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Принятие решения человеком

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AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE EIIEOAO ?INNEENEIE

OAAeA?AOeEE II AUNOAIO IA?ACIAAIETH

EINOEOOO YEIIIIEEE , OI?AAEAIEss E IIEEOIEIAEE

?AOA?AO

Nooaeaioa a?oiiu TH-22

Ii eo?no :

“Ineoieiaey e iaaeaaiaeea”

Ia oaio :

“I?eiyoea ?aoaiey /aeiaaeii”

I?aiiaeaaaoaeue:

Eunaiei Aeaoa?eia Aaaaiueaaia

a. Iineaa

26.11.1999a.

Niaea?aeaiea

1. Aaaaeaiea

2. Ineoieiae/aneea aniaeou i?eiyoey ?aoaiey

3. O?iaie e yoaiu i?eiyoey ?aoaiey

4. Ineoieiae/aneee iaoaieci i?eiyoey ?aoaiey

5. Auaiaeu

6. Oanou

7. Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aaaaeaiea

Iaeiie ec oa?aeoa?iuo oaiaeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai yoaia ?acaeoey iaoee
yaeyaony oi?ie?iaaiea iiauo iai?aaeaiee, iauaaeeiythueo ?acee/iua
(eiiaaea, eacaeinue au, aeaeaeea ae?oa io ae?oaa ii naiaio i?aaeiaoo e
iaoiaeai enneaaeiaaiey) iaeanoe iao/iiai ciaiey. Eiaiii e oaeei
iai?aaeaieyi i?eiaaeeaaeao enneaaeiaaiey, ioiinyueany e i?iaeaia
i?eiyoey ?aoaiee.

Aicieeioa eae iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneay i?iaeaia a nayce n ioaeaeaie
iino?iaiey e iioeiecaoeee aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai oi?aaeaiey a
?acee/iuo noa?ao ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa (i?iiuoeaiiinoue, o?ainii?o,
no?ieoaeuenoai) e ?anniao?eaaaiay ia?aiia/aeueii eeoue eae ?acaeae iauae
oai?ee oi?aaeaiey, i?iaeaia i?eiyoey ?aoaiey iinoaiaiii i?eia?aea
naiinoiyoaeueiia cia/aiea. Yoi iiaeaeei ca niaie auaeaeaiea e ?ac?aaioeo
?aciuo o?iaiae e aniaeoia i?eiyoey ?aoaiey — ineoioeceieiae/aneeo,
oaoie/aneeo, eeaa?iaoe/aneeo, nioeeieiae/aneeo e o. ae. A /anoiinoe,
i?iaeaia i?eiyoey ?aoaiey noaea oai?aoe/aneei “noueii” oeaeiai ?yaea
iaoe aeieiae/aneiai oeeeea, iiaeeeth/eaoeo ?aciua aniaeou yoie i?iaeaiu
e ?aoaieth ea?aeeiaeueiuo aii?inia ooieoeeiiaeueiie oeaeaniia?aciinoe e
aaeaioeaiiai iiaaaeaiey aeeauo nenoai.

Caeioa?aniaaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?acee/iuo iaeanoae iao/iiai ciaiey a
?ac?aaioea oai?ee i?eiyoey ?aoaiey, n iaeiie noi?iiu, nicaeaao
ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe, oae eae a eaaeaeie iaoea oi?ie?othony naie
niaoeeoe/aneea iiaeoiaeu e i?iaeaia, eniieuecothony ?acee/iua ycuee,
iiiyoeeiua aiia?aou e iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
iauaaeeiaiea a ?aieao iauae oai?ee i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?aciuo iaoe nicaeaao
iniaaiii aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey ieiaeioai?iuo iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee.

Nouanoaoao ?yae iaueo aii?inia, o?aaothueo niaianoiuo enneaaeiaaiee
niaoeeaeenoaie ?aciuo i?ioeeae.

1. I?aaeaea anaai iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue naii iiiyoea “i?eiyoea
?aoaiey”, iineieueeo niaoeeaeenou ?aciuo i?ioeeae aeeaaeuaatho a yoio
oa?iei ?aciue niune. Aeaei ineiaeiyaony aua oai, /oi iaeanoue yaeaiee, i
eioi?uo iiaeii aiai?eoue eae i i?eiyoee ?aoaiey, aua ia ii?aaeaeaia
aeinoaoi/ii no?iai.

2. I/aiue aaaeii ii?aaeaeeoue oa niaoeeoe/aneea aniaeou i?iaeaiu
i?eiyoey ?aoaiey, eioi?ua aeieaeiu ?ac?aaaouaaoueny ioaeaeueiuie
niaoeeaeueiuie iaoeaie, e acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo yoeie aniaeoaie.

3. Iauaa e i?eioeeieaeueiia cia/aiea eiaao eiiieaen aii?inia, eioi?ue
ioiineony e iaoaieciai i?eiyoey ?aoaiey a aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea e a
aeieiae/aneeo nenoaiao.

Aeaiiua, iaeiieaiiua iae?ioeceieiaeae (e aeieiaeae a oeaeii), a oaeaea
ineoieiaeae e ineoioeceieiaeae a yoii iai?aaeaiee, yaeythony aanueia
iieaciuie aeey ?ac?aaioee i?eioeeieaeueiuo aniaeoia aeaiiie i?iaeaiu.

Aieaa oiai, eco/aiea iiaaaeaiey aeieiae/aneeo nenoai e oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, eae iai i?aaenoaaeyaony, aeieaeii auoue
iniiaiie eeieae a ?ac?aaioea i?iaeaiu i?eiyoey ?aoaiey. Noieue aea
nouanoaaiiay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo enneaaeiaaieyi eieeaeoeaiuo ?aoaiee,
i?ioeannia e iaoaieciia i?eiyoey ?aoaiee a?oiiaie ethaeae, iauaaeeiaiiuo
niaianoeiie aeayoaeueiinoueth.

4. Aaaeiaeoee aii?in, eiathuee iauaa cia/aiea,— aii?in i oii, ianeieueei
iieii iiaeii oi?iaeeciaaoue i?ioeann i?eiyoey ?aoaiey e eaeeie ycueaie
oeaeaniia?acii i?e yoii iieueciaaoueny.

5. A nayce n i?eeeaaeiuie aniaeoaie i?iaeaiu i?eiyoey ?aoaiey aaaeiia
cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao aii?in i acaeiiaeaenoaee /aeiaaea e
eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiae/aneeo iaoei a i?ioeannao i?eiyoey ?aoaiey.

2. Ineoieiae/aneea aniaeou i?eiyoey ?aoaiee

Iiiyoea “i?eiyoea ?aoaiey” noaei iiioey?iui a iineaaeiea aiaeu iiae
neeueiui aeeyieai iae?ioeceieiaee. Ineoieiae /anoi ia?aaiaeeee yoi
iiiyoea a iaeanoue oa?ieiieiae/aneoth, a iaeanoue iiiyoee, aieaa aeeceeo
e aeeoaeneei, /ai e iao/iui. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaanoe iao/iia iiiyoea
“i?eiyoea ?aoaiey” iiyaeeanue a i?ioeanna ?ac?aaioee ?acee/iuo aieueoeo
e iaeuo nenoai, eiaaea noaei aaaeiui ii?aaeaeeoue yoai, ia eioi?ii
caeai/eaaaony oi?ie?iaaiea e ia/eiaaony eniieiaiea eaeiai-eeai aeoa, o.
a. eiaaea iiaeii neacaoue, /oi nenoaia i?eiyea ?aoaiea.

A oeceieiaee iiaaaeai/aneee aeo aeieaia a?aiy ?anniao?eaaeny eae i?yiay
naycue: noeioe ia aoiaea ii?aaeaeyao ?aaeoeeth ia auoiaea. Anee
iiaeoiaeeoue e ?acaeoeth niauoee n oi/ee c?aiey iaoaienoe/aneiai
aeaoa?ieiecia (o. a. caaii e caaio), oi ii nooe aeaea iao e ia ioaeii
ieeaeiai ?aoaiey,— aio ia iaoiaeeony ianoa. Oai ia iaiaa iaaethaeaiey
iieacuaaee, /oi iiaeao auoue iiiai aoiaeia, a auoiae auae?aaony oieueei
iaeei, e yoio auoiae eeiaeii ia naycai ie n eaeei ioaeaeueiui aoiaeii.
Noaiiaeeinue yniui, /oi eaeay-oi nenoaia eioaa?e?oao ana aoiaeu e
i?eieiaao ?aoaiea i auoiaea ia iniiaa o/aoa anao aoiaeia. Oae aicieeei
oaaaeaeaiea, /oi n iiceoeee iaoaienoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea iaeuecy
iauynieoue neiaeiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aeeauo nenoai, iniaaiii ia
aunoai O?iaia, eiaaea ?aoaiea noaiiaeony iinoiyiiui yoaiii a iiaaaeaiee
/aeiaaea.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia?aue e aaaeiue iiiaio: ?aoaiea anoue iaecaaaeiue
i?aaeiao eioaa?aoeee e i?aaeiao auai?a, ec iiiaeo aiciiaeiinoae
auae?aaony iaeia, eioi?ay iicaieyao i?aaiecio eee iaoeia aeiaeoueny
iaeaieueoae yooaeoeaiinoe.

Ieacaeinue, /oi ii/oe anyeia ianoaeaeaiea yoie i?iaeaiu ia?aie/eaaaony
?aoaieai eae oaeiaui, o. a. ia/aeueiui i?ioeannii eaeie-oi
aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii ia naiii aeaea ?aoaiea ia yaeyaony ia/aeii, yoi —
?acoeueoao i/aiue oiieie e iaoe?iie ?aaiou, i?iaeaeaiiie iicaii. Iiyoiio
aicieeea iaiaoiaeeiinoue aiaea/ue a noa?o aieiaiey ia oieueei naii
i?eiyoea ?aoaiey, ii e noaaeeth “i?aae?aoaiey”, eioi?ay aai oi?ie?oao e
i?aaeii?aaeaeyao aai iai?aaeaiiinoue. E ooo ieacaeinue, /oi i?eiyoea
?aoaiey iaaiciiaeii aac yoie noaaeee, ii?aaeaeythuae, eaeea
ianoiyoaeuenoaa aeieaeiu auoue o/oaiu i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiee, ec eaeiai
iaai?a ioaeii auae?aoue iaeaieaa aaeaeaaoioth aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiecia
eee iaoeiu. Iiyoiio au?aaeaiea “i?eiyoea ?aoaiey” ia aeieaeii auoue
aeiiioece?othuei oaeoi?ii, yoi anoue eiia/iue aeo iaeiiai aanueia
?acaaoaeaiiiai i?ioeanna e ia/aei ae?oaiai.

Aicieeaao aii?in, eaeie aea oieaa?naeueiue noa?aeaiue iiaeao auoue
i?aaeeiaeai, /oiau auaeaeeoue i?eiyoea ?aoaiey e naeaeaoue aai
iauaeoeaii eco/aaiui i?ioeannii. Ae?oaay noi?iia yoiai aii?ina,
ianeieueei eciii?oiu ana aeaeu i?eiyoey ?aoaiey. Iu aeieai iaae yoei
aeoiaee e ?aaioaee, e ieacaeinue, /oi iauay oai?ey ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
nenoai aeaao oaeie noa?aeaiue. Yoi ia cia/eo, /oi ae?oaiai noa?aeiy
iaeuecy iaeoe,’ ii nae/an yoa oai?ey yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui aiia?aoii,
aaeeinoaaiiie iiaeaeueth, eioi?ay iicaieyao eco/aoue naiua oiieea
iaoaieciu i?eiyoey ?aoaiey a ?acee/iuo nenoaiao e ioaaouaaao eae
noaaeeth i?aae?aoaiey, oae e naii ?aoaiea e aai iineaaenoaey.

