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Особенности поведения животных

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IEAI:

no?.

1. Anooieaiea
2

2. A?iaeaeaiiia e i?eia?aoaiiia a iiaaaeaiee aeeaioiuo
2

3. ?aaeecaoeey aeaeiaiai iiuoa a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii iiaaaeaiee
2

4. Yoieiae/aneay eiioeaioeey einoeieoeaiiai

iiaaaeaiey (E.Ei?aioe, I.Oeaa?aai)
4

5. Einoeieoeaiia iiaaaeaiea e iauaiea
5

6. Aeaiiino?aoeaiia iiaaaeaiea
6

7. ?eooaeecaoeey iiaaaeaiey
7

8. Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ioeanna iao/aiey. Iaoiaeu

eco/aiey i?ioeanna iao/aiey o aeeaioiuo
7

9. Nienie eeoa?aoo?u
10

Anooieaiea

*aeiaae i?iyaeye eioa?an e iiaaaeaieth aeeaioiuo aua ia naiuo ?aiieo
yoaiao naiae enoi?ee, Oaea ia?aua ioioieee, aac niiiaiey, aieiaoaeueii
eco/aee iiaaaeaiea naiae aeiau/e, i /ai naeaeaoaeuenoaotho
iiiai/eneaiiua ?enoiee ia noaiao iaua?.

Iaoe iiciaiey iai anao yoeo yaeaieyo e?aeia neoaeiu. E oai ia iaiaa iu
oaea ia/eiaai iiieiaoue, /oi, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iiaaaeaiea aieueoeinoaa
aeeaioiuo aeinoaoi/ii oi?ioi cai?ia?aiie?iaaii io ?iaeaeaiey, a n
ae?oaie noi?iiu, /anoi iaiaoiaeeiu ?aciiia?aciua

«ooi/iythuea eino?oeoeee» ec aiaoiaai ie?a, n oai /oiau iiaaaeaiea
ac?ineiai eiaeeaeaeooia noaei noieue ii?aceoaeueii aeaenoaaiiui.

A?iaeaeaiiia e i?eia?aoaiiia a iiaaaeaiee aeeaioiuo.

Iiiaea oi?iu iiaaaeaiey eiatho aaiaoe/aneee eiiiiiaio, yoi ?acoeueoao
aeaenoaey anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a, nicaeaaoaai i?aaieci, iiaaaeaiea
eioi?iai aaeaioeaii a iau/iie aeey iaai n?aaea. Iaeiaei iao iniiaaiee
i?eaea?aeeaaoueny aeeoioiie/aneie noaiu «i?eia?aoaiiia eee
a?iaeaeaiiia». Oae eae aeey ethaiai iiaaaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiu e aaiu, e
aiaoiyy n?aaea, i?iaeaia «ianeaaenoaaiiinoue eee n?aaea» – yoi
inaaaeii?iaeaia. O ian iao niiniaa aeaoue oi/iia ii?aaeaeaiea
einoeieoeaiiai iiaaaeaiey a iioiaaiaoe/aneii aniaeoa, eioi?ue
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyeny au oeeiaaiaoe/aneiio.

Aii?in i «ianeaaenoaaiiinoe e n?aaea» ia inaaaeii?iaeaia. Aeaei a oii,
/oi nouanoaoao iiiai aeaeiniaoeeoe/aneeo iiaaaeai/aneeo aeoia, eioi?ua
i?iyaeythony a aeinoaoi/ii iieiie oi?ia n naiiai ia?aiai ?aca e,
ii-aeaeeiiio, eeoue n aieueoei o?oaeii iiaeaeathony eciaiaieth a
iioiaaiaca. Eaaei iiaeii eciaieoue aa?iyoiinoue iiyaeaiey e /anoioo
oaeeo aeoia, ii eiaaea iie i?ienoiaeyo, iie inouanoaeythony a naiae
aeaeiniaoeeoe/aneie oi?ia. Eae aoaeoi au iao oaaaeeoaeueiuo aeiaiaeia
i?ioea oiai, /oiau iacuaaoue oaeea aeou «einoeieoeaiuie». I?e oaeie –
oi?ioee?iaea einoeieoeaiia iiaaaeaiea iiaeii aoaeao ?anniao?eaaoue ia
eae iaeio ec aaoaae aeeoioiiee «a?iaeaeaiiia-i?eia?aoaiiia», a eae iaeei
ec eiioeia eiioeiooia, caiieiythuaai i?iiaaeooie iaaeaeo oaie aeoaie,
eioi?ua yaii i?eia?aoathony iooai iao/aiey, e oaie, niaoeeoe/iinoue
eioi?uo ia iaoneiaeaia iao/aieai.

