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Проблемы психологии управления коллективом

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Niaea?aeaiea

Iauaiea.

Iiiyoea e ooieoeee iauaiey.

Aeaeu iaaeee/iinoiiai iauaiey.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea no?aoaaee iaaeee/iinoiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey.

Eeaea?.

Oi?iaeueiua a?oiiu.

Iaoi?iaeueiua a?oiiu.

Eiioeeeo.

Iiiyoea eiioeeeoa.

Aeaeu eiioeeeoa.

No?oeoo?a e aeeiaieea eiioeeeoa.

Ooieoeee eiioeeeoa.

Noeeue ?oeiaiaenoaa eieeaeoeaii.

Iaoiaeu eco/aiey acaeiiioiioaiee a a?oiia e eo ineoieiae/aneay iniiaa.

Nioeeiiao?ey.

Cioeeia?aiia.

Oi?aaeaiea i?aaiecaoeeae – nicaeaiiie ethaeueie nenoaiie (a?oiia
ethaeae, aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo niciaoaeueii eii?aeeie?oaony aeey
aeinoeaeaiey iauae oeaee eee oeaeae) – i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaeioth
?aaioo, oaeaea yoi iniaue aeae aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aa?auathuee
iai?aaieciaaiioth oieio a yooaeoeaioth oeaeaiai?aaeaiioth e
i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth a?oiio. ?oeiaiaenoai – ioaeaeueiua iaiaaeaea?u –
aeieaeiu i?eciaaaoue, /oi eaaeaeue ?aaioiee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
ee/iinoue n iaiiaoi?eiuie ia?aaeeaaieyie e cai?inaie. Eia/a aiai?y,
?oeiaiaenoai aeinoeaaao oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee /a?ac ae?oaeo ethaeae.

Enoi/ieeaie i?aanoaaiii-ineoieiae/aneeo aieaciae o?oaeiaiai eieeaeoeaa,
iaaaoeaiiai iiaaaeaiey yaeythony iunee e /oanoaa ?aaioieeia.
Aaeeinoaaiiue iooue eciaiaiey iiaaaeaiey – yoi iiciaiea ?oeiaiaeeoaeai
aioo?aiiaai ie?a /aeiaaea e iaeaaeaiea ia?ano?ieee aai a iiceoeaiii
iano?iaiee. Iiyoiio aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao aunieay ineoieiae/aneay
eiiiaoaioiinoue ?oeiaiaeyueo eaae?ia.

Ai-ia?auo, ioaeiu ciaiey aeey naiiioeaieaaiey e naiiniaa?oainoaiaaiey
ee/iinoe.

Ai-aoi?uo, neaaeoao eiaoue eiiieaen ciaiee e iaaueia iauaiey n
ethaeueie.

A-o?aoueeo, iaiaoiaeeia ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneay eiiiaoaioiinoue,
naycaiiay n ?aaeecaoeeae ooieoeee ainieoaoaey iiae/eiaiiuo.

A-/aoaa?ouo, ioaeiu ciaiey ineoieiae/aneeo caeiiiia?iinoae
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eieeaeoeaa, oae eae ?oeiaiaeeoaeue aeieaeai oi/ii
ioeaieaaoue iaaeee/iinoiua e a?oiiiaua ioiioaiey a i?aaiecaoeee e oiaoue
aa?iiiece?iaaoue eo.

Niiniaiinoue oiaei no?ieoue aeaeiaua ioiioaiey, ?aaoee?iaaoue
ineoieiae/aneee eeeiao – iaeie ec aeaaiuo i?eciaeia i?ioanneiiaeueiie
i?eaiaeiinoe iaiaaeaea?ia.

1. Iauaiea e aai ooieoeee.

Iauaiea yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo iiiyoee a ineoieiaee. Aia iauaiey
iaaiciiaeii iiiyoue e i?iaiaeece?iaaoue i?ioeann ee/iinoiiai noaiiaeaiey
ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea, iaeuecy i?ineaaeeoue caeiiiia?iinoe anaai
iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey.

Iauaiea /?acau/aeii ?aciiia?acii ii naiei oi?iai e aeaeai. Iiaeii
aiai?eoue i i?yiii e einaaiiii iauaiee, iaiin?aaenoaaiiii e
iiin?aaeiaaiiii. I?e yoii iiae iaiin?aaenoaaiiui iauaieai iiieiaaony
anoanoaaiiue eiioaeo eeoeii e eeoeo i?e iiiiue aa?aaeueiuo (?a/aauo) e
iaaa?aaeueiuo n?aaenoa (aeanou, ieieea, iaioiieieea). Iaiin?aaenoaaiiia
iauaiea yaeyaony enoi?e/anee ia?aie oi?iie iauaiey ethaeae ae?oa n
ae?oaii, ia aai iniiaa e ia aieaa iicaeieo yoaiao ?acaeoey oeeaeeecaoeee
aicieeatho ?acee/iua aeaeu iiin?aaeiaaiiiai iauaiey. Iiin?aaeiaaiiia
iauaiea iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae iaiieiue ineoieiae/aneee eiioaeo i?e
iiiiue ienueiaiiuo eee oaoie/aneeo ono?ienoa, cao?oaeiythueo eee
ioaeaeythueo ai a?aiaie iieo/aiea ia?aoiie nayce iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie
iauaiey.

Aeaeaa, ?acee/atho iaaeee/iinoiia e ianniaia iauaiea. Iaaeee/iinoiia
naycaii n iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie eiioaeoaie ethaeae a a?oiiao eee ia?ao,
iinoiyiiuo ii ninoaao o/anoieeia. Iii iiae?acoiaaaao ecaanoioth
ineoieiae/aneoth aeecinoue ia?oia?ia: ciaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
iniaaiiinoae ae?oa ae?oaa, iaee/ea niia?aaeeaaiey, iiieiaiey,
niaianoiiai iiuoa aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ianniaia iauaiea – yoi iiiaeanoaaiiua, iaiin?aaenoaaiiua eiioaeou
iaciaeiiuo ethaeae, a oaeaea eiiioieeaoeey, iiin?aaeiaaiiay ?acee/iuie
aeaeaie ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. E aaaeiui, aeaeai ianniaiai iauaiey
neaaeoao ioianoe oae aea eneonnoai eae ynoaoe/aneia iauaiea.
Ynoaoe/aneia iauaiea, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ?acai?a/eaaaony eae naiaia?aciia
ianniaia iauaiea (oaao?aeueiue niaeoaeeue, eeoa?aoo?iua aa/a?a e oae
aeaeaa), n ae?oaie noi?iiu, eneonnoai naii /anoi i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
iniaia ooaeiaeanoaaiiia iiaeaee?iaaiea iauaiey ethaeae e yaeyaony eae au
caiaieoaeai iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo aai oi?i.

Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea ioiaoeoue aiciiaeiinoue auaeaeaiey iaaeia?niiaeueiiai
e ?ieaaiai iauaiey. A ia?aii neo/aa, o/anoieeaie iauaiey yaeythony
eiie?aoiua ee/iinoe, iaeaaeathuea oieeaeueiuie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie
ea/anoaaie, eioi?ua ?ane?uaathony ae?oaiio ii oiaeo iauaiey e
i?aaiecaoeee niaianoiuo aeaenoaee. A neo/aa ?ieaaie eiiioieeaoeee aa
o/anoieee iiaoo auoue ?anniio?aiu eae iineoaee ii?aaeaeaiiuo
nioeeaeueiuo ?ieae (o/eoaeue – o/aiee, iieoiaoaeue – i?iaeaaaoe).
Auiieiyaiay a aeaiiue iiiaio ?ieue oeene?oao oi ianoi, eioi?ia caieiaao
/aeiaae a nenoaia iauanoaaiiuo, nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee. A ?ieaaii
iauaiee /aeiaae eeoaaony ii?aaeaeaiiie niiioaiiinoe naiaai iiaaaeaiey,
oae eae oa eee eiua aai oaae e aeaenoaey aeeeoothony eniieiyaiie
?ieueth.

A iauaiee ethaee i?iyaeytho, ?ane?uaatho aeey naay e ae?oaeo naie
ineoieiae/aneea ea/anoaa. Ii yoe ea/anoaa ia oieueei i?iyaeythony /a?ac
iauaiea, a iai iie aicieeatho e oi?ie?othony. Iauaynue n ae?oaeie
ethaeueie, /aeiaae onaaeaaao iaua/aeiaa/aneee iiuo, enoi?e/anee
neiaeeaoeany nioeeaeueiua ii?iu, oeaiiinoe, ciaiey e niiniau
aeayoaeueiinoe, oi?ie?oaony eae ee/iinoue e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue.
Iauaiea aunooiaao aaaeiaeoei oaeoi?ii ineoe/aneiai ?acaeoey /aeiaaea. A
naiii iauai aeaea iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue iauaiea eae oieaa?naeueioth
?aaeueiinoue, a eioi?ie ca?iaeaeathony e nouanoaotho a oa/aiea anae
aeecie ineoe/aneea i?ioeannu e iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea.

Ii naiaio cia/aieth iauaiea iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueii. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue
iyoue aaaeiaeoeo ooieoeee iauaiey.

I?aaeaea anaai, iauaiea auiieiyao a eieeaeoeaiie /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe naycothuoth ?ieue. Yoa ooieoeey iiaeao auoue oneiaii
iacaaia i?aaiaoe/aneie. A yoie ooieoeee iauaiea aunooiaao eae aaaeiaeoaa
oneiaea iauaaeeiaiey ethaeae a i?ioeanna ethaie niaianoiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. I oii, eaeea ?ac?ooeoaeueiua iineaaenoaey aeey
aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae eiaao iaauiieiaiea yoiai oneiaey, iiaanoaoaony a
ciaiaieoii aeaeaeneii nthaeaoa i no?ieoaeuenoaa Aaaeeiineie aaoie.
Aoi?ie ii ii?yaeeo iiaeao auoue iacaaia oi?ie?othuay ooieoeey iauaiey.
Caeanue iauaiea, eae yoi oaea ioia/aeinue auoa, aunooiaao eae aaaeiaeoaa
oneiaea oi?ie?iaaiey e eciaiaiey ineoe/aneiai iaeeea /aeiaaea. Ecaanoii,
/oi ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo noaaeeyo aeaoneiai ?acaeoey iiaaaeaiea,
aeayoaeueiinoue e ioiioaiea ?aaaiea e ie?o e naiiio naaa iiin?aaeiaaiii
aai iauaieai ni ac?ineui. Eae ioia/ae Ae. A. Yeueeiiei: ?aaaiie – yoi
anaaaea aeaa /aeiaaea – Ii e ac?ineue. A oiaea ?acaeoey aiaoiea
iiin?aaeiaaiiua iauaieai oi?iu acaeiiaeaenoaey ?aaaiea e ac?ineiai
o?ainoi?ie?othony ai aioo?aiiea ineoe/aneea ooieoeee e i?ioeannu, a
oaeaea a naiinoiyoaeueioth i?iecaieueioth aiaoithth aeayoaeueiinoue
?aaaiea.

A ea/anoaa o?aoueae iiaeao auoue iacaaia oae iacuaaaiay
iiaeoaa?aeaeathuay ooieoeey iauaiey. Eia/a aiai?y, a i?ioeanna iauaiey n
ae?oaeie ethaeueie /aeiaae iieo/aao aiciiaeiinoue iiciaoue, ooaa?aeeoue
e eae au iiaeoaa?aeeoue naay. AEaeay ooaa?aeeoueny a naiai nouanoaiaaiee
e a naiae oeaiiinoe, /aeiaae euao oi/eo iii?u a ae?oaii /aeiaaea. Aua O.
Aeaeaein ioia/ae, /oi aeey /aeiaaea ia nouanoaoao aieaa /oaeiaeuiiai
iaeacaiey, /ai auoue i?aaeinoaaeaiiui a iauanoaa naiiio naaa e
inoaaaoueny aaniethoii ia caia/aiiui. Ai iiiaeo ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneeo
nenoaiao yoi ninoiyiea /aeiaaea oeene?oaony a iiiyoee
iaiiaeoaa?aeaeaiea. I?e/ai, a ioee/ee io io?eoeaiey, eioi?ia iiaeao
auoue au?aaeaii neiaaie “Ou ia i?aa” eee “Ou ieioie” i?aaeiieaaaao
ecaanoioth aeieth iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey (ionoue e n iaaaoeaiie ioeaieie),
iaiiaeoaa?aeaeaiea icia/aao ”Oaay caeanue iao”, “Ou ia nouanoaoaoue”.

*aoaa?oay ooieoeey iauaiey ninoieo a i?aaiecaoeee e iiaeaea?aeaiee
iaaeee/iinoiuo ioiioaiee. Aini?eyoea ae?oaeo ethaeae e iiaeaea?aeaiea n
ieie ?acee/iuo ioiioaiee (io eioeiii-ee/iinoiuo aei noaoai aeaeiauo)
aeey ethaiai /aeiaaea iaeciaiii nii?yaeaii n ioeaieaaieai ethaeae e
onoaiiaeaieai ii?aaeaeaiiuo yiioeeiiaeueiuo ioiioaiee eeai iiceoeaiuo,
eeai iaaaoeaiuo ii naiaio ciaeo. Yiioeeiiaeueiia ioiioaiea e ae?oaiio
/aeiaaeo i?aeoe/anee anaaaea iiaeao auoue au?aaeaii a oa?ieiao neiiaoee
– aioeiaoee, i?aaeony – ia i?aaeony. Yiioeeiiaeueiua iaaeee/iinoiua
ioiioaiey – ia aaeeinoaaiiue aeae nioeeaeueiie nayce, aeinooiiue
nia?aiaiiiio /aeiaaeo, iaeiaei iie i?iiecuaatho anth nenoaio
acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie, /anoi iaeeaaeuaatho naie ioia/aoie e
ia aeaeiaua, e aeaaea ia ?ieaaua ioiioaiey.

