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Построение систем распознавания образов

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IEIENOA?NOAI IA?ACIAAIEss OE?AEIU

AeIIAOeEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE EINOEOOO ENEONNOAAIIIAI EIOAEEAEOA

I N I I A U I I N O ? I A I E ss

N E N O A I ? A N I I C I A A A I E ss

I A ? A C I A

* a n o ue 1

(E o ? n e a e oe e e)

Ooaa?aeaeaii :

canaaeaiee eaoaae?u ia ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia

I?ioieie ? 3 io 23.11.97

1 9 9 7

Ianoiyuaa o/aaiia iiniaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?aoth /anoue eo?na
eaeoeee ii “Iniiaai iino?iaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia”, /eoaaiuo
nooaeaioai niaoeeaeueiinoe “I?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea au/eneeoaeueiie
oaoieee e aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai oi?aaeaiey” a VI – VII naiano?ao
iao/aiey a Aeiiaoeeii Ainoaea?noaaiiii einoeoooa eneonnoaaiiiai
eioaeeaeoa.

I?e/eiaie iiaeaioiaee e auionea niaoeeaeueiiai eo?na eaeoeee yaeeenue:

1.Ionoonoaea io?aaioaiiiai e aeinooiiiai o/aaieea eiaeaia?iie
iai?aaeaiiinoe ii nicaeaieth nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey.

2.Aeaoeoeeo eiea niioaaonoaothuae oaiaoeee aeey i?aaiecaoeee
naiinoiyoaeueiie ?aaiou nooaeaioia.

3.Iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaiauaiey ioaeaeueiuo acaeyaeia aaoi?a, aeinoaoi/ii
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia a?aiy niaoeeaeece?iaaaoaainy a iaeanoe nicaeaiey
nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n eo?nii eaeoeee a ianoiyuaa o/aaiia iiniaea iiiauaiu
aii?inu i?aeoe/aneeo caiyoee ii eco/aaiui oaiai e iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey
e eaai?aoi?iui ?aaioai.

Ninoaaeoaeue aeioe. E.A. Aaeica?neee

Ioaaonoaaiiue ca auione A.A. Aii/a?ia

N I Ae A ? AE A I E A

O a i a 1 ?aniiciaaaiea ia?acia a aeecie /aeiaaea
(Aaaaeaiea)………

E A E Oe E ss 1.1 ?aniiciaaaiea a aeieiae/aneeo e oaoie/aneeo
nenoaiao.

1.1.1. Anaiauaiethuee oa?aeoa? aeaenoaey iaoaieciia ?aniiciaaaiey
………………………………………………………………
………………….

1.1.2. E?aoeay enoi?ey aii?ina iiyaeaiey oaoie/aneeo nenoai
aaoiiaoe/aneiai ?aniiciaaaiey e iaoiaeia eo
nicaeaiey………………………………………………………
………………………..………

E A E Oe E ss 1.2 Oa?ieiieiaey e ioee/eoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe nenoai
?aniiciaaaiey
………………………………………………………….……….

1.2.1. Iniiaiua
ii?aaeaeaiey…………………………………….……………….

1.2.2. Nenoaiu
?aniiciaaaiey……………………………………………………..

O a i a 2 Caaea/e, ?aoaaiua a i?ioeanna nicaeaiey nenoai
?aniiciaaaiey

E A E Oe E ss 2.1. I?iaeaiaoeea caaea/ nicaeaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey
ia iienaoaeueiii o?iaia …………………………………

E A E Oe E ss 2.2. Oi?ioee?iaea caaea/ nicaeaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey
e iaoiaeu eo ?aoaiey …………………….…………………

E A E Oe E ss 2.3. Oi?ioee?iaea caaea/ nicaeaiey nenoai
?aniiciaaaiey e iaoiaeu eo ?aoaiey (i?iaeieaeaiea) ……………….

O a i a 3 Eeanneoeeaoeey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey

E A E Oe E ss 3.1 I?eioeeiu eeanneoeeaoeee e oeiu nenoai
?aniiciaaaiey………………………………………………………….

E A E Oe E ss 3.2 I?eioeeiu eeanneoeeaoeee e oeiu nenoai
?aniiciaaaiey (i?iaeieaeaiea) …………………………………………….

O a i a 4 Iioeiecaoeey ya?enoe/aneeo auai?ia i?e nicaeaiee nenoai
?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia

E A E Oe E ss 4.1 Iioeiecaoeey aeoaaeoa eeannia e neiaa?y
i?eciaeia

4.1.1. Ooi/iaiea iacia/aiey  e oeaee  nicaeaiey N? …….……………….

4.1.2. Acaeiinaycue ?acia?iinoe aeoaaeoa eeannia e yooaeoeaiinoe N?
………………………………………………………………………

E A E Oe E ss 4.2 Iioeiecaoeey aeoaaeoa eeannia e neiaa?y
i?eciaeia (i?iaeieaeaiea)
….…………………………………………………….

4.2.1.Acaeiinaycue ?acia?iinoe aaeoi?a i?eciaeia e yooaeoeaiinoe
N?…………………………………………………………………………

4.2.2.Oi?iaeecaoeey caaea/e iioeiaeueiiai acaeiinaycaiiiai auai?a

aeoaaeoa eeannia e neiaa?y i?eciaeia ………….…………………….

Oi?iaeecaoeey enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo .. . . ……. …..……… .

4.2.2.2.Auea?uo ?aniiciaaaiey e iioeiecaoeey aeoaaeoa eeannia e
neiaa?y i?eciaeia a oneiaeyo ia?aie/aiee ……..

O a i a 5 Iiaeaee?iaaiea nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia –
iaoiaeieiaey eo nicaeaiey e iioeiecaoeee

E A E Oe E ss 5.1 Aaaaeaiea a iiaeaee?iaaiea
……………………………….

5.1.1. Enoi?ey aii?ina
……………………………………………………………..

5.1.2 Iniiaiua ii?aaeaeaiey
……………………………………..……………

E A E Oe E ss 5.2 Iiaeaee?iaaiea neiaeiuo nenoai e i?eiaiaiea
iiaeaeae

5.2.1. I?eioeeiu iino?iaiey iiaeaee neiaeiie nenoaiu …………….

5.2.2. Iiaeaee?iaaiea neiaeiuo nenoai e iiuoii-oai?aoe/aneee iaoiae eo
eniuoaiee …………………………………………………………

E A E Oe E ss 5.3 Iaoiae noaoenoe/aneeo eniuoaiee (iaoiae
Iiioa-Ea?ei)………………………………………………………………….

5.3.1.Iniiaiia ii?aaeaeaiea
…………………………………………………….

5.3.2.I?eioeeiu iieo/aiey neo/aeiuo aaee/ei ia YAI …………

E A E Oe E ss 5.4 Iaoiae noaoenoe/aneeo eniuoaiee (i?iaeieaeaiea)

5.4.1.Iiaeaee?iaaiea iacaaeneiuo neo/aeiuo niauoee ……………

5.4.2.Niiniau iieo/aiey neo/aeiuo /enae n caaeaiiui caeiiii
?ani?aaeaeaiey
………………………………………………….……………………

E A E Oe E ss 5.5 Iiaeaeue nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia
…………….

5.5.1.Iiaeaee?iaaiea ?aniiciaaaaiiai iauaeoa ……..…………………

E A E Oe E ss 5.6. Iiaeaeue nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia
(i?iaeieaeaiea)……………………………………………………………

5.6.1.Iiaeaee?iaaiea n?aaenoa ii?aaeaeaiey oa?aeoa?enoee iauaeoia
?aniiciaaaiey………………………………………………………
………………….

5.6.2.Iiaeaee?iaaiea eaiaeia nayce ………………………….………………

E A E Oe E ss 5.7. Iiaeaee?iaaiea aeai?eoia ?aniiciaaaiey
………….

5.7.1.Iiaeaeue aeai?eoia ?aniiciaaaiey iauaeoia (yaeaiee, i?ioeannia)
………………………………………………………………
……………………….

5.7.2.Iiaeoeue ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey ……..

5.7.3.Iiaeoeue oi?aaeaiey iiaeaeueth nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey …………

E A E Oe E ss 5.8 Iiuoii-oai?aoe/aneee iaoiae a caaea/ao nicaeaiey
nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey
……………………………………………………………

5.8.1.Eniieueciaaiea i?eioeeiia iiuoii-oai?aoe/aneiai iaoiaea i?e
iiaeaee?iaaiee N? …………………………………..……………………………

5.8.2. Iiaeaee?iaaiea a caaea/ao nicaeaiey e iioeiecaoeee nenoai
?aniiciaaaiey…………………………………………………..
…….…………………

EAAI?AOI?IUA
?AAIOU…………………………………………………………

AII?INU I?AEOE*ANEEO CAIssOEE ……………………………..……

EEOA?AOO?A……………………………………………………….
……………………….

O a i a 1

?aniiciaaaiea a aeieiae/aneeo e oaoie/aneeo

nenoaiao

E A E Oe E ss 1.1

?aniiciaaaiea ia?acia a aeecie /aeiaaea

( Aaaaeaiea)

1.1.1. Anaiauaiethuee oa?aeoa? aeaenoaey iaoaieciia ?aniiciaaaiey.

?aniiciaaaiea ia?acia (a /anoi aiai?yo – iauaeoia, neaiaeia, neooaoeee,
yaeaiee eee i?ioeannia) – naiay ?ani?ino?aiaiiay caaea/a, eioi?oth
/aeiaaeo i?eoiaeeony ?aoaoue i?aeoe/anee aaeanaeoiaeii io ia?aiai aei
iineaaeiaai aeiy naiaai nouanoaiaaiey. Aeey yoiai ii eniieuecoao
ia?iiiua ?ano?nu naiaai iicaa, eioi?ua iu ioeaieaaai oaeei iieacaoaeai
eae /enei iae?iiia, ?aaiia 1010.

Iiaeii aeaaea ia oo?oaeaeay naay i?eia?aie (iu ?anniio?ei eo ieaea)
caiaoeoue, /oi iioiaeea aeaenoaey iaaethaeathony a aeieiaee, a aeeaie
i?e?iaea, a eiiaaea aeaaea a iaaeeaie. E?iia oiai, ?aniiciaaaiea
iinoiyiii ano?a/aaony a oaoieea. A anee yoi oae, oi, i/aaeaeii, neaaeoao
n/eoaoue iaoaieci ?aniiciaaaiey anaiauaiethuei.

N aieaa iaueo iiceoeee iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, e yoi aiieia i/aaeaeii,
/oi a iianaaeiaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaae iinoiyiii noaeeeaaaony n
caaea/aie, naycaiiuie n i?eiyoeai ?aoaiee, iaoneiaeaiiuo iai?a?uaii
iaiythuaeny ie?oaeathuae ianoaiiaeie. A yoii i?ioeanna i?eieiatho
o/anoea: i?aaiu /oanoa, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo /aeiaae aini?eieiaao
eioi?iaoeeth ecaia; oeaio?aeueiay ia?aiay nenoaia, inouanoaeythuay
ioai?, ia?a?aaioeo eioi?iaoeee e i?eiyoea ?aoaiee; aeaeaaoaeueiua
i?aaiu, ?aaeecothuea i?eiyoia ?aoaiea. Ii a iniiaa ?aoaiee yoeo caaea/
eaaeeo, a /ai eaaei oaaaeeoueny, ?aniiciaaaiea ia?acia.

A naiae i?aeoeea ethaee ?aoatho ?aciiia?aciua caaea/e ii
eeanneoeeaoeee e ?aniiciaaaieth iauaeoia, yaeaiee e neooaoeee (iaiiaaiii
ociatho ae?oa ae?oaa, n aieueoie nei?inoueth /eoatho ia/aoiua e
?oeiieniua oaenou, aacioeai/ii aiaeyo aaoiiiaeee a neiaeiii iioiea
oee/iiai aeaeaeaiey, inouanoaeytho ioa?aeiaeo aeaoaeae ia eiiaaea?a,
?acaaaeuaatho eiaeu, ae?aaithth aaeiaoneoth eeeiiienue e o.ae.).

?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua i?eia?u anai?iieeathuaai iaoaiecia ?aniiciaaaiey
ia?acia /aeiaaeii a i?e?iaea e iauanoaa.

1.Au eaaei ociaaoa ecaeaeaea naiaai ciaeiiiai (ii caaeaeoanue aii?inii:
eae?) Ia?aoeoa aieiaiea ia neaaoth caaeneiinoue ?acoeueoaoia
?aniiciaaaiey io aeaeueiinoe, anee eiia/ii iu aua aeaeei ioaeaeueiua
yeaiaiou e aeaeaeaiey.

2.I?aaeiieiaeei Aai ioaeai aeey eco/aiey eee iiaoi?aiey oaeie ?acaeae
iaoaiaoeee, eae eioaa?aeueiia en/eneaiea. Aaoe aeaenoaey :

a) ?aniiciaaoa ii ei?aoeai iaeiaeae ni?aai/iee ia eieaeiie iieea;

(ia oiia ae?oaeo eiea – i?i/eouaay, ?aniiciaaay iacaaiey i?e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiii i?iniio?a eee ii aiaoiaio aeaeo, o?aieiiio Aaie a
iaiyoe ii i?aaeoanoaothuaio iieueciaaieth yoei ni?aai/ieeii)

a) eenoaaoa e ?aniiciaaoa no?aieoeo ni?aai/ieea n iaeaaeaieai; (ii iiuoo
ciaaoa, /oi iaeaaeaiea ?aniieaaaaony a ia/aea eee a eiioea eieae)

a) ?aniiciaaoa oaenou caaieiaeia iaeaaeaiey; (/eoaaoa);

a) ?aniiciaaoa n?aaee anao caaieiaeia iaiaoiaeeiue Aai (n?aaieaaaoa
i?i/eoaiiue ni niuneiaui niaea?aeaieai eioa?anothuaai Aan ?acaeaea)

ae) ?aniiciaaoa niioaaonoaothuoth yoiio caaieiaeo no?aieoeo; (ciay, /oi
a iaeaaeaiee i?ioea iaeaeaiiiai ?acaeaea ia/aoaaony eioa?anothuee iiia?
no?aieoeu)

a) eenoaaoa ni?aai/iee e ?aniiciaaoa ii ioia?aoeee no?aieoe iaiaoiaeeiue
iiia?;

(n?aaieaaaoa caiiiiaiiue iiia? n iiia?aie ioe?uaaaiuo no?aieoe) e o.ae.,
e o.i.

Ia?aoeoa aieiaiea, ai-ia?auo, ia oi, neieueei ciaiee, o?aiyueony a
Aaoae iaiyoe eniieuecoaony. Ai-aoi?uo, caeanue, eae e a i?aaeuaeoueo
i?eia?ao, iiaeii caaeaoueny iiiai/eneaiiuie aii?inaie ii iiaiaeo oiai,
eae yoi Au naie ana inouanoaeyaoa, e ia iaeoe ioaaoa.

A ?anniio?aiiii i?eia?a iu oaea aeieaeiu auee caiaoeoue, /oi iiieii
“/enoiai” ?aniiciaaaiey a iai i?enoonoaotho iaoe aeaenoaey, ii i?e
yoii ethaiio aeaenoaeth i?aaeoanoaoao ?aniiciaaaiea. A ethaia
auiieiaiiia aeaenoaea aea/ao ca niaie iiaue yoai ?aniiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

3.Aio iiaeao auoue aieaa i/aaeaeiue i?eia? ec aiaiiiai aeaea.
Ia?aoeoa a iai aieiaiea ia ni/aoaiea ?aniiciaaaiey e aeaenoaee,
yaeythueony oi?aaeaieai.

I?aaenoaaueoa naay a ?iee eao/eea a eaaeia naiieaoa-eno?aaeoaey. Au
aceaoaaoa, iaae?aaoa aunioo, aioiaeoanue e ia/eiaaoa auiieiyoue
aiaaoth caaea/o. I?aaeaea anaai:

-iaia?oaeeaaaoa (oi anoue, ?aniiciaaoa) a ciia iaci?a oeaeue-naiieao
i?ioeaieea;

-eaeaoa ia naeeaeaiea;

-ia iniiaa eiathueony ciaiee i naiai naiieaoa eae i?oaeee – ?aniiciaaoa
iiiaio, eiaaea i?iecaanoe ione ?aeaou ii iaia?oaeaiiie oeaee;

-i?iecaiaeeoa ione;

eee:

-?aniiciaaoa, /oi i?ioeaiee iia?aaeee Aan e i?iecaae ii aaoaio
naiieaoo ione ?aeaou;

-?aniiciaaoa n?aaee aieueoiai iaai?a oaeoe/aneeo i?eaiia a aaoae iaiyoe
iaiaoiaeeiue i?eai aeey oi?aaeaiey naiieaoii a oeaeyo i?iaaaeaiey
i?ioeai?aeaoiiai iaiaa?a;

-i?iecaiaeeoa iaiaa?.

-?aniiciaaoa, /oi iaiaa? oaeaeny (anee ia oaeaeny e anoue
aiciiaeiinoue- iiaoi?yaoa) – e naie aoaeoaoa i?ioeaieea;

Caoai:

-?aniiciaaoa, /oi ai?th/aa ia enoiaea eee – caaea/a auiieiaia – ooiaeeoa
ia iinaaeeo;

-?aniiciaaoa iinaaei/ioth iieino – inouanoaeyaoa iinaaeeo.

Aio aeaeaei ia iieiue e iiae?iaiue ia?a/aiue yoaiia ?aniiciaaaiey e
aeaenoaee. Ii anee naie aeaenoaey iiiyoiu e i/aaeaeiu, oi
i?aaeoanoaothuaa ei ?aniiciaaaiea o?aaoao iniuneeaaiey
niioaaonoaothuaai iaoaiecia. E i?aaeaea anaai, eaaeaeue yoai
iienaiiuo iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe – yoi aeaenoaey ia iniiaa ciaiee,
o?aiyueony a iaiyoe.

4. ?anniio?ei i?eia? ec iaeanoe yeiiiieee. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaeiia ii yeiiiie/aneei iieacaoaeyi oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe iaia?oaeeaaao (?aniiciaao) oooaeoaiea
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai iaania/aiey iaeanoe, ai?iaea e o.i.

Ia?aoeaoenue e ae?oaie a?oiia yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae, ii ?aniiciaao,
/oi eaaeeo a iniiaa oaeiai iaaeaeaoaeueiiai yaeaiey (iai?eia?,
ionoonoaea ai?th/aai aeey aaoio?ainii?oa). A eoiaa i?eieiaaony ?aoaiea
i aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeiaiai?ao ia aaicei eee aeecaeueiia oiieeai n
iinoaaueeaie eee, iaeaey iiauo iinoaaueeia, i?aaiecoao ioi?aaeo
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai ninoaaa oeenoa?i eee aaoicai?aaueeia aeey aeinoaaee
e o.ae.

5. Aua iaeei aiaiiue i?eia? ec iaeanoe iai?iiu, aaea /aeiaae ia
auiieiyao ie ?aniiciathuae ooieoeee, ie ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey. NI?I
(nenoaia i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey i ?aeaoiii iaiaaeaiee), iaoiaeynue a ?aaeeia
e?oaeinooi/iiai aiaaiai aeaaeo?noaa aaoiiaoe/anee iaia?oaeeaaao a
iaeioi?ue iiiaio a?aiaie (oi anoue, ?aniiciaao) EI (einie/aneee
iauaeo) e caaycuaaao aai o?aaeoi?eth. Ia yoie iniiaa aaoiiaoe/anee
ii?aaeaeyaony ia yaeyaony ee yoio EI aaeeenoe/aneie ?aeaoie
(?aniiciaaony ii iiiaaeaieth i?ieiiae?iaaiiie ai a?aiy iieaoa EI oi/ee
aai iaaeaiey ia iai?iiyaioth oa??eoi?eth, ia oa??eoi?eth no?aiu).
Anee oeacaiiia oneiaea auiieieeinue NI?I aeaao neaiae o?aaiae ia
n?aaenoaa i?ioeaiaeaenoaey , iai?eia? nenoaio i?ioeai?aeaoiie iai?iiu
(I?I). Nenoaia I?I, a naith i/a?aaeue, iaycaia aaoiiaoe/anee ii aeaiiui
NI?I iaia?oaeeoue (?aniiciaoue ) eioa?anothuoth oeaeue, ?aniiciaoue,
iai?eia?, /oi yoi neiaeiay aaeeenoe/aneay oeaeue NAOe (aiaaay /anoue
A* +eiaeiua oeaee EOe), ?aniiciaoue A* n?aaee EOe, i?iecaanoe ione
i?ioeai?aeaou e o.ae., e o.i.

6.Oaia?ue i?eia?u ec iaeanoe aeieiaee.

Naia/ei ?anoaiey ?aniiciaao aeinoaoi/iinoue oaiia?aoo?u ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu, aeinoaoi/iinoue aeaae, ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa – e aeeth/aao
iaoaieci ?inoa.

?inyiea ?aniiciaao ianaeiiia, naaoaa ia aa eaianoee e ?acei cae?uaaaony
eae eiaooea aeey iineaaeothuaai ia?aaa?eaaiey ieue.

Iiaenieia/iee ?aniiciaao, aaea ?aniieiaeaii nieioea, e iiai?a/eaaao
naia nioeaaoea a aai noi?iio.

Eiia? ?aniiciaao /aeiaaea e iueao aai e?iaue.

Eyaooea ?aniiciaao e eiaeo eiia?a.

Oaeaa ?aniiciaao e eiaeo eyaooeo. e o.ae.

E caeanue oaeaea iu caaeaainy oaea ciaeiiui iai aii?inii: eae?

7. Nianai oaea oo?e?iaaiiue neo/ae ec oaoieee: aeaa?iie caiie
?aniiciaao naie eeth/ e ?ac?aoaao ioe?uoue iiiauaiea.

A iineaaeiai i?eia?a /aeiaae, eae nicaeaoaeue, ciaao ana.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?eaaaeaiiua i?eia?u iieacuaatho, /oi ?aniiciaaaiea a
i?e?iaea, iauanoaa, a aeecie /aeiaaea, a oaoieea – anaiauaiethua. Ii
i?e yoii iu ioia/aai, /oi ioaaoia ia iinoaaeaiiua aii?inu, eiaaea ?a/ue
eanaaony ?aniiciathuae aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
iu ia iaeaeai. Aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie iieiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i
niiniaiinoyo aeeauo i?aaieciia a ?aniiciaaaiee iiiaeo yaeaiee e
iauaeoia ionoonoaotho. A oi aea a?aiy, nicaeaaay oaoie/aneea nenoaiu,
niiniaiua caiaieoue aai, /aeiaae auneacuaaao aeiioacu, i?iaeaeaathuea
aai e ciaieth ?aniiciathuae aeayoaeueiinoe a i?e?iaea, /oi iicaieyao
aio oniaoii ?aoaoue noiyuea caaea/e. ?anniao?eaaaiue eo?n “Iniiau
iino?iaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia” e aeieaeai iao/eoue iiieiaieth
oiai, /oi eaaeeo a iniiaa nia?aiaiiuo aeiioac ?aniiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe e eae ia yoie iniiaa oiiiyiooua caaea/e ?aoathony.

1.1.2. E?aoeay enoi?ey aii?ina iiyaeaiey oaoie/aneeo nenoai
aaoiiaoe/aneiai ?aniiciaaaiey e iaoiaeia eo nicaeaiey

Aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy aii?inu ?aniiciaaaiey ?anniao?eaaeenue
/aeiaaeii eeoue n iiceoeee iaoiaeia aeieiaee e ineoieiaee. I?e yoii
oeaeueth eco/aiey yaeyeenue a iniiaiii ea/anoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee,
ia iicaieythuea ane?uoue e oi/ii iienaoue niioaaonoaothuee iaoaieci.
Anee e iieo/aeenue /eneiaua oa?aeoa?enoeee, oi iie, eae i?aaeei, auee
naycaiu n eco/aieai ?aoeaioi?ia, oaeeo eae i?aaiu c?aiey, neooa,
inycaiey. *oi aea eanaeinue oa?aeoa?enoee i?eiyoey ?aoaiee, oi aei eo
iaoaiaoe/aneie ioeaiee aeaei ia aeioiaeeei. E oieueei eeaa?iaoeea
iicaieeea aaanoe a eco/aiea ineoieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna ?aniiciaaaiey
ia?acia, eaaeauaai a iniiaa i?eiyoey ethauo ?aoaiee, eiee/anoaaiiua
iaoiaeu, /oi ioe?uei i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua aiciiaeiinoe a
enneaaeiaaiee e i?iaeoe?iaaiee aaoiiaoe/aneeo nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey.
Oieueei eeaa?iaoeea iicaieeea aaanoe a iaeanoue ?aniiciaaaiey, eae
yaeaiey i?e?iaeu, iaoaiaoe/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey. A yoii iiaeii
oaeaeaoue a /anoiinoe ?aaeecaoeeth acaeyaeia Aaeeeay, eioi?ue
ooaa?aeaeae:

“Eieaa i?e?iaeu iaienaia ia ycuea iaoaiaoeee. E oio, eoi oi/ao i?i/anoue
aa, aeieaeai eco/aoue yoio ycue”.

Enoi?e/anee neiaeeeinue, /oi iiiaea caaea/e oaeiai eeanna, eae
?aniiciaaaiea iaoaiinaaeeia; ?aniiciaaaiea aaeaoeeiiiie neooaoeee a
?aeiia ay?iii?oa aaeaaeeniao/a?ii; ?aniiciaaaiea iieinu iinaaeee
eao/eeii a neiaeiuo oneiaeyo, /aeiaae, eae i?aaeei, ?aoaao
yooaeoeaii, oi anoue n iaiaoiaeeiui ea/anoaii. Yoei e iauyniyaony
enoi?e/anee iiyaeaoayny iaiaoiaeeiinoue eniieueciaaiey /aeiaaea a
ea/anoaa yeaiaioa eee caaia neiaeiuo aaoiiaoe/aneeo nenoai.

I?eia/aoaeueii oi, /oi a i?ioeanna oeacaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea
/enei i?eieiaaiuo ?aoaiee ii ?acoeueoaoai ?aniiciaaaiey neooaoeee
eiia/ii, a oi a?aiy eae /enei ninoiyiee aiaoiae n?aaeu, ioeaieaaaiuo a
i?ioeanna naiiai ?aniiciaaaiey e i?eaiaeyueo e oeacaiiui ?aoaieyi,
iiaeao auoue aaneiia/iui.

Yoi iiaeii aeaeaoue ia i?eia?a iaoeienoee, ia/aoathuae iiae aeeeoiaeo.
Ec aan/eneaiiiai iiiaeanoaa aa?eaioia i?ieciioaiey iaeiiai e oiai
aea caoea iia auae?aao oieueei iaeei, anaaaea oaea?yy ii iaeiie,
ii?aaeaeaiiie eeaaeoa ieoouae iaoeiee. A ?acoeueoaoa iia aacioeai/ii
ia/aoaao neiaa, iacaaeneii io eo eneaaeaiey i?e onoiii i?iecianaiee.

E i?eiyoeth oaeiai eiia/iiai /enea ?aoaiee /aeiaae iiaeaioiaeai anai
naiei aeeciaiiui iiuoii. Iiyoiio i?eiyoea eaeaieiaee aaoiiaoecaoeee
oeacaiiuo i?ioeannia, caiaiu /aeiaaea eae caaia aaoiiaoe/aneeo nenoai
i?eaaei e oiio, /oi /aeiaa/anoai i?aaeaea anaai iao/eeinue no?ieoue
aaoiiaou, niiniaiua ?aaae?iaaoue ia iiiaeanoai eciaiaiee
oa?aeoa?enoee aiaoiae n?aaeu iaeioi?ui ia?aie/aiiui /eneii
?aoeeiiaeueiuo ?aoaiee (?aaeoeee) eniieieoaeueiuo i?aaiia yoeo
aaoiiaoia. Yoi ia cia/eo, /oi auee iaeaeaiu iaoaieciu, eaaeauea a
iniiaa /aeiaa/aneeo e i?e?iaeiuo niiniaiinoae ?aniiciaaaiey, ii aeaaiua
iniaaiiinoe yoeo niiniaiinoae, eaaeauea ia iiaa?oiinoe i?aaenoaaeaiee,
nicaeaiiua aaoiiaou ai iiiaeo neo/ayo oi?ioi eieoe?iaaee.

Iai?eia?, aaoiiao, oi?aaeythuee oaoiieiae/aneei i?ioeannii auionea
iaeioi?ie i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaae?oao ia neo/aeiua eciaiaiey ea/anoaa aa
iooai ?aaoee?iaaiey eiee/anoaa oie eee eiie eiiiiiaiou enoiaeiiai
iaoa?eaea, ?aaeeia ?aaiou e o.i., ii oieueei i?e aeinoeaeaiee
ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy yoeo eciaiaiee. Oi anoue, ?aaeoeey inouanoaeyaony
ia ia ethaia eciaiaiea, a ia iiiaeanoai eo, niaieoiiinoue.

A ?acoeueoaoa /aeiaa/anoai i?eoei e neooaoeee, eiaaea ?aniiciathuea
ono?ienoaa iiaoo iiauoaoue, iai?eia?, yooaeoeaiinoue nenoai nayce
(?aniiciaaay neaiaeu a ooiao), iiiiaatho onoaiaaeeaaoue iauaeoeaiue
aeeaaiic caaieaaaiee (?aniiciaaay anaaaea iaeiicia/ii a ioee/ee io
/aeiaaea neiioiiu-i?eciaee caaieaaaiee), aeatho aiciiaeiinoue
inouanoaeyoue aaoiiaoe/aneee eiio?ieue neiaeiuo oaoie/aneeo nenoai e
aia?aiy aiaoeaaoueny e i?iaiaeeoue eo ?aiiioii-ainnoaiiaeoaeueiua ?aaiou
e o.ae.

Nicaeaiea ono?ienoa, eioi?ua auiieiytho ooieoeee ?aniiciaaaiey
?acee/iuo iauaeoia, ai iiiaeo neo/ayo ioe?uaaao aiciiaeiinoue caiaiu
/aeiaaea eae yeaiaioa neiaeiie nenoaiu niaoeeaeece?iaaiiui aaoiiaoii.
Oaeay caiaia iicaieyao cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eoue aiciiaeiinoe ?acee/iuo
nenoai, auiieiythueo neiaeiua eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiae/aneea caaea/e.
Caiaoei caeanue, /oi ea/anoai ?aaio, auiieiyaiuo /aeiaaeii ia ethaii
?aai/ai ianoa caaeneo io eaaeeoeeaoeee, iiuoa, aeia?iniaanoiinoe,
ninoiyiey. A oi aea a?aiy aaoiiao aai caiaiythuee aeaenoaoao
iaeiiia?acii e iaania/eaaao anaaaea iaeeiaeiaia ea/anoai, anee ii
eni?aaai.

Ii ia oieueei oeacaiiay caiaia e inaiaiaeaeaiea /aeiaaea io auiieiaiey
?ooeiiuo iia?aoeee yaeyaony i?e/eiie nicaeaiey e iienea iooae nicaeaiey
?yaea nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo /aeiaae aiiaua ia a
ninoiyiee ?aoaoue yoo caaea/o ni nei?inoueth, caaeaaaaiie
ianoiyoaeuenoaaie, ia caaeneii io ea/anoa e ineoieiae/aneiai ninoiyiey
i?eieiathuaai ?aoaiea (Iai?eia?: i?ioeai?aeaoiue iaiaa? naiieaoa a
neiaeiuo iaoaioneiaeyo; auaiae ec ?aai/aai ?aaeeia AYN e o.i.). Aaoiiao
aea n oaeeie caaea/aie iiaeao eaaei ni?aaeyoueny.

Eoae, iniiaiua oeaee caiaiu /aeiaaea a caaea/ao ?aniiciaaaiey
naiaeyony e neaaeothuei:

1) Inaiaiaeaeaiea /aeiaaea io iaeiiia?aciuo ?ooeiiuo iia?aoeee aeey
?aoaiey ae?oaeo aieaa aaaeiuo caaea/.

2) Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa auiieiyaiuo ?aaio.

3) Iiauoaiea nei?inoe ?aoaiey caaea/.

A oa/aiea aeinoaoi/ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie i?iaeaia ?aniiciaaaiey
i?eaeaeaao aieiaiea niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe i?eeeaaeiie iaoaiaoeee, a
caoai e eioi?iaoeee. Oae iiaeii, a /anoiinoe, ioiaoeoue ?aaiou ?.Oeoa?a,
auiieiaiiua a 20-o aiaeao e i?eaaaeoea e oi?ie?iaaieth
aeene?eieiaioiiai aiaeeca, eae iaeiiai ec ?acaeaeia oai?ee e i?aeoeee
?aniiciaaaiey. A 40-o aiaeao A.I.Eieiiai?iaui e A.ss.Oei/eiui
iinoaaeaia caaea/a i ?acaeaeaiee niane aeaoo ?ani?aaeaeaiee.

Iaeaieaa ieiaeioai?iuie yaeeenue 50-60-a aiaeu OO aaea. A yoi a?aiy ia
iniiaa iannu ?aaio iiyaeeanue oai?ey noaoenoe/aneeo ?aoaiee. A
?acoeueoaoa yoiai iiyaeaiey iaeaeaiu aeai?eoiu, iaania/eaathuea
ioianaiea iiaiai iauaeoa e iaeiiio ec caaeaiiuo eeannia, /oi yaeeinue
ia/aeii ieaiiia?iiai iao/iiai iienea e i?aeoe/aneeo ?ac?aaioie. A ?aieao
eeaa?iaoeee ia/aei oi?ie?iaaoueny iiaia iao/iia iai?aaeaiea, naycaiiia
n ?ac?aaioeie oai?aoe/aneeo iniia e i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee
ono?ienoa, a caoai e nenoai, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ?aniiciaaaiey
iauaeoia, yaeaiee, i?ioeannia.

Iiaay iao/iay aeenoeeieeia iieo/eea iacaaiea “?aniiciaaaiea ia?acia”.

Oaeei ia?acii, aacie aeey ?aoaiey caaea/ ioianaiey iauaeoia e oiio eee
eiiio eeanno iineoaeeee, eae yoi ioia/aaony naaiaeiy, ?acoeueoaou
eeanne/aneie oai?ee noaoenoe/aneeo ?aoaiee. A aa ?aieao no?ieeenue
aeai?eoiu , iaania/eaathuea ia iniiaa yenia?eiaioaeueiuo ecia?aiee
ia?aiao?ia (i?eciaeia), oa?aeoa?ecothueo yoio iauaeo, a oaeaea iaeioi?uo
ai?ei?iuo aeaiiuo, iienuaathueo eeannu, ii?aaeaeaiea eiie?aoiiai
eeanna, e eioi?iio iiaeao auoue ioianai ?aniiciaaaaiue iauaeo.

A iineaaeothuai iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao oai?ee ?aniiciaaaiey ?anoe?eeny
ca n/ao i?eiaiaiey:

-?acaeaeia i?eeeaaeiie iaoaiaoeee;

-oai?ee eioi?iaoeee;

-iaoiaeia aeaaa?u eiaeee;

-iaoaiaoe/aneiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey e nenoaiioaoieee.

(Nenoaiioaoieea – iao/iia iai?aaeaiea, ioaaouaathuaa i?iaeoe?iaaiea,
nicaeaiea, eniuoaiey e yenieoaoaoeeth neiaeiuo nenoai).

E na?aaeeia 70-o aiaeia ii?aaeaeeeny iaeee ?aniiciaaaiey eae
naiinoiyoaeueiiai iao/iiai iai?aaeaiey, iiyaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue
nicaeaiey ii?iaeueiie iaoaiaoe/aneie oai?ee ?aniiciaaaiey. A yoii iai
i?eaeaony oaaaeeoueny, a oaeaea i?eia?anoe iaiaoiaeeiua iaauee,
i?ineooaa eo?n “Iniiau iino?iaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia”.

Ia?aay ioa/anoaaiiay ?aaioa a iaeanoe ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia – ?aaioa
iniiaiiieiaeieea nia?aiaiiie oai?ee eioi?iaoeee Oa?eaae/a Aeaenaiae?a
Aeaenaiae?iae/a – “Iiiciaaaiea ia?acia” .”?aaeeioaoieea” o.14,15.
1959 a.

Iaoe ioa/anoaaiiua o/aiua, aianoea nouanoaaiiue aeeaae a yoo
aeenoeeieeio:

A.I.Aeooeia, A.N.Ieoaeaae/, A.N.Ioaa/aa, II.Aoneaiei, TH.E.AEo?aaeaa,
ss.C.Oeuieei, A.A.Eaaoiaiei, I.A.Aeca?iai, Y.I.A?aaa?iai,
I.I.Aiiaa?ae, A.I.Aaiiee, A.I.Oa?oaeianeee, A.A.?aiei, E.A.?ano?eaei,
A.E.Ai?aeee e ae?.

Ca?oaaaeiua o/aiua:

1-e O.?icaiaeaoo – 1957a , Ia?naioi?ii – i?inoaeoay iiaeaeue iicaa,
?aoathuay caaea/e ?aniiciaaaiey.

?.Aiinaean, O.A?aiaiaea?, ?.Aeoaea, A.Naaanoeai, Aeae.Oo, E.Oo,
I.Oa?o.

E A E Oe E ss 1.2

Oa?ieiieiaey e ioee/eoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey

1.2.1. Iniiaiua ii?aaeaeaiey

A neeo /enoi enoi?e/aneeo i?e/ei eeann caaea/ ?aniiciaaaiey naycai n
iiiyoeai “ia?aca”. A naia a?aiy ia ia?aoeee aieiaiey, /oi a
caeinoaiaaiiii ec aiaeiycu/iuo ?aaio oa?ieia “pattern recognition”
oa?iei “pattern”, e?iia cia/aiey “ia?ac”, eiaao aua cia/aiea
“iiaeaeue”, noeeue”, “?aaeei”, “caeiiiia?iinoue”, “ia?ac aeaenoaey”. A
nia?aiaiiii ?aniiciaaaiee e iniaaiii eneonnoaaiiii eioaeeaeoa aai
oiio?aaeytho a naiii oe?ieii niunea, eiay a aeaeo, /oi “ia?ac” – yoi
iaeioi?ia no?oeoo?e?iaaiiia i?eaeeaeaiiia (ia?aoeoa aieiaiea –
“i?eaeeaeaiiia”!) iienaiea (yneec) eco/aaiiai iauaeoa, yaeaiey eee
i?ioeanna.

Oi anoue, /anoe/iay ii?aaeaeaiiinoue iienaiey yaeyaony i?eioeeieaeueiui
naienoaii ia?aca.

Iniiaiia iacia/aiea iienaiee (ia?acia) – yoi eo eniieueciaaiea a
i?ioeanna onoaiiaeaiey niioaaonoaey iauaeoia, oi anoue i?e
aeieacaoaeuenoaa eo eaeaioe/iinoe, aiaeiae/iinoe, iiaeiaey, noiaenoaa e
o.i., eioi?ia inouanoaeyaony iooai n?aaiaiey (niiinoaaeaiey). Aeaa
ia?aca n/eoathony iiaeiaiuie, anee oaeaaony onoaiiaeoue eo
niioaaonoaea. Iiaeii, a /anoiinoe, n/eoaoue, /oi eiaao ianoi
niioaaonoaea, anee aeinoeaiooa eo eaeaioe/iinoue.

Niiinoaaeaiea ia?acia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iniiaioth caaea/o
?aniiciaaaiey e ea?aao nouanoaaiioth ?ieue a eioi?iaoeea a oeaeii.
Yoa caaea/a aicieeaao, a /anoiinoe, a ?acee/iuo ?acaeaeao
eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa, iai?eia? a iiieiaiee anoanoaaiiiai ycuea
eiiiuethoa?ii, neiaieueiie ia?aaioea aeaaa?ae/aneeo au?aaeaiee,
yenia?oiuo nenoaiao, i?aia?aciaaiee e neioaca i?ia?aii YAI.

Oaia?ue ioiaoei neaaeothuee aaaeiue iiiaio, /oi a ?acee/iuo caaea/ao
ia?aco i?eaeaaony ?acee/iue niune. Yoi ii?aaeaeyaony /anoi oai, eaeea
oa?aeoa?enoeee iauaeoa aoiaeyo a iienaiea ia?aca, eaeie aiia?ao
eniieuecoaony aeey i?aaenoaaeaiey yoeo oa?aeoa?enoee. Eiaiii ionthaea e
iiaeii iiiyoue, ii/aio ia?ac yaeyaony i?eaeeaeaiiui iienaieai iauaeoa.
*ai aieueoaa /enei naienoa e ea/anoa iauaeoa io?aaeaii ia i?eiyoii ycuea
a ia?aca ?anniao?eaaaiiai iauaeoa, oai iieiaa yoi iienaiea, oai iieiaa
yoio ia?ac oa?aeoa?ecoao iienuaaaiue iauaeo. Iaeiaei a ethaii neo/aa iu
eiaai aeaei n iienaieai, a ia n naiei iauaeoii, eioi?ue anaaaea aiaa/a
iienaiey. Eoae, ethaie ia?ac i?aaenoaaeyaony iaeioi?ui iaai?ii
i?eciaeia. Iiyoiio aiieia aeiionoeii ia?yaeo n au?aaeaieai
“?aniiciaaaiea ia?acia” i?eiaiyoue au?aaeaiea “ioiaeaeanoaeaiea
iaeioi?uo iaai?ia iienaiee iauaeoia”.

