ii neiaai aaoi?a,
i?aaeaea anaai i?aiyonoaeai, o. e. ii?iaeueiay e i?iaeoeoeaiay
ineoiaiaeeoe/aneay ?aaioa n aeaoueie aiciiaeia oieueei i?e iaee/ee
iieiaeeoaeueiiai ia?aianaiey. Io?eoeaoaeueiua aea, neieue iiiai
iaoa?eaea iie ia aeaaaee, a aeaoneii aiaeeca neaaeoao ?ac?ooaoue. Ana
yeaiaiou ia?aianaiey o ?aaaiea, i?iaeieaeaao Aiia, inoathony eeoue
yeaiaioaie, iaa?ic ia?aianaiey eae ooaeiaie o ?aaaiea ia aicieeaao. Yoi
iaoneaaeeaaaony i?aaeaea anaai oai, /oi ?aaaiie, a ioee/ee io ac?ineiai,
aua ia ?aci?aae oaniaeoeo ioiioaiee n ?iaeeoaeyie e, ii nooe aeaea, aio
ia ca /ai ia?aiineoue naie ioiioaiey e ?iaeeoaeyi ia ae?oaiai /aeiaaea.
E?iia oiai, aiaeeoee i?e ?aaioa n aeaoueie iaaeieaeai inoaaaoueny
aacee/iui, eae a eeanne/aneii ineoiaiaeeca, ii, eae oaea
iaiaeiie?aoiioiiieiaeinue, aeieaeai auoue eioa?aniui, neiiaoe/iui
?aaaieo. Yoi nicaeaao ?aaeoeeth ia?aianaiey eneonnoaaiii, a ie/oi
eneonnoaaiiia ia iiaeao noaoue ii ianoiyuaio ?aaeueiui.

A caeeth/eoaeueiie /anoe naiae eieae Aiia O?aeae iiaeaiaeeo iaeioi?ue
eoia naiei acaeyaeai ia iniaaiiinoe aeaoneiai ineoiaiaeeca. Iia ia?auaao
aieiaiea ia ?acee/iua oiieinoe ieoiaiaeeca, naycaiiua, a iniiaiii, n
iac?aeinoueth no?oeoo?u ee/iinoe ?aaaiea. Iai?eia?, a ioee/ee io
ac?ineiai iaoeeaioa, ?aaaiie i/aiue caaenei a naieo ioiioaieyo n
ie?oaeathuei ie?ii e ii (ie?) ieacuaaao iaiiiai aieueoaa aeeyiea ia
i?ioaeaiea e iaoaieci iaa?ica. Ii iiaieth aaoi?a, aieueoeinoai i?iaeai
iaeaiueeiai iaoeeaioa oae eee eia/a iaoneiaeaiu iac?aeinoueth naa?o-ss.
*oiau ?acoeueoaoeaii i?iaanoe aiaeec, eae n/eoaao Aiia, aiaeeoee
“aeieaeai noiaoue ai a?aiy aiaeeca n ?aaaieii ianoi aai ss-eaeaaea”.
?aaaiie niaeaneony onooieoue ianoi a naiae aioo?aiiae, yiioeeiiaeueiie
aeecie iiaiio “ethaiaiiio iauaeoo”. Oaeei ia?acii, a aeaoneii
ineoiaiaeeca iaia/aaony yaiay naycue n ainieoaieai – ec-ca neaainoe
ss-eaeaaea ?aaaiea e aai yiioeeiiaeueiie caaeneiinoe io aiaoiaai ie?a ii
ia niiniaai naiinoiyoaeueii naea?aeeaaoue inaiaiaeaeathueany
iiaoaeaeaiey e aeey yoiai aio ioaeai /aeiaae (ineoiaiaeeoee),
iaeaaeathuea aaoi?eoaoii a ainieoaoaeueiii ioiioaiee.

A caeeth/aiea e aeaiiiio ?acaeaeo iiaeii neacaoue, /oi, a ioee/ee io
i?aaeuaeouaai e iineaaeothuaai, ii i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth iinayuai
i?eaeoe/aneei i?iaeaiai aeaoneiai ineoiaiaeeca. Ia iao acaeyae, yoi
iieacii iioiio, /oi ?anniio?aiea e i?aeoee, e oai?ee aeaao iaiiiai aieaa
iieiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i acaeyaeao ia i?aeoe/anee ethaoth
ineoieiae/aneoth i?iaeaio.

