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Предмет и значение логики

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6

Eeiaoeeia ICI AE IAAe ?innee

Eiio?ieueiay ?aaioa ii eiaeea.

Oaia: “I?aaeiao e cia/aiea eiaeee”.

I eo?n

A?oiia: 012.

Niaoeeaeueiinoue: TH?eni?oaeaioeey.

Nooaeaio: Aiae?aaa Aiaoieee Aeaenaiae?iae/

I?aiiaeaaaoaeue: Aeaieiaoeaa Na?aae Eaaiiae/

1996a.

Ieai

Ieai 2

Aaaaeaiea 3

1. Niaoeeoeea eiaeee eae iaoee 5

2. Iniiaiua yoaiu ?acaeoey eiae/aneie iaoee 7

3. Eiaeea e oi?ie?iaaiea eoeueoo?u iuoeaiey 11

Caeeth/aiea 15

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoo?aoo?u 16

Aaaaeaiea

Eaaeaeue /aeiaae iaeaaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiie eiae/aneie eoeueoo?ie,
o?iaaiue eioi?ie oa?aeoa?ecoaony oie niaieoiiinoueth eiae/aneeo i?eaiia
e niiniaia ?annoaeaeaiey, eioi?ua /aeiaae iiieiaao, a oaeaea
niaieoiiinoueth eiae/aneeo n?aaenoa, eioi?ua ii eniieuecoao a i?ioeanna
iiciaiey e i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eiae/aneay eoeueoo?a i?eia?aoaaony a oiaea iauaiey, o/aau a oeiea e
AOCa, a i?ioeanna /oaiey eeoa?aoo?u.

Eiaeea nenoaiaoece?oao i?aaeeueiua niiniau ?annoaeaeaiey, a oaeaea
oeie/iua ioeaee a ?annoaeaeaieyo. Iia i?aaeinoaaeyao eiae/aneea
n?aaenoaa aeey oi/iiai au?aaeaiey iuneae, aac eioi?iai ieacuaaaony
iaeiyooaeoeaiie ethaay iuneeoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue, ia/eiay n iao/aiey
e eii/ay iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaioie.

Ciaiea eiaeee yaeyaony iaiouaieaiie /anoueth th?eaee/aneiai
ia?aciaaiey. Iii iicaieyao i?aaeeueii no?ieoue noaeaaii-neaaenoaaiiua
aa?nee, ninoaaeyoue /aoeea ieaiu ?anneaaeiaaiey i?anooieaiee, ia
aeiioneaoue ioeaie i?e ninoaaeaiee ioeoeeaeueiuo aeieoiaioia,
i?ioieieia, iaaeieoaeueiuo caeeth/aiee, ?aoaiee e iinoaiiaeaiee.

Ciaiaieoua th?enou anaaaea eniieueciaaee ciaiea eiaeee. A noaea iie
iau/ii ia ia?aie/eaaeenue i?inoui ianiaeaneai , iai?eia? n aeiaiaeaie
iaaeiaiey, anee aeaeaee a ieo eiae/aneoth ioeaeo. Iie iauyniyee, eaeay
ioeaea aeiiouaia, aiai?eee, /oi yoa ioeaea niaoeeaeueii ?anniao?eaaaony
a eiaeea e eiaao iniaia iacaaiea. Oaeie aeiaiae ieacuaae aicaeaenoaea ia
anao i?enoonoaothueo, aeaaea anee i?enoonoaothuea ieeiaaea ia eco/aee
eiaeee.

Ciaiea i?aaee e caeiiia eiaeee ia yaeyaony eiia/iie oeaeueth aa
eco/aiey. Eiia/iay oeaeue eco/aiey eiaeee – oiaiea i?eiaiyoue aa i?aaeea
e caeiiu a i?ioeanna iuoeaiey.

Enoeia e eiaeea acaeiinaycaiu, iiyoiio cia/aiea eiaeee iaaiciiaeii
ia?aioeaieoue. Eiaeea iiiiaaao aeieacuaaoue enoeiiua noaeaiey e
ii?iaa?aaoue eiaeiua, iia o/eo iuneeoue /aoei, eaeiie/ii, i?aaeeueii.
Eiaeea ioaeia anai ethaeyi, ?aaioieeai naiuo ?acee/iuo i?ioannee.