A ooieoeeiiaeueiie nenoaia i?eiyoea ?aoaiey yaeyaony ia eciee?iaaiiui
iaoaieciii, eciee?iaaiiui aeoii, a iaeiei ec yoaiia a ?acaeoee
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai iiaaaeaiey. Iu noaaei ia ia?aia ianoi ia
“ioaeaeueiinoe”, iai?eia? iaiyoue eae iaiyoue, eae /oi-oi eciee?iaaiiia.
Iaiyoue ?aaioaao a nenoaia, auiieiyao a iae naith ?ieue. Yoi aea
ioiineony e e iioeaaoeee, e e i?eiyoeth ?aoaiey, o. a. nenoaia
iauaaeeiyao ana yoe ooieoeee. Oaeei ia?acii, i?eiyoea ?aoaiey ia
yaeyaony eciee?iaaiiui aiia?aoii eee eciee?iaaiiie i?iaeaiie, iii /anoue
aieueoie nenoaiu.

Ia?aue e aaaeiue iiiaio — iaeuecy inouanoaeyoue ?aoaiea aiiaua, ?aoaiea,
ia aeeth/aiiia a eaeoth-oi aeayoaeueiinoue, ia iai?aaeaiiia ia eaeie-oi
iieiaeeoaeueiue ?acoeueoao. Iiaeii ee i?eiyoue ?aoaiea, eioi?ia a
aoaeouai ia iaauaao ieeaeiai iieaciiai yooaeoa? I/aaeaeii, iao.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, anee aiai?eoue

i i?eiyoee ?aoaiey, oi a iaoai iiieiaiee (oeceieiaoaaaneii e
ineoieiae/aneii) aac iioeaaoeee, eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue oaeiaeaoai?aia
(iia iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia a ?aciuo aeaeao, a i?inoii, a?oaii aeaea
— oeia aieiaea, aeaaeaeu, ii iia iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia e a aeaea
aeaeaiey iinooieoue a einoeooo), iaeuecy iaieoenue. Iioeaaoeey yaeyaony
iaycaoaeueiui oaeoi?ii, ii?aaeaeythuei e onoaiaaeeaathuei oei ?aoaiey,
aai iauea i/a?oaiey.

Iioeaaoeey ia/eiaao i?ioeann auai?a ec iaiyoe, auai?a ec i?ioeiai iiuoa
anaai oiai, /oi auei a aeecie aeaiiiai i?aaiecia naycaii n
oaeiaeaoai?aieai yoie iioeaaoeee. Iu aeieai aeeenue, /oiau iiiyoue, aei
eaeie noaiaie iioeaaieiiiia aicaoaeaeaiea “auoyaeaaao” i?ioeue iiuo:
ecaeaeaaony ee oieueei naini?iay /anoue, eee oaeaea e aeaenoaey, eioi?ua
naycaiu n aeaiiie iioeaaoeeae, a oaeaea ?acoeueoao, eioi?ue aue iieo/ai
i?e aa oaeiaeaoai?aiee. Iu i?eoee e auaiaeo, /oi iioeaaoeey
aeaenoaeoaeueii ecaeaeaao ec iaiyoe aanue i?ioeue iiuo, aeeth/ay
?acoeueoaou. Eiaaea au oioeoa anoue, au iiaeaoa yoi aeaeaiea
oaeiaeaoai?eoue ?aciuie niiniaaie. Anee au iaoiaeeoanue a noaie, au
ioe?iaoa noieo e aeinoaiaoa ioioie/uee ninenee; a ai?iaea au iiaeaoa
iieoe a ?anoi?ai. I?e yoii ec iaiyoe ecaeaeathony ana aeou, eioi?ua
eiaaea-oi auee naycaiu n oaeiaeaoai?aieai yoie iioeaaoeee. Eaeie
eiie?aoiue iooue aoaeao eca?ai, yoi ?aoaao ianoaiiaea.

Oaeei ia?acii, ecaea/aiea iioeaaoeeae ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeeciaiiiai iiuoa
(n ei??aeoeeae aiaoiae ianoaiiaeie) e i?eaiaeeo e i?eiyoeth eiaiii
yoiai, a ia eiiai ?aoaiey, o. a. naii i?eiyoea ?aoaiey iiin?aaenoaiaaii
i/aiue neiaeiui i?ioeannii “i?eia?ee” aeeciaiiiai iiuoa e aeaiiie
neooaoeee. Anee au a ioe?uoie noaie caoioaee ieoue, oi ia aoaeaoa
eneaoue eeine n aace?iaaiiie aiaeie, iioiio /oi ianoaiiaea oieeaao ia
i?eiyoea ae?oaiai ?aoaiey. Iiyoiio anee ?anniao?eaaoue i?eiyoea ?aoaiey
eae i?ioeann, eciee?iaaiiue io iioeaaoeee, iaiyoe e aiaoieo
aicaeaenoaee, iaeuecy ane?uoue aai caeiiiia?iinoae.

Aii?in i ianoa i?eiyoey ?aoaiey a oeaeii, oeaeaiai?aaeaiiii
i?iecaieueiii aeoa n o/anoeai ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia yaeyaony
aaaeiaeoei, n iiae oi/ee c?aiey. Anee au iu eciee?iaaee ?aoaiea, iu
ie/aai ia iiaee au neacaoue i i?eiyoee ?aoaiey. Ieacaeinue, /oi
i?aae?aoaiea ia noaaeee aooa?aioiiai neioaca (o. a. iauaaeeiaiea anao
aooa?aioia, eioi?ua i?aaeoanoaotho ?aoaieth) a aunoae noaiaie aaaeii
aeey ineoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea e aieaa aaaeii aeey iiieiaiey
?aoaiey, /ai naii i?eiyoea ?aoaiey, iioiio /oi ia yoie noaaeee
?anoeaieaathony, niiinoaaeythony iiuo, iioeaaoeey e ianoaiiaea — e ana
yoi i?aaeii?aaeaeyao eiie?aoiia ?aoaiea.

Iae?ioeceieiae/aneea yenia?eiaiou iieacaee, /oi aeaiiua eiiiiiaiou
aooa?aioiiai neioaca ano?a/athony ia iaeiii e oii aea iae?iia. Yoi,
eiia/ii, ia iaeia eeaoea a iicaa, a ieeeea?aeu, ii ioeaiea i?iecaiaeeony
ia iaeiii e oii aea iae?iia, e oieueei aunoay eioaa?aoeey niaaeeiyao ana
yoe ?aoaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, oioy iauaa ?aoaiea i?eieiaaony anai iicaii,
acaeiiaeaenoaea eiiiiiaioia aooa?aioiiai neioaca, i?eaiaeyuaa e oiio eee
eiiio ?aoaieth, i?ienoiaeeo ia o?iaia ioaeaeueiiai iae?iia.

Acaeiiaeaenoaea eiiiiiaioia aooa?aioiiai neioaca ia iae?iia ia iiaeao
auoue i?inoui neiaeaieai ?acii?iaeiuo aicaoaeaeaiee, e i?iaeaia i?eiyoey
?aoaiey a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie caaeneo io auyniaiey aii?ina, eaeei
ia?acii a ?acoeueoaoa eiiaa?aaioeee ia ioaeaeueiii iae?iia ?acee/iuo ii
i?e?iaea aeeyiee inouanoaeyaony auai? iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiie a aeaiiie
ianoaiiaea oi?iu aai aeoeaiinoe.

Iaeiaei ?aoaiea a iiaaaeai/aneii aeoa i?eieiaaony ia iaeiei iae?iiii, a
anai iicaii. Aio ii/aio y oioae au, /oiau noaaeey i?aae?aoaiey auea
inaauaia e aiaea/aia a ianoaeaeaiea; aac yoie noaaeee, eiia/ii, o?oaeii
iiiyoue, eae neeaaeuaaaony ?aoaiea.

I?eiyoea ?aoaiey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie e?eoe/aneee ioieo, a eioi?ii
i?ienoiaeeo i?aaiecaoeey eiiieaena yooa?aioiuo aicaoaeaeaiee, niiniaiiai
aeaoue aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiia aeaenoaea. I?e ethauo oneiaeyo iu eiaai
auai? iaeiiai aeoa e eneeth/aiea anao inoaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae. Auai?
yoiai aeoa anoue nicaeaiea yooa?aioiiai eioaa?aea, a eioi?ii
niaeaniaaiu, “i?eaiaiu” ae?oa e ae?oao ii?aaeaeaiiua oi?iu aeoeaiinoe
ia?iiiiai /enea ioaeaeueiuo iaoaieciia. I?eiyoea ?aoaiey ia?aaiaeeo
iaeei nenoaiiue i?ioeann — aooa?aioiue neioac — a ae?oaie nenoaiiue
i?ioeann — a i?ia?aiio aeaenoaee. Iii yaeyaony ia?aoiaeiui iiiaioii,
iinea eioi?iai ana eiiaeiaoeee aicaoaeaeaiee i?eia?aoatho
eniieieoaeueiue oa?aeoa?.

Ia iae?ii iinooiatho ouny/e aicaoaeaeaiee, a “auioneaao” ii /a?ac aenii
iaeii aicaoaeaeaiea. Anee au a ethaie iiiaio ethaie aoiae aucaae ioaao
iae?iia, oi ieeaeie eioaa?aoeee ia iiaei au auoue, ianooiee au iieiue
oain. Aeey aeeth/aiey iae?iia a nenoaio iaiaoiaeeii ono?aiaiea aai
eceeoieo noaiaiae naiaiaeu e eniieueciaaiea oieueei oao aoiaeia, eioi?ua
aucuaatho niaa?oaiii ii?aaeaeaiioth oi?io aeoeaiinoe aeaiiiai iae?iia,
niinianoaothuoth oniaoo nenoaiu. Nenoaia nicaeaao eioaa?aoeaiia
ninoiyiea iae?iia ca n/ao ouny/e ?aciiiiaeaeueiuo aeeyiee e aeaeaao aai
/oanoaeoaeueiui oi e iaeiei, oi e ae?oaei aoiaeai e ono?aiyao ecauoi/iua
noaiaie naiaiaeu.

I?eiyoea ?aoaiey “inaiaiaeaeaao” i?aaieci io /?acau/aeii aieueoiai
eiee/anoaa noaiaiae naiaiaeu e inoaaeyao eeoue iaeio, eioi?ay e
?aaeecoaony. I?aaieci oieueei oiaaea i?eiao ?aoaiea, eiaaea iae?iiu
“iiaeaiiyo” ae?oa e ae?oao naie noaiaie naiaiaeu, /oi e nicaeano eo
eioaa?aoeeth e aiciiaeiinoue niaeaniaaiiie ?aaiou. Yoa “iiaeaiiea”
noaiaiae naiaiaeu yeaiaioia eaaeeo a iniiaa anye?e eioaa?aoeee e aoaeao,
aa?iyoii, caieiaoue a iaoeo yenia?eiaioao oeaio?aeueiia ianoi.

3. O?iaie e yoaiu i?eiyoey ?aoaiey

I?eiyoea ?aoaiey yaeyaony oeaio?aeueiui i?ioeannii ia anao o?iaiyo
ia?a?aaioee eioi?iaoeee /aeiaaeii, a?oiiaie ethaeae, nenoaiaie
“/aeiaae—iaoeia”. Anoanoaaiii, /oi yoa neiaeiay eiiieaeniay i?iaeaia
aeeth/aao ?acee/iua aniaeou: oeceieiae/aneee, ineoieiae/aneee,
eeaa?iaoe/aneee e ae?oaea. Ineoieiae/aneea aniaeou i?iaeaiu naycaiu
aeaaiui ia?acii n aiaeecii ?iee e ianoa i?ioeannia i?eiyoey ?aoaiey a
nenoaia oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie niciaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. Iaeiie
ec nouanoaaiiuo iniaaiiinoae i?ioeannia i?eiyoey ?aoaiey yaeyaony oi,
/oi a yoie i?ioeaaeo?a iaeaieaa iieii ?aaeecothony eae io?aaeaoaeueiua,
oae e ?aaoeyoi?iua ooieoeee ineoeee.