A iioiaaiaca einoeieoa iao/aieth iiaeao i?eiaaeeaaeaoue ?aoathuay ?ieue.
Iaeiaei niaoeeoe/iinoue ?acae?aaeeoaeae, aucuaathueo aeaiiue aeo, e
iieiioa ?aaeoeee i?e ia?aii i?iyaeaiee ana aea canoaayo ian
eeanneoeoee?iaaoue oaeia iiaaaeaiea eae einoeieoeaiia. Aicueiai aeey
i?eia?a eiethoeo, au?auaiioth a oneiaeyo aeai?eaaoeee.

Iia aoaeao ecae?aoaeueii e ni anae iieiioie inouanoaeyoue aa?anneaiua
aeaiiino?aoeee ii ioiioaieth e iiaeaee n y?eei e?aniuie a?thoeii.
n?aaeiaua oaeoi?u, aeeth/ay niaoeeoe/aneia iao/aiea, iiaoo auoue i/aiue
aaaeiu aeey ?acaeoey aeaeaaoaeueiuo eii?aeeiaoeee, oiaiey ieaaaoue.
?aaiou c?eoaeueiie nenoaiu. Iaeiaei yoe oaeoi?u ia iiaoo iauynieoue
ecae?aoaeueiie niaoeeoe/iinoe ?aaeoeee ?uau ia ?acae?aaeeoaeue n e?aniie
ieaeiae iieiaeiie, a ia ia ae?oaea iiaeaee. Aeey einoeieoeaiiai
iiaaaeaiey e?eoe/anee aaaeiie i?aaenoaaeyaony eiaiii yoa
niaoeeoe/iinoue, i?iyaeythuayny a iaaeeaaeaueo oneiaeyo.

?aaeecaoeey aeaeiaiai iiuoa a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii iiaaaeaiee.

Neiaeiinoue acaeiiaeaenoaee aaiioeia n oaeoi?aie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
iiuoa ieaaea ia aunooiaao oae ynii, eae i?e eco/aiee iioiaaiaca iaiey o
ioeoe. ssaeyaony ee ianiy a?iaeaeaiiie eee i?eia?aoaiiie? ?anniao?eaay
?yae i?eia?ia ec iaoe?iie eeoa?aoo?u, iu aua ?ac einiainy iiiai/eneaiiuo
i?iaeai, eioi?ua aicieeatho i?e iiiuoea ioaaoeoue ia yoio aii?in.

Aieiniaua caoee, ecaeaaaaiua ioeoeaie, iiae?acaeaeytho ia aeaa oeia:
e?eee e ianie. E?eee-yoi ei?ioeea, aeiaieueii i?inoua neaiaeu, eioi?ua
iau/ii ecaeatho iniae iaiaai iiea a ethaia a?aiy aiaea e eioi?ua ii/oe
iaeeiaeiau o anao i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeaea. A ioee/ea io yoiai ianie eiatho
aieaa neiaeiue aeonoe/aneee ?enoiie. *aua anaai eo “eniieiytho” naioeu a
ia?eiae ooaaeeaaiey, caueou oa??eoi?ee eee a iaieo neo/ayo. Iie /anoi
eiatho naciiiue oa?aeoa? e iaia?oaeeaatho cia/eoaeueioth
eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth eciai/eainoue.