Eoae, eiaeea – yoi oeeinioneay iaoea i oi?iao, a eioi?uo i?ioaeaao
/aeiaa/aneia iuoeaiea, e i caeiiao, eioi?ui iia iiae/eiyaony.

1. Niaoeeoeea eiaeee eae iaoee

Neiai “eiaeea” i?ienoiaeeo io ae?aaiaa?a/aneiai neiaa “eiain”, eioi?ia
iiaeii ia?aaanoe eae “iiiyoea”, “?acoi”, “?annoaeaeaiea”. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy iii oiio?aaeyaony a neaaeothueo iniiaiuo cia/aieyo.

Ai-ia?auo, yoei neiaii iaicia/atho caeiiiia?iinoe a eciaiaiee e ?acaeoee
aauae e yaeaiee iauaeoeaiiai ie?a. Caeiiiia?iinoe a eciaiaiee e ?acaeoee
aauae e yaeaiee iauaeoeaiiai ie?a iacuaatho iauaeoeaiie eiaeeie.

Ai-aoi?uo, neiaii “eiaeea” iaicia/atho iniaua caeiiiia?iinoe a naycyo e
?acaeoee iuneae. Yoe caeiiiia?iinoe iacuaatho noauaeoeaiie eiaeeie.
Caeiiiia?iinoe a naycyo e ?acaeoee iuneae yaeythony io?aaeaieai
iauaeoeaiuo caeiiiia?iinoae.

Eiaeeie iacuaatho oaeaea iaoeo i caeiiiia?iinoyo a naycyo e ?acaeoee
iuneae.

Eiaeea – neiaeiue, iiiaia?aiiue oaiiiai aeooiaiie aeecie /aeiaa/anoaa. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy nouanoaoao aaeeeia iiiaeanoai naiuo ?aciuo io?aneae
iao/iiai ciaiey. A caaeneiinoe io iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiey iie aeaeyony ia
iaoee i i?e?iaea – anoanoaaiiua iaoee e iaoee ia iauanoaa – iauanoaaiiua
iaoee. A n?aaiaiee n ieie naiaia?acea eiaeee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aa
iauaeoii aunooiaao iuoeaiea.

A /ai aea niaoeeoeea eiaeee ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie iaoeaie,
eco/athueie iuoeaiea?

· Oeeinioey enneaaeoao iuoeaiea a oeaeii. Iia ?aoaao ooiaeaiaioaeueiue
oeeinioneee aii?in, naycaiiue n ioiioaieai /aeiaaea e aai iuoeaiey e
ie?oaeathuaio ie?o.

· Ineoieiaey eco/aao iuoeaiea eae iaeei ec ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia
ia?yaeo n yiioeeyie , aieae e o. ae. Iia ?ane?uaaao acaeiiaeaenoaea n
ieie iuoeaiey a oiaea i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e iao/iiai iiciaiey,
aiaeece?oao iiaoaeeoaeueiua iioeau iuneeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea, auyaeyao iniaaiiinoe iuoeaiey aeaoae, ac?ineuo, ineoe/anee
ii?iaeueiuo ethaeae e eeoe n ioeeiiaieyie.

· Oeceieiaey ?ane?uaaao iaoa?eaeueiua, oeceieiae/aneea i?ioeannu,
enneaaeoao caeiiiia?iinoe yoeo i?ioeannia, eo oeceei-oeie/aneea e
aeieiae/aneea iaoaieciu.

· Eeaa?iaoeea auyaeyao iauea caeiiiia?iinoe oi?aaeaiey e nayce a aeeaii
i?aaiecia, oaoie/aneii ono?ienoaa e a iuoeaiee /aeiaaea, naycaiiii
i?aaeaea anaai n aai oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth.

· Eeiaaenoeea iieacuaaao ia?ac?uaioth naycue iuoeaiey n ycueii, eo
aaeeinoai e ?acee/ea, eo acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo niaie. Iia ?ane?uaaao
niiniau au?aaeaiey iuneae n iiiiuueth ycueiauo n?aaenoa.