Iiyoiio iaeiei ec ia?niaeoeaiuo iai?aaeaiee ineoieiae/aneiai
enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony eco/aiea yoeo i?ioeannia a nayce n o?aiy
iniiaiuie oi?iaie ineoe/aneiai io?aaeaiey e niioaaonoaaiii o?aiy
o?iaiyie ineoe/aneie ?aaoeyoeee aeayoaeueiinoe (naini?ii-ia?oeaioeaiua
i?ioeannu, i?aaenoaaeaiey, ?a/a-iunee-oaeueiua i?ioeannu).

Eae ioia/aao I. E. Aiioei, “iiiyoea “i?eiyoea ?aoaiey” iiyaeeinue a
i?ioeanna ?ac?aaioee ?acee/iuo aieueoeo e iaeuo nenoai, eiaaea noaei
aaaeiui ii?aaeaeeoue yoai, ia eioi?ii caeai/eaaaony oi?ie?iaaiea e
ia/eiaaony eniieiaiea Eaeiai-eeai aeoa, o. a. iiaeii neacaoue, /oi
nenoaia i?eiyea ?aoaiea”.

I?e yoii a i?ioeanna i?eiyoey ?aoaiey auaeaeythony aeaa iniiaiuo yoaia:
eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaioiaee ?aoaiey e nianoaaiii i?ioeaaeo?u i?eiyoey
?aoaiey.

Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua eeanneoeeaoeee neooaoeee i?eiyoey ?aoaiey.
Iineieueeo a naiii iauai aeaea i?eiyoea ?aoaiey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
oi?ie?iaaiea iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe aeaenoaee aeey aeinoeaeaiey
ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaee ia iniiaa i?aia?aciaaiey iaeioi?ie eioi?iaoeee ia
enoiaeiie neooaoeee, aieueoeinoai yoeo eeanneoeeaoeee iinayuaii: 1)
aeiaaeueiui oa?aeoa?enoeeai neooaoeee i?eiyoey ?aoaiey; 2)
oa?aeoa?enoeeai eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaioiaee ?aoaiey; 3) iniaaiiinoyi
aeaoa?ieiaoeee i?ioeaaeo?u i?eiyoey ?aoaiey noaaeeae “i?aae?aoaiey”.

E ia?aie a?oiia eeanneoeeaoeee iiaeii ioianoe, iai?eia?,
eeanneoeeaoeeth, ?anniao?eaathuoth aeaa oeia nenoai, i?eieiathueo
?aoaiea. Aeey ia?aiai oeia nouanoaoao aaeeiue ycue, ia eioi?ii iiaoo
auoue iienaiu caaea/e nenoaiu e niiniau eo ?aoaiey;

aeey aoi?iai oeia nenoai oaeiai ycuea ia nouanoaoao. Ia?aue oei nenoai
i?aaenoaaeai o?aiy eeannaie: a ia?auo aeaoo eeannao (A e A) caaeaia
/aoei noi?ioee?iaaiiay caaea/a (oeaeue), ii niinia aeaenoaey iiaeao
auoue eeai caaeai, eeai iao. O o?aoueaai eeanna nenoai (A) ionoonoaoao
/aoei noi?ioee?iaaiiay caaea/a (o. a. iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oaeie nenoaiu noaiiaeony oi?ie?iaaiea oeaeae
aeayoaeueiinoe).

E yoie aea a?oiia ioiineony eeanneoeeaoeey A. A. Ae?oaeeieia e Ae. N.
Eiioi?iaa, auaeaeeaoeo o?e oeia neooaoeee (nenoai) i?eiyoey ?aoaiey:
eioi?iaoeeiiiua, iia?aoeaiua, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?aoaiey aeieaeiu ioaaoeoue ia aii?in, /oi enoeiii, e
caeeth/athony a aeeaaiinoe?iaaiee neooaoeee (“?aniiciaaaiee neooaoeee”,
ii oa?ieiieiaee aaoi?ia).

Iia?aoeaiua ?aoaiey aeieaeiu ioaaoeoue ia aii?in, eae aeaenoaiaaoue, e
ninoiyo a au?aaioea niiniaa oi?aaeaiey.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiua ?aoaiey aeieaeiu ioaaoeoue ia aii?in, eaeie aeieaeia
auoue nenoaia, i?aaiecaoeey, e ninoiyo a ii?aaeaeaiee no?oeoo?u e
?ani?aaeaeaiee ooieoeee a i?aaeiieaaaaiie i?aaiecaoeee.

Eanaynue eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaioiaee ?aoaiey (aoi?ay a?oiia
eeanneoeeaoeee), O. Oiiaoaaneee auaeaeyao /aou?a oeia neooaoeee, a
eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii i?eiyoea ?aoaiey i aeaenoaee:

1. Neooaoeey auai?a (oaeoe/anee — yoi eeanne/aneay neooaoeey ?aaeoeee
auai?a): “…ai anao yoeo neooaoeeyo /aeiaae aeieaeai inouanoaeoue auai?
(naeaeoeeth) neaiaeia, eeanneoeoee?iaaoue eo ia oaeea, eioi?ua o?aaotho
?aaeoeee, e oaeea, eioi?ua aa ia o?aaotho”.

2. Neiaeiay neooaoeey. “Neiaeiuie neooaoeeyie iacuaathony oaeea
neooaoeee, a eioi?uo ?aai/ee aeieaeai iaeiia?aiaiii o/eouaaoue
naaaeaiey, iieo/aaiua aieaa /ai io iaeiiai enoi/ieea eioi?iaoeee, eeai
auiieiyoue aieaa /ai iaeii aeaenoaea”.

3. Neooaoeey i?aaeii/oaiey. “Eiaaea ?acee/iua aiciiaeiua ?aaeoeee eiatho
aeey /aeiaaea iaiaeeiaeiaia cia/aiea, eiaaea ii eaeie-eeai i?e/eia ii
auae?aao iaeii ec aeaoo…”.

4. Aa?iyoiinoiua neooaoeee. “Oaeiai ?iaea neooaoeee aicieeatho a oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea ?aaioiee auiieiyao ii?aaeaeaiiua iia?aoeee i?e
iaaeinoaoi/iii iauaia eiathuaeny a aai ?anii?yaeaiee eioi?iaoeee”.

Iao?oaeii aeaeaoue, /oi ana ia?a/eneaiiua neooaoeee yaeythony oaeoe/anee
neooaoeeyie auai?a.

Eiie iiaeoiae i?aaeeaaaao TH. Eicaeaoeeee. Ii auaeaeyao aeaa iniiaiuo
oeia neooaoeee i?eiyoey ?aoaiey.

1. Cae?uoua neooaoeee. A yoeo neooaoeeyo caaeaii “iiiaeanoai aeiioac i
ninoiyiee iauaeoa… e onoaiiaeaiea aeeaaiica ninoieo eeoue a
ii?aaeaeaiee eo aa?iyoiinoe e aa eciaiaiee iiae aeeyieai iinoaiaiii
iieo/aaiie eioi?iaoeee”, e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue a yoeo neooaoeeyo ninoieo
a oii, /oi “/aeiaae ia ciaao, eaeay aeiioaca ec ecaanoiiai iiiaeanoaa
aeiioac i ninoiyiee iauaeoa ieaaeaony enoeiiie”.

Aaoi? auaeaeyao a yoii aieueoii eeanna cae?uouo neooaoeee oceea e
oe?ieea. A ia?auo (i?inouo) eiaaony anaai 2—6 aeiioac i ninoiyiee
iauaeoa (e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oaeia aea eiee/anoai niioaaonoaothueo
aeaenoaee), ai aoi?uo oaeeo aeiioac ai?acaei aieueoa.

2. Ioe?uoua neooaoeee. Yoe neooaoeee oa?aeoa?ecothony, ii oa?ieiieiaee
aaoi?a, “oioaeueiie” iaii?aaeaeaiiinoueth: a ieo “iiiaeanoai aeaenoaee”,
“eeai iiiaeanoai aeiioac i ninoiyiee iauaeoa, eeai oeaiiinoue
?acoeueoaoia ia aeaiu yenieeoeeoii”. A nayce n yoei a i?ioeanna i?eiyoey
?aoaiey /aeiaae aeieaeai “naiinoiyoaeueii noi?ioee?iaaoue iiiaeanoai
aeiioac ii iiaiaeo iaecaanoiiai ninoiyiey iauaeoa”.

E o?aoueae a?oiia eeanneoeeaoeee iiaeii ioianoe iaiauaiioth iiaeaeue
aeayoaeueiinoe iia?aoi?a, i?aaeeiaeaiioth A. I. Cei/aiei e I. E.
Iaecaeue. Niaeanii yoie iiaeaee, oa?aeoa? eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaioiaee
?aoaiey (eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iienea) aeaoa?ieie?oao ?acee/iua oeiu i?eiyoey
?aoaiey.

I?iaeaia eiae/aneie oi?iu aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiinoe i?ioeaaeo?u i?eiyoey
?aoaiey enoiaeiie neooaoeeae ?anniio?aia a ?aaioa E. Oiaaey. Aaoi?
?ac?aaioae oeaeo eiae/aneie neiaeiinoe i?ioeanna i?eiyoey ?aoaiey
(aeaaeoeoeaiua, aaaeoeoeaiua, eiaeoeoeaiua ?aoaiey, ?aoaiey, naycaiiua n
i?aaeaeaeaieai) e i?ieeethno?e?iaae aa i?eia?aie aaoiiaoia
niioaaonoaothuae eiae/aneie no?oeoo?u.

Eeanneoeeaoeey A. A. Ae?oaeeieia e Ae. A. Eiioi?iaa iicaieyao ioianoe
i?eiyoea ?aoaiey ia ia?oeaioeaii-iiiciaaaoaeueiii o?iaia (caaea/e
aini?eyoey e iiiciaiey) e eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?aoaieyi, a au?aaioeo niiniaa
aeaenoaey i?e ?aoaiee iia?aoeaiuo caaea/ — e iia?aoeaiui ?aoaieyi.

A iauai aeaea yoaiu eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaioiaee ?aoaiey e i?ioeaaeo?u
i?eiyoey ?aoaiey iiaoo auoue iienaiu neaaeothuei ia?acii.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay iiaeaioiaea i?eiyoey ?aoaiey naiaeeony e i?ioeaaeo?ai,
iauaaeeiyaiui a aeaa a?oiiu: a) iienea, auaeaeaiey, eeanneoeeaoeee e
iaiauaiey eioi?iaoeee i i?iaeaiiie neooaoeee;

a) iino?iaiey “oaeoueo” ia?acia eee iia?aoeeiiaeueiuo eiioeaiooaeueiuo
iiaeaeae. I?ioeaaeo?a i?eiyoey ?aoaiey iiaeao auoue iienaia neaaeothueie
iia?aoeeyie: a) i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia auaeaeaeaiea nenoaiu “yoaeiiiuo
aeiioac”; a) niiinoaaeaiea oaeoueo ia?acia (eiioeaiooaeueiuo iiaeaeae) n
?yaeii yoaeiiia e ioeaiea iaeeiaeiainoe (noiaenoaa) iaaeaeo ieie; a)
ei??aeoeey ia?acia (iiaeaeae), “niia?aciaaiea” aeiioac n aeinoeaioouie
?acoeueoaoaie;

a) auai? yoaeiiiie aeiioacu (eee iino?iaiea aa) eee ?ac?aaioea i?eioeeia
e i?ia?aiiu aeaenoaee.