Neo/ae ieieiaeueiie ?iee aiaoiae n?aaeu. Ii-aeaeeiiio, o i?aaenoaaeoaeae
aieueoeinoaa io?yaeia iioiaaiac iaiey iau/ii ia o?aaoao niaoeeoe/aneeo
oneiaee n?aaeu, oae /oi i?aiaeaaeaao aeeyiea aaiaoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia.
?acaeoea aieaeueiiai ?aia?ooa?a o aeiiaoieo iaoooia e eieue/aouo ai?eeoe
ioiineony e yoiio oeio .A iaieo neo/ayo aieaeueiue ?aia?ooa? ac?ineie
iniae ?acaeaaaony ii?iaeueii e oiaaea, eiaaea ioeoe au?aueaatho a iieiie
ecieyoeee io

ae?oaeo iniaae oiai aea aeaea. Aeaaea eeoaiea neooa iaei aeeyao ia
iioiaaiac iaiey. O aa?iiaeneeo eoeooae e aieiaueeo ioeoe,
ioeeaaeuaathueo yeoea a aiacaea ae?oaeo aeaeia (aiacaeiaie ia?aceoeci),
iioiinoai ia ioaeaeaaony a oii, /oiau neuoaoue ianith naiaai aeaea. Yoi
eiaao aieueoie yaiethoeeiiiue niune.

Eieoaoeey i?e iao/aiee iania. Iiiaea ioeoeu niiniaiu iooai iiae?aaeaiey
iao/eoueny aieueoiio /eneo ?acee/iuo ianai. Oi?ioi ecaanoii, /oi oaeea
aeaeu, eae ia?aniaoieee e aano?aeeeneea ee?ioainou, eieoe?otho e?eee
ae?oaeo aeaeia e a anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo. Ae?oaea ioeoeu, a oii /enea
iaeioi?ua iiioaae, eieoe?otho iiiaeanoai ?acee/iuo ianai i?e
niaea?aeaiee a iaaiea, ii, ii-aeaeeiiio, ?aaeei aeaeatho yoi a i?e?iaea.

Aua iaeio aa?eaoeeth ia yoo oaio iu iaoiaeei o a?oiiu aeaeia, eioi?ua
iao/athony naiae iania io ainieoaaoaai eo naioea, aoaeue yoi ?iaeiie
ioaoe eee /oaeie naiaoe. Iiaeaeue ii?aaeaeyaony «nioeeaeueiie naycueth».
E oaeei aeaeai ioiinyony niaae?ue e caa?iaua aiaaeeiu. Niaae?ae, eioi?uo
auea?ieeaaao /aeiaae, iiaeii iao/eoue naenoaoue, a oa niaae?e, eioi?uo
au?aueaatho eaia?aeee, iitho eaia?aa/uee ianie.

Iaa/ea ai?iauee ianeaaeotho naiaai ?iaea «iao?eoeo». Yoa iao?eoea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie «nenoaio ociaaaiey», iicaieythuoth ioeoea
ii?aaeaeyoue, eaeay ianiy «i?aaeeueia». I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi eiaaea
ioaiaoe iiao ianith a ia?aue ?ac, iia «i?iaa?yaony» ia niioaaonoaea
iao?eoea e iinoaiaiii niaa?oainoaoaony i?e iinoiyiiie naa?ea n iath, aei
oao ii? iiea ia iieo/eony ii?iaeueiay ianiy ac?ineie iniae. Ioeoea
niiniaia niaa?oainoaiaaoue naith aeaeiniaoeeoe/aneoth ianith i?e
niaea?aeaiee a ecieyoeee, ii oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee iia iiaeao
neuoaoue naay.

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo iiaaaeai/aneea i?eciaee neoaeao
aaeeinoaaiiui e?eoa?eai aeey ?acee/aiey aeeaioiuo, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e
?aciui aeaeai. Iaeei ec i?eia?ia yoiai iu iaoiaeei o naaoeyeia. Naioeu
?aciuo aeaeia ai a?aiy iieaoia i?eaeaeatho naiie aeaeiniaoeeoe/iuie
naaoiauie neaiaeaie, a naiee ecae?aoaeueii ?aaae?otho oieueei ia
aniuoee, i?iecaiaeeiua naioeaie eo nianoaaiiiai aeaea.

Aeaeu aeeaioiuo cia/eoaeueii ?acee/athony iaaeaeo niaie ii oie ?iee,
eioi?oth ea?aao iao/aiea a ?acaeoee aeaeiniaoeeoe/aneiai iiaaaeai/aneiai
?aia?ooa?a: ?aciua aeaeu iao/athony niaa?oaiii.

