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Проблема готовности Ребенка к школьному образованию

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Проблема готовности Ребенка к школьному образованию

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
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AAAAeAIEA.

Ia?aae iaoei iauanoaii ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia aai ?acaeoey noieo caaea/a
aeaeueiaeoaai oeo/oaiey ainieoaoaeueii-ia?aciaaoaeueiie ?aaiou n
aeaoueie aeioeieueiiai aic?anoa, iiaeaioiaee eo e iao/aieth a oeiea.
Aeey oniaoiiai ?aoaiey yoie caaea/e io ineoieiaa o?aaoaony oiaiea
ii?aaeaeeoue o?iaaiue ineoe/aneiai ?acaeoey ?aaaiea, aia?aiy
aeeaaiinoe?iaaoue aai ioeeiiaiey e ia yoie iniiaa iaia/aoue iooe
ei??aeoeeiiiie ?aaiou. Eco/aiea o?iaiy ?acaeoey ineoeee aeaoae yaeyaony
iniiaie eae i?aaiecaoeee anae iineaaeothuae ainieoaoaeueiie e o/aaiie
?aaiou, oae e ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe niaea?aeaiey i?ioeanna ainieoaiey a
oneiaeyo aeaoneiai naaea.

Aieueoeinoai ioa/anoaaiiuo e ca?oaaaeiuo o/aiuo n/eoatho, /oi ioai?
aeaoae a oeieo iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue ca iieaiaea – aiae aei oeieu. Yoi
iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue aioiaiinoue e nenoaiiiio oeieueiiio iao/aieth
aeaoae e i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe, i?iaanoe eiiieaen ei??aeoeeiiiuo caiyoee.

Ii aeaiiui E.A.Aaiaa?a, A.A.Oieiianeie, E.E.Eieiieineiai,
A.A.E?aaoeiaie e ae?oaeo a no?oeoo?a ineoieiae/aneie aioiaiinoe i?eiyoi
auaeaeyoue neaaeothuea eiiiiiaiou:

1. Ee/iinoiay aioiaiinoue, eioi?ay aeeth/aao oi?ie?iaaiea o ?aaaiea
aioiaiinoe e i?eiyoeth iiaie nioeeaeueiie iiceoeee – iieiaeaiea
oeieueieea, eiathuaai e?oa i?aa e iaycaiiinoae. A ee/iinoioth
aioiaiinoue aoiaeeo ii?aaeaeaiea o?iaiy ?acaeoey iioeaaoeeiiiie noa?u.

2. Eioaeeaeooaeueiay aioiaiinoue ?aaaiea e oeiea. Aeaiiue eiiiiiaio
aioiaiinoe i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea o ?aaaiea e?oaici?a e ?acaeoey
iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia.

3. Nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneay aioiaiinoue e oeieueiiio iao/aieth. Yoio
eiiiiiaio aeeth/aao a naay oi?ie?iaaiea o aeaoae i?aanoaaiiuo e
eiiioieeaoeaiuo niiniaiinoae.

4. Yiioeeiiaeueii-aieaaay aioiaiinoue n/eoaaony noi?ie?iaaiiie, anee
?aaaiie oiaao noaaeoue oeaeue, i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey, iaia/aoue ieai
aeaenoaee e i?eieiaoue oneeea e aai ?aaeecaoeee. [ 25 ]

N i?iaeaiie aeeaaiinoeee ineoieiae/aneie aioiaiinoe aeaoae e oeieueiiio
iao/aieth noaeeeaathony i?aeoe/aneea ineoieiae. I?eiaiyaiua iaoiaeu
aeeaaiinoeee ineoieiae/aneie aioiaiinoe aeieaeiu iieacaoue ?acaeoea
?aaaiea ai anao noa?ao.

I?e yoii neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi i?e eco/aiee aeaoae a ia?aoiaeiue
ia?eiae io aeioeieueieea e ieaaeoaio oeieueiiio aic?anoo
aeeaaiinoe/aneay noaia aeieaeia aeeth/aoue a naay aeeaaiinoeeo eae
iiaiia?aciaaiee aeioeieueiiai aic?anoa, oae e ia/aeueiuo oi?i
aeayoaeueiinoe neaaeothuaai ia?eiaea.

Aioiaiinoue, eioi?ay ecia?yaony oanoe?iaaieai, a nouiinoe naiaeeony e
iaeaaeaieth ciaieyie, oiaieyie, niiniaiinoyie e iioeaaoeeae,
iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey iioeiaeueiiai inaiaiey oeieueiie i?ia?aiiu.

“Aioiaiinoue e iao/aieth” – iieacaoaeue eiiieaeniue, eaaeaeue ec oanoia
aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea eeoue ia ii?aaeaeaiiie noi?iia aioiaiinoe ?aaaiea e
oeiea. Ethaay iaoiaeeea oanoe?iaaiey aeaao noauaeoeaioth ioeaieo. A
auiieiaiee eaaeaeiai ec caaeaiee caaeneo ai iiiaii io ninoiyiey ?aaaiea
a aeaiiue iiiaio, io i?aaeeueiinoe eino?oeoeee, io oneiaee i?iaaaeaiey
oanoa. Ana yoi i?eoiaeeony o/eouaaoue ineoieiao i?e i?iaaaeaiee
ianeaaeiaaiey. [12]

?acoeueoaou oanoe?iaaiey iiaoo iiii/ue ai a?aiy caiaoeoue ia?ooaiey a
ineoe/aneii ?acaeoee aeioeieueieea e i?aaeeueii ninoaaeoue
ei??aeoeeiiioth i?ia?aiio.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiay oeaeue iaoae ?aaiou – auyaeaiea o?iaiy
aioiaiinoe aeioeieueieea e iao/aieth a oeiea e i?iaaaeaiea
ei??aeoeeiiii-?acaeaathueo ia?ii?eyoee ii ?acaeoeth o ?aaaiea
iaiaoiaeeiuo oiaiee, iaaueia aeey oniaoiiai onaiaiey o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea.

A nayce n iinoaaeaiiie oeaeueth iaie auea auaeaeiooa aeiioaca:
auyaeaiea o?iaiy aioiaiinoe iicaieeo i?aaieciaaoue ei??aeoeeiiioth
?aaioo n aeaoueie, eiathueie ieceee e n?aaeiee o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe, /oi
iicaieeo ?acaeoue o ?aaaiea iaiaoiaeeiua oiaiey e iaauee oniaoiiai
onaiaiey o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea.

A naiae ?aaioa iu noaaei neaaeothuea caaea/e:

1. Eco/aiea e aiaeec ineoieiae/aneie eeoa?aoo?u ii oaia.

2. Iiaeai? iaoiaeee e ?ac?aaioea eiiieaeniie ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneie
i?ia?aiiu aeeaaiinoeee aeaoae aeioeieueiiai aic?anoa e iao/aieth a
oeiea.

3. Eco/aiea aaceniuo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaoae aeey ii?aaeaeaiey o?iaiy
aioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth.

4. ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aii e i?iaaaeaiea ineoi-ei??aeoeeiiiie ?aaiou aeey
?acaeoey o ?aaaiea iaaueia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey oniaoiiai onaiaiey
o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea.

Iauaeoii enneaaeiaaiey yaeeenue aeaoe iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie a?oiiu
aeioeieueiiai ia?aciaaoaeueiiai o/?aaeaeaiey “?iiaoea” aeaoneee naae ?4
naea Iaeua ssao?u.

I?aaeiao enneaaeiaaiey – o?iaaiue ineoieiae/aneie aioiaiinoe
aeioeieueieeia e oeieueiiio iao/aieth.

Iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey:

– iaci?ii-aiaeeoe/aneee

– iaoaiaoeei-noaoenoe/aneee

– iaaethaeaiea e aanaaea

– oanoe?iaaiea.

AEAAA 1

I?IAEAIA AIOIAIINOE ?AAAIEA E OEIEUeIIIO IAO*AIETH

1.1. Iiiyoea ineoieiae/aneie aioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy caaea/a iiaeaioiaee aeaoae e oeieueiiio iao/aieth
caieiaao iaeii ec aaaeiuo iano a ?acaeoee i?aaenoaaeaiee ineoieiae/aneie
iaoee.

Oniaoiia ?aoaiea caaea/ ?acaeoey ee/iinoe ?aaaiea, iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe iao/aiey, aeaaii?eyoiia i?ioanneiiaeueiia noaiiaeaiea ai
iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony oai, ianeieueei aa?ii o/eouaaaony o?iaaiue
iiaeaioiaeaiiinoe aeaoae e oeieueiiio iao/aieth. A nia?aiaiiie
ineoieiaee, e niaeaeaieth, iiea ia nouanoaoao aaeeiiai e /aoeiai
ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoey “aioiaiinoe”, eee “oeieueiie c?aeinoe”. [11]

A.Aianoace o?aeooao iiiyoea oeieueiie c?aeinoe eae “iaeaaeaiea
oiaieyie, ciaieyie, niiniaiinoyie, iioeaaoeeae e ae?oaeie iaiaoiaeeiuie
aeey iioeiaeueiiai o?iaiy onaiaiey oeieueiie i?ia?aiiu iiaaaeai/aneeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie”. [23]

E.Oaaioea?a aieaa aiei ii?aaeaeyao oeieueioth c?aeinoue, eae
aeinoeaeaiea oaeie noaiaie a ?acaeoee, eiaaea ?aaaiie noaiiaeony
niiniaiui i?eieiaoue o/anoea a oeieueiii iao/aiee”. A ea/anoaa
eiiiiiaioia aioiaiinoe e iao/aieth a oeiea E.Oaaioea?a auaeaeyao
oinoaaiiue, nioeeaeueiue e yiioeeiiaeueiue eiiiiiaiou. [30]

E.E.Aiaeiae/ aua a 60-a aiaeu oeacuaaea, /oi aioiaiinoue e iao/aieth a
oeiea neeaaeuaaaony ec ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy ?acaeoey iuneeoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, iiciaaaoaeueiuo eioa?ania, aioiaiinoe e i?iecaieueiie
?aaoeyoeee naiae iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe e e nioeeaeueiie
iiceoeee oeieueieea. Aiaeiae/iua acaeyaeu ?acaeaae A.E.Caii?iaeaoe,
ioia/ae, /oi aioiaiinoue e iao/aieth a oeiea “i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
oeaeinoioth nenoaio acaeiinaycaiiuo ea/anoa aeaoneie ee/iinoe, aeeth/ay
iniaaiiinoe aa iioeaaoeee, o?iaiy ?acaeoey iiciaaaoaeueiie,
aiaeeoeei-neioaoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, noaiaiue noi?ie?iaaiiinoe
iaoaieciia aieaaie ?aaoeyoeee aeaenoaee e o.ae.” [6]

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue i?aeoe/anee iauai?eciaii, /oi aioiaiinoue e
oeieueiiio iao/aieth – iiiaieiiieaeniia ia?aciaaiea, eioi?ia o?aaoao
eiiieaeniuo ineoieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee. A no?oeoo?a ineoieiae/aneie
aioiaiinoe i?eiyoi auaeaeyoue neaaeothuea eiiiiiaiou (ii aeaiiui
E.A.Aaiaa?, A.E.Aaiaa?, A.A.Oieiianeie, ss.ss.Eieiieineiai, A.A.Iaoei e
ae?.)

1. Ee/iinoiay aioiaiinoue. Aeeth/aao oi?ie?iaaiea o ?aaaiea aioiaiinoe
e i?eiyoeth iiaie nioeeaeueiie iiceoeee – iieiaeaiea oeieueieea,
eiathuaai e?oa i?aa e iaycaiiinoae. Yoa ee/iinoiay aioiaiinoue
au?aaeaaony a ioiioaiee ?aaaiea e oeiea, e o/aaiie aeayoaeueiinoe,
o/eoaeyi, naiiio naaa. A ee/iinoioth aioiaiinoue aoiaeeo e ii?aaeaeaiiue
o?iaaiue ?acaeoey iioeaaoeeiiiie noa?u. Aioiaui e oeieueiiio iao/aieth
yaeyaony ?aaaiie, eioi?iai oeiea i?eaeaeaao ia aiaoiae noi?iiie
(ao?eaoou oeieueiie aeecie – ii?ooaeue, o/aaieee, oao?aaee), a
aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aoue iiaua ciaiey, /oi i?aaeiieaaaao ?acaeoea
iiciaaaoaeueiuo eioa?ania. Aoaeouaio oeieueieeo iaiaoiaeeii i?iecaieueii
oi?aaeyoue naiei iiaaaeaieai, iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth, /oi
noaiiaeony aiciiaeiui i?e noi?ie?iaaiiie ea?a?oe/aneie nenoaia iioeaia.
Oaeei ia?acii, ?aaaiie aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue ?acaeoie o/aaiie iioeaaoeeae.
Ee/iinoiay aioiaiinoue oaeaea i?aaeiieaaaao ii?aaeaeaiiue o?iaaiue
?acaeoey yiioeeiiaeueiie noa?u ?aaaiea. E ia/aeo oeieueiiai iao/aiey o
?aaaiea aeieaeia auoue aeinoeaiooa n?aaieoaeueii oi?ioay yiioeeiiaeueiay
onoie/eainoue, ia oiia eioi?ie e aiciiaeii ?acaeoea e i?ioaeaiea o/aaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

2. Eioaeeaeooaeueiay aioiaiinoue ?aaaiea e oeiea. Aeaiiue eiiiiiaio
aioiaiinoe i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea o ?aaaiea e?oaici?a, caiana eiie?aoiuo
ciaiee. ?aaaiie aeieaeai aeaaeaoue ieaiiia?iui e ?an/eaiaiiui
aini?eyoeai, yeaiaioaie oai?aoe/aneiai ioiioaiey e eco/aaiiio iaoa?eaeo,
iaiauaiiuie oi?iaie iuoeaiey e iniiaiuie eiae/aneeie iia?aoeeyie,
niuneiaui caiiieiaieai. Iaeiaei, a iniiaiii, iuoeaiea ?aaaiea inoaaony
ia?aciui, iie?athueiny ia ?aaeueiua aeaenoaey n i?aaeiaoaie, eo
caianoeoaeyie. Eioaeeaeooaeueiay aioiaiinoue oaeaea i?aaeiieaaaao
oi?ie?iaaiea o ?aaaiea ia/aeueiuo oiaiee a iaeanoe o/aaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, a /anoiinoe, oiaiea auaeaeeoue o/aaioth caaea/o e
i?aa?aoeoue aa a naiinoiyoaeueioth oeaeue aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaiauay,
iiaeii aiai?eoue, /oi ?acaeoea eioaeeaeooaeueiie aioiaiinoe e iao/aieth
a oeiea i?aaeiieaaaao:

– aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiia aini?eyoea;

– aiaeeoe/aneia iuoeaiea (niiniaiinoue iinoeaeaiey iniiaiuo i?eciaeia e
naycae iaaeaeo yaeaieyie, niiniaiinoue aini?iecaanoe ia?acaoe);

– ?aoeeiiaeueiue iiaeoiae e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe (ineaaeaiea ?iee
oaioacee);

– eiae/aneia caiiieiaiea;

– eioa?an e ciaieyi, i?ioeanno eo iieo/aiey ca n/ao aeiiieieoaeueiuo
oneeee;

– iaeaaeaiea ia neoo ?acaiai?iie ?a/ueth e niiniaiinoue e iiieiaieth e
i?eiaiaieth neiaieia;

– ?acaeoea oiieeo aeaeaeaiee ?oee e c?eoaeueii-aeaeaaoaeueiuo
eii?aeeiaoeee.

3. Nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneay aioiaiinoue e oeieueiiio iao/aieth. Yoio
eiiiiiaio aioiaiinoe aeeth/aao a naay oi?ie?iaaiea o aeaoae ea/anoa,
aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui iie iiaee au iauaoueny n ae?oaeie aeaoueie,
o/eoaeyie. ?aaaiie i?eoiaeeo a oeieo, eeann, aaea aeaoe caiyou iauei
aeaeii, e aio iaiaoiaeeii iaeaaeaoue aeinoaoi/ii aeaeeie niiniaaie
onoaiiaeaiey acaeiiioiioaiee n ae?oaeie ethaeueie, iaiaoiaeeiu oiaiey
aieoe a aeaoneia iauanoai, aeaenoaiaaoue niaianoii n ae?oaeie, oiaiea
onooiaoue e caueuaoueny. Oaeei ia?acii, aeaiiue eiiiiiaio i?aaeiieaaaao
?acaeoea o aeaoae iio?aaiinoe a iauaiee n ae?oaeie, oiaiea iiae/eiyoueny
eioa?anai e iau/ayi aeaoneie a?oiiu, ?acaeaathueany niiniaiinoe
ni?aaeyoueny n ?ieueth oeieueieea a neooaoeee oeieueiiai iao/aiey.

E?iia auoa oeacaiiuo ninoaaeythueo ineoieiae/aneie aioiaiinoe e oeiea
iu auaeaeei aua e oece/aneoth, ?a/aaoth e yiioeeiiaeueii-aieaaoth
aioiaiinoue.

Iiae oece/aneie aioiaiinoueth iiae?acoiaaaaony iauaa oece/aneia
?acaeoea: ii?iaeueiue ?ino, aan, iauai a?oaee, iuoa/iue oiion,
i?iii?oeee oaea, eiaeiue iie?ia e iieacaoaee, niioaaonoaothuea ii?iai
oece/aneiai ?acaeoey iaeue/eeia e aeaai/ae 6-7-eaoiaai aic?anoa.
Ninoiyiea c?aiey, neooa, iioi?eee (iniaaiii iaeeeo aeaeaeaiee eenoae ?oe
e iaeueoeaa). Ninoiyiea ia?aiie nenoaiu ?aaaiea: noaiaiue aa
aicaoaeeiinoe e o?aaiiaaoaiiinoe, neeu e iiaeaeaeiinoe. Iauaa ninoiyiea
caei?iauey.

Iiae ?a/aaie aioiaiinoue iiieiaaony noi?ie?iaaiiinoue caoeiaie noi?iiu
?a/e, neiaa?iiai caiana, iiiieiae/aneie ?a/e e a?aiiaoe/aneay
i?aaeeueiinoue. [14]

Yiioeeiiaeueii-aieaaoth aioiaiinoue n/eoatho noi?ie?iaaiiie, anee

?aaaiie oiaao noaaeoue oeaeue, i?eieiaoue ?aoaiea, iaia/aoue ieai
aeaenoaee, i?eieiaoue oneeey e aai ?aaeecaoeee, i?aiaeieaaaoue
i?aiyonoaey, o iaai oi?ie?oaony i?iecaieueiinoue ineoieiae/aneeo
i?ioeannia.

Eiiaaea ?acee/iua aniaeou, eanathueany ?acaeoey ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia,
a oii /enea iioeaaoeeiiioth aioiaiinoue, iauaaeeiytho oa?ieiii
ineoieiae/aneay aioiaiinoue, a ioee/ee io i?aanoaaiiie e oece/aneie.

1.2. Iauay ineoieiae/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaoae, iinooiathueo a oeieo

Noa?oee aeioeieueiue aic?ano yaeyaony yoaiii eioaineaiiai ineoe/aneiai
?acaeoey. Eiaiii a yoii aic?anoa i?ienoiaeyo i?ia?anneaiua eciaiaiey ai
anao noa?ao, ia/eiay io niaa?oainoaiaaiey ineoioeceieiae/aneeo ooieoeee
e eii/ay aicieeiiaaieai neiaeiuo ee/iinoiuo iiaiia?aciaaiee. [13]

A noa?a iuouaiee ioia/aaony nouanoaaiiia nieaeaiea ii?iaia anao aeaeia
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe. Iiauoaaony aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiinoue aini?eyoey.
Iniaoth ?ieue a ?acaeoee aini?eyoey a noa?oai aeioeieueiii aic?anoa
ea?aao ia?aoiae io eniieueciaaiey i?aaeiaoiuo ia?acia e naini?iui
yoaeiiai – iauai?eiyoui i?aaenoaaeaieyi ia iniiaiuo aeaeao eaaeaeiai
naienoaa. E 6-eaoiaio aic?anoo ?acaeaaaony /aoeay ecae?aoaeueiinoue
aini?eyoey ii ioiioaieth e nioeeaeueiui iauaeoai.

A aeioeieueiii aic?anoa aieiaiea iineo iai?iecaieueiue oa?aeoa?.
Ninoiyiea iiauoaiiiai aieiaiey naycaii n i?eaioe?iaeie ai aiaoiae
n?aaea, n yiioeeiiaeueiui ioiioaieai e iae. I?e yoii niaea?aeaoaeueiua
iniaaiiinoe aiaoieo aia/aoeaiee, iaania/eaathuea yoi a iiauoaiea, n
aic?anoii eciaiythony. Nouanoaaiiia iiauoaiea onoie/eainoe aieiaiey
ioia/aaony a enneaaeiaaieyo, a eioi?uo aeaoyi i?aaeeaaaaony
?anniao?eaaoue ea?oeiee, iienuaaoue eo niaea?aeaiea, neooaoue ?anneac.
Ia?aeiiiue iiiaio a ?acaeoee aieiaiey naycai n oai, /oi aeaoe aia?aua
ia/eiatho niciaoaeueii oi?aaeyoue naiei aieiaieai, iai?aaeyy e
oaea?aeeaay aai ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeiaoao. Aeey yoie oeaee noa?oee
aeioeieueiee eniieuecoao ii?aaeaeaiiua niiniau, eioi?ua ii ia?aieiaao o
ac?ineuo. Oaeei ia?acii, aiciiaeiinoe yoie iiaie oi?iu aieiaiey –
i?iecaieueiiai aieiaiey – e 6-7 aiaeai oaea aeinoaoi/ii aaeeee.

A cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie yoiio niinianoaoao niaa?oainoaiaaiea
ieaie?othuae ooieoeee ?a/e, eioi?ay yaeyaony “oieaa?naeueiui n?aaenoaii
i?aaiecaoeee aieiaiey”. ?a/ue aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ca?aiaa, neiaanii
auaeaeeoue cia/eiua aeey ii?aaeaeaiiie caaea/e i?aaeiaou, i?aaieciaaoue
aieiaiea, o/eouaay oa?aeoa? i?aaenoiyuae aeayoaeueiinoe. Ianiio?y ia
nouanoaaiiua naeaeae a ?acaeoee aieiaiey, i?aiaeaaeathuei ia i?ioyaeaiee
anaai aeioeieueiiai ia?eiaea, inoaaony iai?iecaieueiia aieiaiea. Aeaaea
noa?oei aeioeieueieeai aua o?oaeii nin?aaeioi/eoueny ia /ai-oi
iaeiiia?aciii. A aio a i?ioeanna eioa?aniie aeey ieo ea?u aieiaiea
iiaeao auoue aeinoaoi/ii onoie/eaui.

Iiaeiaiua aic?anoiua caeiiiia?iinoe ioia/athony e a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey
iaiyoe. Iaiyoue a noa?oai aeioeieueiii aic?anoa iineo iai?iecaieueiue
oa?aeoa?. ?aaaiie eo/oa caiiieiaao oi, /oi aeey iaai i?aaenoaaeyao
iaeaieueoee eioa?an, aeaao iaeeo/oea aia/aoeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, iauai
oeene?iaaiiiai iaoa?eaea ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony yiioeeiiaeueiui
ioiioaieai e aeaiiiio i?aaeiaoo eee yaeaieth. Ii n?aaiaieth n ieaaeoei e
n?aaeiei aeioeieueiui aic?anoii ioiineoaeueiay ?ieue iai?iecaieueiiai
caiiieiaiey o aeaoae 6-7 eao ianeieueei nieaeaaony, aianoa n oai
i?i/iinoue caiiieiaiey aic?anoaao. “A noa?oai aeioeieueiii aic?anoa
?aaaiie a ninoiyiee aini?iecaanoe iieo/aiiua aia/aoeaiey /a?ac
aeinoaoi/ii aeeeoaeueiue n?ie”. [24]

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo aeinoeaeaiee noa?oaai aeioeieueieea yaeyaony
?acaeoea i?iecaieueiiai caiiieiaiey. Iaeioi?ua oi?iu yoiai caiiieiaiey
iiaeii ioiaoeoue o aeaoae a aic?anoa 4-5 eao, iaeiaei cia/eoaeueiiai
?acaeoey iii aeinoeaaao e 6-7 aiaeai. Ai iiiaii yoiio niinianoaoao
ea?iaay aeayoaeueiinoue, a eioi?ie oiaiea caiiieiaoue e aia?aiy
aini?iecaiaeeoue iaiaoiaeeiua naaaeaiey yaeyaony iaeiei ec oneiaee
aeinoeaeaiey oniaoa. Aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth yoiai aic?anoa yaeyaony oi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi ia?aae ?aaaieii 6-7 eao iiaeao auoue iinoaaeaia
oeaeue, iai?aaeaiiay ia caiiieiaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai iaoa?eaea. Iaee/ea
oaeie aiciiaeiinoe naycaii n oai, /oi ?aaaiie ia/eiaao eniieueciaaoue
?acee/iua i?eaiu niaoeeaeueii i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe caiiieiaiey: iiaoi?aiea, niuneiaia e annioeeaoeaiia
naycuaaiea iaoa?eaea. [22]

Oaeei ia?acii, e 6-7 aiaeai no?oeoo?a iaiyoe i?aoa?iaaaao nouanoaaiiua
eciaiaiey, naycaiiua ni cia/eoaeueiui ?acaeoeai i?iecaieueiuo oi?i
caiiieiaiey e i?eiiieiaiey. Iai?iecaieueiay iaiyoue, ia naycaiiay n
aeoeaiui ioiioaieai e oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoe, ieacuaaaony iaiaa
i?iaeoeoeaiie, oioy a oeaeii iia nio?aiyao ainiiaenoaothuaa iieiaeaiea.

Iiaeiaiia niioiioaiea i?iecaieueiie e iai?iecaieueiie oi?i iaiyoe
ioia/aaony a ioiioaiee oaeie ineoe/aneie ooieoeee, eae aiia?aaeaiea.
Aieueoie nea/ie a aai ?acaeoee iaania/eaaao ea?a, iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai
eioi?ie yaeyaony iaee/ea caiauathuae aeayoaeueiinoe e
i?aaeiaoia-caianoeoaeae. A noa?oai aeioeieueiii aic?anoa caiauaiea
noaiiaeony /enoi neiaiee/aneei e iinoaiaiii ia/eiaaony ia?aoiae e
aeaenoaeyi n aiia?aaeaaiuie i?aaeiaoaie. Oi?ie?iaaiea aiia?aaeaiey
iaoiaeeony a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie caaeneiinoe io ?acaeoey ?a/e ?aaaiea.
“Aiia?aaeaiea a yoii aic?anoa ?anoe?yao aiciiaeiinoe ?aaaiea ai
acaeiiaeaenoaee n aiaoiae n?aaeie, niinianoaoao aa onaiaieth, neoaeeo
aianoa n iuoeaieai n?aaenoaii iiciaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe”. [17]

?acaeoea i?ino?ainoaaiiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee ?aaaiea e 6-7 aiaeai
aeinoeaaao aunieiai o?iaiy. Aeey aeaoae yoiai aic?anoa oa?aeoa?iu
iiiuoee i?iaanoe aiaeec i?ino?ainoaaiiuo neooaoeee. Oioy ?acoeueoaou ia
anaaaea oi?ioea, aiaeec aeayoaeueiinoe aeaoae oeacuaaao ia
?an/eaiaiiinoue ia?aca i?ino?ainoaa n io?aaeaieai ia oieueei i?aaeiaoia,
ii e eo acaeiiiai ?aniieiaeaiey.

“?acaeoea i?aaenoaaeaiee ai iiiaii oa?aeoa?ecoao i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey
iuoeaiey, noaiiaeaiea eioi?iai a yoii aic?anoa a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
naycaii n niaa?oainoaiaaieai aiciiaeiinoe iia?e?iaaoue i?aaenoaaeaieyie
ia i?iecaieueiii o?iaia.” [21] Yoa aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaaiii iiauoaaony
e oanoe aiaeai, a nayce n onaiaieai iiauo niiniaia oinoaaiiuo aeaenoaee.
Oi?ie?iaaiea iiauo niiniaia oinoaaiiuo aeaenoaee a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
iie?aaony ia iniiaaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaenoaee n aiaoieie i?aaeiaoaie,
eioi?uie ?aaaiie iaeaaeaaaao a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey e iao/aiey.
Aeioeieueiue aic?ano i?aaenoaaeyao iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiua aiciiaeiinoe
aeey ?acaeoey ?acee/iuo oi?i ia?aciiai iuoeaiey.

A aic?anoa 4-6 eao i?ienoiaeeo eioaineaiia oi?ie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea
iaaueia e oiaiee, niinianoaothueo eco/aieth aeaoueie aiaoiae n?aaeu,
aiaeeco naienoa i?aaeiaoia e aicaeaenoaea ia ieo n oeaeueth eciaiaiey.
Aeaiiue o?iaaiue oinoaaiiiai ?acaeoey, o.a. iaaeyaeii-aeaenoaaiiia
iuoeaiea, yaeyaony eae au iiaeaioiaeoaeueiui. Ii niinianoaoao
iaeiieaieth oaeoia, naaaeaiee ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a, nicaeaieth iniiau
aeey oi?ie?iaaiey i?aaenoaaeaiee e iiiyoee. A i?ioeanna
iaaeyaeii-aeaenoaaiiiai iuoeaiey i?iyaeythony i?aaeiinueee aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey aieaa neiaeiie oi?iu iuoeaiey – iaaeyaeii-ia?aciiai
iuoeaiey. Iii oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi ?ac?aoaiea i?iaeaiiie neooaoeee
inouanoaeyaony ?aaaieii a ?onea i?aaenoaaeaiee, aac i?eiaiaiey
i?aeoe/aneeo aeaenoaee. E eiioeo aeioeieueiiai ia?eiaea i?aiaeaaeaao
aunoay oi?ia iaaeyaeii-ia?aciiai iuoeaiey – iaaeyaeii-noaiaoe/aneia
iuoeaiea. Io?aaeaiea aeinoeaeaiey ?aaaieii yoiai o?iaiy oinoaaiiiai
?acaeoey yaeyaony noaiaoeci aeaoneiai ?enoiea, oiaiea eniieueciaaoue i?e
?aoaiee caaea/ noaiaoe/aneea ecia?aaeaiey.

“Iaaeyaeii-noaiaoe/aneia iuoeaiea nicaeaao aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe aeey
inaiaiey aiaoiae n?aaeu, aoaeo/e n?aaenoaii aeey nicaeaiey ?aaaieii
iaiauaiiie iiaeaee ?acee/iuo i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee. I?eia?aoaiiay /a?oa
iaiauaiiiai, yoa oi?ia iuoeaiey inoaaony ia?aciie, iie?athuaeny ia
?aaeueiua aeaenoaey n i?aaeiaoaie e eo caianoeoaeyie”. [20] A oi aea
a?aiy aeaiiay oi?ia iuoeaiey yaeyaony iniiaie aeey ia?aciaaiey
eiae/aneiai iuoeaiey, naycaiiiai n eniieueciaaieai e i?aia?aciaaieai
iiiyoee. Oaeei ia?acii, e 6-7 aiaeai ?aaaiie iiaeao iiaeoiaeeoue e
?aoaieth i?iaeaiiie neooaoeee o?aiy niiniaaie: eniieuecoy
iaaeyaeii-aeaenoaaiiia, iaaeyaeii-ia?aciia e eiae/aneia iuoeaiey.
Noa?oee aeioeieueiue aic?ano neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue oieueei eae
ia?eiae, eiaaea aeieaeii ia/aoueny eioaineaiia oi?ie?iaaiea eiae/aneiai
iuoeaiey, eae au ii?aaeaeyy oai naiui, aeeaeaeooth ia?niaeoeao
oinoaaiiiai ?acaeoey.

Iaeiieaiea e noa?oaio aeioeieueiiio aic?anoo aieueoiai iiuoa
i?aeoe/aneeo aeaenoaee, aeinoaoi/iue o?iaaiue ?acaeoey aini?eyoey,
iaiyoe, aiia?aaeaiey e iuoeaiey iiauoatho o ?aaaiea /oanoai oaa?aiiinoe
a naieo neeao. Yoi au?aaeaaony a iinoaiiaea ana aieaa ?aciiia?aciuo e
neiaeiuo oeaeae, aeinoeaeaieth eioi?uo niinianoaoao aieaaay ?aaoeyoeey
iiaaaeaiey. ?aaaiie 6-7 eao iiaeao no?aieoueny e aeaeaeie (a oii /enea e
aiia?aaeaaiie) oeaee, auaea?aeeaay i?e yoii neeueiia aieaaia iai?yaeaiea
a oa/aiee aeiaieueii aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie.

I?e auiieiaiee aieaauo aeaenoaee cia/eoaeueiia ianoi i?iaeieaeaao
caieiaoue iiae?aaeaiea, oioy iii noaiiaeony i?iecaieueii oi?aaeyaiui.
Aianoa n oai, ana aieueoa cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao neiaaniay eino?oeoeey
ac?ineiai, iiaoaeaeay ?aaaiea e ii?aaeaeaiiui aeaenoaeyi. “O noa?oaai
aeioeieueieea io/aoeeai aunooiaao yoai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie i?eaioe?iaee”.
[2] Ea?a e o?aaoao ca?aiaa au?aaioaoue ii?aaeaeaiioth eeieth naieo
aeaenoaee. Iiyoiio iia a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie noeioee?oao
niaa?oainoaiaaiea niiniaiinoe e aieaaie ?aaoeyoeee iiaaaeaiey.

A yoii aic?anoa i?ienoiaeyo eciaiaiey a iioeaaoeeiiiie noa?a ?aaaiea:
oi?ie?oaony nenoaia niiiae/eiaiiuo iioeaia, i?eaeathuay iauoth
iai?aaeaiiinoue iiaaaeaieth noa?oaai aeioeieueieea. I?eiyoea iaeaieaa
cia/eiiai ia aeaiiue iiiaio iioeaa yaeyaony iniiaie, iicaieythuae
?aaaieo eaeoe e iaia/aiiie oeaee, inoaaeyy aac aieiaiey neooaoeaii
aicieeathuea aeaeaiey. A yoii aic?anoa iaeiei ec iaeaieaa aeaenoaaiiuo a
ieaia iiaeeecaoeee aieaauo oneeee iioeaia yaeyaony ioeaiea aeaenoaee
ac?ineuie.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi e iiiaioo aeinoeaeaiey noa?oaai
aeioeieueiiai aic?anoa i?ienoiaeeo eioaineaiia ?acaeoea iiciaaaoaeueiie
iioeaaoeee: iaiin?aaenoaaiiay aia/aoeeoaeueiinoue ?aaaiea nieaeaaony, a
oi aea a?aiy ii noaiiaeony aieaa aeoeaiui a iienea iiaie eioi?iaoeee.
Nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey i?aoa?iaaaao e iioeaaoeey e onoaiiaeaieth
iieiaeeoaeueiiai ioiioaiey ie?oaeathueo. Auiieiaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaee
e a aieaa ieaaeoai aic?anoa neoaeeei aeey ?aaaiea n?aaenoaii iieo/aiey
iaeia?aiey ac?ineiai. Iaeiaei a noa?oai aeioeieueiii aic?anoa yoi
noaiiaeony iniciaiiui, a ii?aaeaeythuee aai iioea – “aienaiiui” a iauoth
ea?a?oeth. Aaaeiay ?ieue a yoii i?ioeanna i?eiaaeeaaeeo eieeaeoeaiie
?ieaaie ea?a, yaeythuaeny oeaeie nioeeaeueiuo ii?iaoeaia, n onaiaieai
eioi?uo iiaaaeaiea ?aaaiea no?ieony ia iniiaa ii?aaeaeaiiiai
yiioeeiiaeueiiai ioiioaiey e ie?oaeathuei eee a caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a
iaeeaeaaiie ?aaeoeee. Iineoaeai ii?i e i?aaee ?aaaiie n/eoaao ac?ineiai,
iaeiaei i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo a yoie ?iee iiaeao aunooiaoue e ii
nai. I?e yoii aai aeoeaiinoue a ioiioaiee niaethaeaiey i?eiyouo ii?i
iiauoaaony.