Naiaia?acea aea eiaeee eae iaoee i iuoeaiee eae ?ac e ninoieo a oii, /oi
iia ?anniao?eaaao yoio iauee aeey ?yaea iaoe iauaeo iiae oaeii c?aiey
aai ooieoeee e no?oeoo?u, oi anoue ?iee e cia/aiey a iiciaiee e
i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, e a oi aea a?aiy n oi/ee c?aiey
ninoaaeythueo aai yeaiaioia, a oaeaea naycae e ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ieie.
Yoi e anoue nianoaaiiue, niaoeeoe/aneee i?aaeiao eiaeee. Iiyoiio iia
ii?aaeaeyaony eae iaoea i oi?iao e caeiiao i?aaeeueiiai iuoeaiey,
aaaeouaai e enoeia.16

2. Iniiaiua yoaiu ?acaeoey eiae/aneie iaoee

Nia?aiaiiay eiaeea eae iaoea i caeiiao e oi?iao /aeiaa/aneiai iuoeaiey
aeeth/aao a naay aeaa ioiineoaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiua iaoee: eiaeeo
oi?iaeueioth e eiaeeo aeeaeaeoe/aneoth.

Oi?iaeueiay eiaeea – yoi iaoea i oi?iao iuoeaiey, i
oi?iaeueii-eiae/aneeo caeiiao e ae?oaeo naycyo iaaeaeo iuneyie ii eo
eiae/aneei oi?iai. Oi?iaeueiay eiaeea yaeyaony iaoeie i i?aaeeueiii
iuoeaiee, enneaaeoao e nenoaiaoece?oao oaeaea oeie/iua ioeaee,
niaa?oaaiua a i?ioeanna iuoeaiey, oi anoue oeie/iua aeiaeciu. I?e
i?eiaiaiee n?aaenoa, au?aaaouaaaiuo oi?iaeueiie eiaeeie, iiaeii
ioaeaeaoueny io ?acaeoey ciaiey. Oi?iaeueiay eiaeea eco/aao oi?iu
iuoeaiey, auyaeyy no?oeoo?o iauoth aeey ?acee/iuo ii niaea?aeaieth
iuneae. ?anniao?eaay iiiyoey, iia eco/aao ia eiie?aoiia niaea?aeaiea
?acee/iuo iiiyoee, a iiiyoey eae oi?io iuoeaiey. Eco/ay noaeaeaiey,
eiaeea auyaeyao iauoth no?oeoo?o aeey ?acee/iuo ii niaea?aeaieth
noaeaeaiee. Oi?iaeueiay eiaeea eco/aao caeiiu, iaoneaaeeaathuea
eiae/aneoth i?aaeeueiinoue iuoeaiey, aac niaethaeaiey eioi?ie iaeuecy
i?eeoe e ?acoeueoaoai, niioaaonoaothuei aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iiciaoue
enoeio. Iuoeaiea, ia iiae/eiythuaany o?aaiaaieyi oi?iaeueiie eiaeee, ia
niiniaii i?aaeeueii io?aaeaoue aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. Iiyoiio eco/aiea
iuoeaiey, aai caeiiia e oi?i ioaeii ia/eiaoue n oi?iaeueiie eiaeee.

Oi?iaeueiay eiaeea a naiai ?acaeoee i?ioea aeaa iniiaiuo yoaia.