Iaeiiaoe, iiaeao auoue iacaaia e iyoay ooieoeey iauaiey –
aioo?eee/iinoiay. A aeaiiii neo/aa iauaiea /aeiaaea n naiei niaie (/a?ac
aioo?aiithth eee aiaoithth ?a/ue, iino?iaiioth ii oeio aeeaeiaa) iiaeao
?anniao?eaaoueny eae oieaa?naeueiue niinia iuoeaiey /aeiaaea. E. N.
Auaioneee ioia/ae a nayce n yoei, /oi “…/aeiaae e iaaaeeia n naiei
niaie nio?aiyao ooieoeeth iauaiey”.

Iu ?anniio?aee aeaeu, oi?iu e ooieoeee iauaiey. Iiaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi
iaeaieueoaa aieiaiea a nioeeaeueiie ineoieiaee o?aaeeoeeiiii oaeaeyaony
iaaeee/iinoiiio, iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio iauaieth, eioi?ia ia ianoiyuee
iiiaio iaeaieaa aeoaiei eco/aii ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie aeaeaie.

2. Aeaeu iaaeee/iinoiiai iauaiey

A niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaoaeny o?aaeeoeeae, a ioa/anoaaiiie
nioeeaeueiie ineoieiaee auaeaeytho o?e ?acee/iuo ii naiae i?eaioaoeee
oeia iaaeee/iinoiiai iauaiey eiia?aoea, iaieioeyoeeth e aeeaeia.

Eiia?aoeaiia iauaiea – yoi aaoi?eoa?iay, aee?aeoeaiay oi?ia aicaeaenoaey
ia ia?oia?a ii iauaieth n oeaeueth aeinoeaeaiey eiio?iey iaae aai
iiaaaeaieai e aioo?aiieie onoaiiaeaie, i?eioaeaeaiey e ii?aaeaeaiiui
aeaenoaeyi eee ?aoaieyi. A aeaiiii neo/aa ia?oia? ii iauaieth
?anniao?eaaaony eae iauaeo aicaeaenoaey, aunooiaao ianneaiie,
no?aaeaoaeueiie noi?iiie. Iniaaiiinoue eiia?aoeaa a oii, /oi eiia/iay
oeaeue iauaiey – i?eioaeaeaiea ia?oia?a ia caaoaee?iaaia. A ea/anoaa
n?aaenoa ieacaiey aeeyiey eniieuecothony i?eeac, oeacaiey, i?aaeienaiey
e o?aaiaaiey.

Iiaeii iacaaoue oeaeoth a?oiio nioeeaeueiuo aeayoaeueiinoae, a eioi?uo
eniieueciaaiea eiia?aoeaiiai aeaea iauaiey aiieia ii?aaaeaii e n
oeaeaaie e n yoe/aneie oi/ae c?aiey. E iei, ianiiiaiii, ioiinyony
aiaiiua onoaaiua ioiioaiey, ioiioaiey ia/aeueiee-iiae/eiaiiue a neiaeiuo
e yeno?aiaeueiuo oneiaeyo, ?aaioa i?e /?acau/aeiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao.
Iaoianoii e aeaaea ia yoe/ii i?eiaiaiea eiia?aoeaa a eioeiii-ee/iinoiuo
ioiioaieyo, noi?oaeaneeo e aeaonei-?iaeeoaeueneeo eiioaeoao, a oaeaea
anae nenoaia ainieoaoaeueiuo, iaaeaaiae/aneeo ioiioaiee.

Iaieioeyoeey – yoi ?ani?ino?aiaiiay oi?ia iaaeee/iinoiiai iauaiey,
i?aaeiieaaathuay aicaeaenoaea ia ia?oia?a ii iauaieth n oeaeueth
aeinoeaeaiey naieo ne?uouo iaia?aiee.

Eae e eiia?aoea, iaieioeyoeaiia iauaiea i?aaeiieaaaao iauaeoiia
aini?eyoea ia?oia?a ii iauaieth, eioi?ie eniieuecoaony iaieioeyoi?ii
aeey aeinoeaeaiey naieo oeaeae. ?iaeieo eo e oi, /oi i?e iaieioeyoeaiii
iauaiee oaeaea noaaeony oeaeue aeiaeoueny eiio?iey iaae iiaaaeaieai e
iuneyie ae?oaiai /aeiaaea. Ei?aiiia ioee/ea ninoieo a oii, /oi ia?oia?
ia eioi?ie?oaony ia enoeiiuo oeaeyo iauaiey: iie eeai i?inoi ne?uaathony
io iaai, eeai iiaeiaiythony ae?oaeie.

A ioiioaiee iaieioeyoeee oaeaea iiaeii neacaoue, /oi anoue iaeanoe
/aeiaa/aneiai acaeiiaeaenoaey, aaea iia aiieia oianoia, e aaea iia
eaoaai?e/anee iaaeiionoeia. Noa?ie ?ac?aoaiiie iaieioeyoeee, ianiiiaiii,
yaeyaony aecian e aeaeiaua ioiioaiey aiiaua. Neiaieii oaeiai oeia
ioiioaiee aeaaii noaea eiioeaioeey iauaiey Ae. Ea?iaae e aai
iiiai/eneaiiuo iineaaeiaaoaeae. Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai iaieioeyoeaiue
noeeue aicaeaenoaey ia ia?oia?ia ii iauaieth e a iaeanoe i?iiaaaiaeu.

Aianoa n oai ecaanoii, /oi aeaaeaiea n?aaenoaaie iaieioeyoeaiiai
aicaeaenoaey ia ae?oaeo ethaeae a aeaeiaie noa?a, eae i?aaeei,
caeai/eaaaony aeey /aeiaaea oe?ieei ia?aiinii oaeeo iaaueia a inoaeueiua
iaeanoe naieo acaeiiioiioaiee. Neeueiaa anaai no?aaeatho io iaieioeyoeee
ioiioaiey, iino?iaiiua ia ethaae, ae?oaeaa e acaeiiie i?eaycaiiinoe.
?ac?ooaiea oaeeo naycae e caiaia eo ae?oaeie i?e eniieueciaaiee
iaieioeyoeaiuo n?aaenoa iauaiey iaecaaaeiu.

A iaieioeyoeaiii i?ioeanna ia?oia? ii iauaieth aini?eieiaaony ia eae
oeaeinoiay oieeaeueiay ee/iinoue, a eae iineoaeue ii?aaeaeaiiuo, ioaeiuo
iaieioeyoi?o naienoa e ea/anoa. Oae, iaaaaeii, ianeieueei aeia? yoio
/aeiaae, aaaeii, /oi aai aeia?ioo iiaeii eniieueciaaoue, e oae aeaeaa.
Iaeiaei /aeiaae, aua?aaoee a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai eiaiii yoio oei
ioiioaiey e ae?oaei, a ?acoeueoaoa nai /anoi noaiiaeony aea?oaie
nianoaaiiuo iaieioeyoeee. Naiei naay ii oiaea ia/eiaao aini?eieiaoue
o?aaiaioa?ii, ia?aoiaeeo ia noa?aioeiiua oi?iu iiaaaeaiey,
?oeiaiaenoaoaony eiaeiuie iioeaaie e oeaeyie, oa?yy ieoue nianoaaiiie
aeecie. Eae ioia/aao Y. Oino?ii, iaeei ec e?oiiaeoeo e?eoeeia
ea?iaaeaineie oeieu iauaiey, iaieioeyoi?a oa?aeoa?ecoao eaeeainoue e
i?eieoeaiinoue /oanoa, aiaoey e neoea e aeecie, eiio?ieue ca niaie e
naiae aeeciueth, oeeieci e iaaeiaa?ea e naaa e ae?oaei.

N?aaiaiea eiia?aoeaiie e iaieioeyoeaiie oi?i iauaiey, iicaieyao auyaeoue
eo aeoaieia aioo?aiiaa noiaenoai. Iauaaeeiea eo aianoa, eo iiaeii
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae ?acee/iua aeaeu iiiieiae/aneiai iauaiey. *aeiaae,
?anniao?eaay ae?oaiai eae iauaeo naiaai aicaeaenoaey, ii nooe aeaea
iauaaony nai n niaie, ni naieie oeaeyie e caaea/aie, ia aeaey enoeiiiai
niaanaaeieea, eaii?e?oy aai.

A ea/anoaa ?aaeueiie aeueoa?iaoeau oaeiio oeio ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
ethaeueie iiaeao auoue ?anniio?aii aeeaeiae/aneia iauaiea, iicaieythuaa
ia?aeoe io yaioeaio?e/aneie, oeene?iaaiiie ia naaa onoaiiaee e onoaiiaea
ia niaanaaeieea, ?aaeueiiai ia?oia?a ii iaiauaieth. Aeeaeia – yoi
?aaiii?aaiia noauaeoiia iauaiea, eiathuaa oeaeueth acaeiiia iiciaiea,
naiiiiciaiea e naii?acaeoea ia?oia?ia ii iauaieth.

Aeeaeia no?ieoueny ia i?eioeeieaeueii ae?oaeo ia/aeao, /ai
iiiieiae/aneia iauaiea. Ii aiciiaeai eeoue a neo/aa niaethaeaiey
neaaeothueo iai?aeiaeiuo i?aaee acaeiiioiioaiee.

1. Ineoieiae/aneee iano?ie ia aeooaeueiia ninoiyiea niaanaaeieea e
nianoaaiiia aeooaeueiia ineoieiae/aneia ninoiyiea. A aeaiiii neo/aa
?a/ue eaeao ia iauaiee ii i?eioeeio caeanue e nae/an, n o/aoii oao
/oanoa, aeaeaiee e oece/aneiai ninoiyiey, eioi?ua ia?oia?u eniuouaatho a
aeaiiue iiiaio.

2. Aacioeaii/iia aini?eyoea ee/iinoe ia?oia?a, ai?ei?iia aeiaa?ea e aai
iaia?aieyi.

3. Aini?eyoea ia?oia?a eae ?aaiiai, eiathuaai i?aai ia nianoaaiiia
iiaiea e nianoaaiiia ?aoaiea.

4. Niaea?aeaieai iauaiey aeieaeiu yaeyoueny ia i?iieniua enoeiu e
aeiaiu, a i?iaeaiu e ia?aoaiiua aii?inu (i?iaeaiaoecaoeey niaea?aeaiey
iauaiey).

5. Ia?niieoeeaoeey iauaiey – ?acaiai? io naiaai eiaie, aac nnueee ia
iiaiey e aaoi?eoaou, i?acaioaoeey naieo enoeiiuo /oanoa e aeaeaiee.

Ianiiiaiii, ?aaeecaoeey oaeiai oeia iauaiey o?aaoao e niioaaonoaothuae
aeeciaiiie neooaoeee, e aioo?aiiae aioiaiinoe ia?oia?ia.

3. Oa?aeoa?enoeea no?aoaaee iaaeee/iinoiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey

A ?acee/iuo enneaaeiaaieyo auyaeaii ianeieueei aaaeiaeoeo aeaeia
nioeeaeueiuo iioeaia (oi anoue, iioeaia, n eioi?uie /aeiaae anooiaao ai
acaeiiaeaenoaea n ae?oaeie ethaeueie):

1. Iioea iaeneiecaoeee iauaai auea?uoa (eia/a iioea eiiia?aoeee).

2. Iioea iaeneiecaoeee nianoaaiiiai auea?uoa (eia/a, eiaeeaeaeoaeeci).

3. Iioea iaeneiecaoeee ioiineoaeueiiai auea?uoa (eiieo?aioeey).

4. Iioea iaeneiecaoeee auea?uoa ae?oaiai (aeueo?oeci).

5. Iioea ieieiecaoeee auea?uoa ae?oaiai (aa?anney).

6. Iioea ieieiecaoeee ?acee/ee a auea?uoao (?aaainoai).

A ?aiee yoie noaiu iiaoo auoue a iauai aeaea ioianaiu ana aiciiaeiua
iiaoaeaeaiey, aeaoa?ieie?othuea nioeeaeueiia acaeiiaeaenoaea ethaeae.
Anoanoaaiii, /oi oa?aeoa? nioeeaeueiie iioeaaoeee o/anoieeia
acaeiiaeaenoaey ii?aaeaeyao e n?aaenoaa iauaiey, e ?acoeueoao
acaeiiaeaenoaey, e ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ia?oia?aie ii iauaieth. Aaaeiui
yaeyaony niioiioaiea iioeaia iauaiey, eiathueony o o/anoieeia
acaeiiaeaenoaey: anee iie niaiaaeatho eee anoanoaaiii acaeiiaeiiieiytho
ae?oa ae?oaa, iiaeii i?iaiice?iaaoue aieueooth oniaoiinoue eo eiioaeoia.
Iiaeii oaeaea auaeaeeoue oa iioeau, eioi?ua n aieueoie aa?iyoiinoueth
aoaeoo i?eaiaeeoue e “i?iea?uoiui” n oi/ee c?aiey oniaoiinoe iauaiey
no?aoaaeyi acaeiiaeaenoaey. E iei ioiineony aoi?ie e iyoue iioea,
i?eaiaeyuea e eaii?e?iaaieth eioa?ania ia?oia?a ii iauaieth, /oi a naith
i/a?aaeue aeoeaece?oao aa?iyoii, e caueoiua no?aoaaee n aai noi?iiu.