* * *

Aeinoaoi/ii iaaeyaeii e oai?aoe/anee e i?aeoe/anee iiieiaaony ?acee/ea
iaaeaeo iauaeoii e ia?acii, anee ?anniio?aoue ?acee/ey iaaeaeo ea?oeiie
(ooaeiaeanoaaiiia iieioii), yaeythuaeny ieineei iauaeoii, e oaeei aa
ecia?aaeaieai eae oioia?aoe/aneia eee eiiiuethoa?iia, aaaaeaiiia
oaeaeaia?ie eee neaia?ii.

I?inoioa i?eia?a ninoieo a oii, /oi eae ea?oeia, oae e aa ecia?aaeaiea
ia ieaiea eee a oaeaaeceiiiii eaae?a caiene – aeaoia?iu. Aaiaey
niioaaonoaothuea nenoaiu eii?aeeiao, i?aaenoaaei eo oae

f(a,b) – iauaeo;

g(x,y) – ecia?aaeaiea iauaeoa.

Iauai?eiyoi iauaeo iaicia/aoue aoeaie f, a ecia?aaeaiea -g.

Caiaoei n?aco, /oi ecia?aaeaiea iiaeao aunooiaoue eae ia?ac ea?oeiu a
oii /enea a aaoiiaoe/aneie nenoaia ?aniiciaaaiey, aoaeo/e aaaaeaiiui a
eiiiuethoa? aeey i?yiiai niiinoaaeaiey n ae?oaeie ecia?aaeaieyie. Ii i?e
yoii ia?aoei aieiaiea e ia oi, /oi ecia?aaeaiea caeanue – yoi oaea ia
nai iauaeo.

Iiaeii iiiyoue, /oi eaeaaeueiay ecia?aaeathuay nenoaia – yoi oaeay
nenoaia, aeey eioi?ie a ethaie oi/ea i?ino?ainoaa auiieiyaony ?aaainoai
f = g. Ia i?aeoeea ii/oe ia nouanoaoao oaeeo nenoai. Ooieoeeiiaeueiua
nayce iaaeaeo f e g anaaaea iiaeeaaeao yenia?eiaioaeueiiio
ii?aaeaeaieth.

Aeey iiieiaiey nooe aii?ina ?anniio?ei i?inoaeooth iioe/aneoth nenoaio
iieo/aiey oioia?aoee ea?oeiu, ia?eniaaiiie ia aeaooia?iii ye?aia.
Caeanue iu eiaai aeaei n iauaeoii, eaaeauai a ieineinoe, e oaeei aea
ieineei ecia?aaeaieai.

A aeaiiii i?eia?a ?ani?aaeaeaiey f e g eiatho iaeio e oo aea
?acia?iinoue, iineieueeo iie yaeythony i?ino?ainoaaiiui ?ani?aaeaeaieai
eioaineaiinoe naaoa eee aai oeaaoa a ieineinoe.

Oioia?aoey oi?ie?oaony eaaioaie naaoa, io?aaeaiiiai io ea?oeiu,
i?ioaaeoaai /a?ac eeiciaoth nenoaio oioiaiia?aoa e iiiaaoaai ia
oioiieaieo. Oaeia oi?ie?iaaiea ecia?aaeaiey i?eaiaeeo e iioa?e
ea/anoaa ca n/ao eneaaeaiee e ianiaa?oainoaa i?eaiiiai ono?ienoaa, e
neaaeiaaoaeueii, a yoii neo/aa f e g ia ?aaiu ae?oa ae?oao. E oieueei
anee ecaanoai caeii iioa?e ea/anoaa, oi iiaeii i?iaanoe eiiiainaoeeth
eneaaeaiee iooai niioaaonoaothuae ia?aaioee ecia?aaeaiey.

Ae?oaei i?eia?ii iiaoo auoue aeaooia?iua ecia?aaeaiey g ?ani?aaeaeaiey
f ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai i?aia?aoa a i?aaiecia /aeiaaea, iieo/aiiua n
iiiiuueth aaiia-eaia?u, iiai?a/eaathuaeny iineaaeiaaoaeueii ia
ii?aaeaeaiiua oaeu ioiineoaeueii iaoeeaioa. Caeanue iaaei ecaaaeoueny
io eeethcee oiai, /oi iieo/aiiua aeaoaee ecia?aaeaiey niioaaonoaotho
iaeanoyi eioa?ana a?a/a-aeeaaiinoa. Aeaei a oii, /oi ?anniio?aiiia
aecoaeece?iaaiiia ecia?aaeaiea – yoi ia ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeoeaiinoe
iiaeiuaiey a oaea iaoeeaioa, a ?ani?aaeaeaiea eioaineaiinoae oieueei a
yeaiaioao ecia?aaeaiey.

Oi anoue, ecia?aaeaiea g anoue iaeioi?ia i?aaenoaaeaiea (iienaiea)
iauaeoa f, eioi?ia, oioy e ?aniieaaaaony a oii aea ianoa, ii iiaeao
eiaoue ioee/ey ia oieueei ea/anoaaiiua, ii e oaeea eiee/anoaaiiua eae
?acia?u. A aeaiiii neo/aa i?eoiaeeony eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi i?ioeannu a
aaiia-eaia?a, n iiiiuueth eioi?ie i?iecaiaeeony ?aaeno?aoeey enoiaeiuo
aeaiiuo, ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue ia eiatho iaoaiaoe/aneiai iienaiey,
iicaieythuaai naycaoue iauaeo n aai ecia?aaeaieai. Yoi aua ?ac
canoaaeyao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi a?a/ ia aeaeeo eciaiaiee eioaineaiinoe
iiaeiuaiey aaiia-eceo/aiey a oaea iaoeeaioa, a oieueei – ?ani?aaeaeaiea
eioaineaiinoae ia ecia?aaeaiee, iieo/aiiii n iiiiuueth nenoaiu
?aaeno?aoeee. A ionoonoaea iaoaiaoe/aneiai iienaiey naycae ecia?aaeaiey
e i?ioeanna ia iicaieyao no?iai o?aeoiaaoue ?acoeueoaou iaaeeoeeineiai
iaaethaeaiey. Inoaaony iaaeayoueny oieueei ia iiuo a?a/a.

?acoiii n/eoaoue, /oi iauaeo e aai ecia?aaeaiea oece/anee niaiaaeatho e
naycaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii niioiioaieyie, oa?aeoa?ecothueie eiie?aoiue
iaoiae aecoaeecaoeee, oioy a ?yaea neo/aaa iiaoo eiaoue ioee/athueany
?acia?u.

Oaeei ia?acii, a iauai neo/aa ia nouanoaoao eaeaaeueiiai (1:1)
niioaaonoaey iaaeaeo eioi?iaoeeae, niaea?aeauaeny a eaeie-eeai oi/ea n
eii?aeeiaoaie (a, b), e eioi?iaoeeae, niioaaonoaothuae oi/ea (x, y).
A i?eioeeia eioi?iaoeeth io eaaeaeie oi/ee iauaeoa iiaeii “?annayoue”
ii anai oi/eai ecia?aaeaiey. Iaeiaei a ethaii iieaciii iaoiaea
aecoaeecaoeee aeaaiue aeeaae a eaaeaeoth oi/eo (a, b) aoaeao aeaaaoue
ioaeaeueiay eiie?aoiay oi/ea (x, y). Ae?oaea, ninaaeiea oi/ee aoaeoo
aiineoue iaiueoaa eiee/anoai eioi?iaoeee, i?e/ai oiaiueoaiea
oeacaiiiai aeeaaea i?ienoiaeeo aeinoaoi/ii ?acei ii ia?a oaeaeaiey io
iniiaiie oi/ee n eii?aeeiaoaie (x, y). Yoe auaiaeu ecaanoiu eae
i?eioeei aeecinoe, a ?ani?aaeaeaiea ii ecia?aaeaieth iaeioi?ie oi/ee
ec i?ino?ainoaa iauaeoa iiaeao caaenaoue eae io cia/aiey iiey a oi/ea
iauaeoa, oae e io iiey a oi/eao, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ieiei yoie oi/ee e
oaeaeaiiuo ia aaneiia/iia ?annoiyiea io iaa.

Eaeay aea nouanoaoao oece/aneay naycue iaaeaeo i?ino?ainoaii iauaeoa e
i?ino?ainoaii ecia?aaeaiey?

A ieineinoue ecia?aaeaiey iiiaaeaao eioi?iaoeey enoiaey ec iaee/ey
eioi?iaoeee a ieineinoe iauaeoa, a oaeaea a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeie
eiaee?othuee iineoaeue eioi?iaoeee eniieuecoaony a aeaiiii iaoiaea
aecoaeecaoeee (oioia?aoey oi?ie?oaony ca n/ao ia?aiina oioiiia,
y?einoiay ea?oeia OCE – ca n/ao ?annayiey i?iaeieueiuo oeueo?acaoeiauo
aiei, noaiaiue iiaeiuaiey ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo i?aia?aoia – iooai n/aoa
eniouaiiuo (-eaaioia, ?aioaaiia?aiia – ca n/ao eeiaeiiai caoooaiey
?aioaaiianeeo eaaioia e o.i.).

Aaaaeai ooieoeeth h(x,y,a,b), eioi?ay iienuaaao i?ino?ainoaaiiua
nayce aeey oi/a/iiai i?ioeanna, oi anoue i?ioeanna, eioi?ue ioee/ai io
ioey eeoue a oi/ea n eii?aeeiaoaie (a’ ,b’ ). Oiaaea ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiia
ecia?aaeaiea aoaeao eiaoue aeae:

Caeanue caaeneiinoue ?ani?aaeaeaiey ecia?aaeaiey io aiieeooaeu neaiaea
oi/a/iiai enoi/ieea o/oaia aaaaeaieai a ooieoeeth h iyoiai a?aoiaioa.

?anniio?ei oaia?ue neaiae io aoi?iai oi/a/iiai iauaeoa, ?aniieiaeaiiiai
oai aea, aaea e ia?aue:

Niaeanii i?eioeeio noia?iiceoeee eceo/aiiua yia?aee neaiaeia
noiie?othony:

Yoi – iaeeiaeiay noia?iiceoeey a neeo iaeeiaeiinoe neaaaaiuo a i?aaie
/anoe ?aaainoaa. A eoiaa, eae aeaeei, noiie?iaaieth ecia?yaiuo
?ani?aaeaeaiee a ieineinoe ecia?aaeaiey ia niioaaonoaoao
neiaeaiea ooieoeee a ieineinoe iauaeoa.

Anee aea nenoaia eeiaeia, oi

a noia?iiceoeey aoaeao eiaoue neaaeothuee aeae

Oi anoue, a neo/aa eeiaeiinoe nenoaiu neiaeaiea ooieoeee a ieineinoe
iauaeoa i?eaiaeeo e noiie?iaaieth ?ani?aaeaeaiee a ieineinoe
ecia?aaeaiey n oi/iinoueth aei aaeeinoaaiiie ooieoeee i?aia?aciaaiey h.

Iaoaiaoe/anee iineaaeiaa yaeyaony i/aiue aaaeiui oi?iuaieai, oae eae
eeiaeiinoue a ?anniao?eaaaiuo caaea/ao i?aaeiieaaaaony anaaaea a
ia?aii i?eaeeaeaiee, aeaaea eiaaea yoi, no?iai aiai?y, ia niioaaonoaoao
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Oaia?ue iiaeii ia?aeoe e iaiauaiiui niioiioaieyi, naycuaathuei
i?ino?ainoaa iauaeoa e aai ecia?aaeaiey. Aeey iaeeiaeiie nenoaiu
aecoaeecaoeee eiaai:

a aeey eeiaeiie

Ooieoeey h, eniieuecoaiay aeey nayce ?ani?aaeaeaiee f e g, iacuaaaony
ooieoeeae ioeeeea oi/a/iiai enoi/ieea (OIOE). Caaeneiinoue aa io anao
/aou?ao i?ino?ainoaaiiuo eii?aeeiao ii?aaeaeyao OIOE eae
i?ino?ainoaaiii-caaeneioth. Anee aea oi/a/iue i?ioeann iaeeiaeia aeey
anao oi/ae ieineinoe iauaeoa, oi h – i?ino?ainoaaiii-eiaa?eaioia. I?e
yoii h caaeneo eeoue io ?aciinoe eii?aeeiao (x-a,y-b). Aeey
i?ino?ainoaaiii-eiaa?eaioiie nenoaiu

i?e yoii aeey eeiaeiie i?ino?ainoaaiii-eiaa?eaioiie nenoaiu

Iineaaeiaa au?aaeaiea ecaanoii eae eioaa?ae naa?oee, niaeanii eioi?iio
?ani?aaeaeaiea ii ecia?aaeaieth i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naa?oeo
?ani?aaeaeaiey ii iauaeoo n OIOE. Eiaiii ooieoeey h iienuaaao i?ioeann
ia?aiina eioi?iaoeee io iauaeoa a i?ino?ainoai ecia?aaeaiey e
oa?aeoa?ecoao ana aaiiao?e/aneea eneaaeaiey, i?enouea i?ioeanno
aecoaeecaoeee.

Ieii/aoaeueiia oi?iuaiea iaiauaiiuo niioiioaiee, iienuaathueo i?ioeann
oi?ie?iaaiey ecia?aaeaiee, iieo/aaony a oii neo/aa, eiaaea naienoaa
nenoaiu a aeaoo ia?iaiaeeeoey?iuo iai?aaeaieyo ia ei??aee?otho ae?oa
n ae?oaii. Yoi icia/aao, /oi aeaooia?ioth OIOE iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a
aeaea i?iecaaaeaiey aeaoo iaeiiia?iuo OIOE. Oae aeey
i?ino?ainoaaiii-caaeneiie nenoaiu eiaai

a aeey i?ino?ainoaaiii-eiaa?eaioiie

Yoi naienoai nenoaiu iacuaaaony ?acaeaeeiinoueth.

A eoiaa aeey eeiaeiie, i?ino?ainoaaiii-eiaa?eaioiie ?acaeaeeiie nenoaiu
iieo/aai

O/eouaay ?anniio?aiiia, eaaei iiiyoue, /oi, iaaethaeay ecia?aaeaiea,
iu ia iiaeai n/eoaoue aai oi/iui i?aaenoaaeaieai ?ani?aaeaeaiey ii
iauaeoo. Yoi iiaeii caiaoeoue iooai aieiaoaeueiiai ?anniio?aiey
ecia?aaeaiey e n?aaiaiey aai n iauaeoii eee yaeaieai. I?e/eia –
ianiaa?oainoaa nenoaiu aecoaeecaoeee.

Eiaiii iiyoiio a oai?ee ia?aaioee ecia?aaeaiee aieueoia aieiaiea
oaeaeyaony iaoiaeai eneeth/aiey niioaaonoaothueo eneaaeaiee,
iieo/eaoei iacaaiea ia?auaiea naa?oee (Auoaeaao ec ?anniio?aiey oioy au
iineaaeiaai eioaa?aea naa?oee!).

A niioaaonoaothueo caaea/ao eioaa?ae naa?oee ?anniao?eaaaony n o/aoii
eneaaeaiey ecia?aaeaiee ooiaie. Oae aeey eeiaeiuo nenoai iieiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i caaea/a nicaeaao au?aaeaiea

aaea n(x,y) – ?ani?aaeaeaiea ooia a ecia?aaeaiee.

* * *

Oaia?ue neiioeaio?e?oai aieiaiea ia neaaeothuai aaaeiii oa?ieia
?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia – “eeann”. Caeanue, i?aaeaea anaai, ia?aoei
aieiaiea ia oi, /oi eae /aeiaae, oae e aaoiiao i?eieiatho ?aoaiea ia
iniiaa ioiaeaeanoaeaiey niaieoiiinoe eiie?aoiuo cia/aiee oa?aeoa?enoee
iauaeoia eee yaeaiee ia i?inoi ae?oa n ae?oaii, a iau/ii n iaeioi?ui
eeannii, a eioi?ue iauaaeeiythony iauaeou eee yaeaiey, eiathuea iauea
naienoaa (iai?eia?: oa?aeoa?enoeee auoiaea ec no?iy aa?aaaoia e nenoai
oie aea AYN – eeann iianiuo ioeacia eee eeann ioeacia, o?aaothueo
ii?aaeaeaiiiai oaoie/aneiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa, ii iaiianiuo).

Oaeei ia?acii, eeannu – yoi iauaaeeiaiey iauaeoia (yaeaiee),
ioee/athueany iaueie naienoaaie, eioa?anothueie /aeiaaea.

Anaaaea, eiay a aeaeo oeaeue ?aniiciaaaiey, a eiia/iii eoiaa i?eiyoia
?aoaiea ia ioianaiee iauaeoa e oiio eee eiiio eeanno ii?aaeaeyao
?aaeoeeth niioaaonoaothuae nenoaiu ia aeaiioth aoiaeioth neooaoeeth
iaeiicia/ii.

Oaeei ia?acii, a naiuo iaueo /a?oao ?aniiciaaaiea iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue
eae niioianaiea iauaeoia eee yaeaiee ia iniiaa aiaeeca eo
oa?aeoa?enoee, i?aaenoaaeythueo ia?acu yoeo iauaeoia, n iaeiei ec
ianeieueeeo, ca?aiaa ii?aaeaeaiiuo eeannia.

E neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi, /oi oa?iei “?aniiciaaaiea” a
?aaiie ia?a ioiineony eae e i?ioeannai aini?eyoey e iiciaiey,
naienoaaiiui /aeiaaeo e aeeaui i?aaieciai, oae e e oaoie/aneei iiiuoeai
/aeiaaea ?aaeeciaaoue “yeaeo?iiiua” eee “au/eneeoaeueiua” aiaeiae
yoeo i?ioeannia, oi anoue e ?aoaieth caaea/ a ?aieao i?aaeiaoa
?aniiciaaaiey eae ?acaeaea eioi?iaoeee.

1.2.2. Nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey

Aei yoiai iu aiai?eee i i?iaeaia ?aniiciaaaiey a oeaeii, i oai?ee, i
aiciiaeiinoe caiaiu /aeiaaea aaoiiaoii. Oaia?ue nin?aaeioi/ei aieiaiea
ia i?aeoe/aneii i?eiaiaiee niioaaonoaothueo ciaiee. I?e yoii ia?aoei
aieiaiea e ia oi, /oi oa  i?aeoe/aneea ?aaeecaoeee iaoiaeia
?aniiciaaaiey , i eioi?uo a yoeo neo/ayo oea ?a/ue,  iinyo iacaaiea
nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey (N?).

Caeanue iaiaoiaeeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi eiaiii oeaio?aeueioth caaea/o
?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia i?aaenoaaeyao iino?iaiea ia iniiaa
nenoaiaoe/aneeo oai?aoe/aneeo e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee
yooaeoeaiuo au/eneeoaeueiuo n?aaenoa (iauaaeeiyaiuo a iiiyoee
“nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey”) aeey ioianaiey iienaiee n iauaeoia, yaeaiee,
i?ioeannia e niioaaonoaothuei eeannai.

Oe?ieee e?oa caaea/, aiceaaaaiuo ia oaeea nenoaiu, ii?aaeaeyaony
i?eaaaeaiiui iaie ii?aaeaeaieai naiiai iiiyoey “?aniiciaaaiea” e
aeeth/aao auyniaiea ii ?acii?iaeiie, /anoi iaiieiie, ia/aoeie,
eneaaeaiiie e einaaiiie eioi?iaoeee oaeoa, iaeaaeatho ee eco/aaiua
iauaeou, yaeaiey, i?ioeannu, neooaoeee oeene?iaaiiui eiia/iui iaai?ii
naienoa, iicaieythuei ioianoe eo e ii?aaeaeaiiiio eeanno. Nthaea aoiaeyo
eae iaiin?aaenoaaiii caaea/e ?aniiciaaaiey e eeanneoeeaoeee, oae e
oaeea caaea/e, a ?acoeueoaoa ?aoaiey eioi?uo ia iniiaa ?aniiciaaaiey
o?aaoaony auynieoue, a eaeie iaeanoe ec eiia/iiai /enea iaeanoae aoaeoo
iaoiaeeoueny iaeioi?ua i?ioeannu /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiue i?iiaaeooie
a?aiaie.

Ionthaea iiiyoii, /oi e caaea/ai ?aniiciaaaiey aeieaeiu ioiineoueny
caaea/e oaoie/aneie e iaaeeoeeineie aeeaaiinoeee, aaieiae/aneiai
i?iaiice?iaaiey, i?iaiice?iaaiey naienoa oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee,
?aniiciaaaiey naienoa aeeiaie/aneeo e noaoe/aneeo iauaeoia a neiaeiie
oiiiaie ianoaiiaea e i?e iaee/ee aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo iiiao,
i?iaiice?iaaiey o?iaeay, iaia?oaeaiey eaniuo iiaea?ia, oi?aaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie i?ioeannaie.

?ac?aaioee nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey, ia/aoua n 50-o aiaeia, en/eneythony
ouny/aie. Naaiaeiy oaea o?oaeii iacaaoue oaeoth io?aneue iaoee e noa?u
i?iecaiaenoaa, aaea N? ia eniieuecothony eee ia aoaeoo. I?e yoii
i?eiaiaiea iaoiaeia ?aniiciaaaiey a ?yaea iai?aaeaiee iaoee e oaoieee
ieacuaaao ia?aoiia aeeyiea ia yoe iai?aaeaiey, iienoeia
?aaiethoeeiiece?othuaa aeeyiea.

?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua i?eiaiaiey.

1) Nenoaiu oaoie/aneie aeeaaiinoeee.

Eo aiaae?aiea – aaaeiaeoee oaeoi? iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey
iaoei e oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey, ?aceiai nie?auaiey ?anoiaeia ia
yenieoaoaoeeth.

Enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoayny oaiaeaioeey oneiaeiaiey, a cia/eo oaei?iaeaiey
iaoei iinoiyiii oaaee/eaaao cao?aou ia yenieoaoaoeeth. Auoiae – ia?aoiae
e nenoaiai oaoie/aneie aeeaaiinoeee (?aniiciaaaiey ninoiyiey iaoei),
iai?eia?, aac?acai?iue iiene iaeni?aaiinoae. A ?acoeueoaoa aianoi
ieaiiai-i?aaeoi?aaeeoaeueiiai ?aiiioa – ?aiiio ii oaeoe/aneie
iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Iai?eia?, a eino?oeoeee ii yenieoaoaoeee aaoiiiaeey
i?aaeoniio?aiu ieaiiaua oaoie/aneea ianeoaeeaaiey /a?ac 500 ei, 1000 ei,
2000 ei e o.ae. Anee aea aai inianoeoue nenoaiaie ?aniiciaaaiey
ninoiyiee, oi io ieaiiauo OI iiaeii auei au ioeacaoueny caiaiea eo
ianeoaeeaaieai ioaeaeueiuo oceia e nenoai ii iaiaoiaeeiinoe.

2) Iaaeeoeeineay aeeaaiinoeea.

Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua nenoaiu aeeaaiinoeee a iaaeeoeeia – iooue oaaee/aiey

– oe?iou e aeoaeiu ioaaoa neiioiiia;

( ?ann/eouaaoue oieueei ia iaiyoue a?a/a ai anao neooaoeeyo i/aiue
o?oaeii. Eo/oa ooieoeeth iaiyoe ioaeaoue eiiiuethoa?o)

-iia?aoeaiinoe;

(eiiiuethoa? iaania/eo ii/oe iaiiaaiiue ?acoeueoao)

-aeinoiaa?iinoe.

(aeeaaiic eiiiuethoa?a ia caaeneo io aiaoieo oaeoi?ia, eae yoi neo/aaony
n /aeiaaeii)

3) Naeueneia oicyenoai.

Iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey caeanue:

-?aniiciaaaiea ?acia?ia o?iaeay ii aeaiiui einie/aneeo iaaethaeaiee;

-oiaiueoaiea ?o/iiai o?oaea i?e ni?oe?iaea ieiaeia ii oi?ia, oeaaoo e
?acia?ai e o.i.

4) Aiaiiia aeaei.

Neiaeiua nenoaiu aii?oaeaiey:

-aaoiiaoe/aneee ooieoeeiiaeueiue eiio?ieue oaoie/aneiai ninoiyiey nenoai
e aaiae ?aca?ae?othueo;

-?iaiou, ianeoaeeaathuea oace?iaaiiua aioaiiua ?aoaoee ?aaea?ia.

Ia iniiaa ?anniio?aiiiai iiaeii oaea ioaaoeoue ia aii?in, /oi aea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie N?.

A ia?aii i?eaeeaeaiee:

“N? – yoi aaoiiaoe/aneia au/eneeoaeueiia ono?ienoai, i?aaeiacia/aiiia
aeey ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia (eaeeo? iiaeii oaea ia iiaoi?youeny).

Caiaoei, /oi yoi i/aiue iiaa?oiinoiia ii?aaeaeaiea. Naaiaeiy oece/anee
N? yoi e au/eneeoaeueiay iaoeia eae iaeei ninoaaeythuee yeaiaio N?;

-yoi e oaeea /anoi aieaa aei?iainoiyuea oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa, eae
n?aaenoaa iaia?oaeaiey ?aniiciaaaaiuo iauaeoia (iai?eia?, iaoieiae/aneeo
eciaiaiee oiai eee eiiai i?aaia /aeiaaea);

-yoi e n?aaenoaa ecia?aiee ia?aiao?ia iaia?oaeaiiuo iauaeoia (aac ieo
ia iieo/eoue i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey);

-yoi e iaoaiaoe/aneia iaania/aiea, a ninoaaa eioi?iai: iaoiaeu e
aeai?eoiu ia?aaioee ecia?eoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee; iaoiaeu e aeai?eoiu
ii?aaeaeaiey i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey; iaoiaeu e aeai?eoiu
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ?aniiciaaaiey iauaeoia, yaeaiee , i?ioeannia (
iino?iaiey ?aoathueo i?aaee ioianaiey iauaeoia e oiio eee eiiio eeanno);
iaoiaeu e aeai?eoiu a iaeioi?ii niunea iioeiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey
i?ioeannii ?aniiciaaaiey; iaoiaeu e aeai?eoiu ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe N?
eae ia noaaeee i?iaeoe?iaaiey, oae e a i?ioeanna aa ooieoeeiie?iaaiey;

-iaeiiaoe, aeey aieueoeo nenoai yoi e eieeaeoea iiaeaioiaeaiiuo
niaoeeaeenoia iaania/eaathueo aeeciaiiue oeeee nouanoaiaaiey nenoaiu.

?anniio?ei iiae?iaiaa ioaeaeueiua yeaiaiou.

a) N?aaenoaa iaia?oaeaiey ?aniiciaaaaiuo iauaeoia.

E iei a ?aciuo iaeanoyo i?eiaiaiey ioiinyony:

a iaaeeoeeia:

-?aioaaiianeea aiia?aou;

-aiia?aou OCE;

-ssI?-oiiia?aou;

-yioeaoaeia?aou;

-?aioaaiianeea oiiia?aou;

-ea?aeeia?aou e o.ae.

a aiaiiii aeaea:

-?aaeeieieaoi?u;

-iioe/aneea (eaca?iua) eieaoi?u;

-eaca?iua aeaeueiiia?u;

-i?eaiieee aaiia-eceo/aiey;

-niia?u – oeueo?acaoeiaua eieaoi?u.

N?aaenoaa iaia?oaeaiey i?aaenoaaeytho aei?iainoiyuoth /anoue N?. Ii yoei
aei?iainoiyuay /anoue N? ia ia?aie/eaaaony.

a) N?aaenoaa nii?yaeaiey.

Aeey nii?yaeaiey n?aaenoa iaia?oaeaiey n YAI iaiaoiaeeiu niaoeeaeueiua
yeaeo?iiiua ono?ienoaa aiia?aoiiai eioa?oaena. Yoe ninoaaiua /anoe N?
oaeaea aeinoaoi/ii aei?iainoiyue.

a)N?aaenoaa ecia?aiee ia?aiao?ia ?aniiciaaaaiuo iauaeoia,yaeaiee,
i?ioeannia.

N?aaenoaa ecia?aiee /anoi aoiaeyo a ninoaa iaia?oaeeoaeae (?EN –
ecia?aiea aeaeueiinoae, oaeia, ?n/?o).

a) Iaoiaeu e aeai?eoiu ia?aaioee ecia?eoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee

*anoi aeey iieo/aiey i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey eee ia?aiao?ia , eioi?ua eo
iaoneiaeeaatho iaiaoiaeeia niaoeeaeueiay iaoaiaoe/aneay ia?aaioea
(i?eia?, aeey ?EN – ii?aaeaeaiea aeaeueiinoae oeaeae ii a?aiaiiie
caaea?aeea neaiaeia, oaeiauo eii?aeeiao ii ?aciinoe oac,
eiyooeoeeaioia eiaiaiai nii?ioeaeaiey oeaeae ii eii?aeeiaoai e eo
i?iecaiaeiui e o.i.).

Nai i?ioeann iacia/aiey i?eciaeia – oai?/aneee i?ioeann, aiai?yo –
ya?enoe/aneee, caaenyuee io /aeiaaea.

ae) Iaoiaeu e aeai?eoiu i?eiyoey ?aoaiey i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe iauaeoia
?aniiciaaaiey.

a) Iaoiaeu e aeai?eoiu iioeiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey ?aniiciaaaieai.

ae) Iaoiaeu e aeai?eoiu ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe ?aniiciaaaiey.

Eae aeai?eoiu i?eiyoey ?aoaiee, oae e oi?aaeaiea ?aniiciaaaieai, oae e
ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ii?aaeaeythony neiaeiinoueth nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey
e i?aaenoaaeytho eiioeaio?e?iaaiiia i?eiaiaiea eiiieaena iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iia?aoeee niioaaonoaothuaai iacia/aiey.

c) Y A I

Iaeiiaoe, YAI. Yoi iaycaoaeueiue yeaiaio nia?aiaiiie N?. Any ia?aaioea
ecia?aiee n oeaeueth auaeaeaiey i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey, any iaoaiaoeea
eeanneoeeaoeee, oi?aaeaiey e ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe auiieiyaony YAI.
Naii ?acaeoea oai?ee e iaoiaeia ?aniiciaaaiey iaycaii iiyaeaieth YAI.

e) Eieeaeoea iiaeaioiaeaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia.

Oaeay ninoaaeythuay ia ia?aue acaeyae ia eiaao ioiioaiey e nenoaia.
Iaeiaei aac eieeaeoeaa iiaeaioiaeaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia o?oaeii
iaieoenue a aieueoeo nenoaiao, ?aoaiey eioi?uo /?acau/aeii
ioaaonoaaiiu. A oaeeo nenoaiao ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe – yoi
iieacaoaeue, eioi?ui iieuecothony n iiiaioa nicaeaiey N? e aei eiioea
aa nouanoaiaaiey. I?e yoii iieuecothony yoei iieacaoaeai niaoeeaeenou,
a ia nenoaia. A naia iaiaoiaeeiinoue oaeiai eniieueciaaiey naycaia n
oai, /oi a i?ioeanna ?aaio iiyaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue iiauneoue
yooaeoeaiinoue N? ca n/ao iieo/aiey iiauo aeaiiuo e ooi/iaiey
ia?aiao?ia nenoaiu a ?acoeueoaoa aiaeeca niaoeeaeenoaie eiie?aoiiai
neo/ay ?aniiciaaaiey n iineaaeothuei ooi/iaieai yoeie niaoeeaeenoaie
eiathueony ia?aiao?ia. Oi anoue, nenoaia a oa/aiea naiae aeecie (aiai?yo
– “aeeciaiiiai oeeeea”) eciaiyaony (aeeiaieci nenoaiu).

Oaeei ia?acii, N? – neiaeiay aeeiaie/aneay nenoaia, ninoiyuay a iauai
neo/aa ec eieeaeoeaa iiaeaioiaeaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia e niaieoiiinoe
oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa iieo/aiey e ia?a?aaioee eioi?iaoeee,
iaania/eaathueo ia iniiaa niaoeeaeueii neiino?oe?iaaiiuo aeai?eoiia
?aoaiea caaea/e eeanneoeeaoeee niioaaonoaothueo iauaeoia, yaeaiee eee
i?ioeannia.

Iinea oiai, eae iienai ninoaa e ooieoeee yeaiaioia N?, aeey caaa?oaiey
iaueo i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?iaeaia ?aniiciaaaiey iiaeii i?iaanoe e
iaeioi?ua iiaa?oiinoiua n?aaiaiey oaoie/aneeo N? e oaeie niaa?oaiiie
N?, eae /aeiaae.

Oae ?aoeaioi?u /aeiaaea, e eioi?ui iu ioiinei c?eoaeueiua, neooiaua,
inycaoaeueiua, iaiiyoaeueiua e aeoniaua ?aoeaioi?u – yoi n?aaenoaa
iaia?oaeaiey, a eiiaaea e ecia?aiey oa?aeoa?enoee ?aniiciaaaaiuo
iauaeoia, yaeaiee, i?ioeannia. Ooo aiaeiaey iieiaeoay.

Aeaeaa ia iooe iia?e?iaaiey n eioi?iaoeeae o oaoie/aneeo N? noieo
ono?ienoai nii?yaeaiey n YAI. Anoanoaaiiuie aiaeiaaie aai yaeythony
aeieiae/aneea n?aaenoaa nayce /aeiaa/aneeo ?aoeaioi?ia n iicaii,
auiieiythuei ?ieue YAI.

Ii yoi, iiaeaeoe, – ana, /oi iu naaiaeiy ciaai iaaa?iyea. E aii?inia
caeanue aieueoa, /ai ioaaoia:

-eaeea ooieoeee auiieiytho ?aoeaioi?u a /anoe ia?ae/iie ia?aaioee
?acoeueoaoia iaia?oaeaiey iauaeoia, yaeaiee;

-eaeiau oa?aeoa?enoeee eeiee ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo io ?aoeaioi?ia e
iicao eae OeAN;

-eaeea i?eciaee auaeaeyao nenoaia ia?aaioee;

-eaeea aeai?eoiu eniieuecoao iica aeey ?aoaiey caaea/e eeanneoeeaoeee,
iioeiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey i?ioeannii ?aniiciaaaiey;

-eae /aeiaaeo oaeaaony ecaaaeoueny io niaoeeoe/iinoe, naienoaaiiie
oaoie/aneei N? e o.ae.

A i?ioeanna iaoaai aeaeueiaeoaai eco/aiey i?aaeiaoa Au naie iinoaaeoa
aua iiiai ia?aoaiiuo a yoii ieaia aii?inia. A eo ?ac?aoaiea /?acau/aeii
aaaeii aeey iino?iaiey auno?iaeaenoaothueo e aunieiyooaeoeaiuo
oaoie/aneeo N?, iiiiaathueo /aeiaaeo a aai iianaaeiaaiie i?aeoeea.

Aeinoeaeaiea niioaaonoaothueo oeaeae – caaea/e XXI aaea.

Oaia 2

Caaea/e, ?aoaaiua a i?ioeanna nicaeaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey.

E A E Oe E ss 2.1.

I?iaeaiaoeea caaea/ nicaeaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey ia iienaoaeueiii
o?iaia

I?e eco/aiee ia?aie oaiu iu oaea nicaeaee i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?iaeaia
?aniiciaaaiey a oeaeii. Eacaeinue au, iiaeii auei au oaia?ue n?aco
ia?aeoe e oai?aoe/aneiio iniuneeaaieth ninoaaeythueo yoie i?iaeaiu.
Iaeiaei eaeea yoi ninoaaeythuea, eae iie niioiinyony ae?oa n ae?oaii a
iauae iinoaiiaea i?iaeaiu, yoiai iiea ia auei aiciiaeiinoe auaeaeeoue.

Iiyoiio, i?aaeaea /ai ia?aeoe e oi?iaeueiie iinoaiiaea
niioaaonoaothueo caaea/, iinoa?aainy ?anniio?aoue eo e iniuneeoue ia
iienaoaeueiii o?iaia.

Eoae, iu oaea ciaai, /oi ?aniiciaaaiea ia?acia a oaoieea – iaiaoiaeeiue
yeaiaio i?ioeanna iaoaiecaoeee e aaoiiaoecaoeee iaoei, ono?ienoa e
nenoai aeey

-caiaiu /aeiaaea oai, aaea eniieuecoaony oyaeaeue oece/aneee o?oae;

-?aaeecaoeee auno?uo ?aaeoeee a oi?aaeaiee oai, aaea iao a?aiaie ia
?acaeoiuea;

-caiaiu /aeiaaea a oae iacuaaaiuo ?ooeiiuo iia?aoeeyo, oi anoue,
iiaoi?ythueony aeaenoaeyo, ia o?aaothueo oinoaaiiuo oneeee.

Oaea i?ioyaeaiee 4-o aeanyoeia eao yoe iio?aaiinoe
?aaeeciauaaeenue a oaeeo eiie?aoiuo ia i?eeiaeaieyo, eae nicaeaiea
niaoeeaece?iaaiiuo ?iaioia, oaoie/aneay e iaaeeoeeineay
aeeaaiinoeea, iaoaii?iaiic, oi?iaeeciaaiiay ioeaiea iauanoaaiiuo,
yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo yaeaiee e i?ioeannia. Ia yoi,
ia/eiay n 50-o aiaeia, auee iai?aaeaiu oneeey iao/iie e eiaeaia?iie
iunee.

A ?acoeueoaoa niiinoaaeaiey eiie?aoiuo ?aoaiee e ?ac?aaioie
ieacaeinue, /oi ianiio?y ia iiiaiia?acea e iniaaiiinoe i?eeiaeaiee,
caaea/e nicaeaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey eiaee iiiai iauaai, ia
caaenyuaai io oeacaiiie niaoeeoeee.

Aio ii/aio aeey au?aaioee iaoiaee/aneeo iiaeoiaeia oai?ee
?aniiciaaaiey eiaei niune auaeaeyoue iauea iiaoi?ythueany i?eaiu, a
eo /enei anoanoaaiii aeieaeii auoue ia?aie/aiiui e eaaei iauaaeeiyaiui a
caaea/e. Naie aea yoe caaea/e aeieaeiu auee yaeoueny eeth/aauie aeey
nicaeaiey ethaie nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa ieacaeinue, /oi
iaeaeaiiue iaoiaee/aneee iiaeoiae e iino?iaieth nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey
ia?acia eiaa?eaioai e i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe.

Iinoa?aainy iniuneeoue yoo eiaa?eaioiinoue iino?iaiey N? , ?anniio?aa
i?inoua ?aaeecaoeee nenoai.

A. ?aniiciaaaiea noi?iiie A naiieaoia noi?iiu A (yoio i?eia? iu
aoaeai /anoi eniieueciaaoue a iineaaeothuai, iinoaiaiii aai oneiaeiyy).

Caeanue oaeoe/anee o?aaoaony nicaeaoue aaoiiaoe/aneoth nenoaio,
iaania/eaathuoth noi?iia A ?aoaiea oeacaiiie caaea/e.

Iiiyoii, /oi oeaeue nicaeaiey oaeie nenoaiu – iai?iia noi?iiu A io
aiciiaeiiai iaiaaeaiey, a neaaeiaaoaeueii – i?aaeioa?auaiea aiciiaeiiai
oua?aa.

Ia?aia, n /aai anoanoaaiii ia/aoue yoo ?aaioo – i?iaanoe eco/aiea e
aiaeec anae aiciiaeiie eioi?iaoeee ia aaeaoeee noi?iiu A e nia?aoue
iaiaoiaeeiua aeaiiua.

Eae yoa eioi?iaoeey iiaeao auoue iieo/aia:

-ec ioe?uoie ia/aoe (/anoi iiiaea oa?aeoa?enoeee naiieaoia ia
ne?uaathony);

-ec ?acaaaeaeaiiuo;

-ec yenia?eiaioaeueiuo iaaethaeaiee naiieaoia noi?iiu A e ecia?aiee eo
oa?aeoa?enoee (iai?eia?, n iiiiuueth ?EN);

-ec yenia?eiaioaeueiie ia?aaioee aeaiiuo, iieo/aiiuo ii iaeaoai e
iiaeaeyi niioaaonoaothueo naiieaoia noi?iiu A

(iacaiiua noaiaeu eee yeaeo?iaeeiaie/aneea ?an/aou); e o.ae.

Eaeea yoi oa?aeoa?enoeee? Yoi – /eneaiiinoue yeeiaaeae, auniou iieaoa,
e?aena?neea nei?inoe, aeaeueiinoe iieaoa, /enei aeaeaaoaeae e o.ae.

?anniao?eaaaiia eco/aiea iicaieeo iaia?oaeeoue a oii /enea e niiniau,
eioi?ua i?eiaiyao eee i?aaeiieaaaao i?eiaiyoue noi?iia A aeey
i?aiaeieaiey i?ioeaiaicaeooiie iai?iiu (IAI) noi?iiu A e eioi?ua aoaeoo
oooaeoaoue aiciiaeiinoe ?aniiciaaaiey. Iai?eia?, NOA ii i?ia?aiia
Noaen ?ac?aaioaee aiiaa?aee?iauee-iaaeaeeieo aeey ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiuo
n?aaenoa – A1).

Oaeei ia?acii iu aeieaeiu iieo/eoue ana iuneeiua e nouanoaothuea
oa?aeoa?enoeee naiieaoia (i?eciaee).