Ia?aue yoai – yoi naycue n ?aaioaie A?enoioaey, a eioi?uo aeaii
nenoaiaoe/aneia eceiaeaiea eiaeee. Iniiaiui niaea?aeaieai eiaeee
A?enoioaey yaeyaony oai?ey aeaaeoeoeee, oaeaea niaea?aeaoueny yeaiaiou
iaoaiaoe/aneie eiaeee. A?enoioaeue noi?ioee?iaae iniiaiua caeiiu
iuoeaiey: oiaeaeanoaa, i?ioeai?a/ey e eneeth/aiiiai o?aoueaai, iienae
aaaeiaeoea eiae/aneea iia?aoeee, ?ac?aaioae oai?eth iiiyoey e
noaeaeaiey, ianoiyoaeueii enneaaeiaae aeaaeoeoeaiia oiicaeeth/aiea.
O/aiea i neeeiaecia ninoaaeei iniiao iaeiiai ec iai?aaeaiee nia?aiaiiie
iaoaiaoe/aneie eiaeee – eiaeea i?aaeeeaoia. Aeiiieiaieai e yoiio o/aieth
auea eiaeea aioe/iuo noieeia (Caiii, O?eneii e ae?oaeo). Eiaeea noieeia
– iniiaa ae?oaiai iai?aaeaiey iaoaiaoe/aneie eiaeee – eiaeee
auneacuaaiee. Neaaeothueie, eoi ?acaee o/aiea A?enoioaey, neaaeoao
iacaaoue Aaeaia; Ii?oe?ey, eioi?ue ?ac?aaioae noaio ioia?aaeathuoth
ioiioaiey iaaeaeo iiiyoeyie; Aiyoeey, ni/eiaiey eioi?iai auee
eiae/aneeie iiniaeyie. Eiaeea ?acaeaaeanue e a n?aaeiea aaea, iaeiaei
noieanoeea eneaceea o/aiea A?enoioaey, i?eniiniaea aai aeey iainiiaaiey
?aeeaeiciie aeiaiaoeee. Cia/eoaeueiu oniaoe eiae/aneie iaoee a Iiaia
a?aiy. Aaaeiaeoei yoaiii a aa ?acaeoee yaeeanue oai?ey eiaeoeoeee,
?ac?aaioaiiay O. Aaeiiii. Ii iiaeaa?a e?eoeea aeaaeoeoeaioth eiaeeo,
eioi?ay ia iiaeao neoaeeoue iaoiaeii iao/iuo ioe?uoee. Iaoiaeii aeieaeia
auoue eiaeoeoeey. ?ac?aaioea eiaeoeoeaiiai iaoiaea – ia?iiiay caneoaa
Aaeiia. Iaoiaeu aeaaeoeoeee e eiaeoeoeee ia eneeth/atho ae?oa ae?oaa, a
aeiiieiytho. Aeae.N.Ieeeue nenoaiaoece?iaae iaoiaeu iao/iie eiaeoeoeee.
Aeaaeoeoeaiay eiaeea A?enoioaey e eiaeoeoeaiay eiaeea Aaeiia – Ieeey
ninoaaeee iniiao iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie aeenoeeieeiu e ninoaaeytho iniiao
eiae/aneiai ia?aciaaiey a ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

Aoi?ie yoai – yoi iiyaeaiea iaoaiaoe/aneie eiaeee. Oeeinio A. A.
Eaeaieoe n/eoaaony iniiaiiieiaeieeii. Ii iuoaeny iino?ieoue
oieaa?naeueiue ycue, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai nii?u iaaeaeo ethaeueie iiaeii
auei ?ac?aoeoue iin?aaenoaii au/eneaiey. Iaoaiaoe/aneay eiaeea eco/aao
eiae/aneea nayce e ioiioaiey, eaaeauea a iniiaa aeaaeoeoeaiiai auaiaea.
Aeey auyaeaiey no?oeoo?u auaiaea no?iyo ?acee/iua iaoaiaoe/aneea
en/eneaiey.

Ae?oaei iniiaaieai aeaeaiey eiaeee neoaeeo ?acee/ea i?eiaiyaiuo a iae
i?eioeeiia, ia eioi?uo aace?othony enneaaeiaaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa oaeiai
aeaeaiey eiaai eeanne/aneoth eiaeeo e iaeeanne/aneea eiaeee. A.N.
Ianueeia auaeaeyao i?eioeeiu eeanne/aneie eiaeee: ”1)iaeanoue
enneaaeiaaiey ninoaaeytho iauaeaiiua ?annoaeaeaiey; 2)aeiiouaiea i
?ac?aoeiinoe ethaie i?iaeaiu; 3) ioaea/aiea io niaea?aeaiey auneacuaaiee
e io naycae ii niuneo iaaeaeo ieie; 4)aano?aeoeey aeaocia/iinoe
auneacuaaiee”.

E?iia oi?iaeueiie eiaeee, nouanoaoao eiaeea aeeaeaeoe/aneay, i?aaeiaoii
niaoeeaeueiiai eco/aiey eioi?ie yaeythony oi?iu e caeiiiia?iinoe
?acaeoey ciaiey. N?aaenoaa aeeaeaeoe/aneie eiaeee i?eiaiythony a oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea io ?acaeoey ciaiey ioaeaeaoueny iaeuecy. Aeeaeaeoe/aneay
eiaeea enneaaeoao oaeea oi?iu ?acaeoey ciaiey, eae i?iaeaia, aeiioaca e
oae aeaeaa, oaeea iaoiaeu iiciaiey eae ainoiaeaeaiea io aano?aeoiiai e
eiie?aoiiio, aiaeec e neioac.