A oeaeii iiaeii auaeaeeoue no?aoaaee acaeiiaeaenoaey, enoiaey ec
iniaaiiinoae iioeaaoeee, ii?aaeaeythuae auai? no?aoaaee. I?aaenoaaei
naaa acaeiiaeaenoaea eae i?ioeann, ?acai?a/eaathueeny a neaaeothuae
nenoaia eii?aeeiao. Ii ine O ?aniieiaeaiu no?aoaaee acaeiiaeaenoaey,
i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia aeinoeaeaiea o/anoieeaie nianoaaiiuo oeaeae. Ii ine O
– no?aoaaee, i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia aeinoeaeaiea oeaeae ia?oia?a ii
iauaieth.

?en. 1

Niioaaonoaaiii ii eaaeaeie oeaea iiaeao auoue auaeaeaia oi/ea ieieioia e
oi/ea iaeneioia (eae e?aeiea oi?iu i?iyaeaiey oie eee eiie i?eaioaoeee).
A a niioaaonoaee n enoiaeiie nioeeaeueiie iioeaaoeeae o/anoieeia
iauaiey, iiaeii iaicia/eoue iyoue iniiaiuo no?aoaaee eo iiaaaeaiey a
i?ioeanna acaeiiaeaenoaey:

oi/ea I niioaaonoaoao iioeao iaeneiecaoeee nianoaaiiiai auea?uoa e
no?aoaaee iiaaaeaiey, iieo/eaoae iacaaiea “i?ioeaiaeaenoaea”. A aeaiiii
neo/aa eiaeeaeae aeaiiino?e?oao iieioth i?eaioaoeeth ia naie oeaee aac
o/aoa oeaeae ia?oia?ia ii iauaieth.

Oi/ea E – no?aoaaey “ecaaaaiey” – niioaaonoaoao iioeao ieieiecaoeee
auea?uoa ae?oaiai. Niune no?aoaaee ecaaaaiey – a ooiaea io eiioaeoa,
enoeiiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey, iioa?y nianoaaiiuo oeaeae ?aaee eneeth/aiey
auea?uoa ae?oaiai.

Oi/ea O neiaieece?oao no?aoaaeth “onooi/eainoe”, i?eaioe?iaaiioth ia
?aaeecaoeeth iioeaa aeueo?oecia. A yoii neo/aa /aeiaae aea?oaoao
nianoaaiiuie oeaeyie ?aaee aeinoeaeaiey oeaee ia?oia?ii.

Oi/ea E – no?aoaaey “eiii?iienna”, iicaieythuay ?aaeeciaaoue iioea
ieieiecaoeee ?acee/ee a auea?uoao. Nooue aeaiiie no?aoaaee a iaiieiii
aeinoeaeaiee oeaeae ia?oia?aie ?aaee oneiaiiai ?aaainoaa.

Iaeiiaoe, oi/ea N neiaieece?oao no?aoaaeth “nio?oaeie/anoaa”,
iai?aaeaiioth ia iieiia oaeiaeaoai?aiea o/anoieeaie acaeiiaeaenoaey
naieo nioeeaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae. Aeaiiay no?aoaaey iicaieyao
?aaeeciaaoue iaeei ec aeaoo iioeaia nioeeaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea –
iioeaa eiiia?aoeee eee iioeaa eiieo?aioeee.

Iineaaeiyy ec iacaaiiuo no?aoaaee iiaeao auoue ?anniio?aia eae iaeaieaa
i?iaeoeoeaiay n oi/ee c?aiey yooaeoeaiinoe acaeiiaeaenoaey e eae
iaeaieaa oniaoiay n oi/ee c?aiey naii/oanoaey o/anoieeia iauaiey e eo
acaeiiioiioaiee. Aianoa n oai, iia i/aiue o?oaeia a ?aaeecaoeee, oae eae
o?aaoao io ia?oia?ia ii iauaieth cia/eoaeueiuo ineoieiae/aneeo oneeee ii
nicaeaieth iiceoeaiiai eeeiaoa, ?ac?aoaieth aicieeathueo i?ioeai?a/auee
a aeooa acaeiiiiieiaiey, oaaaeaiey e eioa?anai ae?oaiai.

II. Eeaea?

A ca?oaaaeiie oai?ee oi?aaeaiey Iaiaaeaeiaioa o?oaeiaua eieeaeoeau, eo
/anoe, iiae?acaeaeaiey iinyo iacaaiea a?oii. Ethaia i?aaei?eyoea,
i?aaiecaoeey ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo a?oii, A?oiia – yoi aeaa eee aieaa
eeoea, eioi?ua acaeiiaeaenoaotho ae?oa n ae?oaii oaeei ia?acii, /oi
eaaeaeia eeoei ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia ae?oaeo e iaeiia?aiaiii iaoiaeeony
iiae aeeyieai ae?oaeo eeoe. A?oiiu auaatho aeaoo aeaeia – oi?iaeueiua e
iaoi?iaeueiua.

Oi?iaeueiua a?oiiu eee i?aaiecaoeee (eieeaeoeau) nicaeaao ?oeiaiaenoai,
eiaaea i?iecaiaeeo ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea ii ai?eciioaee (iiae?acaeaeaiey) e
ii aa?oeeaee (o?iaie oi?aaeaiey), aeey i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
eee oi?aiaiai i?ioeanna. Eo ia?aaeoae ooieoeeae yaeyaony auiieiaiea
eiie?aoiuo caaea/ e aeinoeaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaeae.

Nouanoaoao o?e iniiaiuo oeia oi?iaeueiuo a?oii. A?oiia ?oeiaiaeeoaey
(eiiaiaeiay) ninoieo ec ?oeiaiaeeoaey e aai iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo
iiae/eiaiiuo, eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue, oaeaea iiaoo auoue
?oeiaiaeeoaeyie. Oeie/iay eiiaiaeiay a?oiia – yoi i?aceaeaio eiiiaiee e
aeoea-i?aceaeaiou. Oaeoth aea a?oiio ia?acotho aee?aeoi? iaaaceia e
caaaaeothuea aai ioaeaeaie.

?aai/ay (oeaeaaay) a?oiia ninoieo ec eeoe, aianoa ?aaioathueo iaae iauei
caaeaieai.

O?aoee oei a?oiiu – yoi eiieoao (eiienney, niaao) aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee,
eioi?iio aeaeaae?iaaiu iieiiii/ey aeey auiieiaiey eaeiai-eeai caaeaiey.
Aai ioee/eoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth yaeyaony a?oiiiaia i?eiyoea ?aoaiee e
inouanoaeaiea aeaenoaee. Eiaaony 2 iniiaiuo oeia eiieoaoia:
niaoeeaeueiue e iinoiyiiue. Ia?aue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie a?aiaiioth
a?oiio, noi?ie?iaaiioth aeey auiieiaiey ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaee. Aoi?ie –
yoi iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuay a?oiia aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee, eiathuay
eiie?aoioth oeaeue. Eo ca/anooth eniieuecotho aeey i?aaeinoaaeaiey
i?aaiecaoeeyi eiinoeueoaoeee ii aaaeiui aii?inai. Yoi niaaou aee?aeoi?ia
(i?aaeaiey oi?i), ?aaeceiiiua eiiennee, a?oiiu ieaie?iaaiey, eiiennee ii
ia?aniio?o ca?ieaou.

Yooaeoeaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe oi?iaeueiuo a?oii caaeneo io ?acia?a e
ninoaaa oi?iaeueiuo a?oii, a?oiiiauo ii?i, niei/aiiinoe ethaeae, noaiaie
eiioeeeoiinoe, noaoona e ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ?ieae /eaiia a?oii.
Yooaeoeaiay a?oiia – oa /ae ?acia? niioaaonoaoao aa caaea/ai, a ninoaaa
eioi?ie iaoiaeyony ethaee n iaiioiaeeie /a?oaie oa?aeoa?a, /uee ii?iu
niinianoaotho aeinoeaeaieth oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee e nicaeaieth aeooa
eieeaeoeaecia, aaea caei?iaue o?iaaiue eiioeeeoiinoe, oi?ioaa auiieiaiea
?ieae e aaea eiathuea aunieee noaoon /eaiu a?oiiu ia aeiieie?otho.

I?aaiecaoeey – yoi nioeeaeueiay eaoaai?ey e iaeiia?aiaiii – n?aaenoai
aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae. Yoi – ianoi, aaea ethaee no?iyo ioiioaiey e
acaeiiaeaenoaotho. Iiyoiio a eaaeaeie oi?iaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee
nouanoaoao neiaeiia ia?aieaoaiea iaoi?iaeueiuo a?oii e i?aaiecaoeee.

?en. 2. Iaoaieci ia?aciaaiey oi?iaeueiuo e iaoi?iaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee.

Iaoi?iaeueiay a?oiia – yoi niiioaiii ia?aciaaaoayny a?oiia ethaeae,
eioi?ua anooiatho a ?aaoey?iia acaeiiaeaenoaea aeey aeinoeaeaiey
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaeae. Eae e o oi?iaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee, yoe oeaee
yaeythony i?e/eiie nouanoaiaaiey iaoi?iaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee. I?e/ai, a
e?oiiie i?aaiecaoeee nouanoaoao ia iaeia, a ianeieueei iaoi?iaeueiuo
i?aaiecaoeee. Aieueoeinoai ec ieo naiaiaeii iauaaeeiaiu a naiaai ?iaea
naoue.

A iaoi?iaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo oaeaea eiathony i?aaeea eee ii?iu
iiaaaeaiey, ii iaienaiua. Iie iiaee?aieythony nenoaiie iiiu?aiee e
naieoeee. ?acee/ea a oii, /oi oi?iaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey, aa no?oeoo?a e
oei no?iyony ?oeiaiaenoaii niciaoaeueii ii ca?aiaa i?iaeoiaiiiio ieaio.
Iaoi?iaeueiay aea i?aaiecaoeey nei?aa yaeyaony niiioaiiie ?aaeoeeae ia
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua iio?aaiinoe, aa no?oeoo?a e oei
aicieeatho a ?acoeueoaoa nioeeaeueiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey.

I?e/eiu anooieaiey ethaeae a iaoi?iaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee ninoiyo a
neaaeothuai.

Ia?aay – yoi oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoe ethaeae a /oanoaa
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e aeaiiie i?aaiecaoeee.

Aoi?ay i?e/eia – yoi iiiiuue, eioi?oth iieo/atho ?aaioieee io
iaoi?iaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee, ia iuouay aa io iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo
?oeiaiaeeoaeae – iaiaaeaea?ia.

O?aouey i?e/eia – acaeiicaueoa ?aaioieeia io ?yaea oaeoi?ia, a oii /enea
a?aaeiuo oneiaee o?oaea. I?e/ai, caueoiay ooieoeey i?eia?aoaao iaeaieaa
aaaeiia cia/aiea, eiaaea ia/aeuenoao ia aeiaa?ytho.

*aoaa?oay i?e/eia – iio?aaiinoue ethaeae a iauaiee. Ethaee oioyo ciaoue,
/oi aie?oa eo i?ienoiaeeo. Iaeiaei ai iiiaeo oi?iaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo
ieioi iinoaaeaia eioi?iaoeey. Aieaa oiai, ?oeiaiaeeoaee iiae/an
iaia?aiii ne?uaatho aa io ?aaioathueo.

Iyoay i?e/eia – yoi acaeiiua neiiaoee ethaeae. Iie /anoi
i?eniaaeeiythony e iaoi?iaeueiui a?oiiai aeey oiai, /oiau auoue aeeaea e
oai, eiio neiiaoece?otho.

Oaeei ia?acii, ethaee anooiatho a a?oiiu, /oiau ia?anoe
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue, iiiiuue, caueoo e iauaiea.

Oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoi?iaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee

I?ioeann ?acaeoey iaoi?iaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee e i?e/eiu, ii eioi?ui
ethaee a ieo anooiatho, niinianoaotho ia?aciaaieth o yoeo i?aaiecaoeee
naienoa, eioi?ua aeaeatho eo iaeiia?aiaiii iioiaeeie e iaiioiaeeie ia
oi?iaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee. Ieaea i?eaiaeeony e?aoeia iienaiea iniiaiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee iaoi?iaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua eiatho i?yiia
ioiioaiea e oi?aaeaieth, oae eae ieacuaatho neeueiia aeeyiea ia
yooaeoeaiinoue oi?iaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee.

Nioeeaeueiue eiio?ieue. Iaoi?iaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee onoaiaaeeaatho e
oe?aieytho ii?iu – a?oiiiaua yoaeiiu i?eaieaiiai e iai?eaieaiiai
iiaaaeaiey. *oiau oe?aieoue niaethaeaiea yoeo ii?i, a?oiia iiaeao
i?eiaiyoue aeiaieueii aeanoeea naieoeee, a oao, eoi eo ia?ooaao, iiaeao
aeaeaoue io/oaeaeaiea. Yoi – neeueiia e yooaeoeaiia iaeacaiea, eiaaea
/aeiaae caaeneo io iaoi?iaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee a oaeiaeaoai?aiee naieo
nioeeaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae.