Iinoaiaiii noa?oee aeioeieueiee onaaeaaao ii?aeueiua ioeaiee, ia/eiaao
o/eouaaoue, n yoie oi/ee c?aiey, iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue naieo iinooieia,
i?aaeainoeuaao ?acoeueoao e ioeaieo ni noi?iiu ac?ineiai. A.A.Noaaioneee
n/eoaao, /oi a neeo eioa?ei?ecaoeee i?aaee iiaaaeaiey, ia?ooaiea yoeo
i?aaee ?aaaiie ia?aaeeaaao aeaaea a ionoonoaea ac?ineiai. Aeaoe
6-eaoiaai aic?anoa ia/eiatho iniciaaaoue iniaaiiinoe naiaai iiaaaeaiey,
a ii ia?a onaiaiey iauai?eiyouo ii?i e i?aaee eniieueciaaoue eo a
ea/anoaa ia?ie aeey ioeaiee naay e ie?oaeathueo ethaeae. [15]

Iniiaie ia?aiia/aeueiie naiiioeaiee yaeyaony oiaiea n?aaieaaoue naay n
ae?oaeie aeaoueie. Aeey 6-eaoie oa?aeoa?ia a iniiaiii ia
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiay caauoaiiay naiiioeaiea. E 7-eaoiaio aic?anoo iia
aeeooa?aioee?oaony e ianeieueei nieaeaaony. Iiyaeyaony ionoonoaothuay
?aiaa ioeaiea n?aaiaiey naay n ae?oaeie naa?noieeaie.
Iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiinoue naiiioeaiee i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi ?aaaiie 6-7
eao ?anniao?eaaao ioeaieo ac?ineui ?acoeueoaoia ioaeaeueiiai aeaenoaey
eae ioeaieo naiae ee/iinoe a oeaeii, iiyoiio eniieueciaaiea ii?eoeaiey e
caia/aiee i?e iao/aiee aeaoae yoiai aic?anoa aeieaeii auoue ia?aie/aii.
A i?ioeaiii neo/aa o ieo iiyaeyaony caieaeaiiay naiiioeaiea, iaaa?ea a
naie neeu, io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea e o/aieth.

Iaiauay iaeaieaa aaaeiua aeinoeaeaiey ineoe/aneiai ?acaeoey ?aaaiea 6-7
eao, iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi a yoii aic?anoa aeaoe ioee/athony
aeinoaoi/ii aunieei o?iaiai oinoaaiiiai ?acaeoey, aeeth/athuei
?an/eaiaiiia aini?eyoea, iaiauaiiua ii?iu iuoeaiey, niuneiaia
caiiieiaiea. A yoi a?aiy oi?ie?oaony ii?aaeaeaiiue iauai ciaiee e
iaaueia, eioaineaii ?acaeaaaony i?iecaieueiay oi?ia iaiyoe, iuoeaiey,
aiia?aaeaiey, iie?aynue ia eioi?ua iiaeii iiaoaeaeaoue ?aaaiea neooaoue,
?anniao?eaaoue, caiiieiaoue, aiaeece?iaaoue. Noa?oee aeioeieueiee oiaao
niaeaniauaaoue naie aeaenoaey ni naa?noieeaie, o/anoieeaie niaianoiuo
ea? eee i?iaeoeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ?aaoee?oy naie aeaenoaey n
iauanoaaiiuie ii?iaie iiaaaeaiey. Aai nianoaaiiia iiaaaeaiea
oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaee/eai noi?ie?iaaiiie noa?u iioeaia e eioa?ania,
aioo?aiiaai ieaia aeaenoaee, niiniaiinoueth e aeinoaoi/ii aaeaeaaoiie
ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia nianoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e naieo aiciiaeiinoae.

1.3. Iaoiaeu aeeaaiinoeee aioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth

Aioiaiinoue ?aaaiea e oeieueiiio iao/aieth ii?aaeaeyaony nenoaiiui
ianeaaeiaaieai ninoiyiey eioaeeaeooaeueiie, ?a/aaie,
yiioeeiiaeueii-aieaaie e iioeaaoeeiiiie noa?. Eaaeaeay ec yoeo noa?
eco/aaony ?yaeii aaeaeaaoiuo iaoiaeee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia auyaeaiea:

1) o?iaiy ineoe/aneiai ?acaeoey;

2) iaee/ey iaiaoiaeeiuo iaaueia e oiaiee;

3) ninoiyiey iioeaaoeeiiiiai ioiioaiey e oeieueiiio iao/aieth.

INIAAIIINOE EIOAEEAEOOAEUeIIAI ?ACAEOEss

INIAAIIINOE ?ACAEOEss IUOEAIEss

i?ioaeaiea iuneeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna, aeoeaiinoue, iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue,
aeieacaoaeueiinoue, e?eoe/iinoue noaeaeaiee.

onoaiiaeaiea i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo caaeneiinoae e ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
naycae.

cao?oaeiaiey a i?ioaeaiee iuneeoaeueiuo iia?aoeee (aiaeeca, neioaca,
aiaeiaee, n?aaiaiey, aano?aeoeee, iaiauaiey, eeanneoeeaoeee).

cao?oaeiaiey a iino?iaiee auaiaeia, iaiauaiee, oiicaeeth/aiee.

iniaaiiinoe iia?e?iaaiey ciaieyie: aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiinoue, iiaeiaia
i?eciaeia, auaeaeaiea nouanoaaiiiai.

ninoiyiea iaaeyaeii-aeaenoaaiiiai, iaaeyaeii-ia?aciiai, iiiyoeeiiai
iuoeaiey

eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua ea/anoaa iuoeaiey.

INIAAIIINOE ?ACAEOEss IAIssOE

i?ioaeaiea caiiieiaiey e aini?iecaaaeaiey

cia/aiea aieaaie onoaiiaee a caiiieiaiee

?acaeoea c?eoaeueiie e neooiaie iaiyoe

niioiioaiea ia?aciie e neiaaniie iaiyoe

ninoiyiea iia?aoeaiie neooiaie iaiyoe.

INIAAIIINOE ?ACAEOEss OIIAIAOE*ANEIAI NEOOA

iiieiaiea aeaoneie ia?auaiiie ?a/e. ?a/aaia iauaiea.

ninoiyiea aiaeeoeei-neioaoe/aneie oiiaiaoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

ia?ooaiea ?a/e. Iauaa iaaei?acaeoea ?a/e.

?ACAEOEA IAOAIAOE*ANEEO I?AAeNOAAEAIEE

oiaiea n/eoaoue i?aaeiaou. Aeaaeaiea ii?yaeeiaui n/aoii a i?yiii e
ia?aoiii ii?yaeea.

oiaiea niioianoe i?aaeiao n neiaieii (oneiaiui ciaeii, /eneii).

auiieiaiea yeaiaioa?iuo iia?aoeee n i?aaeiaoaie.

aeaaeaiea i?aaenoaaeaiee ?aaainoaa, “aieueoa”, “iaiueoa”.

INIAAIIINOE ?ACAEOEss YIIOeEIIAEUeII-AIEAAIE NOA?U

INIAAIIINOE YIIOeEE

yiioeeiiaeueiia ioiioaiea e aeayoaeueiinoe, yiioeeiiaeueiay
au?aaeaiiinoue a iiaaaeaiee, aeaenoaee. Onooi/eainoue, iaonoie/eainoue
yiioeeiiaeueiiai ioiioaiey.

eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue yiioeeiiaeueiue noaoon.

INIAAIIINOE AIEAAIE ?AAOEssOeEE

aieaaay ?aaoeyoeey e naii?aaoeyoeey a caaeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Ianoie/eainoue, neeiiiinoue e caaa?oaieth aeayoaeueiinoe. Eieaaaiey a
aieaaie onoaiiaea. ?aaioiniiniaiinoue, eieoeeaoeaiinoue.

INIAAIIINOE ?ACAEOEss IIOEAAOeEIIIIE NOA?U EE*IINOE ?AAAIEA

INIAAIIINOE IIOEAAOeEE IOIIOAIEss E OEIEUeIIIO IAO*AIETH

eioa?an e oeiea. Iaee/ea nianoaaiiiai aeaeaiey. Ee/iinoiua iaeeaeaiey.
Eioa?i?aoaoeey nianoaaiiiai ioiioaiey e oeieueiiio iao/aieth.
Iniciaiiinoue iioeaia oeieueiiai iao/aiey.

Aei ia/aea ineoieiae/aneie aeeaaiinoeee ineoieiao iaiaoiaeeii
ouaoaeueii iciaeiieoueny n oa?aeoa?enoeeie ia ?aaaiea ec aeioeieueiiai
o/?aaeaeaiey, ?enoieaie, iiaeaeeaie ?aaaiea. Enneaaeiaaiea ia/eiaaony ni
ciaeiinoaa n aeayoaeueiinoueth ?aaaiea a anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo (ai a?aiy
ea?, caiyoee, i?e auiieiaiee o?oaeiauo ii?o/aiee e o.ae.).

Ia?aae ia/aeii ianeaaeiaaiey aeey onoaiiaeaiey yiioeeiiaeueiiai
eiioaeoa n ?aaaieii, i?aaeeueiiai ioiioaiey e ineoieiao iaiaoiaeeii
i?iaanoe aanaaeo. Niaea?aeaiea aa aeieaeii auoue iai?aaeaii ia auyaeaiea
iniaaiiinoae i?aaenoaaeaiee ?aaaiea ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a, ?ane?uoea
eioa?ania ?aaaiea n iiiiuueth aai ethaeiuo ea?, caiyoee. A neo/aa ooiaea
io aii?inia, ioeaca io iauaiey iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue eioa?anioth eieao,
ea?ooeo, iinoaiaiii aoiaey a eiioaeo n ?aaaieii.

A i?ioeanna ianeaaeiaaiey iaiaoiaeeia niieieiay aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiay
ianoaiiaea, i?eaaoeeaue yiioeeiiaeueiue oii, oaaaeeoaeueiia ioiioaiea e
ee/iinoe ?aaaiea.

I?IA?AIIA INEOIEIAI-IAAeAAIAE*ANEIAI AeEAAIINOE?IAAIEss

aeeth/aao neaaeothuea yoaiu:

I. Eco/aiea iaueo aiaiianoe/aneeo naaaeaiee i ?aaaiea.

II. Aeeaaiinoeea ninoiyiey aioiaiinoe ?aaaiea e oeieueiiio iao/aieth.

III. Ninoaaeaiea ea?ou ninoiyiey aioiaiinoe ?aaaiea e oeiea.

IV. Caeeth/aiea ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoyo aioiaiinoe ?aaaiea e
oeiea.

V. Ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee.

I. ECO*AIEA IAUEO AIAIIANOE*ANEEO NAAAeAIEE I ?AAAIEA

Oaieeey, eiy, io/anoai ?aaaiea.

Ianoi ?iaeaeaiey, aae?an.

Iie: I- 3.0 AE- 3.1 (iaaanoe e?oaeeii)

Aic?ano: 5-6 eao – 4.0 6-7 eao – 4.1 (iaaanoe e?oaeeii)

Aeaoneee naae: ia iinauaao – 5.0 iinauaao ianniaue – 5.1

iinauaao
niaoeeaeueiue – 5.2

6. Ninoaa naiuee: naiuey iieiay – 6.0 Iaoue ?acaaaeaia – 6.1

Iaeeiieay iaoue – 6.2

Iaoue e
io/ei – 6.3

Ioaoe e
ia/aoa – 6.4

Ae?oaea
?iaenoaaiieee – 6.5

7. Eiee/anoai aeaoae: iaeei – 7.0 Aeaia – 7.1

O?ia –
7.2

*aoaa?i
– 7.3

Aieaa
/aoaa?uo – 7.4

8. Ioaoe: ia ?aaioaao – 8.0 ?aaioaao – 8.1

9. Iaoue: ia ?aaioaao – 9.0 ?aaioaao – 9.1

10. Yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea naiuee:

Iaaeaaiono?iaiiinoue – 10.0

N?aaeiea, oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua oneiaey – 10.1

Aeinoaoie e aeaaiono?iaiiinoue – 10.2

Eciaeeea, i?ae?aniua oneiaey – 10.3

11. Caei?iauea ?iaeeoaeae (iooea, iaoa?e):

Ioyaiuaiiinoue iooea eee iaoa?e:

Iaa caei?iau – 11.0 Neoeeenii – 11.5

Ineoicaie – 11.1 Yiaeie?eiiuie
eee na?aea/ii-

Aeeiaieeciii – 11.2 ninoaeenouie
aieaciyie – 11.6

I?eiaaeeaie – 11.4 I?i/eie
caaieaaaieyie – 11.7

Ieeaio?aieae – 11.4

12. Caei?iauea ?aaaiea:

I?aeoe/anee caei?ia – 12.0

Ia?ooaiey a oece/aneii ?acaeoee (?ino, aan) – 12.1

Ia?ooaiey a aeaeaeaieyo (neiaaiiinoue, ?anoi?iiaeaiiinoue,
ia?aee/e, ia?acu, noa?aioeiiua e iaayc/eaua aeaeaeaiey) – 12.2

Au?aaeaiiay ooiieyaiinoue – 12.3

Aeey i?iaaaeaiey ianeaaeiaaiey aioiaiinoe ?aaaiea e oeieueiiio
iao/aieth ninoaaeaia nenoaia iaoiaeee, ii eaaeaeie ?ac?aaioaiu oeaeueiua
ioeaiee a niioaaonoaee n aic?anoiuie iniaaiiinoyie aeaoae 6-7 eao.

Eaaeaeay iaoiaeeea i?aaenoaaeaia a niioaaonoaee n aaeeiui aeai?eoiii:

1) iacaaiea iaoiaeeee

2) aaoi? iaoiaeeee eee aa iiaeeoeeaoeee

3) iacia/aiea iaoiaeeee

4) iai?oaeiaaiea aeey enneaaeiaaiey ii iaoiaeeea

5)eino?oeoeey aeey ianeaaeoaiiai

6) i?ioeaaeo?a ianeaaeiaaiey, aai i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue e oi?ia
i?iaaaeaiey

7) ia?aaioea ?acoeueoaoia ianeaaeiaaiey

8) oeaeueiua ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia

9) aic?anoiua ii?iu

10) eioa?i?aoaoeey ?acoeueoaoia.

Ii eaaeaeie ineoieiae/aneie iiceoeee e ii eaaeaeie iaoiaeeea
?ac?aaioaia nenoaia ii?aaeaeaiey o?iaiy ?acaeoey ?aaaiea. Auaeaeyaony
iyoue o?iaiae ii neaaeothuae cia/eiinoe:

1 o?iaaiue – i/aiue aunieee

2 o?iaaiue – aunieee

3 o?iaaiue – n?aaeiee (ii?ia)

4 o?iaaiue – ieceee

5 o?iaaiue – i/aiue ieceee (o?iaaiue iaaeaaiae/aneie icaai/aiiinoe).

A i?ioeanna eniieueciaaiey eaaeaeie ec eiie?aoiuo iaoiaeee neaaeoao
ia?auaoue aieiaiea ia ?yae iaueo iiiaioia.

Iiieiaiea ?aaaieii eino?oeoeee. Ia?aae i?aaeuyaeaieai ethaiai caaeaiey
aaaeii onoaiiaeo, eae aini?eieiaao ?aaaiie eino?oeoeeth, iiieiaao ee aa,
a anee iao, oi aeaeaao ee iiiuoee iiieiaoue.

Oa?aeoa? aeayoaeueiinoe i?e auiieiaiee caaeaiey. Aaaeii onoaiiaeoue
auiieiyao ee ?aaaiie i?aaeeiaeaiiia caaeaiea n eioa?anii eee oi?iaeueii.
Ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia noaiaiue onoie/eainoe eioa?ana. Iniaia cia/aiea
eiatho oaeea iieacaoaee, eae oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe,
niiniau ?aoaiey i?aaeeiaeaiiuo ?aaaieo caaea/, nin?aaeioi/aiiinoue e
?aaioiniiniaiinoue ?aaaiea, oiaiea a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe
iieueciaaoueny i?aaeeiaeaiiie aio iiiiuueth.

?aaeoeey ?aaaiea ia ?acoeueoaou, iauay yiioeeiiaeueiay ?aaeoeey ia oaeo
ianeaaeiaaiey. Oeene?othony ioiioaiey e ?aaioa, ?aaeoeee ia iioaaeo eee
iaiaeia?aiea. Yoe iaaethaeaiey iicaieytho iiaeieoe e ?acoeueoaoai
ianeaaeiaaiey iaoi?iaeueii, aeatho aiciiaeiinoue i?iaiaeece?iaaoue
no?oeoo?o aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaaiea, ane?uoue aa iniaaiiinoe.

Ia?ooaiey ?a/e oeene?othony a i?ioeanna i?iaaaeaiey ineoieiae/aneiai
ianeaaeiaaiey.

Aeaoyi n ia?ooaieai ?a/e ?aeiiaiaeoaony eiinoeueoe?iaaoueny o
eiaiiaaea.[6] Aeaoe, iaia?oaeeaoea ii ineoe/aneiio ?acaeoeth ieceee e
i/aiue ieceee o?iaaiue e ninoaaeaoea a?oiio ?enea e a?oiio
iaaeaaiae/aneie icaai/aiiinoe, i?ioiaeyo niaoeeaeueiia aeiiieieoaeueiia
oaeoaeaiiia ineoiiaa?ieiae/aneia ianeaaeiaaiea. Aai ?acoeueoaou
caiinyony a ea?oo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ianeaaeiaaiey ?aaaiea ia iniiaa
i?ioieieia ianeaaeiaaiey.

Iaoiaee/aneea i?eaiu aeey i?iaaaeaiey aeeaaiinoe/aneiai ianeaaeiaaiey
?aaaiea aeieaeii auoue ii aiciiaeiinoe e?aoeeie – yeni?ann-iaoiaeeeaie,
oaeiaiuie aeey auno?iai eco/aiey oie eee eiie noa?u ee/iinoe ?aaaiea.

Aeeaaiinoe/aneia eioa?aueth ia aeieaeii auoue aeeeoaeueiui e neo/iui.
Iaiaoiaeeii i?eiaiyoue ?aciua iiaeeoeeaoeee a niioaaonoaee n aic?anoii
aeaoae e caaea/aie aeeaaiinoeee. Oi?ioi eniieueciaaoue n yoie oeaeueth
ea?ooee, aoiaao, ea?aiaeaoe, oeiianoa?u, o.e. aeaoe ia oiatho iienuaaoue
naie /oanoaa, ei eaa/a eo au?aceoue a ?enoieao.

Iinea i?iaaaeaiey ia?ae/iiai ciaeiinoaa n ?aaaieii, iiaeii ia/eiaoue
nianoaaiii ineoiaeeaaiinoe/aneia ianeaaeiaaiea.

Iu i?aaeeaaaai nenoaio iaoiaeee aeey i?iaaaeaiey ianeaaeiaaiey
aioiaiinoe ?aaaiea e oeieueiiio iao/aieth.

EIOAEEAEOOAEUeIAss NOA?A. IUOEAIEA.

IAOIAeEEA 1.1

I?aeoe/anee – aeaenoaaiiia iuoeaiea

OeAEUe: ioeaiea c?eoaeueii-iioi?iie eii?aeeiaoeee, o?iaiy
i?aeoe/anee-aeaenoaaiiiai iuoeaiey.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: oanoiaue aeaie, oeiianoa?, naeoiaeiia?.

EINO?OEOeEss: Ia?aae oiaie eaaeeo eeno aoiaae. I?aaenoaaue naaa, /oi
e?oaeee – yoi ei/ee a aieioa, iiiiae caeoeo i?iaaaeaoue ii yoei ei/eai,
/oiau ia ooiiooue a aieioa. Ioaeii iinoaaeoue oi/ee iin?aaeeia e?oaeeia
(yenia?eiaioaoi? iieacuaaao ia naiai ianoa, /oi oi/ea noaaeony iaeiei
i?eeiniiaaieai oeiianoa?a). Cayoe aeieaeai i?iaaaeaoue ii aieioo ca
iieieioou. Eiaaea y neaaeo “noii”, ioaeii inoaiiaeoueny. Neieueei ?ac
iiaeii aeio?iiooueny aei e?oaei/ea? Eae ioaeii noaaeoue oi/ee? (Aa?ii,
ia/eiae).

I?IOeAAeO?A: ?aaioa iiaeao auoue i?aaieciaaia eae eiaeeaeaeoaeueii, oae
e a a?oiia ec 3-4 /aeiaae. Iia i?iaeieaeaaony 30 naeoiae aei eiiaiaeu
“noii”!

IA?AAIOEA: O/eouaaaony iauaa eiee/anoai oi/ae, iinoaaeaiiuo ca 30
naeoiae e /enei ioeaie. Ioeaeaie n/eoathony oi/ee aia e?oaeeia, oi/ee,
iiiaaoea ia ie?oaeiinoue. Au/eneyaony eiyooeoeeaio oniaoiinoe auiieiaiey
caaeaiey:

i – i I , aaea i – /enei oi/ae ca 30 naeoiae;

i

Ii eiyooeoeeaioo ii?aaeaeyaony o?iaaiue oniaoiinoe auiieiaiey caaeaiey:

I – 1

II – 0,99 – 0,76

III – 0,75 – 0,51

IV – 0,50 – 0,26

V – 0,25 – 0

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
caaeaiey …………….

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

OANOIAUE AEAIE E IAOIAeEEA I.I

IAOIAeEEA 1.2

IAAEssAeII-AeAENOAAIIIA IUOEAIEA (4-e eeoiee)

OeAEUe: ii?aaeaeaiea o?iaiy ?acaeoey iia?aoeee eeanneoeeaoeee ia
iaaa?aaeueiii o?iaia.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: 5 ea?o n ecia?aaeaieai iaai?a ec 4-o i?aaeiaoia, iaeei ec
eioi?uo ia iiaeao auoue iaiauai n ae?oaeie ii iauaio n iei nouanoaaiiiio
i?eciaeo, oi anoue “eeoiee”.

EINO?OEOeEss: ?anniio?e aieiaoaeueii ea?oeieo. Eaeie i?aaeiao caeanue
eeoiee? Eaeie i?aaeiao caeanue ieacaeny neo/aeii, ii ioeaea, eae
iacuaathony iaeiei neiaii i?aaeiaou?

I?IOeAAeO?A: eniuooaiiio iii/a?aaeii i?aaeeaaaaony 5 ea?o ?acee/iie
oaiaoeee.

Ea?oa “Iaiue-o?oeou”: yaeiei, a?ooa, ii?eiaue, neeaa.

Ea?oa “Ea?ooee e o/aaiua aaue”: iaoeia, ie?aieaea, eoeea, ?aiaoe.

Ea?oa “Iaeaaeaea-iaoaue”: iaeueoi, naiaeaee, o?onu, iaeea.

Ea?oa “Aeiiaoiea – aeeeea aeeaioiua”: eo?eoea, naeiuey, ei?iaa, eeneoea.

Ea?oa “AEeaioiua e oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa ia?aaeaeaeaiey”: aaoiaon,
iioioeeee, eaaeiaie aaoiiiaeeue, eioaaeue.

IA?AAIOEA: ioeaieaaaony i?aaeeueiinoue iaiauaiey e iaee/ea eee
ionoonoaea eeanneoeeaoeee – iacaaiea iaiauathuaai neiaa.

Eaaeaeua i?aaeeueii auiieiaiiua caaeaiey ioeaieaathony a aaeeao:

iaiauaiea ii nouanoaaiiiio i?eciaeo – 2 aaeea;

oiio?aaeaiea iaiauathuaai neiaa – 1 aaee.

Iaeneiaeueiia /enei aaeeia – 15.

Auaeaeyaony 5 oneiaiuo o?iaiae noi?ie?iaaiiinoe iaiauaiey:

– 15 aaeeia

– 14-12 aaeeia

– 11-9 aaeeia

– 8-6 aaeeia

– 5 aaeeia e iaiaa

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss:

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
caaeaiey …………….

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

Aeaoa

? ea?ou Iaiauaiea ii nouanoaaiiiio i?eciaeo Oiio?aaeaiea iaiauathuaai
neiaa

I ea?oa

II ea?oa

III ea?oa

IV ea?oa

V ea?oa

Noiia aaeeia

Eoiaiaay ioeaiea a aaeeao: ___________________________________________

O?iaaiue auiieiaiey caaeaiey I ______ II ______ III ______ IV ______ V
____

(ioaeiia
iaaanoe e?oaeeii)

IAOIAeEEA 1.3

AA?AAEUeIIA (AANO?AEOIIA) IUOEAIEA

(ii E. A?anaeo)

IACIA*AIEA: ii?aaeaeaiea o?iaiy aa?aaeueiiai iuoeaiey, oiaiey eiae/anee
iuneeoue e ioaa/aoue ia aii?inu.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: aeaie oanoa ia ii?aaeaeaiea o?iaiy “Aa?aaeueiiai
iuoeaiey”.

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: ioaaoue iia, iiaeaeoenoa, ia ianeieueei
aii?inia.

I?IOeAAeO?A IANEAAeIAAIEss: ianeaaeoaiiio caaeathony aii?inu, ioaaou ia
eioi?ua ioeaieaathony ii oeaea.

OEAEUeIUA IOeAIEE: I o?iaaiue – 24 e aieaa – i/aiue aunieee

II o?iaaiue – io 14 – 23 –
aunieee

III o?iaaiue – io 0 –13 –
n?aaeiee

IV o?iaaiue – (- 1) – (-10) –
ieceee

V o?iaaiue – (-11) e iaiaa –
i/aiue ieceee

OANO IA II?AAeAEAIEA O?IAIss AA?AAEUeIIAI IUOEAIEss

Ioaeii
iaaanoe e?oaeeii, /enei

Aaeeia
auianoe a i?aaoth eieiieo

? Aii?inu I?aaeeueiue ioaao Iai?aaeeueiue ioaao Ae?oaea ioaaou Aaeeu

1. Eaeia aeeaioiia aieueoa: eioaaeue eee niaaea? 0 – 5

2. Oo?ii iu caao?aeaai, a aeiai? 0 – 3

3. Aeiai naaoei, a ii/ueth?

0 – 4

4. Iaai aieoaia, a o?aaa?

0 – 4

5. ssaeiee, a?ooe, neeau, ia?neee – yoi /oi? + 1 – 1

6. *oi oaeia: Iineaa, Eaeoaa, A?yine, Ooea, Noaa?iiieue? Ai?iaea +1 – 1
Noaioeee 0

7. Oooaie, ieaaaiea, oieeae, aieaeaie – yoi… Nii?o, oeceoeueoo?a +3 0
Ea?u, oi?aae. +2

8. Iaeaiueeay ei?iaa – yoi oaeaiie? Iaeaiueeay niaaea – yoi …?
Iaeaiueeay eioaaeue ? Uaiie, aea?aaaiie +4 – 1 Eoi-oi iaeei uaiie eee
aea?aaaiie 0

9. Ii/aio o anao aaoiiiaeeae oi?iica? 2 i?e/eiu ec neaaeothueo:
oi?iiceoue n ai?u, ia iiai?ioa, inoaiiaea a neo/aa iianiinoe
noieeiiaaiey, iinea ieii/aiey acaeu +1 – 1 Iacaaia iaeia i?e/eia

10. *ai iioiaee ae?oa ia ae?oaa iieioie e oiii?? 2 iaueo i?eciaea +3 0
Iacaai iaeei i?eciae +2

11. *ai ?acee/athony aaicaeue e aeio? O aeioa ia?acea +3 0 Aeio
caaei/eaaaony, a aaicaeue caaeaaaony, o aeioa aaeea +2

12. Niaaea aieueoa iioiaea ia eioeo eee eo?eoeo? *ai? *oi o ieo
iaeeiaeiai? Ia eioeo (n auaeaeaieai i?eciaeia iiaeiaey) 0 Ia eo?eoeo – 3
Ia eioeo (aac auaeaeaiey i?eciaeia iiaeiaey) – 1

13. *ai iioiaee ae?oa ia ae?oaa aaeea e eioea? 2 i?eciaea +3 0 1
i?eciae +2

14. Eaeea ou ciaaoue o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa? 3 n?aaenoaa: iacaiiia,
aiaeiia, aicaeooiia e o.i. +4 Ie/aai ia iacaaii eee iai?aaeeueii 0 3
iacaiiuo n?aaenoaa +2

15. *ai ioee/aaony iieiaeie /aeiaae io noa?iai? 3 i?eciaea +4 0 1-2
i?eciaea +2

EOIAI:

I?IOIEIE (OANO) IANEAAeIAAIEss

Oaieeey
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
caaeaiey …………….

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

IAOIAeEEA 1.4

I?E*EIII-NEAAeNOAAIIUA NAssCE (IAEAIEOeU)

OeAEUe: ii?aaeaeaiea o?iaiy ?acaeoey e?eoe/iinoe iiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: ea?oeiea n iaeaiuie neooaoeeyie.

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: iiniio?e aieiaoaeueii e ?anneaaee, /oi
iai?aaeeueii ia?eniaaii ia ea?oeiea.

I?IOeAAeO?A IANEAAeIAAIEss: ianeaaeoaiue a oa/aiea 30 naeoiae
?anniao?eaaao ea?oeieo e iacuaaao oa iaeaiua neooaoeee, eioi?ua ii
iaia?oaeeo (anaai 10).

IA?AAIOEA: ca eaaeaeoth auyaeaiioth iaeaieoeo aunoaaeyaony iaeei aaee.

OEAEUeIAss IOeAIEA: iicaieyao auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea o?iaie e?eoe/iinoe
iuoeaiey:

– 10

– 9,8

– 7,6

– 5,4

– 3 e iaiaa.

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
caaeaiey …………….

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

N E O O A Oe E E A A E E U

1. Eoia e nieioea iaeiia?aiaiii

2. Ia aa?aca aeiaua eaieee.

3. Ia aa?aca ?anooo a?aocu.

4. O ai?iiu 4 iiae.

5. Aaaooea aeaaeeo /aeieeii.

6. Ooainaeue aioeioo a aa?aco.

7. O aaeineiaaea eaaae?aoiua eieana.

8. Aieiaa, ?oee iaeue/eea iai?aaeaiu aia?aae, a iiae iacaae.

9. ?uaa oaeeo ?uao.

10. Ootha ieaaaao.

IAOIAeEEA 1.5

NIIOIIOAIEA ?ACAEOEss IUOEAIEss E ?A*E

OeAEUe: auyaeaiea iniaaiiinoae onoaiiaeaiey i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo
naycae iaaeaeo iauaeoaie e niauoeyie, eco/aiea ninoiyiey onoiie e
nayciie ?a/e, a oaeaea niioiioaiey o?iaiy ?acaeoey iuoeaiey e ?a/e.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: 5 nthaeaoii naycaiiuo ea?oeiie.

EINO?OEOeEss E I?IOeAAeO?A: ia?aae ?aaaieii aueeaaeuaathony ea?oeiee a
ii?yaeea, eiaaea iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue nthaeaoiie eeiee ia?ooaia:
2,3,1,5,6,4. I?aaeeaaaaony ?aceiaeeoue ea?oeiee a niioaaonoaee n eiaeeie
?acaeoey nthaeaoiie eeiee: “Iieiaee ea?oeiee ii ii?yaeeo”. Eniuooaiue
auiieiyao caaeaiea, yenia?eiaioaoi? oeene?oao iniaaiiinoe aai
aeayoaeueiinoe, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie ?aaaiie iiaeao auoue ioianai e
iaeiiio ec 5 o?iaiae.

O?IAIE IIIEIAIEss I?E*EIII-NEAAeNOAAIIUO NAssCAE E IOIIOAIEE

I o?iaaiue – ?aceiaeee aac ioeaie, aac aeiiieieoaeueiuo e iii?aai/iuo
aeaenoaee.

II o?iaaiue – naeaeae iaeio iii?aaeo.

III o?iaaiue – naeaeae 2 iii?aaee.

IV o?iaaiue – naeaeae iaeio ioeaeo.

V o?iaaiue – ?aceiaeee ea?oeiee aac onoaiiaeaiey eiae/aneie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eee ioeacaeny auiieieoue caaeaiea.

Aeaeaa ?aaaieo i?aaeeaaaaony ninoaaeoue ?anneac ii ea?oeieai,
?aceiaeaiiui n niaethaeaieai eiae/aneie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe:
“Ooaeiaeiee ia?eniaae enoi?eth i?i …, a ou ?anneaaee aa (/oi caeanue
i?ienoiaeeo?)”

A neo/aa ioeaca aaaeaony aanaaea ii ea?oeieai. ?anneac eee aanaaea
iieiinoueth caienuaathony, a caoai aiaeece?othony, iinea /aai
ii?aaeaeyaony o?iaaiue ?acaeoey nayciie ?a/e ?aaaiea.

O?IAIE ?ACAEOEss ONOIIE NAssCIIE ?A*E ?AAAIEA

I o?iaaiue – iieiia nayciia iienaiea niauoee a ?anneaca.

II o?iaaiue – iaaeinoaoi/ii iieiia, ii nayciia iienaiea a ?anneaca.

III o?iaaiue – iaaeinoaoi/ii iieiia, ii nayciia iienaiea a ?anneaca eee
iai?aaeeueiua ioaaou ia aii?inu yenia?eiaioaoi?a.

IV o?iaaiue – ia?a/eneaiea i?aaeiaoia, aeaenoaee, ea/anoa.

V o?iaaiue – ia?a/eneaiea i?aaeiaoia.

EOIAIAAss IA?AAIOEA: o?iaie iiieiaiey nthaeaoa e o?iaie iienaiey
n?aaenoaaie ?a/e niioiinyony:

a) niaiaaeatho;

a) ia niaiaaeatho.

A neo/aa ianiaiaaeaiey o?iaiae eo iiia?a neeaaeuaathony e aeaeyony
iiiieai, iai?eia?: aeayoaeueiinoue ?aaaiea ii onoaiiaeaieth
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae (neeaaeuaaiea ea?oeiie a eiae/aneie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe) ioeaiaia eae aeayoaeueiinoue I o?iaiy, a
aeayoaeueiinoue ii iienaieth niauoee – II o?iaiy, cia/eo, ?aaaiie
iaoiaeeony ia i?iiaaeooi/iii o?iaia 1,5.

CAEETH*AIEA: ?acaeoea iuoeaiey iia?aaeaao ?acaeoea ?a/aaie ooieoeee (eee
niaiaaeaao, eee ionoaao). Aeaeaa iaia/aaony iaee/ea – ionoonoaea
ia?ooaiey ?a/e ?aaaiea.

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
caaeaiey ………………..

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

O?iaie iiieiaiey (aiineony a iauee i?ioieie) O?iaie ?acaeoey onoiie
nayciie ?a/e

I I

II II

III III

IV IV

V V

O?IAAIUe NIIOIIOAIEss IUOEAIEss E ?A*E

Caeeth/aiea i ninoiyiee ?a/e

– Ia?ooaiey caoeii?ieciioaiey anoue
iao

– ?eiieaeey
anoue iao

– Caeeaiea
anoue iao

– Ia?ooaiea oaiia ?a/e e ?eoia anoue
iao

– Iauaa iaaei?acaeoea ?a/e anoue
iao

(ioaeiia iiae/a?eiooue)

?aeiiaiaeiaaia eiinoeueoaoeey

eiaiiaaea
aea iao

(ioaeiia iiae/a?eiooue)

IAIssOUe

IAOIAeEEA 2.1

IAI?IECAIEUeIAss C?EOAEUeIAss IAIssOUe

OeAEUe: ii?aaeaeaiea iauaia iai?iecaieueiiai c?eoaeueiiai caiiieiaiey.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: iaai? ec 10 ea?oeiie.