A i?ioeanna iiciaiey iaoiaeu oi?iaeueiie eiaeee aeiiieiythony iaoiaeaie
aeeaeaeoe/aneie eiaeee e iaiai?io. A ?acaeoea aeeaeaeoe/aneie eiaeee
aianee ii?aaeaeaiiue aeeaae Ieaoii e A?enoioaeue, ioaeaeueiua eaeae
auneacuaaeenue n?aaeiaaaeiauie oeeinioaie e oeeinioaie Iiaiai a?aiaie.
Eeanne/aneea oi?iu i?eaeaee

ae Eaio, Oeooa, Oaeeeia, Aaaaeue. Aeeaeaeoe/aneay eiaeea Aaaaey yaeyaony
nenoaiaoe/aneei o/aieai, oioy iia e ?ac?aaioaia n iiceoeee iauaeoeaiiai
eaeaaeecia. Aeeaeaeoe/aneoth eiaeeo ia iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie iniiaa
?ac?aaioaee E. Ia?en, O. Yiaaeuen, A. E. Eaiei.

Aeeaeaeoe/aneay eiaeea eco/aao caeiiu ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai iuoeaiey. E
iei ioiinyony iauaeoeaiinoue e ananoi?iiiinoue ?anniio?aiey i?aaeiaoa,
i?eioeei enoi?ecia, ?acaeaiaiea aaeeiiai ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiua noi?iiu e
oae aeaeaa. Aeeaeaeoe/aneay eiaeea neoaeeo iaoiaeii iiciaiey aeeaeaeoeee
iauaeoeaiiai ie?a.

Eiaeea oi?iaeueiay e eiaeea aeeaeaeoe/aneay eco/atho iaeei e oio aea
iauaeo – /aeiaa/aneia iuoeaiea, ii i?e yoii eaaeaeay ec ieo eiaao naie
i?aaeiao enneaaeiaaiey. Aeeaeaeoe/aneay eiaeea ia caiaiyao e ia iiaeao
caiaieoue eiaeeo oi?iaeueioth. Yoi aeaa iaoee i iuoeaiee, iie
?acaeaathony a oaniii acaeiiaeaenoaee, eioi?ia io/aoeeai i?iyaeyaony a
i?aeoeea iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneiai iuoeaiey, eniieuecothuaai a i?ioeanna
iiciaiey eae oi?iaeueii-eiae/aneee aiia?ao, oae e n?aaenoaa,
?ac?aaioaiiua aeeaeaeoe/aneie eiaeeie.

Eiaeea caieiaaony ia oieueei naycyie auneacuaaiee a i?aaeeueiuo
auaiaeao, ii e iiiaeie eiuie i?iaeaiaie: niuneii e cia/aieai au?aaeaiee
ycuea, ?acee/iuie ioiioaieyie iaaeaeo oa?ieiaie, iia?aoeeyie
ii?aaeaeaiey e eiae/aneiai aeaeaiey iiiyoee, aa?iyoiinoiuie e
noaoenoe/aneeie ?annoaeaeaieyie, ia?aaeienaie e eiae/aneeie ioeaeaie e
oae aeaeaa. Ii aeaaiua oaiu eiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee – aiaeec
i?aaeeueiinoe ?annoaeaeaiey, oi?ioee?iaea caeiiia e i?eioeeiia,
niaethaeaiea eioi?uo yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai iieo/aiey enoeiiuo
caeeth/aiee a i?ioeanna auaiaea.

A i?aaeeueiii ?annoaeaeaiee caeeth/aiey auoaeaao ec iinueie n eiae/aneie
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth, iauay noaia oaeiai ?annoaeaeaiey au?aaeaao eiae/aneee
caeii. ?annoaeaeaoue eiae/anee i?aaeeueii – cia/eo ?annoaeaeaoue a
niioaaonoaee n caeiiaie eiaeee.

3. Eiaeea e oi?ie?iaaiea eoeueoo?u iuoeaiey

Eiaeea eco/aao iiciathuaa iuoeaiea e i?eiaiyaony eae n?aaenoai iiciaiey.
Iiciaiea eae i?ioeann io?aaeaiey iauaeoeaiiai ie?a niciaieai /aeiaaea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeinoai /oanoaaiiiai e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iiciaiey.