Aoi?ie oaa, eiae/ii neaaeothuee ec i?iaaaeaiiiai eco/aiey – ia iniiaa
ciaiey oaeoeei-oaoie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee n?aaenoa i?ioeaiaeaenoaey
noi?iia A, eiathueony o noi?iiu A, e ciaiee aaeaoeee noi?iiu A
iiaeii auaeaeeoue neooaoeee i?eiaiaiey aa, nouanoaaiii ioee/athueany ii
aiciiaeiiio oua?ao e ii aiciiaeiinoe aai i?aaeioa?auaiey.

Yoi oaeoe/anee niioaaonoaoao ?acaeaeaieth naiieaoia noi?iiu A ia eeannu,
aeey eaaeaeiai ec eioi?uo noi?iia A ecaanoii, /oi ioaeii i?aaei?eiyoue.

A ?acoeueoaoa iiaeao ieacaoueny, /oi eeannia 3 (A1- aiiaa?aee?iaueee,
A2 – ooo?iiaeee ,A3 – eno?aaeoaee), a n?aaenoa i?ioeaiaeaenoaey – 2 (S1
– CO?, S2 – eno?aaeoaee n eo aii?oaeaieai).

I?e yoii iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii eo ?ani?aaeaeeoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:

A1 – S1

A2 – S2

A3 – S1

oi anoue, eeannu A1 e A3 n oi/ee c?aiey i?ioeaiaeaenoaey aeaeaoaeueii
iauaaeeieoue a iaeei eeann.

Anee aea n?aaenoa i?ioeaiaeaenoaey – 3 (S1- CO? aeey aieueoeo aunio, S2
– CO? iaeiaunioiua, S3 – eno?aaeoaee n eo aii?oaeaieai), oi eeannu
iiaeii ia iauaaeeiyoue, a eniieueciaaoue no?aoaaeth

A1 – S1

A2 – S2

A3 – S3

O?aoee oaa ii nicaeaieth nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey naiieaoia noi?iiu A –
auai? ecia?eoaeae.

Aeey iaicia/aiiuo eeannia aaeaoeee ec aiaeeca eiathueony o noi?iiu A
n?aaenoa iaaethaeaiey ca naiieaoaie (?EN, IEN e o.i.) e iieiiai ia?a/iy
i?eciaeia niioaaonoaothueo naiieaoia, iieo/aiiuo ia ia?aii iaoai
yoaia ?ac?aaioee (iai?eia?, e?aena?neea nei?inoe, auniou iieaoa, aeeeiu
othcaeyaeae, ?aciaoe e?ueueaa, /enei aeaeaaoaeae e o.i.) auaeaeeoue
oaeea, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ii?aaeaeaiu ii aeaiiui eiathueony n?aaenoa
ecia?aiee.

Caeanue aiciiaeiu e ?aci/a?iaaiey: iiaeao ia ieacaoueny oaeeo
n?aaenoa ecia?aiee. Oiaaea i?eieiaaony ?aoaiea i eo nicaeaiee.

Eoae, ii eaaeaeiio naiieaoo iu eiaai ? oa?aeoa?enoee – i?eciaeia. Ii
yoi aua ie/aai ia aeaao iai aeey ?aoaiey caaea/e. Iu ia ciaai, eae
?acaeaeeoue naiieaou, iieuecoynue yoeie i?eciaeaie ii eeannai.

Aeey yoiai e ioaeai 4-e oaa – ai?ei?iia iienaiea eeannia. Oi anoue,
iaiaoiaeeii ia ycuea aua?aiiuo i?eciaeia iienaoue eaaeaeue eeann
naiieaoia eee oaeoe/aneeo niiniaia eo i?eiaiaiey.

I?e yoii a iienaiee eaaeaeiai eeanna aeieaeiu niaea?aeaoueny
naaaeaiey:

– i iaee/ee eee ionoonoaee i?eciaeia ea/anoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a (oei
aeaeaaoaey, iaee/ea iinoaiiaueea iiiao, oei iiiao e o.i.);

– i aeeaiaciiao eee caeiiao ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?eciaeia, eiathueo
eiee/anoaaiiia au?aaeaiea.

Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi ana aua?aiiua i?eciaee aeieaeiu iieo/eoue
niioaaonoaothuaa niaea?aeaiea (naia) aeey eaaeaeiai eeanna.

Ia yoii iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue yoai ?aaiou caeai/eaaaony .

Oaia?ue, anee n iiiiuueth aua?aiiuo n?aaenoa iaaethaeaiee ca
aicaeooiuie oeaeyie iaia?oaeai iaecaanoiue naiieao e ecia?aiu (ioeaiaiu)
aai i?eciaee, oi niiinoaaeaiea iieo/aiiuo aiinoa?ei?iuo aeaiiuo (ii
?acoeueoaoai i?iaaaeaiiuo iiuoiuo ecia?aiee) n ai?ei?iuie (aeiiiuoiui
iienaieai eeannia) iicaieyao i?iecaanoe aai ?aniiciaaaiea (ioianaiea e
niioaaonoaothuaio eeanno A1,A2 naiieaoia noi?iiu A).

Caeanue ai?ei?iua aeaiiua – aeiiiuoiia i?eciaeiaia iienaiea eeannia;

aiinoa?ei?iua aeaiiua – iineaiiuoiue iaai? i?eciaeia eeanneoeoee?oaiiai
naiieaoa.

?anniio?ei aoi?oth aiciiaeioth ?aaeecaoeeth N?.

A. ?aniiciaaaiea caaieaaaiee na?aeoea. O?aaoaony iino?ieoue oaeiai
?iaea aaoiiaoe/aneoth nenoaio.

1-e oaa nicaeaiey oaeie nenoaiu – eco/aiea anae eioi?iaoeee i
caaieaaaieyo na?aeoea.

Ia ia?aue acaeyae yoa caaea/a eaaeaony aieaa eaaeie, /ai
?aniiciaaaiea naiieaoia, oae eae ana naaaeaiey iinyo ioe?uoue oa?aeoa?.
Iaeiaei iaieueuaoueny caeanue ia neaaeoao. A i?ioeanna i?enoaeueiiai aa
eco/aiey iiaeao iaia?oaeeoueny, /oi iaeioi?ua noi?iiu eco/aiey yaeaiey
/aeiaa/anoao iiea aua iaecaanoiu.

A ?acoeueoaoa iu aeieaeiu eiaoue caeanue ana aiciiaeiua oa?aeoa?enoeee
caaieaaaiee (i?eciaee):

-coaoeu ea?aeeia?aii;

-iiaaaeaiea ioeuena;

-iiaaaeaiea a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey e o.i.

2-e oaa – eco/aiea anaai a?naiaea n?aaenoa ea/aiey caaieaaaiee e
?acaeaeaiey eo ii eeannai, aeey eioi?uo ecaanoii, /oi ioaeii
eiie?aoii i?aaei?eieiaoue aeey ea/aiey (Ii naiieaoai iu oaeaea
aeiaeaaeenue ?acaeaeaiey eo ii eeannai).

A ?acoeueoaoa iiaeao ieacaoueny, /oi:

-/enei n?aaenoa ea/aiey (S1, S2…) aieueoa /enea eeannia
caaieaaaiee (A1, A2,….); oiaaea eo i?inoi eiiieaene?otho eee
i?eieiatho ?aoaiea i aeiiieieoaeueiii ?aniiciaaaiee i?ioeaiiieacaiee;

-iaeioi?ua eeannu o?aaotho iaeeiaeiauo n?aaenoa ea/aiey (iai?eia?,
oe?o?ae/aneia aiaoaoaeuenoai); oiaaea eeannu iauaaeeiytho.

3-e oaa – ec aiaeeca eiathuaainy a?naiaea n?aaenoa iaaeeoeeineie
aeeaaiinoeee (ea?aeeia?ao, oiiiea?aeeia?ao, OCE, ?aioaai, aiaeec
e?iae e o.ae., e o.i.) e i?eciaeia eeannia caaieaaaiee auaeaeytho oa
i?eciaee, eioi?ua ?aaeueii ii?aaeaeeoue eiathueieny n?aaenoaaie (
Caeanue aiciiaeiu e ?aoaiey i nicaeaiee iiauo niaoeeaeueiuo n?aaenoa
aeeaaiinoeee).

Caiaoei, /oi oa aea aeaenoaey i?aaei?eieiaeenue e aeey ecia?aiey
i?eciaeia naiieaoia noi?iiu A.

4-e oaa – ia ycuea ioia?aiiuo i?eciaeia iienuaaaony aiaeiae/ii naiieaoai
eaaeaeue eeann caaieaaaiee na?aeoea, oi anoue, ninoaaeyaony ia?a/aiue
cia/aiee i?eciaeia eaaeaeiai eeanna.

I?e yoii aeey eaaeaeiai eeanna aeieaeiu auoue auaeaeaiu naaaeaiey:

-i iaee/ee eee ionoonoaee i?eciaeia ea/anoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a;

-i aeeaiaciiao eee caeiiao ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?eciaeia, eiathueo
eiee/anoaaiiia au?aaeaiea.

Caeanue oaeaea neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi ana aua?aiiua i?eciaee aeieaeiu
iieo/eoue niioaaonoaothuaa niaea?aeaiea (naia) aeey eaaeaeiai eeanna.

Oaia?ue, anee n iiiiuueth aua?aiiuo n?aaenoa aeeaaiinoeee ninoiyiee
na?aeoea ioeaiaiu i?eciaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea aai aeayoaeueiinoue, oi
niiinoaaeaiea iieo/aiiuo aiinoa?ei?iuo aeaiiuo (ii ?acoeueoaoai
iiuoiuo ecia?aiee) n ai?ei?iuie (aeiiiuoiui iienaieai eeannia)
iicaieyao i?iecaanoe ?aniiciaaaiea eiie?aoiiai eeanna caaieaaaiee eee
ionoonoaea caaieaaaiee aiiaua.

Yoe aeaa i?eia?a iieacaee, /oi iiaeoiaeu e iino?iaieth nenoai
?aniiciaaaiey i?aeoe/anee ie/ai ia ioee/athony, ianiio?y ia niaoeeoeeo
naieo nicaeaaaaiuo nenoai.

A ?acoeueoaoa iu iieo/eee iauea i?aaenoaaeaiey i iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe
?aoaiey e ninoaaeythueo caaea/e nicaeaiey nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey. A
?acoeueoaoa ioia/aai, /oi ianiio?y ia ?acee/ea i?aaeiaoiuo iaeanoae
iiaeoiaeu e iino?iaieth N? – iaeeiaeiau. Nenoaia ?aniiciaaaiee
caaieaaaiee na?aeoea no?ieeanue oaeaea, eae e nenoaia ?aniiciaaaiey
naiieaoia, ii caiaieoue aa iia ia iicaieyao. Oi/ii oaeaea N? naiieaoia
ia iiaeao i?eiaiyoueny aeey ?aoaiey caaea/ ?aniiciaaaiey caaieaaaiee
na?aeoea.

Nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey iauaeoia (yaeaiee), nicaeaaaaiua /aeiaaeii
anaaaea ocei niaoeeaeece?iaaiu a ioee/ee io aai nianoaaiiuo i?e?iaeiuo
aiciiaeiinoae.

*oi aea eanaaony iauaai iiaeoiaea e iino?iaieth ethaie nenoaiu, oi
oaia?ue, anee o ian eiaaony iaeioi?ay niaieoiiinoue iauaeoia eee
yaeaiee, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii ?aniiciaaaoue (eeanneoeoee?iaaoue), ia
iniiaa iaiauaiey aeaenoaee i?e nicaeaiee N? a 2-o ?anniio?aiiuo
i?eia?ao iu ciaai, /oi iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?aoaiey niioaaonoaothueo
caaea/ neaaeothuay:

-a niioaaonoaee n aua?aiiui i?eioeeiii niaieoiiinoue iauaeoia eee
yaeaiee iiae?acaeaeyaony ia ?yae eeannia (aiai?yo: iacia/aaony aeoaaeo
eeannia);

-?ac?aaaouaaaony niaieoiiinoue i?eciaeia (aiai?yo: neiaa?ue);

-ia ycuea neiaa?y i?eciaeia iienuaaaony eaaeaeue eeann;

-auae?athony e (eee) nicaeathony n?aaenoaa ii?aaeaeaiey i?eciaeia;

-ia au/eneeoaeueiuo n?aaenoaao ?aaeecoaony aeai?eoi niiinoaaeaiey
aiinoa?ei?iuo e ai?ei?iuo aeaiiuo e i?eieiaaony ?aoaiea i ?acoeueoaoao
?aniiciaaaiey.

A oi aea a?aiy, ianiio?y ia auiieiaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe aeaenoaee, i?iaaaeaiiia ?anniio?aiea ia iicaieyao
ioaaoeoue ia neaaeothuea aii?inu:

-eae eo/oa i?iecaiaeeoue ?acaeaiea iauaeoia (naiieaou, caaieaaaiey e
i?.) ii eeannai;

-eae iaeaieeaaoue e ia?aaaouaaoue ai?ei?ioth eioi?iaoeeth;

-ec eaeeo niia?aaeaiee auae?aoue i?eciaee;

-eae iienuaaoue eeannu ia ycuea i?eciaeia;

-ia iniiaa eaeeo iaoiaeia n?aaieaaoue ai?ei?ioth e aiinoa?ei?ioth
eioi?iaoeeth;

-eiaaea e eae iiyaeyaony any nenoaia ?aniiciaaaiey.

Ana yoe aii?inu yaeythony i?aaeiaoii ?anniio?aiey a i?aaeaeao
/eoaaiiai eo?na. Iu aoaeai eo aeaoaeece?iaaoue ana aieaa aeoaiei ii ia?a
inaiaiey i?aaeiaoa.

Ia iineaaeiee aii?in neaaeoao aeaoue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue ioaao aei oiai,
eae iu i?iaaaeai oiiiyiooia oaeoaeaiiia eco/aiea. Nenoaia aeieaeia
iiyaeyoueny n naiiai ia/aea eco/aiey aii?ina. Yoio aa?eaio aa aeieaeai
i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie iiaeaeue-i?iia?ac aoaeouae nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey.
Nae/an iu aeieaeiu iiiyoue oieueei iaeii – aac oaeie iiaeaee nicaeaiea
N? /aua anaai iaaiciiaeii aiiaua. Aac iaa iu ia niiaeai aua?aoue ie
iaai? eeannia, ie ia?a/aiue i?eciaeia, ie n?aaenoaa ecia?aiee eo, ie
?aoathuea i?aaeea, iaania/eaathuea a eiiieaena, ai acaeiinayce
o?aaoaiia ea/anoai ?aoaiee i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe. Yoi iaoneiaeaii oai,
/oi iieiay eioi?iaoeey aeey nicaeaiey N? ia iiiaio ia/aea aa nicaeaiey
anaaaea ionoonoaoao e aac yenia?eiaioaeueiie io?aaioee anaai i?ioeanna
i?eiyoey ?aoaiee ia anaaaea ynii, eaeay eioi?iaoeey iiaeao aiiaua
iio?aaiaaoueny. Iiyoiio iiaeaeue aeieaeia iicaieeoue iaoiaeii
iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo i?eaeeaeaiee aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?u nenoaiu e
o?aaoaiie aeinoeaiooue aeaeaaiiai ?acoeueoaoa. A oi aea a?aiy aii?inu
iiaeaee?iaaiey N? ia iiaoo auoue ?anniio?aiu ia iuiaoiai o?iaia
iieo/aiiuo ciaiee. Iiyoiio iiaeaee?iaaiea N? – i?aaeiao aeaeueiaeoaai
eco/aiey eo?na “Iniia iino?iaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia”

Eoae, aeaaiua auaiaeu:

1. Caaea/e, ?aoaaiua a i?ioeanna nicaeaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey,
eiaa?eaioiu ioiineoaeueii i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe, eiatho iiiai iauaai,
iniiauaathony ia aaeeiii iaoiaeieiae/aneii iiaeoiaea.

2. Eaaeaeay nenoaia ?aniiciaaaiey eiaeeaeaeoaeueia e i?aaeiacia/aaony
oieueei aeey iaeiiai aiieia eiie?aoiiai aeaea iauaeoia eee yaeaiee.

Anee iaeaeaia noa?a i?eiaiaiey ?aniiciaaaiey, oi niioaaonoaothuay
nenoaia aeieaeia ?ac?aaaouaaoueny caiiai n o/aoii iiauo
niaoeeoe/aneeo naienoa iauaeoia (yaeaiee), ii?aaeaeythueo eae nenoaio
ecia?aiee oa?aeoa?enoee, oae e neiaa?ue i?eciaeia, aeoaaeo eeannia e
aeai?eoi i?eiyoey ?aoaiee.

3. N? aeieaeia nicaeaaaoueny iaoiaeii iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo i?eaeeaeaiee
aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?u ia aa iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee ii ia?a iaeiieaiey
iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee.

Oaia?ue, iinea oiai eae iu ia ea/anoaaiiii o?iaia ?anniio?aee
i?iaeaiaoeeo ?aniiciaaaiey, iiaeii i?iaanoe aeiiieieoaeueioth
aeaoaeecaoeeth e ii?aaeaeeoue iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue caaea/ nicaeaiey
niioaaonoaothueo nenoai.

E A E Oe E ss 2.2

Oi?ioee?iaea caaea/ nicaeaiey nenoai

?aniiciaaaiey e iaoiaeu eo ?aoaiey

CAAeA*A ? 1

Ii?aaeaeaiea iieiiai ia?a/iy i?eciaeia (ia?aiao?ia), oa?aeoa?ecothueo
iauaeou eee yaeaiey, aeey eioi?uo aeaiiay nenoaia ?ac?aaaouaaaony.

A ?aoaiee yoie caaea/e – aeaaiia iaeoe ana i?eciaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea
nouanoai ?aniiciaaaaiuo iauaeoia (yaeaiee). Ethaua ia?aie/aiey, ethaay
iaiieiioa, eae iu a iineaaeothuai oaaaeeiny, i?eaiaeyo e ioeaeai eee
iieiie iaaiciiaeiinoe i?aaeeueiie eeanneoeeaoeee iauaeoia (yaeaiee).

Iiaeai naaa i?aaenoaaeoue oaeoth iaiieiioo a oaea ?anniio?aiiie iaie
caaea/a ?aniiciaaaiey naiieaoia eae eniieueciaaiea iaeiiai i?eciaea
– iioieie auniou iieaoa naiieaoia. A ?acoeueoaoa – aiiaa?aee?iaueee ia
oaeanony ioee/aoue io eno?aaeoaeae ( i?e nicaeaiee aiiaa?aee?iaueeia
no?aiyony e iaania/aieth iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiie auniou iieaoa, a i?e
nicaeaiee eno?aaeoaeae aeiaeaathony, /oiau iie iiaee oie/oiaeaoue
aiiaa?aee?iaueee).

?aaeueii aeaaea oeaeay a?oiia i?eciaeia iiaeao ieacaoueny
iayooaeoeaiie.

Iiyoiio aeey ?aoaiey 1-ie caaea/e nicaeaiey N? iaiaoiaeeii iaeoe ana
aiciiaeiua i?eciaee, iienuaathuea iauaeou ?aniiciaaaiey, n oai, /oiau
i?e ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ?aoaiee nenoaiu ia aica?auaoueny e yoie
caaea/a, iaia?oaeea ia?aie/aiiinoue aua?aiiuo i?eciaeia ia iineaaeothueo
yoaiao ?ac?aaioee.

Ii /oiau iacia/aoue i?eciaee ?aniiciaaaiey, iaiaoiaeeii,
ai-ia?auo, iiiyoue, /oi ia nouanoaoao niiniaia eo aaoiiaoe/aneie
aaia?aoeee. Ia naaiaeiy yoi iiae neeo oieueei /aeiaaeo. Iiyoiio
aiai?yo, /oi auai? i?eciaeia – ya?enoe/aneay iia?aoeey. Ai-aoi?uo,
auai? i?eciaeia iiaeii inouanoaeyoue, eiay i?aaenoaaeaiea ia eo iaueo
naienoaao. N yoeo iiceoeee aeinoaoi/ii i?eiyoue, /oi i?eciaee iiaoo
iiae?acaeaeyoueny ia:

-aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua;

-aa?iyoiinoiua;

-eiae/aneea;

-no?oeoo?iua.

A. Aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua i?eciaee – yoi oaeea oa?aeoa?enoeee iauaeoia
eee yaeaiee, eioi?ua eiatho eiie?aoiua e iinoiyiiua /eneiaua cia/aiey.

I?eia?aie aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo i?eciaeia iiaoo auoue, iai?eia?, OOO
aiiaa?aee?iaueeia e eno?aaeoaeae NOA (oaaeeoeu ? 1, 2).

*eneiaua cia/aiey i?eciaeia ii eaaeaeiio ec naiieaoia iiaeii
eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue eae eii?aeeiaou oi/ae, i?aaenoaaeythueo eaaeaeue
naiieao a 11-ia?iii i?ino?ainoaa i?eciaeia.

Iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi a caaea/ao ?aniiciaaaiey n
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuie i?eciaeaie ioeaee ecia?aiey yoeo i?eciaeia ia
ea?atho ieeaeie ?iee, anee, iai?eia?, oi/iinoue ecia?aiee oaeiai
i?eciaea, eae ?aciao e?ueueaa naiieaoa cia/eoaeueii auoa (iai?eia?,
1 ii), /ai ?acee/ea yoiai i?eciaea o ?aciuo eeannia naiieaoia
(iai?eia?, 10 i).

I?aaenoaaeoue oaeoth nenoaio, aaea eniieuecothony aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua
i?eciaee ia oae o?oaeii:

-?aniiciaaaiea i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe naiieaoa, aeaiiua eioi?iai iieo/aiu
?acaaaeeie eee ec ioe?uoie ia/aoe e ia i?eaycaiu e eeannai
(aiiaa?aee?iauee- A1, eno?aaeoaeue-A2 e o.i.);

-?aniiciaaaiea ia eiiaaea?a aeaoaeae ii ioee/eth aaiiao?e/aneeo
oa?aeoa?enoee, anee ioeaee ecia?aiee nouanoaaiii iaiueoa ?aciaoia yoeo
aeaoaeae.

?aniiciaaaiea inouanoaeyaony iooai n?aaiaiey iieo/aiiuo ?acia?ia n
eiathueieny a aaca aeaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aeaoaeae.

A. Aa?iyoiinoiua i?eciaee – yoi oa?aeoa?enoeee iauaeoa (yaeaiey),
iinyuea neo/aeiue oa?aeoa?.

N oaeeie i?eciaeaie a iniiaiii e eiatho aeaei a i?e?iaea e oaoieea.

Ioee/athony yoe i?eciaee oai, /oi a neeo neo/aeiinoe niioaaonoaothuae
aaee/eiu i?eciae iaeiiai eeanna iiaeao i?eieiaoue cia/aiey ec iaeanoe
cia/aiee ae?oaeo eeannia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo iiaeeaaeeo ?aniiciaaaieth
a nenoaia.

Oaaeeoea ? 1

Oa?aeoa?enoeee O e i u n a i i e
a o i a

A-1A A-52 A-57A FB-111

Yeeiaae (/ae.) 4 6 2 2

Vmax (ei\/)

i?e H=15 ei 2330 1020 935 2330

Vmin (ei\/)

i?e H=0.3 ei 1200 500

500 1350

Iioieie (i) 15240 15000 13750 20000

Aiia.iaa?ocea (o) 22 34 14 16

Iaen.aceaoiay ianna (o) 180 221 25 45

?aciao e?ueueaa (i) 42 56 19 21

Aeeeia naiieaoa (i) 44 48 20 22

Eie-ai aeaeaaoaeae 4 8 2 2

Oyaa aeaeaaoaeae (o) 13.6 7.7 3.3 9.2

Aeaeueiinoue iieaoa (ei 11000 20000 4380 6600

Oaaeeoea ? 2

Oa?aeoa?ecoeee O e i u n a i i e a o i a

F – 4 E

Oaioii F – 105 E

Oaiaea?-/eo F – 15

Eae F – 100 D

Noia?-naea? Oaioa?

Yeeiaae (/ae.) 2 2 1 1 1

Vmax (ei\/)

i?e H =15 ei 2330 2230 2655 1400 1000

Vmin (ei\/) i?e H =0.3 (ei) 1470 1400 1470 1220
1150

Iioieie (i) 19000 15000 21000 15000 17000

Aiia.iaa?. (o) 7.2 6.4 – 3.4 0.9

Iaen.aceaoi. ianna (o) 26 24 25 18 11

?aciao e?ueueaa (i) 12 11 14 11 10

Aeeeia naiieaoa (i) 18 21 19 12 13

Eie-ai aeaeaaoaeae 2 1 2 1 1

Oyaa aeaeaaoaeae (o) 5.4 12 10.9 5.3 4.5

Aeaeueiinoue iieaoa (ei) 885 760 1100 860 560

Anee i?eciae ia iiaeao i?eiyoue cia/aiee a iaeanoe niioaaonoaothueo
cia/aiee aeey ae?oaeo eeannia, oi, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiaai aeaei ia n
aa?iyoiinoiui, a n oai aea aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiui i?eciaeii. Yoi eae ?ac
iiae/a?eeaaao, ii/aio aa?iyoiinoiua nenoaiu yaeythony nenoaiaie aieaa
iauaai ii?yaeea.

Aeey oiai, /oiau iiaeii auei a oneiaeyo neo/aeiinoe aiai?eoue i
aiciiaeiinoe ?aniiciaaaiey, neaaeoao iio?aaiaaoue, /oiau aa?iyoiinoe
iaaethaeaiey cia/aiee i?eciaea a naiai eeanna auee eae iiaeii aieueoa,
/ai a /oaeeo. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa aeaiiue i?eciae ia iicaieeo iino?ieoue
N?, eniieuecothuoth iienaiea eeannia ia aai iniiaa. Yooaeoeaiinoue aai
iaaeinoaoi/ia aeey aeinoiaa?iiai ?aoaiey e iaiaoiaeeii eneaoue ae?oaea
i?eciaee, eiathuea aieueooth ?acaeaeeoaeueioth niiniaiinoue.

Aniiiiei ec oai?ee aa?iyoiinoae, /ai oa?aeoa?ecoaony neo/aeiay aaee/eia
– caeiiii ?ani?aaeaeaiey aa?iyoiinoae. Oi anoue, oi/ii oae aea caeiiii
?ani?aaeaeaiey aeieaeai oa?aeoa?eciaaoueny eaaeaeue aa?iyoiinoiue
i?eciae.

Aniiiiei e oi, /oi a ea/anoaa caeiiia ?ani?aaeaeaiey aa?iyoiinoae a
oai?ee aa?iyoiinoae aunooiatho eioaa?aeueiay ooieoeey F(x) –
eioaa?aeueiue caeii eee ieioiinoue ?ani?aaeaeaiey aa?iyoiinoae (I?A)
– aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue caeii f(x). I?e yoii naycue iaaeaeo ieie:

Aniiiiei, /oi naiue ?ani?ino?aiaiiue a i?e?iaea caeii ?ani?aaeaeaiey –
ii?iaeueiue eee Aaonnia – eiaao I?A

Anee i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi eaeie-eeai aa?iyoiinoiue i?eciae (iai?eia?,
?aciao e?ueueaa, ecia?aiiue eaeei-eeai n?aaenoaii ecia?aiee n ioeaeaie)
?ani?aaeaeai ii ii?iaeueiiio caeiio, oi aeey 3-o oneiaiuo eeannia,
ioee/athueony ?aciaoaie e?ueueaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiey yoiai ia?aiao?a aoaeoo
auaeyaeaoue, eae iieacaii ia ?en.2.1.

Ec ?en. 2.1 aeaeii, /oi anee aeey iaecaanoiiai naiieaoa iu n
iiiiuueth oiiiyiooiai n?aaenoaa ecia?aiee ii?aaeaeeee ?aciao e?ueueaa
Le? n anoanoaaiiie neo/aeiie ioeaeie , oi n ii?aaeaeaiiie
aa?iyoiinoueth yoi ecia?aiea iiaeao auoue ioianaii e eaaeaeiio ec
eeannia. Iaeiaei, eaaei caiaoeoue, /oi anee yoi cia/aiea eaaeeo aeeaea e
iaeiiio ec oeaio?ia ?annayiey (iai?eia?, Mx1), oi aa?iyoiinoue ioianaiey
aai e niioaaonoaothuaio ?ani?aaeaeaieth, a cia/eo e eeanno,
iaeneiaeueiay.

f(Le?)

Mx1 Mx2
Mx3 Le?

?en.2.1

I?eia?u aa?iyoiinoiuo i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey:

-n?aaeiaa cia/aiea iiuiinoe neaiaea ?aaeeieieaoi?a, io?aaeaiiiai io
naiieaoa (i?e/eia – ec?acaiiinoue e?oaiaie aeeaa?aiiu ?annayiey neaiaea
?aaeeieieaoi?a naiieaoii e yeaeo?iiiua e aoiinoa?iua ooiu a oii aea
?aaeeieieaoeeiiiii aeeaiaciia);

-?acia? eenoa ?anoaiey (i?e/eiu – ioee/ey a ieoaiee, inaauaiiinoe,
aeaae e o.i.);

-?acia? iaoieiae/aneiai eciaiaiey eaeiai-eeai i?aaia /aeiaaea (i?e/eiu
– ?acee/iua noaaeee caaieaaaiey i?e aai iaia?oaeaiee, ?acee/iua ?aeo?nu
e na/aiey iaaethaeaiee ia?aciaaiey e o.i.) e o.ae.

A. Eiae/aneea i?eciaee ?aniiciaaaiey – yoi oa?aeoa?enoeee iauaeoa
eee yaeaiey, i?aaenoaaeaiiua a aeaea yeaiaioa?iuo auneacuaaiee ia
enoeiiinoe (“aea”, “iao” eee “enoeia”, “eiaeue”).

Yoe i?eciaee, eae iu iiieiaai, ia eiatho eiee/anoaaiiiai au?aaeaiey, oi
anoue yaeythony ea/anoaaiiuie noaeaeaieyie i iaee/ee, eeai ia
ionoonoaee iaeioi?uo naienoa eee ninoaaeythueo o iauaeoia eee yaeaiee.

I?eia?u eiae/aneeo i?eciaeia:

-iaee/ea O?Ae ia naiieaoa ;

-aieue a ai?ea iaoeeaioa ;

-eaoaeue ;

-ianii?e ;

-?anoai?eiinoue ?aaeoeaa e o.ae.

Caeanue ii eaaeaeiio i?eciaeo iiaeii neacaoue oieueei oi, /oi ii
anoue, eeai aai iao.

E eiae/aneei iiaeii ioianoe oaeaea oaeea i?eciaee, o eioi?uo ia aaaeia
aaee/eia, a eeoue oaeo iiiaaeaiey eee iaiiiaaeaiey aa a caaeaiiue
eioa?aae. (iai?eia?, e?aena?neay nei?inoue naiieaoa aieueoa eee iaiueoa
2000 ei//).

A. No?oeoo?iua i?eciaee – iai?iecaiaeiua (oi anoue, yeaiaioa?iua, ia
i?iecaiaeeiua ec ae?oaeo yeaiaioa?iuo i?eciaeia) yeaiaiou (neiaieu),
i?eieoeau ecia?aaeaiey iauaeoa ?aniiciaaaiey.

Iiyaeaiea no?oeoo?iuo i?eciaeia iaycaii aicieeiiaaieth i?iaeaiu
?aniiciaaaiey ecia?aaeaiee n aa niaoeeoe/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie e
o?oaeiinoyie.

I?eia?u no?oeoo?iuo i?eciaeia:

a)aeey ecia?aaeaiey i?yiioaieueieea:

– ai?eciioaeueiue io?acie i?yiie;

– aa?oeeaeueiue io?acie i?yiie.

a) aeey ethaiai ecia?aaeaiey ia ye?aia aeenieay:

-ieenae.

Caaaaay aeaeaei aia?aae a eceiaeaiee iaoa?eaea, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue,
/oi o?aaeeoeeiiii aeey iienaiey ecia?aaeaiee eniieueciaaeenue
?aceiaeaiey aai a ?yaeu ii i?oiaiiaeueiui ooieoeeyi (?yaeu Oo?uea,
iieeiiiu Y?ieoa, Eaaeaiae?a, *aauoaaa, ?aceiaeaiey Ea?oiaia-Eiyaa e
ae?.).

No?oeoo?iia iienaiea a ioee/ee io ?aceiaeaiee:

-iiiyoiaa (oece/iaa) aeey /aeiaaea, ?aoathuaai caaea/o ?aniiciaaaiey
iauaeoa;

-i?eaieaii e aeey eiiiuethoa?iie ?aaeecaoeee i?e ?aniiciaaaiee;

-naiaiaeii io o?oaeiaieinoe au/eneaiee e iioa?ue eioi?iaoeee,
naienoaaiiuo ?aceiaeaieyi.

Ieacuaaaony, /oi iia?e?oy ia?aie/aiiui /eneii aoiia?iuo (iai?iecaiaeiuo)
yeaiaioia (i?eieoeaia), iiaeii iieo/eoue iienaiea ?aciiia?aciuo
iauaeoia. Oi anoue, aeey ioee/athueony iauaeoia iiaeii eiaoue iaai?
iaeeiaeiauo iai?iecaiaeiuo yeaiaioia. Ii aeey oiai, /oiau iienaiea
iiaeii auei au auiieieoue, ia?yaeo n ii?aaeaeaieai iai?iecaiaeiuo
yeaiaioia aeieaeiu aaiaeeoueny i?aaeea eiiaeie?iaaiey, ii?aaeaeythuea
niiniau iino?iaiey iauaeoa ec oiiiyioouo iai?iecaiaeiuo yeaiaioia. A
?acoeueoaoa aeaa iaeeiaeiauo iai?iecaiaeiuo yeaiaioa ?acee/iuo iauaeoia
iiaoo auoue niaaeeiaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii ii ?aciui i?aaeeai. Yoi e aoaeao
eo ioee/aoue.

A oeaeii aeey iienaiey eaeiai-eeai iauaeoa iai?iecaiaeiua yeaiaiou
iauaaeeiythony a oeaii/ee (i?aaeeiaeaiey) ii naiaio, oa?aeoa?iiio
oieueei aeey yoiai iauaeoa, iaai?o i?aaee.

A ?acoeueoaoa naycae ec iai?iecaiaeiuo yeaiaioia (no?oeoo?iuo
i?eciaeia) ia?acoaony iauaeo, aiaeiae/ii oiio, eae i?aaeeiaeaiey
ycuea no?iyony iooai niaaeeiaiey neia, a naith i/a?aaeue ninoiyueo ec
aoea. A yoii no?oeoo?iua iaoiaeu i?iyaeytho aiaeiaeth n neioaenenii
anoanoaaiiiai ycuea. Ionthaea no?oeoo?iua i?eciaee iinyo aua iacaaiea
eeiaaenoe/aneeo eee neioaene/aneeo.

( I?eia? – eiae O?eiaia).

* * *

Oaeei ia?acii, iu ?anniio?aee i/aiue iiae?iaii 1-oth caaea/o nicaeaiey
nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey – ii?aaeaeaiea iieiiai ia?a/iy i?eciaeia
(ia?aiao?ia), oa?aeoa?ecothueo iauaeou eee yaeaiey, aeey eioi?uo
aeaiiay nenoaia ?ac?aaaouaaaony. Aeaaiua auaiaeu:

1) Auai?, iacia/aiea i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey – ya?enoe/aneay iia?aoeey,
caaenyuay io oai?/anoaa, ecia?aoaoaeueiinoe ?ac?aaio/eea.

2) Ninoaa i?eciaeia , auae?aaiuo ia yoii yoaia, aeieaeai auoue eae
iiaeii aieaa ?aciinoi?iiiei e iieiui, iacaaeneiui io oiai, iiaeii eee
iaeuecy yoe i?eciaee iieo/eoue.

3) Auai? i?eciaeia aeieaeai inouanoaeyoueny a a?oiiao
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo, aa?iyoiinoiuo, eiae/aneeo e no?oeoo?iuo.

E A E Oe E ss 2.3

Oi?ioee?iaea caaea/ nicaeaiey nenoai

?aniiciaaaiey e iaoiaeu eo ?aoaiey

( i?iaeieaeaiea)

CAAeA*A ? 2

Ia?aiia/aeueiay eeanneoeeaoeey iauaeoia (yaeaiee), iiaeeaaeaueo
?aniiciaaaieth, ninoaaeaiea ai?ei?iiai aeoaaeoa eeannia.

Iai oaea ciaeiia ia iienaoaeueiii o?iaia yoa caaea/a: iaiaoiaeeii
aua?aoue (iacia/eoue) eeannu iauaeoia (yaeaiee) ?aniiciaaaiey. ?aoaiea
aa inouanoaeyaony iaeaieaa /anoi ya?enoe/anee, eae e auai? i?eciaeia
?aniiciaaaiey, a eiaeea aa ?aoaiey neaaeothuay:

1-a – ii?aaeaeyaony, eaeea ?aoaiey iiaoo i?eieiaoueny ii ?acoeueoaoai
?aniiciaaaiey eeai /aeiaaeii, eeai aaoiiaoe/aneie nenoaiie oi?aaeaiey
iauaeoii (oeaeue ?aniiciaaaiey).

2-a – ia iniiaa ii?aaeaeaiiie auoa oeaee oi?ioee?othony o?aaiaaiey e
nenoaia ?aniiciaaaiey, iicaieythuea aua?aoue i?eioeei eeanneoeeaoeee.

3-a – ninoaaeyaony ai?ei?iue aeoaaeo eeannia iauaeoia (yaeaiee).

I?aaeiieiaeei ii ?acoeueoaoai iaeioi?iai iaoiaea iaaeeoeeineie
aeeaaiinoeee ninoiyiey ia/aie /aeiaaea iaiaoiaeeii i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey i
iaoiaea ea/aiey (ni.1-e ioieo a ?anniio?aiiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe
?aoaiey caaea/e ai?ei?iie eeanneoeeaoeee – oeaeue). Ianeieueei
na?ueacii i?eiyoea oaeiai ?aoaiey, o/eouaay aiciiaeiinoue
oe?o?ae/aneiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa, y iaaeathnue, iiiyoii.

Oiaaea, i/aaeaeii, /oi o?aaiaaieai e nenoaia (ni.2-e ioieo
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe) – iaaeaaeiia (n aunieie aa?iyoiinoueth)
aeeaaiinoe?iaaiea eaaeaeiai caaieaaaiey ia/aie.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a ai?ei?iue aeoaaeo eeannia (ni.3-e ioieo ?anniio?aiiie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe) iaiaoiaeeii aeeth/eoue ana aiciiaeiua caaieaaaiey
ia/aie, a eo – 11. Oi anoue, eeannia ?aniiciaaaaiuo caaieaaaiee
ia/aie, aeeaaiinoe?oaiuo iaeioi?ie aeiioaoe/aneie nenoaiie ?aniiciaaaiey
aeieaeii auoue 11. Aeey aieaa /aoeiai iiieiaiey iaciaai yoe eeannu:

1.Ino?ue aaiaoeo.

2.O?iie/aneee aaiaoeo.

3.AEe?iaay eioeeueo?aoeey.

4.Oee??ic.

5.Eenoa i?inoay.

6.Eenoa ia?aceoa?iay.

7.Aanoeann.

8.Iiooieue.

9.Iaoanoacu.

10.Aaiaoiia.

11.Eiie?aiaiou.

Caiaoei, /oi, e?iia neooaoeee, i?aaeeiaeaiiie ?anniio?aiiie caaea/e,
aiciiaeiu e ae?oaea, eiaaea eiee/anoai eeannia, ii eioi?ui iaaeaaeii
?aniiciathony iaeioi?ua iauaeou (yaeaiey), ca?aiaa iaecaanoii e
aeieaeii ii?aaeaeyoueny naiie nenoaiie ?aniiciaaaiey. Yoa caaea/a
iacuaaaony caaea/ae eeanoa?ecaoeee, a eioi?ie iiaeii ioeacaoueny oaea io
ya?enoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea. Iaeiaei ?aoaiea caeanue aeinoeaaaony i?e
auai?a iaeioi?uo iaueo i?aaee eeanoa?ecaoeee, eioi?ua caaeaao
?ac?aaio/ee nenoaiu.

CAAeA*A ? 3

?ac?aaioea ai?ei?iiai neiaa?y i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey.

?aoay caaea/o ?1, iu aeieaeiu auee iaeoe ana aiciiaeiua i?eciaee
?aniiciaaaiey caaeaiiuo iauaeoia eee yaeaiee. Oi/ii oaeaea i?e ?aoaiee
caaea/e ?2 ii?aaeaeeeny ninoaa eeannia.

Oaia?ue, ?aniieaaay niioaaonoaothuei ia?a/iai e ai?ei?iui aeoaaeoii
eeannia, iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe aiaeec aiciiaeiinoae ecia?aiey i?eciaeia
eee ?an/aoa eo ii aeaiiui ecia?aiee, aua?aoue oa ec ieo, eioi?ua
iaania/eaathony ecia?aieyie, a oaeaea a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe
?ac?aaioaoue i?aaeeiaeaiey e nicaeaoue iiaua n?aaenoaa ecia?aiee aeey
iaania/aiey o?aaoaiie yooaeoeaiinoe ?aniiciaaaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeaaiia niaea?aeaiea ?anniao?eaaaiie caaea/e iino?iaiey
N? – nicaeaiea neiaa?y, iaania/eaaaiiai ?aaeueii aiciiaeiuie
ecia?aieyie.