1. ?uaa 6. Naiee

2. Aaae?i 7. Aeea

3. Eoeea 8. *aoea

4. Iieioie 9. *anu

5. Ii?ooaeue 10. Oaeaaeci?

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: nae/an y oaaa aoaeo iieacuaaoue ea?oeiee, a
ou aiai?e, /oi ia ieo ia?eniaaii.

I?IOeAAeO?A IANEAAeIAAIEss: ea?oeiee i?aaeuyaeythony ii iaeiie e
aueeaaeuaathony ia?aae ianeaaeoaiui a ?yae (i?eaeeceoaeueii iaeia
ea?oeiea a naeoiaeo). Iinea oiai, eae aueiaeaia ea?oeiea,
yenia?eiaioaoi? aeaeao aua iaeio naeoiaeo e auae?aao noeioeueiue
iaoa?eae. Ianeaaeoaiue aeieaeai iacaaoue, /oi auei ia?eniaaii ia
ea?oeiea. Ii?yaeie aini?iecaaaeaiey ia eiaao i?eioeeieaeueiiai cia/aiey.
A i?ioieiea oeene?oaony oaeo i?aaeeueiiai aini?iecaaaeaiey ea?oeiie.

IA?AAIOEA: ca eaaeaeia i?aaeeueiia aini?iecaaaeaiiia iacaaiea
aunoaaeyaony ii iaeiiio aaeeo.

OEAEUeIUA IOeAIEE:

I o?iaaiue – 10 i?aaeeueiuo iacaaiee (10 aaeeia)

II o?iaaiue – 9-8

III o?iaaiue – 7-6

IV o?iaaiue – 5-4

V o?iaaiue – 3 e iaiaa

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss IAI?IECAIEUeIIE IAIssOE

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
caaeaiey ………………..

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

IAOIAeEEA 2.2

I?IECAIEUeIAss C?EOAEUeIAss IAIssOUe

OeAEUe: ii?aaeaeaiea iauaia i?iecaieueiiai c?eoaeueiiai caiiieiaiey

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: iaai? ec 10 ea?oi/ae

1. Iy/ 6. Oaiea

2. ssaeiei 7. Iao?aoea

3. A?ea 8. Oeuieaiie

4. Ii?eiaue 9. Iae

5. Aaai/ea 10. A?ociaee

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: nae/an y oaaa aoaeo iieacuaaoue ea?oeiee, ou
aiai?e, /oi ia ieo ia?eniaaii, e iinoa?aeny eo caiiiieoue.

I?IOeAAeO?A IANEAAeIAAIEss: ea?oeiee i?aaeuyaeythony ii iaeiie e
aueeaaeuaathony ia?aae ianeaaeoaiui a ?yae (i?eaeeceoaeueii iaeia
ea?oeiea a naeoiaeo). Iinea oiai, eae aueiaeaia iineaaeiyy ea?oeiea,
yenia?eiaioaoi? aeaeao aua iaeio naeoiaeo e oae?aao noeioeueiue
iaoa?eae. Ianeaaeoaiue aeieaeai aini?iecaanoe aanue iaai? ea?oeiie ia
aa?aaeueiii o?iaia, o.a. iacaaoue ecia?aaeaiiua i?aaeiaou.

Ii?yaeie aini?iecaaaeaiey ia eiaao i?eioeeieaeueiiai cia/aiey. A
i?ioieiea oeene?oaony eaaeaeay i?aaeeueii aini?iecaaaeaiiay ea?oeiea.

IA?AAIOEA: ca eaaeaeia i?aaeeueii aini?iecaaaeaiiia iacaaiea
aunoaaeyaony ii iaeiiio aaeeo.

OEAEUeIUA IOeAIEE:

I o?iaaiue – 10 i?aaeeueiuo iacaaiee (aaeeia)

II o?iaaiue – 9,8

III o?iaaiue – 7,6

IV o?iaaiue – 5,4

V o?iaaiue – 3 e iaiaa

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss I?IECAIEUeIIE C?EOAEUeIIE IAIssOE

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
caaeaiey ………………..

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

I?aaeeueii aini?iecaaaeaiiua iacaaiey iaaanoe e?oaeeaie.

Iacaaiey i?aaeuyaeyaiuo ?enoieia O?iaie

1. Iy/ I – 10

2. ssaeiei II – 9,8

3. A?ea III – 7,6

4. Ii?eiaea IV – 5,4

5. Aaai/ea V – 3 e iaiaa

6. Oaiea

7. Iao?aoea

8. Oeuieaiie

9. Iae

10. A?ociaee

IAOIAeEEA 2.3

IIA?AOEAIAss AA?AAEUeIAss IAIssOUe

OeAEUe: ii?aaeaeaiea iauaia iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai caiiieiaiey aa?aaeueiiai
iaoa?eaea.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: iaai? ec 10 neia

1. Aeii 6.
Iieiei

2. Nieioea 7. Noie

3. Ai?iia 8. Niaa

4. *anu 9.
Ieii

5. Ea?aiaeao 10. Eieaeea

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: nae/an y i?i/eoath (iaciao) oaaa ianeieueei
neia, a ou iinoa?aeny eo caiiiieoue e iioii iiaoi?eoue.

I?IOeAAeO?A IANEAAeIAAIEss: neiaa iacuaathony a iaaeeaiiii oaiia
(i?eaeeceoaeueii iaeii neiai a naeoiaeo), iaai? neia i?aaeuyaeyaony
iaeiie?aoii e io/aoeeai. Caoai neiaa n?aco aini?iecaiaeyony
ianeaaeoaiui. Ii?yaeie aini?iecaaaeaiey cia/aiey ia eiaao. A i?ioieiea
oeene?oaony i?aaeeueii e oi/ii aini?iecaaaeaiiua neiaa.

IA?AAIOEA: ca eaaeaeia i?aaeeueii aini?iecaaaeaiiia neiai aunoaaeyaony
ii iaeiiio aaeeo. Eciaiaiea neiaa n/eoaaony ioeaeie (nieioea – nieiuoei,
ieii – ieioei).

OEAEUeIUA IOeAIEE:

I o?iaaiue – 10 aaeeia (10 i?aaeeueii aini?iecaaaeaiiuo neia).

II o?iaaiue – 9-8

III o?iaaiue – 7-6

IV o?iaaiue – 5-4

V o?iaaiue – 3 e iaiaa

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
caaeaiey ………………..

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

I?aaeeueii aini?iecaaaeaiiua neiaa iaaanoe e?oaeeaie.

I?aaeuyaeyaiua neiaa O?iaie

1. Aeii I – 10

2. Nieioea II – 9,8

3. Ai?iia III – 7,6

4. *anu IV – 5,4

5. Ea?aiaeao V – 3 e iaiaa

6. Iieiei

7. Noie

8. Niaa

9. Ieii

10. Eieaeea

Noiia aaeeia

OIIAIAOE*ANEEE NEOO

IAOIAeEEA 3.1

OIIAIAOE*ANEEE NEOO (ii I.A.Ia/aaaie)

OeAEUe: ii?aaeaeaiea o?iaiy ?acaeoey oiiaiaoe/aneiai aiaeeca e
niiniaiinoe ia?aeiaee?iaaiey caoeiaiai eiaea a caoeiaoth nenoaio.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: eeno aoiaae, ?o/ea (ea?aiaeao).

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: nae/an iu iii?iaoai caienaoue ianeieueei
neia, ii ia aoeaaie, a e?oaei/eaie. Neieueei caoeia a neiaa, noieueei
e?oaei/eia.

IA?ACAOe: neiai noi. ?enoai e?oaei/ee. I?iaa?yai.

I?IOeAAeO?A IANEAAeIAAIEss: ianeaaeoaiue ?enoao e?oaei/ee iiae aeeeoiaeo
yenia?eiaioaoi?a ia eenoa aoiaae.

IAAI? NEIA: ao, ?oea, nie, caacaea, aania.

IA?AAIOEA: i?e i?aaeeueiii auiieiaiee caaeaiey caienue aeieaeia auoue
neaaeothuae:

00

0000

000

000000

00000

OEAEUeIUA IOeAIEE:

I o?iaaiue – ana noaiu auiieiaiu i?aaeeueii

II o?iaaiue – 4 noaiu auiieiaiu i?aaeeueii

III o?iaaiue – 3 noaiu auiieiaiu i?aaeeueii

IV o?iaaiue – 2 noaiu auiieiaiu i?aaeeueii

V o?iaaiue – ana noaiu auiieiaiu iai?aaeeueii

YIIOeEIIAEUeIUE NOAOON EE*IINOE (YNE)

4.1 YIIOeEIIAEUeII-AIEAAAss NOA?A

(Iiaeeoeeaoeey oeaaoiaiai oanoa Ethoa?a-Aei?ioaaaie)

OeAEUe: ii?aaeaeeoue ii ooieoeeiiaeueiiio ninoiyieth ?aaaiea aai
yiioeeiiaeueiue noaoon.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: 3 eiiaa?oa n o?aiy iaeeiaeiauie iaai?aie eaaae?aoia
?acia?ii 3o3 ni e?aniiai, neiaai e caeaiiai oeaaoa. Noaiaea?oiue eeno
iaoeiiieniie aoiaae eee aaeiai ea?oiia a ea/anoaa ieaioaoa.

EINO?OEOeEss E I?IOeAAeO?A: eniuooaiue aueeaaeuaaao oeaaoiua eaaae?aou
ia aaeii ieaioaoa a ethaii ii?yaeea.

Caaeaiea auiieiyaony 3 ?aca iiae?yae.

Oanoe?iaaiea i?iaiaeeony 5 ?ac ca 3 aeiy.

1. Yenia?eiaioaoi? aa?ao ethaie ec eiiaa?oia n eaaae?aoaie.

– Iieiaee eaaae?aou ae?oa ca ae?oaii. Nia/aea iieiaee eaaae?ao oiai
oeaaoa, eioi?ue oaaa aieueoa anaai i?aaeony.

– Caoai iieiaee eaaae?ao oiai oeaaoa, eioi?ue oaaa oiaea i?aaeony.

-Oaia?ue iieiaee iineaaeiee eaaae?ao.

2. Aa?aony neaaeothuee eiiaa?o.

– A oaia?ue ?aceiaee ana nai oae, eae oaaa oi/aony.

A i?ioieiea caiieiyaony no?iea 2. Eaaae?aou oae?athony.

3. Aa?aony iineaaeiee eiiaa?o.

– A oaia?ue ?aceiaee yoe eaaae?aou.

A i?ioieiea caiieiyaony no?iea 3.

Aeaenoaey ?aaaiea oeene?othony a i?ioieiea, iai?eia?:

? i/i E?aniue (E) Neiee (N) Caeaiue (C)

1 1 2 3

2 3 2 1

3 1 3 2

A?aiy oanoe?iaaiey ia aieaa 1 ieioou.

IA?AAIOEA: a i?ioieiea iieacuaaaony 3 ?yaea /enae. Aiaeec e
eioa?i?aoaoeey ?acoeueoaoia i?iaiaeyony ii oaaeeoea ii aoi?iio /eneiaiio
?yaeo (a iaoai i?eia?a yoi: 3,2,1), oae eae auai? ia?aiai ?yaea iiaeao
auoue naycai n i?eaioe?iai/iie ?aaeoeeae ?aaaiea, a o?aoueaai – n
aaeaioaoeeae.

Iiaoi?yaiinoue ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyiee iiaeao naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue
ia eo ono?ienoaa, iie aeeooa?aioee?othony ii o?iaiyi.

Iiaoi?yaiinoue ninoiyiee O?iaaiue onoie/eainoe

5 ?ac I

4 ?aca II

3 ?aca III

2 ?aca IV

1 ?ac V

Aeey eioa?i?aoaoeee ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyiee i?aaeeaaaaony
neaaeothuay noaia:

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss II IAOIAeEEA “YIIOeEIIAEUeIUE NOAOON EE*IINOE
(YNE)”

O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

caaeaiey ……………….

?acoeueoaou ia?aiai ianeaaeiaaiey

_________________________________________________________________

?? i/i E?aniue (E) Neiee (N)
Caeaiue (C)

________________________________________________________________________
______________

I

_________________________________________________________________

II

_________________________________________________________________

III

_________________________________________________________________

Oeaaoiaay oi?ioea (ii II ?yaeo):
_________________________________________________________________

Ooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea (ii II ?yaeo):
_________________________________________________________________

?acoeueoaou aoi?iai ianeaaeiaaiey

_________________________________________________________________

?? i/i E?aniue (E) Neiee (N)
Caeaiue (C)

________________________________________________________________________
______________

I

_________________________________________________________________

II

_________________________________________________________________

III

_________________________________________________________________

Oeaaoiaay oi?ioea (ii II ?yaeo):
_________________________________________________________________

Ooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea (ii II ?yaeo):
_________________________________________________________________

?acoeueoaou o?aoueaai ianeaaeiaaiey

_________________________________________________________________

?? i/i E?aniue (E) Neiee (N)
Caeaiue (C)

________________________________________________________________________
______________

I

_________________________________________________________________

II

_________________________________________________________________

III

_________________________________________________________________

Oeaaoiaay oi?ioea (ii II ?yaeo):
_________________________________________________________________

Ooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea (ii II ?yaeo):
_________________________________________________________________

?acoeueoaou /aoaa?oiai ianeaaeiaaiey

_________________________________________________________________

?? i/i E?aniue (E) Neiee (N)
Caeaiue (C)

________________________________________________________________________
______________

I

_________________________________________________________________

II

_________________________________________________________________

III

_________________________________________________________________

Oeaaoiaay oi?ioea (ii II ?yaeo):
________________________________________________________________

Ooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea (ii II ?yaeo):
________________________________________________________________

?acoeueoaou iyoiai ianeaaeiaaiey

_________________________________________________________________

?? i/i E?aniue (E) Neiee (N)
Caeaiue (C)

________________________________________________________________________
______________

I

_________________________________________________________________

II

_________________________________________________________________

III

_________________________________________________________________

Oeaaoiaay oi?ioea (ii II ?yaeo):
________________________________________________________________

Ooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea (ii II ?yaeo):
_________________________________________________________________

Caeeth/aiea

Ooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea OI O? OA OO AA AA

*enei iiaoi?aiee

iaeaieueoaa /enei iaaanoe e?oaeeii.

AIEAAAss ?AAOEssOeEss

IAOIAeEEA 5.1

O?IAAIUe AIEAAIE ?AAOEssOeEE

OeAEUe: ii?aaeaeaiea o?iaiy aieaaie ?aaoeyoeee a no?oeoo?a iiiioiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: oanoiaue aeaie, ia eioi?ii a iaeei ?yae ia?eniaaiu
eiioo?u 15 e?oaeeia ?acia?ii a iaeiieiiaa/ioth iiiaoo, oeiianoa?.

EINO?OEOeEss: cae?anue yoe e?oaei/ee aeeo?aoii, ia auoiaey ca eiioo?.

I?IOeAAeO?A: -Eae ioaeii ?aaioaoue? – Aeeo?aoii. – Ia/eiae!

I?e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii ianeaaeiaaiee ?aaioa caeai/eaaaony, eae oieueei
?aaaiie ia/eiaao i?iyaeyoue iaa?aaeiinoue eee ioeacuaaaony io ?aaiou.

I?e a?oiiiaie i?aaiecaoeee iiaeii iii?ineoue cae?aneoue ana e?oaeee, ii
i?e ia?aaioea ?acoeueoaoia o/eouaaoue oa, eioi?ua i?aaeoanoaiaaee
ia?aiio, iaa?aaeii cae?aoaiiiio.

IA?AAIOEA: I aeeo?aoii cae?aoaiiue e?oaeie – 1 aaee. Iaeneiaeueiia
eiee/anoai aaeeia – 15.

Auaeaeyaony 5 o?iaiae aieaaie ?aaoeyoeee:

I – 15 aaeeia

II – 14-11 aaeeia

III – 10-7 aaeeia

IV – 6-4 aaeea

V – 3 e iaiaa aaeeia

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
ciaiey …………………

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

IAOIAeEEA 5.2

ENNEAAeIAAIEA ?AAIOINIINIAIINOE

(Iiaeeoeeaoeey iaoiaeeee Ica?aoeeiaa)

OeAEUe: enneaaeiaaiea ooiieyaiinoe, a?aaaouaaaiinoe, eiioeaio?aoeee
aieiaiey.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: aeaa oaaeeoeu n oano-iauaeoaie: aaiiao?e/aneea oeao?u
(ciaee), naeoiaeiia?.

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: au/a?eeaae iaeiie /a?oie naa?oo aiec
e?oaei/ee a eaaeaeie no?iea. ?aaioae auno?i e aieiaoaeueii, noa?aeny ia
i?iioneaoue. Naeaeaaoue iaeio no?ieo, ia?aoiaee ei aoi?ie e oae aeaeaa.
iiea ia auiieieoue ana caaeaiea.

I?IOeAAeO?A IANEAAeIAAIEss: ia ia?aie oaaeeoea eaaeaeua aeaa ieioou
yenia?eiaioaoi? ioia/aao /a?oie ia eenoa eiee/anoai i?iniio?aiiuo
ciaeia. Oeene?oaony a?aiy auiieiaiey anaai caaeaiey – 8 ieioo.

A eiioea yenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeiy ii aoi?ie oaaeeoea aeaaony aeaa
ieioou ia auiieiaiea aiaeiae/iiai caaeaiey aeey ii?aaeaeaiey noaiaie
ooiieyaiinoe ianeaaeoaiiai.

IA?AAIOEA: oeene?oaony eiee/anoai i?iiouaiiuo e iaaa?ii ca/a?eioouo
ciaeia; a?aiy, cao?a/aiiia ia auiieiaiea caaeaiey ca eaaeaeua 2 ieioou e
a oeaeii.

Eiyooeoeeaio i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ?aaiou au/eneyaony ii oi?ioea:

aaea – /enei anao i?iniio?aiiuo ciaeia;

– /enei i?aaeeueii ca/a?eioouo
ciaeia;

– /enei i?iiouaiiuo eee iaaa?ii
ca/a?eioouo ciaeia.

O?iaie ?aaioiniiniaiinoe:

I

II

III

IV

V

. ENNEAAeIAAIEA NOI?IE?IAAIIINOE IAUEO I?AAeNOAAEAIEE E OIAIEE

(ii Ea?io – E.A?anaeo)

OeAEE: ii?aaeaeaiea noi?ie?iaaiiinoe iaueo i?aaenoaaeaiee eae noaiaie
iiaeaioiaeaiiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth e i?iaiice?iaaieth oeieueiie
oniaaaaiinoe;

auyaeaiea o?iaiy ?acaeoey oiieie iioi?eee ?oe,
c?eoaeueii-aeaeaaoaeueiie eii?aeeiaoeee, iauaai eioaeeaeooaeueiiai
?acaeoey, oneae/eainoe.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: aeaa oanoa-caaeaiey, ?o/ea eee ea?aiaeao.

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: nae/an ou aoaeaoue auiieiyoue ianeieueei
caaeaiee, iinoa?aeny naeaeaoue ana aeeo?aoii e aieiaoaeueii.

I?IOeAAeO?A IANEAAeIAAIEss: ia aeaiea aeaaony aiciiaeiinoue
naiinoiyoaeueiiai ?eniaaiey e ia?acaoe 2-o caaeaiee:

6.1. ?ENIAAIEA OEAO?U *AEIAAEA.

6.2. N?ENIAUAAIEA OEIE*IUO AOEA.

6.3. N?ENIAUAAIEA A?OIIU OI*AE:

. . .

. . .

. . .

.

?acoeueoao eaaeaeiai caaeaiey ioeaieaaaony ii 5-oe o?iaiaaie nenoaia.

6.1. ?ENIAAIEA OEAO?U *AEIAAEA

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: ia?enoe /aeiaaea. Iinea eino?oeoeee ii
caaeaieth ieeaeeo iiyniaiee, iiiiue eee i?eaea/aiey aieiaiey e
iaaeinoaoeai e ioeaeai ia aeiioneaaony.

IOeAIEA ?enoiea ?aaaiea.

I o?iaaiue – ia?eniaaiiay oeao?a aeieaeia eiaoue aieiao, ooeiaeua,
eiia/iinoe. Aieiaa niaaeeiyaony n oaae e ia aeieaeia auoue aieueoa
ooeiaeua. Ia aieiaa anoue aieinu (iie iiaoo auoue cae?uou aieiaiui
oai?ii), ooe. Ia eeoea aeieaeiu auoue aeaca, ?io, iin. ?oee aeieaeiu
caeai/eaaoueny iyoeiaeie eenoueth. Iiae aieco ioiaioou. Oeao?a aeieaeia
eiaoue iaeaaeaeo. Oeao?a aeieaeia auoue ia?eniaaia eiioo?iui niiniaii
aac ioaeaeueiuo /anoae.

II o?iaaiue – auiieiaiea anao o?aaiaaiee, ia?a/eneaiiuo ?aiaa, i?e
ionoonoaee oae, aiein, iaeiiai iaeueoea ?oee, iaee/ea neioaoe/aneiai
niiniaa ?eniaaiey (ana /anoe ioaeaeueii).

III o?iaaiue – oeao?a eiaao aieiao, ooeiaeua, eiia/iinoe. ?oee eee
iiae, eee e oi e ae?oaia ia?eniaaiu aeaoiy eeieyie. Aeiioneaaony
ionoonoaea oae, aiein, ooae, iaeaaeaeu, iaeueoeaa, nooiiae.

IV o?iaaiue – i?eieoeaiue ?enoiie n aieiaie e ooeiaeuai. Eiia/iinoe
ia?eniaaiu oieueei iaeiie eeieae eaaeaeay.

V o?iaaiue – ionoonoaoao /aoeia ecia?aaeaiea ooeiaeua eee ia?eniaaiu
oieueei aieiaa e iiae. Ea?aeoee.

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
ciaiey …………………

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

6.2. N?ENIAUAAIEA I?IIENIUO AOEA

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: iiniio?e e iaieoe ieaea oi, /oi caeanue
iaienaii. Iinoa?aeny iaienaoue oae aea.

IOeAIEA auiieiaiey caaeaiey:

I o?iaaiue – oi?ioi, ?acai?/eai neiie?iaai ia?acaoe. ?acia? aoea
i?aauoaao ?acia? aoea ia?acoea ia aieaa, /ai a 2 ?aca. Ia?aay aoeaa ii
aunioa niioaaonoaoao i?iieniie aoeaa. Aoeau /aoei naycaiu a aeaa neiaa,
neiie?iaaiiay o?aca ioeeiiyaony io ai?eciioaee ia aieaa, /ai ia 30
a?aaeonia.

II o?iaaiue – ?acai?/eai neiie?iaai ia?acaoe, iaeiaei ?acia? aoea e
niaethaeaiea ai?eciioaeueiie eeiee ia o/eouaaaony.

III o?iaaiue – yaiay ?acaeaea ia aeaa /anoe; iiaeii iiiyoue oioy au 4
aoeau ia?acoea.

IV o?iaaiue – n ia?acoeii niaiaaeatho 2 aoeau; niaethaeaia no?iea
iaaeiene.

V o?iaaiue – ea?aeoee.

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
ciaiey …………………

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

6.3. N?ENIAUAAIEA A?OIIU OI*AE

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: caeanue ia?eniaaiu oi/ee. Ia?enoe eo oae aea
ni?aaa.

IOeAIEA ?acoeueoaoia auiieiaiey caaeaiey:

I o?iaaiue – oi/ee i?aaeeueii neiie?iaaiu. Aeiioneaaony iacia/eoaeueiia
ioeeiiaiea iaeiie oi/ee io no?iee eee eieiiee; oiaiueoaiea ia?acoea e
oaaee/aiea aai ia aieaa /ai aaeaia. ?enoiie aeieaeai auoue ia?aeeaeueiui
ia?acoeo.

II o?iaaiue – /enei e ?aniieiaeaiea oi/ae niioaaonoaoao ia?acoeo. Iiaeii
ia o/eouaaoue ioeeiiaiea ia aieaa o?ao oi/ae ia iieiaeio aaee/eiu caci?a
iaaeaeo no?ieaie.

III o?iaaiue – ?enoiie a oeaeii niioaaonoaoao ia?acoeo, ia i?aauoay aai
ii oe?eia e aunioa aieaa /ai aaeaia. *enei oi/ae iiaeao ia
niioaaonoaiaaoue ia?acoeo, ii eo ia aeieaeii auoue aieaa 20 e iaiueoa 7.
Aeiioneaaony ethaie ?acai?io, aeaaea ia 180 a?aaeonia.

IV o?iaaiue – eiioo? ?enoiea ia niioaaonoaoao ia?acoeo, ii ninoieo ec
oi/ae. ?acia?u ia?acoea e /enei oi/ae ia niaethaeaiu.

V o?iaaiue – ea?aeoee.

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
ciaiey …………………

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

II?AAeAEAIEA O?IAIss NOI?IE?IAAIIINOE IAUEO I?AAeNOAAEAIEE E OIAIEE

Caaeaiey VII.1 VII.2 VII.3

O?iaie

O?iaaiue noi?ie?iaaiiinoe iaueo i?aaenoaaeaiee e oiaiee VII.1 + VII.2
+VII.3

3

7.1. IIOEAAOeEIIIAss NOA?A EE*IINOE ?AAAIEA

ENNEAAeIAAIEA IIOEAAOeEIIIIE AIOIAIINOE ?AAAIEA E OEIEA

(Aeeaaiinoe/aneay aanaaea)

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: aeaie i?ioieiea-oanoa

– Eae oaay ciaoo?

– Iaciae naith oaieeeth.

– Ie, eaeie ou ac?ineue!

– Nei?i iieaeaoue a oeieo?!

NIAeA?AEAIEA AANAAeU:

1. Ou oi/aoue o/eoueny?

2. Ii/aio (oi/aoue, ia oi/aoue)?

3. Aaea ou oi/aoue o/eoueny?

4. Eiaaea ou iieaeaoue a oeieo?

5. Eae ou aioiaeoueny e oeiea? ?anneaaee.

6. Eoi oaay aoaeao o/eoue?

7. *aio oaay iao/eo o/eoaeueieoea?

8. *ai ou aoaeaoue caieiaoueny aeiia, eiaaea noaiaoue oeieueieeii?

9. Eoi oaaa aoaeao iiiiaaoue a o/aaa aeiia?

10. Eiio ou aoaeaoue iiiiaaoue a oeiea?

11. Ou ethaeoue, eiaaea oaay oaaeyo?

12. Eoi oaay aoaeao oaaeeoue, eiaaea ou noaiaoue oeieueieeii?

13. *oi oaaa ioaeii aoaeao aeaeaoue, /oiau oaay iioaaeeee?

14. Eae ou oi/aoue o/eoueny?

15. Eae ou aoaeaoue aanoe naay a oeiea? ?anneaaee.

Aeey eioa?i?aoaoeee ?acoeueoaoia i?aaeeaaaaony neaaeothuay oaaeeoea:

4. NAAAeAIEss IA EIAeEAEAeOAEUeIUO INIAAIIINOssO NINOIssIEss AIOIAIINOE
?AAAIEA E OEIEA

Ii eoiaai ianeaaeiaaiey iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue:

– iniiaiua ia?ooaiey a ineoe/aneii ?acaeoee ?aaaiea;

– iniiaiua nio?aiaiiua noa?aeiaaua iniaaiiinoe ee/iinoe ?aaaiea;

– naiaia?acea ineoe/aneiai ?acaeoey ee/iinoe ?aaaiea e aai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe;

-aaaeouea ei??aeoeeiiii-icaei?iaeoaeueiua oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey nio?aiii
ineoi-oeceieiae/aneeo ooieoeee;

– ia?niaeoeaiua ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneea aiciiaeiinoe nioeeaeueiie
ei??aeoeee e eioaa?aoeee ee/iinoe ?aaaiea.

Ia?ooaiey ?a/e oeene?othony a i?ioeanna ianeaaeiaaiey ?aaaiea.

Ii ?acoeueoaoai aeeaaiinoeee aioiaiinoe e iao/aieth a oeiea iiaeii
?aeiiaiaeiaaoue neaaeothuaa:

a) caienaoue ?aaaiea a ia?aue eeann;

a) ion?i/eoue ia/aei iao/aiey ia iaeei aiae;

a) ia?aaanoe ?aaaiea a niaoeeaeueioth a?oiio aeaoneiai naaea eee
oeieueiue eeann au?aaieaaiey;

a) iai?aaeoue ia iaoiaeeei-iaaeaaiae/aneoth eiienneth;

ae) inouanoaeyoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue iiaeoiae e ?aaaieo n o/aoii oao
eee eiuo auyaeaiiuo iniaaiiinoae aai iiaeaioiaee.

AEAAA 2

ENNEAAeIAAIEA AIOIAIINOE E OEIEUeIIIO IAO*AIETH

2.1 I?aaiecaoeey e i?iaaaeaiea aeeaaiinoe/aneiai ianeaaeiaaiey ia
i?aaeiao aioiaiinoe e oeiea

Aeeaaiinoeea aioiaiinoe e oeiea i?iaiaeeeanue iaie ia aaca aeaoneiai
naaea “?iiaoea” naea Iaeua ssao?u a ieoya?a 1998 aiaea.

Iaie auei ianeaaeiaaii 20 aeaoae iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie a?oiiu ii nenoaia
iaoiaeee aeey i?iaaaeaiey ianeaaeiaaiey aioiaiinoe ?aaaiea e oeieueiiio
iao/aieth, iienaiiuo iaie auoa.

Aei ia/aea ineoieiae/aneie aeeaaiinoeee iu ouaoaeueii iciaeiieeenue n
oa?aeoa?enoeeie ia eaaeaeiai ?aaaiea, i?iaeoeoaie aeayoaeueiinoe aeaoae.

A ?acoeueoaoa aeeaaiinoeee iu iieo/eee neaaeothuea ?acoeueoaou: iauee
o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe ianeaaeiaaiiuo aeaoae – n?aaeiee – 55 %, aunieee
o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth ia iiiaio ianeaaeiaaiey
iieacaea oieueei iaeia aeaai/ea – Ionoiaeo Niaaeaia, yoi aeaaiaea?y
oiio, /oi ae oaeaeyeinue aieiaiea aeiia, n iae caieiaeanue aaaooea e
?iaeeoaee. Aeaoneee naae aue ioe?uo oieueei a naioya?a iinea
aeeeoaeueiiai ?aiiioa. O Niaaeaiu n?aaeiee o?iaaiue iaiyoe,
oiiaiaoe/aneiai neooa e yiioeee, o?iaaiue iuoeaiey, aiee, i?aaenoaaeaiee
e oiaiee, a oae aea iioeaaoeeiiiay aioiaiinoue aunieay. I/aiue ieceee
o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth o aeaoo aeaoae: Aeoaiaee
Aeeoi?a e Oea/aiei Eaaia. Iaiei iaeue/eeai ii iyoue eao. I/aiue ieceee
o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe naycai oaeaea n oai, /oi aeiia yoe aeaoe
i?eiaaeeaaeao naie naaa, iaa yoeo iaeue/eea ec iaaeaaiiieo/iuo naiae
(?iaeeoaee no?aaeatho aeeiaieeciii) iie ia iieo/atho ieeaeiai aieiaiey
ni noi?iiu ac?ineuo. O Oea/aiei Aaie ana, aac eneeth/aiey iieacaoaee
i/aiue ieceea. Eiaaea i?iaiaeeeinue ianeaaeiaaiea, ii ia i?iyaeye
ieeaeiai eioa?ana, i/aiue o?oaeii auei oaea?aeaoue aai aieiaiea, ii
iinoiyiii ioaeaeaeny e ea?athuei aeaoyi. Ieceee o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe
iieacaee 6 /aeiaae:

– AEaeaiiaa Aeeia (ieceee o?iaaiue ?acaeoey iaiyoe, oiiaiaoe/aneiai
neooa, yiioeeiiaeueiiai noaoona, i?aaenoaaeaiee e oiaiee, a oaeaea
iioeaaoeee);

– Coa/aiei Aeoaeee ( i/aiue ieceee o?iaaiue oiiaiaoe/aneiai neooa);

– Eaiiiin ?iiai ( ieceee o?iaaiue iuoeaiey, aiee, i?aaenoaaeaiee, oiaiee
e iioeaaoeeiiiie noa?u);

– Ia?nenyi Iae?a (ieceee o?iaaiue iuoeaiey, iaiyoe, oiiaiaoe/aneiai
neooa, aiee, i?aaenoaaeaiee e oiaiee, iioeaaoeee), yoi naycaii n
aic?anoii, ae oieueei 5 eao, a oaeaea n oai, /oi iia iaei iauaeanue n
?onneeie aeaoueie e nae/an ae i?eoiaeeony o?oaeii, oioy ainieoaoaee e
iiiiaatho, iia ieioi aiai?eo ii-?onnee;

– Iao?aiei Aaaaiee aue i?aaeinoaaeai nai naaa, aeiia n iei ieeoi ia
caieiaeny, ?iaeeoaee caiyou “aeiauaaieai aeaiaa”;

– Oeiiiiy Aeaenae ( ieceee o?iaaiue ?acaeoey iuoeaiey, oiiaiaoe/aneiai
neooa, a oaeaea iioeaaoeeiiiie aioiaiinoe).

Iauee o?iaaiue iuoeaiey, iaiyoe, oiiaiaoe/aneiai neooa, yiioeee –
n?aaeiee; aiee, i?aaenoaaeaiee e oiaiee, iioeaaoeee – ieceee. [ niio?e
ea?oo aioiaiinoe]

O?iaaiue aioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth iiaeii oaeaeaoue ia
aeeaa?aiia.

2.2 Ineoiei??aeoeeiiiua ia?ii?eyoey aeey aeaoae, eiathueo n?aaeiee e
ieceee o?iaaiue ?acaeoey

Iinea i?iaaaeaiey aeeaaiinoe/aneiai ianeaaeiaaiey ia i?aaeiao
aioiaiinoe e iao/aieth a oeiea iu ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeenue eiiieaenii
ei??aeoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee aeey aeaoae, eiathueo n?aaeiee e ieceee
o?iaie ?acaeoey. I?aaeeaaaai iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ?iaeeoaeyi e
iaaeaaiaai, iai?aaeaiiua ia ?acaeoea iaiyoe, iuoeaiey, ?a/e,
i?iecaieueiie noa?u e aieiaiey. Yoe aea caaeaiey iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu e aeey ia?ae/iie aeeaaiinoeee o?iaiy ?acaeoey aeaoae.

Iaoa caaea/a ninoieo ia a oii, /oiau oaeaeeoue, ono?aieoue
iaaeaeaoaeueiua iaaeinoaoee, a a oii, /oiau auyaeoue e ono?aieoue eo
i?e/eio. Ei??aeoe?iaaoue iaaei ia neaaenoaea, a i?e/eio – yoi aeaaiue
i?eioeei, eioi?ue aeieaeai ?aaoee?iaaoue i?aeoe/aneoth ?aaioo n
?aaaieii.

?ACAEOEA IAIssOE.