I?ioeann ?aoaiey ia?oeaioeaii-iiiciaaaoaeueiie caaea/e, iniaaiii yoai
eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaioiaee ?aoaiey, oanii naycai n iieneiauie
iia?aoeeyie — n iieneii noeioeia, i?eciaeia iiiciaaaaiuo e
aeaeiaee?oaiuo iauaeoia, caaa?oathueiny oi?ie?iaaieai ia?aca iauaeoa.

Oaeei ia?acii, nouanoaaiiie ineoieiae/aneie oa?aeoa?enoeeie noaiiaeaiey
ia?oeaioeaiiai ia?aca e iieneiauo iia?aoeee, aai iaania/eaathueo,
yaeyaony eioaineaiay aiaeeoeei-neioaoe-/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue n
au/eaiaieai ia ?aciuo oacao i?ioeanna ?acee/iuo i?eciaeia iauaeoa.

Aiaeiae/iua aeaiiua auee iieo/aiu iaeiei ec aaoi?ia i?e enneaaeiaaiee
aini?eyoey e iiiciaiey neiaeiuo iauaeoia (caooi-eaiiuo ecia?aaeaiee).
Auiieiaiiua yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey ii aini?eyoeth caooieaiiuo
ecia?aaeaiee iicaieeee auaeaeiooue aeiioaco i “neiaeiinooiai/aoie”
i?e?iaea ?aoaiey ia?oeaioeaii-iiiciaaaoaeueiie caaea/e a yoeo oneiaeyo.
A niioaaonoaee n yoie aeiioacie i?ioeann ?aoaiey iiaeiaiie caaea/e
aeeth/aao:

a) “iineieiue” aiaeec, naiaai ?iaea i?aia?e?iaaiea no?oeoo?u
ecia?aaeaiee io neiaa n e?oiii?acia?iuie yeaiaioaie e neiyi n
iaeei?acia?iuie yeaiaioaie;

a) nooiai/aoi-yoaiioth ia?aaioeo eioi?iaoeee a i?aaeaeao neiy i
ooieoeeiie?iaaieai aiaeeoeei-neioaoe/aneeo i?ioeaaeo? a ianeieueei
oaeoia, oeeeee/ii;

a) oi?ie?iaaiea “ia auoiaea” neiaa i?iiaaeooi/iuo ia?acia n
iineaaeothuae eo eioaa?aoeeae a eoiaiaue;

a) niioianaiea yoeo ia?acia n yoaeiiaie ?acee/iiai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
niaea?aeaiey e ii?aaeaeaiea yoaeiia, eciii?oiiai oaeouaio ia?acoeo.

4. Ineoieiae/aneee iaoaieci i?eiyoey ?aoaiey

Yoaiu ?acaeoey yaeaiey o?ainoi?ie?othony a no?oeoo?iua o?iaie aai
i?aaiecaoeee e aunooiatho caoai eae ooieoeeiiaeueiua nooiaie
aeaeueiaeoeo oai?/aneeo acaeiiaeaenoaee.

Yoi — anaiauee i?eioeei ?acaeoey. ?anniio?ei aai i?eiaieoaeueii e
ineoieiae/aneie i?iaeaia i?eiyoey ?aoaiey, iie?aynue ia aeaiiua
ineoieiae/aneeo yenia?eiaioia.

I?aaeaea anaai ia?aoeiny e yoaiai ?acaeoey ineoieiae/aneiai iaania/aiey
i?eiyoey ?aoaiey.

A ?acoeueoaoa yenia?eiaioaeueiiai eco/aiey oinoaaiiiai ?acaeoey ?aaaiea
auei auaeaeaii iyoue aeinoaoi/ii ioee/athueony ae?oa io ae?oaa yoaiia.

Ia?aue ec ieo oa?aeoa?ecoaony ianiiniaiinoueth aeaenoaiaaoue “a oia” (ai
aioo?aiiai ieaia). Aeaoe, iaoiaeyueany ia yoii yoaia, niiniaiu ?aoaoue
caaea/e eeoue ai aiaoiai ieaia, iaieioee?oy iaiin?aaenoaaiii aauaie.
Aeoeaiinoue ?aaaiea iiaoaeaeaaony oieueei i?aeoe/aneeie iio?aaiinoyie
(aeey naiiai ?aaaiea — “i?ai?aeoe-/aneeie”). Niiniau aeaenoaee ia
iniciathony. I?ioeannu e i?iaeoeou aeaenoaee neeou (ia ?an/eaiaiu aeey
naiiai ?aaaiea). Oeaee oi?ie?othony e aeinoeaathony iiae
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui eiio?ieai aauae. A iniiaa ?aaoeyoeee aeaenoaee eaaeeo
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aini?eyoea neooaoeee. Yiioeee — aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi
aunooiaao caeanue a ?iee ia?aoiie nayce.

Ia aoi?ii yoaia caaea/e oaeaea ?aoathony eeoue ai aiaoiai ieaia, iooai
iaieioee?iaaiey aauaie. Iaeiaei aeaoe oaea niiniaiu aini?iecaiaeeoue
neiaeeaoeany ai aiaoiai ieaia aeaenoaey ii neiaaniiio oeacaieth
ac?ineiai, o. a. naycuaaoue neiaanioth iiaeaeue neooaoeee n aa
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui aini?eyoeai. Aa?ii, neiai aunooiaao caeanue eeoue eae
iau/iue “neaiae neaiaea”: iii n?aaaouaaao, eiaaea o ?aaaiea oaea eiaaony
niioaaonoaothuay i?ia?aiia, iiaeaioiaeaiiay yi aiaoiai ieaia. Aeaoe ia
yoii yoaia niiniaiu aini?iecaiaeeoue ai aioo?aiiai ieaia i?iaeoeou
nianoaaiiuo aeaenoaee, au?aaeaoue eo neiaanii, a neaaeiaaoaeueii,
iniciaaaoue eo. Iaeiaei iiiuoee aeaenoaiaaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii “a oia”
i?eaiaeyo e “ooa?a caaea/e”, e ?aniaaeo aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaieioee?iaaiea
aauaie i?ienoiaeeo aac aeinoaoi/ii iniuneaiiiai ieaia, caiunea.
Niioianaiea /anoiie e iauae oeaeae iaaeinoeaeeii: ?aoaiea /anoiie
caaea/e i?aa?auaaony a naiioeaeue, iauay caaea/a ?anoai?yaony,
auoaeeeaaaony. Aeaenoaey eiio?iee?othony i?aeiouanoaaiii aauaie. Ioeaiea
yiioeeiiaeueia, oioy aiaoiea ?a/aaua oeacaiey oaea ia/eiatho aeeyoue e
ia auai? oeaee, e ia eiio?ieue aeaenoaey, e ia aai ?aaoeyoeeth, e
ioeaieo.

Ia o?aoueai yoaia caaea/e iiaoo auoue ?aoaiu iaieioeyoeeae
i?aaenoaaeaieyie aauae. I?ienoiaeeo ?an/eaiaiea i?iaeoeoa e i?ioeanna
aeaenoaey — niiniau aeaenoaee (i?ioeannu) ane?uaathony, noaiiayony
aeinooiiuie “i?a/aaeaieth”, iniciaieth. Iie ninoaaeytho iniiao
oi?ie?othueony iia?aoeee. Neiai i?eia?aoaao ea/anoaaiii eioth ooieoeeth.
Iii noaiiaeony ia i?inoi neaiaeii neaiaea, a ciaeiaui neaiaeii, eioi?ue
ia oieueei aeoeaece?oao aioiaoth eiiaiaeo, ii iiaeao ianoe a naaa
ca?iaeuo nianoaaiiie eiiaiaeu — ca?iaeuo i?ia?aiiu aeaenoaee. I?aaeaea
i?ia?aiia aeaenoaee, niioaaonoaothuay ?a/aaiio neaiaeo, auea ne?uoa
aioo?e. Oaia?ue iaia/aaony aiciiaeiinoue aa auianaiey ai aia. Aei yoiai
aeaoe ia eiaee niiniaiinoe e iino?iaieth naiieiiaiaeu. Ia aeaiiii yoaia
oaeay niiniaiinoue ia/eiaao neeaaeuaaoueny. Iaeiaei aa ?aaeecaoeey aua
neeueii cao?oaeiaia ioiineoaeueiui ianiaa?oainoaii oaia?ue oaea
i?aaiecaoeee aiaoiaai ieaia aeaenoaee: aeaoe cao?oaeiythony a iiieiaiee
oneiaee caaea/e — o ieo iao aeinoaoi/iuo aeaiiuo aeey “n/eouaaiey”
cia/aiee ciaeiauo neaiaeia a ia?aciaaieyo aiaoiaai ieaia; iie /anoi
oa?ytho caaea/o: “n/eouaaiea” ieacuaaaony aanueia neiaeiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth. Aianoa n oai nouanoaaiii ?anoe?yaony noa?a
noeioeyoeee — iiyaeythony nianoaaiii iiciaaaoaeueiua iio?aaiinoe e
oeaeaiieaaaiey, oioy ooieoeeth eiio?iey aeaenoaee ana aua auiieiytho
i?aeiouanoaaiii aaue, a a naiinoiyoaeueiie ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia
aeaenoaee aeiieie?otho yiioeee.

Ia /aoaa?oii yoaia caaea/e ?aoathony oaeaea iaieioee?iaaieai
i?aaenoaaeaieyie i?aaeiaoia, ii caoai, i?e iiaoi?iii ia?auaiee e
caaea/a, iaeaeaiiue iooue oaea iiaeao ninoaaeoue iniiao ieaia iiaoi?iuo
aeaenoaee, eaaeaeia ec eioi?uo oaia?ue no?iai niioiineony n o?aaiaaieyie
caaea/e. Yoi iaania/eaaaony ia?aaiaeii ?yaea ia?aciaaiee aioo?aiiaai
ieaia ai aiaoiee ieai, /oi aeaao ecaanoioth naiaiaeo, iaia/athuoth
io/aoeeai au?aaeaiioth niiniaiinoue e naiieiiaiaea. Oi?ie?othony
eioaeeaeooaeueiua iia?aoeee, eioi?uie inouanoaeythony naiieiiaiaeu. Oiae
iia?e?iaaiey iiaeaa?aaaony ioeaiea, iie?athuaeny ia eiae/aneea i?aaeea.
?ieue yiioeeiiaeueiie ioeaiee oai naiui ia?aie/eaaaony.

Ia iyoii yoaia iaiaoeaoeany oaiaeaioeee aeinoeaatho iieiiai ?acaeoey.
Niiniaiinoue e naiieiiaiaea noi?ie?iaaia. Aeaenoaey nenoaiaoe/iu,
iino?iaiu ii caiuneo, no?iai niioianaiu n caaea/ae. Anee ?aoathuee
noaeeeaaaony n caaea/ae, aeey ?aoaiey eioi?ie o iaai eiaaony aioiaay
eiae/aneay i?ia?aiia, eiio?ieue ca oiaeii aa ?aoaiey e ioeaiea
ieacuaathony anaoeaei eiae/aneeie.

Oaeiau iniiaiua yoaiu ?acaeoey aioo?aiiaai ieaia aeaenoaee. Aeaeueiaeoaa
niaa?oainoaiaaiea yoiai ieaia ii?aaeaeyaony caeiiiia?iinoyie aai nayce n
aiaoiei ieaiii: ooieoeeiie?oy, aioo?aiiee ieai ia?ano?aeaaao e aiaoiee.
Ia?aciaaiey aioo?aiiaai ieaia eae au nioneathony ia o?iaaiue aiaoiaai,
nicaeaaay oai naiui aieaa iaoe?iua aiciiaeiinoe aeey niaianoiiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. Yoi inouanoaeyaony a oiaea oe?ieiai iaeaaeaiey
eoeueoo?ie, ia?aueaaiey niaoeeaeueiuo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ciaiee e o. i.