Y?ee Y?eenii

Y?ee Y?eenii – i?aaenoaaeoaeue iaiineoiaiaeeca, aai nioeeieiae/aneiai
iai?aaeaiey. A naiae yieaaiaoe/aneie eiioeaioeee ?acaeoey ee/iinoe ii
iiiuoaeny niaaeeieoue e onoaiiaeoue acaeiinayce iaaeaeo
iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneeie oneiaeyie oi?ie?iaaiey ee/iinoe e aa
nianoaaiiie aeoeaiinoe. Ii aai iiaieth, yie/aneea e enoi?e/aneea
iniaaiiinoe ainieoaiey ?aaaiea i/aiue ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeytho no?iaiea e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ee/iinoe. *oiau iiiyoue yoe eoeueoo?iua e enoi?e/aneea
aeaoa?ieiaiou, a naieo enneaaeiaaieyo ii ?anniao?eaae c?aeoth ee/iinoue,
a caoai iuoaeny iaeoe enoiee aa i?aaiecaoeee , no?iaiey e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ia i?aaeuaeoueo noaaeeyo ?acaeoey iauanoaa. Aeey
iiieiaiey oiai, /oi Y?eenii iiieiaao iiae c?aeie ee/iinoueth, neaaeoao
aaanoe oa?iei “eaeaioe/iinoue” ee/iinoe – iaeei ec oeaio?aeueiuo ai anae
oai?ee. Yoio oa?iei o Y?eeniia iaicia/aao ia?ac naay ai anai
iiiaiia?acee ioiioaiee e ie?o n niioaaonoaothueie oi?iaie iiaaaeaiey,
eioi?ue iniciaaony ee/iinoueth. Yoa eaeaioe/iinoue, ii aai iiaieth,
oi?ie?oaony a oa/aiea anae aeecie /aeiaaea. Aio eae aiai?eo ii ia yoii
nai: “?anoouee ?aaaiie aeieaeai ia eaaeaeii oaao ecaeaeaoue iaeeaeythuaa
/oanoai ?aaeueiinoe ec niciaaaiey oiai, /oi aai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue iooue
iaeaaeaaathuaai iiuoa … yaeyaony oniaoiui aa?eaioii a?oiiiaie
eaeaioe/iinoe e iaoiaeeony a niioaaonoaee n i?ino?ainoaii-a?aiaiai e
aeeciaiiui ieaiii a?oiiu. Neaaeoao iiaeae/a?eiooue, /oi /aeiaae
no?aieony e ia?aoaieth eaeaioe/iinoe: a naiie aai i?e?iaea, ii neiaai
Y?eeniia, caeiaeaia iio?aaiinoue a ineoinioeeaeueiie eaeaioe/iinoe.

Anth aeeciue /aeiaaea iiaeii ?acaeoue ia noaaeee ?acaeoey ee/iinoe. Yoi
?acaeaiea i?iecaiaeeony i?iecaiaeeony Y?eeniiii ia iniiaaiee niaiu
niaoeeoe/aneeo caaea/, auaeaeaaaiuo iauanoaii (ni. oaaeeoeo 1). Yoe
caaea/e iiaoo ?aoaoueny eae iieiaeeoaeueii, oae e io?eoeaoaeueii – a
ia?aii neo/aa i?ienoiaeeo ii?iaeueiia ?acaeoea, ai aoi?ii –
iaii?iaeueiia, eiaiii a yoii neo/aa o /aeiaaea iiaoo aicieeaoue iaa?icu.
A ioee/ea io eeanneeia ineoiaiaeeca, Y?eenii ?anniao?eaaao ?acaeoea
ee/iinoe /aeiaaea ia oieueei aei iieiaiai nic?aaaiey, ii e ia
i?ioyaeaiee anao iineaaeothueo eao aai aeecie. Ia?aoiae n iaeiie nooiaie
ia ae?oaoth, ii iiaieth aaoi?a, anaaaea nii?iaiaeaeaaony e?ecenaie,
eioi?ua, iaeiaei, aeaeaei ia anaaaea iiae?acoiaaatho io/eoaeueioth
ai?ueao, eaoano?ioo e o. i, ii anaaea yoi “iiai?ioiue ioieo, iiiaio,
?aoaiea e auai? iaaeaeo i?ia?annii e ?aa?annii, eioaa?aoeeae e
caaea?aeeie”. Ia iniiaaiee yoeo (e ?yaea ae?oaeo) iieiaeaiee Y?eenii
no?ieo oae iacuaaaioth yieaaiaoe/aneoth ea?oo:

Noaaeee

Noa?inoue

eioaa?aoeey/ ?aci/a?i-aaiea a aeecie

C?aeinoue

Oai?/an-oai/ canoie

Iieiaeinoue

eioei-iinoue/ ecieyoeey

Iiae?inoeiaue aic?ano

Eaeaioe/-iinoue/ aeeooocey eaeaioe/-iinoe

Oeieueiue aic?ano

Aeinoeaea-iea/ iaiieii-oeaiiinoue

Aic?ano ea?u

Eieoeea-oeaiinoue/ /oanoai aeiu

?aiiee aic?ano

aaoiii-iey/ niiiaiea, nouae

Ieaaeai/anoai Aeiaa?ea/ iaaeiaa-?ea ie?o

I?eia/aiea: a aeaiiie oaaeeoea ana i?eaaaeaiu a niioaaonoaee n eieaie
E. O. Iaooiaie, a ia “Aeaonoaa e iauanoaa”, o. e., ii iaoaio iiaieth,
yoio ia?aaiae aieaa aaeaeaaoai.