Niaoeeaeenou ?acee/atho e?aoeia?aiaiioth e aeieaia?aiaiioth iaiyoue, a
oaeaea aeaeu iaiyoe a caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a caiiieiaiey iaoa?eaea:
iioi?ioth, c?eoaeueioth, aa?aaeueioth e eiae/aneoth. Iaeiaei auaeaeeoue
eo a /enoii aeaea aeiaieueii neiaeii e aiciiaeii oieueei a eneonnoaaiiuo
oneiaeyo, o.e. a ?aaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oii /enea e a o/aaiie, iie
aunooiatho a aaeeinoaa eee a ii?aaeaeaiiuo ni/aoaieyo, iai?eia?: aeey
?acaeoey c?eoaeueii-iioi?iie e c?eoaeueiie iaiyoe iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaieciaaoue ?aaioo ?aaaiea ii ia?acoeo, eioi?oth neaaeoao
inouanoaeyoue ii neaaeothuei yoaiai: nia/aea ?aaaiie ?aaioaao n
iinoiyiiie c?eoaeueiie iii?ie ia ia?acaoe, caoai a?aiy ?anniao?eaaiey
ia?acoea iinoaiaiii nie?auaaony ii 15-20 naeoiae, a caaeneiinoe io
neiaeiinoe i?aaeeaaaaiie ?aaiou, ii oae, /oiau ?aaaiie oniae
?anniio?aoue e caia/aoeaoue ia?acaoe. [5]. Yoe aeaeu oi?aaeiaiee
oeaeaniia?acii i?iaiaeeoue ia oaeeo aeaeao aeayoaeueiinoe: ?eniaaiea,
eaiea, nienuaaiea n aeinee, ?aaioa n eiino?oeoi?ii, ?eniaaiea oci?ia ii
eeaoi/eai. E?iia oiai, aeaoe anaaaea n oaeiaieuenoaeai auiieiytho
caaeaiey neaaeothuaai oeia: ei i?aaeuyaeyaony ia ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy
eaeay-eeai nthaeaoiay ea?oeiea, niaea?aeaiea eioi?ie iie aeieaeiu
aeaoaeueii eco/eoue e iioii aini?iecaanoe ii iaiyoe. Caoai
i?aaeuyaeyaony iioiaeay ea?oeiea , a eioi?ie ia aeinoaao eaeeo-eeai
aeaoaeae eee iai?ioea, iiyaeythony eeoiea ecia?aaeaiey. Yoe ioee/ey e
aeieaeiu oeiaeoue aeaoe.

Aeey ?acaeoey aa?aaeueii-iioi?iie iaiyoe oeaeaniia?acii eniieueciaaoue
oi?aaeiaiey, i?eaaaeaiiua auoa aeey c?eoaeueii-iioi?iie iaiyoe, n
i?eiaiaieai aianoi iaaeyaeiiai ia?acoea neiaaniiai iienaiey eee
eino?oeoeee i?aaeeaaaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iai?eia?, Au i?ineoa ?aaaiea
auiieieoue n iiiiuueth eiino?oeoi?a i?aaeeiaeaiiia caaeaiea aac
ia?auaiey e ia?acoeo, a ii iaiyoe: aini?iecaanoe eaeie-eeai ?enoiie ii
neiaaniiio iienaieth e o.ae.

Aeey ?acaeoey eiae/aneie iaiyoe ?aeiiaiaeoaony eniieueciaaoue
neaaeothuea caaeaiey e oi?aaeiaiey:

Au /eoaaoa ?aaaieo iaai? neia (10-15), eioi?ua iiaeii ?acaeoue ia
a?oiiu ii ?acee/iui i?eciaeai (iinoaea, iaeaaeaea, aeeaioiua e o.ae.), a
caoai iii?ineoue iacaaoue neiaa, eioi?ua ii caiiiiee. [17]

Oa?aeoa? aini?iecaaaeaiey aoaeao naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue i oii, ianeieueei
noi?ie?iaaiu o ?aaaiea iaoaieciu iaiauaiey, yaeythueany aacie aeey
?acaeoey eiae/aneie iaiyoe.

Oneiaeiyy caaeaiea, iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue aeaoyi aeey caiiieiaiey
eaeie-eeai ?anneac n /aoei auaeaeaiiuie niuneiauie aeieaie.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue auoa, aeey aeaoae 6-7 eao aieaa anoanoaaiii
caiiieiaiea oaeiai iaoa?eaea, eioi?ue aeeth/ai a ea?iaoth
aeayoaeueiinoue. Iiyoiio, ?aaioay n i?aaeeiaeaiiuie auoa caaeaieyie,
aeaeaoaeueii eniieueciaaoue ea?iaua i?eaiu, iai?eia? aeeth/ay nthaeaoiua
ea?u i?i ?acaaae/eeia, einiiiaaoia, aecianiaiia e ae?.

?ACAEOEA IUOEAIEss.

E iiiaioo iinooieaiey a oeieo o ?aaaiea 6-7 eao oaea aeieaeii auoue
noi?ie?iaaii iaaeyaeii-aeaenoaaiiia iuoeaiea, eioi?ia yaeyaony
iaiaoiaeeiui aaceniui ia?aciaaieai aeey ?acaeoey iuoeaiey
iaaeyaeii-ia?aciiai, ninoaaeythuaai iniiao oniaoiiai iao/aiey a
ia/aeueiie oeiea. E?iia oiai, o aeaoae yoiai aic?anoa aeieaeiu
nouanoaiaaoue yeaiaiou eiae/aneiai iuoeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, ia yoii
aic?anoiii yoaia o ?aaaiea ?acaeaathony ?aciua aeaeu iuoeaiey,
niinianoaothuea oniaoiiio iaeaaeaieth o/aaiie i?ia?aiiie.

Aeey ?acaeoey iaaeyaeii-aeaenoaaiiiai iuoeaiey naiui yooaeoeaiui
niiniaii yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii-i?oaeeeiay aeayoaeueiinoue, eioi?ay
iaeaieaa iieii aiieiuaaony a aeayoaeueiinoe eiino?oe?iaaiey.

?acaeoeth iaaeyaeii-ia?aciiai iuoeaiey niinianoaotho neaaeothuea aeaeu
caaeaiee: auoaiienaiiay ?aaioa n eiino?oeoi?aie, ii oaea ia ii
iaaeyaeiiio ia?acoeo, a ii neiaaniie eino?oeoeee, a oaeaea ii
nianoaaiiiio caiuneo ?aaaiea, eiaaea ii i?aaeaea aeieaeai i?eaeoiaoue
iauaeo eiino?oe?iaaiey, a caoai naiinoiyoaeueii aai ?aaeeciaaoue.

?acaeoea yoiai aea aeaea iuoeaiey aeinoeaaaony n iiiiuueth aeeth/aiey
aeaoae a ?aciiia?aciua nthaeaoii-?ieaaua e ?aaeenna?neea ea?u, a eioi?uo
?aaaiie nai i?eaeoiuaaao nthaeao e naiinoiyoaeueii aiieiuaao aai.

Iaioeaieioth iiiiuue a ?acaeoee eiae/aneiai iuoeaiey ieaaeoo oaeea
oi?aaeiaiey:

a) “*aoaa?oue eeoiee”: caaeaiea i?aaeiieaaaao eneeth/aiea iaeiiai
i?aaeiaoa, ia eiathuaai iaeioi?iai i?eciaea, iauaai aeey inoaeueiuo
o?ao.

a) i?eaeoiuaaiea iaaeinoathueo /anoae ?anneaca, eiaaea iaeia ec ieo
i?iiouaia (ia/aei niauoey, na?aaeeia eee eiiaoe). Ia?yaeo n ?acaeoeai
eiae/aneiai iuoeaiey ninoaaeaiea ?anneacia eiaao /?acau/aeii aaaeiia
cia/aiea e aeey ?acaeoey ?a/e ?aaaiea, iaiaauaiea aai neiaa?iiai caiana,
noeioee?oao aiia?aaeaiea e oaioaceth.

Oi?aaeiaiey ni nie/eaie eee iaei/eaie (aueiaeeoue oeao?o ec
ii?aaeaeaiiiai /enea nie/ae, ia?aianoe iaeio ec ieo n oai, /oiau
iieo/eeinue ae?oaia ecia?aaeaiea: niaaeeieoue ianeieueei oi/ae iaeiie
eeieae, ia io?uaay ?oee) iiiiaatho oaeaea ?acaeoeth i?ino?ainoaaiiiai
iuoeaiey.

?ACAEOEA IIOI?EEE E EII?AeEIAOeEE AeAEAEAIEE.

Eae iieacuaaao i?aeoeea, aeaoe 6-7 eao, i?eoiaeyuea a oeieo, e
niaeaeaieth, eiatho e?aeia ieceee o?iaaiue ?acaeoey iioi?iuo iaaueia,
/oi i/aiue y?ei i?iyaeyaony a iaoiaiee ia/a?oeoue i?yioth eeieth,
iaienaoue ia/aoioth aoeao ii ia?acoeo, au?acaoue ec aoiaae e aeeo?aoii
aeeaeoue, ?eniaaoue. Ia?aaeei ieacuaaaony, /oi o aeaoae yoiai aic?anoa
ia noi?ie?iaaia eii?aeeiaoeey e oi/iinoue aeaeaeaiee, iiiaea aeaoe ia
aeaaeatho naiei oaeii.

Iiiai/eneaiiua ineoieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho, /oi
nouanoaoao i?yiay caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo ?acaeoeai yoeo iaaueia e o?iaiai
iauaai ineoe/aneiai e eioaeeaeooaeueiiai ?acaeoey ?aaaiea.

A ea/anoaa oi?aaeiaiee ia ?acaeoea iioi?eee iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue
neaaeothuea caaeaiey:

a) ia?eniaaoue i?inoie oci? (?enoiie 1)

a) iiea?aoue a ea?o “o?oaeiua ae?aaee”. Ea?a ia/eiaaony n oiai, /oi Au
?enoaoa aei?iaeee ?aciie oi?iu, a iaeiii eiioea eioi?uo – iaoeia, a a
ae?oaii – aeii (?enoiie 2). Iioii aiai?eoa ?aaaieo: “Ou – aiaeeoaeue e
oaaa iaaei i?iaanoe naith iaoeio e aeiio. Aei?iaa, ii eioi?ie ou
iiaaeaoue, ia i?inoay. Iiyoiio aoaeue aieiaoaeueiui e inoi?iaeiui”.
?aaaiie aeieaeai ea?aiaeaoii, ia io?uaay ?oee, “i?iaoaoue” ii ecaeaai
aei?iaeae.[27]

Aeey ?acaeoey oaeie iioi?eee nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai ?aciiia?aciuo
oi?aaeiaiee e ea?. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai ?aaioa n eiino?oeoi?aie,
?eniaaiea, eaiea, aueeaaeuaaiea iicaee, aiieeeaoeey, au?acuaaiea.

N oeaeueth ?acaeoey iauae eii?aeeiaoeee e oi/iinoe aeaeaeaiee iiaeii
i?aaeeiaeeoue aeaoyi neaaeothuea ea?u e ni?aaiiaaiey:

a) ea?a “Nuaaeiaiia-ianuaaeiaiia”, a oaeaea ethaua ea?u e oi?aaeiaiey n
iy/ii;

a) ea?a “Ca?eaei”: ?aaaieo i?aaeeaaaaony auoue ca?eaeii e iiaoi?youe
ana aeaeaeaiey ac?ineiai (eae ioaeaeueiua aeaeaeaiey, oae e eo
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue); ?ieue aaaeouaai iiaeao auoue ia?aaeaia ?aaaieo,
eioi?ue nai i?eaeoiuaaao aeaeaeaiey;

a) ea?a a “Oe?”: iiiaaeaiea a oeaeue ?acee/iuie i?aaeiaoaie (iy/ii,
no?aeaie, eieueoeaie e ae?.). Yoi oi?aaeiaiea niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth ia
oieueei eii?aeeiaoeee aeaeaeaiee e eo oi/iinoe, ii e aeaciia?a.

?ACAEOEA OIIAIAOE*ANEIAI NEOOA.

?acaeoue oiiaiaoe/aneee neoo yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiie i?aaeiinueeie aeey
oniaoiiai iaeaaeaiey ?aaaieii /oaieai, ienueiii e a oeaeii neoaeeo
iai?eiaiiui oneiaeai iao/aiey a?aiioa. Iiyoiio ?aiiyy aeeaaiinoeea
noi?ie?iaaiiinoe oiiaiaoe/aneiai neooa yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiie aeey
naiaa?aiaiiiai ono?aiaiey aiciiaeiuo aai aeaoaeoia.

Eae i?aaeei, yoo ooieoeeth aeeaaiinoeee auiieiyao eiaiiaae. Iiyoiio i?e
auyaeaiee eaeeo-eeai ia?ooaiee oiiaiaoe/aneiai neooa o ?aaaiea any
iineaaeothuay ei??aeoeeiiiay ?aaioa aeieaeia i?iaiaeeoueny a oaniii
nio?oaeie/anoaa ni niaoeeaeenoaie yoiai i?ioeey.

?ACAEOEA I?IECAIEUeIINOE.

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo iieacaoaeae aioiaiinoe ?aaaiea e oeiea yaeyaony
?acaeoea o iaai i?iecaieueiinoe, /oi iaania/eaaao iieiioeaiiia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea anao ineoe/aneeo ooieoeee e iiaaaeaiey a oeaeii.

Aeaoe n iaaeinoaoi/ii noi?ie?iaaiiie i?iecaieueiinoueth ooaea
aeeth/athony a i?ioeanna iao/aiey, e aeaaea i?e ii?iaeueiii o?iaia
eioaeeaeooaeueiiai ?acaeoey oaeea oeieueieee iiaoo iiianoue a a?oiio
iaoniaaathueo. Iiyoiio ?acaeoeth i?iecaieueiinoe oeaeaniia?acii
oaeaeyoue iniaia aieiaiea.

?acaeoea i?iecaieueiinoe – iiiaieiiiiiaioiue i?ioeann, o?aaothuee
iaycaoaeueiiai oi?ie?iaaiey oeaeinoiie nenoaiu iniciaiiie
naii?aaoeyoeee.

Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoueth ii ?acaeoeth i?iecaieueiinoe
neoaeeo i?iaeoeoeaiay aeayoaeueiinoue, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue –
eiino?oe?iaaiea.

Ia?aui yoaiii oi?ie?iaaiey i?iecaieueiinoe yaeyaony iao/aiea ?aaioa ii
ia?acoeo. I?enooiay e ?aaioa, ioaeii nia/aea iii?ineoue ?aaaiea
aieiaoaeueii ?anniio?aoue, eco/eoue aeii, eioi?ue aio iaaeeaaeeo
nia?aoue ec eoaeeia naiinoiyoaeueii. Iinea yoiai ac?ineue i?ioeaio
?aaaiea i?enooieoue e no?ieoaeuenoao e iaaethaeaao ca oa?aeoa?ii e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth yoie ?aaiou.

Anee ?aaaiie aeiioneaao ioeaee i?e nai?ee, oi n iei ioaeii
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue i?e/eiu, eioi?ua i?eaaee e ioeaeai eiino?oe?iaaiey e
iinea yoiai iii?ineoue ?aaaiea aianoe iaiaoiaeeiua ei??aeoeau.

Eiino?oe?iaaiea ii iaaeyaeiiio ia?acoeo – ia?aue yoai oi?ie?iaaiey
i?iecaieueiinoe. Aeaeueiaeoaa niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?iecaieueiie
naii?aaoeyoeee inouanoaeyaony iooai oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai oneiaeiaiey
oneiaee aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia neaaeothuai yoaia ?aaaieo i?aaeeaaaaony
aiaeiae/iay ?aaioa, a eioi?ie ia?acoeii aoaeao neoaeeoue ia ?aaeueiay
iino?ieea, a ?enoiie aeiia. I?e yoii aiciiaeiu aeaa aa?eaioa
ecia?aaeaiey:

a) iieiia, eiaaea ia noaiaoe/aneii ?enoiea i?aaenoaaeaiu ana
ia?acothuea iino?ieeo aeaoaee;

a) eiioo?iia – aac aeaoaeecaoeee.

Iineaaeothuaa oneiaeiaiea i?aaeiieaaaao eiino?oe?iaaiea ii neiaaniiio
iienaieth, a caoai e ii nianoaaiiiio caiuneo. A iineaaeiai neo/aa
?aaaiie ia?aae ia/aeii ?aaiou aeieaeai iiae?iaii iienaoue iniaaiiinoe
caaeoiaiiie iino?ieee.

Iaeiei ec ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo oi?aaeiaiee ii ?acaeoeth i?iecaieueiinoe,
iaeneiaeueii i?eaeeaeaiiuo e oneiaeth o/aaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, neoaeeo
“A?aoe/aneee aeeeoaio”, eioi?ue i?aaeiieaaaao aeaa oneiaey auiieiaiey
caaeaiey:

1) ?aaaieo i?aaeeaaaaony ia?acaoe aaiiao?e/aneiai oci?a, auiieiaiiue ia
aoiaaa a eeaoeo; ?aaaiea i?inyo aini?iecaanoe i?aaeeiaeaiiue ia?acaoe e
naiinoiyoaeueii i?iaeieaeeoue oi/ii oaeie aea ?enoiie (?enoiie 3)

2) aiaeiae/iay ?aaioa i?aaeeaaaaony aeey auiieiaiey ia neoo, eiaaea
ac?ineue aeeeooao iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeaenoaee n oeacaieai /enea
eeaoi/ae e eo iai?aaeaiey (ai?aai aeaai, aaa?o – aiec)

I?e iaaeinoaoi/iii caiana ciaiee i/aiue aaaeii noeioee?iaaoue eioa?an
?aaaiea e ie?oaeathuaio, oeene?iaaoue aai aieiaiea ia oii, /oi ii aeaeeo
ia i?iaoeea, ai a?aiy yeneo?nee. Iaaei i?eo/aoue aai ?anneacuaaoue i
naieo i?aaenoaaeaieyo, oaeea ?anneacu iaiaoiaeeii caeioa?aniaaiii
auneooeaaoue, aeaaea anee iie iaeiineiaeiu e naea/eau. Iieacii
caaeaaaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua aii?inu, noa?aoueny iieo/aoue aieaa
iiae?iaiue e ?acaa?iooue ?anneac. ?iaeeoaeyi iu niaaooai ii/aua /eoaoue
?aaaieo aeaoneea eieae, aiaeeoue a eeii, ianoaeaeaoue n iei i?i/eoaiiia
e oaeaeaiiia.

I?e ianoi?ie?iaaiiinoe iieiaeeoaeueiiai ioiioaiey e oeiea iaiaoiaeeii
oaeaeeoue ?aaaieo eae iiaeii aieueoa aieiaiey. Iauaiea n iei aeieaeii
no?ieoueny ia a oeieueiie, a a aeioeieueiie oi?ia. Iii aeieaeii auoue
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui, yiioeeiiaeueiui. Io oaeiai o/aieea iaeuecy no?iai
o?aaiaaoue niaethaeaiey i?aaee oeieueiie aeecie, iaeuecy ?oaaoue e
iaeacuaaoue aai ca eo ia?ooaiey. Yoi iiaeao i?eaanoe e i?iyaeaieth
noieeiai io?eoeaoaeueiiai ioiioaiey e oeiea, o/eoaeth, o/aieth.
Iaiaoiaeeii aeiaeaeaoueny iiea ?aaaiie nai, iaaethaeay ca ae?oaeie
aeaoueie, i?eaeao e i?aaeeueiiio iniciaieth naiaai iieiaeaiey e
auoaeathueo ec iaai o?aaiaaiee e iiaaaeaieth.

– Aeey iiauoaiey o?iaiy ?acaeoey iuoeaiey e ?a/e i/aiue aieueoia
cia/aiea eiaao o/anoea ?aaaiea a eieeaeoeaiuo ea?ao ai aiao?i/iia a?aiy.
Ioaeii /aua ii?o/aoue aio auiieiaiea ?ieae, o?aaothueo i?eiyoea
eaeeo-eeai ?aoaiee, aeoeaiiai ?a/aaiai iauaiey n ae?oaeie aeaoueie.

– Ia iaaei noa?aoueny “iao?aie?iaaoue” ?aaaiea ia auiieiaiea a
iiieiaiea caaeaiee oeia oao, eioi?ua i?eaaaeaiu a iaoiaeeeao. Yoi aeano
eeoue aeaeeiinoue oniaoa, a i?e noieeiiaaiee n ethaui iiaui aeey iaai
caaeaieai ii ieaaeaony oaeaea aaniieiioeaiiui, eae ?aiueoa.

– I?e “ieceii” o?iaia ?acaeoey iuoeaiey e ?a/e iaiaoiaeeii n naiiai
ia/aea iao/aiey aeiiieieoaeueiua eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua caaeaiey,
iai?aaeaiiua ia aieaa iieiia onaiaiea o/aaiie i?ia?aiiu. A aeaeueiaeoai
eeeaeaee?iaaoue ia?aciaaaoeany i?iaaeu aoaeao o?oaeiaa. Iieacii
oaaee/eoue iauai i?iiaaeaaoe/aneeo ciaiee (iniaaiii ii iaoaiaoeea). I?e
yoii ia ioaeii oi?iieoueny n au?aaioeie iaaueia: ?aaioaoue iaae
iiieiaieai iaoa?eaea, a ia iaae nei?inoueth, oi/iinoueth e
aacioeai/iinoueth ioaaoia ia aii?inu eee auiieiaiey eaeeo-eeai
aeaenoaee.

– Iaaeinoaoi/iue o?iaaiue ?acaeoey ia?aciuo i?aaenoaaeaiee – iaeia ec
/anouo i?e/ei o?oaeiinoae a o/aaa ia oieueei 6-7 eaoiee aeaoae, ii e
cia/eoaeueii iicaea (aieioue aei noa?oeo eeannia). Aianoa n oai, ia?eiae
eo iaeaieaa eioaineaiiai oi?ie?iaaiey i?eoiaeeony ia aeioeieueiue e
ia/aei ieaaeoaai oeieueiiai aic?anoa.

Iiyoiio, anee o ?aaaiea, iinooiathuaai a oeieo, eiathony iaaeinoaoee a
yoie iaeanoe, oi eo iaaei iinoa?aoueny eae iiaeii nei?aa
eiiiaine?iaaoue.

– Aeey ?acaeoey ia?aciuo i?aaenoaaeaiee /?acau/aeii aieueoia cia/aiea
eiaao ecia?aceoaeueiay e eiino?oeoeaiay aeayoaeueiinoue. Ioaeii ai
aiao?i/iia a?aiy noeioee?iaaoue caiyoey ?eniaaieai, eaieie,
aiieeeaoeeae, eiino?oe?iaaieai ec no?ieoaeueiiai iaoa?eaea e ?acee/iuo
eiino?oeoeee. Iieacii aeaaaoue aiaeiae/iua aeiiaoiea caaeaiey:
ia?eniaaoue ea?oeieo, nia?aoue i?inooth iiaeaeue aeey eiino?oeoi?a e
o.i. A iiaeai?a caaeaiee iiaeii iie?aoueny ia “I?ia?aiio ainieoaiey a
aeaoneii naaeo”.

– I/aiue aaaeii i?eaeoue ?aaaieo aa?o a naie neeu, ia aeiionoeoue
aicieeiiaaiey caieaeaiiie naiiioeaiee. Aeey yoiai iaaei ii/aua oaaeeoue
aai, ia a eiai neo/aa ia ?oaaoue ca aeiiouaiiua ioeaee, a oieueei
iieacuaaoue eae eo eni?aaeoue, /oiau oeo/oeoue ?acoeueoao.

– I?e iaaeinoaoi/iii o?iaia ?acaeoey iaeeeo aeaeaeaiee iieaciu oa aea
aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe, /oi e aeey ?acaeoey ia?aciuo i?aaenoaaeaiee
(ecia?aceoaeueiay, eiino?oeoeaiay). Iiaeii iaiecuaaoue aonu,
canoaaeaaoue e ?annoaaeaaoue ioaiaeoeu, eiiiee, e?th/ee (yoe aeaenoaey
ioioii niaa?oathony aeaoueie a i?ioeanna ea?u n eoeeie: aa ?acaeaaaieai
ia?aae “oeeaaeuaaieai niaoue”, iaeaaaieai aeey “i?iaoeee” e o.i.)

– Aeey ?acaeoey e?oiiuo aeaeaeaiee aaaeii aeiaeaaoueny iiauoaiey
aeaeaaoaeueiie aeoeaiinoe. Ia ioaeii i?eaeaeaoue ?aaaiea e o/anoeth a
nii?oeaiuo ni?aaiiaaieyo – iaoaea/e iiaoo ieii/aoaeueii ioioaiooue aai
io oeceoeueoo?u. A yoii neo/aa ai?acaei iieaciaa caiyoey ia niaea?aeauea
ni?aaiiaaoaeueiuo yeaiaioia: oeceoeueoo?iay ca?yaeea, oooi/iua ea?u oeia
“Ea?aaae”, “Aaaa nayea ai?io” e o.i. ?iaeeoaeyi neaaeoao ii/aua ea?aoue
n ?aaaieii a iy/, aianoa eaoaoueny ia euaeao e o.i. I/aiue iieaciu
caiyoey ieaaaieai.

2.3. ?acoeueoaou iiaoi?iie aeeaaiinoeee

Iiaoi?iia ianeaaeiaaiea aioiaiinoe e oeiea auei i?iaaaeaii a ai?aea
1999 aiaea. Auee iieo/aiu neaaeothuea ?acoeueoaou:

i/aiue aunieee ?acoeueoao aioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth iieo/eea
Ionoiaeo Niaaeaia. I?e ia?ae/iie aeeaaiinoeea o iaa aue n?aaeiee
o?iaaiue ?acaeoey iaiyoe, oiiaiaoe/aneiai neooa e yiioeee; i?e iiaoi?iie
aeeaaiinoeea o iaa auyaeeny i/aiue aunieee o?iaaiue iaiyoe, aunieee
o?iaaiue oiiaiaoe/aneiai neooa, aunieee o?iaaiue yiioeee.

Ii aeeaa?aiia [ni. i?eeiaeaiea ] aeaeii, /oi iieiaeia aeaoae
iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie a?oiiu eiaao aunieee o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe e iao/aieth
a oeiea.

35 % aeaoae iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie a?oiiu eiatho n?aaeiee o?iaaiue
aioiaiinoe e oeiea.

E aeaa /aeiaaea (10 %) eiatho ieceee o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio
iao/aieth. Ii ii n?aaiaieth n ?acoeueoaoaie ia?ae/iie aeeaaiinoeee eo
iauee o?iaaiue iiauneeny.

N?AAIE:

Aeoaiaee Aeeoi? iieacae ieceee o?iaaiue iuoeaiey e inoaeueiua
iieacaoaee auee i/aiue ieceea. Iinea i?iaaaeaiey ei??aeoeeiiiie
i?ia?aiiu, aeaaiaea?y iaaeaaiaai e ainieoaoaeyi iauee o?iaaiue iuoeaiey,
iaiyoe, yiioeee o iaai n?aaeiee.

O Oea/aiei Eaaia ana iieacaoaee auee i/aiue ieceea, iinea ei??aeoeee –
ieceea.

?iaeeoaeyi yoeo aeaoo aeaoae iu iiniaaoiaaee ioeiaeeoue iinooieaiea a
oeieo ia iaeei aiae. Ca yoio aiae aeaoe ie?aiioo oece/anee, a iaaeaaiae,
ainieoaoaee, aoaeoo caieiaoueny n ieie, ineoieia aicueiao eo iiae naie
eiio?ieue.

A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiey ei??aeoeeiiiie ?aaiou iu iieo/eee neaaeothuea
?acoeueoaou a ianeaaeoaiie a?oiia:

– iiauneeanue noi?ie?iaaiiinoue iioeaaoeeiiiie noa?u (n?aaie: ieceee –
aunieee). Yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi aeaoe eaeoo a oeieo ia oieueei n
aeaeaieai, ii e iniciaieth.

– iiauneeny o?iaaiue eioaeeaeooaeueiie noa?u (n?aaie: n?aaeiee –
aunieee). O aeaoae iiauneeny o?iaaiue ?acaeoey iiciaaaoaeueiuo
niiniaiinoae e noi?ie?iaaeenue iaiaoiaeeiua iaauee aeey o/aaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

– a ?acoeueoaoa aeeaaiinoeee, i?iaaaeaiiie a ieoya?a aue iaia?oaeai
ieceee o?iaaiue ?acaeoey ?a/e e i?aaenoaaeaiee e oiaiee, ieioi aaea
?acaeoa iaeeay iioi?eea ?oe. Iiyoiio a i?ioeanna ei??aeoeeiiiie ?aaiou
iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue ?acaeoeth ?a/e e iaeeie iioi?eee ?oe.
O?iaaiue ?acaeoey i?e iiaoi?iie aeeaaiinoeea iiauneeny.

CAEETH*AIEA

I?iaeaia aioiaiinoe aeaoae e iao/aieth a oeiea – yoi ia oieueei
iao/iay, ii a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ?aaeueii-i?aeoe/aneay, i/aiue aeeciaiiay
e ino?ay caaea/a, aua ia iieo/eaoay naiaai ieii/aoaeueiiai ?aoaiey. A io
aa ?aoaiey caaeneo iiiaia, a eiia/iii n/aoa noaeueaa aeaoae, eo
ianoiyuaa e aoaeouaa.

E?eoa?ee aioiaiinoe eee iaaioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth naycaiu n
ineoieiae/aneei aic?anoii ?aaaiea, eioi?ue ion/eouaaaony ia ii /anai
oece/aneiai a?aiaie, a ii oeaea ineoieiae/aneiai ?acaeoey. Yoo oeaeo
oiaea iaaei oiaoue /eoaoue: iiieiaoue i?eioeeiu aa ninoaaeaiey, ciaoue
oi/ee ion/aoa, ?acia?iinoue.

A naiae ?aaioa iu noaaeee oeaeue- auyaeoue o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe
aeioeieueieeia e iao/aieth e i?iaanoe ei??aeoeeiiii-?acaeaathuea
ia?ii?eyoey ii iiauoaieth o?iaiy ?acaeoey.

Auea eniieueciaaia eiiieaeniay i?ia?aiia aeeaaiinoeee aeaoae
aeioeieueiiai aic?anoa e oeieueiiio iao/aieth. Aioiaiinoue
ii?aaeaeeeanue ii neaaeothuei ia?aiao?ai:

– iioeaaoeeiiiue;

– eioaeeaeooaeueiue;

– ycueiaie;

– nioeeaeueiue.

Ia iniiaaiee iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia aicieeea iaiaoiaeeiinoue a
nicaeaiee ei??aeoeeiiii-?acaeaathueo ia?ii?eyoee aeey iiauoaiey o?iaiy
aioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth. Iniiaiie oeaeueth yaeeinue
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia eniieueciaaiea ea?iaie aeayoaeueiinoe, oi?ie?othuae
iaiaoiaeeiua i?aaeiinueee aeey eiiieaeniie iiaeaioiaee e iao/aieth
aeaoae a oeiea.

A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaeaeaiiie ?aaiou iu oaeaeaee, /oi e eiioeo o/aaiiai
aiaea iauee o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe aeaoae yenia?eiaioaeueiie a?oiiu
iiauneeny. Oaeea ?acoeueoaou iu niiaee iieo/eoue i?e niaianoiie ?aaioa
n iaaeaaiaaie, ainieoaoaeyie e ?iaeeoaeyie.

?aaioay ii yoie i?ia?aiia iu i?eoee e auaiaeai:

– ai-ia?auo, ianeaaeiaaiea aeaoae iaiaoiaeeii aeey oeieu e aeey aeaoae,
aeey eo oniaoiiai iao/aiey;

– ai-aoi?uo, ianeaaeiaaiea aeaoae iaiaoiaeeii ia/eiaoue ?aiueoa, oiaaea
yoa ?aaioa aoaeao aieaa yooaeoeaiie, iioiio /oi, iaei eiinoaoe?iaaoue
iaaioiaiinoue ?aaaiea e iao/aieth a oeiea, iaiaoiaeeii aua a?aoue ia
o/ao e a oa/aiea aiaea iaaethaeaoue e eiio?iee?iaaoue aai ?acaeoea.

A aeaeueiaeoae naiae ?aaioa iu ieaie?oai oaeoaeoue e ?anoe?eoue
ei??aeoeeiiii-?acaeaathuea ia?ii?eyoey, n eniieueciaaieai yeaiaioia
ineoiae?aiiu e i?iaaaeaiea niaianoiuo caiyoee n ?iaeeoaeyie.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE EEOA?AOO?U:

Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu ainieoaiey e iao/aiey aeioeieueieeia: Na. iao/.
o?oaeia./?aaeeie.: I.I.Iaaeuyeia e ae?. – I: AII NNN?, 1985a.

Aaeiaa A. ?aciuoeaiey ia?aae oeieie: (Niaaou ?iaeeoaeyi) // Aeioeieueiia
ainieoaiea, – 1994 a., – ?8, no?. 80-83.

Aaiaa? E. Eae aeioeieueiee noaiiaeony oeieueieeii? // Aeioeieueiia
ainieoaiea, – 1995, – ?8, no?. 66-74.

Aiai?iaa ?., Aeuey/aiei I, Oeaoaineay E. Ea?u e oi?aaeiaiey aeey
?acaeoey oinoaaiiuo niiniaiinoae o aeaoae//Aeioeieueiia ainieoaiea,
1988, ?5, no?.17-25.

Aioiaiinoue aeaoae e oeiea. Aeeaaiinoeea ineoe/aneiai ?acaeoey e
ei??aeoeey aai iaaeaaii?eyoiuo aa?eaioia: Iaoiaee/aneea ?ac?aaioee aeey
oeieueiiai ineoieiaa. / Iiae ?aae. A.A.Neiaiae/eeiaa, aui.2,-Oiine,
1992a.

Aooeaethe E.A.Caiyoey ii iiaeaioiaea aeaoae e oeiea.//Ia/aeueiay oeiea,
1994a., ?4, no?.11-13

Aeaoneay ea?oeia ie?a: i?ia?aiia iao/aiey e ainieoaiey aeaoae 6-7 eao//
Aeioeieueiia ainieoaiea, 1994a.,?6, no?.27-31.

Aeuey/aiei I, Aa?aioeiaa I. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?aaiou ii i?ia?aiia
“?acaeoea” aeey aeaoae iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie e oeiea a?oiiu (naaeueiie aiae
aeecie) // Aeioeieueiia ainieoaiea, 1994a.,?10,no?. 38-46.

E?aaoeiaa A.A. Ineoieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu aioiaiinoe aeaoae e iao/aieth a
oeiea. I, Iaaeaaiaeea, 1991a.

E?aaoeiaa A., E?aaoeia A. Aioiaiinoue e oeiea // Aeioeieueiia
ainieoaiea, 1991, ?7, no?. 81-84.

E?aaoeia A.A., E?aaoeiaa A.A. Oanoeeaoiee ?aaaiie. Ineoieiae/aneay
aioiaiinoue e oeiea. – I, Ciaiea, 1987a.

Eociaoeiaa A., Aeeaaa A., Caooieoeeay A. Iiaeaioiaea aeaoae e iao/aieth
a oeiea// Aeioeieueiia ainieoaiea, 1989a., ?8, no?. 50-54.

Iooeia A. *oi oaeia aioiaiinoue e o/aieth? // Naiuey e oeiea., 1987a,
?4, no?.25-27.

Iaiia ?.N. Ineoieiaey. – I, I?inaauaiea, 1995a., o.2.

Iaiia ?.N. Ineoieiaey. – I, I?inaauaiea, 1995a.,o.3.

Iniaaiiinoe ineoe/aneiai ?acaeoey aeaoae 6-7-eaoiaai aic?anoa / Iiae
?aae. Ae.A.Yeueeiieia, A.E.Aaiaa?a. – I, “Iaaeaaiaeea”, 1988a.

?iaia A.E. Ianoieueiay eieaa i?aeoe/aneiai ineoieiaa a ia?aciaaiee – I,
“Aeaaein”, 1995a.

?uaeia Y. Aioia ee ?aaaiie e oeieueiiio iao/aieth? //Aeioeieueiia
ainieoaiea. 1995a, ?8, no?.25-28.

Naaaeaioeiaa A.I. Iiaeaioiaea aeaoae e oeiea// Ia/aeueiay oeiea, 1994a.,
?5, no?. 67-69.

Oeueaieiaa O. Oi?ie?iaaiea iauae niiniaiinoe e o/aieth o oanoeeaoieo
aeaoae.// Aeioeieueiia ainieoaiea, 1989a, ?3, no?.53-57.

Ooaeee A.A. Ineoieiae/aneay aeeaaiinoeea aeaoneiai ?acaeoey: iaoiaeu
enneaaeiaaiey – E., Inaeoa, 1992a.

Yeueeiiei Ae.A. Aeaoneay ineoieiaey (?acaeoea ?aaaiea io ?iaeaeaiey aei
7 eao)- I: O/iaaeaec, 1960a.

AAAAeAIEA.