Ianiio?y ia ioia/aiiua i?aia?aciaaiey, a ?acaeoii eioaeeaeoa yoaiu aai
?acaeoey nio?aiytho naie io/aoeeaua neaaeu: iie ieacuaathony
no?oeoo?iuie o?iaiyie aai i?aaiecaoeee. Yoi y?ei iaia?oaeeaaaony a
?aoaiee oai?/aneeo caaea/.

I?e iaoai?/aneie caaea/a ?acaeoue eioaeeaeo ?aaeecoao aioiaua eiae/aneea
i?ia?aiiu. Iaeiaei i?e oai?/aneie caaea/a ea?oeia iaiyaony. I?iaae
eca?aiiie i?ia?aiiu ioa?anuaaao i?aaiecaoeeth aeayoaeueiinoe ?aoathuaai
ia ieaeiea no?oeoo?iua o?iaie eioaeeaeoa. Ii iiaoi?yao niaio oeiia
iiaaaeaiee, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey eaaeaeiai ec yoaiia ?acaeoey. *aeiaae eae
au ea?aaeaaony ii eanoieoea no?oeoo?iuo o?iaiae eioaeeaeoa. A eanoieoea
yoa iino?iaia ec o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo yoaiia ?acaeoey. No?oeoo?iua o?iaie
i?aaiecaoeee eioaeeaeoa aunooiatho oaia?ue eae ooieoeeiiaeueiua nooiaie
?aoaiey oai?/aneie caaea/e.

Ia?iiiia eiee/anoai oaeoia, iaeiieaiiia ineoieiaeae oai?/anoaa,
iieiinoueth iiaeoaa?aeaeaao auneacaiiia iieiaeaiea. Yoi aeaao i?aai
?anniao?eaaoue iienaiioth caeanue i?aaiecaoeeth eioaeeaeoa /aeiaaea eae
au?aaeaiiue a iaeaieaa iauai aeaea ineoieiae/aneee iaoaieci i?eiyoey
?aoaiey /aeiaaeii.

Neacaiiia auoa aeaao i?aai ecia?aceoue oeaio?aeueiia caaii
ineoieiae/aneiai iaoaiecia i?eiyoey ?aoaiey a aeaea aeaoo i?iieeathueo
iaeia a ae?oaoth noa?. Aiaoiea a?aie yoeo noa? i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
aano?aeoiua i?aaeaeu (aneiioiou) aeeneo?neaiiai iuoeaiey. Nieco oaeei
i?aaeaeii ieacuaaaony eiooeoeaiia iuoeaiea. Ca iei i?inoe?aaony noa?a
no?iai eiooeoeaiiai iuoeaiey — iuoeaiey aeeaioiuo. Naa?oo — eiae/aneia.
Ca yoei i?aaeaeii i?inoe?aaony noa?a no?iai eiae/aneiai iuoeaiey —
iuoeaiey nia?aiaiiuo au/eneeoaeueiuo iaoei.

Iao?oaeii iiaeiaoeoue, /oi iauaeou eiooeoeaiiai iuoeaiey i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie aaue-i?eaeiaeu. I?aaaea, yoi oieueei a i?aaeaeueiii neo/aa. Aiiaua
aiai?y, oaeeie iauaeoaie iiaoo auoue e ecia?aceoaeueiua iiaeaee
i?eaeiaeia. Iaeiaei e caeanue aeaiiua iiaeaee aunooiatho ia a
niaoeeoe/aneie aeey ieo ooieoeee, ia eae nianoaaiii iiaeaee, ii a
ooieoeee i?eaeiaeia — eae aaue. (Aaaeue iiaeii ana-oaee ia?aianoe iaeei
ec /eaiia o?aaiaiey ii ae?oaoth noi?iio ciaea ?aaainoaa aii?aee caeiiai
iaoaiaoeee!) Iauaeou eiae/aneiai iuoeaiey — iiaeaee a nianoaaiiii niunea
neiaa — ciaeiaua, neiaiee/aneea.

*oi iiaeii neacaoue i i?ioeannao eiooeoeaiiai e eiae/aneiai iuoeaiey?
I?ioeann eiooeoeaiiai iuoeaiey iainiciaaaai. Ii neeo n i?iaeoeoii.
Niiniau eiooeoeaiuo aeaenoaee ia o?iaia eiooeoeee ia auyaeythony.
I?ioeann eiae/aneiai iuoeaiey, iai?eia? aeaaeoeoeaiia oiicaeeth/aiea,
iniciai, ?an/eaiai n i?iaeoeoii — niiniau aeaenoaee auyaeaiu e
i?aa?auaiu a iia?aoeee.

A /ai naiaia?acea i?iaeoeoia aeaenoaee a ioia/aoiuo i?aaeaeao?

I?iaeoeou eiooeoeaiuo aeaenoaee ia iiethna iauaeoa, o. a. iauaeoeaii
au?aaeaiiua, ii?aaeia/aiiua, ia iiaoo i?ioeai?a/eoue iauaeoeaiie eiaeea
aauae: iie iaiin?aaenoaaiii eiio?iee?othony aauaie. Iai?eia?, ia?aiiny
nooe a iau/iuo oneiaeyo, neaaeai, ia a oneiaeyo i?aauaaiey a einiina, iu
ia iiaeai inoaaeoue aai aenyuei a aicaeooa, /oi eaaei inouanoaeii, anee
iu noaiai au/a?/eaaoue o?aaeoi?eth aai ia?aiauaiey ia aoiaaa, o. a.
aoaeai iaieioee?iaaoue nooeii a iiaeaeueiii ieaia. Nooe-i?eaeiae
iaiaaeeaiii “iii?aaeo” iaoa aeaenoaea, anee iu acaeoiaai iionoeoue aai a
aicaeooa.

Iaeiaei ioeaiea i?iaeoeoa eiooeoeaiuo aeaenoaee noauaeoeaia. Iia
ii?aaeaeyaony aai ioiioaieai e iio?aaiinoe, onoaiiaea, iioeao e
inouanoaeyaony yiioeeiiaeueii. Ionthaea aicieeaao aiciiaeiinoue
?anoiaeaeaiey iauaeoeaiie e noauaeoeaiie oeae ioeaiie. Iai?eia?,
iauaeoeaii oeaiiia i?aia?aciaaiea iiaeao ia niioaaonoaiaaoue onoaiiaea,
iio?aaiinoe, iiaeao auoue ia ioaeiui. Oiaaea iii aoaeao ioa?ioaii, e
caaea/a inoaiaony ia?aoaiiie.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiay ioeaiea i?iaeoeoa eiae/aneiai iuoeaiey iauaeoeaia. Yoi
neaaeoao oaea ec oiai, /oi iia inouanoaeyaony nenoaiie enoi?e/anee
au?aaioaiiuo iauanoaii eiae/aneeo i?aaee: /oi eiae/anee i?aaeeueii, oi
oeaiii. Yiioeeiiaeueiay ioeaiea caeanue ii/oe ionoonoaoao, oae eae ianoi
iio?aaiinoe, onoaiiaee caieiaao aa ciaeiaay iiaeaeue — neiaiee/aneay
oeaeue. (Ioiaoei, /oi oeaeue eiaao ciaeiaoth i?e?iaeo, eiia/ii, eeoue a
i?aaeaea. Iiieii i?aaeaeueiuo neo/aaa iia iiaeao au?aaeaoueny e
i?aaenoaaeaieai.) Eiia/ii, eiae/aneay ioeaiea iauaeoeaia eeoue
ioiineoaeueii /aeiaaea, ?aoathuaai caaea/o: yoa ioeaiea — ia neaaenoaea
aai i?iecaiea, iia iie?aaony ia caeiiu, “ooaa?aeaeaiiua /aeiaa/anoaii”.
Aianoa n oai “ooaa?aeaeaiioth /aeiaa/anoaii” eiaeeo iu iacuaaai
noauaeoeaiie aeeaeaeoeeie a ioee/ea io aeeaeaeoeee iauaeoeaiie,
aeeaeaeoeee i?e?iaeu.

Ciay, /oi iaoa noauaeoeaiay eiaeea anaaaea ia?aie/aiia, iao?oaeii
caiaoeoue, /oi ionoonoaea iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai eiio?iey ni noi?iiu
aauae-i?eaeiaeia nicaeaao ia eiae/aneii i?aaeaea aiciiaeiinoue ia?ooaiey
caeiiia iauaeoeaiie eiaeee.

Aeeneo?neaiia iuoeaiea anoue aaeeinoai eiooeoeaiiai e eiae/aneiai.
I?aaiecaoeey yoiai aaeeinoaa aeeth/aao a naay ea?a?oeth ieaaii
ia?aoiaeyueo iaeei a ae?oaie no?oeoo?iuo o?iaiae, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie
o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiua yoaiu iienaiiiai iaie ?acaeoey. Aeaiiua no?oeoo?iua
o?iaie e i?aa?auathony a neooaoeeyo oai?/aneeo caaea/ a ooieoeeiiaeueiua
nooiaie ?aoaiey.

Ia?aue o?iaaiue iaeaieaa eiooeoeaai. Ia eeiee, neiaieece?othuae aeaiiue
o?iaaiue, eaaeeo iniiaaiea o?aoaieueieea, ecia?aaeathuaai iauaeoeaiue
eiio?ieue e noauaeoeaioth ioeaieo. Aa?oeia yoiai o?aoaieueieea oie?aaony
a eeieth, neiaieece?othuoth iyoue o?iaaiue. ?ieue iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai
iauaeoeaiiai eiio?iey e noauaeoeaiie ioeaiee caoooaao ii ia?a iiaeuaia
ii no?oeoo?iui o?iaiyi i?aaiecaoeee aeeneo?neaiiai iuoeaiey.

Iyoue o?iaaiue iaeaieaa eiae/ai. E eeiee, neiaieece?othuae aeaiiue
o?iaaiue, i?eiueaao iniiaaiea o?aoaieueieea, ecia?aaeathuaai
noauaeoeaiue eiio?ieue e iauaeoeaioth ioeaieo. Aa?oeia yoiai
o?aoaieueieea oie?aaony a eeieth ia?aiai yoaia. ?ieue noauaeoeaiiai
eiio?iey e iauaeoeaiie ioeaiee aaniao ii ia?a nieaeaiey ii no?oeoo?iui
o?iaiyi i?aaiecaoeee aeeneo?neaiiai iuoeaiey.

A neo/ayo, eiaaea aeey ?aoaiey caaea/e a iiuoa /aeiaaea eiathony aioiaua
eiae/aneea i?ia?aiiu, ?aoaiea eo i?ioaeaao ia iyoii o?iaia e ia
nii?iaiaeaeaaony naeaeaaie a yiioeeiiaeueiuo iieacaoaeyo. Yoi
yenia?eiaioaeueii aeieacaii, iai?eia?, aeey auiieiaiey aeinoaoi/ii
neiaeiuo, iaciaeiiuo eniuooaiiio n/aoiuo iia?aoeee. Aiaeiae/iia
iaaethaeaaony e ia ia/aeueiuo noaaeeyo ?aoaiey oai?/aneeo caaea/, eiaaea
/aeiaae i?eeaaaao e iei aioiaua eiae/aneea i?ia?aiiu, nicaeaaay oai
naiui enoiaeiue iaaa?iue caiunae. Iaaaeaeaaoiinoue oaeeo i?ia?aii
(noauaeoeaiay eiaeea ia iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony i?aeoeeie) i?aa?auaao caaea/o
a oai?/aneoth. ?aoaiea aa oaia?ue aiciiaeii eeoue n iiiiuueth eiooeoeee.
Yoi i/aaeaeii: iu en/a?iaee ana naie ciaiey, ii ana aea caaea/a ia
?aoaia, iiaeneacaoue aa ?aoaiea iai iiaoo oieueei naie aaue.
I?aaiecaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea niauaaony ia ieaeiea no?oeoo?iua
o?iaie (e yoi i/aaeaeii: iii?iaoeoa, iai?eia?, iuneaiii ?aoeoue
aeinoaoi/ii neiaeioth i?iaiei/ioth aieiaieiieo). Caeanue i/aiue aaaeii,
eaeay i?e yoii niauaiee aicieeaao onoaiiaea — ioaa/athuay iauaeoeaiie
oeaea oeaiiinoae eee iao. A oiaea aeayoaeueiinoe, iai?aaeyaiie aia/aea
enoiaeiui eiae/aneei caiuneii, oi?ie?oaony eiooeoeaiay iiaeaeue
neooaoeee, i?eaiaeyuay a oaea/iuo neo/ayo e eiooeoeaiiio ?aoaieth.