*oanoaaiiia iiciaiea i?ioaeaao a o?ao iniiaiuo oi?iao: iuouaiea,
aini?eyoea, i?aaenoaaeaiea.

Iuouaiea – yoi io?aaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo /oanoaaiii aini?eieiaaiuo naienoa
i?aaeiaoia – eo oeaaoa, oi?iu, caiaoa, aeona.

Aini?eyoea – yoi oeaeinoiue ia?ac i?aaeiaoa, aicieeathuee a ?acoeueoaoa
aai iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia i?aaiu /oanoa.

I?aaenoaaeaiea – yoi nio?aieaoeeny a niciaiee /oanoaaiiue ia?ac
i?aaeiaoa, eioi?ue aini?eieiaeny ?aiueoa. I?aaenoaaeaiey iiaoo auoue ia
oieueei ia?acaie i?aaeiaoia, nouanoaothueo ?aaeueii; ia?aaeei iie
oi?ie?othony ia iniiaa iienaiey i?aaeiaoia, ia nouanoaothueo a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Oaeea i?aaenoaaeaiey ia?acothony ia iniiaa
aini?eyoee ?aaeueiuo i?aaeiaoia, yaeythony eo eiiaeiaoeeae.

*oanoaaiiia iiciaiea aeaao iai ciaiea ia ioaeaeueiuo i?aaeiaoao, ia eo
aiaoieo naienoaao. Ii iii ia iiaeao aeaoue ciaiee i i?e/eiiie
caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo yaeaieyie.

Iaeiaei, iiciaaay ie?oaeathuee ie?, /aeiaae no?aieony onoaiiaeoue
i?e/eiu yaeaiee, i?iieeiooue a nouiinoue aauae, ?ane?uoue caeiiu
i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa. A yoi iaaiciiaeii aac iuoeaiey, io?aaeathuaai
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue a ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiae/aneeo oi?iao.

?anniio?ei iniiaiua iniaaiiinoe iuoeaiey.

1. Iuoeaiea io?aaeaao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue a iaiauaiiuo ia?acao. A
ioee/ea io /oanoaaiiiai iiciaiey – iuoeaiea aano?aae?oaony io
aaeeie/iiai, auaeaeyao a i?aaeiaoao iauaa, iiaoi?ythuaany, nouanoaaiiia.
Iiaeiaiui ia?acii nicaeathony iiiyoey th?eaee/aneiai eeoea,
ainoaea?noaaiiiai noaa?aieoaoa, e oae aeaeaa. Aano?aeoiia iuoeaiea
aeoaaea i?iieeaao a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, ioe?uaaao i?enouea ae caeiiu.

2. Iuoeaiea – i?ioeann iiin?aaenoaiaaiiiai io?aaeaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. I?e iiiiue i?aaiia /oanoa iiaeii iiciaoue eeoue oi,
/oi aeaenoaoao ia ieo. Ia iaaethaeay naiiai oaeoa i?anooieaiey, iiaeii
ia iniiaaiee i?yiuo e einaaiiuo oeee onoaiiaeoue i?anooiieea.

3. Iuoeaiea ia?ac?uaii naycaii n ycueii. I?e iiiiue ycuea ethaee
au?aaeatho e cae?aieytho ?acoeueoaou naiae iuneeoaeueiie ?aaiou.

4. Iuoeaiea – i?ioeann aeoeaiiai io?aaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.
Aeoeaiinoue oa?aeoa?ecoao aanue i?ioeann iiciaiey a oeaeii, ii i?aaeaea
anaai – iuoeaiey. I?eiaiyy iaiauaiea, aano?aae?iaaiea e ae?oaea
iuneeoaeueiua i?eaiu, /aeiaae i?aia?acoao ciaiey i i?aaeiaoao
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Iaiauaiiue e iiin?aaenoaiaaiiue oa?aeoa? io?aaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
ia?ac?uaiay naycue n ycueii, aeoeaiue oa?aeoa? io?aaeaiey – oaeiau
iniiaiua iniaaiiinoe iuoeaiey.