Ia?aae iaoei iauanoaii ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia aai ?acaeoey noieo caaea/a
aeaeueiaeoaai oeo/oaiey ainieoaoaeueii-ia?aciaaoaeueiie ?aaiou n
aeaoueie aeioeieueiiai aic?anoa, iiaeaioiaee eo e iao/aieth a oeiea.
Aeey oniaoiiai ?aoaiey yoie caaea/e io ineoieiaa o?aaoaony oiaiea
ii?aaeaeeoue o?iaaiue ineoe/aneiai ?acaeoey ?aaaiea, aia?aiy
aeeaaiinoe?iaaoue aai ioeeiiaiey e ia yoie iniiaa iaia/aoue iooe
ei??aeoeeiiiie ?aaiou. Eco/aiea o?iaiy ?acaeoey ineoeee aeaoae yaeyaony
iniiaie eae i?aaiecaoeee anae iineaaeothuae ainieoaoaeueiie e o/aaiie
?aaiou, oae e ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe niaea?aeaiey i?ioeanna ainieoaiey a
oneiaeyo aeaoneiai naaea.

Aieueoeinoai ioa/anoaaiiuo e ca?oaaaeiuo o/aiuo n/eoatho, /oi ioai?
aeaoae a oeieo iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue ca iieaiaea – aiae aei oeieu. Yoi
iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue aioiaiinoue e nenoaiiiio oeieueiiio iao/aieth
aeaoae e i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe, i?iaanoe eiiieaen ei??aeoeeiiiuo caiyoee.

Ii aeaiiui E.A.Aaiaa?a, A.A.Oieiianeie, E.E.Eieiieineiai,
A.A.E?aaoeiaie e ae?oaeo a no?oeoo?a ineoieiae/aneie aioiaiinoe i?eiyoi
auaeaeyoue neaaeothuea eiiiiiaiou:

1. Ee/iinoiay aioiaiinoue, eioi?ay aeeth/aao oi?ie?iaaiea o ?aaaiea
aioiaiinoe e i?eiyoeth iiaie nioeeaeueiie iiceoeee – iieiaeaiea
oeieueieea, eiathuaai e?oa i?aa e iaycaiiinoae. A ee/iinoioth
aioiaiinoue aoiaeeo ii?aaeaeaiea o?iaiy ?acaeoey iioeaaoeeiiiie noa?u.

2. Eioaeeaeooaeueiay aioiaiinoue ?aaaiea e oeiea. Aeaiiue eiiiiiaio
aioiaiinoe i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea o ?aaaiea e?oaici?a e ?acaeoey
iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia.

3. Nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneay aioiaiinoue e oeieueiiio iao/aieth. Yoio
eiiiiiaio aeeth/aao a naay oi?ie?iaaiea o aeaoae i?aanoaaiiuo e
eiiioieeaoeaiuo niiniaiinoae.

4. Yiioeeiiaeueii-aieaaay aioiaiinoue n/eoaaony noi?ie?iaaiiie, anee
?aaaiie oiaao noaaeoue oeaeue, i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey, iaia/aoue ieai
aeaenoaee e i?eieiaoue oneeea e aai ?aaeecaoeee. [ 25 ]

N i?iaeaiie aeeaaiinoeee ineoieiae/aneie aioiaiinoe aeaoae e oeieueiiio
iao/aieth noaeeeaathony i?aeoe/aneea ineoieiae. I?eiaiyaiua iaoiaeu
aeeaaiinoeee ineoieiae/aneie aioiaiinoe aeieaeiu iieacaoue ?acaeoea
?aaaiea ai anao noa?ao.

I?e yoii neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi i?e eco/aiee aeaoae a ia?aoiaeiue
ia?eiae io aeioeieueieea e ieaaeoaio oeieueiiio aic?anoo
aeeaaiinoe/aneay noaia aeieaeia aeeth/aoue a naay aeeaaiinoeeo eae
iiaiia?aciaaiee aeioeieueiiai aic?anoa, oae e ia/aeueiuo oi?i
aeayoaeueiinoe neaaeothuaai ia?eiaea.

Aioiaiinoue, eioi?ay ecia?yaony oanoe?iaaieai, a nouiinoe naiaeeony e
iaeaaeaieth ciaieyie, oiaieyie, niiniaiinoyie e iioeaaoeeae,
iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey iioeiaeueiiai inaiaiey oeieueiie i?ia?aiiu.

“Aioiaiinoue e iao/aieth” – iieacaoaeue eiiieaeniue, eaaeaeue ec oanoia
aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea eeoue ia ii?aaeaeaiiie noi?iia aioiaiinoe ?aaaiea e
oeiea. Ethaay iaoiaeeea oanoe?iaaiey aeaao noauaeoeaioth ioeaieo. A
auiieiaiee eaaeaeiai ec caaeaiee caaeneo ai iiiaii io ninoiyiey ?aaaiea
a aeaiiue iiiaio, io i?aaeeueiinoe eino?oeoeee, io oneiaee i?iaaaeaiey
oanoa. Ana yoi i?eoiaeeony o/eouaaoue ineoieiao i?e i?iaaaeaiee
ianeaaeiaaiey. [12]

?acoeueoaou oanoe?iaaiey iiaoo iiii/ue ai a?aiy caiaoeoue ia?ooaiey a
ineoe/aneii ?acaeoee aeioeieueieea e i?aaeeueii ninoaaeoue
ei??aeoeeiiioth i?ia?aiio.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiay oeaeue iaoae ?aaiou – auyaeaiea o?iaiy
aioiaiinoe aeioeieueieea e iao/aieth a oeiea e i?iaaaeaiea
ei??aeoeeiiii-?acaeaathueo ia?ii?eyoee ii ?acaeoeth o ?aaaiea
iaiaoiaeeiuo oiaiee, iaaueia aeey oniaoiiai onaiaiey o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea.

A nayce n iinoaaeaiiie oeaeueth iaie auea auaeaeiooa aeiioaca:
auyaeaiea o?iaiy aioiaiinoe iicaieeo i?aaieciaaoue ei??aeoeeiiioth
?aaioo n aeaoueie, eiathueie ieceee e n?aaeiee o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe, /oi
iicaieeo ?acaeoue o ?aaaiea iaiaoiaeeiua oiaiey e iaauee oniaoiiai
onaiaiey o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea.

A naiae ?aaioa iu noaaei neaaeothuea caaea/e:

1. Eco/aiea e aiaeec ineoieiae/aneie eeoa?aoo?u ii oaia.

2. Iiaeai? iaoiaeee e ?ac?aaioea eiiieaeniie ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneie
i?ia?aiiu aeeaaiinoeee aeaoae aeioeieueiiai aic?anoa e iao/aieth a
oeiea.

3. Eco/aiea aaceniuo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaoae aeey ii?aaeaeaiey o?iaiy
aioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth.

4. ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aii e i?iaaaeaiea ineoi-ei??aeoeeiiiie ?aaiou aeey
?acaeoey o ?aaaiea iaaueia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey oniaoiiai onaiaiey
o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea.

Iauaeoii enneaaeiaaiey yaeeenue aeaoe iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie a?oiiu
aeioeieueiiai ia?aciaaoaeueiiai o/?aaeaeaiey “?iiaoea” aeaoneee naae ?4
naea Iaeua ssao?u.

I?aaeiao enneaaeiaaiey – o?iaaiue ineoieiae/aneie aioiaiinoe
aeioeieueieeia e oeieueiiio iao/aieth.

Iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey:

– iaci?ii-aiaeeoe/aneee

– iaoaiaoeei-noaoenoe/aneee

– iaaethaeaiea e aanaaea

– oanoe?iaaiea.

AEAAA 1

I?IAEAIA AIOIAIINOE ?AAAIEA E OEIEUeIIIO IAO*AIETH

1.1. Iiiyoea ineoieiae/aneie aioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy caaea/a iiaeaioiaee aeaoae e oeieueiiio iao/aieth
caieiaao iaeii ec aaaeiuo iano a ?acaeoee i?aaenoaaeaiee ineoieiae/aneie
iaoee.

Oniaoiia ?aoaiea caaea/ ?acaeoey ee/iinoe ?aaaiea, iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe iao/aiey, aeaaii?eyoiia i?ioanneiiaeueiia noaiiaeaiea ai
iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony oai, ianeieueei aa?ii o/eouaaaony o?iaaiue
iiaeaioiaeaiiinoe aeaoae e oeieueiiio iao/aieth. A nia?aiaiiie
ineoieiaee, e niaeaeaieth, iiea ia nouanoaoao aaeeiiai e /aoeiai
ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoey “aioiaiinoe”, eee “oeieueiie c?aeinoe”. [11]

A.Aianoace o?aeooao iiiyoea oeieueiie c?aeinoe eae “iaeaaeaiea
oiaieyie, ciaieyie, niiniaiinoyie, iioeaaoeeae e ae?oaeie iaiaoiaeeiuie
aeey iioeiaeueiiai o?iaiy onaiaiey oeieueiie i?ia?aiiu iiaaaeai/aneeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie”. [23]

E.Oaaioea?a aieaa aiei ii?aaeaeyao oeieueioth c?aeinoue, eae
aeinoeaeaiea oaeie noaiaie a ?acaeoee, eiaaea ?aaaiie noaiiaeony
niiniaiui i?eieiaoue o/anoea a oeieueiii iao/aiee”. A ea/anoaa
eiiiiiaioia aioiaiinoe e iao/aieth a oeiea E.Oaaioea?a auaeaeyao
oinoaaiiue, nioeeaeueiue e yiioeeiiaeueiue eiiiiiaiou. [30]

E.E.Aiaeiae/ aua a 60-a aiaeu oeacuaaea, /oi aioiaiinoue e iao/aieth a
oeiea neeaaeuaaaony ec ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy ?acaeoey iuneeoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, iiciaaaoaeueiuo eioa?ania, aioiaiinoe e i?iecaieueiie
?aaoeyoeee naiae iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe e e nioeeaeueiie
iiceoeee oeieueieea. Aiaeiae/iua acaeyaeu ?acaeaae A.E.Caii?iaeaoe,
ioia/ae, /oi aioiaiinoue e iao/aieth a oeiea “i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
oeaeinoioth nenoaio acaeiinaycaiiuo ea/anoa aeaoneie ee/iinoe, aeeth/ay
iniaaiiinoe aa iioeaaoeee, o?iaiy ?acaeoey iiciaaaoaeueiie,
aiaeeoeei-neioaoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, noaiaiue noi?ie?iaaiiinoe
iaoaieciia aieaaie ?aaoeyoeee aeaenoaee e o.ae.” [6]

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue i?aeoe/anee iauai?eciaii, /oi aioiaiinoue e
oeieueiiio iao/aieth – iiiaieiiieaeniia ia?aciaaiea, eioi?ia o?aaoao
eiiieaeniuo ineoieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee. A no?oeoo?a ineoieiae/aneie
aioiaiinoe i?eiyoi auaeaeyoue neaaeothuea eiiiiiaiou (ii aeaiiui
E.A.Aaiaa?, A.E.Aaiaa?, A.A.Oieiianeie, ss.ss.Eieiieineiai, A.A.Iaoei e
ae?.)

1. Ee/iinoiay aioiaiinoue. Aeeth/aao oi?ie?iaaiea o ?aaaiea aioiaiinoe
e i?eiyoeth iiaie nioeeaeueiie iiceoeee – iieiaeaiea oeieueieea,
eiathuaai e?oa i?aa e iaycaiiinoae. Yoa ee/iinoiay aioiaiinoue
au?aaeaaony a ioiioaiee ?aaaiea e oeiea, e o/aaiie aeayoaeueiinoe,
o/eoaeyi, naiiio naaa. A ee/iinoioth aioiaiinoue aoiaeeo e ii?aaeaeaiiue
o?iaaiue ?acaeoey iioeaaoeeiiiie noa?u. Aioiaui e oeieueiiio iao/aieth
yaeyaony ?aaaiie, eioi?iai oeiea i?eaeaeaao ia aiaoiae noi?iiie
(ao?eaoou oeieueiie aeecie – ii?ooaeue, o/aaieee, oao?aaee), a
aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aoue iiaua ciaiey, /oi i?aaeiieaaaao ?acaeoea
iiciaaaoaeueiuo eioa?ania. Aoaeouaio oeieueieeo iaiaoiaeeii i?iecaieueii
oi?aaeyoue naiei iiaaaeaieai, iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth, /oi
noaiiaeony aiciiaeiui i?e noi?ie?iaaiiie ea?a?oe/aneie nenoaia iioeaia.
Oaeei ia?acii, ?aaaiie aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue ?acaeoie o/aaiie iioeaaoeeae.
Ee/iinoiay aioiaiinoue oaeaea i?aaeiieaaaao ii?aaeaeaiiue o?iaaiue
?acaeoey yiioeeiiaeueiie noa?u ?aaaiea. E ia/aeo oeieueiiai iao/aiey o
?aaaiea aeieaeia auoue aeinoeaiooa n?aaieoaeueii oi?ioay yiioeeiiaeueiay
onoie/eainoue, ia oiia eioi?ie e aiciiaeii ?acaeoea e i?ioaeaiea o/aaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

2. Eioaeeaeooaeueiay aioiaiinoue ?aaaiea e oeiea. Aeaiiue eiiiiiaio
aioiaiinoe i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea o ?aaaiea e?oaici?a, caiana eiie?aoiuo
ciaiee. ?aaaiie aeieaeai aeaaeaoue ieaiiia?iui e ?an/eaiaiiui
aini?eyoeai, yeaiaioaie oai?aoe/aneiai ioiioaiey e eco/aaiiio iaoa?eaeo,
iaiauaiiuie oi?iaie iuoeaiey e iniiaiuie eiae/aneeie iia?aoeeyie,
niuneiaui caiiieiaieai. Iaeiaei, a iniiaiii, iuoeaiea ?aaaiea inoaaony
ia?aciui, iie?athueiny ia ?aaeueiua aeaenoaey n i?aaeiaoaie, eo
caianoeoaeyie. Eioaeeaeooaeueiay aioiaiinoue oaeaea i?aaeiieaaaao
oi?ie?iaaiea o ?aaaiea ia/aeueiuo oiaiee a iaeanoe o/aaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, a /anoiinoe, oiaiea auaeaeeoue o/aaioth caaea/o e
i?aa?aoeoue aa a naiinoiyoaeueioth oeaeue aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaiauay,
iiaeii aiai?eoue, /oi ?acaeoea eioaeeaeooaeueiie aioiaiinoe e iao/aieth
a oeiea i?aaeiieaaaao:

– aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiia aini?eyoea;

– aiaeeoe/aneia iuoeaiea (niiniaiinoue iinoeaeaiey iniiaiuo i?eciaeia e
naycae iaaeaeo yaeaieyie, niiniaiinoue aini?iecaanoe ia?acaoe);

– ?aoeeiiaeueiue iiaeoiae e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe (ineaaeaiea ?iee
oaioacee);

– eiae/aneia caiiieiaiea;

– eioa?an e ciaieyi, i?ioeanno eo iieo/aiey ca n/ao aeiiieieoaeueiuo
oneeee;

– iaeaaeaiea ia neoo ?acaiai?iie ?a/ueth e niiniaiinoue e iiieiaieth e
i?eiaiaieth neiaieia;

– ?acaeoea oiieeo aeaeaeaiee ?oee e c?eoaeueii-aeaeaaoaeueiuo
eii?aeeiaoeee.

3. Nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneay aioiaiinoue e oeieueiiio iao/aieth. Yoio
eiiiiiaio aioiaiinoe aeeth/aao a naay oi?ie?iaaiea o aeaoae ea/anoa,
aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui iie iiaee au iauaoueny n ae?oaeie aeaoueie,
o/eoaeyie. ?aaaiie i?eoiaeeo a oeieo, eeann, aaea aeaoe caiyou iauei
aeaeii, e aio iaiaoiaeeii iaeaaeaoue aeinoaoi/ii aeaeeie niiniaaie
onoaiiaeaiey acaeiiioiioaiee n ae?oaeie ethaeueie, iaiaoiaeeiu oiaiey
aieoe a aeaoneia iauanoai, aeaenoaiaaoue niaianoii n ae?oaeie, oiaiea
onooiaoue e caueuaoueny. Oaeei ia?acii, aeaiiue eiiiiiaio i?aaeiieaaaao
?acaeoea o aeaoae iio?aaiinoe a iauaiee n ae?oaeie, oiaiea iiae/eiyoueny
eioa?anai e iau/ayi aeaoneie a?oiiu, ?acaeaathueany niiniaiinoe
ni?aaeyoueny n ?ieueth oeieueieea a neooaoeee oeieueiiai iao/aiey.

E?iia auoa oeacaiiuo ninoaaeythueo ineoieiae/aneie aioiaiinoe e oeiea
iu auaeaeei aua e oece/aneoth, ?a/aaoth e yiioeeiiaeueii-aieaaoth
aioiaiinoue.

Iiae oece/aneie aioiaiinoueth iiae?acoiaaaaony iauaa oece/aneia
?acaeoea: ii?iaeueiue ?ino, aan, iauai a?oaee, iuoa/iue oiion,
i?iii?oeee oaea, eiaeiue iie?ia e iieacaoaee, niioaaonoaothuea ii?iai
oece/aneiai ?acaeoey iaeue/eeia e aeaai/ae 6-7-eaoiaai aic?anoa.
Ninoiyiea c?aiey, neooa, iioi?eee (iniaaiii iaeeeo aeaeaeaiee eenoae ?oe
e iaeueoeaa). Ninoiyiea ia?aiie nenoaiu ?aaaiea: noaiaiue aa
aicaoaeeiinoe e o?aaiiaaoaiiinoe, neeu e iiaeaeaeiinoe. Iauaa ninoiyiea
caei?iauey.

Iiae ?a/aaie aioiaiinoue iiieiaaony noi?ie?iaaiiinoue caoeiaie noi?iiu
?a/e, neiaa?iiai caiana, iiiieiae/aneie ?a/e e a?aiiaoe/aneay
i?aaeeueiinoue. [14]

Yiioeeiiaeueii-aieaaoth aioiaiinoue n/eoatho noi?ie?iaaiiie, anee

?aaaiie oiaao noaaeoue oeaeue, i?eieiaoue ?aoaiea, iaia/aoue ieai
aeaenoaee, i?eieiaoue oneeey e aai ?aaeecaoeee, i?aiaeieaaaoue
i?aiyonoaey, o iaai oi?ie?oaony i?iecaieueiinoue ineoieiae/aneeo
i?ioeannia.

Eiiaaea ?acee/iua aniaeou, eanathueany ?acaeoey ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia,
a oii /enea iioeaaoeeiiioth aioiaiinoue, iauaaeeiytho oa?ieiii
ineoieiae/aneay aioiaiinoue, a ioee/ee io i?aanoaaiiie e oece/aneie.

1.2. Iauay ineoieiae/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaoae, iinooiathueo a oeieo

Noa?oee aeioeieueiue aic?ano yaeyaony yoaiii eioaineaiiai ineoe/aneiai
?acaeoey. Eiaiii a yoii aic?anoa i?ienoiaeyo i?ia?anneaiua eciaiaiey ai
anao noa?ao, ia/eiay io niaa?oainoaiaaiey ineoioeceieiae/aneeo ooieoeee
e eii/ay aicieeiiaaieai neiaeiuo ee/iinoiuo iiaiia?aciaaiee. [13]

A noa?a iuouaiee ioia/aaony nouanoaaiiia nieaeaiea ii?iaia anao aeaeia
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe. Iiauoaaony aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiinoue aini?eyoey.
Iniaoth ?ieue a ?acaeoee aini?eyoey a noa?oai aeioeieueiii aic?anoa
ea?aao ia?aoiae io eniieueciaaiey i?aaeiaoiuo ia?acia e naini?iui
yoaeiiai – iauai?eiyoui i?aaenoaaeaieyi ia iniiaiuo aeaeao eaaeaeiai
naienoaa. E 6-eaoiaio aic?anoo ?acaeaaaony /aoeay ecae?aoaeueiinoue
aini?eyoey ii ioiioaieth e nioeeaeueiui iauaeoai.

A aeioeieueiii aic?anoa aieiaiea iineo iai?iecaieueiue oa?aeoa?.
Ninoiyiea iiauoaiiiai aieiaiey naycaii n i?eaioe?iaeie ai aiaoiae
n?aaea, n yiioeeiiaeueiui ioiioaieai e iae. I?e yoii niaea?aeaoaeueiua
iniaaiiinoe aiaoieo aia/aoeaiee, iaania/eaathuea yoi a iiauoaiea, n
aic?anoii eciaiythony. Nouanoaaiiia iiauoaiea onoie/eainoe aieiaiey
ioia/aaony a enneaaeiaaieyo, a eioi?uo aeaoyi i?aaeeaaaaony
?anniao?eaaoue ea?oeiee, iienuaaoue eo niaea?aeaiea, neooaoue ?anneac.
Ia?aeiiiue iiiaio a ?acaeoee aieiaiey naycai n oai, /oi aeaoe aia?aua
ia/eiatho niciaoaeueii oi?aaeyoue naiei aieiaieai, iai?aaeyy e
oaea?aeeaay aai ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeiaoao. Aeey yoie oeaee noa?oee
aeioeieueiee eniieuecoao ii?aaeaeaiiua niiniau, eioi?ua ii ia?aieiaao o
ac?ineuo. Oaeei ia?acii, aiciiaeiinoe yoie iiaie oi?iu aieiaiey –
i?iecaieueiiai aieiaiey – e 6-7 aiaeai oaea aeinoaoi/ii aaeeee.

A cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie yoiio niinianoaoao niaa?oainoaiaaiea
ieaie?othuae ooieoeee ?a/e, eioi?ay yaeyaony “oieaa?naeueiui n?aaenoaii
i?aaiecaoeee aieiaiey”. ?a/ue aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ca?aiaa, neiaanii
auaeaeeoue cia/eiua aeey ii?aaeaeaiiie caaea/e i?aaeiaou, i?aaieciaaoue
aieiaiea, o/eouaay oa?aeoa? i?aaenoiyuae aeayoaeueiinoe. Ianiio?y ia
nouanoaaiiua naeaeae a ?acaeoee aieiaiey, i?aiaeaaeathuei ia i?ioyaeaiee
anaai aeioeieueiiai ia?eiaea, inoaaony iai?iecaieueiia aieiaiea. Aeaaea
noa?oei aeioeieueieeai aua o?oaeii nin?aaeioi/eoueny ia /ai-oi
iaeiiia?aciii. A aio a i?ioeanna eioa?aniie aeey ieo ea?u aieiaiea
iiaeao auoue aeinoaoi/ii onoie/eaui.

Iiaeiaiua aic?anoiua caeiiiia?iinoe ioia/athony e a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey
iaiyoe. Iaiyoue a noa?oai aeioeieueiii aic?anoa iineo iai?iecaieueiue
oa?aeoa?. ?aaaiie eo/oa caiiieiaao oi, /oi aeey iaai i?aaenoaaeyao
iaeaieueoee eioa?an, aeaao iaeeo/oea aia/aoeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, iauai
oeene?iaaiiiai iaoa?eaea ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony yiioeeiiaeueiui
ioiioaieai e aeaiiiio i?aaeiaoo eee yaeaieth. Ii n?aaiaieth n ieaaeoei e
n?aaeiei aeioeieueiui aic?anoii ioiineoaeueiay ?ieue iai?iecaieueiiai
caiiieiaiey o aeaoae 6-7 eao ianeieueei nieaeaaony, aianoa n oai
i?i/iinoue caiiieiaiey aic?anoaao. “A noa?oai aeioeieueiii aic?anoa
?aaaiie a ninoiyiee aini?iecaanoe iieo/aiiua aia/aoeaiey /a?ac
aeinoaoi/ii aeeeoaeueiue n?ie”. [24]

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo aeinoeaeaiee noa?oaai aeioeieueieea yaeyaony
?acaeoea i?iecaieueiiai caiiieiaiey. Iaeioi?ua oi?iu yoiai caiiieiaiey
iiaeii ioiaoeoue o aeaoae a aic?anoa 4-5 eao, iaeiaei cia/eoaeueiiai
?acaeoey iii aeinoeaaao e 6-7 aiaeai. Ai iiiaii yoiio niinianoaoao
ea?iaay aeayoaeueiinoue, a eioi?ie oiaiea caiiieiaoue e aia?aiy
aini?iecaiaeeoue iaiaoiaeeiua naaaeaiey yaeyaony iaeiei ec oneiaee
aeinoeaeaiey oniaoa. Aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth yoiai aic?anoa yaeyaony oi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi ia?aae ?aaaieii 6-7 eao iiaeao auoue iinoaaeaia
oeaeue, iai?aaeaiiay ia caiiieiaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai iaoa?eaea. Iaee/ea
oaeie aiciiaeiinoe naycaii n oai, /oi ?aaaiie ia/eiaao eniieueciaaoue
?acee/iua i?eaiu niaoeeaeueii i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe caiiieiaiey: iiaoi?aiea, niuneiaia e annioeeaoeaiia
naycuaaiea iaoa?eaea. [22]

Oaeei ia?acii, e 6-7 aiaeai no?oeoo?a iaiyoe i?aoa?iaaaao nouanoaaiiua
eciaiaiey, naycaiiua ni cia/eoaeueiui ?acaeoeai i?iecaieueiuo oi?i
caiiieiaiey e i?eiiieiaiey. Iai?iecaieueiay iaiyoue, ia naycaiiay n
aeoeaiui ioiioaieai e oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoe, ieacuaaaony iaiaa
i?iaeoeoeaiie, oioy a oeaeii iia nio?aiyao ainiiaenoaothuaa iieiaeaiea.

Iiaeiaiia niioiioaiea i?iecaieueiie e iai?iecaieueiie oi?i iaiyoe
ioia/aaony a ioiioaiee oaeie ineoe/aneie ooieoeee, eae aiia?aaeaiea.
Aieueoie nea/ie a aai ?acaeoee iaania/eaaao ea?a, iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai
eioi?ie yaeyaony iaee/ea caiauathuae aeayoaeueiinoe e
i?aaeiaoia-caianoeoaeae. A noa?oai aeioeieueiii aic?anoa caiauaiea
noaiiaeony /enoi neiaiee/aneei e iinoaiaiii ia/eiaaony ia?aoiae e
aeaenoaeyi n aiia?aaeaaiuie i?aaeiaoaie. Oi?ie?iaaiea aiia?aaeaiey
iaoiaeeony a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie caaeneiinoe io ?acaeoey ?a/e ?aaaiea.
“Aiia?aaeaiea a yoii aic?anoa ?anoe?yao aiciiaeiinoe ?aaaiea ai
acaeiiaeaenoaee n aiaoiae n?aaeie, niinianoaoao aa onaiaieth, neoaeeo
aianoa n iuoeaieai n?aaenoaii iiciaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe”. [17]

?acaeoea i?ino?ainoaaiiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee ?aaaiea e 6-7 aiaeai
aeinoeaaao aunieiai o?iaiy. Aeey aeaoae yoiai aic?anoa oa?aeoa?iu
iiiuoee i?iaanoe aiaeec i?ino?ainoaaiiuo neooaoeee. Oioy ?acoeueoaou ia
anaaaea oi?ioea, aiaeec aeayoaeueiinoe aeaoae oeacuaaao ia
?an/eaiaiiinoue ia?aca i?ino?ainoaa n io?aaeaieai ia oieueei i?aaeiaoia,
ii e eo acaeiiiai ?aniieiaeaiey.

“?acaeoea i?aaenoaaeaiee ai iiiaii oa?aeoa?ecoao i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey
iuoeaiey, noaiiaeaiea eioi?iai a yoii aic?anoa a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
naycaii n niaa?oainoaiaaieai aiciiaeiinoe iia?e?iaaoue i?aaenoaaeaieyie
ia i?iecaieueiii o?iaia.” [21] Yoa aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaaiii iiauoaaony
e oanoe aiaeai, a nayce n onaiaieai iiauo niiniaia oinoaaiiuo aeaenoaee.
Oi?ie?iaaiea iiauo niiniaia oinoaaiiuo aeaenoaee a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
iie?aaony ia iniiaaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaenoaee n aiaoieie i?aaeiaoaie,
eioi?uie ?aaaiie iaeaaeaaaao a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey e iao/aiey.
Aeioeieueiue aic?ano i?aaenoaaeyao iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiua aiciiaeiinoe
aeey ?acaeoey ?acee/iuo oi?i ia?aciiai iuoeaiey.

A aic?anoa 4-6 eao i?ienoiaeeo eioaineaiia oi?ie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea
iaaueia e oiaiee, niinianoaothueo eco/aieth aeaoueie aiaoiae n?aaeu,
aiaeeco naienoa i?aaeiaoia e aicaeaenoaea ia ieo n oeaeueth eciaiaiey.
Aeaiiue o?iaaiue oinoaaiiiai ?acaeoey, o.a. iaaeyaeii-aeaenoaaiiia
iuoeaiea, yaeyaony eae au iiaeaioiaeoaeueiui. Ii niinianoaoao
iaeiieaieth oaeoia, naaaeaiee ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a, nicaeaieth iniiau
aeey oi?ie?iaaiey i?aaenoaaeaiee e iiiyoee. A i?ioeanna
iaaeyaeii-aeaenoaaiiiai iuoeaiey i?iyaeythony i?aaeiinueee aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey aieaa neiaeiie oi?iu iuoeaiey – iaaeyaeii-ia?aciiai
iuoeaiey. Iii oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi ?ac?aoaiea i?iaeaiiie neooaoeee
inouanoaeyaony ?aaaieii a ?onea i?aaenoaaeaiee, aac i?eiaiaiey
i?aeoe/aneeo aeaenoaee. E eiioeo aeioeieueiiai ia?eiaea i?aiaeaaeaao
aunoay oi?ia iaaeyaeii-ia?aciiai iuoeaiey – iaaeyaeii-noaiaoe/aneia
iuoeaiea. Io?aaeaiea aeinoeaeaiey ?aaaieii yoiai o?iaiy oinoaaiiiai
?acaeoey yaeyaony noaiaoeci aeaoneiai ?enoiea, oiaiea eniieueciaaoue i?e
?aoaiee caaea/ noaiaoe/aneea ecia?aaeaiey.

“Iaaeyaeii-noaiaoe/aneia iuoeaiea nicaeaao aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe aeey
inaiaiey aiaoiae n?aaeu, aoaeo/e n?aaenoaii aeey nicaeaiey ?aaaieii
iaiauaiiie iiaeaee ?acee/iuo i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee. I?eia?aoaiiay /a?oa
iaiauaiiiai, yoa oi?ia iuoeaiey inoaaony ia?aciie, iie?athuaeny ia
?aaeueiua aeaenoaey n i?aaeiaoaie e eo caianoeoaeyie”. [20] A oi aea
a?aiy aeaiiay oi?ia iuoeaiey yaeyaony iniiaie aeey ia?aciaaiey
eiae/aneiai iuoeaiey, naycaiiiai n eniieueciaaieai e i?aia?aciaaieai
iiiyoee. Oaeei ia?acii, e 6-7 aiaeai ?aaaiie iiaeao iiaeoiaeeoue e
?aoaieth i?iaeaiiie neooaoeee o?aiy niiniaaie: eniieuecoy
iaaeyaeii-aeaenoaaiiia, iaaeyaeii-ia?aciia e eiae/aneia iuoeaiey.
Noa?oee aeioeieueiue aic?ano neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue oieueei eae
ia?eiae, eiaaea aeieaeii ia/aoueny eioaineaiia oi?ie?iaaiea eiae/aneiai
iuoeaiey, eae au ii?aaeaeyy oai naiui, aeeaeaeooth ia?niaeoeao
oinoaaiiiai ?acaeoey.

Iaeiieaiea e noa?oaio aeioeieueiiio aic?anoo aieueoiai iiuoa
i?aeoe/aneeo aeaenoaee, aeinoaoi/iue o?iaaiue ?acaeoey aini?eyoey,
iaiyoe, aiia?aaeaiey e iuoeaiey iiauoatho o ?aaaiea /oanoai oaa?aiiinoe
a naieo neeao. Yoi au?aaeaaony a iinoaiiaea ana aieaa ?aciiia?aciuo e
neiaeiuo oeaeae, aeinoeaeaieth eioi?uo niinianoaoao aieaaay ?aaoeyoeey
iiaaaeaiey. ?aaaiie 6-7 eao iiaeao no?aieoueny e aeaeaeie (a oii /enea e
aiia?aaeaaiie) oeaee, auaea?aeeaay i?e yoii neeueiia aieaaia iai?yaeaiea
a oa/aiee aeiaieueii aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie.

I?e auiieiaiee aieaauo aeaenoaee cia/eoaeueiia ianoi i?iaeieaeaao
caieiaoue iiae?aaeaiea, oioy iii noaiiaeony i?iecaieueii oi?aaeyaiui.
Aianoa n oai, ana aieueoa cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao neiaaniay eino?oeoeey
ac?ineiai, iiaoaeaeay ?aaaiea e ii?aaeaeaiiui aeaenoaeyi. “O noa?oaai
aeioeieueieea io/aoeeai aunooiaao yoai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie i?eaioe?iaee”.
[2] Ea?a e o?aaoao ca?aiaa au?aaioaoue ii?aaeaeaiioth eeieth naieo
aeaenoaee. Iiyoiio iia a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie noeioee?oao
niaa?oainoaiaaiea niiniaiinoe e aieaaie ?aaoeyoeee iiaaaeaiey.

A yoii aic?anoa i?ienoiaeyo eciaiaiey a iioeaaoeeiiiie noa?a ?aaaiea:
oi?ie?oaony nenoaia niiiae/eiaiiuo iioeaia, i?eaeathuay iauoth
iai?aaeaiiinoue iiaaaeaieth noa?oaai aeioeieueieea. I?eiyoea iaeaieaa
cia/eiiai ia aeaiiue iiiaio iioeaa yaeyaony iniiaie, iicaieythuae
?aaaieo eaeoe e iaia/aiiie oeaee, inoaaeyy aac aieiaiey neooaoeaii
aicieeathuea aeaeaiey. A yoii aic?anoa iaeiei ec iaeaieaa aeaenoaaiiuo a
ieaia iiaeeecaoeee aieaauo oneeee iioeaia yaeyaony ioeaiea aeaenoaee
ac?ineuie.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi e iiiaioo aeinoeaeaiey noa?oaai
aeioeieueiiai aic?anoa i?ienoiaeeo eioaineaiia ?acaeoea iiciaaaoaeueiie
iioeaaoeee: iaiin?aaenoaaiiay aia/aoeeoaeueiinoue ?aaaiea nieaeaaony, a
oi aea a?aiy ii noaiiaeony aieaa aeoeaiui a iienea iiaie eioi?iaoeee.
Nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey i?aoa?iaaaao e iioeaaoeey e onoaiiaeaieth
iieiaeeoaeueiiai ioiioaiey ie?oaeathueo. Auiieiaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaee
e a aieaa ieaaeoai aic?anoa neoaeeei aeey ?aaaiea n?aaenoaii iieo/aiey
iaeia?aiey ac?ineiai. Iaeiaei a noa?oai aeioeieueiii aic?anoa yoi
noaiiaeony iniciaiiui, a ii?aaeaeythuee aai iioea – “aienaiiui” a iauoth
ea?a?oeth. Aaaeiay ?ieue a yoii i?ioeanna i?eiaaeeaaeeo eieeaeoeaiie
?ieaaie ea?a, yaeythuaeny oeaeie nioeeaeueiuo ii?iaoeaia, n onaiaieai
eioi?uo iiaaaeaiea ?aaaiea no?ieony ia iniiaa ii?aaeaeaiiiai
yiioeeiiaeueiiai ioiioaiey e ie?oaeathuei eee a caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a
iaeeaeaaiie ?aaeoeee. Iineoaeai ii?i e i?aaee ?aaaiie n/eoaao ac?ineiai,
iaeiaei i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo a yoie ?iee iiaeao aunooiaoue e ii
nai. I?e yoii aai aeoeaiinoue a ioiioaiee niaethaeaiey i?eiyouo ii?i
iiauoaaony.