Nioeeaeueiue eiio?ieue, inouanoaeyaiue iaoi?iaeueiie i?aaiecaoeeae,
iiaeao ieacaoue aeeyiea e iai?aaeoue e aeinoeaeaieth oeaeae oi?iaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeee. Ii oaeaea iiaeao iiaeeyoue ia iiaiea i ?oeiaiaeeoaea e
ni?aaaaeeeainoe eo ?aoaiee.

Nii?ioeaeaiea ia?aiaiai. Ethaee iiaoo eniieueciaaoue iaoi?iaeueioth
i?aaiecaoeeth aeey i?aaeiieaaathueony eee oaeoe/aneeo ia?aiai a eo
ioaeaea eee i?aaiecaoeee. A iaoi?iaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo iaaethaeaaony
oaiaeaioeey e nii?ioeaeaieth ia?aiai, eioi?ua iiaoo ianoe a aeaeueiaeoai
oa?ico nouanoaiaaiey iaoi?iaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee, eeai e nie?auaieth
aiciiaeiinoae acaeiiaeaenoaey e oaeiaeaoai?aiey nioeeaeueiuo ioaeae.
Eiiaaea oaeea eciaiaiey iiaoo aeaoue aiciiaeiinoue eiie?aoiui a?oiiai
aeiaeoueny iieiaeaiey e aeanoe.

Nii?ioeaeaiea aoaeao aicieeaoue anyeee ?ac, eiaaea /eaiu a?oiiu aoaeoo
oniao?eaaoue a ia?aiaiao oa?ico aeaeueiaeoaio nouanoaiaaieth naiae
a?oiiu eae oaeiaie, eo iauaio iiuoo, oaeiaeaoai?aieth nioeeaeueiuo
ioaeae, iauei eioa?anai eee iieiaeeoaeueiui yiioeeyi. ?oeiaiaenoai
iiaeao ineaaeoue nii?ioeaeaiea, ?ac?aoay e iiiu?yy iiae/eiaiiuo
o/anoaiaaoue a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee.

Iaoi?iaeueiua eeaea?u. Iaoi?iaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee, eae e oi?iaeueiua
i?aaiecaoeee – eiatho ea?a?oeth e eeaea?ia. Eeaea? oi?iaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeee eiaao iiaeaea?aeeo a aeaea aeaeaae?iaaiiuo aio
ioeoeeaeueiuo iieiiii/ee e iau/ii aeaenoaoao a ioaaaeaiiie aio
eiie?aoiie ooieoeeiiaeueiie iaeanoe. Iii?a iaoi?iaeueiiai eeaea?a –
i?eciaiea aai a?oiiie. A naieo aeaenoaeyo ii aeaeaao noaaeo ia ethaeae e
eo acaeiiioiioaiey. Noa?a aeeyiey iaoi?iaeueiiai eeaea?a iiaeao
auoiaeeoue ca aaeieieno?aoeaiua ?aiee oi?iaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee.

Iaoi?iaeueiue eeaea? eiaao aeaa iniiaiua ooieoeee: iiiiaaoue a?oiia a
aeinoeaeaiee aa oeaeae e iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aa nouanoaiaaiea, nioeeaeueiia
acaeiiaeaenoaea. Eiiaaea yoe ooieoeee auiieiytho ?aciua ethaee – 2
eeaea?a.

Iaoi?iaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee nicaeatho ?yae i?iaeai: nieaeaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, ?ani?ino?aiaiea eiaeiuo
neooia e nii?ioeaeaiea i?ia?anneaiui ia?aiaiai. A oi aea a?aiy, anee
a?oiiiaua ii?iu i?aainoiaeyo ioeoeeaeueii onoaiiaeaiiua, iaoi?iaeueiua
i?aaiecaoeee ianoo iaeioi?ua iioaioeeaeueiua auaiaeu, a eiaiii:
aieueooth i?aaeaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoeth, aunieee aeoo eieeaeoeaecia e
aieaa aunieoth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea.

Aeey oiai /oiau ni?aaeyoueny n iioaioeeaeueiuie i?iaeaiaie e
iaeaaeaaaoue auaiaeaie iaoi?iaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee, ?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii
i?eciaoue yoo i?aaiecaoeeth e ?aaioaoue n iae, i?eneooeaaoueny e iiaieth
iaoi?iaeueiuo eeaea?ia e /eaiia a?oiiu, o/eouaaoue yooaeoeaiinoue
?aoaiee iaoi?iaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee, ?ac?aoaoue iaoi?iaeueiui a?oiiai
o/anoaiaaoue a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee e aaneoue neooe iooai iia?aoeaiiai
i?aaeinoaaeaiey ioeoeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee.

Ecaanoii iiiai ea/anoa, i?enoueo oi?ioaio eeaea?o e ana iie i/aiue
?aciua.

Aeaeueiiaeaeiinoue. Eeaea?o ioaeii oiaoue onoaiiaeoue oeaee
i?aaiecaoeee e iauynieoue ae?oaei eo niune. N ?anoe?aieai aeaea oeaee
i?aaiecaoeee, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e caaea/e eeaea?a oneiaeiythony, e,
anee aio ia oaeanony iinoiyiii aea?aeaoue eieeaa a eo?na naieo ieaiia e
ii?aaeaeyoue aiciiaeiinoue eo aiieiuaiey, oi ioiioaiea e ?aaioa e
ii?aeueiue eeeiao oooaeoeony, e a eiioea eiioeia ana oi?ioea ia/eiaiey
nieaeoo ia iao.

?annoaeeoaeueiinoue – ea/anoai, eioi?ia o?oaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eee
ecia?eoue, ii eioi?ia, ianiiiaiii, i?enoua eeoue oi?ioaio eeaea?o.

Oiaiea ii aeinoieinoao ioeaieoue ea/anoaa naieo iiae/eiaiiuo e
naeaeaoue ana, /oiau canoaaeoue eo “aueeaaeuaaoueny” ia ?aaioa.

Yia?ae/iinoue. ?oeiaiaenoai enoiuaao oece/anee, oinoaaiii e aeooaaii,
ia a iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue iioiio, /oi oi?ioee eeaea? anaoeaei
iaoiaeeony ai aeanoe naieo eaeae. Auiineeainoue – caeia oniaoiiai
?oeiaiaenoaa.

?aoeoaeueiinoue. Iineieueeo eeaea? i?ieeaaeuaaao iiaua iooe a aeciana e
i?eieiaao ia naay aanue aiciiaeiue ?ene, oi eiaiii ii /aua, /ai
iaiaaeaea?, oa?ieo ia oaea/o a naieo ia/eiaieyo. Iiyoiio aaaeii oiaoue
aini?yiooue iinea ii?aaeaiey, “i?iaeaaoue” eaeath, eioi?oth neaioeee
oaea aeaaii iioi?iieee, e ia ia?ano?aoiauaaoueny. Oioy ?aoeoaeueiinoue a
oie eee eiie ia?a i?enoua eaaeaeiio /aeiaaeo, ia aa ?acaeoea aeeyao
iauanoaaiiue oeeaae e eiie?aoiay neooaoeey, iai?eia?, a NOA iaoaea/o
?anniao?eaatho eae /anoue o/aiey (ia oaa?aiiinoue a naieo neeao ia?iiiia
aeeyiea ieacuaatho ?iaenoaaiieee e ae?ocuey).

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue – yoi naiaia?aciay “eaeioniaay aoiaaeea”,
ii?aaeaeythuay oi?ioaai eeaea?a. Oiaiea ?oeiaiaeeoue ai iiiaii caaeneo
io i?aaeneacoaiinoe iaoiaeia ?oeiaiaenoaa, acaeyaeia e iaia?u i?eiyoey
?aoaiey. Oa, eiio oniao ane?oaeee aieiao, caauaatho ia yoii – e
ioiioaiey eeaea?a n eieeaaaie io?aaeaiu aai iaiinoiyinoaii e
iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth, iniaaiii i?e aunieeo oaiiao ?inoa
i?aaiecaoeee. Iaeaieaa ino?ie noaiiaeony yoa i?iaeaia a neo/ayo, eiaaea
iieiiii/ey ?oeiaiaeeoaey aeaeyony iaaeaeo ia?oia?aie ii 6eciano.

Ni?aaaaeeeainoue. No?iy ioiioaiey n ethaeueie, iu ii-?aciiio
enoieeiauaaai yoi iiiyoea. Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi ni?aaaaeeeainoue
e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue acaeiinaycaiu: iai?eia?, anee eeaea? iaeeaeaao
io iiae/eiaiiuo aeeaaea a ?aaioo, eioi?ue aa?aioe?oao ei ianoi a oe?ia,
oi ai?acaei aaaeiaa, /oi yoi i?aaeei i?eiaiyaony ei anai aac
eneeth/aiey. Ni?aaaaeeeainoue, n eioi?ie eeaea? iiaeoiaeeo e ?aoaieth
iiaeiaiuo aii?inia, eiaao ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia ii?aeueiue eeeiao a
eiiiaiee.

Aacaeaeinoiinoue. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe eeaea?o i?eoiaeeony aeaenoaiaaoue
aacaeaeinoii. Oeaee i?aaiecaoeee i?aauoa anaai, e ?aoeiinoue, n eioi?ie
aeaenoaoao eeaea?, yaeyaony oi?ioei iieacaoaeai caei?iauey oe?iu.
Aacaeaeinoiinoue – yoi ia iaycaoaeueii aeanoieinoue eee
aan/oanoaaiiinoue. Ii?aeueiua e yoe/aneea i?eioeeiu eeaea?a ninoaaeytho
aaaeioth /anoue aai aeeyiey ia i?aaiecaoeeth, e anee aieueoeinoai
nio?oaeieeia n/eoaao yoe i?eioeeiu ?acoiiuie, anyeea aeaenoaey eeaea?a
iie iau/ii aini?eieiatho a aeaaii?eyoiii naaoa.

Naiiiiciaiea. Iiiaea eeaea?u aei oaeie noaiaie yenoeaio?e/iu e
yaienoe/iu, /oi ii yoei ea/anoaai iaiiieiatho nei?aa iieeoeea eee
?aaiethoeeiia?a, ii yoi iiaeao iiaoaeoue naiua aeaaea iaia?aiey eeaea?a
aeiaeoueny aeiaa?ey naieo nio?oaeieeia. A iaeeea eeaea?a /?acau/aeii
aaaeiu oaeea /a?ou, eae oiaiea iiiyoue i?e/eiu oiai, /oi ii aeaeaao,
ioeaieoue naie aeinoieinoaa e iaaeinoaoee, ecaea/ue o?iee ?aaii ec
oniaoia e ec iaoaea/. Naiiiiciaiea e naiiaiaeec – aeaeaei ia iaeii e oi
aea, a ioaee/iia “naiieiiaiea” iau/ii aini?eieiaaony eae i?eciae
ia?aoeoaeueiinoe. Ii/oe anaaaea o eeaea?a anoue /aeiaae, eioi?iio ii
aeiaa?yao e niaianoii n eioi?ui ii ?aoaao ana i?iaeaiu; o aeaaeaeueoea
iaaieueoie oe?iu yoi noi?oa(a) eee aeaeiaie ia?oia?, a e?oiiuo eiiiaieyo
?ieue oaeie “aeiaa?aiiie iniau” ea?atho eiinoeueoaiou ii no?aoaae/aneei
aii?inai.

Niiniaiinoe. Eeaea? aeieaeai oiaoue aiai?eoue e neooaoue. Aio neaaeoao
iao/eoueny onoaiaaeeaaoue e iiaeaea?aeeaaoue eiyooeoeeaio iieaciiai
aeaenoaey nio?oaeieeia, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeeoue noeeue i?eiyoey ?aoaiee.
Eeaea?o ioaeii ciaoue, eae iiiu?youe ethaeae e eae i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
naeaeaoue ei caia/aiey. E, iaeiiaoe – ii ia a iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue –
ii aeieaeai /oanoaiaaoue, eiaaea aiaoeaaoueny e eiaaea eo/oa inoaoueny a
noi?iia – iaeiei neiaii, oiaoue ia?aaeaoue ae?oaei /anoue naieo
iieiiii/ee.

III. Nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea eiioeeeoa

A ineoieiae/aneii ieaia eiioeeeo iiaeao auoue ?anniio?ai eae
noieeiiaaiea ianiaianoeiuo, i?ioeaiiieiaeii iai?aaeaiiuo oaiaeaioeee a
niciaiee /aeiaaea, a iaaeee/iinoiuo eee iaaea?oiiiauo ioiioaieyo,
naycaiiia n ino?uie iaaaoeaiuie ia?aaeeaaieyie. Ioiaoei aaaeiaeoea
iiiaiou aeaiiiai ii?aaeaeaiey. Ai-ia?auo, iiae eiioeeeoiuie
iiae?acoiaaathony oa acaeiiaeaenoaey e ioiioaiey, a iniiaa eioi?uo
eaaeao ianiaianoeiua eioa?anu, iio?aaiinoe eee oeaiiinoe e eo
iaeiia?aiaiiia oaeiaeaoai?aiea, nouanoaiaaiea iaaiciiaeii.