Iaeiaei, oi?ioee eee ieioie iaai? i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey, iieo/eeny a
?acoeueoaoa oeacaiiuo aeaenoaee ?ac?aaio/eea N?, iiaeii iiiyoue,
auiieiea eniuoaiey nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey a oeaeii e ioeaiea
yooaeoeaiinoue ?aniiciaaaiey. Ii nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey ia oeacaiiii
yoaia ?ac?aaioee aua ia nouanoaoao. A oi aea a?aiy, eae iu caiaoeee,
iiyaeeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe. E ?anniao?eaay
i/a?aaeiua caaea/e nicaeaiey N?, iu iaia?oaeei, /oi ?anniao?eaaaiay
caaea/a inoaaony aeooaeueiie ia i?ioyaeaiee anao iineaaeothueo yoaiia
nicaeaiey nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey (iienaiea eeannia, auai? aeai?eoia
?aniiciaaaiey). Oieueei iaoiaeii iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo i?eaeeaeaiee
oaeaaony aeiaeoueny auai?a neiaa?y i?eciaeia, iaania/eaathuaai
aeaeaaiia ea/anoai ?aoaiee.

Auoiaeii ec nicaeaaoaainy iieiaeaiey yaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaiey ia
aeaiiii yoaia iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee nenoaiu. Iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee N?
e eniieuecothony aeey ?aaeecaoeee oeacaiiuo iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo
i?eaeeaeaiee, i /ai oiiieiaeinue ia iienaoaeueiii o?iaia i?e
?anniio?aiee caaea/ iino?iaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey.

CAAeA*A ? 4

Iienaiea eeannia ai?ei?iiai aeoaaeoa ia ycuea ai?ei?iiai neiaa?y
i?eciaeia.

Ai?ei?iia iienaiea eeannia – iaeaieaa o?oaeiaieay ec caaea/ a
i?ioeanna nicaeaiey nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey, o?aaothuay aeoaieiai eco/aiey
naienoa iauaeoia ?aniiciaaaiey, a oaeaea e iaeaieaa oai?/aneay
caaea/a.

A ?aieao yoie caaea/e iaiaoiaeeii eaaeaeiio eeanno iinoaaeoue a
niioaaonoaea /eneiaua ia?aiao?u aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo e aa?iyoiinoiuo
i?eciaeia, cia/aiey eiae/aneeo i?eciaeia e i?aaeeiaeaiey, ninoaaeaiiua
ec no?oeoo?iuo i?eciaeia-i?eieoeaia.

Cia/aiey yoeo ia?aiao?ia iienaiee iiaeii iieo/eoue ec niaieoiiinoe
neaaeothueo ?aaio e aeaenoaee:

-niaoeeaeueii iinoaaeaiiua yenia?eiaioaeueiua ?aaiou eee
–yenia?eiaioaeueiua iaaethaeaiey;

-?acoeueoaou ia?aaioee yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo;

-iaoaiaoe/aneea ?an/aou;

-?acoeueoaou iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey;

-ecaea/aiey ec eeoa?aoo?iuo enoi/ieeia.

*oi aea oaeia iienaiea eeanna ia ycuea i?eciaeia? ?anniio?ei yoi
ioaeaeueii aeey aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo, aa?iyoiinoiuo, eiae/aneeo e
no?oeoo?iuo i?eciaeia.

Anee i?eciaee ?aniiciaaaaiuo iauaeoia – aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua, oi iienaieai
eeanna iiaeao auoue oi/ea a ?-ia?iii i?ino?ainoaa aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo
i?eciaeia ec ai?ei?iiai neiaa?y, noiia ?annoiyiee eioi?ie io oi/ae,
i?aaenoaaeythueo iauaeou aeaiiiai eeanna, ieieiaeueia.

Eaaei naaa i?aaenoaaeoue oaeie yoaeii, aa?ioaoenue e ?anniio?aiiui iaie
oaaeeoeai OOO naiieaoia. Caeanue iu eiaai aeaei n 11-ia?iui
i?ino?ainoaii i?eciaeia. Eaaeaeay eii?aeeiaoa – yoi iaeia
eaeay-ieaoaeue oa?aeoa?enoeea, iai?eia? “yeeiaae”. Anee ?anniao?eaaoue
oieueei iaeio eii?aeeiaoo “yeeiaae”, oi oi/eie yoaeiia aeey
eno?aaeoaeae aoaeao – 1, aeey aiiaa?aee?iaueeia – 4. Yoi oi/ee, noiiu
?annoiyiee eioi?uo io anao eno?aaeoaeae e anao aiiaa?aee?iaueeia,
i?aaenoaaeythueo yoe aeaa eeanna, ieieiaeueiu.

Oi/ii oaeaea yoi iiaeii naeaeaoue ii anai 11 eii?aeeiaoai (o.a.
“iioieie”, “?aciao e?ueueaa”, ”aiiaiaay iaa?ocea “ e o.ae.), a
?acoeueoaoa /aai aoaeai oaea eiaoue aeaei n oi/eaie yoaeiiia a 11-ia?iii
i?ino?ainoaa.

Anee i?eciaee ?aniiciaaaiey – eiae/aneea, oi aeey iienaiey eaaeaeiai
eeanna iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaea anaai eiaoue iieiue iaai? yeaiaioa?iuo
eiae/aneeo auneacuaaiee A,B,C, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa ai?ei?iiai neiaa?y.
Ii yoi oieueei i?eciaee. Aeey iienaiey eeannia yoiai iaaeinoaoi/ii.
Aua iaiaoiaeeii onoaiiaeoue niioaaonoaea iaaeaeo iaai?ii cia/aiee
i?eaaaeaiiuo i?eciaeia A,B,C e eeannaie W1, W2,…Wm.

Oae aeey i?inoiou iiieiaiey e aac i?eoycaiee ia iaaeeoeeineoth
aeinoiaa?iinoue aicueiai oaeie i?eia?: iaiaoiaeeii ?aniiciaaaoue aeaa
caaieaaaiey – iau/iay i?inooaea e aiaeia (W1,W2), a a ea/anoaa
eiae/aneeo i?eciaeia auaa?ai

A – iiauoaiiay oaiia?aoo?a (A=0 – iao, A=1 – aea);

A – ianii?e (A=0 – iao, A=1 – aea);

N – ia?uau a ai?ea (N=0 – iao, N=1 – aea).

Oiaaea oae iacuaaaiia aoeaai niioiioaiea iaaeaeo eeannii W1
(iau/iia i?inooaeiia caaieaaaiea) e cia/aieyie i?eciaeaie (a yoe
cia/aiey – aeia?iua) auaeyaeeo oae

Caeanue oiiiaeaiea, eae au ciaaoa, niioaaonoaoao eiae/aneiio “E”, a
neiaeaiea – “EEE”.

Oi/ii oaeaea aeey aoi?iai eeanna caaieaaaiee iieo/ei neaaeothuaa
iienaiea

Iiae?iaiaa caeanue iu yoe aii?inu ia ?anniao?eaaai, oae eae eiae/aneei
nenoaiai a aeaeueiaeoai eo?na oaeaeei aeinoaoi/iia aieiaiea.

Anee ?ani?aaeaeaiea iauaeoia ?aniiciaaaiey, i?aaenoaaeyaiuo /eneiauie
cia/aieyie eo i?eciaeia ii iaeanoyi niioaaonoaothuaai i?ino?ainoaa
aa?iyoiinoiia, oi aeey iienaiey eeannia iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue
oa?aeoa?enoeee yoeo ?ani?aaeaeaiee. A ec oai?ee aa?iyoiinoe ecaanoii,
/oi yoi

-ooieoeee I?A fi (x1,x2,….,xn), aaea x1…..xn – aa?iyoiinoiua
i?eciaee, I – iiia? eeanna;

-P(Wi) – ai?ei?iay aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi iauaeo, neo/aeii aua?aiiue ec
iauae niaieoiiinoe, ieaaeaony i?eiaaeeaaeauei e eeanno Wi.

Eae iieo/eoue I?A eeannia nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey? A ?anii?yaeaiee
?ac?aaio/eea N? – o?e niiniaa:

-yenia?eiaioaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea ii noaoenoe/aneei aeaiiui;

-oai?aoe/aneee auaiae;

-iiaeaee?iaaiea.

Oi aea eanaaony ai?ei?iie aa?iyoiinoe eeanna P(Wi).

Anee i?eciaee ?aniiciaaaiey – no?oeoo?iua, oi iienaieai eaae-aeiai
eeanna aeieaeai auoue iaai? i?aaeeiaeaiee (oeaii/ae ec iai?iecaiaeiuo
yeaiaioia n i?aaeeaie niaaeeiaiey). Eaaeaeia ec i?aaeeiaeaiee eeanna –
oa?aeoa?enoeea no?oeoo?iuo iniaaiiinoae iauaeoia yoiai eeanna. I?eia? –
eiae O?eiaia.

CAAeA*A ? 5

Auai? aeai?eoia eeanneoeeaoeee, iaania/eaathuaai ioianaiea
?aniiciaaaaiiai iauaeoa eee yaeaiey e niioaaonoaothuaio eeanno.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ?aoaiea caaea/e ?aniiciaaaiey ia iniiaa
eniieueciaaiey neiaa?y i?eciaeia e aeoaaeoa eeannia iauaeoia eee yaeaiee
oaeoe/anee caeeth/aaony a ?acaeaiee i?ino?ainoaa cia/aiee i?eciaeia
?aniiciaaaiey ia iaeanoe D1,D2,…,Dn, niioaaonoaothuea eeannai
W1,W2,…,Wn (aniiieiaai ii?aaeaeaiea “ia?aca”).

Oeacaiiia ?acaeaiea aeieaeii auoue auiieiaii oaeei ia?acii, /oiau
iaania/eaaeenue ieieiaeueiua cia/aiey ioeaie ioianaiey eeanneoeoee?oaiuo
iauaeoia eee yaeaiee e “/oaeei” eeannai.

?acoeueoaoii oaeie iia?aoeee yaeyaony ioianaiea iauaeoa, eiathuaai
iaai? i?eciaeia X1,X2,….,Xn (oi/ea a n-ia?iii i?ino?ainoaa), e eeanno
Wi, anee oeacaiiay oi/ea eaaeeo a niioaaonoaothuae eeanno iaeanoe
i?eciaeia – Di.

?acaeaiea i?ino?ainoaa i?eciaeia iiaeii i?aaenoaaeyoue eae iino?iaiea
?acaeaeythueo ooieoeee fi(x1,x2,….,xn) iaaeaeo iiiaeanoaaie
(iaeanoyie) i?eciaeia Di, i?eiaaeeaaeauei ?aciui eeannai.

Oiiiyiooua ooieoeee aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue neaaeothuei naienoaii:

, oi cia/aiea ?acaeaeythuae ooieoeee

(caeanue eiaeaen q – icia/aao iiia? eeanna, e eioi?iio i?eiaaeeaaeeo
aaeoi? i?eciaeia).

Ionthaea eaaei ii?aaeaeeoue au?aaeaiea ?aoathuae a?aieoeu iaaeaeo
iaeanoyie Di, niioaaonoaothuei eeannai Wi:

Aeey aeaoo ?aniiciaaaaiuo eeannia ?acaeaiea aeaoia?iiai i?ino?ainoaa
auaeyaeeo oae (?en 2.2). Oece/anee ?aniiciaaaiea iniiauaaaony ia
n?aaiaiee cia/aiee oie eee eiie ia?u aeecinoe ?aniiciaaaaiiai iauaeoa n
eaaeaeui eeannii. I?e yoii anee cia/aiea aua?aiiie ia?u aeecinoe
(noiaenoaa) L aeaiiiai iauaeoa w n eaeei-eeai eeannii Wg aeinoeaaao
yeno?aioia ioiineoaeueii cia/aiee aa ii ae?oaei eeannai, oi anoue

Wg.

Iaaeathnue iiiyoii, /oi anee ia?a aeecinoe ia eiaao yeno?aioia, oi iu
iaoiaeeiny ia a?aieoea, aaea ia iiaeai ioaeaoue i?aaeii/oaiea ie
iaeiiio ec eeannia.

X1 o o o o

xx x o o o

x o o F2(X1,X2) > F1(X1,X2)

x x x o o o o

x o o o o o

x x x x x o o o o
o

F1(X1,X2)>F2(X1,X2) x o

x x x x x x x o
o

x x x x x x

x x x x x

X2

?en.2.2

A aeai?eoiao ?aniiciaaaiey, eniieuecothueo aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua
i?eciaee a ea/anoaa ia?u aeecinoe, eniieuecoaony n?aaeiaeaaae?aoe/aneia
?annoiyiea iaaeaeo aeaiiui iauaeoii w e niaieoiiinoueth iauaeoia
(w1,w2,….,wn), i?aaenoaaeythueo (iienuaathueo) eaaeaeue eeann. Oae
aeey n?aaiaiey n eeannii Wg yoi auaeyaeeo oae

aaea kg – eiee/anoai iauaeoia, i?aaenoaaeythueo Wg-e eeann.

I?e yoii a ea/anoaa iaoiaeia ecia?aiee ?annoiyiey iaaeaeo iauaeoaie
d(w,wg) iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny ethaua iaoiaeu (oai?/aneee i?ioeann
caeanue ia ia?aie/eaaaony).

Oae, anee n?aaieaaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii eii?aeeiaou (i?eciaee), oi

aaea N – ?acia?iinoue i?eciaeiaiai i?ino?ainoaa.

Anee n?aaieaaoue oaeiaua ioeeiiaiey, oi ?anniao?eaay aaeoi?a,
ninoaaeythueie eioi?uo yaeythony i?eciaee ?aniiciaaaaiiai iauaeoa w e
eeanna wg, aoaeai eiaoue:

aaea ||Xw|| e ||Xwg|| – ii?iu niioaaonoaothueo aaeoi?ia.

A aeai?eoia ?aniiciaaaiey, eniieuecothuai aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua
i?eciaee iiaeii o/eouaaoue e eo aana Vj (onoaiaaeeaaoue noaiaiue
aeiaa?ey eee aaaeiinoe). Oiaaea ?anniio?aiiia n?aaeiaeaaae?aoe/aneia
?annoiyiea i?eieiaao neaaeothuee aeae:

A aeai?eoiao ?aniiciaaaiey, eniieuecothueo aa?iyoiinoiua i?eciaee, a
ea/anoaa ia?u aeecinoe eniieuecoaony ?ene, naycaiiue n ?aoaieai i
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe iauaeoa e eeanno Wi, aaea i – iiia? eeanna.
(i=1,2,..,m.).

Iienaiey eeannia, eae iu iaaeaaii ?anniio?aee

A ?anniao?eaaaiii neo/aa e enoiaeiui aeaiiui aeey ?an/aoa ia?u
aeecinoe ioiineony ieaoaaeiay iao?eoea aeaea:

Caeanue ia aeaaiie aeeaaiiaee – iioa?e i?e i?aaeeueiuo ?aoaieyo. Iau/ii
i?eieiatho Nii=0 eee Cii<0.Ii iaaei noi?iiai io aeaaiie aeeaaiiaee - iioa?e i?e ioeai/iuo ?aoaieyo. A eaaeaeie nenoaia yoe iioa?e naie, naienoaaiiua oieueei ae. Iaeiaei iacia/aiea eo - oai?/anoai ?ac?aaio/eea nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey., oi ?ene, naycaiiue n i?eiyoeai ?aoaiey i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe yoiai iauaeoa e eeanno Wg, eiaaea ia naiii aeaea ii iiaeao i?eiaaeeaaeaoue eeannai W1,W2,...,Wm, iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?acii ii?aaeaeyoue eae n?aaeiaa cia/aiea iioa?ueN1g, C2g,...,Cmg ,oi anoue, iioa?ue, noiyueo a g-ii noieaoea ieaoaaeiie iao?eoeu.Oiaaea yoio n?aaeiee ?ene iiaeii caienaoue eae ii?aaeaeaiea IIAEWi.Aeey enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo, a eiaiii iienaiee eeannia yoa aa?iyoiinoue eaaei iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeaia a niioaaonoaee n oai?aiie aeiioac eee ii oi?ioea AaeanaAa?iyoiinoe e ieioiinoe, aoiaeyuea a oi?ioeo - ie /oi eiia eae oa?aeoa?enoeee iienaiey eeannia a aa?iyoiinoiie nenoaia.Aeey aeai?eoiia, iniiaaiiuo ia eiae/aneeo i?eciaeao, iiiyoea “ia?a aeecinoe” ia eiaao niunea. Aniiiiei oi?iuaiiue i?eia?, ?anniio?aiiue iaie aeey eiae/aneeo i?eciaeia caaieaaaiee (i?inoie i?inooaeu e aiaeiu).Eiay cia/aiey i?eciaeia A,B,C, aeinoaoi/ii iiaenoaaeoue eo a aoeaau niioiioaiey iaaeaeo eeannaie e i?eciaeaie, /oiau n?aco iieo/eoue ?acoeueoao eae enoeiiinoue eee eiaeiinoue aoeaaie ooieoeee iienaiey oiai eee eiiai eeanna.Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ionoue i?eciaee i?eiyee neaaeothuea cia/aiey:-Iiauoaiiay oaiia?aoo?a: A=1-Ianii?e: B=0-Ia?uau a ai?ea: C=1Oiaaea iiaenoaiiaea eo a aoeaau niioiioaiey aeano neaaeothuee ?acoeueoao:Oi anoue, enoeiiui yaeyaony aoi?ia niioiioaiea, niioaaonoaothuaa ?aniiciaaaieth aiaeiu eae aeeaaiinoe?oaiiai eeanna ec aeaoo caaieaaaiee.Aeey aeai?eoiia, iniiaaiiuo ia no?oeoo?iuo (eeiaaenoe/aneeo) i?eciaeao, iiiyoea “ia?u aeecinoe” aieaa niaoeeoe/ii.N o/aoii oiai, /oi eaaeaeue eeann iienuaaaony niaieoiiinoueth i?aaeeiaeaiee, oa?aeoa?ecothueo no?oeoo?iua iniaaiiinoe iauaeoia niioaaonoaothueo eeannia, ?aniiciaaaiea iaecaanoiiai iauaeoa inouanoaeyaony eaeaioeoeeaoeeae i?aaeeiaeaiey, iienuaathuaai yoio iauaeo, n iaeiei ec i?aaeeiaeaiee a ninoaaa iienaiey eaeiai-eeai eeanna.I?e yoii eaeaioeoeeaoeey iiaeao iiae?acoiaaaoue iaeaieueoaa noiaenoai i?aaeeiaeaiey, iienuaathuaai ?aniiciaaaaiue iauaeo n i?aaeeiaeaieyie ec iaai?ia iienaiey eaaeaeiai eeanna.?anniio?aa caaea/o ?5 , iu oaeoe/anee caaa?oeee ?anniio?aiea e?oaa caaea/ nicaeaiey N?. A oi aea a?aiy oaea ioia/aeinue, /oi nicaeaiea N? inouanoaeyaony iineaaeiaaoaeueiuie i?eaeeaeaieyie ii ia?a iieo/aiey aeiiieieoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee. A yoii ?yaeo iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo i?eaeeaeaiee aeaaioth ?ieue ea?atho i?eciaee ?aniiciaaaiey. Io yooaeoeaiinoe eo iaai?a caaeneo, yooaeoeaiinoue nenoaiu a oeaeii. A i?ioeanna niaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoaiu oeacaiiue iaai? iiiieiyaony, iayooaeoeaiua i?eciaee eneeth/athony. Iiyoiio iaeiie ec caaea/ nicaeaiey N? aeieaeia auoue e caaea/a ia?aoiaea io ai?ei?iiai neiaa?y i?eciaeia e ?aai/aio. Oi aea eanaaony e ai?ei?iiai aeoaaeoa eeannia.CAAeA*A ? 6Ii?aaeaeaiea ?aai/aai aeoaaeoa eeannia e ?aai/aai neiaa?y i?eciaeia nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey.Ianoiyuay caaea/a ia o?iaia ?ac?aaioee, i?ioaaeoae yoaiu ?aoaiey caaea/ 1 - 5, ii e?aeiae ia?a oaea iiaeao auoue iinoaaeaia, oae eae a ?acoeueoaoa auiieiaiey i?aaeoanoaothueo caaea/ nicaeaia nenoaia ?aniiciaaaiey ia?aiai i?eaeeaeaiey (ai?ei?iue aeoaaeo eeannia e ai?ei?iue neiaa?ue i?eciaeia, aua?ai aeai?eoi ?aniiciaaaiey).Nooue noiyuae caaea/e - ?ac?aaioea oaeiai (?aai/aai) aeoaaeoa eeannia e oaeiai (?aai/aai) neiaa?y i?eciaeia, eioi?ua iaania/eee au iaeneiaeueiia cia/aiea iieacaoaey yooaeoeaiinoe ?aniiciaaaiey. Oi anoue, ec ai?ei?iiai neiaa?y iu aeieaeiu aua?aoue i?eciaee, iicaieythuea i?e anao eiathueony ia?aie/aieyo ia eo iieo/aiea (ecia?aiea) aeinoaaeoue iaeneioi aa?iyoiinoe i?aaeeueiie eeanneoeeaoeee iauaeoia (yaeaiee) e (eee) ieieiaeueiua aa?iyoiinoe ioeai/iuo eeanneoeeaoeee nicaeaaaaiie nenoaiie. Oaeie auai? ia iiaeao ia i?aaeiieaaaoue ioeaieo oeacaiiuo iieacaoaeae aei oiai, eae nicaeaia nenoaia.Oeacaiiia nouanoai caaea/e canoaaeyao niiaa ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey iooai aa iiaeaee?iaaiey. Ia yoii iu aiai?eee i?e nicaeaiee ai?ei?iiai neiaa?y i?eciaeia. E yoiio iu aa?iainy i?e niaoeeaeueiii ?anniio?aiee aii?inia iiaeaee?iaaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey.*oi aea eanaaony i?eaiia, iaania/eaathueo ioai? a i?ioeanna iioeiecaoeee nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey, oi iie yaeythony oaeaea i?aaeiaoii ioaeaeueiiai ?anniio?aiey.O a i a 3Eeanneoeeaoeey nenoai ?aniiciaaaieyE A E Oe E ss 3.1I?eioeeiu eeanneoeeaoeee e oeiu nenoai ?aniiciaaaieyI?e ?anniio?aiee caaea/, ?aoaaiuo a i?ioeanna nicaeaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey (oaia 2) , iu aiai?eee i i?eciaeao iauaeoia (yaeaiee), i niiniaao eo iieo/aiey a i?ioeanna ?aaiou N?, ia eniieueciaaiee ai?ei?iie eioi?iaoeee, ia cao?aaeaay aii?inia acaeiinaycae a nenoaia. Eiiaaea oieueei oiiieiaee ia yoii .A oi aea a?aiy, /oiau eaa/a, niciaoaeueiaa ?aoaoue caaea/o auai?a i?eciaeia (a yoi, eae iu iiiiei, - i?ioeann ya?enoe/aneee), a oaeaea aeey ieaie?iaaiey eniieueciaaiey eae ai?ei?iie eioi?iaoeee (iienaiea eeannia), oae e aiinoa?ei?iuo aeaiiuo (ecia?aiey ii aeaiiiio iaecaanoiiio iiaeeaaeauaio eeanneoeeaoeee iauaeoo) yoe acaeiinayce iaiaoiaeeii oi?ioi i?aaenoaaeyoue.Iaeiaei, eae ieacuaaaony, oiiieiaaiua acaeiinayce iiaoo i?eieiaoue ?acee/iua oi?iu, eiaoue naie iniaaiiinoe. I?inoia ia?a/eneaiea caeanue ia iiaeoiaeeo. Iiyoiio i?aaenoaaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui eeanneoeoee?iaaoue nia/aea naie nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey. Yoi iicaieeo iiiyoue acaeiinayce a ieo e ?aoaoue oa caaea/e, i eioi?uo iu nae/an aiai?eee.Ia/iai n ooi/iaiey oiai, /oi oaeia eeanneoeeaoeey. Eeanneoeeaoeey - yoi ?ani?aaeaeaiea i?aaeiaoia, yaeaiee ii eeannai, ioaeaeai, ?ac?yaeai a caaeneiinoe io eo iaueo naienoa.A iniiaa eeanneoeeaoeee eaaeao ii?aaeaeaiiua i?eioeeiu.Aeey eeanneoeeaoeee N? aoaeai eniieueciaaoue neaaeothuea i?eioeeiu:1.Iaeii?iaeiinoue eioi?iaoeee aeey iienaiey ?aniiciaaaaiuo iauaeoia eee yaeaiee.2.Niinia iieo/aiey aiinoa?ei?iie eioi?iaoeee.3.Eiee/anoai ia?aiia/aeueiie ai?ei?iie eioi?iaoeee.4.Oa?aeoa? eioi?iaoeee i i?eciaeao ?aniiciaaaiey.A. ?anniio?ei 1-e i?eioeei.(Iaeii?iaeiinoue eioi?iaoeee)Caeanue iiae iaeii?iaeiinoueth neaaeoao iiieiaoue - ?acee/ioth eee aaeeioth oece/aneoth i?e?iaeo eioi?iaoeee (i?eciaeia).Ii yoiio i?eioeeio N? aeaeyony ia:-i?inoua;-neiaeiua.I?inoua N? oa?aeoa?ecothony aaeeiie oece/aneie i?e?iaeie i?eciaeia. Iai?eia?:1) oieueei ianna - aeey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey aeaoiiia, iiiao a aaoiiaoao oaeeo, eae iaaeaeoai?iaeiue oaeaoii, oo?ieeao iao?i;2) aaiiao?e/aneea ?acia?u - aeey oaeeo N?, eae anyeiai ?iaea caiee.ssnii, /oi aeey i?inouo nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey ia iaycaoaeueii eiaoue eiiiuethoa?. Aeinoaoi/ii eo ?aaeeciaaoue a aeaea iaoaie/aneeo eee yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneeo ono?ienoa. Oioy eiiiuethoa?iua ?aaeecaoeee a i?eioeeia ia i?ioeaiiieacaiu, anee ia?yaeo n yoie a nenoaia ?aoathony e ae?oaea aieaa aeinoieiua caaea/e.Neiaeiua N? oa?aeoa?ecothony oece/aneie iaiaeii?iaeiinoueth i?eciaeia.A ?anniio?aiiii iaie a oaia ? 2 ia?a/ia i?eciaeia naiieaoia oaeay iaiaeii?iaeiinoue i?iniao?eaaaony iaaii?oaeaiiui aeacii. Oai eiaee:-e /eneaiiinoue yeeiaaeae;-e auniou iieaoa;-e aceaoiue aan;-e aaiiao?e/aneea ?acia?u e o.ae.Oi/ii oaeaea a iaaeeoeeineie i?aeoeea aeey aeeaaiinoeee iiaeao ieacaoueny iaiaoiaeeiui i?eaeaeaoue:-e oaiia?aoo?o;-e aeaiiua aiaeeca e?iae;-e aeaiiua e?iayiiai aeaaeaiey;-e ea?aeeia?aiiu e o.i.Eiia/ii, i?inoioa anaaaea i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa. Oi?ioi eiaoue anaai 1 - 2 i?eciaea e i?e yoii aeaeaoaeueii iaeii?iaeiuo, /oiau ?aoaoue caaea/o eiiiuethoa?iiai ?aniiciaaaiey, iai?eia?, caaieaaaiee ia/aie. Ii ia anaaaea, eae e a yoii neo/aa, oae iieo/aaony. N?aaieoa ?aniiciaaaiey eeth/a caieii e ?aniiciaaaiea i?anooiieea ii neiaaniiio ii?o?aoo (iaai?o i?eciaeia).A. Aoi?ie i?eioeei eeanneoeeaoeee N?.(Niinia iieo/aiey aiinoa?ei?iie eioi?iaoeee).Ii yoiio i?eioeeio neiaeiua nenoaiu ( a iu oaea ciaai, /oi iie niaie i?aaenoaaeytho) ?aniiciaaaiey aeaeyony ia:-iaeiio?iaiaaua;-iiiaio?iaiaaua.Ia ?en. 1 ecia?aaeaia iaeiio?iaiaaay nenoaia ?aniiciaaaiey.Caeanue:E1, E2,.....,En - ?acii?iaeiua ii oece/aneie i?e?iaea ecia?eoaee.AI - ai?ei?iia iienaiea eeannia ?aniiciaaaaiuo iauaeoia;AE - aeai?eoi eeanneoeeaoeee;NAO- nenoaia aaoiiaoe/aneiai oi?aaeaiey (aeai?eoi) ?aniiciaaaieai.Iiiaio?iaiaaua neiaeiua nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey ioee/athony io iaeiio?iaiaauo oai, /oi ia ana i?eciaee io ?acii?iaeiuo oece/aneeo ecia?eoaeae eniieuecothony iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeey ?aoaiey caaea/e ?aniiciaaaiey.Caeanue ia iniiaa iauaaeeiaiey i?eciaeia ianeieueeeo ecia?eoaeae e niioaaonoaothuae ia?aaioee iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu aoi?e/iua i?eciaee, eioi?ua iiaoo eae eniieueciaaoueny a AE, oae e naie a naith i/a?aaeue neoaeeoue iniiaie aeey iauaaeeiaiey. Oi anoue, iieo/aai 2-e, 3-e e ae?. o?iaie i?eciaeia, ii?aaeaeythuea iiiaio?iaiaainoue N?. I?e/ai iiaenenoaiu, eioi?ua inouanoaeytho iauaaeeiaiea i?eciaeia, a naith i/a?aaeue iiaoo i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie oaeaea ono?ienoaa ?aniiciaaaiey (eieaeueiua N?).Noaia caeanue a oeaeii iiaeiaia i?aaeuaeouae (aeey iaeiio?iaiaaie nenoaiu), a ioee/aaony eeoue oneiaeiaieai naycae io i?eciaeia e AE.(?en.2) WE 1 E 2 ............................. E nX11 X12 .... X1k X21 X22 .... X2p Xn1 Xn2 .... XnrA KN A O?aoaiea i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoeA O?en. 1 WE 1 E 2 ......................... E nX11 X12 .... X1k X21 X22 ....X2p Xn1 Xn2 . XnrA B C DA EN A OA I ?aoaiea i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe?en. 2Oaeei ia?acii:a iaeiio?iaiaauo N? eioi?iaoeey i i?eciaeao ?aniiciaaaaiiai iauaeoa (aiinoa?ei?iay eioi?iaoeey) oi?ie?oaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia iniiaa ia?aaioee i?yiuo ecia?aiee;a iiiaio?iaiaauo N? eioi?iaoeey i i?eciaeao oi?ie?oaony ia iniiaa einaaiiuo ecia?aiee eae ?acoeueoao ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aniiiiaaoaeueiuo ?aniiciathueo ono?ienoa (i?eia?: ecia?aiea aeaeueiinoe ?aaeeieieaoi?ii ii a?aiaie caaea?aeee eceo/aiiiai eiioeuena).A. O?aoee i?eioeei eeanneoeeaoeee.(Eiee/anoai ia?aiia/aeueiie ai?ei?iie eioi?iaoeee).Caeanue aii?in eanaaony oiai, aeinoaoi/ii eee iaaeinoaoi/ii ai?ei?iie eioi?iaoeee aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ai?ei?iiai aeoaaeoa eeannia, iino?iaiey ai?ei?iiai neiaa?y i?eciaeia e iienaiey eaaeaeiai eeanna ia ycuea yoeo i?eciaeia a ?acoeueoaoa iaiin?aaenoaaiiie ia?aaioee enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo.Niioaaonoaaiii yoiio N? aeaeyony ia:-nenoaiu aac iao/aiey;-iao/athueany (IN?) e naiiiao/athueany nenoaiu (NN?).N?aco caiaoei, /oi iiiaio?iaiaaua neiaeiua N? iaeiicia/ii iaeuecy ?acaeaeeoue ia oeacaiiua eeannu, oae eae eaaeaeay ec eieaeueiuo N?, aoiaeyueo a eo ninoaa, naia iiaeao i?aaenoaaeyoue eae nenoaio aac iao/aiey, oae e nenoaio iao/athuothny eee naiiiao/athuothny.Nenoaiu aac iao/aiey.Aeey iino?iaiey oaeeo nenoai iaiaoiaeeii ?aniieaaaoue iieiie ia?aiia/aeueiie ai?ei?iie eioi?iaoeeae. I?aaeuaeouea, ?anniio?aiiua iaie noaiu N? oaeoe/anee ecia?aaeaee oaeea nenoaiu.Iao/athueany nenoaiu.Eoae, noaey ii i?aaeuaeouaio ?anniio?aieth, aeey iao/athueony nenoai iu aeieaeiu eiaoue aeaei n neooaoeeae, eiaaea ai?ei?iie eioi?iaoeee ia oaaoaao aeey iienaiey ?aniiciaaaaiuo eeannia ia ycuea i?eciaeia . (Aiciiaeiu neo/ae, eiaaea eioi?iaoeee oaaoaao, iaeiaei aeaeaoue oiiiyiooia iienaiea iaoeaeaniia?acii eee o?oaeii).Enoiaeiay eioi?iaoeey aeey iao/athueony N? (IN?) i?aaenoaaeyaony a aeaea iaai?a iauaeoia w1, w2,....,wl ,?ani?aaeaeaiiuo ii m eeannai:(w1 ,w2 ,...,wr ) W1(w r+1 ,w r+2 ,...,wq ) W2..................(wg+1 ,wg+2 ,...,wl ) WmOeaeue iao/aiey e aa aeinoeaeaiea caeeth/athony aeey IN? a ii?aaeaeaiee ?acaeaeythueo ooieoeeeFi(X1 ,X2 ,.....,Xn),aaea i = 1,2,....,m (iiia? eeanna).Ii?aaeaeaiea yoie ooieoeee inouanoaeyaony iooai iiiaie?aoiiai i?aaeuyaeaiey nenoaia oeacaiiuo iauaeoia (ec iaai?a w1,w2,....,wl ) n oeacaieai, eaeiio eeanno iie i?eiaaeeaaeao.Oi anoue, ia noaaeee oi?ie?iaaiey IN? ?aaioatho n “o/eoaeai”, inouanoaeythuei oeacaiea i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe i?aaeuyaeaiiiai aeey iao/aiey iauaeoa. E i?aaeaea, /ai nenoaia aoaeao i?eiaiyoueny, aeieaeai i?ieoe yoai iao/aiey.I ?acaeaeythueo ooieoeeyo iu oaea aaee ?a/ue, eiaaea ?anniao?eaaee caaea/e iino?iaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey. Oaia?ue iu aa?ioeenue e yoiio iiiyoeth, ii?aaeaeea N?, a eioi?uo oeacaiiua ooieoeee i?eiaiythony.Iu e aua ?ac aa?iainy e yoiio iiiyoeth, eiaaea aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue iaoaiaoe/aneoth noi?iio aii?ina ii?aaeaeaiey ?acaeaeythuae ooieoeee.Oaia?ue aea iu oaea a ninoiyiee ecia?aceoue IN? (?en. 3).Y - o/eoaeue;II - iao/athuea iauaeou;A?O - aeai?eoi iino?iaiey ?acaeaeythueo ooieoeee;ON - iiae iauei iacaaieai “Oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa”iauaaeeiaiu ecia?eoaee i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey;AI - ai?ei?iia iienaiea eeannia ?aniiciaaaaiuo ia’aeoia;AE - aeai?eoi eeanneoeeaoeee;NAO - nenoaia aaoiiaoe/aneiai oi?aaeaiey (aeai?eoi) ?aniiciaaaiey;w - iaecaanoiua, ?aniiciaaaaiua iauaeou.Ioieoe?iua eeiee ia ?enoiea niioaaonoaotho acaeiinaycyi a i?ioeanna iao/aiey.WO N IAI OA ? OA IN A O?aoaiea i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe?en. 3E A E Oe E ss 3.2I?eioeeiu eeanneoeeaoeee e oeiu nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey(I?iaeieaeaiea)Naiiiao/athueany nenoaiu.A ioee/ee io nenoai aac iao/aiey e nenoai, iao/athueony n o/eoaeai, aeey naiiiao/athueony nenoai oa?aeoa?ia iaaeinoaoi/iinoue eioi?iaoeee aeey oi?ie?iaaiey ia oieueei iienaiee eeannia, ii aeaaea aeoaaeoa eeannia. Oi anoue, ii?aaeaeai oieueei neiaa?ue i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey. Iaeiaei aeey i?aaiecaoeee i?ioeanna iao/aiey caaeaaony ana-oaee iaeioi?ue iaai? i?aaee, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui nenoaia naia au?aaaouaaao eeanneoeeaoeeth.Aeey NN? oaeaea, eae aeey IN? nouanoaoao ia?eiae iao/aiey, oa?aeoa?ii iaee/ea ia?eiaea naiiiao/aiey, eiaaea ae i?aaeuyaeythony iauaeou iao/athuae iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe. Oieueei i?e yoii ia oeacuaaaony i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue eo e eaeei-eeai eeannai.Niioaaonoaothuay ooieoeeiiaeueiay noaia NN? i?eaaaeaia ia ?en.4.Caeanue aeiiieieoaeueii e iaicia/aieyi ?en.2,3 eiaai:IN - iauaeou naiiiao/aiey;IE - i?aaeea eeanneoeeaoeee;AOE - aeai?eoi oi?ie?iaaiey eeannia.I?eia?ii naiiiao/athuaeny nenoaiu iiaeao auoue nenoaia ?acaeaeaiey ia eeannu i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee aeey n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeca yooaeoeaiinoe eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. I?e yoii a ea/anoaa i?aaee eeanneoeeaoeee iiaoo auoue oeacaiey eeai i ?aaainoaa iauaiia auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, eeai i ?aaainoaa /eneaiiinoe ?aai/eo e o.i.).A ae?oaie oe?iei i?eiaiyaiie oa?ieiieiaee NN? - yoi nenoaia aaoiiaoe/aneiai eeanoa?iiai aiaeeca eee oaeniiiiee (taxis - ii?yaeie, nomos - caeii).Caaa?oay ?anniio?aiea eeanneoeeaoeee N? ii eiee/anoao ia?aiia/aeueiie ai?ei?iie eioi?iaoeee, caiaoei, /oi N?, a eioi?uo iaaeinoaoi/ii eioi?iaoeee aeey iacia/aiey neiaa?y i?eciaeia, ia nouanoaoao. Aac yoiai ia nicaeaaony ieeaeay nenoaia.WO N IANA O E I EA IN A OA E?aoaiea i i?eiaaeeAAEiInoe?en. 4A. *aoaa?oue i?eioeei eeanneoeeaoeee.(Oa?aeoa? eioi?iaoeee i i?eciaeao ?aniiciaaaiey).N oa?aeoa?enoeeie eioi?iaoeee i i?eciaeao ?aniiciaaaiey iu oaea eiaee aeaei i?e eco/aiee caaea/ nicaeaiey N?. A niioaaonoaee n aa ioee/eoaeueiuie iniaaiiinoyie N? iiae?acaeaeythony ia-aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua;-aa?iyoiinoiua;-eiae/aneea;-no?oeoo?iua (eeiaaenoe/aneea);-eiiaeie?iaaiiua.Iiaeuoiaeeaay i?ieaeaiiia, ioiaoei oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe yoeo nenoai, a eiaiii: iaoiae ?aoaiey caaea/e ?aniiciaaaiey e iaoiae ai?ei?iiai iienaiey eeannia.Aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua nenoaiu.a) Iaoiae ?aoaiey caaea/e ?aniiciaaaiey: eniieueciaaiea aaiiao?e/aneeo ia? aeecinoe;a) Iaoiae ai?ei?iiai iienaiey eeannia: eii?aeeiaou aaeoi?ia-yoaeiiia ii eaaeaeiio ec eeannia eee eii?aeeiaou anao iauaeoia, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo eeannai (iaai?u yoaeiiia ii eaaeaeiio eeanno).Aa?iyoiinoiua nenoaiu.a) Iaoiae ?aoaiey caaea/e ?aniiciaaaiey: aa?iyoiinoiue, iniiaaiiue ia aa?iyoiinoiie ia?a aeecinoe (n?aaeiee ?ene);a) Iaoiae ai?ei?iiai iienaiey eeannia: aa?iyoiinoiua caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo i?eciaeaie e eeannaie.Eiae/aneea nenoaiu.a) Iaoiae ?aoaiey caaea/e ?aniiciaaaiey: eiae/aneee, iniiaaiiue ia aeene?aoiii aiaeeca e en/eneaiee auneacuaaiee;a) Iaoiae ai?ei?iiai iienaiey eeannia: eiae/aneea nayce, au?aaeaaiua /a?ac nenoaio aoeaauo o?aaiaiee, aaea i?eciaee - ia?aiaiiua, eeannu - iaecaanoiua aaee/eiu.No?oeoo?iua (eeiaaenoe/aneea) nenoaiu.a) Iaoiae ?aoaiey caaea/e ?aniiciaaaiey: a?aiiaoe/aneee ?acai? i?aaeeiaeaiey, iienuaathuaai iauaeo ia ycuea iai?iecaiaeiuo no?oeoo?iuo yeaiaioia n oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey aai i?aaeeueiinoe.a) Iaoiae ai?ei?iiai iienaiey eeannia: iiaeiiiaeanoaa i?aaeeiaeaiee, iienuaathueo iauaeou eaaeaeiai eeanna.Eiiaeie?iaaiiua nenoaiu.a) Iaoiae ?aoaiey caaea/e ?aniiciaaaiey: niaoeeaeueiua iaoiaeu au/eneaiey ioeaiie;a) Iaoiae ai?ei?iiai iienaiey eeannia: oaaee/iue, i?aaeiieaaathuee eniieueciaaiea oaaeeoe, niaea?aeaueo eeanneoeoee?iaaiiua iauaeou e eo i?eciaee (aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua, aa?iyoiinoiua, eiae/aneea).Eiiaeie?iaaiiua nenoaiu o?aaotho ioaeaeueiiai ?anniio?aiey aeey iiieiaiey i?eioeeiia eo iino?iaiey, /oi iu e naeaeaai a iaoai eo?na iinea ii?aaeaeaiiie iiaeaioiaee.A oeaeii ?anniio?aiiay eeanneoeeaoeey N? iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia neaaeothuae noaiie (?en.5)Iinea i?iaaaeaiiie eeanneoeeaoeee aica?aoeiny aeey aeiiieieoaeueiiai ?anniio?aiey ooieoeeiiaeueiuo noai N?. E ia?aoei aieiaiea eiaiii ia oa?iei "aeinoaoi/iia" eee "iaaeinoaoi/iia" eiee/anoai eioi?iaoeee. N yoie ia?eie iu iioiaeeee e ?acaeaeaieth N? ia aeaa aieueoea eeanna: N? aac iao/aiey, iao/athueany e naiiiao/athueany N?. Oi anoue, aeey N? aac iao/aiey eiaee aeaei n iieiie eioi?iaoeeae, a aeey IN? - n iaiieiie (iao iienaiey eeannia ia ycuea i?eciaeia), a aeey NN? - aua n aieueoae iaiieiioie (ionoonoaoao aeaaea aeoaaeo eeannia).Iaeiaei caiaoei, /oi naii iiiyoea “iaiieiioa eioi?iaoeee” - ea/anoaaiiia, ioiineoaeueiia. Aeey N? aac iao/aiey i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo yoie eioi?iaoeee i?inoi aieueoa. Yoi icia/aao, /oi ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue N? i?e eiathuainy iauaia ai?ei?iie eioi?iaoeee cia/eoaeueii auoa, /ai eiaai a oie neooaoeee, eioi?ay o?aaoao nicaeaiey IN?. I ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe N?, aeey eioi?ie iaaiciiaeii ai?ei?ii iacia/eo aeoaaeo eeannia aiai?eoue aiiaua iaeuecy. *oi aea eanaaony i?eiaiaiiiai caeanue au?aaeaiey "?acoeueoaoeaiinoue cia/eoaeueii auoa", oi ec iineaaeothuaai eco/aiey eo?na aoaeao iiiyoii, /oi yoiio eacaeinue au iiyoue-oaee ea/anoaaiiiio ooaa?aeaeaieth niioaaonoaotho aiieia eiie?aoiua eiee/anoaaiiua iieacaoaee.N ?I?inoua NeiaeiuaAac iao/aiey N iao/aieai N naiiiao/aieaiAeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua Aa?iyoiinoiua Eiae/aneea No?oeoo?iuaEiiaeie?iaaiiua?en. 5Oaeei ia?acii, ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi eioi?iaoeeae ieeiaaea i?aiaa?aaaoue ia noieo. Iiyoiio i?e iino?iaiee eae IN?, NN? e i?inoi N? iaiaoiaeeii anaaaea eniieueciaaoue i?eioeei ia?aoiie nayce aeey ?anoe?aiey iauaia eioi?iaoeee. Oi anoue, ?acoeueoaou ?aoaiey caaea/e ?aniiciaaaiey iaecaanoiuo iauaeoia iinea aiinoa?ei?iiai iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey i?aaeeueiinoe eo eeanneoeeaoeee iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue aeey ooi/iaiey iienaiey eeannia a i?inouo N? aac iao/aiey e aeey aeiiieieoaeueiiai iao/aiey a IN? e NN?.Aeey ?aoaiey oaeeo caaea/ i?eaaaeaiiua noaiu N? aeieaeiu auoue aeiiieiaiu niioaaonoaothueie ooieoeeiiaeueiuie naycyie aeiiao/aiey.* * *Eeanneoeeaoeey N? auea au iaiieiie, anee au iu ia einioeenue yenia?oiuo nenoai, noiyueo ianeieueei a noi?iia io i?eaaaeaiiie iaoiaeieiaee iino?iaiey eco/aaiuo iaie eeanne/aneeo N?.Eae au oaea ciaaoa, yoe nenoaiu iniiauaathony ia iaoiaeao eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa.Eeanne/aneea ?aoaiey caaea/ ?aniiciaaaiey iniiauaathony ia iiaeaee?iaaiee iaoaiaoeei-aeai?eoie/aneeo ooieoeee (o?aaiaiey, nenoaiu o?aaiaiee) aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo eee noioanoe/aneeo nenoai n oi/iui ii?aaeaeaieai iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey, cia/aiee ia?aiao?ia, aeeaiaciiia neaiaeia, eioa?aaeia a?aiaie, /anoioiuo aeeaiaciiia e o.i. Yoe caaea/e iie?athony ia iaaeaaeiua, oi/ii iao/ii iainiiaaiiua ciaiey. A ieo ?aaeecothony iiaua e i?eaeiaeueiua aeinoeaeaiey aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia, eiathueo a oi aea a?aiy oceoth niaoeeaeecaoeeth. Iaeiaei oaeea niaoeeaeenou aeinoaoi/ii ?aaeee. Yoi e iiaoaeaeaao nicaeaaaoue yenia?oiua nenoaiu, iniiaaiiua ia i?aaenoaaeaiee iaaeai?eoie/aneiai, eiae/aneiai, aeaeea?aoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a, ia/aoeiai e neaai oi?iaeeciaaiiiai ciaiey a aeaea iiiaeanoaa oaeoia e i?aaee, i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae.Oeacaiiua ciaiey i?e yoii iiaoo auoue eae caneoaeeaathueie aeiaa?ey e ii?iae?iaaiiuie iiiai/eneaiiuie iacaaeneiuie i?eiaiaieyie, oae e niiieoaeueiuie.Yenia?oiua nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey - yoi niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua aaoiiaou ia?aaioee ciaiee aeey eioa?aeoeaiiai e eiiia?aoeaiiai ?aoaiey i?iaeai ?aniiciaaaiey ia anoanoaaiiii i?ioanneiiaeueiii ycuea ni niiniaiinoyie i?eia?aoaiey, o?aiaiey e i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee a oi?ia aeai?eoie/aneeo i?ia?aii n iaeiie noi?iiu e iaaeai?eoie/aneeo oaeoia e i?aaee, n ae?oaie noi?iiu.Eco/aiea yenia?oiuo nenoai - yoi ioaeaeueiue i?aaeiao n aai iaoiaeaie e iiaeoiaeaie.O a i a 4Iioeiecaoeey ya?enoe/aneeo auai?ia i?e nicaeaiee nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey ia?aciaE a e oe e y 4.1Iioeiecaoeey aeoaaeoa eeannia e neiaa?y i?eciaeia4.1.1. Ooi/iaiea iacia/aiey e oeaee nicaeaiey N?Eae iaie oaea onoaiiaeaii, i?ioeann ?aniiciaaaiey aeeth/aao oaeoth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue iia?aoeee:- i?eai ia aoiaea N? ia?aca ?aniiciaaaaiiai iauaeoa;-ciiinoaaeaiea aiinoa?ei?iie eioi?iaoeee iinooieaoaai iauaeoa n eiathueiny a N? ai?ei?iui iienaieai eeannia anao iauaeoia, iiaeeaaeaueo ?aniiciaaaieth (iauaeoia, ia eioi?ua ?ann/eoaia nenoaia);- i?eiyoea ?aoaiey ia ioianaiee iauaeoa, ia?ac eioi?iai aue i?eiyo, e iaeiiio ec eeannia.I?aaeei, niaeanii eioi?iio iauaeoo, ia?ac eioi?iai i?eiyo, noaaeony a niioaaonoaea iaeiaiiaaiea eeanna, iacuaaaony ?aoathuei i?aaeeii.A eeoa?aoo?a oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaii iiaiea, /oi nooue i?iaeaiu ?aniiciaaaiey e ninoieo a ii?aaeaeaiee oaeiai ?aoathuaai i?aaeea. Oi anoue, oeaio?aeueiie caaea/ae /anoi n/eoaaony iaoiaeaeaiea a i?eciaeiaii i?ino?ainoaa oaeeo a?aieoe, eioi?ua iaeioi?ui iioeiaeueiui ia?acii (iai?eia?, ii e?eoa?eth ieieioia ioeaie ?aniiciaaaiey) ?acaeaeytho yoi i?ino?ainoai ia iaeanoe, niioaaonoaothuea eeannai.I?e yoii iaie /aoei onoaiiaeaii, /oi a caaeneiinoe io iauaia ai?ei?iie eioi?iaoeee aiciiaeii aeaa iiaeoiaea e ii?aaeaeaieth ?aoathueo i?aaee (a?aieoe iaaeaeo eeannaie a i?eciaeiaii i?ino?ainoaa):1. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea i?e aeinoaoi/iii eiee/anoaa ai?ei?iie eioi?iaoeee (N? aac iao/aiey).2.Iinoaiaiiia ooi/iaiea a oiaea ?aaiou N? ii iacia/aieth i?e iaai?a aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa eioi?iaoeee (iao/athueany N?).Eaaeaeue eo iiaeoiaeia iniiaai ia oii, /oi ai?ei?iue neiaa?ue i?eciaeia e aeoaaeo eeannia ecaanoiu. I?e ionoonoaee ai?ei?iiai aeoaaeoa eeannia i?eiaiyaony iiaeoiae, ?aaeecoaiue a naiiiao/athuaeny N?. Iaeiaei i?e yoii ca?aiaa aeieaeiu auoue ecaanoiu neiaa?ue i?eciaeia e , e?iiaoiai, iaai? iaeioi?uo i?aaee iacia/aiey eeannia a i?ioeanna naiiiao/aiey. ?aoathuea i?aaeea caeanue ii?aaeaeythony eae eoia iaoiaeaeaiey aeoaaeoa eeannia.Enoi?e/anee neiaeeeinue, /oi ia?aua oai?aoe/aneea e i?eeeaaeiua ?aaiou a iaeanoe ?aniiciaaaiey iniiauaaeenue ia iieiie ii?aaeaeaiiinoe aeoaaeoa eeannia e neiaa?a i?eciaeia. I?e yoii i?iaeaia ?aniiciaaaiey naiaeeeanue iau/ii e i?iaeaia iioeiaeueiiai a iaeioi?ii niunea ii?aaeaeaiey ?aoathueo i?aaee , ?aoathueo a?aieoe iaaeaeo eeannaie.Oe?ieay i?aeoeea nicaeaiey N? a iineaaeothuea aiaeu (iniaaiii a aiaiiuo i?eeiaeaieyo) e aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea oai?ee ?aniiciaaaiey oaaaeeoaeueii iieacaee, /oi i?eaaaeaiiia ioiioaiea onoa?aei. I?e iino?iaiee ?aaeueiuo N? aeaaea i?e ecaanoiuo i?eciaeao e eeannao i?eoiaeeony ?aoaoue neiaeioth e aei?iainoiyuoth caaea/o ?ac?aaioee, aaiaea e eniieueciaaiey niaoeeaeueiuo ecia?eoaeueiuo n?aaenoa e eiiieaenia oaeeo n?aaenoa n YAI. Yoe n?aaenoaa e eiiieaenu ieacuaathony aeaaiui yeaiaioii a iieo/aiee i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey.I?e yoii ?aaeecaoeey ?aoathuaai i?aaeea - yoi aeai?eoie/aneay caaea/a, ?aoaiea eioi?ie ioiaeaeaaaony ia aoi?ie ieai neiaeiinoueth e oeaiie caaea/e nicaeaiey ecia?eoaeueiuo n?aaenoa.E?iia oiai, aeey eiae/aneeo e no?oeoo?iuo N? i iienea ?aoathueo i?aaee aiiaua ia iiaeao auoue e ?a/e. Iie ecaanoiu. A eiae/aneeo N? - yoi i?aaeea ii?aaeaeaiey iaecaanoiuo a aoeaauo o?aaiaieyo, a no?oeoo?iuo - i?aaeea ii?aaeaeaiey i?aaeeueiinoe eiino?oeoeee i?aaeeiaeaiey. Yoio oaeo iiyoiio e yaeyaony aeiiieieoaeueiui aeieacaoaeuenoaii ia?ainoaiaiiie aaaeiinoe caaea/e ii?aaeaeaiey i?eciaeia e eeannia.A ?acoeueoaoa i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui noi?ioee?iaaoue iacia/aiea ethaie N?.Iacia/aiea N? - iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiey i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe iaecaanoiuo iauaeoia (yaeaiee) e oiio eee eiiio eeanno.Oaeia ii?aaeaeaiea iaeaieaa ieiaeioai?ii aeey neiaeiuo nenoai.Iii canoaaeyao nin?aaeioi/eoue oneeey a nicaeaiee N? ia aeaaiii iai?aaeaiee.(I?eia?ii aeaaainoaa eioi?iaoeee iiaoo neoaeeoue iaaeeoeeineea N?, aaieiae/aneea, iaoai?ieiae/aneea, e?eieiaeenoe/aneea, nenoaiu eiio?iey einie/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa no?aiu).Ii e i?eiyoea ?aoaiee i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe - ia naiioeaeue. Iiyoiio aoi?ie iiiaio, ia eioi?ue iai iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea aei ia?aoiaea e oai?aoe/aneei iienaieyi ?anniao?eaaaiuo a yoie oaia caaea/, - yoi iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiieiaiey oiai, /oi ethaay N? yaeyaony /anoueth eaeie-eeai nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey ( aaoiiaoe/aneie eee aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie).Ionthaea eaaei oi?ie?oaony oeaeue nicaeaiey N?.Oeaeue nicaeaiey N? - iaania/aiea aunieie yooaeoeaiinoe i?eieiaaiuo ?aoaiee a oi?aaeaiee.I?eaaaeaiiua ii?aaeaeaiey iicaieytho aieaa e?eoe/ii ioianoenue e oiio oaeoo, /oi eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ay eaaeeo a iniiaa i?eiyoey ?aoaiee e iaania/eaaao aeinoeaeaiea oeaee ?aniiciaaaiey, iniiauaaaony ia ya?enoe/aneii iaoiaea aa iieo/aiey.Ec ?anniio?aiey niaea?aeaiey caaea/ iino?iaiey N? neaaeoao, /oi neiaa?ue i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey e aeoaaeo eeannia oi?ie?othony /aeiaaeii ia iniiaa aai ciaiee, iiuoa, eiooeoeee. A oi aea a?aiy ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ?aoaiey iiaeao auoue i/aiue aaeeea.Iiyoiio i/aiue aaaeii iaeoe iauaeoeaiua iaoiaeu ioeaiee oaeiai ?iaea /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.Ia yoi iu e iai?aaei iineaaeothuee aiaeec.Acaeiinaycue ?acia?iinoe aeoaaeoa eeannia e yooaeoeaiinoe N?Iu iiea aua ia cao?aaeaaee aii?inia oaeie acaeiinayce, oioy eae aeoaaeo eeannia, oae e neiaa?ue i?eciaeia ii?aaeaeeee e eiaai i?aaenoaaeaiea i eo auai?a. Iaeiaei, ianoaeaeaiea aii?inia ninoaaeaiey neiaa?y i?eciaeia e auai?a aeoaaeoa eeannia ieeae ia cao?aaeaaei eo acaeiinayce. A oi aea a?aiy iu iiieiaai, /oi iaee/ea naycae aeaoo yaeaiee, iauaeoia, i?ioeannia aiiaua aeinoaoi/ii /anoi iicaieyao auynieoue iaeioi?ua ia?aie/aiey ninoaaeythueo. Iiiuoaainy eo iieneaoue aeey oaeeo iauaeoia, eae neiaa?ue i?eciaeia e aeoaaeo eeannia.Ieacuaaaony, /oi ioia/aiiua iniaaiiinoe e i?eaaaeaiiua ii?aaeaeaiey iacia/aiey e oeaee nicaeaiey N? oaea ii?aaeaeytho acaeiinayce iaaeaeo eeannaie e i?eieiaaiuie ?aoaieyie.?anniio?ei, eaeea aea yoi acaeiinayce, a /ai eo nouanoai. I/aaeaeii, aeaaiia, /oi iaeeaaeuaaao ia ieo ioia/aoie - yoi iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeinoeaeaiey aunieie yooaeoeaiinoe ?aoaiee.Ionthaea iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi a oi?aaeaiee aunieay yooaeoeaiinoue ?aoaiee aeinoeaaaony:1)Oaaee/aieai /enea eeannia a i?eiyoii aeoaaeoa, oi anoue, iiauoaieai noaiaie aeaoaeecaoeee ?aniiciaaaaiuo iauaeoia (yaeaiee) ii iacia/aieth e oa?aeoa?o. I?e yoii /ai aeaoaeueiaa eeanneoeeaoeey, oai eaa/a i?aaei?eiyoue aaeaeaaoiia oi?aaeaiea. ( Aiieia iiiyoii, /oi ?aniiciaoue i?inoi ioeac aeaeaaoaey aaoiiiaeey iaiaa i?eaeaeaoaeueii, /ai oeacaoue ia auoiae ec no?iy eeaiaia eee ianeyiiai ianina).2)Iiauoaieai oi/iinoe ii?aaeaeaiey i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey, a cia/eo nieaeaieai aiciiaeiinoe ioeai/iuo ?aoaiee, /anoi iianiuo aeey oi?aaeaiey (nieaeaiea ioeaie eeanneoeeaoeee).Oae, anee ioeaee ecia?aiey eii?aeeiao iaaeathuaai EI aieueoea, oi iiaeii eae ioeai/ii naiioniieieoueny, i?aaeiieaaay oi/eo iaaeaiey ca i?aaeaeaie eioa?anothuae ian ciiu ioaaonoaaiiinoe, oae e ioeai/ii iauyaeoue o?aaiao e aeaaea aucaaoue iaieeo.A oi aea a?aiy oaaee/aiea /enea eeannia a ethaie caaea/a, eae iiaeii iiiyoue oieueei ec niia?aaeaiee cae?aaiai niunea( a aeaeueiaeoai iu yoi iieoai aieaa no?iai iaoaiaoe/anee) ia anaaaea i?inoi, a eiiaaea ieacuaaaony e iaaiciiaeii.Ii nouanoaoao iaeia neooaoeey, eiaaea yoi oaaee/aiea anaai ia iaeei eeann aannii?ii aaaeii. Oae aeey oiai, /oiau ?acoeueoaou ?aniiciaaaiey auee aieaa i?eaieaiu aeey iineaaeothuaai oi?aaeaiey, i?eoiaeeony aeiiieieoaeueii e eiathueiny m eeannai aaiaeeoue (m+1)-ue, eiaaea ioeacuaathony io ?aniiciaaaiey, a cia/eo e io oi?aaeaiey. Ioeac io oi?aaeaiey eo/oa, /ai oi?aaeaiea i?e ioeai/iinoe ?aniiciaiiie neooaoeee (anee yoi aiciiaeii ii iacia/aieth nenoaiu).Oaia?ue iinoa?aainy iiiyoue eiathueany nayce, ?anniao?eaay ioiioaiey iaaeaeo /eneii eeannia e ioeaeaie ?aniiciaaaiey. Aeey oaeianoaa ?anniao?eaaai iaeiiia?iue neo/ae (aianoi aaeoi?a i?eciaeia aac oua?aa aeey caaea/e, ii aeey yniinoe oece/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee, eiaai iaeei i?eciae.Ionoue caaeaiu o?e eeanna iauaeoia W1, W2, W3- ?ani?aaeaeaieyie aa?iyoiinoae f(x/W1), f(x/W2 ), f(x/W3 ), aaea x - aa?iyoiinoiue i?eciae ?aniiciaaaiey ;- ai?ei?iuie aa?iyoiinoyie P(W1), P(W2), P(W3);- iao?eoeae iioa?ue i?e ?aoaieyoOaia?ue iieiai, /oi anee ai?ei?iay aa?iyoiinoue ioianaiey iauaeoa e i-io eeanno, a oi a?aiy eae ii i?eiaaeeaaeeo e j-io eeanno (oi anoue, ai?ei?iay aa?iyoiinoue ioeaee) ?aaiaP(Wi /Wj ),oi n?aaeiaa cia/aiea ieaou ca ioeai/ioth eeanneoeeaoeeth anao m iauaeoia a nenoaia ?aniiciaaaiey ii?aaeaeyaony eae oneiaiia IIAE iioa?ue (caaeneiinoue io WjA oeaeii n?aaeiea iioa?e eeanneoeeaoeee (oi anoue, iioa?e ii anai eeannai) ii?aaeaeythony eae n?aaeiaaInoaaony ii?aaeaeeoue aa?iyoiinoue P(Wi /Wj ), oae eae ai?ei?iia iienaiea eeannia iai?yioth ia aeaao aa cia/aiee.aeey o?ao eeannia (?en 4.1.1)f(x/Wi)f(x/W1) f(x/W2) f(x/W3)a b X?en. 4.1.1Anee oaia?ue ii?aaeaeeoue iaeanoe aiciiaeiiai ?aca?ina ia?aiao?a ?aniiciaaaiey eaaeaeiai eeanna eae Gi ,oi eaaei ii?aaeaeeoue caienaiioth iaie aa?iyoiinoue ioeaee oaeIaicia/ei oeacaiiua iaeanoe Gi ia ?enoiea. Caeanue yoe iaeanoe a neeo iaeiiia?iinoe neo/ay aeieaeiu i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie io?acee. Iiyoiio aeinoaoi/ii oeacaoue a?aieoeua - a?aieoea iaaeaeo 1-ui e 2-ui eeannaie;b - a?aieoea iaaeaeo 2-ui e 3-ei eeannaieNiioaaonoaaiii io?acee:1-ai eeanna ]- ( +a];2-ai eeanna ]+a +b];3-ai eeanna ]+b + ([ .Oaia?ue iiaeii caienaoue a niioaaonoaee n i?eaaaeaiiie oi?ioeie oneiaiua ?enee ioeai/iuo ?aoaieeIonthaea n?aaeiee ?ene ioeai/iuo ?aoaiee a nenoaia ?aniiciaaaiey (oi anoue, ?ene ioeai/iie eeanneoeeaoeee anao eeannia):Aeey i?inoiou ?anniio?aiey i?eieiaai Nii = 0, Cij = C, Pi = P e, iieuecoynue ?enoieii, iieo/eiCaeanue iaicia/ai n?aaeiee ?ene eiaeaenii "1", oae eae oaia?ue ?anniio?ei aoi?oth neooaoeeth, aeey eioi?ie iinoa?aainy oiaiueoeoue /enei eeannia, iauaaeeiyy ia?aue e aoi?ie eeannu a iaeei - /aoaa?oue.Ii?aaeaeei ii i?aaeeai oai?ee aa?iyoiinoae I?A /aoaa?oiai eeanna ii I?A ia?aiai e aoi?iai eeanniaAei yoiai iu oi?iuaee i?aaenoaaeaiea aa?iyoiinoae e ieao ca ioeaee aeey o?ao eeannia. Aeiaaaei e yoiio e /aoaa?oue eeannC44=0; C14 =C41 = C.Ia ?enoiea I?A eeannia ecia?acei I?A /aoaa?oiai eeanna (ioieoe?).Oaia?ue iiaeii caienaoue, eae e a ia?aii neo/aa (o?e eeanna), oneiaiua ?enee ioeai/iuo ?aoaiee aeey inoaaoeony 3-ai e 4-ai eeannia(Oneiaiua ?enee R1 e R2 caeanue ionoonoaotho, oae eae i?iecioei iauaaeeiaiea 1-ai e 2-ai eeannia a 4-ue. E?iia oiai, iao?eoea ieao ca ioeaee n o/aoii /aoaa?oiai eeanna i?eiyea nia/aea neaaeothuee aeaea caoai ec iaa ca n/ao oiai aea iauaaeeiaiey eneeth/eee noieaoeu e no?iee, eiaaoea eiaeaenu "1" e "2". A ?acoeueoaoa iieo/eee:N?aaeiee ?ene aeey neo/ay aeaoo inoaaoeony eeannia W3 e W4 iaicia/ei eiaeaenii "2" e oaeaea, eae aeey ia?aiai neo/ay, iinea i?inouo i?aia?aciaaiee iieo/ei.Oaia?ue, anee iiaenoaaei nthaea aianoi I?A f(x/W4) aai au?aaeaiea, ii?aaeaeaiiia oaea iaie, oi iieo/eiIaeiiaoe iu iiaeai n?aaieoue n?aaeiee ?ene R1 e R2__ __R1 > R2