Iaiea ioeoe. Iiaeaeoe, iaeaieaa yniui i?eia?ii aeaeiauo ?acee/ee oaeiai
?iaea neoaeeo iaiea ioeoe (ni. ae. 9). Iaeioi?ua aeaeu iiaoo
iieiinoueth aini?iecaiaeeoue aeaeiniaoeeoe/aneoth ianith, ieeiaaea ia
neuoaa iaiey ae?oaeo iniaae, a iaeioi?ua aeieaeiu aai neuoaoue. Noeioeu,
niiniaiua eciaieoue ?acaeoea iaiey, o ?aciuo ioeoe, ?acee/iu. O
aaeiaieiaie ai?iaueeiie ianyiee, iai?eia?, ianie ae?oaeo aeaeia ii/oe ia
aeeytho ia ?acaeoea iaiey. Yoe ioeoeu iaaeaeaiu naiaai ?iaea
“iao?eoeae”, eioi?ay ia/oanoaeoaeueia e ianiyi ae?oaeo ioeoe, ii
eciaiyaony iiae aeeyieai aeaeiniaoeeoe/aneiai iaiey. Caoeiiiae?aaeaiea o
neai?oeia-iaee anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo oa?aeoa?ecoaony iiaeiaiie aea
niaoeeoe/iinoueth . Iaeiu ia oieueei ia iiae?aaeatho ioeoeai ae?oaeo
aeaeia, ii, eae auynieeinue, ecae?aoaeueii ?aaae?otho oieueei ia e?eee
iniaae naiaai iiea.

Iao/aiea auai?o ieue. O iiiaeo aeaeia i/aiue aaaeiui aniaeoai ?acaeoey
iiaaaeaiey yaeyaony au?aaioea ieuaauo i?aaeii/oaiee. Iiiaei aeeaioiui
i?eoiaeeony o/eoueny oiio, eaeay ieua aeey ieo i?eaiaeia. E?unyoa,
ii-aeaeeiiio, o/aony auai?o ieue ia iniiaa aeaoo iaoaieciia. Aeoniaua
iniaaiiinoe iaoa?eineiai iieiea iicaieytho iieiaeui aeeaioiui ociaoue,
/ai ieoaaony iaoue, e canoaaeytho eo i?aaeii/eoaoue ieuo oiai aea oeia.
E?iia oiai, e?unyoa iau/ii aia?aua i?eieiatho oaa?aeoth ieuo aaeece io
ac?ineuo aeeaioiuo e iiyoiio aaeyo oi aea, /oi e iie.

A na?ee yenia?eiaioia Oiaaia auei eco/aii ?acaeoea ?aniiciaaaiey ieue o
oeuieyo. Oiaai ioia/aao, /oi «iiiaea iaoaieciu, eioi?ua aaaeoo oeuieaiea
e aai oeaee, ii-aeaeeiiio, niaoeeaeueii i?eniiniaeaiu e oneiaeyi, n
eioi?uie noaeeeaaaony oieueei /oi aueoieaoeeny oeuieaiie, e yoe
iaoaieciu /anoi niaa?oaiii ia niaeanothony n iaeioi?uie caeiiaie
o?aaeeoeeiiiie oai?ee iao/aiey, e?eoe/aneee, eee /oanoaeoaeueiue,
ia?eiae annioeeaoeey n aeeeoaeueiie ion?i/eie e iiaee?aieaiea ?aaeoeee
eeaaaiey aac niioonoaothuaai ?acee/aiey i?aaeiaoia, ia eioi?ua iii
iai?aaeaii,-ana yoe iiiaiou ea?atho ?ieue a ?acaeoee ociaaaiey ieue».

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia ociaaaiea ni?iaee/ae. ?aciua aeaeu ioeoe ?acee/athony
a ioiioaiee ?aniiciaaaiey ae?oaeo iniaae. Ii-aeaeeiiio, iii ia
oa?aeoa?ii aeey aeiaaiuo oa??eoi?eaeueiuo iaa/eo ioeoe. Iieiaeua noaeiua
ioeoeu, oaeea, eae oeuieyoa e ooyoa, niiniaiu oi?ioi ociaaaoue naieo
iaoa?ae e neaaeiaaoue ca

ieie.