Aaconeiaii neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi Y?eenii aeoeaii i?aeoeeiaae aeaoneee
ineoiaiaeec, ?acaeaay, a /anoiinoe ea?iaoth oa?aieth. Ii aai iiaieth,
ea?a a aeaoneii ineoiaiaeeca ea?aao ia oieueei aeeaaiinoe/aneoth, ii e
nianoaaiii oa?aiaaoe/aneoth ooieoeeth. A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaeieaeeoaeueiie
i?aeoeee, Y?eenii i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi ianiio?y ia neeueioth
nioeeaeueioth aeaoa?ieiaoeeth ?acaeoey ee/iinoe /aeiaaea, ana aea
iaeaiueeee ?aaaiie iiciaao ie? i?e iiiiue e iin?aaenoaii naieo oaeaniuo
iuouaiee. Iaeaieaa cia/eu yoe iuouaiey ia naiuo ?aiieo noaaeeyo
?acaeoey. Iiyoiio ii ia eaaeaeie noaaeee auaeaeye, iiaeiaii eeanneeai
ineoiaiaeeca, oae iacuaaaiua iiaeonu i?aaia – yoi iiiyoea ai iiiaii
niaiaaeaao n iiiyoeai y?iaaiiie ciiu o C. O?aeaea, a oaeaea
iiaeaeueiinoue iiaaaeaiey – niinia ioiioaiey ?aaaiea e ie?o . Iiaeonu
i?aaiia – eiei?ii?aoeaiue (iiaeon “aae?aiey”), yeeieiaoeaiue (iiaeon
auaeaeaiey), ?aiaoeaiue (iiaeon caaea?aeee), eio?oceaiue (iiaeon
“aiaae?aiey”) – i?enoonoaoo a oie eee eiie ia?a ia anao noaaeeyo
?acaeoey ?aaaiea, iaeiaei eeoue iaeei ec ieo aaia?aeecoaony, a
inoaeueiua yaeythony aniiiiaaoaeueiuie. Oae, ia ia?aie, i?aeueiie
noaaeee o iaeuoae, ii iiaieth Y?eeniia i?aiaeaaeaao
i?aeueii-eiei?ii?aoeaiue iiaeon, ia aiaeueiie – yeeieiaoeaiue e
?aiaoeaiue iiaeonu e o. ae. Y?eenii oaeaea onoaiaaeeaaao nayce iaaeaeo
iiaeonai e iiaeaeueiinoyie. Nayce yoe eiae/anee aiieia iiiyoiu,
iai?eia?, iiaeonai ?aoaioeee e yeeieiaoeee niiaaonoaotho iiaeaeueiinoe
oaea?aeeaaiey e ioioneaiey – naycue i?aeoe/anee i?yiay.

Iiaeaiaey eoia, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi Y?eenii a naiae oai?ee noiae
ioaaoeoue iiiaea iniaaiiinoe, naycaiiua n nioeeaeueiie aeeciueth
ee/iinoe, eioi?ua ia auee ioaa/aiu a eeanne/aneii ineoiaiaeeca.
Nicaeaaay naith ineoiaiaeeoe/aneoth eiioeaioeeth ?acaeoey ?aaaiea, ii
?acaee e, anee iiaeii oae au?aceony, iiaeeoeoee?iaae i?aaenoaaeaiey
ineoiaiaeeoeeia ia yoii ia?eiaea aeecie /aeiaaea. Eae e O?aeae, ii
nicaeae, ia iao acaeyae, aieaa oe?ieoth oai?eth, /ai oieueei
eiioeaioeeth aeaonoaa – eae auei oaea neacaii auoa ii a naieo
?ac?aaioeao auoiaeee ca i?aaeaeu aeaonoaa /aeiaaea. Iaeiaei, a ioee/ee
io O?aeaea Y?eenii iooaeeeaaaony io aeaonoaa.

Caeeth/aiea.