“Oaea/iua neo/ae” iiae?iaii enneaaeiaaiu iaie e iienaiu a eieaa
“Ineoieiaey oai?/aneiai iuoeaiey” e ae?. ?aoathuay ?ieue a yoeo neo/ayo
i?eiaaeeaaeeo iiai/iui i?iaeoeoai aeaenoaey, o. a. oai yeaiaioai
?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaey, eioi?ua ia ioaa/atho oeaee, a iaaycuaathony
naieie i?aaeiaoaie, a i?aia?aciaaieyo eioi?uo iu euai inouanoaeaiea
naiae oeaee. I?ioeann eiooeoeaiiai iienea ia iniciaaony. Iniciathony
eeoue aai i?iaeoeou, oaeiaeaoai?ythuea eiathuaeny o ian iio?aaiinoe.
Iiyoiio eiooeoeaiia ?aoaiea e aunooiaao eae iaiaeeaeaiiia, eae oi, /oi
iacuaaee “ica?aieai”, “einaeoii” e o. i.

Eiooeoeaiia ?aoaiea anaaaea i?aaeoanoaoao eiae/aneiio. Yoio oaiiiai
aeaaii ecaanoai ineoieiaee oai?/anoaa, oioy e inoaaaeny aei neo ii?
iaiiiyoiui. Iai ii oaia?ue ynai: eia/a e ia iiaeao auoue, oae eae
eiae/aneia ?aoaiea aicieeaao eeoue ia aaca eiooeoeaiiai, eiaaea caaea/a
oaeoe/anee oaea ?aoaia. Eiae/aneia ?aoaiea iiaoaeaeaaony iio?aaiinoueth
ia?aaeaoue eiooeoeaii iaeaeaiiia ae?oaiio /aeiaaeo, iainiiaaoue,
aeieacaoue, eniieueciaaoue aeey ?aoaiey aieaa neiaeiie iaeiioeiiie
caaea/e e o. i. Caeanue-oi e aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue au?aceoue ?aoaiea
a ycuea, “i?a/aaeoue” aai, a eiiaaea oi?iaeeciaaoue, eia/a aiai?y,
ioi?ieoue eiae/anee.

?acaa?iai oa?aeoa?enoeeo yoiai iaoaiecia aua ?ac a ianeieueei eiii
?aeo?na. Ia?aoeiny nia/aea e o?aaeeoeeiiiie ineoieiaee oai?/aneiai
iuoeaiey. Caeanue aaaeouaa ianoi i?eiaaeeaaeeo i?iaeaia “yoaiia
oai?/aneiai i?ioeanna” — no?aieaieth auyaeoue iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
oceiauo iiiaioia yoiai i?ioeanna e oaeaeaoue a iae aai iaoaieci. A aieaa
?aiiai ia?eiaea oaeia auyaeaiea iie?aeinue ia ?acee/ey /oanoaaiiuo
iooaieia, nii?iaiaeaeathueo oai?/aneee i?ioeann, iniaia aieiaiea
oaeaeyeinue aanniciaoaeueiie ?aaioa. Iaeiaei iaoaieci aanniciaoaeueiie
?aaiou iau/ii ioiineeny caeanue e “ie?iaui caaaaeeai”.

Aieaa iicaeiee oei noai neiaeeeny a eoiaa ioeaca ia oieueei io iieneia
iaoaiecia aanniciaoaeueiie ?aaiou, ii e io i?eciaiey aa eae oaeoa. Noaiu
noaee “aieaa no?iaeie”, “aieaa iauaeoeaiuie” e i?eia?aee, i?eia?ii,
oaeie aeae:

1. Iniciaiea i?iaeaiu: a) aicieeiiaaiea i?iaeaiu, a) iiieiaiea iaee/iuo
oaeoia, a) iinoaiiaea aii?ina;

2. ?ac?aoaiea i?iaeaiu: a) au?aaioea aeiioacu, a) ?acaeoea ?aoaiey, a)
ane?uoea i?eioeeia, a) au?aaioea noaeaeaiey, oeene?othuaai ?aoaiea;

3. I?iaa?ea ?aoaiey.

Aeaiiay oeaea, aeaenoaeoaeueii, iiaeao oniaoii i?eiaiyoueny aeey
iienaiey oiaea ?aoaiey neiaeiie iiciaaaoaeueiie caaea/e. Ii aeaei a oii,
/oi ineoieiae/aneee aeo iuoeaiey ia niaiaaeaao n ?aoaieai oaeie caaea/e.

Nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iue iiaeoiae iaia?oaeeaaao, /oi ia oieueei
iauanoaaiiia, ii aeaaea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia iiciaiea iaeuecy iauynieoue,
iie?aynue eeoue ia ineoieiae/aneea caeiiiia?iinoe,— iiciaiea iaeuecy
ineoieiaece?iaaoue, naiaeeoue e ineoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iiciaaaoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea — yoi eiie?aoiay aeayoaeue”
iinoue. Ineoieiaey eae aano?aeoiay iaoea eco/aao eeoue iaeei ec
no?oeoo?iuo o?iaiae aa i?aaiecaoeee. Iiyoiio, anee iu inoaaei ca
iiiyoeai “iuoeaiea” ineoieiae/aneee niune, aai iaeuecy aoaeao
ioiaeaeanoaeyoue n iiiyoeai “iiciaiea”, oae eae “iuoeaiea” aoaeao a
oaeii neo/aa ioia?aaeaoue eeoue iaeei ec no?oeoo?iuo o?iaiae
i?aaiecaoeee iiciaiey, aai ineoieiae/aneee iaoaieci.

Iiciaiea, iiaoi?yth, iaeei ec eiie?aoiuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe. Iii
ii?iaeaeaaony ii?aaeaeaiiie iio?aaiinoueth — iiciaaaoaeueiie,—
iio?aaiinoueth a iieo/aiee iiauo ciaiee. Iuoeaiea aea ia i?eaycaii
aeanoei e eaeiio-eeai iaeiiio aeaeo eiie?aoiie iio?aaiinoe. Iii
aeeth/aaony a aeayoaeueiinoe naiuo ?aciuo aeaeia e naycuaaaony n
?acee/iuie aeaeaie iio?aaiinoae. Iauay iniaaiiinoue oaeeo eiie?aoiuo
aeayoaeueiinoae ninoieo a oii, /oi ana iie iai?aaeaiu ia oai?/aneia
i?aia?aciaaiea oie eee eiie neooaoeee.

?anniio?aiiua iaie o?aaeeoeeiiiua “yoaiu oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe”
anoue yoaiu oiaea iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. ?acoeueoao eaaeaeiai
ec yoaiia niaoeeoe/ai eeoue naiae eiae/aneie oa?aeoa?enoeeie eee ianoii
a oiaea eiie?aoiie iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, o. a. oai, /oi aua ia
?ane?uaaao ineoieiae/aneie niaoeeoeee ?aoaiey oai?/aneie caaea/e. Yoaiu
iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia niaiaaeatho n yoaiaie oai?/aneiai
iuoeaiey. Niaea?aeaiea eaaeaeiai ec yoaiia iiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe iiaeao i?aaenoaaeyoue iniaoth caaea/o oai?/aneiai
iuoeaiey.

A niaoaiee iiiyoee “iiciaiea” e “iuoeaiea” caeeth/aii iniiaiia
caaeoaeaeaiea anao eeaa?iaoe/aneeo “oai?ee oai?/anoaa”, iai?aaiia?iia
?anoe?aiea eaeae “iaoeiiiai eioaeeaeoa”: aiaeec iieacuaaao, /oi
eeaa?iaoe/aneea iiaeaee ioia?aaeatho eeoue eiae/aneee no?oeoo?iue
o?iaaiue iiciaiey e nianai ia cao?aaeaatho ineoieiae/aneeo iaoaieciia
oai?/aneiai aeoa.

Ia neaaeoao oiaeyoue ianiiiaiiua caneoae, i?aeoe/aneoth e oai?aoe/aneoth
cia/eiinoue eiae/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Ii iaaei i?eciaoue, /oi yoi iiaeaee?iaaiea iaoiaeeony ca i?aaeaeaie
ineoieiae/aneiai aniaeoa i?eiyoey ?aoaiey e ia ane?uaaao aai iniiaiuo
ia?acothueo. Aeey eco/aiey yoiai iaoaiecia iaiaoiaeeiu eiua —
ineoieiae/aneea — iiaeaee i?eiyoey ?aoaiey. Iie ea/anoaaiii ioee/athony
io eiae/aneeo e eo enneaaeiaaiea ane?uaaao ea/anoaaiii eiua
caeiiiia?iinoe.

A iniiao iino?iaiey oaeeo iiaeaeae iaie aue iieiaeai yenia?eiaioaeueii
onoaiiaeaiiue e eco/aiiue oaeo iaiaeii?iaeiinoe ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaey
/aeiaaea, iaee/ey a yoii ?acoeueoaoa i?yiiai (iniciaaaaiiai) e iiai/iiai
(iainiciaaaaiiai) i?iaeoeoia. Yoa iaiaeii?iaeiinoue — i?yiia neaaenoaea
iaiaeii?iaeiinoe no?oeoo?iie i?aaiecaoeee ineoe/aneiai, aai ?an/eaiaiey
ia iaaeno?ia/iue e aacaeueiue o?iaie.

Neaaeai ianeieueei neia i i?yiii e iiai/iii i?iaeoeoao. I?yiie i?iaeoeo
aeaenoaey oi?ie?oaony ia iniiaa aunoaai o?iaiy, oa?aeoa?ecoaiiai
iniciaiiinoueth. Ii ioaa/aao niciaoaeueii iinoaaeaiiie oeaee e iiaeao
auoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii eniieueciaai a niciaoaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee
iineaaeothueo aeaenoaee (iniciaaaaiue iiuo).

Iiai/iue i?iaeoeo oi?ie?oaony ia iecoai o?iaia, i?e/ai e iaio ioiinyony
oa ia?aciaaiey yoiai o?iaiy, eioi?ua ia aeeth/athony a iniciaaaaioth
nenoaio. Ii aicieeaao iiieii niciaoaeueiiai iaia?aiey, neeaaeuaaaony
iiae aeeyieai oao naienoa aauae e yaeaiee, eioi?ua aeeth/aiu a
aeaenoaea, ii ia nouanoaaiiu n oi/ee c?aiey niciaoaeueii iinoaaeaiiie
oeaee.