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia ociaaaiea ni?iaee/ae o ac?ineuo noaeiuo ioeoe i/aiue
aaaeii a nayce n nicaeaieai ea?a?oee aeiieie?iaaiey. O eo? iaeaieaa
aa?iyoiie iniiaie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ociaaaiey neoaeeo a?aaaiue a
ni/aoaiee n eethaii eee na?aaeeaie.

O eieiieaeueii aiacaeyueony aa?aaiauo ioeoe eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia
?aniiciaaaiea i/aiue nouanoaaiii eae aeey /eaiia noi?oaeaneie ia?u, oae
e aeey ?iaeeoaeae e eo iioiieia. Aac oaeiai ociaaaiey ?iaeeoaeueneea
caaiou iiaee au ?ani?ino?aiyoueny ia /oaeeo ioaioeia. Ii?aceoaeueii, /oi
ai iiiaeo neo/ayo yoi ociaaaiea iniiaaii ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
iniaaiiinoyo aieiniauo neaiaeia.

Aeaeiniaoeeoe/aneea iai?iieoaeueiua ?aaeoeee. Aieen a naiae i/aiue
aaaeiie noaouea e?eoeeiaae iieiaeaiey o?aaeeoeeiiiie oai?ee iao/aiey
i?eiaieoaeueii e ecaaaaiea. Ii ioiaoee, /oi a eaai?aoi?iuo oneiaeyo
aeeaioiua ?aoatho iaeioi?ua caaea/e ia ecaaaaiea auno?aa, /ai ae?oaea, e
auneacae i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi yoe ?acee/ey iiaoo auoue iiiyou i?e o/aoa
aeaeiniaoeeoe/aneeo iai?iieoaeueiuo ?aaeoeee. Niaeanii Aieeno, aeeaioiua
a i?e?iaea ia o/aony ecaaaaoue iianiinoe iinoaiaiii, eae iiaeii auei au
caeeth/eoue ec eaai?aoi?iuo aeaiiuo: oiaaea iie iiaeaaee au i?aaeaea,
/ai iao/aiea caeii/eony. Nei?aa iiaua eee iaiaeeaeaiiua noeioeu
aucuaatho i?iyaeaiea a?iaeaeaiiuo iai?iieoaeueiuo ?aaeoeee.

«Iao/aiea» aoaeao auno?ui, anee ?aaeoeey ecaaaaiey, eioi?oth ioaeii
au?aaioaoue o aeeaioiiai, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeio ec iai?iieoaeueiuo
?aaeoeee, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey aeaiiie neooaoeee, aeecea e iae. Ii eiaaea
aeeaioiia iao/atho ?aaeoeee, ianiaianoeiie n aai aeaeiniaoeeoe/aneei
iai?iieoaeueiui iiaaaeaieai, iia aoaeao onaaeaaoueny i/aiue iaaeeaiii.
Iai?eia?, ai?acaei o?oaeiaa canoaaeoue e?uno iiai?a/eaaoue eieani eee
iaaeeiaoue ia ?u/aa, /oiau ecaaaeaoue yeaeo?e/aneiai oaea?a, /ai
iao/eoue aa oaaaaoue ec iianiie ciiu. I?aaeiieiaeaiey Aieena iineoaeeee
noeioeii aeey eioaineaiiai enneaaeiaaiey nayce iaaeaeo
aeaeiniaoeeoe/aneeie iai?iieoaeueiuie ?aaeoeeyie au?aaioeie ecaaaaiey, e
iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou a oeaeii niioaaonoaotho aai aeiioaca.

Yoieiae/aneay eiioeaioeey einoeieoeaiiai iiaaaeaiey (E.Ei?aioe,
I.Oeaa?aai).

Ei?aioe i?aaeeiaeee eiioeaioeeth einoeieoeaiiai iiaaaeaiey. I?eaiaeei
ia?a/aiue iniiaiuo eeanne/aneeo aicc?aiee yoieiaia ia iiaaaeaiea yoiai
oeia.