Iinea ?anniio?aiey ianeieueeeo ineoiaiaeeoe/aneeo acaeyaeia ia i?iaeaio
aeaonoaa iu iiaeai iiaeaanoe iaeioi?ua eoiae. Ana o?e eiioeaioeee,
aaconeiaii, i?eciatho aieueooth ?ieue yoiai ia?eiaea ai anae
iineaaeothuae aeecie /aeiaaea. Ii iiaieth anao ineoiaiaeeoeeia, eiaiii a
aeaonoaa caeeaaeuaathony iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai aiciiaeiinoae eae
aeey ?acaeoey ee/iinoe, oae e aeey ee/iinoiuo i?iaeai. Eiia/ii, iaeaieaa
eaoaai?e/ai a yoii aii?ina O?aeae – ii iaeiicia/ii naycuaaao ana
iineaaeothuea iaa?icu n aeaoneeie ineoe/aneeie o?aaiaie, i?e/ai ana
cia/eiua o?aaiu naycaiu n naenoaeueiie noa?ie aeecie ?aaaiea. O?aeae aue
ia?aui o/aiui, ioe?uaoee ineoe/aneoth noi?iio iaa?icia, aio auei
neiaeiaa anao aai iineaaeiaaoaeae e e?eoeeia – yoi neaaeoao o/eouaaoue,
iiaeaa?aay aai oai?eth e?eoe/aneiio ?anniio?aieth. Anee ?anniio?aoue
aieaa aieiaoaeueii anao – i?yiuo eee einaaiiuo aai ianeaaeieeia – io
?aeoa e THiaa aei Ia?eca (eioi?ue ia aue a ineoiaiaeeoeeii, iaeiaei
iiiaei iaycai O?aeaeo e aai o/aieth – ni. “Aioo?e e aia iiiieiiai
aaae?a”), oi noaiiaeony aeaeii, /oi ana iie oae eee eia/a ?anoe?yee
o/aiea i aanniciaoaeueiii, aeiaaaeyy ana iiaua e iiaua aeaoa?ieiaiou
?acaeoey /aeiaaea – ?aeo neiioeaio?e?iaae naia aieiaiea ia oaeaniie
aeaoa?ieiaoeee, THia aaae iiiyoea eieeaeoeaiiai aanniciaoaeueiiai,
Y?eenii ?acaeaae nioeeaeueiue aniaeo aeaoa?ieiaoeee ineoeee e o. ae.
Oaeei ia?acii ca oa aac iaeiai noi eao, /oi ?acaeaaaony ineoiaiaeec, aai
a?aieoeu neeueii ?anoe?eeenue e, eae iu oaea caia/ae, ii ia?anoae auoue
i?inoi oa?aiaaoe/aneie oaoieeie, ii a ii?aaeaeaiiii niunea noae
oeinioeae. Iniaaiii yaii yoi i?iyaeyaony a no?aiao, aaea ineoiaiaeec
i?ioeaaoaao a iaoe aeie (iai?eia? a NOA ). Y?eo O?iii, iaeei ec
iniiaiiieiaeieeia “aoiaienoe-/aneiai iaiineoiaiaeeca” a naiae eieaa
“Ineoiaiaeec e yoeea” caia/aao, /oi iiae/an o?aeaeianeea eaeae
aanniciaoaeueiiai aini?eieiathony oae, /oi ana iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea
iieiinoueth aeaoa?ieie?iaaiu iainiciaaaaiuie eiioeuenaie, /oi i?eaiaeeo
e iaoaienoe/aneiio acaeyaeo ia /aeiaaea, e io?eoeaieth aai niciaoaeueiie
aeoeaiinoe e o. i.

Eoae, caeai/eaay iaoa e?aoeia ?anniio?aiea (iu iinoiyiii iiae/a?eeaaai
iaiieiinoue e e?aoinoue aeaiiiai iaci?a – iieiioeaiiia enneaaeiaaiea
i?aa?aoeeinue au a aieueooth iiiia?aoeth) oaiu “Ineoiaiaeec aeaonoaa” ,
iu oioei aua ?ac ioiaoeoue, /oi ineoiaiaeec, aaconeiaii, aian e ,
iaa?iyea, aua aianao iaiaeue aeeaae a iiieiaiea i?iaeai aeaonoaa, a,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e anae aeecie /aeiaaea.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

C. O?aeae “Ineoieiaey aanniciaoaeueiiai”

A. O?aeae “Aaaaeaiea a aeaoneee ineoiaiaeec”

A. O?aeae “Ineoieiaey ss e caueoiua iaoaieciu”

Aioeeoa?iaa “Yieaaiaoe/aneay eiioeaioeey Y. Y?eeniia” (a ei. “I?eioeei
?acaeoey a ineoieiaee”)

E . O. Iaooiaa “Aeaoneay ineoieiaey: oai?ee, oaeou, i?iaeaiu”.

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