Aeey iiyniaiey oa?aeoa?enoeee iiai/iiai i?iaeoeoa ainiieuecoainy
neaaeothuei i?eia?ii. Eaaeauea ia noiea aoiaae naeoaaao aaoa?. O
?aaioathuaai ca noieii aicieeaao iio?aaiinoue i?eaeaoue eo, eniieuecoy
ia?aue iiiaaoeeny iiae ?oeo i?aaeiao: eieao, iaiaeueieoeo e o. i.
I?iaeaeaa a oaeeo oneiaeyo ioaeiia aeaenoaea, /aeiaae ia?aaeei ia iiaeao
ioaeaoue naaa io/aoa a oii, eaeei eiaiii i?aaeiaoii ainiieueciaaeny,
eaeia oi/ii ianoi caiye i?aaeiao ia i?eaeaoii ei eenoa aoiaae e o. i.
(o. a. a oii, /oi ninoaaeyao iiai/iue i?iaeoeo). A neiaaniii io/aoa
auyaeythony eeoue iaeioi?ua naienoaa i?aaeiaoa (iauai, ianna),
nouanoaaiiua n oi/ee c?aiey oeaee aeaiiiai aeaenoaey, o. a. oiai, /oi
ninoaaeyao i?yiie i?iaeoeo. ?aaiui ia?acii /aeiaae ia iiaeao
iaiin?aaenoaaiii eniieueciaaoue iiai/iue i?iaeoeo a niciaoaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeee iineaaeothueo aeaenoaee. Iaiin?aaenoaaiii yoio i?iaeoeo
aunooiaao eeoue a iauaeoeaii caoeene?iaaiiii ?acoeueoaoa i?aaeiaoiiai
aeaenoaey — a i?aia?aciaaieyo iauaeoa.

Niaoeeaeueiia yenia?eiaioaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea, iie?athuaany ia iaoiae,
ioe?uaathuee aiciiaeiinoue ineoieiae/aneiai i?iieeiiaaiey a iaeanoue
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ioia?aaeaaiuo yaeaiee (iaoiae aiaeeca ?acoeueoa
i?aaeiaoiiai aeaenoaey), iieacaei, /oi iiai/iue i?iaeoeo nouanoaoao ia
oieueei a i?aia?aciaaiiii iauaeoa. Aeaiiia i?aia?aciaaiea oeene?oaony —
ineoe/anee io?aaeaaony — e noauaeoii e i?e ecaanoiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao
iii iiaeao i?eiyoue o/anoea a ?aaoeyoeee iineaaeothueo aeaenoaee
(iainiciaaaaiue iiuo).

Neooaoeey oai?/aneie caaea/e ia?aaaouaaaony aia/aea aeeneo?-neaii, i?e
iii?a ia niciaoaeueii i?aaieciaaiiue iiuo. Aeey ?aoaiey oai?/aneie
caaea/e oaeiai iiuoa iaaeinoaoi/ii. Yoi e ii?iaeaeaao iio?aaiinoue a
iiaii ciaiee. A oiaea eiie?aoiie aeayoaeueiinoe aicieeaao ae?oaie iiuo —
iainiciaaaaiue, eioi?ue eiiaaea iiaeao niaea?aeaoue a naaa eeth/ e
?aoaieth oai?/aneie caaea/e. Yoio iiuo e i?iyaeyaony a oaea/iue iiiaio a
aeaea iaiaeeaeaiiie “iiaeneacee”.

Iainiciaaaaiue iiuo, iauaeoeaii niaea?aeauee a naaa eeth/ e ?aoaieth,
iaeiyooaeoeaai, anee ii neiaeeeny a aeaenoaeyo, i?aaeoanoaothueo
iiiuoeai ?aoeoue caaea/o. Ii noaiiaeony yooaeoeaiui, oi?ie?oynue ia oiia
oeaeaaie iieneiaie aeiieiaiou, ia oiia y?eiai eioa?ana e caaea/a, a
oneiaeyo, eiaaea oeaeue ?aoeoue caaea/o i?aa?auaaony a aaaeouee iioea,
eiaaea iioea niauaaony ia oeaeue, eiaaea ainiiaenoaoao ia “aiaoiyy”, a
“aioo?aiiyy” iioeaaoeey, eiaaea euouaai “caoaaouaaao nai i?ioeann
iienea”, eiaaea euouee “iinoiyiii aea?aeeo caaea/o a aieiaa e ia iiaeao
io yoiai ecaaaeoueny”.

Yooaeoeaiinoue iainiciaaaaiiai iiuoa aic?anoaao, eiaaea en/a?iuaathony
iai?aaeeueiua i?eaiu ?aoaiey caaea/e, ii aua ia aaniao iieneiaay
aeiieiaioa, ia oa?yaony eioa?an e caaea/a, ia en/acaao no?aieaiea iaeoe
?aoaiea. Aeeyiea iainiciaaaaiie /anoe aeaenoaey oai yooaeoeaiaa, /ai
iaiaa niaea?aeaoaeueia naia ii naaa aa iniciaaaaiay /anoue.

Ia?a/eneaiiua caeiiiia?iinoe iaeaieaa aeanoei naycaiu n iieo/aieai
eiooeoeaiiai ?aoaiey, eiooeoeaiiai yooaeoa. Iie io/aoeeai i?iyaeythony a
neooaoeeyo, iauaiiay neiaeiinoue (/enei niuneiauo aaeeieoe) eioi?uo
ieieiaeueia e iaeaeaiiue niinia ?aoaiey niaiaaeaao (eee ii/oe
niaiaaeaao) n naiei ?aoaieai, o. a. ia aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoe
niaoeeaeueiie ?aaeecaoeee yoiai niiniaa, naycaiiie n i?aa?auaieai aai a
i?eioeei. Oaeea caaea/e, inoaaaynue oai?/aneeie, ia yaeythony
i?iaeaiaie.

Iu ?acee/aai a aeaiiii neo/aa oai?/aneoth caaea/o e i?iaeaio ia
neaaeothuai iniiaaiee. Oai?/aneay caaea/a anaaaea iuneeoaeueiay, ii iia
iiaeao e ia auoue iiciaaaoaeueiie (eee iiaeao niaiaaeaoue n yeaiaioa?iie
iiciaaaoaeueiie caaea/ae). Aa iiaeii e ioaeii ?aoaoue, ia i?eia?aoay
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ia iniciaaaaiii o?iaia iiauo ciaiee. Oaeoth caaea/o ia
iaaei “noaaeoue”; iia noaaeony naiie neooaoeeae. A eoiaa ?aoaiey
iuneeoaeueiie caaea/e (anee iia niaiaaeaao n yeaiaioa?iie
iiciaaaoaeueiie) aicieeaao iiaia ciaiea, iieiinoueth oaeiaeaoai?ythuaa
iaiaoiaeeiiio aeaeieciaiaieth neooaoeee.

I?iaeaia — yoi neiaeiay iiciaaaoaeueiay caaea/a. Anee iia au?aaeaia
eeoue neooaoeaii, aa iaaei i?aa?aoeoue a i?iaeaio. Aeey yoiai
iaiaoiaeeii iooai aeiioaoe/aneeo iaiauaiee i?aia?aciaaoue i?iaeaiioth
neooaoeeth a neooaoeeth iuneeoaeueiie caaea/e. Caoai i?iaeaio iaaei
enneaaeiaaoue: au?aaioaoue no?aoaaeth ?aoaiey, ?an/eaieoue ia ?yae
yeaiaioa?iuo caaea/, i?aa?auay eo a iuneeoaeueiua. A oiaea ?aoaiey
i?iaeai iaycaoaeueii aicieeatho iiaua ciaiey, auiieiythuea iiaeniaioth
?ieue a iauai ?aoaiee. Aaaeouaa caaii i?ioeanna iiciaiey caeanue
iiiaie?aoii ia?aoiaeeo n iaeiiai o?iaiy ia ae?oaie. A i?iaeaiiuo
neooaoeeyo iieo/aiiia ?aoaiea iaeiie yeaiaioa?iie caaea/e aiiaue
eniieuecoaony eae i?eioeei aeaenoaey a ae?oaie, aieaa neiaeiie
neooaoeee. Iaeiaei niinia aeaenoaey, au?aaioaiiue a eoiaa ?aoaiey
enoiaeiie caaea/e, aia/aea aua i/aiue ia?aie/ai e i?eaiaeeo e oniaoo
oieueei a aanueia aeeceie, noiaeiie neooaoeee. Aeaenoaey ia yoie nooiaie
aua iaaeinoaoi/ii aano?aae?iaaiu. Aeey i?aa?auaiey /anoiiai niiniaa a
i?eioeei iaaei oaeoaeoue o?iaaiue aano?aeoeee, “iooeeueo?iaaoue”
aeaenoaea, iauaeoeaii niaea?aeauaa i?eioeei, io /oanoaaiiuo yeaiaioia
neooaoeee, ca/anooth neo/aeiuo. Yoi e anoue oi, /oi iu iacuaaai
oi?iaeecaoeeae eiooeoeaiiai yooaeoa.

Oaeie oi?iaeecaoeee aeaaii?eyonoaotho neaaeothuea (yenia?eiaioaeueii
auyaeaiiua) oneiaey:

.aeeth/aiea aeayoaeueiinoe a eiioaeno aieaa oe?ieie caaea/e, a eioi?ie
?acoeueoao i?aaeoanoaothuaai ?aoaiey aeieaeai aunooieoue eae iia?aoeey,
eae niinia ?aoaiey aieaa oe?ieie caaea/e; iinoaiiaea oai?aoe/aneie
caaea/e (o. a. oaeie, aaea oeaeue caeeth/aaony ia a aeinoeaeaiee
i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoeueoaoa, a a auyaeaiee niiniaa, eioi?ui oaeie
?acoeueoao oaea iieo/ai).

Aeey oniaoa oi?iaeecaoeee niinia ?aoaiey i?aaeoanoaothuae caaea/e
oeaeaniia?acii aeiaiaeeoue aei ecaanoiie noaiaie aaoiiaoecaoeee (o. a.
niauaoue aai a no?oeoo?u aiaoiaai ieaia, ia iecoea no?oeoo?iua o?iaie
i?aaiecaoeee aeeneo?neaiiai iuoeaiey), aeinoaoi/iie, /oiau aeaenoaiaaoue
aeaiiui niiniaii eae n?aaenoaii, o. a. iia?e?iaaoue ei eae oeaeinoiui
ia?aciaaieai. Ai anao yoeo neo/ayo aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao iioeiaeueiue
auai? iauaiiie neiaeiinoe neooaoeee.