1. Einoeieoeaiua iiaaaeai/aneea aeou aaiaoe/anee aeaoa?ieie?iaaiu a
?acoeueoaoa anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a. Einoeieoeaiua aeaenoaey aicieeee
iioiio, /oi aeaaiaea?y ioai?o oaeia iiaaaeaiea ieacaeinue
caeiaee?iaaiiui a aaiao i?aaiecia.

2. Einoeieoeaiua oi?iu iiaaaeaiey aaniethoii iainiaeaiu io oi?i,
i?eia?aoaaiuo eiaeeaeaeoaeueii. Iaaeaeo oaie e ae?oaeie iao ieeaeeo
ia?aoiaeia, iie i?eiaaeeaaeao e aeaoi niaa?oaiii ?acee/iui eaoaai?eyi.

3. Nouanoaoao «acaeiiay eioa?eaeyoeey» iaaeaeo e einoeieoaie e oneiaiuie
?aaeoeeyie. Ei?aioe n/eoae, /oi yeaiaiou eee aaeeieoeu iiaaaeaiey
auaatho eeai a?iaeaeaiiuie, eeai i?eia?aoaiiuie.

Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo iiaaaeaiea ninoieo ec ia?aiaoaiiuo e ia?aieaoaiiuo
yeaiaioia oiai e ae?oaiai ?iaea, oae /oi einoeieoeaiue eiiiiiaio iiaeao
neaaeiaaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii ca i?eia?aoaiiui e iaiai?io. Oeaeinoiua
aeou iiaaaeaiey i?aaenoaaeytho niaie noiia?iia i?iyaeaiea a?iaeaeaiiiai
e i?eia?aoaiiiai. Ii anee ?aceiaeeoue eo ia ioaeaeueiua yeaiaiou, oi
iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue ia?aieaoaiea einoeieoeaiuo e oneiaii-?aoeaeoi?iuo
aaeeieoe.

4. N/eoaeinue, /oi einoeieoeaiua yeaiaiou ia iiaeaa?aeaiu eciaiaieyi.
Iiuo ea?aao aaaeioth ?ieue a inouanoaeaiee einoeieoeaiiai iiaaaeaiey, ii
ii ii?aaeaeyao eeoue oi, eaeay eiaiii ?aaeoeey aeieaeia i?iecieoe e
eaeiaa aeieaeia auoue aa eioaineaiinoue.

«?acoeueoaoii [iiuoa] ieeiaaea ia auaaao iiaue iiaaaeai/aneee aeo,
eioi?ue ia aue au ianeaaenoaaiii oeene?iaai e i?aaeaoa?ieie?iaai eae
ii?aaeaeaiiay eiiaeiaoeey aeaeaeaiee».

5. Oioy einoeieoeaiua aeaenoaey oiiei i?eniiniaeaiu e aiaoiae n?aaea,
iie inouanoaeythony aac eaeiai-eeai iniciaiey eo oeaee. Einoeieou yoi
ecoieoaeueii oeaeaniia?aciua ?aaeoeee, ii iie niaa?oathony «aneaioth».
Yoi iiaeii aeaeaoue, eiaaea aeeaioiuo iaaethaeatho a iaiau/iuo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao: einoeieoeaiia iiaaaeaiea, oianoiia a ii?iaeueiuo
oneiaeyo, ieacuaaaony iaiiaeoiaeyuei a iiaie neooaoeee, e oai ia iaiaa
iii i?ioaeaao iau/iui ia?acii.

Aeey Ei?aioea oeaio?aeueiay i?iaeaia oai?ee einoeieoa ninoieo a
iauyniaiee aaeaioeaiinoe niaoeeoe/aneeo oi?i iiaaaeaiey, i?iyaeythueony
a ii?aaeaeaiiuo neooaoeeyo. A naiae eieaa “Yaiethoeey e iiaeeoeeaoeey
iiaaaeaiey” Ei?aioe ?acaeaaao eioi?iaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae e i?iaeaia
ianeaaenoaaiiinoe e n?aaeu. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi aaeeinoaaiiuie
enoi/ieeaie «eioi?iaoeee», iai?aaeythueie ?acaeoea iiaaaeaiey, yaeythony
oeeiaaiac e iao/aiea. Oaeia eniieueciaaiea iiiyoey «eioi?iaoeee» auei
ano?a/aii iaiaeia?eoaeueii. Ia iaeiii o?iaia i?eiyoea yoie aiaeiaee ia
noieueei i?iyniyao, neieueei caooiaieaaao i?iaeaio, a ia ae?oaii o?iaia
iiiyoea «eioi?iaoeee» eioa?i?aoe?oaony oaea a iaoaiaoe/aneii ieaia a oae
iacuaaaiie «oai?ee eioi?iaoeee». Iaeiaei a eioa?anothuae ian iaeanoe
o?oaeiinoe ecia?aiey eioi?iaoeee a niioaaonoaee n aa iaoaiaoe/aneie
o?aeoiaeie a oai?ee eioi?iaoeee i?aaenoaaeythony iai?aiaeieeiuie.