Auaiae:

I?e caaeaiiii i?eciaeiaii i?ino?ainoaa e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo
oiaiueoaiea /enea eeannia i?eaiaeeo e iaiueoaieth ioeaie ?aniiciaaaiey.

Neaaenoaea:

I?e oaaee/aiee /enea eeannia aeey oiaiueoaiey n?aaeiaai ?enea (/a?ac
oiaiueoaiea aa?iyoiinoe ioeai/iuo ?aoaiee) iaiaoiaeeii aeeth/aoue a
ninoaa neiaa?y i?eciaeia oaeea, eioi?ua eiatho iaiueoee ?aca?in.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aeey ?anniio?aiiiai iaie iaeiiia?iiai neo/ay ii
i?eaaaeaiiiio ?enoieo iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue, /oi aa?iyoiinoe ioeai/iuo
?aoaiee nieaeathony, anee ?ani?aaeaeaiey eiatho iaiueoee ?aca?in. Oi
anoue, i?e yoii iiyoue-oaee oiaiueoaaony ?ene ioeai/iuo ?aoaiee a
nenoaia e oai naiui aeinoeaaaony aieueoay yooaeoeaiinoue, ii oaia?ue
oaea aac oiaiueoaiey /enea eeannia.

E a e oe e y 4.2

Iioeiecaoeey aeoaaeoa eeannia e neiaa?y i?eciaeia

(i?iaeieaeaiea)

4.2.1. Acaeiinaycue ?acia?iinoe aaeoi?a i?eciaeia e yooaeoeaiinoe
N?

Ec i?aaeiieiaeaiee, aicieeathueo a nayce n i?eaaaeaiiui neaaenoaeai
eco/aiey aii?ina oiaiueoaiey /enea eeannia, iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi
oaaee/aiea /enea i?eciaeia aeieaeii i?eaiaeeoue e iiauoaieth
yooaeoeaiinoe N?, oae eae ?aii eee iicaeii a ninoaaa aaeoi?a iiaeao
iiyaeoueny oaeie i?eciae, ?aca?in eioi?iai ieieiaeai. Yoi ea/anoaaiiia
ooaa?aeaeaiea yaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii aaaeiui a iino?iaiee nenoai
?aniiciaaaiey e iiyoiio o?aaoao no?iaiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa.

Eoae, aeieaaeai, /oi n oaaee/aieai /enea i?eciaeia aa?iyoiinoue
i?aaeeueiiai ?aniiciaaaiey iaecaanoiuo iauaeoia oaeaea oaaee/eaaaony.

?anniio?ei oaeia aeieacaoaeuenoai, aeiioneay, /oi

– aeey eaaeaeiai k-ai i?eciaea ?aniiciaaaiey nouanoaoao iaeioi?ay
aa?iyoiinoue oaeiai niauoey Ak, eiaaea ?aoaiea i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe
iauaeoia e Wi eeanno i?eieiaaony iaeiicia/ii.

-i?eciaee ?aniiciaaaiey iacaaeneiu iaaeaeo niaie.

Iacaaeneiinoue i?eciaeia icia/aao e iacaaeneiinoue niauoee Ak
(niauoee i?eiyoey iaeiicia/iuo ?aoaiee i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe).

Ia?aoeiny e oai?ee aa?iyoiinoae. Aa?iyoiinoue ianooieaiey aeaoo
niaianoiuo eee ianiaianoiuo niauoee A1 e A2

P (A1 + A2 ) = P (A1 ) + P (A2 ) – P (A1 A2 )

Ionthaea aeey o?ao niauoee iieo/ei

P (A1 + A2 + A3 ) = P [A1+ (A2 + A3 )] = P (A1 ) + P (A2 + A3 ) – P [A1
(A2 + A3 )] = P (A1 ) + P (A2 ) + P (A3 ) – P (A2A3 ) – P (A1A2 + A1A3 )
=

=P (A1 ) + P (A2 ) + P (A3 ) – P (A2 A3 ) -[ P(A1A2 ) + P (A1A3 ) – P
(A1A2A3 )]

eee

Oi/ii oaeaea aeey /aou?ao niauoee

Oaia?ue ia?acoai ?aciinoue iaaeaeo aa?iyoiinoyie noiiu 4-o e 3-o
niauoee, ninoiyueo a ?anniao?eaaaiii iaie neo/aa a i?eiyoee
iaeiicia/iiai ?aoaiey i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe ii 4-i e 3-i i?eciaeai
?aniiciaaaiey niioaaonoaaiii:

(Iaeaieaa i?inoi yoo ?aciinoue iieo/eoue, ia aeiaiaey oiaiueoaaiia aei
eiia/iiai aeaea

Oaia?ue ii eiaeoeoeee iiaeii caienaoue:

Ec i?eaaaeaiiiai au?aaeaiey neaaeoao, /oi anee ia aeinoeaiooa
i?aaeaeueiay aa?iyoiinoue i?aaeeueiiai ?aniiciaaaiey, oi anoue:

oi i?e ethaii ( eiaai

Yoi yaeyaony aeieacaoaeuenoaii aic?anoaiey aa?iyoiinoe i?e oaaee/aiee
/enea i?eciaeia.

Oaeei ia?acii, iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue

yaeyaony iiiioiiii aic?anoathuae, a cia/eo e noiaeyuaeny, oae eae
i?aaeae aic?anoaiey – “1”.

Aeey noiaeyuaeny iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe

a cia/eo

/oi e o?aaiaaeinue aeieacaoue.

Neaaenoaea:

Nieaeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ?aniiciaaaiey ca n/ao oaaee/aiey /enea
eeannia iiaeao auoue neiiiaine?iaaii oaaee/aieai ?acia?iinoe aaeoi?a
i?eciaeia.

Caiaoei, /oi iu aaee aeieacaoaeuenoai aeey iacaaeneiuo i?eciaeia. A
neo/aa caaeneiuo i?eciaeia (ei??aee?iaaiiuo) iaaeaaeaea ia iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe iniiauaaaony ia iaee/ee naycae, i?eaiaeyueo e eo/oae
?acaeaeeiinoe eeannia (Yoi iiaeii iieacaoue ia i?eia?a aeaoia?iiai
i?ino?ainoaa i?eciaeia, eioi?iio niioaaonoaotho iaia?ae?uaathueany
yeeeinu ?annayiey).

4.2.2. Oi?iaeecaoeey caaea/e iioeiaeueiiai acaeiinaycaiiiai auai?a
aeoaaeoa eeannia e neiaa?y i?eciaeia

?aoay caaea/o iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe N? ca n/ao oaaee/aiey
?acia?iinoe aaeoi?a i?eciaeia, iu ia ia?auaee aieiaiey ia oi, /oi
oeacaiiia oaaee/aiea – yoi /anoi aic?anoaiea /enea oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa
ecia?aiee, eaaeaeia ec eioi?uo iaania/eaaao ii?aaeaeaiea iaeiiai
eee a?oiiu i?eciaeia. Cia/eo i?e yoii ?anooo ?anoiaeu ia iino?iaiea N?.
A ?ano?nu /anoi ia?aie/aiu.

Iiyoiio a oneiaeyo ia?aie/aiiuo ?ano?nia ia nicaeaiea N? oieueei
iaeioi?ue eiii?iienn iaaeaeo ?acia?aie aeoaaeoa eeannia e iauaiii
?aai/aai neiaa?y i?eciaeia iaania/eaaao ?aoaiea caaea/e iioeiaeueiui
ia?acii. Aeey iaania/aiey yoiai eiii?iienna o?aaoaony
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay oi?iaeecaoeey caaea/e. Ia/iai n iauae oi?ioee?iaee
caaea/e.

4.2.2.1. Oi?iaeecaoeey enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo

Ionoue caaeaii iiiaeanoai iauaeoia eee yaeaiee

W ={w1 , w2 ,….,wl };

(iai?eia?, W=naiieaou, a w1 -iannaaee?neee naiieao Oo-154 , w2 –
aiaiii-o?ainii?oiue naiieao AI-12, w3 – eno?aaeoaeue IEA-29 e o.ae.).

Aaaaeai iiiaeanoai ec r aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia ?acaeaiey yoeo iauaeoia W
ia eeannu (aa?eaiou aeoaaeoa eeannia)

A ={A1, A2, …, Ar}

(iai?eia?, A1 – 2 eeanna – iannaaee?neea, aiaiiua (m1 =2); A2 -5
eeannia – eno?aaeoaee, aiiaa?aee?iaueee, ooo?iiaeee, iannaaee?neea,
aiaiii- o?ainii?oiua (m2 =5) )

Oaeei ia?acii, n o/aoii aiciiaeiiai ioeaca io ?aoaiee a eaaeaeii
aa?eaioa iiiaeanoai iauaeoia W iiae?acaeaeyaony ia naia /enei eeannia:

a aa?eaioa A1 – ia (m1 +1) eeannia;

a aa?eaioa A2 – ia (m2 +1) eeannia;

…………………………………………………..

a aa?eaioa Ar – ia (mr +1) eeannia.

Eiuie neiaaie caeanue iu ?aniieaaaai r aeoaaeoaie eeannia.

A niioaaonoaee n aa?eaioii aeoaaeoa eeannia (As) enoiaeiua iauaeou
(yaeaiey) ?acaeaathony ia ms “?aoathueo” eeannia

W = {W(1/As ), W(2/As ), W(3/As ),……. , W(ms /As )},

aaea anoanoaaiii “1”, “2”,….. – iiia?a eeannia; As – aa?eaio aeoaaeoa
eeannia, aaea s=1,2,….,r.

Iai?eia?:

W(1/As ) = {W1 ,W2 ,..Wk }; W(2/As ) = { Wk+1 ,Wk+2 ,..,Wl }

e o.ae.

Oaeei ia?acii, iu ?aniieaaaai iiaeiiiaeanoaaie eeanneoeoee?iaaiiuo
iauaeoia.

Anee i?e yoii ?aniieaaaai ai?ei?iui neiaa?ai i?eciaeia

_

X = { x1 , x2 , …, xn },

e i?eoii ?acia?u oeacaiiuo iiaeiiiaeanoa eeanneoeoee?iaaiiuo iauaeoia
oaeiau, /oi niioaaonoaothuea auai?ee i?eciaeia i?aaenoaaeoaeueiu (a
eaaeaeii eeanna aeinoaoi/iia a noaoenoe/aneii niunea /enei
iauaeoia),oi oiaaea oai eee eiui niiniaii iiaeao auoue i?iaaaeaii
iienaiea eaaeaeiai ec eeannia ia ycuea yoiai neiaa?y.

A aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiii neo/aa yoi aeinoaoi/ii i?inoi. Eaaeaeue eeann
eiaao naie yoaeiiu ni naieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie eae iaai?aie ia?aiao?ia,
i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie i?eciaee ?aniiciaaaiey:

Xik [W(j/As )],

__

aaea i = 1,n – /enei i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey;

__

j = 1,m – /enei eeannia;

___

k = 1,Nyj – /enei yoaeiiia a j-oii eeanna.

I?e noaoenoe/aneii iiaeoiaea (aa?iyoiinoiua i?eciaee e aa?iyoiinoiay
N?) iienaiea yoi:

– ai?ei?iua aa?iyoiinoe eeannia P[W(i/As )];

_

– ooieoeee oneiaiuo I?A f{X/[W(i/As )]};

Anee aea iauai auai?ie iauaeoia ii iiaeiiiaeanoaai iaaeinoaoi/ai aeey
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai iienaiey eeannia, oi yoe iienaiey, eae iu ciaai,
iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu n iiiiuueth i?ioeaaeo?u iao/aiey.

Iaee/ea iienaiee eeannia oaea iicaieyao ii?aaeaeyoue ?aoathuea i?aaeea
(?aoathuea a?aieoeu), eniieueciaaiea eioi?uo iaania/eaaao ieieiecaoeeth
ioeaie i?e ?aniiciaaaiee iaecaanoiuo iauaeoia.

Anee au ia auei ia?aie/aiee ia aaee/eio ?ano?nia, anneaioaiuo ia
iino?iaiea N?, a eiaiii ia nicaeaiea ecia?eoaeueiuo n?aaenoa,
i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ii?aaeaeaiey i?eciaeia, oi iiaeii auei au
n/eoaoue, /oi eae aeoaaeo eeannia, oae e neiaa?ue i?eciaeia
ii?aaeaeaiu e iiaeii i?enooiaoue e iino?iaieth nenoaiu.

?aaeueii i?e nicaeaiee neiaeiuo nenoai ia auaaao aac oeacaiiuo
ia?aie/aiee. I?e yoii, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao ia ia?aie/aieyo, yoi ia
iaycaoaeueii oeiainiaua ia?aie/aiey. Aeinoaoi/ii /anoi a ea/anoaa
oaeiauo iiaoo aunooiaoue ia?aie/aiey ia auno?iaeaenoaea, iaiyoue e o.i.

4.2.2.2.Auea?uo ?aniiciaaaiey e iioeiecaoeey aeoaaeoa eeannia e neiaa?y
i?eciaeia a oneiaeyo ia?aie/aiee

A oneiaeyo ia?aie/aiee ia nicaeaiea eee eniieueciaaiea n?aaenoa
ecia?aiee (a ?aaii – n?aaenoa iieo/aiey i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey)
ieacuaaaony anoanoaaiiie iaaiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey anao i?eciaeia.
Iiyoiio aeey oi?ie?iaaiey ?aai/aai neiaa?y i?eciaeia aaiaeeony aaeoi?,
niaiaaeathuee ii iiuiinoe n aaeoi?ii i?eciaeia X:

_

V ={v1 ,v2 ,…,vn },

eiiiiiaiou eioi?iai vj ?aaiu 1, anee aeaiiue i?eciae ai?ei?iiai neiaa?y
eniieuecoaony a ?aai/ai e 0 a i?ioeaiii neo/aa. Yoio aaeoi? iineo
iacaaiea aaeoi?a ioai?a.

?aniieaaay noieiinoyie ecia?aiey eaaeaeiai j-ai i?eciaea Nj , eiaai
iauea cao?aou ia ?aaeecaoeeth ai?ei?iiai neiaa?y i?eciaeia

Aeey ?aai/aai neiaa?y aoaeai eiaoue

I?e iaee/ee eiie?aoiie aaee/eiu anneaiiaaiiuo ?ano?nia (C0 ) ia
nicaeaiea N? ia?aie/aiey, i eioi?uo eaeao ?a/ue, oi?iaeecothony a
aeaea neaaeothuaai ia?aaainoaa

Anee a eiia/iii eoiaa eioa?aniaaoueny aaeoi?ii ioai?a, oi aicieeaao
neaaeothuay yeno?aiaeueiay caaea/a:

a i?aaeaeao auaeaeaiiuo anneaiiaaiee ia nicaeaiea N? (C0) aiaoiaeeii
iaeoe oaeia i?ino?ainoai i?eciaeia, i?e eioi?ii iaania/eaaaony
iaeneiaeueiia cia/aiea iaeioi?iai e?eoa?ey yooaeoeaiinoe N?.

Caeanue ?a/ue eaeao ia oieueei i neiaa?a i?eciaeia, ii e ia aeoaaeoa,
o/eouaay auyniaiioth naycue iaaeaeo ieie. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, anee iu
aoaeai oiaiueoaoue /enei i?eciaeia, oi i?eaeaony oiaiueoeoue e /enei
eeannia.

Ia?auay aieiaiea ia oio oaeo, /oi aac e?eoa?ey yooaeoeaiinoe oaeay
caaea/a ia ?aoaaony, aaaaeai aai.

A niioaaonoaothuae eeoa?aoo?a i?eaiaeeony ianeieueei o?aaiaaiee,
eioi?uie neaaeoao ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny i?e auai?a iieacaoaey
yooaeoeaiinoe:

1) iieacaoaeue yooaeoeaiinoe aeieaeai oa?aeoa?eciaaoue nenoaio
eae aaeeiia oeaeia.

2) iieacaoaeue yooaeoeaiinoe aeieaeai iaania/eaaoue aiciiaeiinoue
iieo/aiey eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee n o?aaoaiie aeinoiaa?iinoueth.

3) iaeanoue eciaiaiey iieacaoaey yooaeoeaiinoe aeieaeia eiaoue
/aoei i/a?/aiiua a?aieoeu.

Ia iiaa?oiinoe iiieiaiey noiyuae ia?aae iaie caaea/e a ea/anoaa
aaeeiiai iieacaoaey aeey anae nenoaiu eaaeeo aa?iyoiinoue
i?aaeeueiiai ?aniiciaaaiey.

Iaeiaei, oaeie auai? ianeieueei ?anoiaeeony n iiieiaieai oeaee nicaeaiey
N? – au?aaioeie oi?aaeythueo ?aoaiee. Iiyoiio e e?eoa?ee aeieaeai
oa?aeoa?eciaaoue auea?uo, aeinoeaaaiue io i?eiyoey ?aoaiey eae ioaaoiuo
aeaenoaee ia ?aniiciaaaiea.