Ai-aoi?uo, iiaeii auaeaeeoue aioo?eee/iinoiue, iaaeee/iinoiue e
iaaea?oiiiaie eiioeeeo, a caaeneiinoe io oiai, a eaeii i?ino?ainoaa
aicieeee e ?acaeaathony iauaeoeaiua i?ioeai?a/ey. A-o?aoueeo, a
ineoieiae/aneii ieaia eiioeeeo nii?iaiaeaeaaony aeey aai o/anoieeia
iaaaoeaiuie yiioeeiiaeueiuie ninoiyieyie, ineiaeiythueie e aac oiai
iai?inooth neooaoeeth iauaeoeaiiai i?ioeai?a/ey.

Oeiu eiioeeeoa

Nouanoaotho /aou?a iniiaiuo oeiia eiioeeeoa: aioo?eee/iinoiue eiioeeeo,
iaaeee/iinoiue eiioeeeo, eiioeeeo iaaeaeo ee/iinoueth e a?oiiie e
iaaea?oiiiaie eiioeeeo.

Aioo?eee/iinoiue eiioeeeo. Aai iioaioeeaeueiua aeenooieoeeiiaeueiua
iineaaenoaey aiaeiae/iu iineaaenoaeyi ae?oaeo oeiia eiioeeeoia. Ii
iiaeao i?eieiaoue ?acee/iua oi?iu. Iaeia ec naiuo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo oi?i
– ?ieaaie eiioeeeo, eiaaea e iaeiiio /aeiaaeo i?aaeuyaeythony
i?ioeai?a/eaua o?aaiaaiey ii iiaiaeo oiai, eaeei aeieaeai auoue
?acoeueoao aai ?aaiou.

Aioo?eee/iinoiue eiioeeeo iiaeao aicieeiooue a ?acoeueoaoa oiai, /oi
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua o?aaiaaiey ia niaeanothony n ee/iuie iio?aaiinoyie eee
oeaiiinoyie. Oaeaea eiioeeeo iiaeao yaeyoueny ioaaoii ia ?aai/oth
ia?aa?oceo eee iaaeia?oceo. Enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho, /oi oaeie
aioo?eee/iinoiue eiioeeeo naycai n ieceie noaiaiueth oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe
?aaioie, iaeie oaa?aiiinoueth a naaa e i?aaiecaoeee, a oaeaea ni
no?annii.

Iaaeee/iinoiue eiioeeeo. Yoio oei eiioeeeoa naiue ?ani?ino?aiaiiue. A
i?aaiecaoeeyo ii i?iyaeyaony ii-?aciiio. *aua anaai yoi ai?ueaa
?oeiaiaeeoaeae ca ia?aie/aiiua ?ano?nu, eaieoae eee ?aai/oth n?aaeo,
a?aiy eniieueciaaiey iai?oaeiaaiey eee iaeia?aiea i?iaeoa.

Iaaeee/iinoiue eiioeeeo iiaeao oaeaea i?iyaeyoueny e eae noieeiiaaiea
ee/iinoae. Ethaee n ?acee/iuie /a?oaie oa?aeoa?a, acaeyaeaie e
oeaiiinoyie eiiaaea i?inoi ia a ninoiyiee eaaeeoue ae?oa n ae?oaii. Eae
i?aaeei, acaeyaeu e oeaee oaeeo ethaeae ?acee/athony a ei?ia.

Eiioeeeo iaaeaeo ee/iinoueth e a?oiiie. *oiau auoue i?eiyoui
iaoi?iaeueiie a?oiiie e, oai naiui, oaeiaeaoai?eoue naie nioeeaeueiua
iio?aaiinoe, /aeiaae aeieaeai niaethaeaoue onoaiiaeaiiua a?oiiie ii?iu
iiaaaeaiey e au?aaioee. Iiyoiio, anee iaeeaeaiey a?oiiu iaoiaeyony a
i?ioeai?a/ee n iaeeaeaieyie ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe, iiaeao aicieeiooue
eiioeeeo.

Iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoueth e a?oiiie iiaeao aicieeiooue eiioeeeo,
anee yoa ee/iinoue caeiao iiceoeeth, ioee/athuothny io iiceoeee a?oiiu.

Aiaeiae/iue eiioeeeo iiaeao aicieeiooue ia ii/aa aeieaeiinoiuo
iaycaiiinoae ?oeiaiaeeoaey: iaaeaeo iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iaania/eaaoue
niioaaonoaothuoth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue e niaethaeaoue i?aaeea e
i?ioeaaeo?u i?aaiecaoeee. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue iiaeao auoue auioaeaeai
i?aaei?eieiaoue aeenoeeieeia?iua ia?u, eioi?ua iiaoo ieacaoue

Iaaea?oiiiaie eiioeeeo

1. Eiioeeeou iiaoo aicieeaoue ai acaeiiaeaenoaee noaaeeueii
nouanoaothueo iee?i-a?oii aioo?e aeaiiie a?oiiu. Oaeea a?oiiu, eae
i?aaeei, nouanoaotho a ?aieao ethaie iaeie nioeeaeueiie iauiinoe, eo
/eneaiiinoue eieaaeaony io aeaoo aei 6 – 8 /aeiaae, i?e yoii /aua anaai
aicieeatho ieie-a?oiiu /eneaiiinoueth a 3 /aeiaaea. Aieaa iiiai/eneaiiua
iiaea?oiiu, eae i?aaeei, ia i/aiue onoie/eau. Ieie-a?oiiu ea?atho
aieueooth ?ieue a aeecie a?oiiu a oeaeii. Eo acaeiiioiioaiey aeeytho ia
iauee eeeiao a?oiiu, i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe. Eiaiii aioo?e ieo
i?ienoiaeeo “iaeaoea” ii?i e i?aaee a?oiiiaie aeecie, e eiaiii
ieie-a?oiia, eae i?aaeei, aunooiaao eieoeeaoi?ii eciaiaiey yoeo i?aaee.
A i?eioeeia iiaeii aiai?eoue i oii, /oi /aeiaae nai ii naaa i/aiue
?aaeei aeaenoaoao a naiae iaeie a?oiia. Eae i?aaeei, ii iie?aaony ia
iee?i-a?oiio, caaeneo io iaa e i?eaioe?oaony ia iaa eae ia yenia?oa i?e
au?aaioea oie eee eiie no?aoaaee naiaai iiaaeaiey. “Iiae/ie”,
iiiaaeathuee a iiaoth nioeeaeueioth n?aaeo, eae i?aaeei, i?aaeaea anaai,
anoaao ia?aae caaea/ae auai?a ieoaie-a?oiiu, eioi?ay au i?eiyea aai e
iaeia?eea aai iiaaaeaiea. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe oaeaea
aeieaeai aeaenoaiaaoue n iaeyaeeie ia ?aaeoeeth ieie-a?oii, iniaaiii oao
ec ieo, eioi?ua caieiatho aeaaainoaothuea iiceoeee.

Eiiaaea a a?oiia iiaeii auaeaeeoue “enoi/iee” iaaea?oiiiauo eiioeeeoia –
iaeiiai /aeiaaea eee onoie/eaoth ia?o, onoaiiaeaoeo eiioeeeoiua
ioiioaiey n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ae?oaeo iee?i-a?oiia. Aa?iyoiaa anaai, a
yoeo eiioeeeoiuo ioiioaieyo iie aoaeoo iiaeaea?aeaiu naiei
ieie-niiauanoaii, e aicieeiao i/aa aioo?ea?oiiiaiai eiioeeeoa.

2. Eiioeeeou iiaoo aicieeaoue oaeaea aneaaenoaea i?eaioaoeee
ii?aaeaeaiiuo, i?aaeaea anaai, aunieinoaooniuo, /eaiia a?oiiu ia
aiaoithth ?aoa?aioioth a?oiio, i?ioeainoiyuoth a naieo oeaeyo eee
oeaiiinoyo aeaiiie a?oiia eee aa ?oeiaiaeeoaeth. A aeaiiii neo/aa
/aeiaae yaeyaony eae au iineoaeai i?ioeai?a/eaie nenoaiu o?aaiaaiee e
ii?i, /oi iiaeao i?iaioee?iaaoue iaaeiaieuenoai ?oeiaiaeeoaey eee
ae?oaeo /eaiia a?oiiu e ?acaeeaaoue aioo?ea?oiiiaie eiioeeeo.

3. Aiciiaeii aicieeiiaaiea eiioeeeoiie neooaoeee ai acaeiiaeaenoaee
?oeiaiaeeoaey n ii?aaeaeaiiie iaoi?iaeueiie a?oiiie, ia niaeaniie n
caaea/aie eee noeeai oi?aaeaiey, ?aaeecoaiuie ?oeiaiaeeoaeai. Eioa?anii
ioiaoeoue, /oi eiioeeeou oaeiai ?iaea ia/anoi ia/eiathony eae a?oiiiaua.
Ia ia?auo yoaiao iaiaia eiioeeeoiuie aeaenoaeyie, o/anoieeaie iiaoo
eacaoueny ?oeiaiaeeoaeue e ioaeaeueiue /eai a?oiiu. Iaeiaei e?aeia
?aaeei /aeiaae ?aoaaony ia eiioeeeo aioo?e a?oiiu naiaai iinoiyiiiai
/eainoaa, ia aoaeo/e oaa?aiiui a iiaeaea?aeea ni noi?iiu ?aoa?aioiie
iee?i-a?oiiu. A ?acoeueoaoa ethaie iaaeee/iinoiue eiioeeeo a iaeie
a?oiia, a oii /enea n ?oeiaiaeeoaeai, auno?i noaiiaeony a?oiiiaui.

4. Eiioeeeo iiaeao aicieeiooue e aneaaenoaea ?ac?uaa ioiioaiee aioo?e
eaeie-eeai iiaea?oiiu. A neo/aa anee inoaeueiua /eaiu a?oiiu ia
iiaeeeth/aoueny e eiioeeeoo, ii caeii/eony /anoe/iui
ia?ano?oeooe?iaaieai iaoi?iaeueiuo naycae a a?oiia, oae eae /eaiu
?aniaaoaeny a?oiie?iaee aeieaeiu aoaeoo iaeoe naia ianoi a ae?oaeo
niiauanoaao. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa, i?iecieaeao cia/eoaeueiia eciaiaiea
a?oiiu a oeaeii a ioiioaiee aa noaooniie e eeaea?neie ea?a?oee.

5. Aiciiaeiu ii?iaoeaiua a?oiiiaua eiioeeeou. Iie naycaiu n oaiiiaiii
a?oiiiaiai aeaaeaiey aieueoeinoaa ia iaiueoeinoai, ia aeaeathuaa
i?eieiaoue ii?iu e oeaiiinoe aieueoeinoaa.

6. Oeie/iuie aeey a?oiiiaie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeythony eiioeeeou iaaeaeo
eeaea?aie.

7. Iaeiiaoe, aanueia ?ani?ino?aiaiu eiioeeeou iaaeaeo iaoi?iaeueiui
eeaea?ii e ?oeiaiaeeoaeai a?oiiu.

A nioeeaeueiie ineoieiaee i?e aiaeeca eiioeeeoia i?eiyoi ianoaeaeaoue
i?e/eiu eiioeeeoia, eo no?oeoo?o, aeeiaieeo ?acaeoey e ooieoeee.

No?oeoo?a e aeeiaieea eiioeeeoia

Ineoieiae/aneay no?oeoo?a eiioeeeoa iiaeao auoue iienaia n iiiiuueth
aeaoo aaaeiaeoeo iiiyoee: eiioeeeoiie neooaoeee e eioeeaeaioa.

Eiioeeeoiay neooaoeey – yoi iauaeoeaiay iniiaa eiioeeeoa, oeene?othuay
aicieeiiaaiea ?aaeueiiai i?ioeai?a/ey a eioa?anao e iio?aaiinoyo noi?ii.
Ii nooe aeaea, yoi aua ia nai eiioeeeo, oae eae nouanoaothuaa
iauaeoeaiia i?ioeai?a/ea iiaeao ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy ia iniciaaaoueny
o/anoieeaie acaeiiaeaenoaey.

Eiioeeeoiay neooaoeey eiaao aanueia ii?aaeaeaiioth no?oeoo?o:

Eae aeaeii ec noaiu, a iauaeoeaiie eiioeeeoiie neooaoeee i?enoonoaotho
iauaeo eiioeeeoa – ?aaeueiue eee eaeaaeueiue i?aaeiao, yaeythueeny
i?e/eiie nii?a e noi?iiu eiioeeeoa eee aai o/anoieee, a ea/anoaa eioi?uo
iiaoo aunooiaoue ioaeaeueiua ethaee eee a?oiiu ethaeae. Aeey noi?ii
oa?aeoa?ii iaee/ea o ieo aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae iiceoeee a eiioeeeoa.
Aiaoiyy iiceoeey – yoa oa iioeae?iaea o/anoey a eiioeeeoa, eioi?ay
ioe?uoi i?aaeuyaeyaony noi?iiaie naiei iiiiiaioai (oae /aua anaai
iacuaathony o/anoieee eiioeeeoiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey). Iia iiaeao
niaiaaeaoue, a iiaeao e ia niaiaaeaoue n aioo?aiiae iiceoeeae,
i?aaenoaaeythuae niaie iaai? oao enoeiiuo eioa?ania, iioeaia e
oeaiiinoae, eioi?ua i?eioaeaeatho /aeiaaea eee a?oiio aeeth/aoueny a
eiioeeeo. Ioiaoei, /oi aioo?aiiyy iiceoeey ca/anooth ne?uoa ia oieueei
io iiiiiaioia e iaaethaeaoaeae, ii e io naiiai noauaeoa, oae eae
yaeyaony iainiciaaaaiie.