Einoeieoeaiia iiaaaeaiea e iauaiea.

Iiiaea aeaeu aeeaioiuo ia?acotho i?aaieciaaiiua niiauanoaa, aeey eioi?uo
oa?aeoa?iu neiaeiua nenoaiu eiiioieeaoeee, ooieoeeiiaeueiay
niaoeeaeecaoeey, oaiaeaioeey iniaae aea?aeaoueny aianoa, iinoiyinoai
ninoaaa e iaaeiiouaiea iinoi?iiieo iniaae naiaai aeaea. Iauanoaaiiue
ia?ac aeecie iiaeii eco/aoue eeai iuoaynue iiiyoue no?oeoo?o niiauanoaa
a oeaeii, eeai enneaaeoy ioaeaeueiua acaeiiaeaenoaey, ec eioi?uo
neaaaaony aeeciue niiauanoaa.

Iiiaea niiauanoaa i?aaieciaaiu ii i?eioeeio ea?a?oee n aeiieie?iaaieai
eee ii i?eioeeio oa??eoi?eaeueiinoe. Eae oa, oae e ae?oaay i?aaiecaoeey
iaania/eaaao i?aai ia?aii/a?aaeiiai aeinooia e ?ano?nai aeey
ii?aaeaeaiiuo iniaae. I?e oa??eoi?eaeueiie no?oeoo?a i?aai ia?aainoaa
aeaenoaoao eeoue a i?aaeaeao iaeioi?ie ia?aie/aiiie ianoiinoe.
Nouanoaoao iiiai ?acee/iuo oi?i oa??eoi?eaeueiinoe.

I eiiioieeaoeee, (ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee) iiaeii aiai?eoue a oao neo/ayo,
eiaaea iaeii aeeaioiia niaa?oaao iaeioi?ia aeaenoaea, aucuaathuaa
eciaiaiea a iiaaaeaiee ae?oaie iniae. Aeey eco/aiey nenoai ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee eniieuecothony ei??aeyoeeiiiua e yenia?eiaioaeueiua iaoiaeu
e iaoiae iao/aiey.

Nieo auaeaeee 12 eaoaai?ee, eioi?ua ioaaouaatho i?aeoe/anee ana aeaeu
niiauaiee, eniieuecoaiuo aeeaioiuie:

1. Eaeaioeoeeaoeey. Niiauaiey, iicaieythuea eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue
eaoaai?eth eee eeann, e eioi?iio i?eiaaeeaaeeo ioi?aaeoaeue.

2. Aa?iyoiinoue. Niiauaiea ia ioiineoaeueiie aa?iyoiinoe oiai, /oi
ioi?aaeoaeue i?aaei?eiao aeaiiia aeaenoaea.

3.Iauee iaai?. ?yae niiauaiee, eniieuecoaiuo a noieue ?aciiia?aciuo
neooaoeeyo, /oi ei o?oaeii i?eienaoue eaeoth-eeai iaeio ooieoeeth.

4. Eieiiioeey. Niiauaiey, ia?aaeaaaaiua oieueei ai a?aiy ia?aaeaeaeaiey
eee ia?aae aai ia/aeii.

5. Aa?anney. Niiauaiey, oeacuaathuea ia aa?iyoiinoue iaiaaeaiey.

6. Aaanoai. Niiauaiey, oeacuaathuea ia aa?iyoiinoue aaanoaa.

7.«Iaaaiienoe/aneee eiiieaen». Iaai? niiauaiee, oeacuaathueo ia oi, /oi
aaiienoe/aneea aeaenoaey iaeiaa?iyoiu.