Eae eaaei caiaoeoue, ineoieiae/aneee iaoaieci i?eiyoey ?aoaiey
i?eiaieoaeueii e neooaoeeyi i?aaeaeueiie neiaeiinoe neaaaaony ec aeaoo
oceia: ec i?aia?aciaaiey iiciaaaoaeueiie i?iaeaiu a iuneeoaeueioth
caaea/o e ec ?aoaiey iuneeoaeueiie caaea/e. I?eiyoea ?aoaiey a ethauo
neooaoeeyo ia ineoieiae/aneii o?iaia inouanoaeyaony eiaiii ii aeaiiiio
iaoaiecio. Caeanue iaiaoiaeeii aua ?ac iiae/a?eiooue, /oi aeaiiue
iaoaieci anoue iaoaieci i?eiyoey oai?/aneeo ?aoaiee, o. a. oao, eioi?ua
iaeuecy iieo/eoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii, iie?aynue ia aiia?ao eiaeee. Ii
ineoieiae/anee oaeie iaoaieci i?aaenoaaeyao iaeaieueoee eioa?an.
Eiia/ii, ethaay noa?a eiae/aneie eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea aianoa n oai e ineoieiae/ia, iineieueeo, iai?eia?, ethaua
aeaaeoeoeaiua iia?aoeee, niaa?oaaiua iuneyuei /aeiaaeii, eiatho no?iai
ii?aaeaeaiiue ineoieiae/aneee iaoaieci, /aoeinoue ?aaiou eioi?iai —
iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea niioaaonoaey oiaea yoeo iia?aoeee i?aaeeai
aeaaeoeoeee. Iaeiaei eiae/aneay noi?iia eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
iiaeao auoue ioaea/aia io aa ineoieiae/aneiai iaoaiecia (no?iai aiai?y,
ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naiaai ?iaea noa?aioei), io iiciathuaai noauaeoa,
a oi a?aiy eae aa eioeiii-ineoieiae/aneay noi?iia ia aeiioneaao
iiaeiaiiai ioaea/aiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, a oeaio?a i?iaeaiu i?eiyoey ?aoaiey, ?anniao?eaaaiie ia
ineoieiae/aneii o?iaia, ieacuaaaony ?aoaiea iuneeoaeueiie caaea/e. Yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai ioe?uaaao iooue e i?aiaeieaieth eacaeinue au
iai?aiaeieeiiai, o. a. e aiciiaeiinoe ioaaoa anaai aaneiia/iiai
iiiaiia?acey eiie?aoiuo neooaoeee: i?eiyoea ?aoaiey a ethauo ec ieo
i?ioaeaao ii iaeiiio e oiio aea ineoieiae/aneiio iaoaiecio. ?acee/ey
caeanue ninoiyo eeoue a oii, /oi ?aciay neiaeiinoue eiie?aoiuo neooaoeee
o?aaoao ?acee/iie ia?u ?acaa?oee ineoieiae/aneiai iaoaiecia (eee
i?aaeuyaeyao ?aciua o?aaiaaiey e o?iaith aai ?acaeoey o oiai eee eiiai
/aeiaaea). Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo oaeie iaoaieci ?acaa?ouaaaony eeoue
/anoe/ii. (?aaiui ia?acii o iiiaeo ethaeae ?acaeoea yoiai iaoaiecia
canouaaao, ia aeinoeaay aunoaai yoaia, /ai e iauyniyaony, /oi i?eiyoea
aaeaeaaoiuo ?aoaiee a neooaoeeyo, o?oaeiinoue eioi?uo o?aaoao iieiiai
?acaeoey ineoieiae/aneiai iaoaiecia, ieacuaaaony aeey ieo
i?eioeeieaeueii iaaiciiaeiui.)

Iiaeii aiai?eoue, eiia/ii, ia oieueei i oai?/aneeo ?aoaieyo (o. a. i
oao, eioi?ua ia iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu oieueei eiae/anee), ia oieueei i
i?iaeoeoeaiuo (oao, eioi?ua auaiaeyony eiae/anee), ii e i iaoai?/aneeo —
?ai?iaeoeoeaiuo. Iaeiaei ?ai?iaeoeoeaiia ?aoaiea ineoieiae/anee ia
iieacaoaeueii, oi?ie?iaaiea ineoieiae/aneie no?oeoo?u oaeeo ?aoaiee oaea
caaa?oaii. Ooieoeeiie?oao eeoue “?ai?iaeoeoeaiia ineoe/aneia”, eioi?ia
ieacuaaaony “ia?aa?ioaiiui” ia iae?ioeceieiae/aneee o?iaaiue.

Eiaiii a oaeeo oneiaeyo e aicieeaao eeethcey, aoaeoi au iica ?aaioaao
nai ii naaa (“eiioeaioeey aioeaeayoaeueiinoe”). A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aea
iae?ioeceieiae/aneay ?aaioa iicaa anaaaea i?yii eee einaaiii
iai?aaeyaony, i?aaiecoaony acaeiiaeaenoaeai noauaeoa n iauaeoii. A
iniiaa ?ai?iaeoeoeaiuo ?aoaiee eaaeeo ?aiaa niiaeaee?iaaiiia a iicao
aaeaeaaoiia aeaiiiio ?aoaieth acaeiiaeaenoaea noauaeoa n iauaeoii (/oi
aeinoeaaaony eeai oai?/aneei iooai, eeai i?iaeoeoeaiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, eeai iao/aieai, aeeth/athuei a naay e oi, e ae?oaia).
?ai?iaeoeoeaiua ?aoaiey iie?athony ia aini?iecaaaeaiea oaeeo iiaeaeae.
Aei oao ii?, iiea iie niioaaonoaotho oneiaeyi, neooaoeee, oai?/aneia
acaeiiaeaenoaea noauaeoa n iauaeoii ia ?acaa?ouaaaony. Iiyoiio eioa?an
caeanue iiaoo i?aaenoaaeoue oieueei oa ianoiyoaeuenoaa, eioi?ua iaoatho,
i?aiyonoaotho n?aaaouaaieth oaea neiaeeaoeony iiaeaeae.

Aeaiiua i ineoieiae/aneii iaoaiecia i?eiyoey ?aoaiey, iieo/aiiua a naaoa
aano?aeoii-aiaeeoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea, i?eia?aoatho cia/aiea ia oieueei a
eiioaenoa aiaeeoe-ei-neioaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae. Iie iaiin?aaenoaaiii
i?eeiaeeiu e y niaa?oainoaiaaieth yiie?e/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee.

Eiia/ii, naia aeaenoaeoaeueiia cia/aiea iie i?eia?aoatho a nenoaia
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo ciaiee. A iai?aaeaiee ?ac?aaioee oaeeo ciaiee oaea
nae/an iiaeii iaiaoeoue iaeioi?ua iooe ?ani?ino?aiaiey,
aano?aeoii-aiaeeoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea ia au?aaioeo i?aaenoaaeaiey i
iaoaiecia iauanoaaiiiai iiciaiey (nioeeaeueiue o?iaaiue “i?eiyoey
?aoaiey”), eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iiciaiey (nioeeaeueii-ineoe/aneee o?iaaiue
— “noue”), ia au?aaioeo i?aaenoaaeaiee i oi?ie?iaaiee eieeaeoeaa e
niaoeeoe/aneeo iaoaieciao i?eiyoey eieeaeoeaiiai ?aoaiey. Aanueia aaaeai
oaeaea niioaaonoaothuee i?i?ua e ieaeiei o?iaiyi — e ?ani?ino?aiaieth
aano?aeoii-aiaeeoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea ia o?aeoiaeo iae?ioeceieiae/aneeo
iaoaieciia i?eiyoey ?aoaiey.

5. Auaiaeu

Niaea?aeaoaeueiay aeaoa?ieiaoeey i?ioeaaeo?u i?eiyoey ?aoa iey
?aaeecoaony ii-?aciiio ia ?acee/iuo o?iaiyo i?eiyoey ?a oaiey, Ia
ia?oeaioeaii-iiiciaaaoaeueiii o?iaia iniaaiiino] eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iienea
e o?iaaiue noi?ie?iaaiiinoe ia?oeai oeaiiai ia?aca iaania/eaatho
ecae?aoaeueiinoue aeooaeecaoeee iino?iaiey oao eee eiuo aeiioac. I?e
oi?ie?iaaiee niinia, aeaenoaey (ia ?a/a-iuneeoaeueiii o?iaia) o?iaaiue
iaiauaiiini i?ia?aiiu aeaenoaey niioaaonoaoao o?iaith iaiauaiiinoe i?ei
oeeia aeaenoaey, oioy e ionoaao io iaai.

I?ioeann i?eiyoey ?aoaiey ia iaieo yoaiao (iiaeaioiath e nianoaaiii
i?eiyoey ?aoaiey) yaeyaony i?iaeoeoeaiui “au /a?iuaaieai” ec iauaeoa
iiaiai niaea?aeaiey iin?aaenoaii aeeth /aiey aai ai ana iiaua nenoaiu
naycae. Yoi au?aaeaaony a ecia iaiee o?iaiy iaiauaiiinoe auaeaeyaiuo
naienoa iauaeoa (auyaeaiea ana aieaa nouanoaaiiuo naienoa iauaeoa,
eciaiaiea aeoaaeoa aai i?eciaeia, oe?oiiaiea aaeeieoe aini?eyoey).

I?ioeaaeo?a i?eiyoey ?aoaiey, eae i?aaeei, ninoieo ia i iaoaie/aneii
iiaeai?a, a a ecae?aoaeueiie aeooaeecaoeee eee iino?iaiee aeiioac (ia
ia?oeaioeaii-iiiciaaaoaeueiii o?iaia). a oaeaea a niaoeeaeueiii
iino?iaiee niiniaa aeaenoaey (ia ?a/a-iuneeoaeueiii o?iaia).

Oaeou niaea?aeaoaeueiie caaeneiinoe yoaia nianoaaiii i?eiyoey ?aoaiey io
yoaia eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaioiaee ?aoaiey, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e
ioiineoaeueiie “ionoaaeaiiia”, naiinoiyoaeueiinoe i?ioeaaeo?u i?eiyoey
?aoaiey — n ae?oaie, iicaieytho noaaeoue aii?in i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
niaoeeaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee e io?aaioee iaieo yoaiia i?e ?aoaiee
?acee/iuo i?eeeaaeiuo caaea/ (oaoieei-eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea-iia?aoi?a a ANO, i?ioanneiiaeueiia iao/aiea e o.
ae.).

*enoi ineoieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea i?eiyoey ?aoaiey aeieaeii,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aano?aae?iaaoueny io iannu ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia,
aeaoa?ieie?othueo yoi yaeaiea, i?aaeaea anaai io nioeeaeueiuo e
oeceieiae/aneeo (eiia/ii, ciaiea eo, aeaaeaiea eie aeey ineoieiaa ia
oieueei iieacii, ii a ecaanoiie ia?a e iaiaoiaeeii, iaeiaei yoi ia
ninoaaeyao aai niaoeeoe/aneie enneaaeiaaoaeueneie caaea/e). Oieueei i?e
oneiaee io/aoa i oaeii aano?aae?iaaiee noaiiaeony yniui oi, /oi iu
auaeaeaaai a ea/anoaa ineoieiae/aneiai iaoaiecia i?eiyoey ?aoaiey.

6. Oanou

Eniuooaiue

Aiae?ae Ai?eniae/

18 eao

O/aueeny

Oano 1 Eeaea?noai

*oanoaoao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ana iiiaia aa?ao ia naay

Oano 2 Iaayoaeueiinoue

Anoue iaayiea, i?eyoiue a iauaiee /aeiaae

Oano 3 Ia?aiinoue

Niieiai, o?aaiiaaoai

Oano 4 Aieiaoaeueiinoue

Aunieay noaiaiue aieiaiey

Oano 5 Oano ia oaiia?aiaio Aecaiea

Naiaaeiee, yeno?aaa?o

Oano 6 Aeaai?acoiiinoue

I?ae?aniia /oanoai ia?u, ciaao naie aiciiaeiinoe

Oano 7 Oaa?aiiinoue a naaa

Naiaiaeai io ii?iiao/eauo iinooieia, anoue iaeay aeiey iaoaa?aiiinoe

Oano 8 Oa?ieiinoue

Iai?aeeiiai e oi?yi, no?aieony iaaycaoue naia iiaiea

Oano 9 A?oenoe/aneea iaeeiiiinoe

Oaeiai /aeiaaea a?yaeee inoaiiaeo e?anioa caeaoa

Auaiaeu: Naiioaa?aiiue /aeiaae a ?aaeueiinoe, aeaenoaeoaeueii iauaeoeaai
a naiiioeaiea. Oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi ana oanou i/aiue oi/ii io?aceee
?aaeueioth aeeciue.

7. Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aiioei I. E “I?eiyoea ?aoaiey a ineoieiaee” I., 1974

2. Eo?/eeia E. I “Iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue e ii?aaeaeaiiinoue” I., 1972

3. ?oaeiooaei N. E. “Iniiau ineoieiaee” I., 1984

4. “Ineoieiaey e iaaeaaiaeea” Iiae ?aae. A. A. ?aaeoaeia I., 1996

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