Iuoeaiea niiniaii iaiauaoue iiiaeanoai iaeii?iaeiuo i?aaeiaoia,
auaeaeyoue iaeaieaa aaaeiua naienoaa, ?ane?uaaoue nouanoaaiiua nayce.
Iuoeaiea yaeyaony aunoae ii n?aaiaieth n /oanoaaiiui iiciaieai oi?iie
io?aaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Auei au iai?aaeeueii ?anniao?eaaoue iuoeaiea a io?uaa io /oanoaaiiiai
iiciaiey. A iiciaaaoaeueiii i?ioeanna iie iaoiaeyony a ia?ac?uaiii
aaeeinoaa. *oanoaaiiia iiciaiea niaea?aeeo a naaa yeaiaiou iaiauaiey,
eioi?ua naienoaaiiu ia oieueei i?aaenoaaeaieyi, ii e aini?eyoeyi e
iuouaieyi, e ninoaaeytho i?aaeiinueeo aeey ia?aoiaea e eiae/aneiio
iiciaieth.

Eae ie aaeeei cia/aiea iuoeaiey, iii iniiauaaaony ia aeaiiuo, iieo/aiiuo
n iiiiuueth i?aaiia /oanoa. N iiiiuueth iuoeaiey /aeiaae iiciaao
iaaeinooiiua /oanoaaiiiio iiciaieth yaeaiey.

?anniio?ei iniiaiua oi?iu iuoeaiey – iiiyoea, noaeaeaiea e
oiicaeeth/aiea. Ioaeaeueiua i?aaeiaou eee eo niaieoiiinoue io?aaeaaony
iuoeaieai /aeiaaea a iiiyoeyo, ?acee/iuo ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth, e
io?aaeathony a iuoeaiee /aeiaaea iaeeiaeiai – eae ii?aaeaeaiiay naycue
eo nouanoaaiiuo i?eciaeia, oi anoue a oi?ia iiiyoey. A oi?ia noaeaeaiee
io?aaeathony nayce iaaeaeo i?aaeiaoaie e eo naienoaaie. Noaeaeaiea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niinia nayce iiiyoee, au?aaeaiiue a oi?ia
ooaa?aeaeaiey eee io?eoeaiey. ?anniao?eaay oiicaeeth/aiea, i?e iiiiue
eioi?iai ec iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo noaeaeaiee auaiaeeony iiaia
noaeaeaiea, iiaeii onoaiiaeoue, /oi a oiicaeeth/aieyo iaeiiai aeaea
auaiae iieo/aaony iaeiei e oai aea niiniaii.

Iiaeiaiui aea ia?acii, oi anoue aeaaiaea?y nayce noaeaeaiee, iiaeii
iieo/eoue auaiae, eiathuee ethaia niaea?aeaiea. Iauei, /oi eiaaony a
?acee/iuo ii niaea?aeaieth oiicaeeth/aieyo, yaeyaony niinia nayce
noaeaeaiee. Iaoneiaeaiiia yoeie naycyie niaea?aeaiea iuneae nouanoaoao a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiae/aneeo oi?iao: iiiyoeyo, noaeaeaieyo, oiicaeeth/aieyo.
Ioee/eoaeueiay iniaaiiinoue i?aaeeueiiai auaiaea a oii, /oi io enoeiiuo
iinueie ii anaaaea aaaeao e enoeiiiio caeeth/aieth. Oaeie auaiae
iicaieyao ec eiathueony enoei iieo/aoue iiaua enoeiu n iiiiuueth /enoiai
?annoaeaeaiey, aac ia?auaiey e iiuoo, eiooeoeee e oiio iiaeiaiiio.
Iai?aaeeueiua auaiaeu iiaoo io enoeiiuo iinueie aanoe eae e enoeiiui,
oae e e eiaeiui caeeth/aieyi.

A nia?aiaiiie eiaeea eiae/aneea i?ioeannu eco/atho iooai eo ioia?aaeaiey
a ycueao oi?iaeeciaaiiuo, eee eiae/aneeo en/eneaieyo. Nia?aiaiiay eiaeea
neaaaaony ec aieueoaai /enea eiae/aneeo nenoai. Yoe nenoaiu i?eiyoi
aeaeeoue ia eiaeeo eeanne/aneoth e eiaeeo iaeeanne/aneoth. Eiaeea, eae
iaoea aaeeia, iia neaaaaony ec iiiaeanoaa aieaa eee iaiaa /anoiuo
nenoai. A eaaeaeie i?eiaiyaony ycue neiaieia e oi?ioe.