Iinoaiaiii noa?oee aeioeieueiee onaaeaaao ii?aeueiua ioeaiee, ia/eiaao
o/eouaaoue, n yoie oi/ee c?aiey, iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue naieo iinooieia,
i?aaeainoeuaao ?acoeueoao e ioeaieo ni noi?iiu ac?ineiai. A.A.Noaaioneee
n/eoaao, /oi a neeo eioa?ei?ecaoeee i?aaee iiaaaeaiey, ia?ooaiea yoeo
i?aaee ?aaaiie ia?aaeeaaao aeaaea a ionoonoaea ac?ineiai. Aeaoe
6-eaoiaai aic?anoa ia/eiatho iniciaaaoue iniaaiiinoe naiaai iiaaaeaiey,
a ii ia?a onaiaiey iauai?eiyouo ii?i e i?aaee eniieueciaaoue eo a
ea/anoaa ia?ie aeey ioeaiee naay e ie?oaeathueo ethaeae. [15]

Iniiaie ia?aiia/aeueiie naiiioeaiee yaeyaony oiaiea n?aaieaaoue naay n
ae?oaeie aeaoueie. Aeey 6-eaoie oa?aeoa?ia a iniiaiii ia
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiay caauoaiiay naiiioeaiea. E 7-eaoiaio aic?anoo iia
aeeooa?aioee?oaony e ianeieueei nieaeaaony. Iiyaeyaony ionoonoaothuay
?aiaa ioeaiea n?aaiaiey naay n ae?oaeie naa?noieeaie.
Iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiinoue naiiioeaiee i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi ?aaaiie 6-7
eao ?anniao?eaaao ioeaieo ac?ineui ?acoeueoaoia ioaeaeueiiai aeaenoaey
eae ioeaieo naiae ee/iinoe a oeaeii, iiyoiio eniieueciaaiea ii?eoeaiey e
caia/aiee i?e iao/aiee aeaoae yoiai aic?anoa aeieaeii auoue ia?aie/aii.
A i?ioeaiii neo/aa o ieo iiyaeyaony caieaeaiiay naiiioeaiea, iaaa?ea a
naie neeu, io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea e o/aieth.

Iaiauay iaeaieaa aaaeiua aeinoeaeaiey ineoe/aneiai ?acaeoey ?aaaiea 6-7
eao, iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi a yoii aic?anoa aeaoe ioee/athony
aeinoaoi/ii aunieei o?iaiai oinoaaiiiai ?acaeoey, aeeth/athuei
?an/eaiaiiia aini?eyoea, iaiauaiiua ii?iu iuoeaiey, niuneiaia
caiiieiaiea. A yoi a?aiy oi?ie?oaony ii?aaeaeaiiue iauai ciaiee e
iaaueia, eioaineaii ?acaeaaaony i?iecaieueiay oi?ia iaiyoe, iuoeaiey,
aiia?aaeaiey, iie?aynue ia eioi?ua iiaeii iiaoaeaeaoue ?aaaiea neooaoue,
?anniao?eaaoue, caiiieiaoue, aiaeece?iaaoue. Noa?oee aeioeieueiee oiaao
niaeaniauaaoue naie aeaenoaey ni naa?noieeaie, o/anoieeaie niaianoiuo
ea? eee i?iaeoeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ?aaoee?oy naie aeaenoaey n
iauanoaaiiuie ii?iaie iiaaaeaiey. Aai nianoaaiiia iiaaaeaiea
oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaee/eai noi?ie?iaaiiie noa?u iioeaia e eioa?ania,
aioo?aiiaai ieaia aeaenoaee, niiniaiinoueth e aeinoaoi/ii aaeaeaaoiie
ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia nianoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e naieo aiciiaeiinoae.

1.3. Iaoiaeu aeeaaiinoeee aioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth

Aioiaiinoue ?aaaiea e oeieueiiio iao/aieth ii?aaeaeyaony nenoaiiui
ianeaaeiaaieai ninoiyiey eioaeeaeooaeueiie, ?a/aaie,
yiioeeiiaeueii-aieaaie e iioeaaoeeiiiie noa?. Eaaeaeay ec yoeo noa?
eco/aaony ?yaeii aaeaeaaoiuo iaoiaeee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia auyaeaiea:

1) o?iaiy ineoe/aneiai ?acaeoey;

2) iaee/ey iaiaoiaeeiuo iaaueia e oiaiee;

3) ninoiyiey iioeaaoeeiiiiai ioiioaiey e oeieueiiio iao/aieth.

INIAAIIINOE EIOAEEAEOOAEUeIIAI ?ACAEOEss

INIAAIIINOE ?ACAEOEss IUOEAIEss

i?ioaeaiea iuneeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna, aeoeaiinoue, iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue,
aeieacaoaeueiinoue, e?eoe/iinoue noaeaeaiee.

onoaiiaeaiea i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo caaeneiinoae e ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
naycae.

cao?oaeiaiey a i?ioaeaiee iuneeoaeueiuo iia?aoeee (aiaeeca, neioaca,
aiaeiaee, n?aaiaiey, aano?aeoeee, iaiauaiey, eeanneoeeaoeee).

cao?oaeiaiey a iino?iaiee auaiaeia, iaiauaiee, oiicaeeth/aiee.

iniaaiiinoe iia?e?iaaiey ciaieyie: aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiinoue, iiaeiaia
i?eciaeia, auaeaeaiea nouanoaaiiiai.

ninoiyiea iaaeyaeii-aeaenoaaiiiai, iaaeyaeii-ia?aciiai, iiiyoeeiiai
iuoeaiey

eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua ea/anoaa iuoeaiey.

INIAAIIINOE ?ACAEOEss IAIssOE

i?ioaeaiea caiiieiaiey e aini?iecaaaeaiey

cia/aiea aieaaie onoaiiaee a caiiieiaiee

?acaeoea c?eoaeueiie e neooiaie iaiyoe

niioiioaiea ia?aciie e neiaaniie iaiyoe

ninoiyiea iia?aoeaiie neooiaie iaiyoe.

INIAAIIINOE ?ACAEOEss OIIAIAOE*ANEIAI NEOOA

iiieiaiea aeaoneie ia?auaiiie ?a/e. ?a/aaia iauaiea.

ninoiyiea aiaeeoeei-neioaoe/aneie oiiaiaoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

ia?ooaiea ?a/e. Iauaa iaaei?acaeoea ?a/e.

?ACAEOEA IAOAIAOE*ANEEO I?AAeNOAAEAIEE

oiaiea n/eoaoue i?aaeiaou. Aeaaeaiea ii?yaeeiaui n/aoii a i?yiii e
ia?aoiii ii?yaeea.

oiaiea niioianoe i?aaeiao n neiaieii (oneiaiui ciaeii, /eneii).

auiieiaiea yeaiaioa?iuo iia?aoeee n i?aaeiaoaie.

aeaaeaiea i?aaenoaaeaiee ?aaainoaa, “aieueoa”, “iaiueoa”.

INIAAIIINOE ?ACAEOEss YIIOeEIIAEUeII-AIEAAIE NOA?U

INIAAIIINOE YIIOeEE

yiioeeiiaeueiia ioiioaiea e aeayoaeueiinoe, yiioeeiiaeueiay
au?aaeaiiinoue a iiaaaeaiee, aeaenoaee. Onooi/eainoue, iaonoie/eainoue
yiioeeiiaeueiiai ioiioaiey.

eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue yiioeeiiaeueiue noaoon.

INIAAIIINOE AIEAAIE ?AAOEssOeEE

aieaaay ?aaoeyoeey e naii?aaoeyoeey a caaeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Ianoie/eainoue, neeiiiinoue e caaa?oaieth aeayoaeueiinoe. Eieaaaiey a
aieaaie onoaiiaea. ?aaioiniiniaiinoue, eieoeeaoeaiinoue.

INIAAIIINOE ?ACAEOEss IIOEAAOeEIIIIE NOA?U EE*IINOE ?AAAIEA

INIAAIIINOE IIOEAAOeEE IOIIOAIEss E OEIEUeIIIO IAO*AIETH

eioa?an e oeiea. Iaee/ea nianoaaiiiai aeaeaiey. Ee/iinoiua iaeeaeaiey.
Eioa?i?aoaoeey nianoaaiiiai ioiioaiey e oeieueiiio iao/aieth.
Iniciaiiinoue iioeaia oeieueiiai iao/aiey.

Aei ia/aea ineoieiae/aneie aeeaaiinoeee ineoieiao iaiaoiaeeii
ouaoaeueii iciaeiieoueny n oa?aeoa?enoeeie ia ?aaaiea ec aeioeieueiiai
o/?aaeaeaiey, ?enoieaie, iiaeaeeaie ?aaaiea. Enneaaeiaaiea ia/eiaaony ni
ciaeiinoaa n aeayoaeueiinoueth ?aaaiea a anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo (ai a?aiy
ea?, caiyoee, i?e auiieiaiee o?oaeiauo ii?o/aiee e o.ae.).

Ia?aae ia/aeii ianeaaeiaaiey aeey onoaiiaeaiey yiioeeiiaeueiiai
eiioaeoa n ?aaaieii, i?aaeeueiiai ioiioaiey e ineoieiao iaiaoiaeeii
i?iaanoe aanaaeo. Niaea?aeaiea aa aeieaeii auoue iai?aaeaii ia auyaeaiea
iniaaiiinoae i?aaenoaaeaiee ?aaaiea ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a, ?ane?uoea
eioa?ania ?aaaiea n iiiiuueth aai ethaeiuo ea?, caiyoee. A neo/aa ooiaea
io aii?inia, ioeaca io iauaiey iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue eioa?anioth eieao,
ea?ooeo, iinoaiaiii aoiaey a eiioaeo n ?aaaieii.

A i?ioeanna ianeaaeiaaiey iaiaoiaeeia niieieiay aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiay
ianoaiiaea, i?eaaoeeaue yiioeeiiaeueiue oii, oaaaeeoaeueiia ioiioaiea e
ee/iinoe ?aaaiea.

I?IA?AIIA INEOIEIAI-IAAeAAIAE*ANEIAI AeEAAIINOE?IAAIEss

aeeth/aao neaaeothuea yoaiu:

I. Eco/aiea iaueo aiaiianoe/aneeo naaaeaiee i ?aaaiea.

II. Aeeaaiinoeea ninoiyiey aioiaiinoe ?aaaiea e oeieueiiio iao/aieth.

III. Ninoaaeaiea ea?ou ninoiyiey aioiaiinoe ?aaaiea e oeiea.

IV. Caeeth/aiea ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoyo aioiaiinoe ?aaaiea e
oeiea.

V. Ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee.

I. ECO*AIEA IAUEO AIAIIANOE*ANEEO NAAAeAIEE I ?AAAIEA

Oaieeey, eiy, io/anoai ?aaaiea.

Ianoi ?iaeaeaiey, aae?an.

Iie: I- 3.0 AE- 3.1 (iaaanoe e?oaeeii)

Aic?ano: 5-6 eao – 4.0 6-7 eao – 4.1 (iaaanoe e?oaeeii)

Aeaoneee naae: ia iinauaao – 5.0 iinauaao ianniaue – 5.1

iinauaao
niaoeeaeueiue – 5.2

6. Ninoaa naiuee: naiuey iieiay – 6.0 Iaoue ?acaaaeaia – 6.1

Iaeeiieay iaoue – 6.2

Iaoue e
io/ei – 6.3

Ioaoe e
ia/aoa – 6.4

Ae?oaea
?iaenoaaiieee – 6.5

7. Eiee/anoai aeaoae: iaeei – 7.0 Aeaia – 7.1

O?ia –
7.2

*aoaa?i
– 7.3

Aieaa
/aoaa?uo – 7.4

8. Ioaoe: ia ?aaioaao – 8.0 ?aaioaao – 8.1

9. Iaoue: ia ?aaioaao – 9.0 ?aaioaao – 9.1

10. Yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea naiuee:

Iaaeaaiono?iaiiinoue – 10.0

N?aaeiea, oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua oneiaey – 10.1

Aeinoaoie e aeaaiono?iaiiinoue – 10.2

Eciaeeea, i?ae?aniua oneiaey – 10.3

11. Caei?iauea ?iaeeoaeae (iooea, iaoa?e):

Ioyaiuaiiinoue iooea eee iaoa?e:

Iaa caei?iau – 11.0 Neoeeenii – 11.5

Ineoicaie – 11.1 Yiaeie?eiiuie
eee na?aea/ii-

Aeeiaieeciii – 11.2 ninoaeenouie
aieaciyie – 11.6

I?eiaaeeaie – 11.4 I?i/eie
caaieaaaieyie – 11.7

Ieeaio?aieae – 11.4

12. Caei?iauea ?aaaiea:

I?aeoe/anee caei?ia – 12.0

Ia?ooaiey a oece/aneii ?acaeoee (?ino, aan) – 12.1

Ia?ooaiey a aeaeaeaieyo (neiaaiiinoue, ?anoi?iiaeaiiinoue,
ia?aee/e, ia?acu, noa?aioeiiua e iaayc/eaua aeaeaeaiey) – 12.2

Au?aaeaiiay ooiieyaiinoue – 12.3

Aeey i?iaaaeaiey ianeaaeiaaiey aioiaiinoe ?aaaiea e oeieueiiio
iao/aieth ninoaaeaia nenoaia iaoiaeee, ii eaaeaeie ?ac?aaioaiu oeaeueiua
ioeaiee a niioaaonoaee n aic?anoiuie iniaaiiinoyie aeaoae 6-7 eao.

Eaaeaeay iaoiaeeea i?aaenoaaeaia a niioaaonoaee n aaeeiui aeai?eoiii:

1) iacaaiea iaoiaeeee

2) aaoi? iaoiaeeee eee aa iiaeeoeeaoeee

3) iacia/aiea iaoiaeeee

4) iai?oaeiaaiea aeey enneaaeiaaiey ii iaoiaeeea

5)eino?oeoeey aeey ianeaaeoaiiai

6) i?ioeaaeo?a ianeaaeiaaiey, aai i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue e oi?ia
i?iaaaeaiey

7) ia?aaioea ?acoeueoaoia ianeaaeiaaiey

8) oeaeueiua ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia

9) aic?anoiua ii?iu

10) eioa?i?aoaoeey ?acoeueoaoia.

Ii eaaeaeie ineoieiae/aneie iiceoeee e ii eaaeaeie iaoiaeeea
?ac?aaioaia nenoaia ii?aaeaeaiey o?iaiy ?acaeoey ?aaaiea. Auaeaeyaony
iyoue o?iaiae ii neaaeothuae cia/eiinoe:

1 o?iaaiue – i/aiue aunieee

2 o?iaaiue – aunieee

3 o?iaaiue – n?aaeiee (ii?ia)

4 o?iaaiue – ieceee

5 o?iaaiue – i/aiue ieceee (o?iaaiue iaaeaaiae/aneie icaai/aiiinoe).

A i?ioeanna eniieueciaaiey eaaeaeie ec eiie?aoiuo iaoiaeee neaaeoao
ia?auaoue aieiaiea ia ?yae iaueo iiiaioia.

Iiieiaiea ?aaaieii eino?oeoeee. Ia?aae i?aaeuyaeaieai ethaiai caaeaiey
aaaeii onoaiiaeo, eae aini?eieiaao ?aaaiie eino?oeoeeth, iiieiaao ee aa,
a anee iao, oi aeaeaao ee iiiuoee iiieiaoue.

Oa?aeoa? aeayoaeueiinoe i?e auiieiaiee caaeaiey. Aaaeii onoaiiaeoue
auiieiyao ee ?aaaiie i?aaeeiaeaiiia caaeaiea n eioa?anii eee oi?iaeueii.
Ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia noaiaiue onoie/eainoe eioa?ana. Iniaia cia/aiea
eiatho oaeea iieacaoaee, eae oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe,
niiniau ?aoaiey i?aaeeiaeaiiuo ?aaaieo caaea/, nin?aaeioi/aiiinoue e
?aaioiniiniaiinoue ?aaaiea, oiaiea a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe
iieueciaaoueny i?aaeeiaeaiiie aio iiiiuueth.

?aaeoeey ?aaaiea ia ?acoeueoaou, iauay yiioeeiiaeueiay ?aaeoeey ia oaeo
ianeaaeiaaiey. Oeene?othony ioiioaiey e ?aaioa, ?aaeoeee ia iioaaeo eee
iaiaeia?aiea. Yoe iaaethaeaiey iicaieytho iiaeieoe e ?acoeueoaoai
ianeaaeiaaiey iaoi?iaeueii, aeatho aiciiaeiinoue i?iaiaeece?iaaoue
no?oeoo?o aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaaiea, ane?uoue aa iniaaiiinoe.

Ia?ooaiey ?a/e oeene?othony a i?ioeanna i?iaaaeaiey ineoieiae/aneiai
ianeaaeiaaiey.

Aeaoyi n ia?ooaieai ?a/e ?aeiiaiaeoaony eiinoeueoe?iaaoueny o
eiaiiaaea.[6] Aeaoe, iaia?oaeeaoea ii ineoe/aneiio ?acaeoeth ieceee e
i/aiue ieceee o?iaaiue e ninoaaeaoea a?oiio ?enea e a?oiio
iaaeaaiae/aneie icaai/aiiinoe, i?ioiaeyo niaoeeaeueiia aeiiieieoaeueiia
oaeoaeaiiia ineoiiaa?ieiae/aneia ianeaaeiaaiea. Aai ?acoeueoaou
caiinyony a ea?oo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ianeaaeiaaiey ?aaaiea ia iniiaa
i?ioieieia ianeaaeiaaiey.

Iaoiaee/aneea i?eaiu aeey i?iaaaeaiey aeeaaiinoe/aneiai ianeaaeiaaiey
?aaaiea aeieaeii auoue ii aiciiaeiinoe e?aoeeie – yeni?ann-iaoiaeeeaie,
oaeiaiuie aeey auno?iai eco/aiey oie eee eiie noa?u ee/iinoe ?aaaiea.

Aeeaaiinoe/aneia eioa?aueth ia aeieaeii auoue aeeeoaeueiui e neo/iui.
Iaiaoiaeeii i?eiaiyoue ?aciua iiaeeoeeaoeee a niioaaonoaee n aic?anoii
aeaoae e caaea/aie aeeaaiinoeee. Oi?ioi eniieueciaaoue n yoie oeaeueth
ea?ooee, aoiaao, ea?aiaeaoe, oeiianoa?u, o.e. aeaoe ia oiatho iienuaaoue
naie /oanoaa, ei eaa/a eo au?aceoue a ?enoieao.

Iinea i?iaaaeaiey ia?ae/iiai ciaeiinoaa n ?aaaieii, iiaeii ia/eiaoue
nianoaaiii ineoiaeeaaiinoe/aneia ianeaaeiaaiea.

Iu i?aaeeaaaai nenoaio iaoiaeee aeey i?iaaaeaiey ianeaaeiaaiey
aioiaiinoe ?aaaiea e oeieueiiio iao/aieth.

EIOAEEAEOOAEUeIAss NOA?A. IUOEAIEA.

IAOIAeEEA 1.1

I?aeoe/anee – aeaenoaaiiia iuoeaiea

OeAEUe: ioeaiea c?eoaeueii-iioi?iie eii?aeeiaoeee, o?iaiy
i?aeoe/anee-aeaenoaaiiiai iuoeaiey.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: oanoiaue aeaie, oeiianoa?, naeoiaeiia?.

EINO?OEOeEss: Ia?aae oiaie eaaeeo eeno aoiaae. I?aaenoaaue naaa, /oi
e?oaeee – yoi ei/ee a aieioa, iiiiae caeoeo i?iaaaeaoue ii yoei ei/eai,
/oiau ia ooiiooue a aieioa. Ioaeii iinoaaeoue oi/ee iin?aaeeia e?oaeeia
(yenia?eiaioaoi? iieacuaaao ia naiai ianoa, /oi oi/ea noaaeony iaeiei
i?eeiniiaaieai oeiianoa?a). Cayoe aeieaeai i?iaaaeaoue ii aieioo ca
iieieioou. Eiaaea y neaaeo “noii”, ioaeii inoaiiaeoueny. Neieueei ?ac
iiaeii aeio?iiooueny aei e?oaei/ea? Eae ioaeii noaaeoue oi/ee? (Aa?ii,
ia/eiae).

I?IOeAAeO?A: ?aaioa iiaeao auoue i?aaieciaaia eae eiaeeaeaeoaeueii, oae
e a a?oiia ec 3-4 /aeiaae. Iia i?iaeieaeaaony 30 naeoiae aei eiiaiaeu
“noii”!

IA?AAIOEA: O/eouaaaony iauaa eiee/anoai oi/ae, iinoaaeaiiuo ca 30
naeoiae e /enei ioeaie. Ioeaeaie n/eoathony oi/ee aia e?oaeeia, oi/ee,
iiiaaoea ia ie?oaeiinoue. Au/eneyaony eiyooeoeeaio oniaoiinoe auiieiaiey
caaeaiey:

i – i I , aaea i – /enei oi/ae ca 30 naeoiae;

i

Ii eiyooeoeeaioo ii?aaeaeyaony o?iaaiue oniaoiinoe auiieiaiey caaeaiey:

I – 1

II – 0,99 – 0,76

III – 0,75 – 0,51

IV – 0,50 – 0,26

V – 0,25 – 0

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
caaeaiey …………….

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

OANOIAUE AEAIE E IAOIAeEEA I.I

IAOIAeEEA 1.2

IAAEssAeII-AeAENOAAIIIA IUOEAIEA (4-e eeoiee)

OeAEUe: ii?aaeaeaiea o?iaiy ?acaeoey iia?aoeee eeanneoeeaoeee ia
iaaa?aaeueiii o?iaia.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: 5 ea?o n ecia?aaeaieai iaai?a ec 4-o i?aaeiaoia, iaeei ec
eioi?uo ia iiaeao auoue iaiauai n ae?oaeie ii iauaio n iei nouanoaaiiiio
i?eciaeo, oi anoue “eeoiee”.

EINO?OEOeEss: ?anniio?e aieiaoaeueii ea?oeieo. Eaeie i?aaeiao caeanue
eeoiee? Eaeie i?aaeiao caeanue ieacaeny neo/aeii, ii ioeaea, eae
iacuaathony iaeiei neiaii i?aaeiaou?

I?IOeAAeO?A: eniuooaiiio iii/a?aaeii i?aaeeaaaaony 5 ea?o ?acee/iie
oaiaoeee.

Ea?oa “Iaiue-o?oeou”: yaeiei, a?ooa, ii?eiaue, neeaa.

Ea?oa “Ea?ooee e o/aaiua aaue”: iaoeia, ie?aieaea, eoeea, ?aiaoe.

Ea?oa “Iaeaaeaea-iaoaue”: iaeueoi, naiaeaee, o?onu, iaeea.

Ea?oa “Aeiiaoiea – aeeeea aeeaioiua”: eo?eoea, naeiuey, ei?iaa, eeneoea.

Ea?oa “AEeaioiua e oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa ia?aaeaeaeaiey”: aaoiaon,
iioioeeee, eaaeiaie aaoiiiaeeue, eioaaeue.

IA?AAIOEA: ioeaieaaaony i?aaeeueiinoue iaiauaiey e iaee/ea eee
ionoonoaea eeanneoeeaoeee – iacaaiea iaiauathuaai neiaa.

Eaaeaeua i?aaeeueii auiieiaiiua caaeaiey ioeaieaathony a aaeeao:

iaiauaiea ii nouanoaaiiiio i?eciaeo – 2 aaeea;

oiio?aaeaiea iaiauathuaai neiaa – 1 aaee.

Iaeneiaeueiia /enei aaeeia – 15.

Auaeaeyaony 5 oneiaiuo o?iaiae noi?ie?iaaiiinoe iaiauaiey:

– 15 aaeeia

– 14-12 aaeeia

– 11-9 aaeeia

– 8-6 aaeeia

– 5 aaeeia e iaiaa

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss:

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
caaeaiey …………….

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

Aeaoa

? ea?ou Iaiauaiea ii nouanoaaiiiio i?eciaeo Oiio?aaeaiea iaiauathuaai
neiaa

I ea?oa

II ea?oa

III ea?oa

IV ea?oa

V ea?oa

Noiia aaeeia

Eoiaiaay ioeaiea a aaeeao: ___________________________________________

O?iaaiue auiieiaiey caaeaiey I ______ II ______ III ______ IV ______ V
____

(ioaeiia
iaaanoe e?oaeeii)

IAOIAeEEA 1.3

AA?AAEUeIIA (AANO?AEOIIA) IUOEAIEA

(ii E. A?anaeo)

IACIA*AIEA: ii?aaeaeaiea o?iaiy aa?aaeueiiai iuoeaiey, oiaiey eiae/anee
iuneeoue e ioaa/aoue ia aii?inu.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: aeaie oanoa ia ii?aaeaeaiea o?iaiy “Aa?aaeueiiai
iuoeaiey”.

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: ioaaoue iia, iiaeaeoenoa, ia ianeieueei
aii?inia.

I?IOeAAeO?A IANEAAeIAAIEss: ianeaaeoaiiio caaeathony aii?inu, ioaaou ia
eioi?ua ioeaieaathony ii oeaea.

OEAEUeIUA IOeAIEE: I o?iaaiue – 24 e aieaa – i/aiue aunieee

II o?iaaiue – io 14 – 23 –
aunieee

III o?iaaiue – io 0 –13 –
n?aaeiee

IV o?iaaiue – (- 1) – (-10) –
ieceee

V o?iaaiue – (-11) e iaiaa –
i/aiue ieceee

OANO IA II?AAeAEAIEA O?IAIss AA?AAEUeIIAI IUOEAIEss

Ioaeii
iaaanoe e?oaeeii, /enei

Aaeeia
auianoe a i?aaoth eieiieo

? Aii?inu I?aaeeueiue ioaao Iai?aaeeueiue ioaao Ae?oaea ioaaou Aaeeu

1. Eaeia aeeaioiia aieueoa: eioaaeue eee niaaea? 0 – 5

2. Oo?ii iu caao?aeaai, a aeiai? 0 – 3

3. Aeiai naaoei, a ii/ueth?

0 – 4

4. Iaai aieoaia, a o?aaa?

0 – 4

5. ssaeiee, a?ooe, neeau, ia?neee – yoi /oi? + 1 – 1

6. *oi oaeia: Iineaa, Eaeoaa, A?yine, Ooea, Noaa?iiieue? Ai?iaea +1 – 1
Noaioeee 0

7. Oooaie, ieaaaiea, oieeae, aieaeaie – yoi… Nii?o, oeceoeueoo?a +3 0
Ea?u, oi?aae. +2

8. Iaeaiueeay ei?iaa – yoi oaeaiie? Iaeaiueeay niaaea – yoi …?
Iaeaiueeay eioaaeue ? Uaiie, aea?aaaiie +4 – 1 Eoi-oi iaeei uaiie eee
aea?aaaiie 0

9. Ii/aio o anao aaoiiiaeeae oi?iica? 2 i?e/eiu ec neaaeothueo:
oi?iiceoue n ai?u, ia iiai?ioa, inoaiiaea a neo/aa iianiinoe
noieeiiaaiey, iinea ieii/aiey acaeu +1 – 1 Iacaaia iaeia i?e/eia

10. *ai iioiaee ae?oa ia ae?oaa iieioie e oiii?? 2 iaueo i?eciaea +3 0
Iacaai iaeei i?eciae +2

11. *ai ?acee/athony aaicaeue e aeio? O aeioa ia?acea +3 0 Aeio
caaei/eaaaony, a aaicaeue caaeaaaony, o aeioa aaeea +2

12. Niaaea aieueoa iioiaea ia eioeo eee eo?eoeo? *ai? *oi o ieo
iaeeiaeiai? Ia eioeo (n auaeaeaieai i?eciaeia iiaeiaey) 0 Ia eo?eoeo – 3
Ia eioeo (aac auaeaeaiey i?eciaeia iiaeiaey) – 1

13. *ai iioiaee ae?oa ia ae?oaa aaeea e eioea? 2 i?eciaea +3 0 1
i?eciae +2

14. Eaeea ou ciaaoue o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa? 3 n?aaenoaa: iacaiiia,
aiaeiia, aicaeooiia e o.i. +4 Ie/aai ia iacaaii eee iai?aaeeueii 0 3
iacaiiuo n?aaenoaa +2

15. *ai ioee/aaony iieiaeie /aeiaae io noa?iai? 3 i?eciaea +4 0 1-2
i?eciaea +2

EOIAI:

I?IOIEIE (OANO) IANEAAeIAAIEss

Oaieeey
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
caaeaiey …………….

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

IAOIAeEEA 1.4

I?E*EIII-NEAAeNOAAIIUA NAssCE (IAEAIEOeU)

OeAEUe: ii?aaeaeaiea o?iaiy ?acaeoey e?eoe/iinoe iiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: ea?oeiea n iaeaiuie neooaoeeyie.

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: iiniio?e aieiaoaeueii e ?anneaaee, /oi
iai?aaeeueii ia?eniaaii ia ea?oeiea.

I?IOeAAeO?A IANEAAeIAAIEss: ianeaaeoaiue a oa/aiea 30 naeoiae
?anniao?eaaao ea?oeieo e iacuaaao oa iaeaiua neooaoeee, eioi?ua ii
iaia?oaeeo (anaai 10).

IA?AAIOEA: ca eaaeaeoth auyaeaiioth iaeaieoeo aunoaaeyaony iaeei aaee.

OEAEUeIAss IOeAIEA: iicaieyao auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea o?iaie e?eoe/iinoe
iuoeaiey:

– 10

– 9,8

– 7,6

– 5,4

– 3 e iaiaa.

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
caaeaiey …………….

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

N E O O A Oe E E A A E E U

1. Eoia e nieioea iaeiia?aiaiii

2. Ia aa?aca aeiaua eaieee.

3. Ia aa?aca ?anooo a?aocu.

4. O ai?iiu 4 iiae.

5. Aaaooea aeaaeeo /aeieeii.

6. Ooainaeue aioeioo a aa?aco.

7. O aaeineiaaea eaaae?aoiua eieana.

8. Aieiaa, ?oee iaeue/eea iai?aaeaiu aia?aae, a iiae iacaae.

9. ?uaa oaeeo ?uao.

10. Ootha ieaaaao.

IAOIAeEEA 1.5

NIIOIIOAIEA ?ACAEOEss IUOEAIEss E ?A*E

OeAEUe: auyaeaiea iniaaiiinoae onoaiiaeaiey i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo
naycae iaaeaeo iauaeoaie e niauoeyie, eco/aiea ninoiyiey onoiie e
nayciie ?a/e, a oaeaea niioiioaiey o?iaiy ?acaeoey iuoeaiey e ?a/e.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: 5 nthaeaoii naycaiiuo ea?oeiie.

EINO?OEOeEss E I?IOeAAeO?A: ia?aae ?aaaieii aueeaaeuaathony ea?oeiee a
ii?yaeea, eiaaea iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue nthaeaoiie eeiee ia?ooaia:
2,3,1,5,6,4. I?aaeeaaaaony ?aceiaeeoue ea?oeiee a niioaaonoaee n eiaeeie
?acaeoey nthaeaoiie eeiee: “Iieiaee ea?oeiee ii ii?yaeeo”. Eniuooaiue
auiieiyao caaeaiea, yenia?eiaioaoi? oeene?oao iniaaiiinoe aai
aeayoaeueiinoe, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie ?aaaiie iiaeao auoue ioianai e
iaeiiio ec 5 o?iaiae.

O?IAIE IIIEIAIEss I?E*EIII-NEAAeNOAAIIUO NAssCAE E IOIIOAIEE

I o?iaaiue – ?aceiaeee aac ioeaie, aac aeiiieieoaeueiuo e iii?aai/iuo
aeaenoaee.

II o?iaaiue – naeaeae iaeio iii?aaeo.

III o?iaaiue – naeaeae 2 iii?aaee.

IV o?iaaiue – naeaeae iaeio ioeaeo.

V o?iaaiue – ?aceiaeee ea?oeiee aac onoaiiaeaiey eiae/aneie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eee ioeacaeny auiieieoue caaeaiea.

Aeaeaa ?aaaieo i?aaeeaaaaony ninoaaeoue ?anneac ii ea?oeieai,
?aceiaeaiiui n niaethaeaieai eiae/aneie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe:
“Ooaeiaeiee ia?eniaae enoi?eth i?i …, a ou ?anneaaee aa (/oi caeanue
i?ienoiaeeo?)”

A neo/aa ioeaca aaaeaony aanaaea ii ea?oeieai. ?anneac eee aanaaea
iieiinoueth caienuaathony, a caoai aiaeece?othony, iinea /aai
ii?aaeaeyaony o?iaaiue ?acaeoey nayciie ?a/e ?aaaiea.

O?IAIE ?ACAEOEss ONOIIE NAssCIIE ?A*E ?AAAIEA

I o?iaaiue – iieiia nayciia iienaiea niauoee a ?anneaca.

II o?iaaiue – iaaeinoaoi/ii iieiia, ii nayciia iienaiea a ?anneaca.

III o?iaaiue – iaaeinoaoi/ii iieiia, ii nayciia iienaiea a ?anneaca eee
iai?aaeeueiua ioaaou ia aii?inu yenia?eiaioaoi?a.

IV o?iaaiue – ia?a/eneaiea i?aaeiaoia, aeaenoaee, ea/anoa.

V o?iaaiue – ia?a/eneaiea i?aaeiaoia.

EOIAIAAss IA?AAIOEA: o?iaie iiieiaiey nthaeaoa e o?iaie iienaiey
n?aaenoaaie ?a/e niioiinyony:

a) niaiaaeatho;

a) ia niaiaaeatho.

A neo/aa ianiaiaaeaiey o?iaiae eo iiia?a neeaaeuaathony e aeaeyony
iiiieai, iai?eia?: aeayoaeueiinoue ?aaaiea ii onoaiiaeaieth
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae (neeaaeuaaiea ea?oeiie a eiae/aneie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe) ioeaiaia eae aeayoaeueiinoue I o?iaiy, a
aeayoaeueiinoue ii iienaieth niauoee – II o?iaiy, cia/eo, ?aaaiie
iaoiaeeony ia i?iiaaeooi/iii o?iaia 1,5.

CAEETH*AIEA: ?acaeoea iuoeaiey iia?aaeaao ?acaeoea ?a/aaie ooieoeee (eee
niaiaaeaao, eee ionoaao). Aeaeaa iaia/aaony iaee/ea – ionoonoaea
ia?ooaiey ?a/e ?aaaiea.

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
caaeaiey ………………..

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

O?iaie iiieiaiey (aiineony a iauee i?ioieie) O?iaie ?acaeoey onoiie
nayciie ?a/e

I I

II II

III III

IV IV

V V

O?IAAIUe NIIOIIOAIEss IUOEAIEss E ?A*E

Caeeth/aiea i ninoiyiee ?a/e

– Ia?ooaiey caoeii?ieciioaiey anoue
iao

– ?eiieaeey
anoue iao

– Caeeaiea
anoue iao

– Ia?ooaiea oaiia ?a/e e ?eoia anoue
iao

– Iauaa iaaei?acaeoea ?a/e anoue
iao

(ioaeiia iiae/a?eiooue)

?aeiiaiaeiaaia eiinoeueoaoeey

eiaiiaaea
aea iao

(ioaeiia iiae/a?eiooue)

IAIssOUe

IAOIAeEEA 2.1

IAI?IECAIEUeIAss C?EOAEUeIAss IAIssOUe

OeAEUe: ii?aaeaeaiea iauaia iai?iecaieueiiai c?eoaeueiiai caiiieiaiey.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: iaai? ec 10 ea?oeiie.

1. ?uaa 6. Naiee

2. Aaae?i 7. Aeea

3. Eoeea 8. *aoea

4. Iieioie 9. *anu

5. Ii?ooaeue 10. Oaeaaeci?

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: nae/an y oaaa aoaeo iieacuaaoue ea?oeiee, a
ou aiai?e, /oi ia ieo ia?eniaaii.