A ea/anoaa i?eia?a oaeiai ianiaiaaeaiey aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae iiceoeee
iiaeii i?eaanoe oeie/iue eiioeeeo iiae?inoea e ac?ineiai, a eioi?ii ca
aiaoia aa?anneaiie iiceoeeae ?aaaiea, eae i?aaeei, noieo iio?aaiinoue a
i?eciaiee, oaaaeaiee, iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiaeaea?aeaiey cia/eiinoe naiaai
“ss”, iainiciaaaaiay ei naiei.

Eiioeeeo noaiiaeony ineoieiae/aneie ?aaeueiinoueth aeey o/anoieeia n
iiiaioa aicieeiiaaiey eioeeaeaioa. Eioeeaeaio – yoi neooaoeey
acaeiiaeaenoaey, iicaieythuay iniciaoue aai o/anoieeai iaee/ea
iauaeoeaiiai i?ioeai?a/ey a eo eioa?anao e oeaeyo. Oi anoue eioeeaeaio –
yoi iniciaiea eiioeeeoiie neooaoeee. Ii iiaeao i?ioaeaoue a ?acee/iuo
oi?iao. I?aaeaea anaai, ?acee/atho ne?uoue e ioe?uoue eioeeaeaio. A
naiae ia?aie oi?ia eioeeaeaio ?acai?a/eaaaony ia o?iaia iniciaiey
o/anoieeaie eiioeeeoiinoe i?ienoiaeyuaai, ii iiaeao ieeae ia
i?iyaeyoueny a eo ?aaeueiuo ioiioaieyo e ?aaeoeeyo. Ioe?uoue eioeeaeaio
?acai?a/eaaaony eae na?ey eiioeeeoiuo aeaenoaee o/anoieeia ii ioiioaieth
ae?oa e ae?oao.

Aeeiaieea eiioeeeoa, oi anoue caeiiiia?iinoe aai ?acaeoey iaoiaeyony a
iieiii niioaaonoaee n aai no?oeoo?ie. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue 4 iniiaiuo
noaaeee ?acaeoey eiioeeeoa:

Oaeei ia?acii, eiioeeeo aicieeaao n iiyaeaieai iauaeoeaiiai i?ioeai?a/ey
a oeaeyo e eioa?anao o/anoieeia, noaiiaeony aeey ieo ineoieiae/aneie
?aaeueiinoueth iinea iniciaiey i?ioeai?a/ey a ?aaeueiii eioeeaeaioa,
i?ioiaeeo noaaeeth eiioeeeoiuo aeaenoaee e i?eoiaeeo e ii?aaeaeaiiiio
?ac?aoaieth.

Aeaa i?iiaaeooi/iua noaaeee ia yaeythony iaycaoaeueiuie. Oae, eiioeeeo
iiaeao iauaeoeaii aicieeiooue, ii inoaoueny iainiciaiiui aieioue aei
en/aciiaaiey naiie eiioeeeoiie neooaoeee. Eiioeeeo iiaeao iaeoe
?ac?aoaiea ia noaaeee iniciaiey, ia ia?aoiaey e aeaenoaeyi. Iaeiaei a
?aaeueiinoe aieueoeinoai nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneeo eiioeeeoia a oie
eee eiie oi?ia i?ioiaeyo ana iniiaiua noaaeee. Ia?aoeiny e aiaeeco
noaaeee eiioeeeoiuo aeaenoaee.

Ia noaaeee eiioeeeoiuo aeaenoaee i?ienoiaeeo aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea anao
no?oeoo? eiioeeeoa. Iauaeo eiioeeeoa, eae i?aaeei, ?anoe?yaony ca n/ao
“aoyaeaaiey” a eiioeeeo aeeceaaeaueo cii acaeiiioiioaiee (oae, eiioeeeo
ec aeaeiaie noa?u ia?aoiae a ee/iinoioth, iaeanoue ianiaiaaeaiee iiaiee
eaaeaony aai o/anoieeai ai?acaei oe?a, /ai a ia/aea). Eciaiythony e
noi?iiu eiioeeeoa. A /anoiinoe, iie iaiytho naie noaoon ii ioiioaieth e
iiiiiaioo (iiiuoee aeaaeoue ii neoaeaaiie eeiee, /a?ac th?enoia, noae,
iauanoaaiiinoue) e i?eaeaeatho ia naith noi?iio ni/oanoaothueo, ca n/ao
/aai iaaeee/iinoiue eiioeeeo i/aiue /anoi i?aa?auaaony a iaaea?oiiiaie.

I?e/eiu eiioeeeoa

O anao eiioeeeoia anoue ianeieueei i?e/ei. Iniiaiuie i?e/eiaie eiioeeeoa
yaeythony ia?aie/aiiinoue ?ano?nia, eioi?ua ioaeii aeaeeoue,
acaeiicaaeneiinoue caaeaiee, ?acee/ey a oeaeyo, ?acee/ey a
i?aaenoaaeaieyo e oeaiiinoyo, ?acee/ey a iaia?a iiaaaeaiey, a o?iaia
ia?aciaaiey, a oaeaea ieioea.

?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ano?nia. ?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii ?aoeoue, eae
?ani?aaeaeeoue iaoa?eaeu, ethaeneea ?ano?nu e oeiainu iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie
a?oiiaie, /oiau iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui ia?acii aeinoeaiooue oeaeae
i?aaiecaoeee. Ia eiaao cia/aiey, /aai eanaaony yoi ?aoaiea – ethaee
anaaaea oioyo iieo/aoue ia iaiueoa, a aieueoa. Oaeei ia?acii,
iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaeeoue ?ano?nu ii/oe iaecaaaeii aaaeao e ?acee/iui
aeaeai eiioeeeoa.

Acaeiicaaeneiinoue caaea/. Aiciiaeiinoue eiioeeeoa nouanoaoao aacaea,
aaea iaeei /aeiaae eee a?oiia caaenyo a auiieiaiee caaea/e io ae?oaiai
/aeiaaea eee a?oiiu. Iineieueeo ana i?aaiecaoeee yaeythony nenoaiaie,
ninoiyueie ec acaeiicaaeneiuo yeaiaioia, i?e iaaaeaeaaoiie ?aaioa
iaeiiai iiae?acaeaeaiey eee /aeiaaea acaeiicaaeneiinoue caaea/ iiaeao
noaoue i?e/eiie eiioeeeoa.

?acee/ey a oeaeyo. Aiciiaeiinoue eiioeeeoa oaaee/eaaaony ii ia?a oiai,
eae i?aaiecaoeee noaiiayony aieaa niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie e ?acaeaathony ia
iiae?acaeaeaiey. Oae eae niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua iiae?acaeaeaiey naie
oi?ioee?otho naie oeaee e iiaoo oaeaeyoue aieueoaa aieiaiea eo
aeinoeaeaieth, /ai oeaeyi anae i?aaiecaoeee.

?acee/ey a i?aaenoaaeaieyo e oeaiiinoyo – aanueia ?ani?ino?aiaiiay
i?e/eia eiioeeeoa. I?aaenoaaeaiea i eaeie-oi neooaoeee caaeneo io
aeaeaiey aeinoeaiooue ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaee. Aianoi oiai /oiau ioeaieoue
neooaoeeth, ethaee iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoue oieueei oa acaeyaeu,
aeueoa?iaoeau e aniaeou neooaoeee, eioi?ua, ii eo iiaieth, aeaaii?eyoiu
aeey eo a?oiiu e ee/iuo iio?aaiinoae.

?acee/ey a iaia?a iiaaaeaiey e aeeciaiiii iiuoa iiaoo oaaee/eoue
aiciiaeiinoue aicieeiiaaiey eiioeeeoa. Enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho, /oi
ethaee n /a?oaie oa?aeoa?a, eioi?ua aeaeatho eo a aunoae noaiaie
aaoi?eoa?iuie, aeiaiaoe/iuie, aac?acee/iuie e oaeiio iiiyoeth eae
naiioaaaeaiea, nei?aa anooiatho a eiioeeeo. Ae?oaea enneaaeiaaiey
iieacaee, /oi ?acee/ey a aeeciaiiii iiuoa, oeaiiinoyo, ia?aciaaiee,
noaaea, aic?anoa e nioeeaeueiuo oa?aeoa?enoeeao oiaiueoatho noaiaiue
acaeiiiiieiaiey e nio?oaeie/anoaa iaaeaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ?acee/iuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee.

Iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua eiiioieeaoeee yaeythony eae i?e/eiie, oae e
neaaenoaeai eiioeeeoa. Ieioay ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee iiaeao aeaenoaiaaoue
eae eaoaeecaoi? eiioeeeoa, iaoay ioaeaeueiui ?aaioieeai eee a?oiia
iiiyoue neooaoeeth eee oi/ee c?aiey ae?oaeo. Ae?oaea ?ani?ino?aiaiiua
i?iaeaiu ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee, aucuaathuea eiioeeeo, – iaiaeiicia/iua
e?eoa?ee ea/anoaa, ianiiniaiinoue oi/ii ii?aaeaeeoue aeieaeiinoiua
iaycaiiinoe e ooieoeee anao nio?oaeieeia e iiae?acaeaeaiee, a oaeaea
i?aaeuyaeaiea acaeiieneeth/athueo o?aaiaaiee e ?aaioa. Yoe i?iaeaiu
iiaoo aicieeaoue eee onoaoaeyoueny ec-ca ianiiniaiinoe ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
?ac?aaioaoue e aeiaanoe aei naaaeaiey iiae/eiaiiuo oi/iia iienaiea
aeieaeiinoiuo iaycaiiinoae.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea enoiaeia eiioeeeoa

Enoiaeu eiioeeeoa (oi?iu aai ?ac?aoaiey) i/aiue ?aciiia?aciu. Iiaeii
aiai?eoue i aeaoo iniiaiuo iooyo niyoey eiioeeeoa: /a?ac niyoea
eioeeaeaioa e /a?ac ?ac?aoaiea iauaeoeaiie eiioeeeoiie neooaoeee.

Niyoea eioeeaeaioa – yoi iiiuoea i?eoooeoue eiioeeeo, eeai ia?aaaaey aai
ia noaaeeth iniciaiey (aac eiioeeeoiuo aeaenoaee), eeai ia noaaeeth
iainiciaaaaiie eiioeeeoiie neooaoeee. Ia?a/eneei iniiaiua niiniau:

1. Iaania/aiea auea?uoa iaeiie ec noi?ii aeaiiii neo/aa eiioeeeo
?aoaaony iieiinoueth, anee i?iea?aaoay noi?iia i?eiyea naia ii?aaeaiea,
/oi e?aeia ?aaeei ano?a/aaony a iianaaeiaaiie i?aeoeea. Iiaaaea iaeiie
noi?iiu – anaaaea a?aiaiiia ninoiyiea, nio?aiythuaany aei aeeaeaeoaai
na?ueaciiai eioeeaeaioa.

2. Niyoea eiioeeeoa n iiiiuueth eaee, eioi?ia ia?aaiaeeo Eiioeeeo a
iainiciaaaaioth oi?io e aeaao noi?iiai ion?i/eo a ?aoaiee naieo i?iaeai.

Aieaa ea?aeeiaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?ac?aoaiey eiioeeeoa
i?aaeiieaaatho iooe ?ac?aoaiey naiie eiioeeeoiie neooaoeee:

1. Iieiia oece/aneia eee ooieoeeiiaeueiia ?acaaaeaiea o/anoieeia. A yoii
neo/aa aeaenoaeoaeueii en/acaao naia ii/aa aeey eiioeeeoa, ii
eiioeeeoiua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo auaoeie iiiiiaioaie iiaoo nio?aiyoueny
i/aiue aeieai, oae eae iie ia iieo/eee naiaai ?ac?aoaiey. E?iia oiai,
oaeie iooue ?aaeei oaeaaony ?aaeeciaaoue a ?aaeueiie i?aeoeea. Iai?eia?,
a oeaaea ii nii?yaeai aeey o/eoaey n ia?aoiaeii ia iiaia ianoi ?aaiou,
niaiie oa?aeoa?a ?aaiou, a aeey o/aieea – n ia?aoiaeii a ae?oaoth oeieo,
aaeaioaoeeae a iiaie a?oiia.

2. Aioo?aiiaa ia?ano?oeooe?iaaiea ia?aca neooaoeee. Niune aeaiiie ia?u
ninoieo a eciaiaiee aioo?aiiae nenoaiu oeaiiinoae e eioa?ania o/anoieeia
acaeiiaeaenoaey, aneaaenoaea /aai a eo aeacao aeaaeiaao nai iauaeo
eiioeeeoa eee i?eia?aoatho ee/iinoioth cia/eiinoue ioiioaiey n
iiiiiaioii. Oaeay ?aaioa ineoieiae/anee i/aiue neiaeia, /anoi o?aaoao
iiiiue ni noi?iiu niaoeeaeenoa – ineoieiaa, iaeiaei eiaiii yoio iooue
iiaeao i?eaanoe e eiino?oeoeaiiio ?ac?aoaieth noi?oaeaneeo eee naiaeiuo
eiioeeeoia.