Ninoaaeythueie oaeiai auea?uoa io i?eiaiaiey N? yaeythony /anoiua
auea?uoe io ioianaiey iaecaanoiiai iauaeoa e oiio eee eiiio eeanno.

Iaicia/ei oaeoth ninoaaeythuoth a i-ii eeanna s-iai aa?eaioa
aeoaaeoa eeannia oae:

Gs [W(i/As )].

*oi aea oaeia “auea?uo”? *oi iiaeii auea?aoue a oi?aaeythuai ?aoaiee?

?anniio?ei a iauai aeaea aeaa i?eia?a:

1) A yeiiiieea ii ?acoeueoaoai ?aniiciaaaiey neooaoeee iiaeao
auoue i?eiyoi oaeia ?aoaiea, eioi?ia iaania/eo iaeneiaeueioth i?eaueue.
A iiaeao auoue e oaeia ?aoaiea, eioi?ia aeano iaiueooth i?eaueue eee
aiiaua ieeaeie, ia aiai?y oaea i aiciiaeiuo oauoeao. Iiyoiio iiiyoii,
/oi caeanue aaee/eia auea?uoa caaeneo io oiai, ianeieueei ia oieueei
i?aaeeueii, ii e aeaoaeueii ?aniiciaia neooaoeey. Anee eeann, e
eioi?iio iia ioianaia aeinoaoi/ii oe?ie, oi o?oaeii iaeeaeaoue aieueoiai
auea?uoa. Anee aea aeaoaeecaoeey i/aiue iiae?iaiay, /oi niioaaonoaoao
aieueoaio /eneo ?aniiciaaaaiuo eeannia, oi iiaeii iaeeaeaoue aieueooth
ioaea/o io i?eiyoiai ?aoaiey.

2) A aiaiiii aeaea iu iiaeai eiaoue aeaei n ioianaieai e eeanno
iianiuo ia oieueei aiaauo /anoae (A*) ?aeao, ii e eiaeiuo oeaeae (EOe),
eo eieoe?othueo. I?e yoii auioaeaeaiu aoaeai iano?aeyoue (a yoi e anoue
?aoaiea ii ?acoeueoaoai ?aniiciaaaiey) e A* e eaaeaeoth EOe. A yoii
neo/aa iu eiaai i?iea?uo, ecia?yaiue oeaiie I? e cao?aoaie ia eo
ionee. Anee aea iu ana-oaee /anoue EOe ?aniiciaai e ioianai e
niioaaonoaothuaio eeanno, oi nyeiiiiei /anoue i?ioeai?aeao I?. Anee
aea ana EOe ioaeaeei io A* aaeeenoe/aneeo ?aeao (A?), oi auea?uo aoaeao
iaeneiaeueiui.

Oaeei ia?acii, a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa auea?uo niaoeeoe/ai. Ii /ai
ii aieueoa, oai eo/oa.

I?e oaeeo ea/anoaaiiuo ?annoaeaeaieyo, oioy e i?aaeeueiuo, iacia/aiea e
iiaen/ao auea?uoae ia iiaeaeaaony oi/iui auaiaeai e ioeaieai. Yoa
caaea/a anaaaea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay, iineo ya?enoe/aneee oa?aeoa? e
o?aaoao oai?/anoaa eiino?oeoi?a i?e iaeneiaeueiii o/aoa oaeoi?ia,
aeeythueo ia ?acoeueoao. Oae eee eia/a auea?uo aeey eaaeaeiai eeanna,
iaania/eaathuee niioaaonoaothuaa ?aoaiea, aeieaeai auoue iacia/ai.

I?eieiay ai aieiaiea caaeneiinoue auea?uoa io ?yaea neo/aeiuo oaeoi?ia
?aniiciaaaiey, a ea/anoaa ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe iaiaoiaeeii
eniieueciaaoue aaeeiue iieacaoaeue, iieo/aaiue eae iaoaiaoe/aneia
iaeeaeaiea ninoaaeythueo:

– aiinoa?ei?iay aa?iyoiinoue i?aaeeueiiai ioianaiey iauaeoa e Wi -io
eeanno (oi anoue, iinea ecia?aiey aaeoi?a i?eciaeia e eo ioai?a).

Oaia?ue noi?ioee?iaaiiay iaie caaea/a iiaeao auoue oi?iaeeciaaia
neaaeothuei ia?acii:

Caeanue A0 ,v0 – eneiiia ?aoaiea, iaania/eaathuaa auai? aa?eaioa
?acaeaiey ia eeannu (aeoaaeo eeannia) e ii?aaeaeaiey ?aai/aai neiaa?y
i?eciaeia.

Oaeei ia?acii, iauay iinoaiiaea i?iaeaiu nicaeaiey N? iauaeoia eee
yaeaiee caeeth/aaony a ii?aaeaeaiee iioeiaeueiiai aeoaaeoa eeannia e
?aai/aai neiaa?y i?eciaeia i?e iaeeo/oai ?aoathuai i?aaeea a oneiaeyo
ia?aie/aiee ia iino?iaiea nenoaiu ecia?aiee i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey.

O a i a 5

Iiaeaee?iaaiea nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia – iaoiaeieiaey eo nicaeaiey
e

iioeiecaoeee

E A E Oe E ss 5.1

Aaaaeaiea a iiaeaee?iaaiea

5.1.1. Enoi?ey aii?ina

Enoi?ey iiaeaee?iaaiey ia/eiaaony oaeoe/anee n enoi?ee iaoaiaoeee, a
oaeaea n iiyaeaiey a?aoe/aneiai e ieanoe/aneiai eneonnoa, ecaanoiuo
iai ii iaiyoieeai ?aiieo oeeaeeecaoeee. Oae yeaiaiou iaoaiaoe/aneiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey nouanoaiaaee oaea a ia?eiae ca?iaeaeaiey iaoaiaoeee.
Iaeiei ec ia?auo i?eia?ia /aoei noi?ioee?iaaiiie iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee
yaeyaony oai?aia Ieoaai?a (VI aae aei iaoae y?u).

?anniio?ei eiiiuethoa?ioth ?aaeecaoeeth oai?aiu Ieoaai?a a aa iaeaieaa
i?inoie eioa?i?aoaoeee

Ecaanoii, /oi yoa i?iaa?aiiay aeeciueth caaeneiinoue iiaeao
eniieueciaaoueny a ?an/aoao eae no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee, oae e a
iaoeiino?iaiee, oae e a ii?aaeaeaiee e?ao/aeoaai iooe ii ea?oa e ia
ianoiinoe e o.i.

Anee oaia?ue ia aoiaea eiiiuethoa?iie i?ia?aiiu caaeaaaoue ia?aiaiiua X
e Y eae eaoaou o?aoaieueieea, iai?eia?, ?aaeueiie no?ieoaeueiie
eiino?oeoeee, eiay aeaeaiea iieo/eoue eioa?anothuee ?ac?aaio/eea ?acia?
aeiioaiocu yoie eiino?oeoeee oi a ?acoeueoaoa ?an/aoa aoaeai eiaoue
cia/aiey Z, iaeaeaiiua oaeoe/anee a ?acoeueoaoa iiaeaee?iaaiey oeacaiiie
i?e?iaeiie caaeneiinoe.

Oai?aia Ieoaai?a aicaeaaeyao aeeeiiue nienie eeanne/aneeo i?eia?ia
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae, n?aaee eioi?uo

-caeiiu aeaeaeaiey Iuethoiia (XVII a);

-iieeiiiu Yeea?a (XVIII a);

-aieiiaua o?aaiaiey Iaenaaeea (XIX a);

-oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe Yeiooaeia (XX a).

Oa?aeoa?ecoy nouanoai iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey, neaaeoao
ii?aaeaeeoue iaoaiaoe/aneoth iiaeaeue eae aano?aeoiia iaoaiaoe/aneia
i?aaenoaaeaiea ioia?aaeaaiiai iauaeoa, yaeaiey, i?ioeanna .

A?aoe/aneea e ieanoe/aneea eneonnoaa a ioee/ea io iaoaiaoeee
aicaeaaeee ?yae iaoiaeia, iieo/eaoeo iacaaiea aiaeiaiaiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey.

Aiaeiaiaua iiaeaee neaaeoao ii?aaeaeeoue eae ioia?aaeaiea i?aaeiaoia,
i?ioeannia, yaeaiee iin?aaenoaii aiaeiae/iiai i?aaenoaaeaiey.

Eeanne/aneeie i?eia?aie aiaeiaiauo iiaeaeae iiaoo neoaeeoue aeiaon,
?aeueaoiua ea?ou, iiaeaee nieia/iie nenoaiu a aeaea oae ia
i?iaiei/iuo i?aeoao, iiaeaee iieaeoey?iuo niaaeeiaiee a aeaea aoiiiuo
no?oeoo?, a oaeaea ay?iaeeiaie/aneea o?oau, aiaeiaiaua iiaeaee nenoai
aaoiiaoe/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, i?aaenoaaeyaiua yeaiaioa?iuie caaiueyie
(eioaa?e?othuaa, eia?oeeiiiia e o.ae.) e o.i.

N iiyaeaieai au/eneeoaeueiuo iaoei noaei i/aaeaeii, /oi iaoaiaoe/aneea
e aiaeiaiaua iiaeaee iiaoo auoue cai?ia?aiie?iaaiu, iai?eia?, aeey eo
enneaaeiaaiee. Yoi yaeeinue ciaiaiaoaeueiui a enoi?ee ?acaeoey
iiaeaee?iaaiey. N yoiai iiiaioa iiaeaee?iaaiea iieo/eei iiuiia
n?aaenoai, ieacaaoaa nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia aai niaa?oainoaiaaiea,
?acaeoea, oneiaeiaiea e ioaao ?acee/iuo noi?ii aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea.

Cia/eiinoue i?ienoaaeoaai nea/ea aeinoaoi/ii oaaaeeoaeueii
oa?aeoa?ecoao oaeie i?eia? ia?auo i?ia eiiiuethoa?iie ?aaeecaoeee
iiaeaeae. A ia/aea 50-o aiaeia a oieaa?neoaoa Aeae. Aiieeina a NOA aue
iino?iai eieoaoi? aicaeooiiai aiy, ninoiyaoee ec iaoaie/aneeo
yeaiaioia. Eaaeaeue aa?eaio aiy i?iea?uaaeny ia iai a?o/ioth
ianeieueeeie o/anoieeaie e aeeeeny 3 /ana.

Ieacaeinue, /oi ?acoeueoaou i?e yoii iaoneiaeeaaeenue ?yaeii neo/aeiuo
oaeoi?ia, a ia eneonnoaii ea?ieia.

Ianeieueei iicaea ?anniio?aiiay aiaeiaiaay iiaeaeue auea oi?iaeeciaaia a
iaoaiaoe/aneoth e cai?ia?aiie?iaaia ia YAI THIEAAE 1103A. A eoiaa
a?aiy ?aaeecaoeee iaeiiai aa?eaioa iiaeaee?iaaiey oiaiueoeeinue
ii/oe a 10000 ?ac. Yooaeo, aeinoeaiooue i?e ia?aoiaea e YAI, aue
oaiiiaiaeueiui.

Eniieueciaaiea YAI naeaeaei aiciiaeiui nicaeaiea oaeeo iiaeaeae, eioi?ua
ia iiaee auoue ?aaeeciaaiu ia aaca aiaeiaiaie oaoieee eee n iiiiuueth
?o/iiai n/aoa. I?e yoii noaea i/aaeaeiie e aiciiaeiinoue ?aoaiey
ia?iiiiai /enea aa?eaioia iinoaaeaiiie caaea/e.

Iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu iiaeaee?iaaiea n eniieueciaaieai
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee i?eiaiyeinue aeaaiui ia?acii aeey ?aoaiey
aiaiiuo caaea/:

-a aiaiiuo ea?ao;

-a enneaaeiaaieyo aiaauo iia?aoeee;

-a eniuoaieyo e enneaaeiaaieyo neiaeiuo nenoai aii?oaeaiey.

A oi aea a?aiy iinoaiaiii iiaeaee?iaaiea iaoiaeeei ana aieueoaa
i?eiaiaiea ai anao iaaiaiiuo iaeanoyo /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe:

-a oece/aneeo e oaoie/aneeo iaoeao;

-a eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe;

-a iaaeeoeeia;

-a th?eni?oaeaioeee;

-a aeaeeioa/iii aeaea;

-a nioeeaeueiuo iaoeao.

Auei iieacaii i?aeoe/anee,  /oi iiaeaee?iaaiea n iiiiuueth
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee i?eiaieii e ethaiio i?aaeiaoo e yaeaieth,
eioi?ua iiaoo auoue iienaiu eiee/anoaaiii e i?aaenoaaeaiu a aeaea
iaoaiaoe/aneeo niioiioaiee.

Eiiieaenu ?aciiia?aciie aiia?aoo?u, naycaiiua a aaeeioth oeaeaniia?acii
ooieoeeiie?othuoth nenoaio iin?aaenoaii oi?aaeythuae YAI eee aeaenoaee
ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea, iiaeii ano?aoeoue naaiaeiy eae ia
iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo e oeie/aneeo i?aaei?eyoeyo, oae e a iaaeeoeeineeo
o/?aaeaeaieyo eee a enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo eaai?aoi?eyo.

Oneiaeiaiea aiia?aoo?u aea/ao ca niaie oneiaeiaiea aa i?iaeoe?iaaiey e
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi i?aaiecaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe
iiiai/eneaiiuo o/anoieeia i?ioeanna ?ac?aaioee, oii?yaei/aiea
eniieueciaaiey oaoiieiae/aneiai e eniuoaoaeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e o.ae.
i?aa?aoeeenue a OO aaea a oyaeaeua nenoaiioaoie/aneea i?iaeaiu.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iai?a?uaii ?anoao /enei aiiaue nicaeaaaaiuo neiaeiuo
nenoai. Yoi aucuaaaony eae iio?aaiinoyie, aicieeathueie aneaaenoaea
cia/eoaeueiuo o?oaeiinoae inouanoaeaiey i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey
?ac?inoaeny yeiiiieeie, oaaee/aieai ianooaaia i?aaei?eyoee e?oiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, a oaeaea aeinoeaeaieyie a iaeanoe aaoiiaoecaoeee e
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee.

Iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe neiaeiuo nenoai – yoi iaee/ea
aieueoiai eiee/anoaa ?acii?iaeiuo yeaiaioia, iauaaeeiaiiuo a nenoaio
aeey aeinoeaeaiey aaeeiie oeaee, neiaeiua acaeiii ia?aieaoathueany
nayce, ?acaeoay nenoaia iaoaiaoe/aneiai iaania/aiey, i?aaeiacia/aiiay
aeey ia?aaioee ia?iiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieia .

Neiaeiua nenoaiu oa?aeoa?ecothony iiiaeanoaii ninoiyiee. Eaaeaeia ec
ieo ii?aaeaeyaony eiie?aoiui iaai?ii aoiaeiuo ia?aiao?ia. Eciaiaiea
aoiaeiiai ninoiyiey eee cia/aiee ia?aiao?ia, oa?aeoa?ecothueo
iiaaaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia nenoaiu, i?eaiaeeo e eciaiaieth
auoiaeiuo ia?aiao?ia nenoaiu e aa ninoiyiee.

Iiiaeanoai ia?aiao?ia, oa?aeoa?ecothueo eaaeaeue ec yeaiaioia e nenoaio
a oeaeii, a oaeaea iaee/ea neiaeiuo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo caaeneiinoae
iaaeaeo ieie, cao?oaeiyao oi?iaeecaoeeth n oeaeueth iienaiey iiaaaeaiey
oaeeo nenoai. Ia i?aeoeea ?aaeei oaeaaony iieo/eoue iieiia
iaoaiaoe/aneia iienaiea iiaaaeaiea neiaeiie nenoaiu a iauai aeaea.

Oieeaeueiinoue e aei?iaiaecia neiaeiuo nenoai i?aeoe/anee eneeth/aao
o?aaeeoeeiiiua yiie?e/aneea iaoiaeu eo i?iaeoe?iaaiey iooai “aeiaiaeee”
aiia?aoo?u ia na?ee iiuoiuo ia?acoeia. A ?yaea neo/aaa neiaeioth nenoaio
aiiaua ia oniaaatho eniuoaoue a oa/aiea anaai ia?eiaea yenieoaoaoeee.
I?e yoii i?iaa?ea a aaa?eeiuo neooaoeeyo, eae i?aaeei, ieacuaaaony
aiiaua iaaiciiaeia (AYN a aaa?eeiuo neooaoeeyo).

Anee a ea/anoaa auoiaea ec nicaeaaoaainy iieiaeaiey eniieueciaaoue
?an/aou nenoai n i?eaea/aieai YAI, oi caeanue, ai-ia?auo,
i?eoiaeeony noaeeeaaoueny ia oieueei n iaiaeiicia/iinoueth ninoiyiee
nenoai, ii e n eo neiaeiinoueth e iaeeiaeiinoueth. Aei o?iaiy
eiaeaia?iuo ?an/aoia aeiaiaeeony iau/ii oieueei aiaeec eeiaeiuo
noaoeeiia?iuo eee iaeeiaeiuo aacuia?oeeiiiuo nenoai. I?eoiaeeony eaeoe
ia eo oi?iuaiey. Iau/ii eniieueciaaiea aiaeeoe/aneeo iaoiaeia ?an/aoa
auoiaeiuo iieacaoaeae nenoaiu iicaieyao iiiyoue aa caeiiiia?iinoe
?ac?aaio/eeo. Iaeiaei aeey neiaeiuo nenoai aiciiaeiinoe aiaeeoe/aneeo
iaoiaeia e?aeia ia?aie/aiu neiaeiinoueth iaoaiaoe/aneiai iienaiey oceia
e aeieia, a oaeaea aeinoiaa?iinoueth ai?ei?iiai ii?aaeaeaiey oaeoi?ia,
eioi?ua iaeaieaa nouanoaaiii aeeytho ia aeeiaieeo enneaaeoaiie nenoaiu.

Ai-aoi?uo, /anoiua aeaiiua (oi anoue, aeey ioaeaeueiuo ninoiyiee),
iieo/aaiua a i?ioeanna aeeeiiuo iaoaiaoe/aneeo aueeaaeie e au/eneaiee,
ia eiatho, e oiio aea, iaaeyaeiie oece/aneie eioa?i?aoaoeee. Yoi
cao?oaeiyao:

-auyaeaiea ia?aii?e/ei ieii/aoaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey nenoaiu -iiaeao
iio?aaiaaoueny i?iaaaeaiea iiaoi?iuo aiaeeoe/aneeo auaiaeia e ?an/aoia;
oieueei iieiue iauai au/eneaiee ii nenoaia a oeaeii oa?aeoa?ecoao aa
enneaaeoaiue aa?eaio);

-oaaaeaeaiea caeac/eea, ia yaeythuaainy niaoeeaeenoii a iaeanoe
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia aiaeeca, a yooaeoeaiinoe i?aaeeaaaaiie nenoaiu.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?e enneaaeiaaiee neiaeiuo nenoai eae /anoi iaaiciiaeai
iaoo?iue yenia?eiaio, oae e e?aeia ia?aie/aiu aiciiaeiinoe aiaeeoe/aneeo
e /eneaiiuo ?an/aoia.

Auoiaeii ec nicaeaaoaainy iieiaeaiey yaeeanue i?aaiecaoeey iaoo?iuo
yenia?eiaioia ninoaaiuo /anoae nicaeaaaaiie nenoaiu a oaniie nayce n
yenia?eiaioaie ia YAI n cai?ia?aiie?iaaiiie no?oeoo?ie enneaaeoaiie
nenoaiu, iacuaaaiie iiaeaeueth.

Ni/aoaiea iaiieiiai iaoo?iiai yenia?eiaioa n yenia?eiaioii ia oeacaiiie
iiaeaee iieo/eei iacaaiea iiuoii-oai?aoe/aneiai iaoiaea eniuoaiee
neiaeiuo nenoai.

A iniiaa yoiai iaoiaea – nicaeaiea ia YAI iiaeaee nenoaiu, iicaieythuae
ia oieueei iieo/eoue auoiaeiua iieacaoaee, ii e enneaaeiaaoue acaeiiua
nayce i?ioeannia, yeaiaioia e iiaaaeaiea neiaeiie nenoaiu a ?acee/iuo
oneiaeyo yenieoaoaoeee i?e eciaiyaiuo cia/aieyo ia?aiao?ia e ia?aiaiiuo.

5.1.2. Iniiaiua ii?aaeaeaiey

Oa?iei “iiaeaee?iaaiea” eiaao a eeoa?aoo?a iiiai ?acee/iuo oieeiaaiee.
Iaeaieaa i?eaieaiui ia acaeyae iiiaeo aaoi?ia yaeyaony oaeia
ii?aaeaeaiea:

iiaeaee?iaaiea anoue iaoiae eco/aiey nenoaiu iooai aa caiaiu aieaa
oaeiaiie aeey yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee nenoaiie, iacuaaaiie
iiaeaeueth e nio?aiythuae iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiua /a?ou i?eaeiaea.

E eae aeiiieiaiea iiaeii eniieueciaaoue neaaeothuaa ii?aaeaeaiea:

iiaeaee?iaaiea anoue iauee iaoiae eco/aiey iauaeoa iooai enneaaeiaaiey
caiauathuae aai iiaeaee n ia?aiinii iieo/aaiie eioi?iaoeee ia
eco/aaiue iauaeo.

Ioi?aaiie oi/eie i?e iino?iaiee iiaeaee oaoie/aneie nenoaiu neaaeoao
n/eoaoue iienaiea.

Iienaiea – niaieoiiinoue naaaeaiee ia enneaaeoaiie nenoaia e oneiaeyo,
i?e eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe enneaaeiaaiey.

Iienaiea i?aaenoaaeyaony a aeaea:

-noai;

-oaenoia;

-oi?ioe;

-oaaeeoe yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo;

-oa?aeoa?enoee aiaoieo aicaeaenoaee e ie?oaeathuae nenoaio aiaoiae
n?aaeu.

Iienaiea caaeaao i?aaeiieaaaaiue aeai?eoi ?aaiou nenoaiu e iiaeao
oi?iaeueii ?anniao?eaaoueny eae iaeioi?ay ooieoeey aiaoieo aicaeaenoaee.

A ea/anoaa i?eia?a iiaeii aac aeinoaoi/iie aeaoaeecaoeee
?anniio?aoue iienaiea iiaeaee nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey ?a/e.

Caeanue, ai-ia?auo, enoiaey ec oiai, /oi iienaiea – yoi naaaeaiey i
nenoaia e oneiaeyo aa i?eiaiaiey, ioaeii aieaa oi/ii ii?aaeaeeoue
nenoaio ?aniiciaaaiey ?a/e, Iai?eia?:

“Nenoaia ?aniiciaaaiey ?a/aauo eiiaiae oi?aaeaiey iiaeuaiii noaeie
aaoiiiaeey a i?ioeanna aai yenieoaoaoeee”.

Aeey oaeie nenoaiu iienaiea iiaeaee aeieaeii aeeth/aoue:

-noaio ?a/aaiai aiia?aoa /aeiaaea e oai?aoe/aneea iieiaeaiey
?a/aia?aciaaiey;

-iienaiea oneiaee ?a/aaiai oi?aaeaiey (ooiu aeaeaaoaey, ooiu
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e o.ae.);

-oa?aeoa?enoeee iee?ioiia, eae aeao/eea neaiaeia, aini?eieiathuaai
eiiaiaeo (caaeneiinoue auoiaeiuo neaiaeia io caoeiaiai aeaaeaiey ai
anai aeeaiaciia /anoio, iai?eia?, a aeaea oaaeeoe);

-oa?aeoa?enoeee neaiaeia oi?aaeaiey (iiuiinoue, iai?aaeaiiinoue,
oaeaeaiiinoue io iee?ioiia);

-oa?aeoa?enoeee eaiaea i?eaia yeaeo?e/aneeo neaiaeia ia aoiaea
i?aia?aciaaoaey “aiaeia-oeeo?a” eiiiuethoa?a (/oanoaeoaeueiinoue,
aeene?aoiinoue, oi/iinoue e o.i.);

-iaoaiaoe/aneea caaeneiinoe, i?eiaiyaiua aeey ia?aaioee i?eiyoiai
neaiaea n oeaeueth iieo/aiey i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey e eeanneoeeaoeee;

-niinia i?aia?aciaaiey ?acoeueoaoia ?aniiciaaaiey a eiiaiaeu
oi?aaeaiey;

-oa?aeoa?enoeee eaiaea ia?aaea/e eiiaiae oi?aaeaiey;

-o?aaiaaiey e aaee/eiai neaiaeia oi?aaeaiey aeaeaaoaeyie iiaeuaia
noaeie. e o.ae. e o.i. )

Iiaeaeue  aini?iecaiaeeo iienaiea nenoaiu n aieueoeie eee iaiueoeie
oi?iuaieyie, caaenyueie io iaia?aiee enneaaeiaaoaey, aiciiaeiinoae
au/eneeoaeueiuo n?aaenoa, eiathueony a aai ?anii?yaeaiee e a?aiaie,
ioioneaaiiai ia i?iaaaeaiea eniuoaiee.

I?e yoii aeieaeai aeinoeaaoueny ?acoiiue eiii?iienn iaaeaeo
oi/iinoueth aini?iecaaaeaiey iiaeaeueth oa?aeoa?enoee nenoaiu e
neiaeiinoueth iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey yoiai ia? e n?aaenoa.

Ae?oaeie neiaaie (iniiauaaynue ia ?anniio?aiee iienaiey nenoaiu eae
ooieoeee aiaoieo aicaeaenoaee) , i?e iiaeaee?iaaiee i?iecaiaeeony
 aii?ieneiaoeey ooieoeee-iienaiey  aieaa i?inoie e oaeiaiie aeey
iaoeiiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey  ooieoeeae-iiaeaeueth .

Aiaeiaey iaaeaeo iino?iaieai iiaeaee e aii?ieneiaoeeae iicaieyao
eniieueciaaoue aeey iaaeyaeiinoe i?aaenoaaeaiee aii?ieneiaoeeth ooieoeee
w(x) ia iaeioi?ii io?acea [a,b] eeiaeiie eiiaeiaoeeae

– iiaeaeue ooieoeee-iienaiey w(x) oa?aeoa?ecoaony

n ia?aiao?aie (/eneiauie eiyooeoeeaioaie  (i );

( i (x) – iaeioi?ua aiciiaeiua i?inoua ooieoeee, caaeaiiua ia
oii aea io?acea [a,b].

Oaia?ue, enoiaey ec oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaeaee (ni. auoa iieiaeaiea i
oii, /oi iiaeaeue aini?iecaiaeeo nenoaio n oi?iuaieyie), aa?uee?oy
ia?aiao?aie (i , iaiaoiaeeii iieo/eoue iaeeo/oaa eee oaeiaeaoai?ythuaa
enneaaeiaaoaey (a iaeioi?ii niunea) i?eaeeaeaiea ooieoeee-iiaeaee e
ooieoeee-iienaieth.

Iau/ii aeey ioeaiee oi/iinoe iienaiey e iiaeaee iieuecothony aieaa
oaeiaiie aeey au/eneaiey ia?ie

aaea Qw – neaey?iue iieacaoaeue, eioi?ue iaia?aaathony iieo/eoue i?e
enneaaeiaaiee nenoaiu (iai?eia?, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue,
iaaeaaeiinoue, i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue); Q( – neaey?iue iieacaoaeue,
niioaaonoaothuee Qw, ii iieo/aiiue i?e aiaeeca iiaeaee  (.

I?e yoii iienaiea w(x) e iiaeaeue ((x) ioiaeaeanoaeaiu n aaeoi?aie w e
 ( iaeioi?iai iiiaiia?iiai i?ino?ainoaa.

e

 

oi iiaeaeue e nenoaia (a e?aeiai neo/aa aa iienaiea) eciii?oiu.

I?e auiieiaiee oieueei aoi?iai niioiioaiey, oi anoue i?e ionoonoaee
ia?aoiiai i?aia?aciaaiey, eiaai aeaei n  aiiiii?oiinoueth.

E A E Oe E ss 5.2

Iiaeaee?iaaiea neiaeiuo nenoai e i?eiaiaiea iiaeaeae

5.2.1. I?eioeeiu iino?iaiey iiaeaee neiaeiie nenoaiu

a) I?eioeei aeaeiiiiceoeee

I?aaeaea anaai enoiaeei ec oiai i/aaeaeiiai iieiaeaiey, /oi neiaeiua
nenoaiu iiaeii ?acaeoue ia iiaenenoaiu e yeaiaiou n ea?a?oe/aneie
no?oeoo?ie naycae. Oiaaea eaaeaeay iiaenenoaia, ?aoay eiie?aoioth
caaea/o, iaania/eaaao oai naiui aeinoeaeaiea iauae oeaee.

N yoeo iiceoeee, e iniaaiiinoyi neiaeiie nenoaiu neaaeoao ioianoe
oaeea:

1)Neiaeioth nenoaio iiaeii ?an/eaieoue ia eiia/iia /enei iiaenenoai, a
eaaeaeoth iiaenenoaio, a naith i/a?aaeue, – ia eiia/iia /enei aieaa
i?inouo noaiiaenenoai aei oao ii?, iiea ia iieo/ei yeaiaiou nenoaiu
( iiae yeaiaioaie nenoaiu neaaeoao iiieiaoue iauaeou, eioi?ua a
oneiaeyo aeaiiie caaea/e ia iiaeeaaeao ?an/eaiaieth ia /anoe) .

2)Yeaiaiou neiaeiie nenoaiu ooieoeeiie?otho ai acaeiiaeaenoaee ae?oa n
ae?oaii.

3)Naienoaa neiaeiie nenoaiu ii?aaeaeythony ia oieueei naienoaaie
ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia, ii e oa?aeoa?ii acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo ieie.

Ia i?aeoeea no?aiyony ?an/eaieoue neiaeioth nenoaio ia oaeoth
niaieoiiinoue iiaenenoai, eioi?ay iaeeo/oei ia?acii io?aaeaea au
?aaioo e ooieoeeiiaeueiia acaeiiaeaenoaea aa yeaiaioia. A yoii neo/aa
e no?iaia oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneia iienaiea noaiiaeony aieaa aeinooiiui.

Eniieueciaaiea i?eioeeia aeaeiiiiceoeee nenoai ia iiaenenoaiu,
iiaenenoai ia yeaiaiou iicaieyao nicaeaoue iiaeaeue neiaeiie nenoaiu
iooai ?ac?aaioee aeey i?inouo oece/anee yeaiaioia eo iaoaiaoe/aneia
iienaiea e niioaaonoaothuee aeai?eoi.

I?aeoe/aneay ?aaeecaoeey yoiai i?eioeeia i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi
niaoeeaeenou, eco/athuea i?ioeannu a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii yeaiaioa,
niiniaiu ia iniiaa yenia?eiaioaeueiuo e oai?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee
?ac?aaioaoue iiaeaee anao yeaiaioia e aeinoe/ue i?e yoii oi/iinoe,
eioi?ay iaiaoiaeeia aeey ioeaiee oa?aeoa?enoee ?aaioiniiniaiinoe
eaaeaeiai ec yoeo yeaiaioia a oneiaeyo ooaoiie yenieoaoaoeee.

Iai?eia?, auaeaeea a ea/anoaa ioaeaeueiiai yeaiaioa nenoaiu
aeaeaaoaeue iinoiyiiiai oiea, aeaai aiciiaeiinoue niaoeeaeenoo
oi?ie?iaaoue aai iienaiea. Oae ec oai?ee nenoai aaoiiaoe/aneiai
?aaoee?iaaiey aeey oaeiai aeaeaaoaey iienaieai yaeyaony nenoaia
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuo o?aaiaiee

eee iinea oi?iuaiey e i?aia?aciaaiee

,

Oaeei ia?acii noaaeiee, aeiee, yeaiaiou neiaeiie nenoaiu eee oaeaaony
iienaoue iaoaiaoe/anee n aeinoaoi/iie noaiaiueth oi/iinoe aeey ?an/aoa
eo oaeoueo ninoiyiee, eee a ?acoeueoaoa niaoeeaeueiuo
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee iieo/eoue niaieoiiinoue /eneiauo
aeaiiuo aeey iienaiey oeacaiiuo ninoiyiee. Yoe /eneiaua aeaiiua
iiaoo auoue eae iaiin?aaenoaaiii eniieueciaaiu i?e eiiiuethoa?iie
?aaeecaoeee niioaaonoaothueo aeieia a aeaea oaaeeoe, iienuaathueo
?aaeoeeth yoeo aeieia ia aoiaeiua aicaeaenoaey, oae e a aeaea
caiaiythueo oiiiyiooua oaaeeoeu aii?ieneie?othueo eo caaeneiinoae. E a
oii e a ae?oaii neo/ayo i?ia?aiie?iaaiea ia aucuaaao o?oaeiinoae.

Oae eee eia/a aeaeiiiiceoeey nenoaiu, i eioi?ie eaeao ?a/ue, aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue niaoeeaeenoai nicaeaoue i?ia?aiiii ?aaeecoaiua
aeai?eoiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aeieia, noaaeieia, yeaiaioia.

Ionthaea niaieoiiinoue iiaeaee?othueo aeai?eoiia aeieia, noaaeieia,
yeaiaioia, ?ac?aaioaiiuo oeacaiiui niiniaii, n o/aoii eo
acaeiiaeaenoaey ii?aaeaeytho aeai?eoi iiaeaee anae nenoaiu a oeaeii.

I?eia?aie aeaeiiiiceoeee i?e nicaeaiee iiaeaee nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey
caaieaaaiee aioo?aiieo i?aaiia /aeiaaea iiaoo auoue aa?eaiou ?acaeaiey
aa ia yeaiaiou e aeiee eiiiuethoa?iie nenoaiu, iino?iaiiie ia iniiaa
oeueo?acaoeiaie iaaeeoeeineie aeeaaiinoeee. No?oeoo?iay noaia iaeiiai
oaeiai aa?eaioa i?e aeinoaoi/ii iiaa?oiinoiie aeaeiiiiceoeee
i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en. 5.2.1.

Iiaeaeue io?aaeathueo Iiaeaeue
oeueo?acao-

naienoa aioo?aiia- eiaiai eieaoi?a,

ai i?aaia /aeiaaea a yaeythuaainy in-
oeueo?acaoeiaii
iiaiui yeaiaioii

aeeaiaciia aiei aiia?aoa OCE

Iiaeaeue aeai?eoia

ia?aaioee ecia?aaea-

iee
aioo?aiiaai i?-

aaia

Iiaeaeue aeai?eoia

aiaeeca e i?eiyoey

?aoaiey

?en 5.2.1. No?oeoo?iay noaia aa?eaioa aeaeiiiiceoeee nenoaiu
?aniiciaaaiey

Aieaa aeaoaeueiay aeaeiiiiceoeey iicaieyao i?aaenoaaeaiiua aeiee
?an/eaieoue ia noaaeiee e yeaiaiou. Oae , iai?eia?, iiaoo auoue
aeaoaeece?iaaiu ia?aua aeaa ec aeieia ?anniio?aiiie noaiu (?en.5.2.2).

Oi/ii oaeaea iiaoo auoue iiaeaa?aioou aeaeiiiiceoeee e ae?oaea iiaeoee
no?oeoo?iie noaiu, i?eaaaeaiiie ia ?en.5.2.1. A ?acoeueoaoa iiyaeyaony
aiciiaeiinoue aeey oceeo niaoeeaeenoia ia iniiaa oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneiai
iienaiey ?ac?aaioaoue aeai?eoiu eo e caoai eiiieaene?iaaoue a iauee
aeai?eoi iiaeaee nenoaiu.

a) I?eioeei aeiionoeiuo oi?iuaiee

A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa, iaeiaei, iauee aeai?eoi iiaeaee, iieo/aiiue a
?acoeueoaoa aeaeiiiiceoeee nenoaiu, ?ac?aaioee niaoeeaeenoaie
aeai?eoiia yeaiaioia e eo naycae e iineaaeothuaai iauaaeeiaiey,
yaeyaony

Iiaeoeue iienaiey Iiaeoeue iienaiey

aaiiao?e/aneie aiciiaeiuo iiei-

oi?iu aioo?ai- aeaiee iioieiae-

iaai i?aaia /aneeo ia?aci-

aaiee
a i?aaia

Iiaeoeue iienaiey Iiaeoeue iienaiey

iieiaeaiee ooieoeei- aaiiao?e/aneeo

iaeueiuo yeaiaioia oa?aeoa?enoee

aioo?aiiaai i?aaia iioieiae/aneeo

ia?aciaaiee

Iiaeoeue auai?a

oneiaee
iaaethaea-

iey
aioo?aiiaai

i?aaia
(na/aiea)

Iiaeoeue iienaiey

caoeiaeeiaie/an-

eeo naienoa na-

/aiey
i?aaia

Iiaeoeue iienaiey Iiaeoeue iienaiey Iiaeoeue iienaiey

caoeiaeeiaie/an- caoeiaeeiaie/an- caoeiaeeiaie/an-

eeo naienoa ia- eeo naienoa eaae- eeo naienoa ia-

oieiae/aneeo aeiai ec ooieoeei- ?aioeiu
aioo?ai-

ia?aciaaiee iaeueiuo yeaiaioia iaai i?aaia

Iiaeoeue oi?ie?iaaiey oeueoacaoeiai-

ai ecia?aaeaiey na/aiey i?aaia

ia iiaeaeue aeai?eoia ia?aaioee ecia?aaeaiee

?en.5.2.2. No?oeoo?iay noaia aeaeiiiiceoeee iiaeaee io?aaeathueo naienoa
e oeueo?acaoeiaiai eieaoi?a

oieueei enoiaeiui e aai aua iaeuecy iieiaeeoue a iniiao nicaeaiey
?aai/ae iiaeaee nenoaiu. Yoi ii?aaeaeyaony aai a?iiicaeeinoueth, a
oaeaea ieioie niaeaniaaiiinoue n au/eneeoaeueiuie ?ano?naie e n
o?aaiaaieyie e iiaeaee nenoaiu.

Oaeea aiciiaeiua iaaeinoaoee enoiaeiiai aeai?eoia iiaeaee auoaeatho ec
?acee/ey oeaeae iiaeaee?iaaiey ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia e neiaeiie nenoaiu
a oeaeii.

I?e/eia ?acee/ey oeaeae ninoieo a oii, /oi niaoeeaeenou,
?ac?aaaouaathuea aeai?eoiu yeaiaioia, no?aiyony e oiio, /oiau io?aceoue
oa?aeoa?enoeee yoeo yeaiaioia n iaeneiaeueiie oi/iinoueth. A ?acoeueoaoa
aeai?eoiu iiaeaeae yeaiaioia iiaoo ieacaoueny aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiuie, a a
eoiaa

-iaiiia?ii aic?anoaao a?aiy n/aoa iaeiie ?aaeecaoeee ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
nenoaiu a oeaeii;

-oiaiueoaaony iauaa /enei iiaeaeueiuo yenia?eiaioia (?aaeecaoeee) i?e
iauai ia?aie/aiee a?aiaie ia eniuoaiea neiaeiie nenoaiu.

E yoi i?e oii, /oi anaaaea nouanoaotho aieaa i?inoua ?aaeecaoeee
yeaiaioia ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeeiaeaiiuie “noiaeo”. E oiio aea n oi/ee
c?aiey aeeyiey ia eiia/ioth oi/iinoue iiaeaee?iaaiey nenoaiu aeeaaeu
ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia iiaoo ieacaoueny ianouanoaaiiuie, a cia/eo naie
iienaiey aeai?eoiia eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iiaoo aeiioneaoue oi?iuaiey.

Iiyoiio iiaeaeue nenoaiu a oeaeii aeieaeia no?ieoueny ia iniiaa
eiii?iienna iaaeaeo iaeeaeaaiie oi/iinoueth ioeaiie eiia/iiai
iieacaoaey e neiaeiinoueth naiie iiaeaee.

Ionthaea iooue e nicaeaieth ?aai/ae iiaeaee nenoaiu – iiene
eiii?iienniuo ?aoaiee. A iniiaa aai eaaeeo aiaeec aeiionoeiuo oi?iuaiee
eae enoiaeiuo aeai?eoiia iiaeaeae yeaiaioia, oae e aeai?eoiia eo
acaeiiaeaenoaey.

I?e nicaeaiee ?aai/ae iiaeaee nenoaiu (?ac?aaioea aeai?eoia iiaeaee)
iaoiaeeee aiaeeca aiciiaeiuo oi?iuaiee auaatho naiuie ?aciuie, ii
niuneiaia niaea?aeaiea eo ninoieo a oii, /oiau iaania/eoue nenoaiiua
?an/aou a ioaaaeaiiia a?aiy e aeinoe/ue i?e yoii caaeaiiie oi/iinoe
eiia/iiai iieacaoaey (iai?eia?, yooaeoeaiinoe aeey nenoai
?aniiciaaaiey). Anoanoaaiii, /oi oeacaiiue aiaeec, iai?aaeaiiue ia
eneeth/aiea, caiaio ioaeaeueiuo aeieia e noaaeieia eee eo ei??aeoe?iaeo
aeieaeai i?aaeiieaaaoue:

-aieaa oaeoaeaiiia aiaeeoe/aneia eco/aiea e i?aaenoaaeaiea ?aaiou
oece/aneiai aiaeiaa;

-yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey oece/aneiai aiaeiaa.