I?IOeAAeO?A IANEAAeIAAIEss: ea?oeiee i?aaeuyaeythony ii iaeiie e
aueeaaeuaathony ia?aae ianeaaeoaiui a ?yae (i?eaeeceoaeueii iaeia
ea?oeiea a naeoiaeo). Iinea oiai, eae aueiaeaia ea?oeiea,
yenia?eiaioaoi? aeaeao aua iaeio naeoiaeo e auae?aao noeioeueiue
iaoa?eae. Ianeaaeoaiue aeieaeai iacaaoue, /oi auei ia?eniaaii ia
ea?oeiea. Ii?yaeie aini?iecaaaeaiey ia eiaao i?eioeeieaeueiiai cia/aiey.
A i?ioieiea oeene?oaony oaeo i?aaeeueiiai aini?iecaaaeaiey ea?oeiie.

IA?AAIOEA: ca eaaeaeia i?aaeeueiia aini?iecaaaeaiiia iacaaiea
aunoaaeyaony ii iaeiiio aaeeo.

OEAEUeIUA IOeAIEE:

I o?iaaiue – 10 i?aaeeueiuo iacaaiee (10 aaeeia)

II o?iaaiue – 9-8

III o?iaaiue – 7-6

IV o?iaaiue – 5-4

V o?iaaiue – 3 e iaiaa

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss IAI?IECAIEUeIIE IAIssOE

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
caaeaiey ………………..

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

IAOIAeEEA 2.2

I?IECAIEUeIAss C?EOAEUeIAss IAIssOUe

OeAEUe: ii?aaeaeaiea iauaia i?iecaieueiiai c?eoaeueiiai caiiieiaiey

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: iaai? ec 10 ea?oi/ae

1. Iy/ 6. Oaiea

2. ssaeiei 7. Iao?aoea

3. A?ea 8. Oeuieaiie

4. Ii?eiaue 9. Iae

5. Aaai/ea 10. A?ociaee

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: nae/an y oaaa aoaeo iieacuaaoue ea?oeiee, ou
aiai?e, /oi ia ieo ia?eniaaii, e iinoa?aeny eo caiiiieoue.

I?IOeAAeO?A IANEAAeIAAIEss: ea?oeiee i?aaeuyaeythony ii iaeiie e
aueeaaeuaathony ia?aae ianeaaeoaiui a ?yae (i?eaeeceoaeueii iaeia
ea?oeiea a naeoiaeo). Iinea oiai, eae aueiaeaia iineaaeiyy ea?oeiea,
yenia?eiaioaoi? aeaeao aua iaeio naeoiaeo e oae?aao noeioeueiue
iaoa?eae. Ianeaaeoaiue aeieaeai aini?iecaanoe aanue iaai? ea?oeiie ia
aa?aaeueiii o?iaia, o.a. iacaaoue ecia?aaeaiiua i?aaeiaou.

Ii?yaeie aini?iecaaaeaiey ia eiaao i?eioeeieaeueiiai cia/aiey. A
i?ioieiea oeene?oaony eaaeaeay i?aaeeueii aini?iecaaaeaiiay ea?oeiea.

IA?AAIOEA: ca eaaeaeia i?aaeeueii aini?iecaaaeaiiia iacaaiea
aunoaaeyaony ii iaeiiio aaeeo.

OEAEUeIUA IOeAIEE:

I o?iaaiue – 10 i?aaeeueiuo iacaaiee (aaeeia)

II o?iaaiue – 9,8

III o?iaaiue – 7,6

IV o?iaaiue – 5,4

V o?iaaiue – 3 e iaiaa

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss I?IECAIEUeIIE C?EOAEUeIIE IAIssOE

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
caaeaiey ………………..

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

I?aaeeueii aini?iecaaaeaiiua iacaaiey iaaanoe e?oaeeaie.

Iacaaiey i?aaeuyaeyaiuo ?enoieia O?iaie

1. Iy/ I – 10

2. ssaeiei II – 9,8

3. A?ea III – 7,6

4. Ii?eiaea IV – 5,4

5. Aaai/ea V – 3 e iaiaa

6. Oaiea

7. Iao?aoea

8. Oeuieaiie

9. Iae

10. A?ociaee

IAOIAeEEA 2.3

IIA?AOEAIAss AA?AAEUeIAss IAIssOUe

OeAEUe: ii?aaeaeaiea iauaia iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai caiiieiaiey aa?aaeueiiai
iaoa?eaea.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: iaai? ec 10 neia

1. Aeii 6.
Iieiei

2. Nieioea 7. Noie

3. Ai?iia 8. Niaa

4. *anu 9.
Ieii

5. Ea?aiaeao 10. Eieaeea

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: nae/an y i?i/eoath (iaciao) oaaa ianeieueei
neia, a ou iinoa?aeny eo caiiiieoue e iioii iiaoi?eoue.

I?IOeAAeO?A IANEAAeIAAIEss: neiaa iacuaathony a iaaeeaiiii oaiia
(i?eaeeceoaeueii iaeii neiai a naeoiaeo), iaai? neia i?aaeuyaeyaony
iaeiie?aoii e io/aoeeai. Caoai neiaa n?aco aini?iecaiaeyony
ianeaaeoaiui. Ii?yaeie aini?iecaaaeaiey cia/aiey ia eiaao. A i?ioieiea
oeene?oaony i?aaeeueii e oi/ii aini?iecaaaeaiiua neiaa.

IA?AAIOEA: ca eaaeaeia i?aaeeueii aini?iecaaaeaiiia neiai aunoaaeyaony
ii iaeiiio aaeeo. Eciaiaiea neiaa n/eoaaony ioeaeie (nieioea – nieiuoei,
ieii – ieioei).

OEAEUeIUA IOeAIEE:

I o?iaaiue – 10 aaeeia (10 i?aaeeueii aini?iecaaaeaiiuo neia).

II o?iaaiue – 9-8

III o?iaaiue – 7-6

IV o?iaaiue – 5-4

V o?iaaiue – 3 e iaiaa

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
caaeaiey ………………..

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

I?aaeeueii aini?iecaaaeaiiua neiaa iaaanoe e?oaeeaie.

I?aaeuyaeyaiua neiaa O?iaie

1. Aeii I – 10

2. Nieioea II – 9,8

3. Ai?iia III – 7,6

4. *anu IV – 5,4

5. Ea?aiaeao V – 3 e iaiaa

6. Iieiei

7. Noie

8. Niaa

9. Ieii

10. Eieaeea

Noiia aaeeia

OIIAIAOE*ANEEE NEOO

IAOIAeEEA 3.1

OIIAIAOE*ANEEE NEOO (ii I.A.Ia/aaaie)

OeAEUe: ii?aaeaeaiea o?iaiy ?acaeoey oiiaiaoe/aneiai aiaeeca e
niiniaiinoe ia?aeiaee?iaaiey caoeiaiai eiaea a caoeiaoth nenoaio.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: eeno aoiaae, ?o/ea (ea?aiaeao).

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: nae/an iu iii?iaoai caienaoue ianeieueei
neia, ii ia aoeaaie, a e?oaei/eaie. Neieueei caoeia a neiaa, noieueei
e?oaei/eia.

IA?ACAOe: neiai noi. ?enoai e?oaei/ee. I?iaa?yai.

I?IOeAAeO?A IANEAAeIAAIEss: ianeaaeoaiue ?enoao e?oaei/ee iiae aeeeoiaeo
yenia?eiaioaoi?a ia eenoa aoiaae.

IAAI? NEIA: ao, ?oea, nie, caacaea, aania.

IA?AAIOEA: i?e i?aaeeueiii auiieiaiee caaeaiey caienue aeieaeia auoue
neaaeothuae:

00

0000

000

000000

00000

OEAEUeIUA IOeAIEE:

I o?iaaiue – ana noaiu auiieiaiu i?aaeeueii

II o?iaaiue – 4 noaiu auiieiaiu i?aaeeueii

III o?iaaiue – 3 noaiu auiieiaiu i?aaeeueii

IV o?iaaiue – 2 noaiu auiieiaiu i?aaeeueii

V o?iaaiue – ana noaiu auiieiaiu iai?aaeeueii

YIIOeEIIAEUeIUE NOAOON EE*IINOE (YNE)

4.1 YIIOeEIIAEUeII-AIEAAAss NOA?A

(Iiaeeoeeaoeey oeaaoiaiai oanoa Ethoa?a-Aei?ioaaaie)

OeAEUe: ii?aaeaeeoue ii ooieoeeiiaeueiiio ninoiyieth ?aaaiea aai
yiioeeiiaeueiue noaoon.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: 3 eiiaa?oa n o?aiy iaeeiaeiauie iaai?aie eaaae?aoia
?acia?ii 3o3 ni e?aniiai, neiaai e caeaiiai oeaaoa. Noaiaea?oiue eeno
iaoeiiieniie aoiaae eee aaeiai ea?oiia a ea/anoaa ieaioaoa.

EINO?OEOeEss E I?IOeAAeO?A: eniuooaiue aueeaaeuaaao oeaaoiua eaaae?aou
ia aaeii ieaioaoa a ethaii ii?yaeea.

Caaeaiea auiieiyaony 3 ?aca iiae?yae.

Oanoe?iaaiea i?iaiaeeony 5 ?ac ca 3 aeiy.

1. Yenia?eiaioaoi? aa?ao ethaie ec eiiaa?oia n eaaae?aoaie.

– Iieiaee eaaae?aou ae?oa ca ae?oaii. Nia/aea iieiaee eaaae?ao oiai
oeaaoa, eioi?ue oaaa aieueoa anaai i?aaeony.

– Caoai iieiaee eaaae?ao oiai oeaaoa, eioi?ue oaaa oiaea i?aaeony.

-Oaia?ue iieiaee iineaaeiee eaaae?ao.

2. Aa?aony neaaeothuee eiiaa?o.

– A oaia?ue ?aceiaee ana nai oae, eae oaaa oi/aony.

A i?ioieiea caiieiyaony no?iea 2. Eaaae?aou oae?athony.

3. Aa?aony iineaaeiee eiiaa?o.

– A oaia?ue ?aceiaee yoe eaaae?aou.

A i?ioieiea caiieiyaony no?iea 3.

Aeaenoaey ?aaaiea oeene?othony a i?ioieiea, iai?eia?:

? i/i E?aniue (E) Neiee (N) Caeaiue (C)

1 1 2 3

2 3 2 1

3 1 3 2

A?aiy oanoe?iaaiey ia aieaa 1 ieioou.

IA?AAIOEA: a i?ioieiea iieacuaaaony 3 ?yaea /enae. Aiaeec e
eioa?i?aoaoeey ?acoeueoaoia i?iaiaeyony ii oaaeeoea ii aoi?iio /eneiaiio
?yaeo (a iaoai i?eia?a yoi: 3,2,1), oae eae auai? ia?aiai ?yaea iiaeao
auoue naycai n i?eaioe?iai/iie ?aaeoeeae ?aaaiea, a o?aoueaai – n
aaeaioaoeeae.

Iiaoi?yaiinoue ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyiee iiaeao naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue
ia eo ono?ienoaa, iie aeeooa?aioee?othony ii o?iaiyi.

Iiaoi?yaiinoue ninoiyiee O?iaaiue onoie/eainoe

5 ?ac I

4 ?aca II

3 ?aca III

2 ?aca IV

1 ?ac V

Aeey eioa?i?aoaoeee ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyiee i?aaeeaaaaony
neaaeothuay noaia:

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss II IAOIAeEEA “YIIOeEIIAEUeIUE NOAOON EE*IINOE
(YNE)”

O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

caaeaiey ……………….

?acoeueoaou ia?aiai ianeaaeiaaiey

_________________________________________________________________

?? i/i E?aniue (E) Neiee (N)
Caeaiue (C)

________________________________________________________________________
______________

I

_________________________________________________________________

II

_________________________________________________________________

III

_________________________________________________________________

Oeaaoiaay oi?ioea (ii II ?yaeo):
_________________________________________________________________

Ooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea (ii II ?yaeo):
_________________________________________________________________

?acoeueoaou aoi?iai ianeaaeiaaiey

_________________________________________________________________

?? i/i E?aniue (E) Neiee (N)
Caeaiue (C)

________________________________________________________________________
______________

I

_________________________________________________________________

II

_________________________________________________________________

III

_________________________________________________________________

Oeaaoiaay oi?ioea (ii II ?yaeo):
_________________________________________________________________

Ooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea (ii II ?yaeo):
_________________________________________________________________

?acoeueoaou o?aoueaai ianeaaeiaaiey

_________________________________________________________________

?? i/i E?aniue (E) Neiee (N)
Caeaiue (C)

________________________________________________________________________
______________

I

_________________________________________________________________

II

_________________________________________________________________

III

_________________________________________________________________

Oeaaoiaay oi?ioea (ii II ?yaeo):
_________________________________________________________________

Ooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea (ii II ?yaeo):
_________________________________________________________________

?acoeueoaou /aoaa?oiai ianeaaeiaaiey

_________________________________________________________________

?? i/i E?aniue (E) Neiee (N)
Caeaiue (C)

________________________________________________________________________
______________

I

_________________________________________________________________

II

_________________________________________________________________

III

_________________________________________________________________

Oeaaoiaay oi?ioea (ii II ?yaeo):
________________________________________________________________

Ooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea (ii II ?yaeo):
________________________________________________________________

?acoeueoaou iyoiai ianeaaeiaaiey

_________________________________________________________________

?? i/i E?aniue (E) Neiee (N)
Caeaiue (C)

________________________________________________________________________
______________

I

_________________________________________________________________

II

_________________________________________________________________

III

_________________________________________________________________

Oeaaoiaay oi?ioea (ii II ?yaeo):
________________________________________________________________

Ooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea (ii II ?yaeo):
_________________________________________________________________

Caeeth/aiea

Ooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea OI O? OA OO AA AA

*enei iiaoi?aiee

iaeaieueoaa /enei iaaanoe e?oaeeii.

AIEAAAss ?AAOEssOeEss

IAOIAeEEA 5.1

O?IAAIUe AIEAAIE ?AAOEssOeEE

OeAEUe: ii?aaeaeaiea o?iaiy aieaaie ?aaoeyoeee a no?oeoo?a iiiioiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: oanoiaue aeaie, ia eioi?ii a iaeei ?yae ia?eniaaiu
eiioo?u 15 e?oaeeia ?acia?ii a iaeiieiiaa/ioth iiiaoo, oeiianoa?.

EINO?OEOeEss: cae?anue yoe e?oaei/ee aeeo?aoii, ia auoiaey ca eiioo?.

I?IOeAAeO?A: -Eae ioaeii ?aaioaoue? – Aeeo?aoii. – Ia/eiae!

I?e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii ianeaaeiaaiee ?aaioa caeai/eaaaony, eae oieueei
?aaaiie ia/eiaao i?iyaeyoue iaa?aaeiinoue eee ioeacuaaaony io ?aaiou.

I?e a?oiiiaie i?aaiecaoeee iiaeii iii?ineoue cae?aneoue ana e?oaeee, ii
i?e ia?aaioea ?acoeueoaoia o/eouaaoue oa, eioi?ua i?aaeoanoaiaaee
ia?aiio, iaa?aaeii cae?aoaiiiio.

IA?AAIOEA: I aeeo?aoii cae?aoaiiue e?oaeie – 1 aaee. Iaeneiaeueiia
eiee/anoai aaeeia – 15.

Auaeaeyaony 5 o?iaiae aieaaie ?aaoeyoeee:

I – 15 aaeeia

II – 14-11 aaeeia

III – 10-7 aaeeia

IV – 6-4 aaeea

V – 3 e iaiaa aaeeia

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
ciaiey …………………

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

IAOIAeEEA 5.2

ENNEAAeIAAIEA ?AAIOINIINIAIINOE

(Iiaeeoeeaoeey iaoiaeeee Ica?aoeeiaa)

OeAEUe: enneaaeiaaiea ooiieyaiinoe, a?aaaouaaaiinoe, eiioeaio?aoeee
aieiaiey.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: aeaa oaaeeoeu n oano-iauaeoaie: aaiiao?e/aneea oeao?u
(ciaee), naeoiaeiia?.

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: au/a?eeaae iaeiie /a?oie naa?oo aiec
e?oaei/ee a eaaeaeie no?iea. ?aaioae auno?i e aieiaoaeueii, noa?aeny ia
i?iioneaoue. Naeaeaaoue iaeio no?ieo, ia?aoiaee ei aoi?ie e oae aeaeaa.
iiea ia auiieieoue ana caaeaiea.

I?IOeAAeO?A IANEAAeIAAIEss: ia ia?aie oaaeeoea eaaeaeua aeaa ieioou
yenia?eiaioaoi? ioia/aao /a?oie ia eenoa eiee/anoai i?iniio?aiiuo
ciaeia. Oeene?oaony a?aiy auiieiaiey anaai caaeaiey – 8 ieioo.

A eiioea yenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeiy ii aoi?ie oaaeeoea aeaaony aeaa
ieioou ia auiieiaiea aiaeiae/iiai caaeaiey aeey ii?aaeaeaiey noaiaie
ooiieyaiinoe ianeaaeoaiiai.

IA?AAIOEA: oeene?oaony eiee/anoai i?iiouaiiuo e iaaa?ii ca/a?eioouo
ciaeia; a?aiy, cao?a/aiiia ia auiieiaiea caaeaiey ca eaaeaeua 2 ieioou e
a oeaeii.

Eiyooeoeeaio i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ?aaiou au/eneyaony ii oi?ioea:

aaea – /enei anao i?iniio?aiiuo ciaeia;

– /enei i?aaeeueii ca/a?eioouo
ciaeia;

– /enei i?iiouaiiuo eee iaaa?ii
ca/a?eioouo ciaeia.

O?iaie ?aaioiniiniaiinoe:

I

II

III

IV

V

. ENNEAAeIAAIEA NOI?IE?IAAIIINOE IAUEO I?AAeNOAAEAIEE E OIAIEE

(ii Ea?io – E.A?anaeo)

OeAEE: ii?aaeaeaiea noi?ie?iaaiiinoe iaueo i?aaenoaaeaiee eae noaiaie
iiaeaioiaeaiiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth e i?iaiice?iaaieth oeieueiie
oniaaaaiinoe;

auyaeaiea o?iaiy ?acaeoey oiieie iioi?eee ?oe,
c?eoaeueii-aeaeaaoaeueiie eii?aeeiaoeee, iauaai eioaeeaeooaeueiiai
?acaeoey, oneae/eainoe.

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: aeaa oanoa-caaeaiey, ?o/ea eee ea?aiaeao.

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: nae/an ou aoaeaoue auiieiyoue ianeieueei
caaeaiee, iinoa?aeny naeaeaoue ana aeeo?aoii e aieiaoaeueii.

I?IOeAAeO?A IANEAAeIAAIEss: ia aeaiea aeaaony aiciiaeiinoue
naiinoiyoaeueiiai ?eniaaiey e ia?acaoe 2-o caaeaiee:

6.1. ?ENIAAIEA OEAO?U *AEIAAEA.

6.2. N?ENIAUAAIEA OEIE*IUO AOEA.

6.3. N?ENIAUAAIEA A?OIIU OI*AE:

. . .

. . .

. . .

.

?acoeueoao eaaeaeiai caaeaiey ioeaieaaaony ii 5-oe o?iaiaaie nenoaia.

6.1. ?ENIAAIEA OEAO?U *AEIAAEA

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: ia?enoe /aeiaaea. Iinea eino?oeoeee ii
caaeaieth ieeaeeo iiyniaiee, iiiiue eee i?eaea/aiey aieiaiey e
iaaeinoaoeai e ioeaeai ia aeiioneaaony.

IOeAIEA ?enoiea ?aaaiea.

I o?iaaiue – ia?eniaaiiay oeao?a aeieaeia eiaoue aieiao, ooeiaeua,
eiia/iinoe. Aieiaa niaaeeiyaony n oaae e ia aeieaeia auoue aieueoa
ooeiaeua. Ia aieiaa anoue aieinu (iie iiaoo auoue cae?uou aieiaiui
oai?ii), ooe. Ia eeoea aeieaeiu auoue aeaca, ?io, iin. ?oee aeieaeiu
caeai/eaaoueny iyoeiaeie eenoueth. Iiae aieco ioiaioou. Oeao?a aeieaeia
eiaoue iaeaaeaeo. Oeao?a aeieaeia auoue ia?eniaaia eiioo?iui niiniaii
aac ioaeaeueiuo /anoae.

II o?iaaiue – auiieiaiea anao o?aaiaaiee, ia?a/eneaiiuo ?aiaa, i?e
ionoonoaee oae, aiein, iaeiiai iaeueoea ?oee, iaee/ea neioaoe/aneiai
niiniaa ?eniaaiey (ana /anoe ioaeaeueii).

III o?iaaiue – oeao?a eiaao aieiao, ooeiaeua, eiia/iinoe. ?oee eee
iiae, eee e oi e ae?oaia ia?eniaaiu aeaoiy eeieyie. Aeiioneaaony
ionoonoaea oae, aiein, ooae, iaeaaeaeu, iaeueoeaa, nooiiae.

IV o?iaaiue – i?eieoeaiue ?enoiie n aieiaie e ooeiaeuai. Eiia/iinoe
ia?eniaaiu oieueei iaeiie eeieae eaaeaeay.

V o?iaaiue – ionoonoaoao /aoeia ecia?aaeaiea ooeiaeua eee ia?eniaaiu
oieueei aieiaa e iiae. Ea?aeoee.

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
ciaiey …………………

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

6.2. N?ENIAUAAIEA I?IIENIUO AOEA

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: iiniio?e e iaieoe ieaea oi, /oi caeanue
iaienaii. Iinoa?aeny iaienaoue oae aea.

IOeAIEA auiieiaiey caaeaiey:

I o?iaaiue – oi?ioi, ?acai?/eai neiie?iaai ia?acaoe. ?acia? aoea
i?aauoaao ?acia? aoea ia?acoea ia aieaa, /ai a 2 ?aca. Ia?aay aoeaa ii
aunioa niioaaonoaoao i?iieniie aoeaa. Aoeau /aoei naycaiu a aeaa neiaa,
neiie?iaaiiay o?aca ioeeiiyaony io ai?eciioaee ia aieaa, /ai ia 30
a?aaeonia.

II o?iaaiue – ?acai?/eai neiie?iaai ia?acaoe, iaeiaei ?acia? aoea e
niaethaeaiea ai?eciioaeueiie eeiee ia o/eouaaaony.

III o?iaaiue – yaiay ?acaeaea ia aeaa /anoe; iiaeii iiiyoue oioy au 4
aoeau ia?acoea.

IV o?iaaiue – n ia?acoeii niaiaaeatho 2 aoeau; niaethaeaia no?iea
iaaeiene.

V o?iaaiue – ea?aeoee.

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
ciaiey …………………

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

6.3. N?ENIAUAAIEA A?OIIU OI*AE

EINO?OEOeEss IANEAAeOAIIIO: caeanue ia?eniaaiu oi/ee. Ia?enoe eo oae aea
ni?aaa.

IOeAIEA ?acoeueoaoia auiieiaiey caaeaiey:

I o?iaaiue – oi/ee i?aaeeueii neiie?iaaiu. Aeiioneaaony iacia/eoaeueiia
ioeeiiaiea iaeiie oi/ee io no?iee eee eieiiee; oiaiueoaiea ia?acoea e
oaaee/aiea aai ia aieaa /ai aaeaia. ?enoiie aeieaeai auoue ia?aeeaeueiui
ia?acoeo.

II o?iaaiue – /enei e ?aniieiaeaiea oi/ae niioaaonoaoao ia?acoeo. Iiaeii
ia o/eouaaoue ioeeiiaiea ia aieaa o?ao oi/ae ia iieiaeio aaee/eiu caci?a
iaaeaeo no?ieaie.

III o?iaaiue – ?enoiie a oeaeii niioaaonoaoao ia?acoeo, ia i?aauoay aai
ii oe?eia e aunioa aieaa /ai aaeaia. *enei oi/ae iiaeao ia
niioaaonoaiaaoue ia?acoeo, ii eo ia aeieaeii auoue aieaa 20 e iaiueoa 7.
Aeiioneaaony ethaie ?acai?io, aeaaea ia 180 a?aaeonia.

IV o?iaaiue – eiioo? ?enoiea ia niioaaonoaoao ia?acoeo, ii ninoieo ec
oi/ae. ?acia?u ia?acoea e /enei oi/ae ia niaethaeaiu.

V o?iaaiue – ea?aeoee.

I?IOIEIE IANEAAeIAAIEss

Oaieeey, eiy
O?iaaiue auiieiaiey

Aic?ano
ciaiey …………………

Aeaoneia o/?aaeaeaiea

A?oiia

Aeaoa

II?AAeAEAIEA O?IAIss NOI?IE?IAAIIINOE IAUEO I?AAeNOAAEAIEE E OIAIEE

Caaeaiey VII.1 VII.2 VII.3

O?iaie

O?iaaiue noi?ie?iaaiiinoe iaueo i?aaenoaaeaiee e oiaiee VII.1 + VII.2
+VII.3

3

7.1. IIOEAAOeEIIIAss NOA?A EE*IINOE ?AAAIEA

ENNEAAeIAAIEA IIOEAAOeEIIIIE AIOIAIINOE ?AAAIEA E OEIEA

(Aeeaaiinoe/aneay aanaaea)

IAI?OAeIAAIEA: aeaie i?ioieiea-oanoa

– Eae oaay ciaoo?

– Iaciae naith oaieeeth.

– Ie, eaeie ou ac?ineue!

– Nei?i iieaeaoue a oeieo?!

NIAeA?AEAIEA AANAAeU:

1. Ou oi/aoue o/eoueny?

2. Ii/aio (oi/aoue, ia oi/aoue)?

3. Aaea ou oi/aoue o/eoueny?

4. Eiaaea ou iieaeaoue a oeieo?

5. Eae ou aioiaeoueny e oeiea? ?anneaaee.

6. Eoi oaay aoaeao o/eoue?

7. *aio oaay iao/eo o/eoaeueieoea?

8. *ai ou aoaeaoue caieiaoueny aeiia, eiaaea noaiaoue oeieueieeii?

9. Eoi oaaa aoaeao iiiiaaoue a o/aaa aeiia?

10. Eiio ou aoaeaoue iiiiaaoue a oeiea?

11. Ou ethaeoue, eiaaea oaay oaaeyo?

12. Eoi oaay aoaeao oaaeeoue, eiaaea ou noaiaoue oeieueieeii?

13. *oi oaaa ioaeii aoaeao aeaeaoue, /oiau oaay iioaaeeee?

14. Eae ou oi/aoue o/eoueny?

15. Eae ou aoaeaoue aanoe naay a oeiea? ?anneaaee.

Aeey eioa?i?aoaoeee ?acoeueoaoia i?aaeeaaaaony neaaeothuay oaaeeoea:

4. NAAAeAIEss IA EIAeEAEAeOAEUeIUO INIAAIIINOssO NINOIssIEss AIOIAIINOE
?AAAIEA E OEIEA

Ii eoiaai ianeaaeiaaiey iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue:

– iniiaiua ia?ooaiey a ineoe/aneii ?acaeoee ?aaaiea;

– iniiaiua nio?aiaiiua noa?aeiaaua iniaaiiinoe ee/iinoe ?aaaiea;

– naiaia?acea ineoe/aneiai ?acaeoey ee/iinoe ?aaaiea e aai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe;

-aaaeouea ei??aeoeeiiii-icaei?iaeoaeueiua oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey nio?aiii
ineoi-oeceieiae/aneeo ooieoeee;

– ia?niaeoeaiua ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneea aiciiaeiinoe nioeeaeueiie
ei??aeoeee e eioaa?aoeee ee/iinoe ?aaaiea.

Ia?ooaiey ?a/e oeene?othony a i?ioeanna ianeaaeiaaiey ?aaaiea.

Ii ?acoeueoaoai aeeaaiinoeee aioiaiinoe e iao/aieth a oeiea iiaeii
?aeiiaiaeiaaoue neaaeothuaa:

a) caienaoue ?aaaiea a ia?aue eeann;

a) ion?i/eoue ia/aei iao/aiey ia iaeei aiae;

a) ia?aaanoe ?aaaiea a niaoeeaeueioth a?oiio aeaoneiai naaea eee
oeieueiue eeann au?aaieaaiey;

a) iai?aaeoue ia iaoiaeeei-iaaeaaiae/aneoth eiienneth;

ae) inouanoaeyoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue iiaeoiae e ?aaaieo n o/aoii oao
eee eiuo auyaeaiiuo iniaaiiinoae aai iiaeaioiaee.

AEAAA 2

ENNEAAeIAAIEA AIOIAIINOE E OEIEUeIIIO IAO*AIETH

2.1 I?aaiecaoeey e i?iaaaeaiea aeeaaiinoe/aneiai ianeaaeiaaiey ia
i?aaeiao aioiaiinoe e oeiea

Aeeaaiinoeea aioiaiinoe e oeiea i?iaiaeeeanue iaie ia aaca aeaoneiai
naaea “?iiaoea” naea Iaeua ssao?u a ieoya?a 1998 aiaea.

Iaie auei ianeaaeiaaii 20 aeaoae iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie a?oiiu ii nenoaia
iaoiaeee aeey i?iaaaeaiey ianeaaeiaaiey aioiaiinoe ?aaaiea e oeieueiiio
iao/aieth, iienaiiuo iaie auoa.

Aei ia/aea ineoieiae/aneie aeeaaiinoeee iu ouaoaeueii iciaeiieeenue n
oa?aeoa?enoeeie ia eaaeaeiai ?aaaiea, i?iaeoeoaie aeayoaeueiinoe aeaoae.

A ?acoeueoaoa aeeaaiinoeee iu iieo/eee neaaeothuea ?acoeueoaou: iauee
o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe ianeaaeiaaiiuo aeaoae – n?aaeiee – 55 %, aunieee
o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth ia iiiaio ianeaaeiaaiey
iieacaea oieueei iaeia aeaai/ea – Ionoiaeo Niaaeaia, yoi aeaaiaea?y
oiio, /oi ae oaeaeyeinue aieiaiea aeiia, n iae caieiaeanue aaaooea e
?iaeeoaee. Aeaoneee naae aue ioe?uo oieueei a naioya?a iinea
aeeeoaeueiiai ?aiiioa. O Niaaeaiu n?aaeiee o?iaaiue iaiyoe,
oiiaiaoe/aneiai neooa e yiioeee, o?iaaiue iuoeaiey, aiee, i?aaenoaaeaiee
e oiaiee, a oae aea iioeaaoeeiiiay aioiaiinoue aunieay. I/aiue ieceee
o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth o aeaoo aeaoae: Aeoaiaee
Aeeoi?a e Oea/aiei Eaaia. Iaiei iaeue/eeai ii iyoue eao. I/aiue ieceee
o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe naycai oaeaea n oai, /oi aeiia yoe aeaoe
i?eiaaeeaaeao naie naaa, iaa yoeo iaeue/eea ec iaaeaaiiieo/iuo naiae
(?iaeeoaee no?aaeatho aeeiaieeciii) iie ia iieo/atho ieeaeiai aieiaiey
ni noi?iiu ac?ineuo. O Oea/aiei Aaie ana, aac eneeth/aiey iieacaoaee
i/aiue ieceea. Eiaaea i?iaiaeeeinue ianeaaeiaaiea, ii ia i?iyaeye
ieeaeiai eioa?ana, i/aiue o?oaeii auei oaea?aeaoue aai aieiaiea, ii
iinoiyiii ioaeaeaeny e ea?athuei aeaoyi. Ieceee o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe
iieacaee 6 /aeiaae:

– AEaeaiiaa Aeeia (ieceee o?iaaiue ?acaeoey iaiyoe, oiiaiaoe/aneiai
neooa, yiioeeiiaeueiiai noaoona, i?aaenoaaeaiee e oiaiee, a oaeaea
iioeaaoeee);

– Coa/aiei Aeoaeee ( i/aiue ieceee o?iaaiue oiiaiaoe/aneiai neooa);

– Eaiiiin ?iiai ( ieceee o?iaaiue iuoeaiey, aiee, i?aaenoaaeaiee, oiaiee
e iioeaaoeeiiiie noa?u);

– Ia?nenyi Iae?a (ieceee o?iaaiue iuoeaiey, iaiyoe, oiiaiaoe/aneiai
neooa, aiee, i?aaenoaaeaiee e oiaiee, iioeaaoeee), yoi naycaii n
aic?anoii, ae oieueei 5 eao, a oaeaea n oai, /oi iia iaei iauaeanue n
?onneeie aeaoueie e nae/an ae i?eoiaeeony o?oaeii, oioy ainieoaoaee e
iiiiaatho, iia ieioi aiai?eo ii-?onnee;

– Iao?aiei Aaaaiee aue i?aaeinoaaeai nai naaa, aeiia n iei ieeoi ia
caieiaeny, ?iaeeoaee caiyou “aeiauaaieai aeaiaa”;

– Oeiiiiy Aeaenae ( ieceee o?iaaiue ?acaeoey iuoeaiey, oiiaiaoe/aneiai
neooa, a oaeaea iioeaaoeeiiiie aioiaiinoe).

Iauee o?iaaiue iuoeaiey, iaiyoe, oiiaiaoe/aneiai neooa, yiioeee –
n?aaeiee; aiee, i?aaenoaaeaiee e oiaiee, iioeaaoeee – ieceee. [ niio?e
ea?oo aioiaiinoe]

O?iaaiue aioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth iiaeii oaeaeaoue ia
aeeaa?aiia.

2.2 Ineoiei??aeoeeiiiua ia?ii?eyoey aeey aeaoae, eiathueo n?aaeiee e
ieceee o?iaaiue ?acaeoey

Iinea i?iaaaeaiey aeeaaiinoe/aneiai ianeaaeiaaiey ia i?aaeiao
aioiaiinoe e iao/aieth a oeiea iu ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeenue eiiieaenii
ei??aeoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee aeey aeaoae, eiathueo n?aaeiee e ieceee
o?iaie ?acaeoey. I?aaeeaaaai iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ?iaeeoaeyi e
iaaeaaiaai, iai?aaeaiiua ia ?acaeoea iaiyoe, iuoeaiey, ?a/e,
i?iecaieueiie noa?u e aieiaiey. Yoe aea caaeaiey iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu e aeey ia?ae/iie aeeaaiinoeee o?iaiy ?acaeoey aeaoae.

Iaoa caaea/a ninoieo ia a oii, /oiau oaeaeeoue, ono?aieoue
iaaeaeaoaeueiua iaaeinoaoee, a a oii, /oiau auyaeoue e ono?aieoue eo
i?e/eio. Ei??aeoe?iaaoue iaaei ia neaaenoaea, a i?e/eio – yoi aeaaiue
i?eioeei, eioi?ue aeieaeai ?aaoee?iaaoue i?aeoe/aneoth ?aaioo n
?aaaieii.

?ACAEOEA IAIssOE.