3. ?ac?aoaiea eiioeeeoa /a?ac eiio?iioaoeeth e nio?oaeie/anoao. Ii
naiaio niaea?aeaieth aeecie e i?aaeuaeouaio, ii eanaaony, eae i?aaeei,
aeaeiauo eiioeeeoia, ia cao?aaeaathueo aeoaeiiua ioiioaiey ethaeae, a
ioiinyueony e eo nioeeaeueiui eee iaoa?eaeueiui eioa?anai. Oaeea
eiioeeeou iiaoo auoue ?ac?aoaiu /a?ac niaoeeaeueii i?aaieciaaiioth
?aaioo ii iaoiaeaeaieth iaueo eioa?ania e oeaeae, /a?ac noaeaiea ciiu
?aciiaeanee aei ieieioia e caeeth/aiea aeiaiai?ia i nio?oaeie/anoaa.
Aieueooth ?ieue a ?ac?aoaiee oaeeo eiioeeeoia ea?aao o/anoea iin?aaeieea
– /aeiaaea, aeaaeathuaai niaoeeaeueiuie iaaueaie aaaeaiey ia?aaiai?ia e
?ac?aoaiey nii?ia.

Ooieoeee eiioeeeoa

A iianaaeiaaiie aeecie ethaeae neiaeeeinue aeinoaoi/ii aeanoeia e
iaeiicia/iia ioiioaiea e eiioeeeoai eae iaaaoeaiui yaeaieyi. Iiyaeaiea
eiioeeeoa ?anniao?eaaaony eae neiioii iaaeaaiiieo/ey ioiioaiee, e ana
neeu caeioa?aniaaiiuo noi?ii iai?aaeythony ia auno?aeoaa aai
“caiacuaaiea”, /anoi aac na?ueaciiai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai aiaeeca i?e/ei
aicieeathueo i?ioeai?a/ee a?aiaiiia ninoiyiea, nio?aiythuaany aei
aeeaeaeoaai na?ueaciiai eioeeaeaioa. E?iia oiai, ii niaa?oaiii
iaecaaaeai oi a oie, oi a eiie naiae oi?ia, e yoi naycaii eae n
iauaeoeaiie o?oaeiinoueth i?aaiecaoeee oaeiai oi?aaeaiey, eioi?ia
iicaieyei au ?aoaoue iauaeoeaiua eiioeeeoiua neooaoeee, ia noaaeee eo
aicieeiiaaiey, oae e n noauaeoeaiuie i?e/eiaie: a a?oiia ooieoeeiie?otho
aeeaua ethaee, aeey eioi?uo ii/oe anoanoaaiii ?aoaoue iiiaea
i?ioeai?a/ey /a?ac eiioeeeo.

Iaeiaei ia?yaeo n oae iacuaaaiuie aeano?oeoeaiuie ooieoeeyie (?ac?ooaiea
niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe, oooaeoaiea eee ?aniaae ioiioaiee, oooaeoaiea
naii/oanoaey o/anoieeia e ae?.), eiioeeeo auiieiyao cia/eoaeueioth
eiino?oeoeaioth caaea/o, o. e. yaeyaony io?aaeaieai iauaeoeaiuo
i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeyueo a ?acee/iuo iaaeee/iinoiuo acaeiiaeaenoaeyo. A
oeaeii, eiino?oeoeaiay ooieoeey eiioeeeoa naiaeeony e neaaeothuaio:

– eiioeeeo yaeyaony aaaeiui enoi/ieeii ?acaeoey ee/iinoe, a?oiiu,
iaaeee/iinoiuo ioiioaiee, iicaieyao ei iiaeiyoueny ia iiaoth aunioo,
?anoe?eoue e eciaieoue noa?o e niiniau acaeiiaeaenoaey

– /a?ac ioe?uooth eiio?iioaoeeth eiioeeeo inaiaiaeaeaao a?oiio io
iiaeoa/eaathueo aa oaeoi?ia, nieaeaao aa?iyoiinoue canoiy e oiaaeea
a?oiiu

– eiioeeeo niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth acaeiiiiieiaiey iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie
acaeiiaeaenoaey.

IV. Noeeue ?oeiaiaenoaa eieeaeoeaii

*aeiaa/aneee oaeoi? a oe?iao ana aieueoa e aieueoa noaiiaeony
eioaeeaeooaeueiui aeiiieiaieai e oaoiieiaee e nia?aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee
?acee/iie aeayoaeueiinoe. Oi?ioaa iano?iaiea ?aaioieeia, i?aaeaea anaai,
caaeneo io iauaiey a eieeaeoeaa, a /anoiinoe, iauaiey n ?oeiaiaeeoaeai.
E yooaeo io yoiai iauaiey aoaeao auoa, anee ?oeiaiaeeoaeue a caaeneiinoe
io oneiaee ?aaiou, ianoiyoaeuenoa i?eiaiyao ii?aaeaeaiiue noeeue
?oeiaiaenoaa.

Noeeue ?oeiaiaenoaa a eiioaenoa oi?aaeaiey – yoi i?eau/iay iaia?a
iiaaaeaiey ?oeiaiaeeoaey ii ioiioaieth e iiae/eiaiiui, /oiau ieacaoue ia
ieo aeeyiea e iiaoaeeoue eo e aeinoeaeaieth oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee.
Noaiaiue, aei eioi?ie oi?aaeythuee aeaeaae?oao naie iieiiii/ey, oeiu
aeanoe, eniieuecoaiua ei, e caaioa i /aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaieyo eee i
auiieiaiee caaea/e – ana io?aaeaao noeeue ?oeiaiaenoaa.

Enneaaeiaaiea oeiia ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e yooaeoeaiinoe ?oeiaiaenoaa,
i?iaaaeaiiua ineoieiaaie e nioeeieiaaie, iicaieeee auyaeoue o?e iaeaieaa
/anoi ano?a/athueany noeee ?oeiaiaenoaa – yoi aaoi?eoa?iue eee
aaoie?aoe/aneee, aeaiie?aoe/aneee e eeaa?aeueiue.

E?aoeay oa?aeoa?enoeea yoeo noeeae i?aaenoaaeaia a oaaeeoea.

Oaaeeoea 2. Oa?aeoa?enoeea noeeae ?oeiaiaenoaa

Ia?aiao?u acaeiiaeaenoaey Noeee ?oeiaiaenoaa

?oeiaiaeeoaey n iiae/eiaiiuie Aaoi?eoa?iue (aaoie?aoe/aneee)
Aeaiie?aoe/aneee Eeaa?aeueiue

I?eaiu i?eiyoey ?aoaiee Aaeeiiee/ii ?aoaao aii?inu Ia?aae i?eiyoeai
?aoaiey niaaooaony n iiae/eiaiiuie AEaeao oeacaiee io ?oeiaiaenoaa eee
?aoaiey niaauaiee

Niinia aeiaaaeaiey ?aoaiey aei eniieieoaeae I?eeacuaaao, ?anii?yaeaaony,
eiiaiaeoao I?aaeeaaaao, i?ineo I?ineo, oi?aoeaaao

?ani?aaeaeaiea ioaaonoaaiiinoe Aa?ao ia naay eee ia?aeeaaeuaaao ia
iiae/eiaiiuo ?ani?aaeaeyao ioaaonoaaiiinoue a niioaaonoaee n
ia?aaeaiiuie iieiiii/eyie Nieiaao n naay anyeoth ioaaonoaaiiinoue

Ioiioaiea e eieoeeaoeaa Iiaeaaeyao iieiinoueth Iiiu?yao, eniieuecoao a
eioa?anao aeaea Ioaeaao eieoeeaoeao a ?oee iiae/eiaiiuo

Ioiioaiea e iiaeai?o eaae?ia Aieony eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia,
noa?aaony io ieo ecaaaeony Iiaeae?aao aeaeiauo, a?aiioiuo ?aaioieeia
Iiaeai?ii eaae?ia ia caieiaaony

Ioiioaiea e iaaeinoaoeai nianoaaiiuo ciaiee Ana ciaao – ana oiaao
Iinoiyiii iiauoaao naith eaaeeoeeaoeeth, o/eouaaao e?eoeeo Iiiieiyao
naie ciaiey e iiiu?yao yoo /a?oo o iiae/eiaiiuo

Noeeue iauaiey Aea?aeeo aeenoaioeeth, ia iaueoaeai Ae?oaeanee iano?iai,
ethaeo iauaiea Aieony iauaiey, iauaaony n iiae/eiaiiuie oieueei ii eo
eieoeeaoeaa

Oa?aeoa? ioiioaiee n iiae/eiaiiuie Aeeeooaony iano?iaieai ?iaiay iaia?a
iiaaaeaiey. Iinoiyiiue naiieiio?ieue Iyaie, iieeaaeeno

Ioiioaiea e aeenoeeieeia I?eaa?aeaiaoe oi?iaeueiie aeanoeie aeenoeeieeiu
Noi?iiiee ?acoiiie aeenoeeieeiu, inouanoaeyao aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue
iiaeoiae e ethaeyi O?aaoao oi?iaeueiie aeenoeeieeiu

Ioiioaiea e ii?aeueiiio aicaeaenoaeth N/eoaao iaeacaiea iniiaiui
iaoiaeii noeioee?iaaiey, iiiu?yao eca?aiiuo oieueei ii i?acaeieeai
Eniieuecoao ?acee/iua aeaeu noeioeia iinoiyiii Aeaenoaoao oaeei aea
ia?acii

A /enoii aeaea a aeecie, eae i?aaeei, noeee ia i?iyaeythony. Aea e
i?aeoe/anee i?iaiaeeoue a aeeciue iaeei noeeue iaaiciiaeii.

Aaoie?aoe/iue eeaea? a oi?aaeaiee aaoi?eoa?ai. Ii “ana ciaao nai” e ia
oa?ieo aic?aaeaiee. Naiei iiae/eiaiiui ii i?aaenoaaeyao eeoue ieieioi
eioi?iaoeee. Ii ieeiio ia aeiaa?yao e iiaeao ieeiai ia noaaeoue a
ecaanoiinoue i naieo iaia?aieyo. N iiae/eiaiiuie iai?eaaoeea, noa?aaony
ana aeaeaoue nai, eiioeueneaai, neeiiai e iiniaoiui ?aoaieyi; io iaeiie
e?aeiinoe a?inaaony e ae?oaie. Aaoie?ao niiniaai iaiyoue iai?aaeaiey e
iieeoeeo oae aea /anoi, eae ii ioe?uaaao e cae?uaaao aeaa?e a eaaeiaou
naieo iiae/eiaiiuo. Ethaeae ii n/eoaao iaoeaie, /aaieea, a?oa,
aacaeaeinoai. Ii aua?anuaaao neeueiuo e i?eaeiaeueiuo ethaeae, eioi?ui
ia oaaoaao iiaeiaino?anoey. Aai ie?oaeaao oi? iiaeaeaeeaathueo. A oaeeo
oneiaeyo eo/oei ?aaioieeii aoaeao n/eoaoueny oio, eoi oiaao ioaaaeuaaoue
iunee ainna. A yoie aoiinoa?a i?ioeaaoatho nieaoie, eio?eae e aeiiinu.
Iaeioi?ua ?aaioieee iiiaei aio iaycaiu, ii ia oieueei ioaaao e
iaeacuaaao, ii e iaa?aaeaeaao. Iaeiaei oaeay nenoaia naiinoiyoaeueiinoe
ia ainieouaaao, ni anaie aii?inaie iiiiuieee, caianoeoaee e ia/aeueieee
aaaoo e “aeaaiiio”. Anee a oe?ia i?aceaeaio–aaoie?ao, oi ii anao
aoaei?aaeeo, nicaeaao e?aoeia?aiaiioth aeoeaiinoue e inoaaeyao iinea
naay ia?acaa?eoo. Ieeoi oieeii ia ciaao, /oi ii neacae e eae ii aoaeao
?aaae?iaaoue ia oa eee eiua niauoey. Ii iai?aaeneacoai.

Aaoi?eoa?iue noeeue ?oeiaiaenoaa eaaeeo a iniiaa aaniethoiiai
aieueoeinoaa eiioeeeoia e aaae aeaaiaea?y no?aieaieth aunoaai
oi?aaeythuaai e aaeeiiaeanoeth. I?aoaicey aaoie?aoa ia eiiiaoaioeeth ai
anao aii?inao ii?iaeaeaao oain e a eiia/iii n/aoa, aeeyao ia ia
yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaiou. Aaoie?ao ia?aeecoao ?aaioo aiia?aoa, ia eioi?ue
ii iie?aaony. Ii ia oieueei oa?yao eo/oeo ?aaioieeia, ii e nicaeaao
aie?oa naay a?aaeaeaaioth aoiinoa?o, eioi?ay oa?iaeaao aio naiiio.
Iiae/eiaiiue caaeneo io iaai, ii e ii ai iiiaii caaeneo io ieo.
Iaaeiaieueiua iiae/eiaiiua iiaoo aai iiaeaanoe e aeaceioi?ie?iaaoue. A,
e?iia oiai, caioaaiiua ?aaioieee ia oieueei iaiaaeaaeiu, ii e ?aaioatho
ia n iieiie ioaea/ae. Oaeie iiaiiuee iiaeao eoieoue /anu ioneoeueiie
yia?aee, ii eoieoue oaaaeaiea iaeuecy – yoi ioaeii ca?aaioaoue.