?aoaiey ii oi?iuaieth iiiaiia?aciu. Ana iie niaoeeoe/iu e ia
iiaeaeathony iaiauaieth. I?e yoii iaeaieaa eiie?aoiay ?aeiiaiaeaoeey ii
caiaia iiaeao auoue aeaia eeoue a ioiioaiee aeieia, inouanoaeythueo
aicaeaenoaea ia enneaaeoaioth /anoue nenoaiu. Oieueei a yoie neooaoeee
aeiee iiaeii iaeiicia/ii caiaieoue oi?iuaiiui yeaeaaeaioii, ia caaenyuei
io oeacaiiie enneaaeoaiie /anoe nenoaiu. Naii niaie ?acoiaaony, /oi
anee i?e caiaiao e ei??aeoe?iaeao ia ia?ooaaony ooieoeeiiaeueiia
acaeiiaeaenoaea aeieia e noaaeieia, oi noaia nii?yaeaiey eo a iauae
iiaeaee inoaaony aac eciaiaiee.

I?e caiaiao aeieia oi?iuaiiui yeaeaaeaioii ioeacuaathony io oi/iiai
iienaiey

-eeai ia iniiaa ioaeaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee ia naiinoiyoaeueiie iiaeaee
(aiai?yo: ”/anoiie” iiaeaee) aicaeaenoaee, aeaiiiai aeiea ia nenoaio e
auai?a a ea/anoaa caiaiu iiaiai aeiea oi?ie?othuaai ?aaeecaoeee
iaeooaeoaai aicaeaenoaey;

-eeai i?e aeinoaoi/ii aieueoii /enea oaeoi?ia, ii?aaeaeythueo
aicaeaenoaea, auai?ii a ea/anoaa caiaiu iiaiai aeiea, oi?ie?othuaai
neo/aeiia aicaeaenoaea n caaeaiiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

Anee, iai?eia?, a ninoaa iaeioi?ie neiaeiie nenoaiu aoiaeeo
aaoiiaoe/aneee yeaeo?iiiue ecia?eoaeue iaeioi?ie aaee/eiu,
eniieuecoaiie aeieaie yoie nenoaiu, oi i?eoiaeeony eiaoue aeaei n
iaecaaaeiuie ioeaeaie ecia?aiee. I?e/eiu ioeaie caeanue – iaee/ea
yeaeo?iiiuo ooiia, aucuaaaiuo:

-ia?aaiiia?iie yienneae yeaeo?iiia (oae iacuaaaiue “ae?iaiaie ooi) a
yeaeo?iaaeooiiuo i?eai?ao;

-ia?aaiiia?iinoueth i?ioeannia aaia?aoeee e ?aeiiaeiaoeee iineoaeae
oiea a iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo i?eai?ao.

I?e iino?iaiee iiaeaee oeacaiiiai ecia?eoaey aiciiaeiu:

1)No?iaia oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneia iienaiea oeacaiiuo ia?aaiiia?iinoae
aeaeaeaiey iineoaeae oiea e eo aeeyiey ia ecia?yaioth aaee/eio
(“iiaeaeue n oi/iinoueth aei iineoaey”).

2)Yenia?eiaioaeueiay ioeaiea iaeneiaeueiie ioeaee ecia?aiey
eioa?anothuaai ia?aiao?a e caiaiu oi/iiai aeiea anaai eeoue eieoaoi?ii
iinoiyiiie aaee/eiu iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiie ioeaee, aeiaaaeyaiie e
ecia?aieyi.

3)Yenia?eiaioaeueiua noaoenoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey ioeaie ecia?eoaey,
iieo/aiea caeiia ?ani?aaeaeaiey aa?iyoiinoae ioeaie e caiaia oi/iiai
aeiea ia aeie aaia?aoeee neo/aeiuo ioeaie n caaeaiiui caeiiii
?ani?aaeaeaiey, aeiaaaeyaiuo e “/enoui” ecia?aieyi.

A oaoie/aneeo i?eeiaeaieyo iiaeaee?iaaiey ie “oi/iinoue aei iineoaey”,
ie eieoaoeey iaeneiaeueiuo ioeaie ia yaeythony oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui
?aoaieai. O?aoee iiaeoiae e ?aoaieth caaea/e ano?a/aaony iaeaieaa /anoi.
Yoi naycaii, iniaaiii a yeaeo?iieea, n iaee/eai aieueoiai /enea
neo/aeiuo aicaeaenoaee. Yoi e eaiaeu nayce ni neo/aeiuie ooiaie. Yoi e
ioeaee ecia?aiee, iinyuea neo/aeiue oa?aeoa?. Yoi e oi/iinoe
ecaioiaeaiey aeaoaeae e o.ae. e o.i.

Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi i?e niioaaonoaothueo caiaiao aeieia eaaeaeue
yenia?eiaio ia nenoaiiie iiaeaee aeieaeai iineoue neo/aeiue oa?aeoa?.

5.2.2. Iiaeaee?iaaiea neiaeiuo nenoai e iiuoii-oai?aoe/aneee iaoiae eo
eniuoaiee

?anniio?aiea enoi?ee aii?ina iiyaeaiey e ?acaeoey iiaeaee?iaaiey
iieacaei, /oi oeaeue nicaeaiey ethaie iiaeaee – eniuoaiey iaeioi?ie
nenoaiu. I?e yoii naaiaeiy ?a/ue eaeao i eiiiuethoa?iie ?aaeecaoeee e
eniuoaieyo iiaeaee nenoaiu a oneiaeyo, eioi?ua eee iaaiciiaeii, eee
aeinoaoi/ii aei?iai nicaeaoue aeey i?iaaaeaiey iaoo?iuo eniuoaiee
?aaeueiie nenoaiu, eee yoi nii?yaeaii n aieueoeie a?aiaiiuie
cao?aoaie.

A oi aea a?aiy ec i?iaaaeaiiiai ?anniio?aiey ioee/ee iiaeaee io
i?aaenoaaeyaiiai ath iauaeoa (i?ioeanna, yaeaiey) neaaeoao, /oi
iieiinoueth iieiaeeoueny ia ?acoeueoaou iiaeaee?iaaiey, aunooiathuaai a
ea/anoaa aaeeinoaaiiiai enoi/ieea iieo/aiey oa?aeoa?enoee oeacaiiiai
iauaeoa (i?ioeanna, yaeaiey) ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui.

Ionthaea eiae/anee auoaeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue ni/aoaiey iiaeaee?iaaiey e
iaoo?iuo eniuoaiee aeey niaianoiiai iieo/aiey iieacaoaeae
niioaaonoaothuae nenoaiu. Niioaaonoaothuee iaoiae e iieo/ee iacaaiea 
iiuoii-oai?aoe/aneiai.

Caeanue iaiaoiaeeii caiaoeoue: eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i iaoo?iuo eniuoaieyo
nenoaiu, iiae?acoiaaatho iaoo?iua eniuoaiey aa yeaiaioia eee
nie?auaiiiai, oi?iuaiiiai aa?eaioa. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa i?eoeinue au
nicaeaoue nenoaio a oeaeii, ia ciay ca?aiaa, eae iia aoaeao auiieiyoue
oa eee eiua caaea/e. A anee i?e yoii nenoaia ieaaeaony ianiiniaiie
auiieieoue naia iacia/aiea e cao?aou iaoeaeaniia?aciuie? Ii nenoaia
nicaeaia?! A nayce n yoei e oeaeue iiuoii-oai?aoe/aneiai iaoiaea –
ecaaaeaoue iaoeaeaniia?aciuo cao?ao, eniieuecoy ni/aoaiea
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo a ia?aie/aiiii iauaia e iiaeaee?iaaiey – ai
anae iaeanoe oaeoi?iiai i?ino?ainoaa ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu.

Nooue iiuoii-oai?aoe/aneiai iaoiaea, iaycaoaeueii i?aaeiieaaathuaai
nicaeaiea iiaeaee nenoaiu, naiaeeony e auiieiaieth neaaeothueo
iieiaeaiee:

1)Iieo/aiea aeey iaeieo e oao aea oneiaee aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa
?aaeecaoeee iieacaoaeae ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu eee aa ioaeaeueiuo
aeieia a iaoo?iuo eniuoaieyo e ia iiaeaee.

2)I?iaaaeaiea ia?aiao?e/aneie aei?aaioee iiaeaee ia iniiaa n?aaiaiey
?acoeueoaoia iaoo?iuo yenia?eiaioia e iiaeaee?iaaiey, anee no?oeoo?a
iiaeaee oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueia.

3)I?iaaaeaiea no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee iiaeaee, aeiiieieoaeueiue o/ao
ioaeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia, aeiiieiaiea naycae i?e iaee/ee inoaoi/iie
?aciinoe iaaeaeo auoiaeiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iinea iiiuoee
ia?aiao?e/aneie aei?aaioee.

4)I?iaa?ea noaoenoe/aneie niaianoeiinoe iiaeaee e nenoaiu a ?yaea
oeaeaiai?aaeaiii aua?aiiuo oi/ae oaeoi?iiai i?ino?ainoaa.

5)Ia iniiaa auiieiaiiie eaeea?iaee iiaeaee (ioieou 1-4) ?ani?ino?aiaiea
?acoeueoaoia eniuoaiee nenoaiu n iiiiuueth iiaeaee?iaaiey ia anth
iaeanoue oaeoi?iiai i?ino?ainoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii aeinoeaaaony nia/aea eciii?oiinoue iiaeaee e nenoaiu, a
caoai ioeaiea yoie nenoaiu ia iiaeaee ai anao aiciiaeiuo oneiaeyo
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

Oiiiyiooue i?e yoii ioeac io nicaeaiey nenoaiu a oeaeii, caiaia aa
eniuoaiee ia eniuoaiey ioaeaeueiuo oceia, iiaeoeae, ninoaaeythueo e
o.i. io?aaeaaony ia iino?iaiee iiaeaee nenoaiu. Aeaei a oii, /oi
iaeioi?ua ?acoeueoaou eniuoaiee iiaoo iicaieeoue, iai?eia?,
ioaeaeueiua ninoaaeythuea nenoaiu ia iiaeaee?iaaoue, iienuaay
niioaaonoaothuea oece/aneea i?ioeannu, ia eneaoue aeey ieo oi/iuo
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iienaiee aeey ?aaeecaoeee, a ainiieueciaaoueny
iieo/aiiuie yenia?eiaioaeueiuie aeaiiuie. Oae, iiaeii ia iiaeaee?iaaoue
ooiaeu ia?aiao?ia ioaeaeueiuo yeaeo?iiiuo e yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneeo
ono?ienoa, i?eaiaeyuea e eo ioeacai, anee a ?acoeueoaoa eniuoaiee
iieo/aiu oa?aeoa?enoeee iaaeaaeiinoe yoeo ono?ienoa (aa?iyoiinoue
aacioeaciie ?aaiou a oa/aiea ?aai/aai oeeeea, ia?aaioea ia ioeac, a?aiy
aacioeaciie ?aaiou). Oi anoue, iaoo?iua eniuoaiey iiaoo yaeoueny
iniiaaieai aeey oi?iuaiey iiaeaee i?e nio?aiaiee aa eciii?oiinoe
nenoaia.

?anniio?aiiue iooue oi?iuaiey – ia aaeeinoaaiiue. Ai-ia?auo, oaea
oiiiyiooue iaie eiii?iienniue oa?aeoa? nicaeaiey iiaeaee nenoaiu
(iaaeaeo oi/iinoueth e aiciiaeiinoueth ?aaeecaoeee) aeaao a ioaeaeueiuo
neo/ayo oaeea iniiaaiey. Oiaaea, eae oaea oiiieiaeinue iiaeii
ioeacaoueny io iaeioi?uo aeaoaeae iiaeaee?iaaiey. Ai-aoi?uo, caaea/e,
noaayueany ia?aae iiaeaeueth iiaoo auoue ?acee/iuie: ioeaiea
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu, ioeaiea acaeiiaeaenoaey nenoaiu n ae?oaeie
neiaeiuie nenoaiaie, ioeaiea oa?aeoa?enoee nenoaiu ai anai aeeaiaciia
oneiaee ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e o.ae. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi i?e
eniuoaieyo neiaeiuo nenoai eiatho aeaei ia n iaeiie aaeeinoaaiiie
iiaeaeueth. Oae ii naiaio iacia/aieth iiaeaee aeaeyony ia /anoiua e
nenoaiiua.

*anoiua iiaeaee – yoi iiaeaee ioaeaeueiuo /anoae nenoaiu (iiaenenoai,
oceia, aa?aaaoia), iicaieythuea i?e aunieie oi/iinoe iiaeaee?iaaiey yoeo
/anoae iieo/eoue enoiaeiua aeaiiua aeey eniieueciaaiey a nenoaiiie
iiaeaee. A ?acoeueoaoa nenoaiiay iiaeaeue ia aoaeao ia?aa?oaeaia
niioaaonoaothueie /anoiuie caaea/aie, oi anoue, oi?inoeony e niiaeao
noaoue ?aaeecoaiie a i?eaieaiia a?aiy (iai?eia?, a ?aaeueiia a?aiy), n
i?eaieaiui auno?iaeaenoaeai e a aeiionoeiii iauaia.

Nenoaiiua iiaeaee aeeth/atho a naie ninoaa yeaiaiou, io?aaeathuea a
oie eee eiie noaiaie ?aaioo anao /anoae nenoaiu eee iai?yioth
eniieuecotho ioaeaeueiua /anoe nenoaiu. Iie iicaieytho iieo/eoue
iieacaoaee ea/anoaa anae nenoaiu a oeaeii. A oae eae oaeeo
iieacaoaeae iiaeao auoue ianeieueei, oi e nenoaiiuo iiaeaeae iiaeao
auoue ianeieueei. I?e oaeii ?acaeaeaiee ooieoeee en/acaao neiaeiinoue
?ac?aaaouaaaiuo iiaeaeae. Yoei, a /anoiinoe, iauyniyaony aeaeaiea
nenoaiiuo iiaeaeae ia ooieoeeiiaeueiua e eiiieaeniua. E anee
ooieoeeiiaeueiua iiaeaee i?aaeiacia/athony aeey eniuoaiee
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey neiaeiie nenoaiu a ?acee/iuo neooaoeeyo, oi
eiiieaeniua iaania/eaatho:

-io?aaioeo e ioeaaeeo i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey neiaeiie nenoaiu;

-ioeaieo oa?aeoa?enoee ioaeaeueiuo n?aaenoa e iieo/aiea enoiaeiuo
aeaiiuo aeey iieiie ioeaiee nenoaiu.

E A E Oe E ss 5.3

Iaoiae noaoenoe/aneeo eniuoaiee

(iaoiae Iiioa-Ea?ei)

5.3.1. Iniiaiia ii?aaeaeaiea

Ec ?anniio?aiey i?eioeeiia iino?iaiey iiaeaeae neiaeiuo nenoai
neaaeoao, /oi i?e oi?iuaieyo iiaeaee e caiaia aeieia, iienuaathueo, eae
i?aaeei, aicaeaenoaey ia nenoaio e aa /anoe, yenia?eiaio ia nenoaiiie
iiaeaee neiaeiie nenoaiu aeinoaoi/ii /anoi i?eia?aoaao neo/aeiue
oa?aeoa?. Neo/aai a neeo yoiai e auoiaeiie yooaeo nenoaiu io caionea
iiaeaee e caioneo. Aeey i?iaaaeaiey iiaeaee?iaaiey a oaeeo oneiaeyo
iaeaieaa i?eaieaiui yaeyaony iaoiae iiaeaee?iaaiey, iniiaaiiue ia
noaoenoe/aneeo eniuoaieyo, oae iacuaaaiue iaoiae Iiioa-Ea?ei.

I?eaieaiinoue oeacaiiiai iaoiaea iaoneiaeeaaaony oai, /oi

1)?an/ao ioeaiie auoiaeiuo ia?aiao?ia inouanoaeyaony n eniieueciaaieai
aeinoaoi/ii i?inouo aeai?eoiia ia?aaioee.

2)i?inoi e oi/ii ii?aaeaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiue iauai iiaeaee?iaaiey ec
oneiaey aeinoeaeaiey caaeaiiie oi/iinoe ioeaiie auoiaeiuo iieacaoaeae.

3)iaoiaeeea i?aaiecaoeee yenia?eiaioia ia iiaeaee aeinoaoi/ii i?inoa e
oi?ioi i?ia?aiiii ?aaeecoaia.

A yoii eaaei oaaaeeoueny ia i?inouo i?eia?ao. A iiea ?anniio?ei
ii?aaeaeaiea.

Iaoiae noaoenoe/aneeo eniuoaiee (iaoiae Iiioa-Ea?ei) ninoieo a ?aoaiee
?acee/iuo caaea/ au/eneeoaeueiie iaoaiaoeee iooai iino?iaiey aeey
eaaeaeie caaea/e neo/aeiiai i?ioeanna n ia?aiao?aie, ?aaiuie eneiiui
aaee/eiai yoie caaea/e. .

?anniio?ei i?inoaeoea i?eia?u.

A. Ionoue iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue aa?iyoiinoue P/  oiai, /oi noiia?iia
/enei iiiaaeaiee i?e no?aeueaa a “aeanyoeo” ieoaie i?e 10 auno?aeao
– /aoii.

Ecaanoii, /oi anee aa?iyoiinoue iiiaaeaiey a “aeanyoeo” i?e iaeiii
auno?aea ?aaia p , oi eneiiay aa?iyoiinoue niaeanii aeiiieaeueiiio
caeiio ?ani?aaeaeaiey aa?iyoiinoae au/eneyaony oae:

– /enei ni/aoaiee ec 10 ii 2k.

Anee i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iiaen/eoaoue ana /enea ni/aoaiee i?e k=0…5
eee eniieueciaaoue aioiaoth oaaeeoeo ni/aoaiee, oi au/eneaiey P/ ii
oeacaiiie oi?ioea iio?aaotho 26 iia?aoeee.

Aianoi oaeiai ?an/aoa iiaeii auei au yenia?eiaioaeueii auiieieoue N
na?ee no?aeuea ii 10 auno?aeia e ii?aaeaeeoue ec eo /enea eiee/anoai
na?ee n/ , a eioi?uo /enei iiiaaeaiee a “aeanyoeo” – /aoiia. Oiaaea i?e
aeinoaoi/ii aieueoii N eiaai

Iaeiaei i?e oaeii iiaeoiaea aeey iieo/aiey aeinoiaa?iuie a ioeaiea P/
aeaoo ciaeia iinea caiyoie iio?aaoaony ieiei 10 000 na?ee ii 10
auno?aeia.

Ieacuaaaony, /oi YAI iicaieyao auiieieoue ?aoaiea oeacaiiie caaea/e
o?aoueei niiniaii.

Eae ecaanoii iiiaea ycuee i?ia?aiie?iaaiey eiatho a ninoaaa
noaiaea?oiuo ooieoeee aeao/ee neo/aeiuo /enae, iicaieythuee oi?ie?iaaoue
neo/aeioth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?aaiiia?ii ?ani?aaeaeaiiuo /enae ia
eioa?aaea [0,1].

Iiyoiio aianoi auno?aea ii ieoaie aeinoaoi/ii aua?aoue ec aeao/eea
oeacaiiia /enei ni cia/aieai x e i?iaa?eoue auiieiaiea ia?aaainoaa x P( ()caae i?eiyoue ?aoaiea i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe eneeth/aiey ec aeoaaeoa Ar eeanna n iiia?ii  ( ,
yooaeoeaiinoue ioianaiey e eioi?iio ieaea o?aaoaiie (caaeaiiie).

Ionthaea ana iia?aoeee, naycaiiua n ii?aaeaeaiea oaeiai eeanna (iiia?a
aai /a?ac aa?iyoiinoue ioeai/iiai ioianaiey), iiaoo auoue iauaaeeiaiu a
ioaeaeueiii  noaiiaeoeai- iienea eeanna, nieaeathuaai yooaeoeaiinoue
?aniiciaaaiey.

Iaeiiaoe, oa aea iao?eoea

iicaieyao auaeaeeoue oaeie eeann, ioianaiea e eioi?iio iauaeoia
iaeaeaiiiai ieceiyooaeoeaiiai eeanna iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?acii aeey
iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe nenoaiiuo ?aoaiee. Iiia? oaeiai eeanna
niioaaonoaoao iaeneiaeueiie aa?iyoiinoe ioianaiey e iaio oeacaiiiai
ieceiyooaeoeaiiai eeanna. Oi anoue:

Yoe iia?aoeee iiaeii ii?o/eoue ioaeaeueiiio noaiiaeoeth, auoiaeii
eioi?iai aeieaeiu auoue iiia?a eeannia (  e ( , eioi?ua neaaeoao
iauaaeeieoue a aeoaaeoa Ar, /oiau iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue N? a oeaeii.
Ii iiaeao auoue iacaai  noaiiaeoeai ii?aaeaeaiey iiia?ia iauaaeeiyaiuo
eeannia.

A ?anniao?eaaaiii ninoaaa (?en.5.7.1.) iiaeoeue ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe
oaeiaeaoai?yao iio?aaiinoyi eae ioeaiee ea/anoaa N?, oae e iio?aaiinoyi
oi?aaeaiey iioeiecaoeeae N? a oneiaeyo ia?aie/aiee n?aaenoa ia
nicaeaiea ecia?eoaeae.

Naie ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey iiaeaeueth N? iaiaoiaeeii iauaaeeieoue a
ioaeaeueiii iiaeoea.

? ?aniiciaiiiai eeanna

Noaiiaeoeue ioeaiee ? eieoe?oaiiai

?acoeueoaoa ?anii- eeanna

ciaaaiey (io iiaeaee
iauaeoa)

Ar i,j

Noaiiaeoeue ?an/aoa _

io iiaeoey iao?eoeu ?aoaiee Vk

oi?aaeaiey (io
iiaeoey oi?aaeaiey)

|| nij/V k ||

Noaiiaeoeue ?an/aoa

e o?aiaiey iao?eoe

ia iiaeoeue aa?iyoiinoae ?a-

oi?aaeaiey oaiee

|| Pij (Ar /Vk ) ||

Noaiiaeoeue ii?aaea-

eaiey iioeiaeueii-

ia iiaeoeue ai iaai?a i?ecia-

oi?aaeaiey eia a aeoaaeoa Ar 

(Ar

Noaiiaeoeue iienea

iayooaeoeaii ?an-

ia iiaeoeue iiciaaaaiiai

oi?aaeaiey eeanna

e iiaeoeue P( (/Ar) e
 (/Ar

iienaiey

eeannia Noaiiaeoeue ?aoaiey Noaiiaeoeue
ii?aaea-

ia eneeth/aiee (-ai
eaiey ?anoe?yaii-

eeanna
ai eeanna (( )

?en.5.7.1. Iiaeoeue ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe

5.7.3. Iiaeoeue oi?aaeaiey iiaeaeueth nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey

Ec ?anniio?aiey iaueo i?eioeeiia iiaeaee?iaaiey neiaeiuo nenoai, a
oaeaea ninoaaa e iniaaiiinoae iino?iaiey iiaeaee N? neaaeoao, /oi a
iaueo /a?oao aeeiaieea iiaeaee?iaaiey nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie

-iiiaie?aoii iiaoi?ythueeny ( n eaaeaeui ioneii i?ia?aiiu iiaeaee)
i?ioeann auai?a ?aniiciaaaaiiai iauaeoa;

-iiiaie?aoii iiaoi?ythueeny i?ioeann eieoaoeee ?aaiou ecia?eoaeae
ia?aiao?ia ii eaaeaeiio iiaeaee?oaiiio iauaeoo e ooaoiie ia?aaioee
iieo/aiiie eioi?iaoeee n oeaeueth iieo/aiey i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey;

-iiiaie?aoii iiaoi?ythueeny ( aeey eaaeaeiai aua?aiiiai iauaeoa
?aniiciaaaiey) i?ioeann ooaoiiai i?eiyoey ?aoaiey i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe
i?aaeuyaeaiiiai iauaeoa;

-noaoenoe/aneoth ia?aaioeo i?eiyouo ?aoaiee a eaaeaeii ec ioneia
i?ia?aiiu iiaeaee eae enoi/iee ii?aaeaeaiey iieacaoaey ea/anoaa N? a
oeaeii.

Ia?aay ec i?eaaaeaiiuo ooieoeee, caaeathuay aanue i?ioeann
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?ia?aiiu iiaeaee a eaaeaeii ionea, ?aaeecoaony a
aeaea:

-ia?aiia/aeueiiai ionea i?ia?aiiu iiaeaee eniuoaoaeai n enoiaeiuie
o?aaiaaieyie, aaaaeaiiuie ei i?aaeaa?eoaeueii;

-aaoiiaoe/aneiai iiaoi?aiey caaeaiiiai /enea oeeeeia ionea i?ia?aiiu
aeey ?aaeecaoeee iiaoi?aiee i?ioeanna ?aniiciaaaiey a niioaaonoaee n
iaoiaeieiaeae noaoenoe/aneeo eniuoaiee;

-naiaa?aiaiiie auaea/e iaiaoiaeeiuo enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo aeey aaiaea a
ioaeaeueiua noaiiaeoee iiaeaee aeey i?aaiecaoeee eo ?aaiou ii ca?aiaa
aaaaeaiiui e o?aieiui aeaiiui eee ii ?acoeueoaoai auiieiaiiie ?aaiou
ae?oaeie noaiiaeoeyie.

Ana inoaeueiua ooieoeee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea aeeiaieeo iiaeaee N? a oeaeii,
aeieaeiu auiieiyoueny aaoiiaoe/anee a ?anniio?aiiie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe. Oi anoue, ia?aay ooieoeey iauaaeeiyao oaeoe/anee
ana caaea/e oi?aaeaiey iiaeaeueth. Auiieiaiea aa eiae/ii aiceiaeeoue
ia ioaeaeueiue iiaeoeue – iiaeoeue oi?aaeaiey. .

Iauaa ?anniio?aiea ?aaeecaoeee iiaeoey oi?aaeaiey iicaieyao ia?aoeoue
aieiaiea ia caaea/o nayce eniuoaoaey n iiaeaeueth nenoaiu. I?e yoii
?anniao?eaay aeai?eoie/aneia niaea?aeaiea oaea iienaiiuo iiaeoeae,
aoiaeyueo a ninoaa iiaeaee, iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi iiaeoeue
oi?aaeaiey aeieaeai eiaoue eioa?oaen, iicaieythuee aaiaeeoue aeey
i?aaiecaoeee iiaeaee?iaaiey oaeea enoiaeiua aeaiiua, eae

-eiee/anoai noaoenoe/aneo eniuoaiee (ioneia) ia iiaeaee nenoaiu;

-enoiaeiue ai?ei?iue aeoaaeo eeannia;

-ai?ei?iua aa?iyoiinoe i?aaeiieaaaaiuo eeannia;

-aeiionoeiia cia/aiea aa?iyoiinoe ioeai/iie eeanneoeeaoeee.

E?iia oiai, oio aea eioa?oaen aeieaeai iaania/eoue i?aaenoaaeaiea
eniuoaoaeth ii aai o?aaiaaieth eiaeeeaoeee:

-?aaeecaoeee ecia?aiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee (i?eciaeia) iiaeaee?oaiuo
iauaeoia;

-iiyoaiiuo cia/aiee (aeey eaaeaeiai aeoaaeoa eeannia e iaai?a i?eciaeia
?aniiciaaaiey) iieacaoaey yooaeoeaiinoe nenoaiu;

-ninoaaa aeoaaeoa eeannia e ia?aiao?ia eo iienaiey;

-oaeouaai ninoiyiey ioai?a i?eciaeia a ?aai/ee neiaa?ue.

Oaia?ue iiaeii aeaoaeeciaaoue ioaeaeueiua aeaoaee oi?aaeaiey. Oae
iiaeoeue oi?aaeaiey aeieaeai iaania/eaaoue

-aaoiiaoe/aneia iiaoi?aiea ?aoaiee iieiiai iauaia caaea/ eniuoaiee ia
iiaeaee ni niaiie aaeoi?a ioai?a i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey (anee caaeaiu
ia?aie/aiey ia n?aaenoaa nicaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa
ecia?aiee);

-aaoiiaoe/aneee ia?aoiae e aiaeeco yooaeoeaiinoe anao aa?eaioia
?aai/aai neiaa?y iinea caaa?oaiey eniuoaiee ni anaie aiciiaeiuie
aaeoi?aie ioai?a;

-aaoiiaoe/aneee ia?aoiae e auiieiaieth ei??aeoe?iaee aeoaaeoa eeannia
iinea auiieiaiiiai aiaeeca ioeaie eeanneoeeaoeeee;

-aaoiiaoe/aneia iiaoi?aiea oeeeeia iieiiai iauaia eniuoaiee iinea
ei??aeoe?iaee aeoaaeoa eeannia.

A ionthaea eiae/anee auoaeaao, /oi caaeaiea (aaia?aoeey) aaeoi?ia
ioai?a, oaeiaeaoai?ythueo caaeaiiui ia?aie/aieyi, aiieia
niioaaonoaoao ooieoeeyi oi?aaeaiey. Oi anoue, yoa caaea/a aeieaeia
?aoaoueny iiaeoeai oi?aaeaiey, eioi?ue iaycai eiaoue niioaaonoaothuea
enoiaeiua aeaiiua ii ia?aie/aieyi auaeaeaiiuo n?aaenoa e cao?aoai ia
nicaeaiea eee i?eiaiaiea ioaeaeueiuo ecia?eoaeae.

Ia?a/eneaiiua ooieoeee aeieaeiu auoue aeai?eoie/anee aeiiieiaiu
ooieoeeae iao/aiey nenoaiu ia eioi?iaoeee ia iauaeoao, eieoe?oaiie
niioaaonoaothuei iiaeoeai iiaeaee. ?aaioa a oeacaiiii ?aaeeia iiaeao
inouanoaeyoueny eae i?e ia?aii ionea iiaeaee aeey ia?aiia/aeueiiai
iienaiey eeannia, oae e i?e ethaie niaia aeoaaeoa eeannia e neiaa?y
i?eciaeia.

Iaiauaiiay no?oeoo?iay noaia iiaeoey oi?aaeaiey i?eaaaeaia ia ?en
5.7.2, a iauay no?oeoo?iay noaia iiaeaee N? aac aeaoaeecaoeee
?anniio?aiiuo iiaeoeae e noaiiaeoeae – ia ?en.5.7.3.

Io iiaeoey

ia?aaioee Noaiiaeoeue auaiaea Noaiiaeoeue aaiaea
P(Wi)

oa?aeoa?enoee enoiaeiuo
aeaiiuo Ar

ecia?aiee iauaeoa ?aniicia- e oi?aaeaiey ioi-
P(()c

aaiey
a?aaeaieai

Io iiaeoey Noaiiaeoeue ioia?a- Noaiiaeoeue aaia?a- _

aeaiey i?ioeanna oeee
aeiionoeiuo Vk

ioeaiee yo- iiaeaee?iaaiey aaeoi?ia ioai?a

oaeoeaii-

noe e ae?.

Noaiiaeoeue oi?aa-

eaiey iienaieai Ia

eeannia iiaeoeue

iienaiey

eeannia

Noaiiaeoeue oi?aa-

eaiey oeeeeii en-

iuoaiee nenoaiu Ia

iiaeoeue

eieoaoeee iauaeoia

Noaiiaeoeue oi?aa-

eaiey ioeaieie yo-

oaeoeaiinoe

Ia iiaeoeue

ioeaiee

yooaeoeaiinoe

?en. 5.7.2. Iaiauaiiay no?oeoo?iay noaia iiaeoey oi?aaeaiey iiaeaeueth

eioi?iaoeey, oi?aaeaiea
P(()c

Iiaeoeue oi?aaeaiey

iiaeaeueth
Ar

Ar

Vk

Iiaeoeue
eieoaoeee

iauaeoia ?aniic-

iaaaiey

Iiaeoeue
ecia?eoa-

eae oa?aeoa?enoee

iauaeoia

Iiaeoeue ioai?a

i?eciaeia ?aniic-

iaaaiey

Ar

Iiaeoeue iienaiey Iiaeoeue i?eiyoey

eeannia ?aoaiee i i?e-

iaaeeaaeiinoe

(   ( 

Iiaeoeue ioeaiee

yooaeoeaiinoe

?en.5.7.3. Iauay no?oeoo?iay noaia iiaeaee N?

E A E Oe E ss 5.8

Iiuoii-oai?aoe/aneee iaoiae a caaea/ao nicaeaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey

5.8.1. Eniieueciaaiea i?eioeeiia iiuoii-

oai?aoe/aneiai iaoiaea i?e iiaeaee?iaaiee N?

Iacia/aiea iiuoii-oai?aoe/aneiai iaoiaea – eniuoaiey neiaeiuo nenoai ai
anai oaeoi?iii i?ino?ainoaa eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

Nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia yaeythony iau/ii ninoaaiie /anoueth
neiaeiuo oaoie/aneeo nenoai. Iiyoiio eniuoaiey naieo neiaeiuo nenoai
iaania/eaatho, eae i?aaeei, e eniuoaiey N?.

Aeaaiia, /oi iauaaeeiyao eioi?iaoeeiiii nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey e
neiaeiua nenoaiu, a ninoaa eioi?uo iie aoiaeyo, yoi – iauaeou
?aniiciaaaiey e n?aaenoaa ecia?aiee oa?aeoa?enoee yoeo iauaeoia. I?e/eia
oaeiai ia?ana/aiey nenoai i/aaeaeia e ninoieo a oii, /oi neiaeiua
nenoaiu iaania/eaatho i?eiyoea ?aoaiee ii ii?aaeaeaiiui iauaeoai
(i?ioeannai, yaeaieyi), a ?aniiciaaaiea yoeo aea iauaeoia (yaeaiee,
i?ioeannia) anaaaea iai?aaeaii ia iieo/aiea aeiiieieoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee
aeey i?eiyoey oeacaiiuo ?aoaiee.

Ionthaea eacaeinue, /oi caieiaynue nenoaiaie ?aniiciaaaiey, iiaeii auei
au ia eioa?aniaaoueny iiuoii-oai?aoe/aneei iaoiaeii, ioaeaoue aai ia
ioeoi niaoeeaeenoai-eniuoaoaeyi neiaeiuo nenoai. I?e yoii, anee ia
o/eouaaoue iaiouaieaiia eniieueciaaiea a ninoaaa N? n?aaenoa ecia?aiee
( a iie ioaeiu neiaeiie nenoaia e aac caaea/ ?aniiciaaaiey), oi naia
N? ia auaeyaeeo eae neiaeiay.

Iaeiaei /anoi N? ?ac?aaaouaathony eeai iinea nicaeaiey nenoai i?eiyoey
?aoaiee, yaeythueony neiaeiuie, eeai naiinoiyoaeueii a ?an/aoa ia
ia?niaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea a eaeie-eeai i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe. Oi
anoue, a yoeo neo/ayo ?ac?aaio/eee N? ano?a/athony n oai, /oi eee ia
?aniieaaatho eciii?oiuie iiaeaeyie iauaeoia ?aniiciaaaiey e n?aaenoa
ecia?aiee (iie ia auee ioaeiu ?ac?aaio/eeai neiaeiuo nenoai) eee
i?inoi eeoaiu yoeo aeaiiuo, oae eae i?aaeiaoiay iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey N?
aua ia ii?aaeaeeeanue. Iiyoiio e a ia?aii e ai aoi?ii (iinea
ii?aaeaeaiey i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe) neo/ayo noaiiaeony aaaeiui aeey
ananoi?iiieo ioeaiie oa?aeoa?enoee yoeo nenoai acaeyae n iiceoeee
iiuoii-oai?aoe/aneiai iaoiaea ia oiiiyiooia ia?ana/aiea nenoai –
iauaeou ?aniiciaaaiey e n?aaenoaa ecia?aiey eo ia?aiao?ia. Yoi
ia?auaiea e iiuoii- oai?aoe/aneiio iaoiaeo canoaaeyao ?ac?aaio/eeia N?
naiinoiyoaeueii eaeoe ii iooe nicaeaiey eciii?oiuo iiaeaeae iauaeoia e
ecia?eoaeae. A ?acoeueoaoa iauaaeeiaiea iiaeaee N? n oiiiyioouie
iiaeaeyie oaea i?aaenoaaeyaony eae neiaeiay nenoaia ni anaie
auoaeathueie iineaaenoaeyie ii aa eniuoaieyi.

Aeiiieieoaeueii e eceiaeaiiiio iiaeii caiaoeoue, /oi a niioaaonoaee n
i?eaaaeaiiuie a iaoai eo?na ii?aaeaeaieai aeaaiie caaea/ae N?
yaeyaony iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee ia iauaeoa ?aniiciaaaiey. A yoi eae ?ac
e ii?aaaeuaaao iauaaeeiaiea i?ia?aiiii ?aaeeciaaiiiai aeai?eoia
?aniiciaaaiey n iiaeaeyie iauaeoa e ecia?eoaeae i?e eniuoaieyo nenoaiu
?aniiciaaaiey.

Naii iiaeaee?iaaiea iauaeoia (yaeaiee, i?ioeannia) ?aniiciaaaiey
ii/oe anaaaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeinoaoi/ii iauaiioth e neiaeioth
caaea/o. I?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue oioy au ?ac?aaioea iiaeaee nenoaiu
?aniiciaaaiey ?a/aauo niiauaiee. Iauaeo ?aniiciaaaiey caeanue – yoi a
eiia/iii eoiaa ninoiyiey ?a/aaiai aiia?aoa /aeiaaea i?e i?iecaiaenoaa
eieaaaiee caoeiaiai aeeaiaciia. Neiaeiinoue yoiai aiia?aoa, aai
aeeiaieee ia iicaieyao iaaeayoueny ia eaaeia nicaeaiea aacoi?a/iie
iiaeaee. I?e yoii iiuoii-oai?aoe/aneee iaoiae eniuoaiee inoaaony
aaeeinoaaiiui a aeinoeaeaiee aunieie aeinoiaa?iinoe ?acoeueoaoia
io?aaioee niioaaonoaothuae N? ia iiaeaee. A aac ananoi?iiieo
eniuoaiee ai anai oaeoi?iii i?ino?ainoaa i?eiaiaiey iiaeiaiuo nenoai,
iniaaiii aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee aunieie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, ia
i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui iaieoenue. Iiyoiio caeanue nicaeaiea
eciii?oiuo ?aaeueiiio ?a/aaiio aiia?aoo neioacaoi?ia ?a/e – yoi
iaeiia?aiaiii e iooue nicaeaiey yooaeoeaiuo N?.

Iiaeii iaeoe aeinoaoi/iia /enei i?eia?ia ec ae?oaeo iaeanoae iaoee e
oaoieee, eioi?ua iiaeoaa?aeyo, /oi ono?aiyoueny io eniieueciaaiey
i?eioeeiia iiuoii-oai?aoe/aneiai iaoiaea i?e nicaeaiee N? ia oieueei
iaoeaeaniia?acii, ii e ioeai/ii.

Ionthaea a?naiaeii n?aaenoa ?ac?aaio/eea N? i?e nicaeaiee iiaeaeae
iauaeoia e ecia?eoaeae aeieaeiu auoue neaaeothuea i?eioeeiu
iiuoii-oai?aoe/aneiai iaoiaea:

1).Iino?iaiea iauae oiiieiaee iiaeaee N?, aeeth/ay enoi/ieee
eioi?iaoeee, e i?iaaaeaiee aa aeaeiiiiceoeee.

2).?ani?aaeaeaiea caaea/ iaaeaeo iiaeaeyie e ii?aaeaeaiea ninoaaa
/anoiuo iiaeaeae.

3).Auai? e iainiiaaiea niiniaia i?eaeeaeaiey iiaeaeae e ?aaeueiui
iiaeaee?oaiui iauaeoai e ecia?eoaeyi eo oa?aeoa?enoee.

4).Auai? oneiaee i?iaaaeaiey e ieaie?iaaiea iaoo?iuo eniuoaiee
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo n?aaenoa N?.

5).Iainiiaaiea iauaia yenia?eiaioia e i?iaaaeaiea iaoo?iuo eniuoaiee
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo n?aaenoa N? aeey ioeaiee noaiaie aeecinoe iiaeaeae e
?aaeueiuo iauaeoia e ecia?eoaeae.

6).I?iaaaeaiea ia?aiao?e/aneie e no?oeoo?iie aei?aaioie iiaeaee
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo n?aaenoa N? ia iniiaa n?aaiaiey a iaeeiaeiauo oneiaeyo
?acoeueoaoia ?aaeueiuo eniuoaiee e iiaeaee?iaaiey.

7).I?iaa?ea noaoenoe/aneie niaianoeiinoe iiaeaeae e niioaaonoaothueo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo n?aaenoa a aua?aiiuo oi/eao oaeoi?iiai
i?ino?ainoaa ninoiyiee iauaeoia ?aniiciaaaiey e ecia?eoaeae eo
oa?aeoa?enoee.

8).I?iaaaeaiea eniuoaiee N? ia iiaeaeyo, ii?aaeaeaiea oa?aeoa?enoee
ea/anoaa i?ia?aiiii ?aaeeciaaiiuo aeai?eoiia, ooieoeeiiaeueiiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey yeaiaioia nenoaiu e aa yooaeoeaiinoe ai anae iaeanoe
oaeoi?iiai i?ino?ainoaa.