Caeiiu eiaeee aeieaia a?aiy i?aaenoaaeyeenue aaniethoiuie enoeiaie,
ieeae ia naycaiiua n iiuoii. Eiaeea neeaaeuaaaony a i?aeoeea iuoeaiey.
Eiae/aneea caeiiu – i?iaeoeou /aeiaa/aneiai iiuoa. Nia?aiaiiay eiaeea
iaoiaeeo i?eiaiaiea ai iiiaeo iaeanoyo. A /anoiinoe, iia ieacaea aeeyiea
ia ?acaeoea iaoaiaoeee, i?aaeaea anaai oai?ee iiiaeanoa, oi?iaeueiuo
nenoai, aeai?eoiia, ?aeo?neaiuo ooieoeee; eaeae e aiia?ao eiaeee
eniieuecothony a eeaa?iaoeea, au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieea, a yeaeo?ioaoieea.

Caeeth/aiea

Iuoeaiea /aeiaaea iiae/eiyaony eiae/aneei caeiiai e i?ioaeaao a
eiae/aneeo oi?iao iacaaeneii io iaoee eiaeee. Iiiaea ethaee iuneyo
eiae/ii, ia ciay aa i?aaee. ?acoiaaony, iiaeii i?aaeeueii iuneeoue, ia
eco/ea eiaeeo, iaeiaei iaeuecy e iaaeiioeaieaaoue i?aeoe/aneiai cia/aiey
yoie iaoee.

Caaea/a eiaeee a oii, /oiau iao/eoue /aeiaaea niciaoaeueii i?eiaiyoue
caeiiu e oi?iu iuoeaiey e ia iniiaa yoiai eiae/iaa iuneeoue, i?aaeeueii
niciaaaoue ie?oaeathuee ie?. Ciaiea eiaeee iiauoaao eoeueoo?o iuoeaiey,
au?aaaouaaao iaaue iuneeoue “a?aiioii”, ?acaeaaao e?eoe/aneia ioiioaiea
e naiei e /oaeei iuneyi.

Eiaeea – iaiaoiaeeiue eino?oiaio, inaiaiaeaeathuee io ee/iuo, iaioaeiuo
caiiieiaiee, iiiiaathuee iaeoe a ianna eioi?iaoeee oi oeaiiia, /oi
ioaeii /aeiaaeo. Iia ioaeia “ethaiio niaoeeaeenoo, aoaeue ii iaoaiaoee,
iaaeee, aeieia”. (Aiioei I.E.).

Iuneeoue eiae/ii – yoi cia/eo iuneeoue oi/ii e iineaaeiaaoaeueii, ia
aeiioneaoue i?ioeai?a/ee a naieo ?annoaeaeaieyo, oiaoue ane?uaaoue
eiae/aneea ioeaee. Yoe ea/anoaa iuoeaiey eiatho aieueoia cia/aiea a
ethaie iaeanoe iao/iie e i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oii /enea a
?aaioa th?enoa.

Ciaiea eiaeee iiiiaaao th?enoo iiaeaioiaeoue eiae/anee no?ieioth, oi?ioi
a?aoiaioe?iaaiioth ?a/ue, ane?uoue i?ioeai?a/ey a iieacaieyo e oae
aeaeaa. Ana yoi eiaao cia/aiea a ?aaioa th?enoa, iai?aaeaiiie ia
oe?aieaiea caeiiiinoe e i?aaiii?yaeea.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoo?aoo?u

1. Aaeoiaiiaa A.Ae. O/aaiee ii eiaeea. Iineaa 1995a.

2. Eaeaa TH.A. Eo?n eaeoeee ii eiaeea. Ecaeaoaeuenoai Iineianeiai
oieaa?neoaoa 1988a.

3. Eaaiia A.A. Eiaeea. Iineaa 1996a.

4. E?aoeee neiaa?ue ii eiaeea. Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae Ai?neiai. Iineaa
I?inaauaiea 1991a.

5. Ee?eeeia A.E., Noa?/aiei A.A. Eiaeea. Ecaeaiea 5-a 1991a.

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