Aeaiie?aoe/aneee noeeue ?oeiaiaenoaa i?aaeiieaaaao acaeiiaeaenoaey ia
o?iaia “ac?ineue” – “ac?ineue”. O ?oeiaiaeeoaey e iiae/eiaiiiai a yoii
neo/aa aicieeaao /oanoai aeiaa?ey e acaeiiiiieiaiey. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
aaaeao naay a aeaiiii neo/aa eae iaeei ec /eaiia a?oiiu; eaaeaeue
nio?oaeiee iiaeao i?e iai naiaiaeii au?aaeaoue naie iiaiey ii ?aciui
aii?inai, ia iianaynue eaeie-eeai ianoe, eeai iaea?aeaaiey. A
caaeneiinoe io auiieiyaiie caaea/e ?oeiaiaenoai a?oiiie iiaeao
ia?aaeaaaoueny io iaeiiai o/anoieea e ae?oaiio. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
iaoaea/e ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ?acaeaeyao n a?oiiie. Aieueoeinoai i?iaeai,
anoaaoeo ia?aae eieeaeoeaii, ianoaeaeaaony eieeaeoeaii. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue –
aeaiie?ao noa?aaony /aua niaaoiaaoueny n iiae/eiaiiuie, ia i?iyaeyao
naiaai i?aainoiaenoaa e i?aaeeueii ?aaae?oao ia e?eoeeo. Ca iineaaenoaey
i?eiyouo ?aoaiee ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia ia?aeeaaeuaaao ia iiae/eiaiiuo
No?aieaiea i?eneooeaaoueny e iiaieth naieo nio?oaeieeia ii naiui ?aciui
aii?inai iauyniyaony ia oai, /oi nai ii yoiai ia iiieiaao, a
oaaaeaeaieai a oii, /oi i?e ianoaeaeaiee anaaaea iiaoo aicieeiooue
ithainu, iicaieythuea oeo/oeoue oaoiieiaeth i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee
?aoaiey. Oaeie ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ia n/eoaao aeey naay caci?iui niaeaoaoueny
ia eiii?iienn, eeai aiiaua ioeacaoueny io i?eiyoiai ?aoaiey, anee eiaeea
iiae/eiaiiiai oaaaeeoaeueia. Oai, aaea aaoie?ao aeaenoaiaae au i?eeacii
e aeaaeaieai, aeaiie?ao noa?aaony oaaaeeoue, aeieacaoue
oeaeaniia?aciinoue ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu e auaiaeu, eioi?oth iiaoo iieo/eoue
nio?oaeieee.

Oi?ioi ciathuee aeaei e ianoaiiaeo a a?oiia iiae/eiaiiuo, ii noa?aaony
eniieueciaaoue ?aoeaeneaiua iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey, a i?e inouanoaeaiee
eiio?iey ia?auaao iniaia aieiaiea ia eiia/iue ?acoeueoao, ia aea?aay ii
iaei/ai. Oaeay ianoaiiaea nicaeaao oneiaey aeey naiiau?aaeaiey
iiae/eiaiiuo, o eioi?uo ?acaeaaaony naiinoiyoaeueiinoue e oai naiui
niinianoaoao aini?eyoeth aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae, noiyueo ia?aae
eieeaeoeaii, eae naieo nianoaaiiuo. Oaeay ianoaiiaea, nicaeaaaaiay
aeaiie?aoii, iineo e ainieoaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?, e iicaieyao aeinoeaaoue
oeaee n iaeuie ecaea?aeeaie. A yoii neo/aa i?ienoiaeeo iieiaeeoaeueiue
?aciiain aeanoe: aaoi?eoao ioiaee?a iiaee?aieyaony aaoi?eoaoii ee/iui.
Oi?aaeaiea i?ienoiaeeo aac a?oaiai iaaeeia, iie?aynue ia niiniaiinoe
ethaeae, oaaaeay aeinoieinoaa, iiuo, aic?ano e iie.

Eeaa?aeueiue noeeue ?oeiaiaenoaa oa?aeoa?ecoaony aaceieoeeaoaiinoueth,
iaaiaoaoaeuenoaii a i?ioeann oao eee eiuo ?aaio. Eeaa?ae i?aaei?eieiaao
eaeea-ieaoaeue aeaenoaey oieueei ii oeacaieyi auoanoiyuaai ?oeiaiaenoaa,
no?aieoueny oeeiieoueny io ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ?aoaiey. Iau/ii a oaeie
?iee aunooiatho ethaee iaaeinoaoi/ii eiiiaoaioiua, ia oaa?aiiua a
i?i/iinoe naiaai neoaeaaiiai iieiaeaiey. Eeaa?aeu iai?eioeeieaeueiu,
iiaoo iiae aeeyieai ?aciuo ethaeae e ianoiyoaeuenoa eciaiyoue naia
?aoaiea ii iaeiiio e oiio aea aii?ino. A i?aaiecaoeee, aaea
?oeiaiaeeoaeue – eeaa?ae, /anoi aaaeiua aii?inu ?aoathony aac aai
o/anoey.

Ai acaeiiioiioaieyo n iiae/eiaiiuie eeaa?ae ei??aeoai e aaaeeea.
Iieiaeeoaeueii ?aaae?oao ia e?eoeeo, ia o?aaiaaoaeai e iiae/eiaiiui e ia
ethaeo eiio?iee?iaaoue eo ?aaioo.

A no?aieaiee i?eia?anoe e oe?aieoue aaoi?eoao ii niiniaai
i?aaeinoaaeyoue iiae/eiaiiui ?acee/iiai ?iaea eueaiou, auiea/eaaoue
iacaneoaeaiiua i?aiee, iinueaoue a eioa?aniua eiiaiaee?iaee aac aeaeeiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii eeaa?ae noa?aaony iiaeaea?aeeaaoue naie aaoi?eoao. Iiaeao
ca ia?aaeeaiai iiae/eiaiiiai nai auiieieoue ?aaioo, ia ethaeo
oaieueiyoue ieioeo ?aaioieeia.

Iacaaeneii io eniieuecoaiiai noeey ?oeiaiaenoaa, iioeaaoeey nio?oaeieeia
– iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo oaeoi?ia iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea,
oeo/oaiey ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee.

VI. Iaoiaeu eco/aiey acaeiiioiioaiee a a?oiia e eo ineoieiae/aneay
iniiaa.

Nioeeiiao?ey

Ioe?uoea iaoi?iaeueiuo a?oii iicaieeei noi?ie?iaaoue a aeaeueiaeoai
oeaeoth oai?eth «/aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee», a ?acaeoea eioi?ie aian naith
eaioo ae?oaie aia?eeaineee niaoeeaeeno Aeaeii Ii?aii. Ii?aii oaaeiaa/ee
naay, ?ac?aaioaa iaoiaeu ecia?aiey iaaeee/iinoiuo ioiioaiee.
I?aaeaa?eoaeueii ianeaaeoaiay a?oiia iiaeaioaaeeaaaony, o.a. eaaeaeiio
eiaeeaeaeooio ?acuyniytho ii?yaeie caiieiaiey nioeeiiao?e/aneie
ea?oi/ee. Oa?iei «Nioeeiiao?ey» icia/aao eciaiaiea iaaeee/iinoiuo
acaeiiioiioaiee a a?oiia. Ea?oi/ea, auaeaaaaiay eaaeaeiio /eaio a?oiiu
i?aaenoaaeyao ec naay nioeeiiao?eoeo (oaaeeoea 1).

Oaaeeoea 1. I?eia? nioeeiiao?eoeu aeey a?oiiu, /eneaiiinoueth N /eaiia

? Eoi auae?aao Eiai /eaiu auae?atho Naeaeaiiua auai?u Anaai

i/i Oaieeey eniuooaiiai – /eaiu 1 2 3 4 5 … (+) (-)

A-ia

+ + – – … 2 2 4

A-ei +

+ – – … 2 2 4

A-aa + +

… 2 0 2

I-ia +

– … 1 1 2

N-ia + – – +

… 2 2 4

… . . . . . … … … …

… …

… … … …

? … . . . . . … … … …

Iieo/aiiua (+) 4 2 2 1 0 … 9

auai?u (-) 0 1 1 2 3 …

7

Anaai 4 3 3 3 3 …

16

I?eia/aiea: + iieiaeeoaeueiue ioai?;

– io?eoeaoaeueiue ioai?.

Oaeay nioeeiiao?eoea iicaieyao auynieoue ioiioaiea /eaiia a?oiiu ae?oa e
ae?oao, onoaiiaeoue niei/aiiinoue a?oiiu, auyaeoue eeaea?a, onoaiiaeoue
nioeeiiao?e/aneee noaoon e yiioeeiiaeueioth yeniaineaiinoue. Aeey yoiai
eniieuecothony ?acee/iua iaoaiaoe/aneea oi?ioeu.

Nioeeia?aiia

I?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an ae?oaie iaoiae – nioeeia?aiia, iicaieythuay
a?aoe/anee ia eenoa aoiaae inouanoaeoue aiaeec acaeiiioiioaiee a a?oiia
n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo ciaeia. ?en. 3.

?en. 3. Neiaieeea nioeeia?aiiu

Aeiionoei a ioaeaea, ninoiyuei ec iyoe /aeiaae, i?e iiiiue nioeeia?aiiu
i?iaiaeyony enneaaeiaaiey iaaeee/iinoiuo ioiioaiee. A yoii neo/aa
eaaeaeiio ?aaioieeo ioaeaea auaeaaony ea?oi/ea n iaicia/aieyie anao
?aaioieeia yoiai iiae?acaeaeaiey. ?en. 4.

?en. 4. Ea?oi/ea aeey i?iaaaeaiey enneaaeiaaiey a a?oiia. E?anoeeii
iaicia/ai ia/aeueiee.

Iieo/eaoei ea?oi/ee caaeathony aii?inu, iai?eia?: «N eai au oioaee
naaiaeiy i?iaanoe aa/a? a ?anoi?aia?”. Naie ioaaou ianeaaeoaiua aeaeatho
a?aoe/anee, eniieuecoy ecaanoioth oaea neiaieeeo. Caoai iieo/aiiua
ea?oi/ee n ioaaoaie iaeeaaeuaathony ae?oa ia ae?oaa e iieo/aaony iauay
ea?oeia. ?en. 5.

?en. 5. ?acoeueoao iieo/eaoeeny i?e iaeiaeaiee ea?oi/ae n ioaaoaie ia
aii?in “N eai au au oioaee i?iaanoe aa/a? a ?anoi?aia?”

Ia ae?oaie aii?in: “N eai au au oioaee a aeaeueiaeoai i?iaeieaeaoue
niaianoioth ?aaioo?” iieo/ei, iai?eia?, oaeie ioaao. ?en. 6.

?en. 6. ?acoeueoao iieo/eaoeeny i?e iaeiaeaiee ea?oi/ae n ioaaoaie ia
aii?in “N eai au au oioaee a aeaeueiaeoai i?iaeieaeeoue niaianoioth
?aaioo?”

Oaeei ia?acii, a ?acoeueoaoa, ia ia?aue acaeyae, iaaeiiuo aii?inia oaea
iiaeii naeaeaoue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua auaiaeu i ia/aeueieea yoiai ioaeaea.
Anee yoie a?oiia aoaeao caaeaaaoueny 20-30 aii?inia iiaeiaiiai oa?aeoa?a
– iiaeii oynieoue ineoieiae/aneoth ea?oeio a a?oiia.

e e o a ? a o o ? a

Ianeii I., Aeaa?o I., Oaaeio?e O.,“Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa”, I., 1994 a.

Noa?iaeineee Y.A., “Eae oi?aaeyoue eieeaeoeaii”, I., 1995 a.

?iaeinii Ae., “Aeiaaeny io ethaeae iaeeo/oaai”, I., 1994 a.

Aaeueeiae/ ?.N., Iaaieia A.E., “Iaiaaeaeiaio e iaiaaeaea?”, Ia?iue.

I?iaeaiu ineoieiaee oi?aaeaiey eieeaeoeaii

Iaoaaaaa A.E PAGE 21

i?eaioaoeey ia nianoaaiiua oeaee

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I

N

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E

E

O

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i?eaioaoeey ia oeaee ae?oaiai

I?aaiecaoeeiiiue i?ioeann

Iaoi?iaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey

Oi?iaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey, nieaie?iaaiiay ?oeiaiaenoaii

Eiiaiaeiua a?oiiu

Eiieoaou

?aai/ea a?oiiu

Iaoi?iaeueiay a?oiia

Iaoi?iaeueiay a?oiia

Iaoi?iaeueiay a?oiia

Niiioaiiia acaeiiaeaenoaea (ia nieaie?iaaiiia ?oeiaiaenoaii)

aiaoiyy iiceoeey

aioo?aiiyy iiceoeey

aioo?aiiyy iiceoeey

aiaoiyy iiceoeey

iauaeo eiioeeeoa

noi?iiu eiioeeeoa

noi?iiu eiioeeeoa

Iniciaiea eiioeeeoa

Eiioeeeoiua aeaenoaey

?ac?aoaiea eiioeeeoa

Aicieeiiaaiea iauaeoeaiie eiioeeeoiie neooaoeee

IV noaaeey

III noaaeey

II noaaeey

I noaaeey

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Iieiaeeoaeueiue auai?, niaa?oaiiue A-/eaiii

Io?eoeaoaeueiu auai?, niaa?oaiiue A-/eaiii

Acaeiiay iieiaeeoaeueiay naycue A e A -/eaiia

Acaeiiay io?eoeaoaeueiay naycue A e A -/eaiia

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