A oeaeii iiuoii-oai?aoe/aneee iaoiae iiaeoiae e eniuoaieyi neiaeiuo
nenoai e aai i?eioeeiu iniiauaathony ia oeaeii ?yaea oai?aoe/aneeo
iieiaeaiee, ?aoaiee e auaiaeia, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ?anniio?aiu
oieueei a ioaeaeueiii eo?na. Iaoa caaea/a – iieacaoue eiae/aneoth
i?eaieaiinoue yoiai iiaeoiaea e iiaeaee?iaaieth N? e aae?aniaaoue
aoaeouaai ?ac?aaio/eea e oaeei iaoa?eaeai, eceaaathuei niioaaonoaothuea
iaoiaeu, eae

1. I.I.Aoneaiei. Oai?ey aieueoeo nenoai. I.,”Iaoea”, 1969.

2. A.N.Oa?aeoaiy, E.A.AEaeaciia e ae?.

Neiaeiua nenoaiu. I.,”Aunoay oeiea”,
1977.

3. A.E.Aooei,TH.I.Ii?uaeei e ae?.

Ioeaiea oa?aeoa?enoee nenoai oi?aaeaiey eaoaoaeueiuie
aiia?aoaie. I.,”Iaoeiino?iaiea”, 1984.

5.8.2. Iiaeaee?iaaiea a caaea/ao nicaeaiey

e iioeiecaoeee nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey

Iinea oiai, eae ?anniio?aiu iniiaiua i?eioeeiu iino?iaiey iiaeaeae
neiaeiuo nenoai e eo eniuoaiee n eniieueciaaieai iiaeaee?iaaiey, ia
neiaeii iiiyoue, ia eaeii yoaia nicaeaiey N? iiaeao e aeieaeia
iiyaeyoueny niioaaonoaothuay iiaeaeue.

Anee ia?aoeoueny e caaea/ai nicaeaiey N?, oi ia?aay ec ieo – auai?
i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey caaeaiiuo iauaeoia (yaeaiee, i?ioeannia). Oi
anoue, a naiii ia/aea ?ac?aaioee N? a ?anii?yaeaiee ?ac?aaio/eea
iaoiaeeony eiie?aoiay, aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiay i?aaeiaoiay iaeanoue n aa
iauaeoaie (yaeaieyie, i?ioeannaie).

Ia aucuaaao niiiaiee oi, /oi ia ?anniao?eaaaiii yoaia oaea aiciiaeii
nicaeaiea iiaeaee iauaeoia (yaeaiee, i?ioeannia), iiaeeaaeaueo
?aniiciaaaieth. A oi aea a?aiy niioaaonoaothuay ?ac?aaioea
ieacuaaaony a oeaeii ?yaea neo/aaa aeinoaoi/ii iauaiiie, oae eae a naiii
ia/aea ?aaio a ai?ei?iue neiaa?ue i?eciaeia aeeth/athony ana aiciiaeiua
ia?aiao?u, oa?aeoa?ecothuea iauaeo (yaeaiea, i?ioeann). A a ?acoeueoaoa
iineaaeothuaai iiaeaee?iaaiey ioaeaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaoo
ieacaoueny iaaino?aaiaaiiuie a nayce n oai, /oi ia iaeaeaony
niioaaonoaothuaai ecia?eoaey eo eee aai nicaeaiea ieaaeaony
yeiiiie/anee iaaiciiaeiui.

Iiyoiio oioy oi ananoi?iiiaa eco/aiea naienoa iauaeoa, eioi?ia aoaeao
a oeacaiiii neo/aa i?iaaaeaii, e iieacii aeey i?aaenoaaeaiee
aiciiaeiiai ?acaeoey N?, ?ac?aaioea iiaeaee aieaa oeaeaniia?aciie
ieacuaaaony iinea aiaeeca e auai?a aeiionoeiiai iaai?a ecia?eoaeueiuo
n?aaenoa.

Oae eee eia/a iino?iaiea a aua?aiiii i?eciaeiaii i?ino?ainoaa iiaeaee,
eciii?oiie ?aaeueiiio iauaeoo, i?aaenoaaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii iiuiui
i?ioeannii aeey iienea iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey.
Oeacaiiue i?ioeann iaycuaaao e aeoaieiio aiaeeco nouanoaa
?aniiciaaaaiiai iauaeoa.

A ?acoeueoaoa nicaeaiey iiaeaee iauaeoa iiyaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue
i/a?aaeiiai oaaa a iino?iaiee iiaeaee N? a oeaeii – aiciiaeiinoue
nicaeaiey e iiaeeeth/aiey iiaeaee n?aaenoa ecia?aiee.

Aeaeaa iinea ?aoaiey caaea/e auai?a ai?ei?iiai aeoaaeoa eeannia (a yoi
oaea neaaeothuay caaea/a nicaeaiey N?) nicaeaiiue eiiieaen ec aeaoo
iiaeaeae (iauaeoa e ecia?eoaeae) iicaieyao iaoiaeii noaoenoe/aneeo
eniuoaiee iieo/eoue iienaiea yoeo eeannia. Oi anoue, noaoenoe/anee
?acua?uaay ia/aeueiua oneiaey ninoiyiey e aeaeaeaiey iauaeoa e
ecia?eoaeae aai oa?aeoa?enoee, iieo/aai noaoenoe/aneea aeaiiua
(ieioiinoe ?ani?aaeaeaiey aa?iyoiinoae) ii eaaeaeiio ec i?eciaeia i?e eo
iacaaeneiinoe a iacia/aiiuo eeannao eee niaianoiua iienaiey a aieaa
neiaeiuo neo/ayo.

Anee nicaeaaony iao/athuayny nenoaia, oi iinea auai?a ia/aeueiuo
i?eaeeaeaiee ?acaeaeythueo ooieoeee eeannia (a yoi oaea i/a?aaeiie yoai
nicaeaiey N?) eniieueciaaiea nicaeaiiuo iiaeaeae ( iauaeoa e
ecia?eoaeae) iaania/eo oai aea iaoiaeii noaoenoe/aneeo eniuoaiee
ooi/iaiea ia?aiao?ia oeacaiiuo ?acaeaeythueo ooieoeee. I?e yoii
iiyaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue i?iaa?ee i?eaieaiinoe aeey nicaeaaaaiie nenoaiu
?acee/iuo ?aoathueo ooieoeee.

Aeey neo/ay “iieiie” ai?ei?iie eioi?iaoeee (nenoaia aac iao/aiey)
caaea/a auai?a i?aaeea eeanneoeeaoeee oaeaea eaaei ?aoaaony iaoiaeii
noaoenoe/aneeo eniuoaiee. Caeanue ?aaeecoaony aiciiaeiinoue i?iaa?ee
?acee/iuo noaoenoe/aneeo e?eoa?eaa.

Eae aeey iao/athuaeny nenoaiu, oae e aeey nenoaiu aac iao/aiey yoai
enneaaeiaaiey ?aoathueo i?aaee oaea i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi a ninoaa iiaeaee
aoiaeeo iiaeoeue ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe. Aac iaai i?aaeoniao?eaaaiia
n?aaiaiea a i?eaaaeaiiuo neo/ayo iaaiciiaeii.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia anao yoaiao (i?e ?aoaiee anao caaea/) nicaeaiey N?
ethauo oeiia iiaeaee?iaaiea ieacuaaaony eino?oiaioii, ecaaaeythuei
?ac?aaio/eea io nai?a aieueoiai iauaia yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo.
I?e yoii, eiia/ii, anaaaea i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi i?eiaiyaiua iiaeaee
i?ioee eaeea?iaeo a ?aieao iiuoii-oai?aoe/aneiai iaoiaea e yaeythony
eciii?oiuie ?aaeueiui aiaeiaai.

A eoiaa ?anniio?aiey ?iee e ianoa iiaeaee?iaaiey a caaea/ao nicaeaiey
nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia inoaaony aniiiieoue, /oi iaeii ec
aaaeiaeoeo iai?aaeaiee ?ac?aaioee – iioeiecaoeey ya?enoe/aneeo auai?ia
ai?ei?iiai neiaa?y i?eciaeia e ai?ei?iiai aeoaaeoa eeannia. Iaeiaei
a oii, /oi iiaeaee?iaaiea iiaeao iaania/eoue auai? iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo
?aai/aai neiaa?y e ?aai/aai aeoaaeoa, oaea i?eoeinue oaaaeeoueny i?e
?ac?aaioea no?oeoo?iie noaiu iieiie iiaeaee N?.

A caeeth/aiea iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi, /oi iauay
no?oeoo?iay noaia iiaeaee nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey, ?anniao?eaaaiay aeey
aa?iyoiinoiiai iienaiey eeannia, inoaaony ni?aaaaeeeaie aeey
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo e eiae/aneeo nenoai. Eiia/ii aioo?aiiyy no?oeoo?a
ioaeaeueiuo iiaeoeae aeieaeia auoue iiaeaa?aiooa ei??aeoe?iaea. Oae a
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiii neo/aa ioeaee ecia?aiee noaiiayony ianouanoaaiiuie e
niioaaonoaothuee noaiiaeoeue iiaeii auei au eneeth/eoue ec iiaeoey
ecia?eoaey oa?aeoa?enoee iauaeoa ?aniiciaaaiey. Oi/ii oaeaea
oi?iuaaony iiaeoeue iienaiey eeannia ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey iaai?a
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo yoaeiiia. Oi?iuaaony e iiaeoeue eeanneoeeaoeee. Ii
a oeaeii any no?oeoo?a iiaeaee inoaaony i?eniiniaeaiiie aeey eniuoaiee
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo nenoai.

Aiaeiae/ii naie iniaaiiinoe eiaao ?aaeecaoeey iiaeaee eiae/aneie N?:

-?acoeueoaou ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee ecia?eoaeae iinea aeia?iiai
eaaioiaaiey aeieaeiu i?aia?aciauaaoueny a eiae/aneea i?eciaee;

-neo/aeiinoue ?acoeueoaoia ecia?aiee ca n/ao niioonoaothueo ioeaie
o?ainoi?ie?oaony a ?aaeueii eiathuoth ianoi neo/aeiinoue iieo/aiey oiai
eee eiiai eiae/aneiai i?eciaea;

-iienaiea eeannia auaeyaeeo a aeaea nenoaiu aoeaauo ooieoeee eeannia n
eiieeeaioaie a aeaea i?iecaaaeaiee eiae/aneeo i?eciaeia;

-iiaeoeue eeanneoeeaoeee aeieaeai i?eia?anoe aiciiaeiinoue ?aoaiey
aoeaauo o?aaiaiee.

A oi aea a?aiy iiaeoeue ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe a iniiaiie naiae /anoe
aeieaeai iaei ioee/aoueny io iiaeoey aa?iyoiinoiie nenoaiu, oae eae e
a yoii neo/aa ioeaiee iniiauaathony ia iaoiaea Iiioa-Ea?ei.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?ac?aaioaiiay iauay no?oeoo?iay noaia iiaeaee N?
aeieaeia ea?aoue ?ieue oeiiaie, niaea?aeaiea iiaeoeae eioi?ie
ei??aeoe?oaony a caaeneiinoe io iacia/aiey nenoaiu e oa?aeoa?enoee
i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey.

E A A I ? A O I ? I U A ? A A I O U

I I E O ? N O

“Iniiau iino?iaiey nenoai

?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia”

Eaai?aoi?iay ?aaioa ?1 ii eo?no “Iniiau iino?iaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey
ia?acia”

Enneaaeiaaiea aaiiao?e/aneeo ia? aeecinoe ?aniiciaaaaiuo iauaeoia e
eeannia

I. Oeaeue ?aaiou

Oeaeueth eaai?aoi?iie ?aaiou yaeyaony i?aeoe/aneia inaiaiea iaoiaeia
eiiiuethoa?iie ?aaeecaoeee aaiiao?e/aneeo ia? aeecinoe, i?eiaiyaiuo
aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee a aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo nenoaiao ?aniiciaaaiey.

II. Caaea/e eaai?aoi?iie ?aaiou

1. ?ac?aaioea aeai?eoia i?eiyoey ?aoaiey a aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiie nenoaia
?aniiciaaaiey ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey ecaanoiuo aaiiao?e/aneeo ia?
aeecinoe.

2. I?ia?aiiiay ?aaeecaoeey ?ac?aaioaiiiai aeai?eoia.

3. Aaiae caaeaiiuo iienaiee 3-o eeannia ia ycuea 11-e i?aaeeiaeaiiuo
i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey (oaaeeoeu 1-3 – aa?eaiou caaeaiee).

4. Ioeaaeea i?ia?aiiu.

5. Auiieiaiea eiio?ieueiuo ?aniiciaaaiee iaecaanoiuo iauaeoia ii
aaeoi?ai eo i?eciaeia (oaaeeoea 4).

6. N?aaiaiea i?eiyouo ?aoaiee ia ioianaiee iaecaanoiuo iauaeoia e
caaeaiiui eeannai ii ?acee/iui ia?ai aeecinoe.

III. O?aaiaaiey e auiieiaieth caaea/.

1. *enei eeannia ?aniiciaaaiey – 5-10.

2. ?acia?iinoue aaeoi?a i?eciaeia – aei 20.

3. *enei yoaeiiia iienaiey eeannia – 5-10.

4. sscue i?ia?aiie?iaaiey – Ianeaeue, Ne.

5. I?ia?aiiii aeieaeii auoue i?aaeoniio?aii eniieueciaaiea aeey i?eiyoey
?aoaiey anao aaaaeaiiuo yoaeiiia iienaiey eeannia e eo on?aaeiaiiuo
iienaiee.

6.Eaai?aoi?iay ?aaioa aeieaeia auoue ioi?ieaia a niioaaonoaee n
onoaiiaeaiiui ii?yaeeii.

IV. Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey

1. A ea/anoaa aaiiao?e/aneeo ia? aeecinoe i?e aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiii
iienaiee ?aniiciaaaaiuo iauaeoia e eeannia eniieueciaaoue

a) Yaeeeaeiai ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo iauaeoaie, iienaiiuie ia ycuea

i?eciaeia

a) Oaeiaia ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo aaeoi?aie i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaaiiai
iauaeoa e yoaeiia

a) Noiio iiaeoeae ?aciinoe eii?aeeiao (i?eciaeia) iauaeoa e yoaeiia .

2. ?aoaiea i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe iauaeoa, i?aaenoaaeaiiiai aaeoi?ii Xw, e
iaeiiio ec eeannia i?eieiaaony niaeanii i?aaeeai i?eiyoey ?aoaiee a
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo nenoaiao.

I?eia/aiea: Iienaiea eeannia k yoaeiiaie iiaeao auoue i?aia?aciaaii e
iienaieth iaeiei yoaeiiii. Yoi inouanoaeyaony in?aaeiaieai yoaeiiia
ii i?eciaeai.

V. Enoiaeiua aeaiiua aeey oanoe?iaaiey i?ia?aiiu e i?iaaaeaiey
enneaaeiaaiee.

1e eeann OAAEEOeA 1

YOAEIIU

? i?eciaea 1 2 3 4 5

1 0.95

0.80 0.90 0.70 1.00

2 0.54

0.68 0.47 0.75 0.80

3 0.80

0.40 0.90 0.30 0.50

4 0.65

0.90 0.80 0.60 0.70

5 0.81

0.51

0.91 0.71 1.00

6 0.42

0.56

0.14 0.70 1.00

7 1.00

0.56 0.78 0.67 0.34

8 0.60 0.81 1.00 0.74 0.88

9 0.64 0.51 0.77 0.25 1.00

10 0.50 0.63 1.00 0.24 0.76

11 0.51 1.00 0.25 0.77 0.64

2e eeann OAAEEOeA 2

YOAEIIU

? i?eciaea 1 2 3 4 5

1 0.21

0.25 0.17 0.23 0.30

2 0.24 0.28 0.20 0.26 0.30

3 0.80 0.70 0.74 0.76 0.78

4 0.40

0.30

0.10 0.20 0.25

5 0.42

0.39

0.50 0.36 0.30

6 0.16

0.15

0.16 0.17 0.16

7 0.35

0.29 0.33 0.31 0.25

8 0.26 0.38 0.50 0.34 0.42

9 0.19 0.17 0.21 0.13 0.25

10 0.40 0.48 0.70 0.24 0.56

11 0.02 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.03

3e eeann OAAEEOeA 3

YOAEIIU

? i?eciaea 1 2 3 4 5

1 0.21 0.25 0.17 0.23 0.30

2 0.60 0.80 0.40 0.70 1.00

3 1.00

0.80 0.84 0.86 0.88

4 1.00

0.90 0.70 0.80 0.85

5 0.15 0.12 0.21 0.09 0.03

6 0.08 0.06 0.10 0.14 0.09

7 0.25 0.20 0.22 0.21 0.18

8 0.25 0.34 0.44 0.31 0.37

9 0.19 0.17 0.21 0.13 0.25

10 0.49 0.57 0.83 0.33 0.65

11 0.04 0.06 0.03 0.05 0.05

4e eeann OAAEEOeA 4

YOAEIIU

? i?eciaea 1 2 3 4 5 6

1 0.85 0.75 0.19 0.27 0.19 0.27

2 0.40 0.61 0.22 0.30 0.50 0.90

3 0.60 0.70 0.72 0.80 0.82 1.00

4 0.85 0.75 0.15 0.35 0.75 0.95

5 0.61 0.41 0.33 0.45 0.06 0.18

6 0.28 0.84 0.15 0.17 0.07 0.11

7 0.45 0.89 0.27 0.35 0.19 0.23

8 0.67 0.95 0.30 0.46 0.28 0.40

9 0.38 0.90 0.15 0.23 0.15 0.23

10 0.37 0.89 0.32 0.64 0.41 0.73

11 0.38 0.90 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.06

E E O A ? A O O ? A

(1( Eiiniaeo eaeoeee ii eo?no “Iniiau iino?iaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey
ia?acia”.

Eaai?aoi?iay ?aaioa ?2 ii eo?no “Iniiau iino?iaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey
ia?acia”

Enneaaeiaaiea aa?iyoiinoiie ia?u aeecinoe ?aniiciaaaaiuo iauaeoia e
eeannia

I. Oeaeue ?aaiou

Oeaeueth eaai?aoi?iie ?aaiou yaeyaony i?aeoe/aneia inaiaiea iaoiaeia
eiiiuethoa?iie ?aaeecaoeee aa?iyoiinoiie ia?u aeecinoe, i?eiaiyaiie
aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee a aa?iyoiinoiuo nenoaiao ?aniiciaaaiey.

II. Caaea/e eaai?aoi?iie ?aaiou

1. ?ac?aaioea aeai?eoia i?eiyoey ?aoaiey a aa?iyoiinoiie nenoaia
?aniiciaaaiey ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey ecaanoiie aa?iyoiinoiie ia?u
aeecinoe – n?aaeiaai ?enea.

2. I?ia?aiiiay ?aaeecaoeey ?ac?aaioaiiiai aeai?eoia.

3. Aaiae caaeaiiuo iienaiee eeannia ia ycuea i?aaeeiaeaiiuo i?eciaeia
?aniiciaaaiey.

4. Ioeaaeea i?ia?aiiu.

5. Auiieiaiea eiio?ieueiuo ?aniiciaaaiee iaecaanoiuo iauaeoia ii
aaeoi?ai i?eciaeia, caaeaiiuo i?aiiaeaaaoaeai.

6. I?iaaaeaiea enneaaeiaaiee aeeyiey ia ?aoaiea i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe

– ai?ei?iuo aa?iyoiinoae eeannia;

– ieao, iacia/aaiuo ca ioeai/iua ?aoaiey.

III. O?aaiaaiey e auiieiaieth caaea/.

1. *enei eeannia ?aniiciaaaaiuo iauaeoia – 3.

2. Eiee/anoai i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey – 1.

3. sscue i?ia?aiie?iaaiey – Ianeaeue, Ne.

4. Eaai?aoi?iay ?aaioa aeieaeia auoue ioi?ieaia a niioaaonoaee n
onoaiiaeaiiui ii?yaeeii.

5. Enneaaeiaaiey auiieieoue a aeaa yoaia:

Yoai 1 – ioeaiea aeeyiey ai?ei?iuo aa?iyoiinoae eeannia ia i?eieiaaiua
?aoaiey i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe;

Yoai 2 – ioeaiea aeeyiey ieao ca ioeai/iua ?aoaiey i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe
ia yoe ?aoaiey.

(V. Enoiaeiua aeaiiua aeey enneaaeiaaiee

1. Oneiaiua ai?ei?iua ieioiinoe ?ani?aaeaeaiey aa?iyoiinoae,
eniieuecoaiua aeey iienaiey eeannia – ii?iaeueiua n iaoaiaoe/aneeie
iaeeaeaieyie mi e n?aaeiaeaaae?aoe/aneeie ?aca?inaie – (i (Oaaeeoea 1).

2. Ecia?aiiua cia/aiey i?eciaeia ii ?aniiciaaaaiui iauaeoai

(Oaaeeoea 1)

3. Ai?ei?iua aa?iyoiinoe eeannia e iao?eoea ieao ca ioeaee aeey ia?aiai
enneaaeiaaiey:

P(W1) P(W2) P(W3)

1-e iaai? 0.1 0.8 0.1

2-e iaai? 0.2 0.6 0.2

3-e iaai? 0.3 0.4 0.3

4-e iaai? 0.4 0.2 0.4

5-e iaai? 0.4 0.1 0.5

4. Ai?ei?iua aa?iyoiinoe eeannia e iao?eoeu ieao ca ioeaee aeey aoi?iai
enneaaeiaaiey:

P(W1)= 0.33, P(W2)= 0.33, P(W3)= 0.33.

5. Aa?eaiou caaeaiee

Oaaeeoea 1

Eeann 1 Eeann 2 Eeann 3 Eeann 1 Eeann 2 Eeann 3

1 17 19 23 3 1.5 4
20

2 27 29 33 2.9 1.6 3.8 30

3 37 39 43 3.2 1.4 4.1 40

4 32 34 38 3 1.5 4 35

5 28 39 34 2.9 1.6 3.8 31

6 47 49 53 3.2 1.4 4.1 50

7 42 44 48 3 1.5 4
45

8 39 41 45 2.9 1.6 3.8 42

9 36 38 42 3.2 1.4 4.1 39

10 46 48 52 3 1.5 4
49

11 22 24 28 2.9 1.6 3.8 25

12 51 53 57 3.2 1.4 4.1 54

13 24 26 30 3 1.5 4
27

14 15 17 21 2.9 1.6 3.8 18

15 25 27 31 3.2 1.4 4.1 28

E E O A ? A O O ? A

(1 ( Eiiniaeo eaeoeee ii eo?no “Iniiau iino?iaiey nenoai
?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia”.

Eaai?aoi?iay ?aaioa ? 3-1 ii eo?no “Iniiau iino?iaiey nenoai
?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia”

Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe aa?iyoiinoiie nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey

I. Oeaeue ?aaiou

Oeaeueth eaai?aoi?iie ?aaiou yaeyaony i?aeoe/aneia inaiaiea
iaoiaeia eiiiuethoa?iie ?aaeecaoeee aeai?eoiia ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe
N?. Eaai?aoi?iay ?aaioa auiieiyaony a i?ioeanna ?aoaiey eiie?aoiie
caaea/e.

II.Caaea/e eaai?aoi?iie ?aaiou

2.1. ?ac?aaioaoue aeai?eoi ?aoaiey caaea/e neaaeothuaai niaea?aeaiey:

a i?ioeanna aeaiiioaaea i?eaiaeia iaeioi?uo ono?ienoa, i?iaiaeeiiai a
oeaeyo eo ?aiiioii-ainnoaiiaeoaeueiuo ?aaio, aaoiiaoe/anee
eeanneoeoee?othony e eiiieaeoothony iooou a?auathueony ni/eaiaiee ii
eo aioo?aiiaio aeeaiao?o. I?eiyoue oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann
aeaiiioaaea iaoneiaeeaaao neo/aeiue oa?aeoa? aeaiiioaaea iooou
eaaeaeiai oeii?acia?a e ia?aaea/o aa ia eeanneoeeaoeeth e
eiiieaeoiaaiea.

N?aaeiaeaaae?aoe/aneay ioeaea ecia?aiee aioo?aiiaai aeeaiao?a iooou
niaoeeaeueiie yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneie nenoaiie ninoaaeyao 3 ii.

Anaai a aeaiiioe?oaiuo ecaeaeeyo eniieuecoaony 5 oeii?acia?ia iooo,
aioo?aiiea aeeaiao?u eioi?uo e eiee/anoai i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoea

Eie-ai iooo Aeeaiao?u iooo ii aa?eaioai

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

100 3 7 18 35 4 17 8 11 5 20 6 10
19

100 6 10 21 38 7 20 11 14 8 23 9 13 22

100 9 13 24 41 10 23 14 17 11 26 12 16 25

100 12 16 27 44 13 26 17 20 14 29 15 19 28

100 15 19 30 47 16 29 20 23 17 32 18 22 31

2.2.A ?acoeueoaoa ?ac?aaioee:

2.2.1. Iienaoue eeannu nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey, o/eouaay /oi ioeaee
ecia?aiee a oaoie/aneeo ono?ienoaao i?eaiaeyo, eae i?aaeei, e
ii?iaeueiiio caeiio ?ani?aaeaeaiey aa?iyoiinoae ioeaieaaaiiai ia?aiao?a.

2.2.2. ?ann/eoaoue aa?iyoiinoe ioeaie eiaeiie eeanneoeeaoeee iooo
i?aaeeaaaaiie nenoaiie .

2.2.3. Ii?aaeaeeoue ai?ei?iue ?ene ?aniiciaaaiey a nenoaia i?e ?aaiuo
ieaoao ca ioeaee.(A?aieoeu iaaeaeo i-ui e i+1-ui eeannaie
onoaiaaeeaathony ii ?aaainoao ieioiinoae
?ani?aaeaeaiey aa?iyoiinoae ninaaeieo eeannia, oi anoue:

mi + mi+1

ai,i+1 = (((( 

2

aaea mi e mi+1 – iaoaiaoe/aneea iaeeaeaiey iienaiee ninaaeieo
eeannia.)

2.3. Auiieieoue i?ia?aiiioth ?aaeecaoeeth ?ac?aaioaiiiai aeai?eoia.

2.4. Ioeaaeeoue i?ia?aiio.

2.5. Auiieieoue ?an/aou.

2.6. I?iaanoe aiaeec e ioi?ieaiea ?acoeueoaoia.

(((. Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey e auiieiaieth caaeaiey.

3.1. I?ia?aiia ?an/aoa e aiaeeca yooaeoeaiinoe iiaeao auoue auiieiaia ia
ethaii ycuea aunieiai o?iaiy.

3.2. Caaeneiinoe aa?iyoiinoae ioeaie eeanneoeeaoeee e n?aaeiaai ?enea io
NEI ecia?aiee ioi?ieoue a?aoe/anee.

3.3. Aeey eniieueciaaiey i?e ?aoaiee eioaa?aea Eaieana iaiaoiaeeii
?ac?aaioaoue i?ia?aiiioth ooieoeeth ia iniiaa aai ?aceiaeaiey a ?yae.

3.4.I?e eioaa?e?iaaiee ii?iaeueiie ieioiinoe ?ani?aaeaeaiey
aa?iyoiinoae eniieueciaaoue neaaeothuaa cia/aiea eioaa?aea Eaieana 

E E O A ? A O O ? A

((( Eiiniaeo eaeoeee ii eo?no “Iniiau iino?iaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey
ia?acia”.

Eaai?aoi?iay ?aaioa ? 3-2 ii eo?no “Iniiau iino?iaiey nenoai
?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia”

Enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey ioeaie ?aniiciaaaiey ia yooaeoeaiinoue
aa?iyoiinoiie nenoaiu

I. Oeaeue ?aaiou

Oeaeueth eaai?aoi?iie ?aaiou yaeyaony i?aeoe/aneia inaiaiea iaoiaeia
eiiiuethoa?iie ?aaeecaoeee aeai?eoiia ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe N?.
Ianoiyuay eaai?aoi?iay ?aaioa iniiauaaaony ia auiieiaiiie eaai?aoi?iie
?aaioa N 3-1 e yaeyaony aa i?iaeieaeaieai.

II. Caaea/e eaai?aoi?iie ?aaiou

2.1. A ea/anoaa aeai?eoia aeey auiieiaiey ianoiyuae ?aaiou
eniieueciaaoue aeai?eoi, ?ac?aaioaiiue a eaai?aoi?iie ?aaioa ? 3-1.

2.2. Enoiaeiua aeaiiua aeey ?an/aoia inoaaeoue oaie aea, /oi auee
aua?aiu ii i?aaeeiaeaiiiio aa?eaioo a eaai?aoi?iie ?aaioa ? 3-1.

2.3. O?aaoaony:

2.3.1. N?aaee ioeaie eeanneoeeaoeee iooo (ni. eaai?aoi?ioth ?aaioo ?
3-1) iaeoe oaeoth, eioi?ay eiaao iaeneiaeueioth aa?iyoiinoue

2.3.2. Eniieuecoy nicaeaiioth a eaai?aoi?iie ?aaioa ? 3-1 i?ia?aiio,
?ann/eoaoue caaeneiinoue iaeneiaeueiie ii aa?iyoiinoe ioeaee
eeanneoeeaoeee P(Wk/Wd) io aaee/eiu NEI ioeaee ecia?aiee aeeaiao?a i?e
aeene?aoiii iiauoaiee oi/iinoe ecia?eoaey aeeaiao?a  ( = 3 ii, 2.5 ii, 2
ii, 1.5 ii, 1 ii e 0.5 ii:

P(Wk /Wd)= F1( ( ).

2.3.3. Aeey oao aea cia/aiee ioeaee ecia?aiee (i.2) ?ann/eoaoue
caaeneiinoue n?aaeiaai ?enea ?aniiciaaaiey:

_

R = F2( ().

2.3.4. Ii ?acoeueoaoai ii?aaeaeaiey a i 2. caaeneiinoe P(Wk /Wd )=F1( ()
i?aaeuyaeoue o?aaiaaiea e oi/iinoe nenoaiu ecia?aiee aioo?aiiaai
aeeaiao?a iooo (NEI) aeey auiieiaiey o?aaiaaiey oaoie/aneiai caaeaiey ia
nenoaio ?aniiciaaaiey – ia aieaa aeaoo ioeai/iuo eeanneoeeaoeee ia 500
iooo .

2.4. Auiieieoue ?an/aou.

2.5. I?iaanoe aiaeec e ioi?ieoue ?acoeueoaou.

(((. Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey e auiieiaieth caaeaiey.

3.1. Caaeneiinoe aa?iyoiinoae ioeaie eeanneoeeaoeee e n?aaeiaai ?enea
io NEI ecia?aiee ioi?ieoue a?aoe/anee.

3.2. I?e auiieiaiee i. 2.3.4 ainiieueciaaoueny eeiaeiie eioa?iieyoeeae .

E E O A ? A O O ? A

(1( Eiiniaeo eaeoeee ii eo?no “Iniiau iino?iaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey
ia?acia”.

Eaai?aoi?iay ?aaioa ? 3-3 ii eo?no “Iniiau iino?iaiey nenoai
?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia”

Ioeaiea aeeyiey /enea eeannia ia yooaeoeaiinoue aa?iyoiinoiie nenoaiu
?aniiciaaaiey

I. Oeaeue ?aaiou

Oeaeueth eaai?aoi?iie ?aaiou yaeyaony i?aeoe/aneia inaiaiea iaoiaeia
ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe N?. Ianoiyuay eaai?aoi?iay ?aaioa auiieiyaony eae
i?iaeieaeaiea eaai?aoi?iuo ?aaio ?? 3-1, 3-2.

II.Caaea/e eaai?aoi?iie ?aaiou

2.1. Ia iniiaa ?ac?aaioaiiie i?ia?aiiu e ?acoeueoaoia ?an/aoia ii
eaai?aoi?iui ?aaioai ?? 3-1, 3-2 iiaoi?eoue auiieiaiea eo o?aaiaaiee,
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii eneeth/ea ec ninoaaa eeanneoeoee?oaiuo iooo 100 oooe
neaaeothueo aeeaiao?ia ii aa?eaioai:

Aeeaiao?u eneeth/aaiuo iooo a ii ii aa?eaioai

Aa?eaio 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Aeeaiao? 9 13 24 41 10 23 14 17 11 26 12 16 25

2.2. N?aaieoue caaeneiinoue ai?ei?iiai ?enea io oi/iinoae ecia?aiey
i?eciaea ?aniiciaaaiey n caaeneiinoueth, iieo/aiiie a ia?aii
enneaaeiaaiee (eaai?aoi?iay ?aaioa ? 3-2).

2.3. N?aaieoue caaeneiinoue iaeneiaeueiie ioeaee ?aniiciaaaiey eeannia
io oi/iinoae ecia?aiey i?eciaea ?aniiciaaaiey n caaeneiinoueth,
iieo/aiiie a ia?aii enneaaeiaaiee, e iiynieoue ?acoeueoao.

  E E O A ? A O O ? A

(1( Eiiniaeo ii eo?no “Iniiau iino?iaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey
ia?acia”.

A I I ? I N U

I?AEOE*ANEEO CAIssOEE II EO?NO

“Iniiau iino?iaiey

nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey

ia?acia”

C A I ss O E A ? 1

Iniaaiiinoe caaea/ iino?iaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia

1.Iniiaiua ii?aaeaeaiey oai?ee (iauaeo, ia?ac, ?aniiciaaaiea, nenoaia
?aniiciaaaiey).

2.Eiaa?eaioiinoue caaea/ iino?iaiey N? ioiineoaeueii i?eiaiaiee e oceay
niaoeeoe/iinoue oaoie/aneeo N?.

3.Niaea?aeaiea e iniaaiiinoe I yoaia nicaeaiey N?. Ii?aaeaeaiea
iieiiai ia?a/iy i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey.

4.Niaea?aeaiea e iniaaiiinoe II yoaia nicaeaiey N?. ?ac?aaioea
ai?ei?iiai aeoaaeoa eeannia.

5.Niaea?aeaiea e iniaaiiinoe III e IV yoaiia nicaeaiey N?. ?ac?aaioea
ai?ei?iiai neiaa?y i?eciaeia e iienaiea eeannia.

6.Niaea?aeaiea e iniaaiiinoe ( yoaia nicaeaiey N?. ?acaeaiea ai?ei?iiai
i?ino?ainoaa i?eciaeia ia iaeanoe, niioaaonoaothuea aeoaaeoo eeannia.
Auai? aeai?eoia eeanneoeeaoeee.

7.Niaea?aeaiea e iniaaiiinoe VI yoaia nicaeaiey N?. Ii?aaeaeaiea
?aai/aai aeoaaeoa eeannia e ?aai/aai neiaa?y i?eciaeia.

C A I ss O E A ? 2

Eeanneoeeaoeey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia

1.Eeanneoeeaoeey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey (i?inoua e neiaeiua).

2.Eeanneoeeaoeey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey (nenoaiu aac iao/aiey,
iao/athueany e naiiiao/athueany).

3.Eeanneoeeaoeey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey (iauea i?aaenoaaeaiey i eiae/aneeo
e no?oeoo?iuo nenoaiao).

4.Eeanneoeeaoeey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey (aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua e
aa?iyoiinoiua nenoaiu).

C A I ss O E A ? 3

Iniiaiua iniaaiiinoe aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia

1.Iienaiea eeannia ia ycuea aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo i?eciaeia.

2.Ia?u aeecinoe, eniieuecoaiua aeey ioeaiee i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe ia?acia a
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo nenoaiao ?aniiciaaaiey.

3.?aoathuaa i?aaeei aeey eeanneoeeaoeee iauaeoia, iienaiiuo ia ycuea
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo i?eciaeia.

C A I ss O E A ? 4

Iniiaiua iniaaiiinoe aa?iyoiinoiuo nenoai

?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia

1.Iienaiea eeannia ia ycuea aa?iyoiinoiuo i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey.

2.Ii?yaeie iacia/aiey ieao ca ioeai/iua ?aoaiey.

3.Ia?u aeecinoe, eniieuecoaiua aeey ioeaiee i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe ia?acia a
aa?iyoiinoiuo nenoaiao.

4.Ii?aaeaeaiea aiinoa?ei?iuo aa?iyoiinoae eeannia.

5.?aoathuaa i?aaeei aeey eeanneoeeaoeee iauaeoia, iienaiiuo ia ycuea
aa?iyoiinoiuo i?eciaeia ?aniiciaaaiey. Aiinoa?ei?iue ?ene.

C A I ss O E A ? 5

Iniaaiiinoe ya?enoe/aneeo auai?ia i?eciaeia e eeannia

1.Ai?ei?iay ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe aa?iyoiinoiie nenoaiu ?aniiciaaaiey.
Ai?ei?iue ?ene.

2.Ii?aaeaeaiea aa?iyoiinoe ioeaee i?e ioeaiea n?aaeiaai ai?ei?iiai
?enea. Iniaaiiinoe ii?aaeaeaiey ioeaie i?e iienaiee eeannia ii?iaeueiie
ieioiinoueth ?ani?aaeaeaiey aa?iyoiinoae.

3.Aeieacaoaeuenoai aeeyiey /enea i?eciaeia ia yooaeoeaiinoue
?aniiciaaaiey.

4.Aeieacaoaeuenoai aeeyiey /enea eeannia ia yooaeoeaiinoue
?aniiciaaaiey.

C A I ss O E A ? 6

Iniiau iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey neiaeiuo

oaoie/aneeo nenoai

1.Iniiaiua ii?aaeaeaiey oai?ee iiaeaee?iaaiey nenoai (iiaeaeue,
iiaeaee?iaaiea, iienaiea nenoaiu, eciii?oiinoue iiaeaee e nenoaiu).

2.Oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe neiaeiuo nenoai. I?eioeeiu iino?iaiey iiaeaeae
neiaeiie nenoaiu (aeaeiiiiceoeee, aeiionoeiuo oi?iuaiee).

3.Iacia/aiea e nouiinoue iiuoii-oai?aoe/aneiai iaoiaea eniuoaiee
neiaeiuo nenoai.

4.Iacia/aiea /anoiuo e nenoaiiuo iiaeaeae a eniuoaieyo neiaeiuo nenoai.

C A I ss O E A ? 7

Iaoiae noaoenoe/aneeo eniuoaiee (Iiioa-Ea?ei)

1.Nouiinoue iaoiaea noaoenoe/aneeo eniuoaiee e aai aeinoieinoaa.

2.Iiiyoea inaaaeineo/aeiiai /enea. Iniaaiiinoe eaaceneo/aeiuo aaee/ei,
iieo/aaiuo ia YAI.

3.I?eioeeiu noaoenoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey iacaaeneiuo neo/aeiuo
niauoee.

4.Niiniau iieo/aiey ia YAI neo/aeiuo /enae n caaeaiiui caeiiii
?ani?aaeaeaiey.

C A I ss O E A ? 8

Iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia

1.Oeaeue eiiiuethoa?iiai iiaeaee?iaaiey N?.

2.Iniaaiiinoe iiaeaee?iaaiey ?aniiciaaaaiiai iauaeoa.

3.Iiaeaee?iaaiea n?aaenoa ii?aaeaeaiey oa?aeoa?enoee ?aniiciaaaaiuo
iauaeoia.

4.Iiaeaee?iaaiea eaiaeia nayce e ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee.

5.Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ?aniiciaaaiey i?e iiaeaee?iaaiee N?.

6.Caaea/e oi?aaeaiey i?e iiaeaee?iaaiee.

7.Iniaaiiinoe i?eiaiaiey iiuoii-oai?aoe/aneiai iaoiaea eniuoaiee
neiaeiuo nenoai e iiaeaee?iaaieth N?.

8.Eniieueciaaiea iiaeaee?iaaiey N? ia yoaiao eo nicaeaiey e
iioeiecaoeee.

E E O A ? A O O ? A

(1( Eiiniaeo eaeoeee ii eo?no “Iniiau iino?iaiey nenoai ?aniiciaaaiey
ia?acia”.

(2( Ai?aeee A.E. Iaoiaeu ?aniiciaaaiey. I., “Aunoay oeiea”, 1986 a.

(3( A?eaaeueaa A.A., A?aaa?iai Y.I. “Iao/aiea iaoeiu ?aniiciaaaieth
ia?acia” I., “Iaoea”, 1964 a.

(4( Eaaei A.?.”Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau noaoenoe/aneie ?aaeeioaoieee”

I. , “Nia.?aaeei”, 1968 a.

(5( Aaiooeaeue A.N . “Oai?ey aa?iyoiinoae” I.”Oeciaoaec”, 1969 a.

(6( Ia?oei O. “Iiaeaee?iaaiea ia au/eneeoaeueiuo iaoeiao” I.,
“Nia.?aaeei”, 1972 a.

(7( Iieeye TH.N. “Aa?iyoiinoiia iiaeaee?iaaiea” I., “Nia.?aaeei”,
1971 a.

(8( Aoneaiei I.I., Aieaiei Ae.E., Niaieue E.I. e ae? “Iaoiae
noaoenoe/aneeo eniuoaiee. (Iaoiae Iiioa- Ea?ei)” I., AEOIE, 1962 a.

(9( Aaneeueaa A.E. “?aniiciathuea nenoaiu. Ni?aai/iee”
Eeaa, Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1983 a.

(10( Aa?aaao TH.E., Ceiiaueaa A.A. e ae?. “Aii?inu noaoenoe/aneie oai?ee
?aniiciaaaiey” I., Nia. ?aaeei, 1967 a.

(11(“Oeceea aecoaeecaoeee ecia?aaeaiee a iaaeeoeeia” o.2., I., Ie?, 1991
a.

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