Niaoeeaeenou ?acee/atho e?aoeia?aiaiioth e aeieaia?aiaiioth iaiyoue, a
oaeaea aeaeu iaiyoe a caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a caiiieiaiey iaoa?eaea:
iioi?ioth, c?eoaeueioth, aa?aaeueioth e eiae/aneoth. Iaeiaei auaeaeeoue
eo a /enoii aeaea aeiaieueii neiaeii e aiciiaeii oieueei a eneonnoaaiiuo
oneiaeyo, o.e. a ?aaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oii /enea e a o/aaiie, iie
aunooiatho a aaeeinoaa eee a ii?aaeaeaiiuo ni/aoaieyo, iai?eia?: aeey
?acaeoey c?eoaeueii-iioi?iie e c?eoaeueiie iaiyoe iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaieciaaoue ?aaioo ?aaaiea ii ia?acoeo, eioi?oth neaaeoao
inouanoaeyoue ii neaaeothuei yoaiai: nia/aea ?aaaiie ?aaioaao n
iinoiyiiie c?eoaeueiie iii?ie ia ia?acaoe, caoai a?aiy ?anniao?eaaiey
ia?acoea iinoaiaiii nie?auaaony ii 15-20 naeoiae, a caaeneiinoe io
neiaeiinoe i?aaeeaaaaiie ?aaiou, ii oae, /oiau ?aaaiie oniae
?anniio?aoue e caia/aoeaoue ia?acaoe. [5]. Yoe aeaeu oi?aaeiaiee
oeaeaniia?acii i?iaiaeeoue ia oaeeo aeaeao aeayoaeueiinoe: ?eniaaiea,
eaiea, nienuaaiea n aeinee, ?aaioa n eiino?oeoi?ii, ?eniaaiea oci?ia ii
eeaoi/eai. E?iia oiai, aeaoe anaaaea n oaeiaieuenoaeai auiieiytho
caaeaiey neaaeothuaai oeia: ei i?aaeuyaeyaony ia ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy
eaeay-eeai nthaeaoiay ea?oeiea, niaea?aeaiea eioi?ie iie aeieaeiu
aeaoaeueii eco/eoue e iioii aini?iecaanoe ii iaiyoe. Caoai
i?aaeuyaeyaony iioiaeay ea?oeiea , a eioi?ie ia aeinoaao eaeeo-eeai
aeaoaeae eee iai?ioea, iiyaeythony eeoiea ecia?aaeaiey. Yoe ioee/ey e
aeieaeiu oeiaeoue aeaoe.

Aeey ?acaeoey aa?aaeueii-iioi?iie iaiyoe oeaeaniia?acii eniieueciaaoue
oi?aaeiaiey, i?eaaaeaiiua auoa aeey c?eoaeueii-iioi?iie iaiyoe, n
i?eiaiaieai aianoi iaaeyaeiiai ia?acoea neiaaniiai iienaiey eee
eino?oeoeee i?aaeeaaaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iai?eia?, Au i?ineoa ?aaaiea
auiieieoue n iiiiuueth eiino?oeoi?a i?aaeeiaeaiiia caaeaiea aac
ia?auaiey e ia?acoeo, a ii iaiyoe: aini?iecaanoe eaeie-eeai ?enoiie ii
neiaaniiio iienaieth e o.ae.

Aeey ?acaeoey eiae/aneie iaiyoe ?aeiiaiaeoaony eniieueciaaoue
neaaeothuea caaeaiey e oi?aaeiaiey:

Au /eoaaoa ?aaaieo iaai? neia (10-15), eioi?ua iiaeii ?acaeoue ia
a?oiiu ii ?acee/iui i?eciaeai (iinoaea, iaeaaeaea, aeeaioiua e o.ae.), a
caoai iii?ineoue iacaaoue neiaa, eioi?ua ii caiiiiee. [17]

Oa?aeoa? aini?iecaaaeaiey aoaeao naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue i oii, ianeieueei
noi?ie?iaaiu o ?aaaiea iaoaieciu iaiauaiey, yaeythueany aacie aeey
?acaeoey eiae/aneie iaiyoe.

Oneiaeiyy caaeaiea, iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue aeaoyi aeey caiiieiaiey
eaeie-eeai ?anneac n /aoei auaeaeaiiuie niuneiauie aeieaie.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue auoa, aeey aeaoae 6-7 eao aieaa anoanoaaiii
caiiieiaiea oaeiai iaoa?eaea, eioi?ue aeeth/ai a ea?iaoth
aeayoaeueiinoue. Iiyoiio, ?aaioay n i?aaeeiaeaiiuie auoa caaeaieyie,
aeaeaoaeueii eniieueciaaoue ea?iaua i?eaiu, iai?eia? aeeth/ay nthaeaoiua
ea?u i?i ?acaaae/eeia, einiiiaaoia, aecianiaiia e ae?.

?ACAEOEA IUOEAIEss.

E iiiaioo iinooieaiey a oeieo o ?aaaiea 6-7 eao oaea aeieaeii auoue
noi?ie?iaaii iaaeyaeii-aeaenoaaiiia iuoeaiea, eioi?ia yaeyaony
iaiaoiaeeiui aaceniui ia?aciaaieai aeey ?acaeoey iuoeaiey
iaaeyaeii-ia?aciiai, ninoaaeythuaai iniiao oniaoiiai iao/aiey a
ia/aeueiie oeiea. E?iia oiai, o aeaoae yoiai aic?anoa aeieaeiu
nouanoaiaaoue yeaiaiou eiae/aneiai iuoeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, ia yoii
aic?anoiii yoaia o ?aaaiea ?acaeaathony ?aciua aeaeu iuoeaiey,
niinianoaothuea oniaoiiio iaeaaeaieth o/aaiie i?ia?aiiie.

Aeey ?acaeoey iaaeyaeii-aeaenoaaiiiai iuoeaiey naiui yooaeoeaiui
niiniaii yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii-i?oaeeeiay aeayoaeueiinoue, eioi?ay
iaeaieaa iieii aiieiuaaony a aeayoaeueiinoe eiino?oe?iaaiey.

?acaeoeth iaaeyaeii-ia?aciiai iuoeaiey niinianoaotho neaaeothuea aeaeu
caaeaiee: auoaiienaiiay ?aaioa n eiino?oeoi?aie, ii oaea ia ii
iaaeyaeiiio ia?acoeo, a ii neiaaniie eino?oeoeee, a oaeaea ii
nianoaaiiiio caiuneo ?aaaiea, eiaaea ii i?aaeaea aeieaeai i?eaeoiaoue
iauaeo eiino?oe?iaaiey, a caoai naiinoiyoaeueii aai ?aaeeciaaoue.

?acaeoea yoiai aea aeaea iuoeaiey aeinoeaaaony n iiiiuueth aeeth/aiey
aeaoae a ?aciiia?aciua nthaeaoii-?ieaaua e ?aaeenna?neea ea?u, a eioi?uo
?aaaiie nai i?eaeoiuaaao nthaeao e naiinoiyoaeueii aiieiuaao aai.

Iaioeaieioth iiiiuue a ?acaeoee eiae/aneiai iuoeaiey ieaaeoo oaeea
oi?aaeiaiey:

a) “*aoaa?oue eeoiee”: caaeaiea i?aaeiieaaaao eneeth/aiea iaeiiai
i?aaeiaoa, ia eiathuaai iaeioi?iai i?eciaea, iauaai aeey inoaeueiuo
o?ao.

a) i?eaeoiuaaiea iaaeinoathueo /anoae ?anneaca, eiaaea iaeia ec ieo
i?iiouaia (ia/aei niauoey, na?aaeeia eee eiiaoe). Ia?yaeo n ?acaeoeai
eiae/aneiai iuoeaiey ninoaaeaiea ?anneacia eiaao /?acau/aeii aaaeiia
cia/aiea e aeey ?acaeoey ?a/e ?aaaiea, iaiaauaiea aai neiaa?iiai caiana,
noeioee?oao aiia?aaeaiea e oaioaceth.

Oi?aaeiaiey ni nie/eaie eee iaei/eaie (aueiaeeoue oeao?o ec
ii?aaeaeaiiiai /enea nie/ae, ia?aianoe iaeio ec ieo n oai, /oiau
iieo/eeinue ae?oaia ecia?aaeaiea: niaaeeieoue ianeieueei oi/ae iaeiie
eeieae, ia io?uaay ?oee) iiiiaatho oaeaea ?acaeoeth i?ino?ainoaaiiiai
iuoeaiey.

?ACAEOEA IIOI?EEE E EII?AeEIAOeEE AeAEAEAIEE.

Eae iieacuaaao i?aeoeea, aeaoe 6-7 eao, i?eoiaeyuea a oeieo, e
niaeaeaieth, eiatho e?aeia ieceee o?iaaiue ?acaeoey iioi?iuo iaaueia,
/oi i/aiue y?ei i?iyaeyaony a iaoiaiee ia/a?oeoue i?yioth eeieth,
iaienaoue ia/aoioth aoeao ii ia?acoeo, au?acaoue ec aoiaae e aeeo?aoii
aeeaeoue, ?eniaaoue. Ia?aaeei ieacuaaaony, /oi o aeaoae yoiai aic?anoa
ia noi?ie?iaaia eii?aeeiaoeey e oi/iinoue aeaeaeaiee, iiiaea aeaoe ia
aeaaeatho naiei oaeii.

Iiiai/eneaiiua ineoieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho, /oi
nouanoaoao i?yiay caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo ?acaeoeai yoeo iaaueia e o?iaiai
iauaai ineoe/aneiai e eioaeeaeooaeueiiai ?acaeoey ?aaaiea.

A ea/anoaa oi?aaeiaiee ia ?acaeoea iioi?eee iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue
neaaeothuea caaeaiey:

a) ia?eniaaoue i?inoie oci? (?enoiie 1)

a) iiea?aoue a ea?o “o?oaeiua ae?aaee”. Ea?a ia/eiaaony n oiai, /oi Au
?enoaoa aei?iaeee ?aciie oi?iu, a iaeiii eiioea eioi?uo – iaoeia, a a
ae?oaii – aeii (?enoiie 2). Iioii aiai?eoa ?aaaieo: “Ou – aiaeeoaeue e
oaaa iaaei i?iaanoe naith iaoeio e aeiio. Aei?iaa, ii eioi?ie ou
iiaaeaoue, ia i?inoay. Iiyoiio aoaeue aieiaoaeueiui e inoi?iaeiui”.
?aaaiie aeieaeai ea?aiaeaoii, ia io?uaay ?oee, “i?iaoaoue” ii ecaeaai
aei?iaeae.[27]

Aeey ?acaeoey oaeie iioi?eee nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai ?aciiia?aciuo
oi?aaeiaiee e ea?. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai ?aaioa n eiino?oeoi?aie,
?eniaaiea, eaiea, aueeaaeuaaiea iicaee, aiieeeaoeey, au?acuaaiea.

N oeaeueth ?acaeoey iauae eii?aeeiaoeee e oi/iinoe aeaeaeaiee iiaeii
i?aaeeiaeeoue aeaoyi neaaeothuea ea?u e ni?aaiiaaiey:

a) ea?a “Nuaaeiaiia-ianuaaeiaiia”, a oaeaea ethaua ea?u e oi?aaeiaiey n
iy/ii;

a) ea?a “Ca?eaei”: ?aaaieo i?aaeeaaaaony auoue ca?eaeii e iiaoi?youe
ana aeaeaeaiey ac?ineiai (eae ioaeaeueiua aeaeaeaiey, oae e eo
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue); ?ieue aaaeouaai iiaeao auoue ia?aaeaia ?aaaieo,
eioi?ue nai i?eaeoiuaaao aeaeaeaiey;

a) ea?a a “Oe?”: iiiaaeaiea a oeaeue ?acee/iuie i?aaeiaoaie (iy/ii,
no?aeaie, eieueoeaie e ae?.). Yoi oi?aaeiaiea niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth ia
oieueei eii?aeeiaoeee aeaeaeaiee e eo oi/iinoe, ii e aeaciia?a.

?ACAEOEA OIIAIAOE*ANEIAI NEOOA.

?acaeoue oiiaiaoe/aneee neoo yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiie i?aaeiinueeie aeey
oniaoiiai iaeaaeaiey ?aaaieii /oaieai, ienueiii e a oeaeii neoaeeo
iai?eiaiiui oneiaeai iao/aiey a?aiioa. Iiyoiio ?aiiyy aeeaaiinoeea
noi?ie?iaaiiinoe oiiaiaoe/aneiai neooa yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiie aeey
naiaa?aiaiiiai ono?aiaiey aiciiaeiuo aai aeaoaeoia.

Eae i?aaeei, yoo ooieoeeth aeeaaiinoeee auiieiyao eiaiiaae. Iiyoiio i?e
auyaeaiee eaeeo-eeai ia?ooaiee oiiaiaoe/aneiai neooa o ?aaaiea any
iineaaeothuay ei??aeoeeiiiay ?aaioa aeieaeia i?iaiaeeoueny a oaniii
nio?oaeie/anoaa ni niaoeeaeenoaie yoiai i?ioeey.

?ACAEOEA I?IECAIEUeIINOE.

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo iieacaoaeae aioiaiinoe ?aaaiea e oeiea yaeyaony
?acaeoea o iaai i?iecaieueiinoe, /oi iaania/eaaao iieiioeaiiia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea anao ineoe/aneeo ooieoeee e iiaaaeaiey a oeaeii.

Aeaoe n iaaeinoaoi/ii noi?ie?iaaiiie i?iecaieueiinoueth ooaea
aeeth/athony a i?ioeanna iao/aiey, e aeaaea i?e ii?iaeueiii o?iaia
eioaeeaeooaeueiiai ?acaeoey oaeea oeieueieee iiaoo iiianoue a a?oiio
iaoniaaathueo. Iiyoiio ?acaeoeth i?iecaieueiinoe oeaeaniia?acii
oaeaeyoue iniaia aieiaiea.

?acaeoea i?iecaieueiinoe – iiiaieiiiiiaioiue i?ioeann, o?aaothuee
iaycaoaeueiiai oi?ie?iaaiey oeaeinoiie nenoaiu iniciaiiie
naii?aaoeyoeee.

Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoueth ii ?acaeoeth i?iecaieueiinoe
neoaeeo i?iaeoeoeaiay aeayoaeueiinoue, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue –
eiino?oe?iaaiea.

Ia?aui yoaiii oi?ie?iaaiey i?iecaieueiinoe yaeyaony iao/aiea ?aaioa ii
ia?acoeo. I?enooiay e ?aaioa, ioaeii nia/aea iii?ineoue ?aaaiea
aieiaoaeueii ?anniio?aoue, eco/eoue aeii, eioi?ue aio iaaeeaaeeo
nia?aoue ec eoaeeia naiinoiyoaeueii. Iinea yoiai ac?ineue i?ioeaio
?aaaiea i?enooieoue e no?ieoaeuenoao e iaaethaeaao ca oa?aeoa?ii e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth yoie ?aaiou.

Anee ?aaaiie aeiioneaao ioeaee i?e nai?ee, oi n iei ioaeii
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue i?e/eiu, eioi?ua i?eaaee e ioeaeai eiino?oe?iaaiey e
iinea yoiai iii?ineoue ?aaaiea aianoe iaiaoiaeeiua ei??aeoeau.

Eiino?oe?iaaiea ii iaaeyaeiiio ia?acoeo – ia?aue yoai oi?ie?iaaiey
i?iecaieueiinoe. Aeaeueiaeoaa niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?iecaieueiie
naii?aaoeyoeee inouanoaeyaony iooai oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai oneiaeiaiey
oneiaee aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia neaaeothuai yoaia ?aaaieo i?aaeeaaaaony
aiaeiae/iay ?aaioa, a eioi?ie ia?acoeii aoaeao neoaeeoue ia ?aaeueiay
iino?ieea, a ?enoiie aeiia. I?e yoii aiciiaeiu aeaa aa?eaioa
ecia?aaeaiey:

a) iieiia, eiaaea ia noaiaoe/aneii ?enoiea i?aaenoaaeaiu ana
ia?acothuea iino?ieeo aeaoaee;

a) eiioo?iia – aac aeaoaeecaoeee.

Iineaaeothuaa oneiaeiaiea i?aaeiieaaaao eiino?oe?iaaiea ii neiaaniiio
iienaieth, a caoai e ii nianoaaiiiio caiuneo. A iineaaeiai neo/aa
?aaaiie ia?aae ia/aeii ?aaiou aeieaeai iiae?iaii iienaoue iniaaiiinoe
caaeoiaiiie iino?ieee.

Iaeiei ec ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo oi?aaeiaiee ii ?acaeoeth i?iecaieueiinoe,
iaeneiaeueii i?eaeeaeaiiuo e oneiaeth o/aaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, neoaeeo
“A?aoe/aneee aeeeoaio”, eioi?ue i?aaeiieaaaao aeaa oneiaey auiieiaiey
caaeaiey:

1) ?aaaieo i?aaeeaaaaony ia?acaoe aaiiao?e/aneiai oci?a, auiieiaiiue ia
aoiaaa a eeaoeo; ?aaaiea i?inyo aini?iecaanoe i?aaeeiaeaiiue ia?acaoe e
naiinoiyoaeueii i?iaeieaeeoue oi/ii oaeie aea ?enoiie (?enoiie 3)

2) aiaeiae/iay ?aaioa i?aaeeaaaaony aeey auiieiaiey ia neoo, eiaaea
ac?ineue aeeeooao iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeaenoaee n oeacaieai /enea
eeaoi/ae e eo iai?aaeaiey (ai?aai aeaai, aaa?o – aiec)

I?e iaaeinoaoi/iii caiana ciaiee i/aiue aaaeii noeioee?iaaoue eioa?an
?aaaiea e ie?oaeathuaio, oeene?iaaoue aai aieiaiea ia oii, /oi ii aeaeeo
ia i?iaoeea, ai a?aiy yeneo?nee. Iaaei i?eo/aoue aai ?anneacuaaoue i
naieo i?aaenoaaeaieyo, oaeea ?anneacu iaiaoiaeeii caeioa?aniaaiii
auneooeaaoue, aeaaea anee iie iaeiineiaeiu e naea/eau. Iieacii
caaeaaaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua aii?inu, noa?aoueny iieo/aoue aieaa
iiae?iaiue e ?acaa?iooue ?anneac. ?iaeeoaeyi iu niaaooai ii/aua /eoaoue
?aaaieo aeaoneea eieae, aiaeeoue a eeii, ianoaeaeaoue n iei i?i/eoaiiia
e oaeaeaiiia.

I?e ianoi?ie?iaaiiinoe iieiaeeoaeueiiai ioiioaiey e oeiea iaiaoiaeeii
oaeaeeoue ?aaaieo eae iiaeii aieueoa aieiaiey. Iauaiea n iei aeieaeii
no?ieoueny ia a oeieueiie, a a aeioeieueiie oi?ia. Iii aeieaeii auoue
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui, yiioeeiiaeueiui. Io oaeiai o/aieea iaeuecy no?iai
o?aaiaaoue niaethaeaiey i?aaee oeieueiie aeecie, iaeuecy ?oaaoue e
iaeacuaaoue aai ca eo ia?ooaiey. Yoi iiaeao i?eaanoe e i?iyaeaieth
noieeiai io?eoeaoaeueiiai ioiioaiey e oeiea, o/eoaeth, o/aieth.
Iaiaoiaeeii aeiaeaeaoueny iiea ?aaaiie nai, iaaethaeay ca ae?oaeie
aeaoueie, i?eaeao e i?aaeeueiiio iniciaieth naiaai iieiaeaiey e
auoaeathueo ec iaai o?aaiaaiee e iiaaaeaieth.

– Aeey iiauoaiey o?iaiy ?acaeoey iuoeaiey e ?a/e i/aiue aieueoia
cia/aiea eiaao o/anoea ?aaaiea a eieeaeoeaiuo ea?ao ai aiao?i/iia a?aiy.
Ioaeii /aua ii?o/aoue aio auiieiaiea ?ieae, o?aaothueo i?eiyoea
eaeeo-eeai ?aoaiee, aeoeaiiai ?a/aaiai iauaiey n ae?oaeie aeaoueie.

– Ia iaaei noa?aoueny “iao?aie?iaaoue” ?aaaiea ia auiieiaiea a
iiieiaiea caaeaiee oeia oao, eioi?ua i?eaaaeaiu a iaoiaeeeao. Yoi aeano
eeoue aeaeeiinoue oniaoa, a i?e noieeiiaaiee n ethaui iiaui aeey iaai
caaeaieai ii ieaaeaony oaeaea aaniieiioeaiiui, eae ?aiueoa.

– I?e “ieceii” o?iaia ?acaeoey iuoeaiey e ?a/e iaiaoiaeeii n naiiai
ia/aea iao/aiey aeiiieieoaeueiua eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua caaeaiey,
iai?aaeaiiua ia aieaa iieiia onaiaiea o/aaiie i?ia?aiiu. A aeaeueiaeoai
eeeaeaee?iaaoue ia?aciaaaoeany i?iaaeu aoaeao o?oaeiaa. Iieacii
oaaee/eoue iauai i?iiaaeaaoe/aneeo ciaiee (iniaaiii ii iaoaiaoeea). I?e
yoii ia ioaeii oi?iieoueny n au?aaioeie iaaueia: ?aaioaoue iaae
iiieiaieai iaoa?eaea, a ia iaae nei?inoueth, oi/iinoueth e
aacioeai/iinoueth ioaaoia ia aii?inu eee auiieiaiey eaeeo-eeai
aeaenoaee.

– Iaaeinoaoi/iue o?iaaiue ?acaeoey ia?aciuo i?aaenoaaeaiee – iaeia ec
/anouo i?e/ei o?oaeiinoae a o/aaa ia oieueei 6-7 eaoiee aeaoae, ii e
cia/eoaeueii iicaea (aieioue aei noa?oeo eeannia). Aianoa n oai, ia?eiae
eo iaeaieaa eioaineaiiai oi?ie?iaaiey i?eoiaeeony ia aeioeieueiue e
ia/aei ieaaeoaai oeieueiiai aic?anoa.

Iiyoiio, anee o ?aaaiea, iinooiathuaai a oeieo, eiathony iaaeinoaoee a
yoie iaeanoe, oi eo iaaei iinoa?aoueny eae iiaeii nei?aa
eiiiaine?iaaoue.

– Aeey ?acaeoey ia?aciuo i?aaenoaaeaiee /?acau/aeii aieueoia cia/aiea
eiaao ecia?aceoaeueiay e eiino?oeoeaiay aeayoaeueiinoue. Ioaeii ai
aiao?i/iia a?aiy noeioee?iaaoue caiyoey ?eniaaieai, eaieie,
aiieeeaoeeae, eiino?oe?iaaieai ec no?ieoaeueiiai iaoa?eaea e ?acee/iuo
eiino?oeoeee. Iieacii aeaaaoue aiaeiae/iua aeiiaoiea caaeaiey:
ia?eniaaoue ea?oeieo, nia?aoue i?inooth iiaeaeue aeey eiino?oeoi?a e
o.i. A iiaeai?a caaeaiee iiaeii iie?aoueny ia “I?ia?aiio ainieoaiey a
aeaoneii naaeo”.

– I/aiue aaaeii i?eaeoue ?aaaieo aa?o a naie neeu, ia aeiionoeoue
aicieeiiaaiey caieaeaiiie naiiioeaiee. Aeey yoiai iaaei ii/aua oaaeeoue
aai, ia a eiai neo/aa ia ?oaaoue ca aeiiouaiiua ioeaee, a oieueei
iieacuaaoue eae eo eni?aaeoue, /oiau oeo/oeoue ?acoeueoao.

– I?e iaaeinoaoi/iii o?iaia ?acaeoey iaeeeo aeaeaeaiee iieaciu oa aea
aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe, /oi e aeey ?acaeoey ia?aciuo i?aaenoaaeaiee
(ecia?aceoaeueiay, eiino?oeoeaiay). Iiaeii iaiecuaaoue aonu,
canoaaeaaoue e ?annoaaeaaoue ioaiaeoeu, eiiiee, e?th/ee (yoe aeaenoaey
ioioii niaa?oathony aeaoueie a i?ioeanna ea?u n eoeeie: aa ?acaeaaaieai
ia?aae “oeeaaeuaaieai niaoue”, iaeaaaieai aeey “i?iaoeee” e o.i.)

– Aeey ?acaeoey e?oiiuo aeaeaeaiee aaaeii aeiaeaaoueny iiauoaiey
aeaeaaoaeueiie aeoeaiinoe. Ia ioaeii i?eaeaeaoue ?aaaiea e o/anoeth a
nii?oeaiuo ni?aaiiaaieyo – iaoaea/e iiaoo ieii/aoaeueii ioioaiooue aai
io oeceoeueoo?u. A yoii neo/aa ai?acaei iieaciaa caiyoey ia niaea?aeauea
ni?aaiiaaoaeueiuo yeaiaioia: oeceoeueoo?iay ca?yaeea, oooi/iua ea?u oeia
“Ea?aaae”, “Aaaa nayea ai?io” e o.i. ?iaeeoaeyi neaaeoao ii/aua ea?aoue
n ?aaaieii a iy/, aianoa eaoaoueny ia euaeao e o.i. I/aiue iieaciu
caiyoey ieaaaieai.

2.3. ?acoeueoaou iiaoi?iie aeeaaiinoeee

Iiaoi?iia ianeaaeiaaiea aioiaiinoe e oeiea auei i?iaaaeaii a ai?aea
1999 aiaea. Auee iieo/aiu neaaeothuea ?acoeueoaou:

i/aiue aunieee ?acoeueoao aioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth iieo/eea
Ionoiaeo Niaaeaia. I?e ia?ae/iie aeeaaiinoeea o iaa aue n?aaeiee
o?iaaiue ?acaeoey iaiyoe, oiiaiaoe/aneiai neooa e yiioeee; i?e iiaoi?iie
aeeaaiinoeea o iaa auyaeeny i/aiue aunieee o?iaaiue iaiyoe, aunieee
o?iaaiue oiiaiaoe/aneiai neooa, aunieee o?iaaiue yiioeee.

Ii aeeaa?aiia [ni. i?eeiaeaiea ] aeaeii, /oi iieiaeia aeaoae
iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie a?oiiu eiaao aunieee o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe e iao/aieth
a oeiea.

35 % aeaoae iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie a?oiiu eiatho n?aaeiee o?iaaiue
aioiaiinoe e oeiea.

E aeaa /aeiaaea (10 %) eiatho ieceee o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio
iao/aieth. Ii ii n?aaiaieth n ?acoeueoaoaie ia?ae/iie aeeaaiinoeee eo
iauee o?iaaiue iiauneeny.

N?AAIE:

Aeoaiaee Aeeoi? iieacae ieceee o?iaaiue iuoeaiey e inoaeueiua
iieacaoaee auee i/aiue ieceea. Iinea i?iaaaeaiey ei??aeoeeiiiie
i?ia?aiiu, aeaaiaea?y iaaeaaiaai e ainieoaoaeyi iauee o?iaaiue iuoeaiey,
iaiyoe, yiioeee o iaai n?aaeiee.

O Oea/aiei Eaaia ana iieacaoaee auee i/aiue ieceea, iinea ei??aeoeee –
ieceea.

?iaeeoaeyi yoeo aeaoo aeaoae iu iiniaaoiaaee ioeiaeeoue iinooieaiea a
oeieo ia iaeei aiae. Ca yoio aiae aeaoe ie?aiioo oece/anee, a iaaeaaiae,
ainieoaoaee, aoaeoo caieiaoueny n ieie, ineoieia aicueiao eo iiae naie
eiio?ieue.

A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiey ei??aeoeeiiiie ?aaiou iu iieo/eee neaaeothuea
?acoeueoaou a ianeaaeoaiie a?oiia:

– iiauneeanue noi?ie?iaaiiinoue iioeaaoeeiiiie noa?u (n?aaie: ieceee –
aunieee). Yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi aeaoe eaeoo a oeieo ia oieueei n
aeaeaieai, ii e iniciaieth.

– iiauneeny o?iaaiue eioaeeaeooaeueiie noa?u (n?aaie: n?aaeiee –
aunieee). O aeaoae iiauneeny o?iaaiue ?acaeoey iiciaaaoaeueiuo
niiniaiinoae e noi?ie?iaaeenue iaiaoiaeeiua iaauee aeey o/aaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

– a ?acoeueoaoa aeeaaiinoeee, i?iaaaeaiiie a ieoya?a aue iaia?oaeai
ieceee o?iaaiue ?acaeoey ?a/e e i?aaenoaaeaiee e oiaiee, ieioi aaea
?acaeoa iaeeay iioi?eea ?oe. Iiyoiio a i?ioeanna ei??aeoeeiiiie ?aaiou
iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue ?acaeoeth ?a/e e iaeeie iioi?eee ?oe.
O?iaaiue ?acaeoey i?e iiaoi?iie aeeaaiinoeea iiauneeny.

CAEETH*AIEA

I?iaeaia aioiaiinoe aeaoae e iao/aieth a oeiea – yoi ia oieueei
iao/iay, ii a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ?aaeueii-i?aeoe/aneay, i/aiue aeeciaiiay
e ino?ay caaea/a, aua ia iieo/eaoay naiaai ieii/aoaeueiiai ?aoaiey. A io
aa ?aoaiey caaeneo iiiaia, a eiia/iii n/aoa noaeueaa aeaoae, eo
ianoiyuaa e aoaeouaa.

E?eoa?ee aioiaiinoe eee iaaioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth naycaiu n
ineoieiae/aneei aic?anoii ?aaaiea, eioi?ue ion/eouaaaony ia ii /anai
oece/aneiai a?aiaie, a ii oeaea ineoieiae/aneiai ?acaeoey. Yoo oeaeo
oiaea iaaei oiaoue /eoaoue: iiieiaoue i?eioeeiu aa ninoaaeaiey, ciaoue
oi/ee ion/aoa, ?acia?iinoue.

A naiae ?aaioa iu noaaeee oeaeue- auyaeoue o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe
aeioeieueieeia e iao/aieth e i?iaanoe ei??aeoeeiiii-?acaeaathuea
ia?ii?eyoey ii iiauoaieth o?iaiy ?acaeoey.

Auea eniieueciaaia eiiieaeniay i?ia?aiia aeeaaiinoeee aeaoae
aeioeieueiiai aic?anoa e oeieueiiio iao/aieth. Aioiaiinoue
ii?aaeaeeeanue ii neaaeothuei ia?aiao?ai:

– iioeaaoeeiiiue;

– eioaeeaeooaeueiue;

– ycueiaie;

– nioeeaeueiue.

Ia iniiaaiee iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia aicieeea iaiaoiaeeiinoue a
nicaeaiee ei??aeoeeiiii-?acaeaathueo ia?ii?eyoee aeey iiauoaiey o?iaiy
aioiaiinoe e oeieueiiio iao/aieth. Iniiaiie oeaeueth yaeeinue
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia eniieueciaaiea ea?iaie aeayoaeueiinoe, oi?ie?othuae
iaiaoiaeeiua i?aaeiinueee aeey eiiieaeniie iiaeaioiaee e iao/aieth
aeaoae a oeiea.

A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaeaeaiiie ?aaiou iu oaeaeaee, /oi e eiioeo o/aaiiai
aiaea iauee o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe aeaoae yenia?eiaioaeueiie a?oiiu
iiauneeny. Oaeea ?acoeueoaou iu niiaee iieo/eoue i?e niaianoiie ?aaioa
n iaaeaaiaaie, ainieoaoaeyie e ?iaeeoaeyie.

?aaioay ii yoie i?ia?aiia iu i?eoee e auaiaeai:

– ai-ia?auo, ianeaaeiaaiea aeaoae iaiaoiaeeii aeey oeieu e aeey aeaoae,
aeey eo oniaoiiai iao/aiey;

– ai-aoi?uo, ianeaaeiaaiea aeaoae iaiaoiaeeii ia/eiaoue ?aiueoa, oiaaea
yoa ?aaioa aoaeao aieaa yooaeoeaiie, iioiio /oi, iaei eiinoaoe?iaaoue
iaaioiaiinoue ?aaaiea e iao/aieth a oeiea, iaiaoiaeeii aua a?aoue ia
o/ao e a oa/aiea aiaea iaaethaeaoue e eiio?iee?iaaoue aai ?acaeoea.

A aeaeueiaeoae naiae ?aaioa iu ieaie?oai oaeoaeoue e ?anoe?eoue
ei??aeoeeiiii-?acaeaathuea ia?ii?eyoey, n eniieueciaaieai yeaiaioia
ineoiae?aiiu e i?iaaaeaiea niaianoiuo caiyoee n ?iaeeoaeyie.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE EEOA?AOO?U:

Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu ainieoaiey e iao/aiey aeioeieueieeia: Na. iao/.
o?oaeia./?aaeeie.: I.I.Iaaeuyeia e ae?. – I: AII NNN?, 1985a.

Aaeiaa A. ?aciuoeaiey ia?aae oeieie: (Niaaou ?iaeeoaeyi) // Aeioeieueiia
ainieoaiea, – 1994 a., – ?8, no?. 80-83.

Aaiaa? E. Eae aeioeieueiee noaiiaeony oeieueieeii? // Aeioeieueiia
ainieoaiea, – 1995, – ?8, no?. 66-74.

Aiai?iaa ?., Aeuey/aiei I, Oeaoaineay E. Ea?u e oi?aaeiaiey aeey
?acaeoey oinoaaiiuo niiniaiinoae o aeaoae//Aeioeieueiia ainieoaiea,
1988, ?5, no?.17-25.

Aioiaiinoue aeaoae e oeiea. Aeeaaiinoeea ineoe/aneiai ?acaeoey e
ei??aeoeey aai iaaeaaii?eyoiuo aa?eaioia: Iaoiaee/aneea ?ac?aaioee aeey
oeieueiiai ineoieiaa. / Iiae ?aae. A.A.Neiaiae/eeiaa, aui.2,-Oiine,
1992a.

Aooeaethe E.A.Caiyoey ii iiaeaioiaea aeaoae e oeiea.//Ia/aeueiay oeiea,
1994a., ?4, no?.11-13

Aeaoneay ea?oeia ie?a: i?ia?aiia iao/aiey e ainieoaiey aeaoae 6-7 eao//
Aeioeieueiia ainieoaiea, 1994a.,?6, no?.27-31.

Aeuey/aiei I, Aa?aioeiaa I. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?aaiou ii i?ia?aiia
“?acaeoea” aeey aeaoae iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie e oeiea a?oiiu (naaeueiie aiae
aeecie) // Aeioeieueiia ainieoaiea, 1994a.,?10,no?. 38-46.

E?aaoeiaa A.A. Ineoieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu aioiaiinoe aeaoae e iao/aieth a
oeiea. I, Iaaeaaiaeea, 1991a.

E?aaoeiaa A., E?aaoeia A. Aioiaiinoue e oeiea // Aeioeieueiia
ainieoaiea, 1991, ?7, no?. 81-84.

E?aaoeia A.A., E?aaoeiaa A.A. Oanoeeaoiee ?aaaiie. Ineoieiae/aneay
aioiaiinoue e oeiea. – I, Ciaiea, 1987a.

Eociaoeiaa A., Aeeaaa A., Caooieoeeay A. Iiaeaioiaea aeaoae e iao/aieth
a oeiea// Aeioeieueiia ainieoaiea, 1989a., ?8, no?. 50-54.

Iooeia A. *oi oaeia aioiaiinoue e o/aieth? // Naiuey e oeiea., 1987a,
?4, no?.25-27.

Iaiia ?.N. Ineoieiaey. – I, I?inaauaiea, 1995a., o.2.

Iaiia ?.N. Ineoieiaey. – I, I?inaauaiea, 1995a.,o.3.

Iniaaiiinoe ineoe/aneiai ?acaeoey aeaoae 6-7-eaoiaai aic?anoa / Iiae
?aae. Ae.A.Yeueeiieia, A.E.Aaiaa?a. – I, “Iaaeaaiaeea”, 1988a.

?iaia A.E. Ianoieueiay eieaa i?aeoe/aneiai ineoieiaa a ia?aciaaiee – I,
“Aeaaein”, 1995a.

?uaeia Y. Aioia ee ?aaaiie e oeieueiiio iao/aieth? //Aeioeieueiia
ainieoaiea. 1995a, ?8, no?.25-28.

Naaaeaioeiaa A.I. Iiaeaioiaea aeaoae e oeiea// Ia/aeueiay oeiea, 1994a.,
?5, no?. 67-69.

Oeueaieiaa O. Oi?ie?iaaiea iauae niiniaiinoe e o/aieth o oanoeeaoieo
aeaoae.// Aeioeieueiia ainieoaiea, 1989a, ?3, no?.53-57.

Ooaeee A.A. Ineoieiae/aneay aeeaaiinoeea aeaoneiai ?acaeoey: iaoiaeu
enneaaeiaaiey – E., Inaeoa, 1992a.

Yeueeiiei Ae.A. Aeaoneay ineoieiaey (?acaeoea ?aaaiea io ?iaeaeaiey aei
7 eao)- I: O/iaaeaec, 1960a.

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