5. Annioeeaoeey. Niiauaiey, ia?aaeaaaaiua a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iaeii
aeeaioiia i?eaeeaeaaony e ae?oaiio eee inoaaony aicea iaai.

9. Eiiieaen, ia?aie/aiiue naycyie. Niiauaiey, ia?aaeaaaaiua oieueei
iaaeaeo iniayie, eioi?ua iauaaeeiaiu i?i/iuie naycyie a?a/iua ia?oia?u,
?iaeeoaee e iioiiee).

10. Ea?a. Niiauaiey, ia?aaeaaaaiua oieueei ai a?aiy ea?u.

11. Eiioeyoeey. Niiauaiey, eniieuecoaiua aei e ai a?aiy eiioeyoeee.

12. O?ono?aoeey. Aeaiiino?aoeee, aicieeathuea oieueei a oao neo/ayo,
eiaaea aeaiiay oi?ia iiaaaeaiey ii/aio-eeai i?anaeaaony.

Aeaiiino?aoeaiia iiaaaeaiea.

AEeaioiua aeaiiino?e?otho a naiai iiaaaeaiee iniaua
neaiaeu. Ii o?aaeeoeee yoieiae ?acee/atho o?e aeaaiuo enoi/ieea
aeaiiino?aoeee:

1. Eioaioeeiiiua aeaeaeaiey. Iiiaea aeaiiino?aoeee, ii-aeaeeiiio,
aicieeee ec eioaioeeiiiuo aeaeaeaiee – iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo eee
iacaaa?oaiiuo aeaeaeaiee, ia?aaeei iaaethaeaaiuo ia ia/aeueiuo noaaeeyo
eaeie-eeai aeoeaiinoe. Oaeea aeaeaeaiey auee, aa?iyoii, aaaeiui
enoi/ieeii “i?aaaeaioaoeee” aeey yaiethoeee iaeioi?uo oi?i
aeaiiino?aoeee o ioeoe. Oaeea yeaiaiou aeaiiino?aoeee, eae iiaeieiaiea
oainoa, i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ia/aeueiua aeaeaeaiey i?e iiaeaioiaea e
iieaoo, iaeiaei iie /anoi i?iecaiaeyony e oiaaea, eiaaea ioeoea
ano?aaiaeaia, ii ia aceaoaao. Yoe aeaeaeaiey neoaeao enoi/ieeii iiiaeo
aeaiiino?aoeee. Iaeei ec i?eia?ia – aeaiiino?aoeey “iieiue aia?aae” o
caeaiie eaaeau.

2. Niaoaiiua aeoeaiinoe. Ae?oaea aeaeu aeaiiino?aoeee aicieeee,
i/aaeaeii, ia iniiaa niaoaiiuo aeoeaiinoae – “auiaaeathueo ec eiioaenoa”
oi?i iiaaaeaiey, /anoi iaaethaeaaiuo a eiioeeeoiuo neooaoeeyo. E iei
ioiineony “niauaiiia ii/anuaaiea” o ia?aceo/ieeia e uaeeaiuea eethaii o
caeaiie eaaeau, eioi?ua, ii-aeaeeiiio, aicieeee ec niauaiiuo
aeoeaiinoae, naycaiiuo ni nai?ii iaoa?eaea aeey aiacaea.

3. Ia?aaae?aniaaiiua aeaenoaey. O?aoueei eeanne/aneei enoi/ieeii
iaoa?eaea

aeey yaiethoeee aeaiiino?aoeee neoaeao ia?aaae?aniaaiiua aeaenoaey,
eiaaea eaeay-eeai oi?ia iiaaaeaiey, iai?eia? aa?anney, iai?aaeyaony ia
ia oio iauaeo, eioi?ue aa aucaae, a ia eaeie-eeai ae?oaie. Iaeioi?ua
aeaiiino?aoeee, iaaethaeaaiua o e?a/ee e aeeceeo e iae aeaeia, iiaee
i?iecieoe io oaeeo ia?aaae?aniaaiiuo aoae (Cullen, 1960) .

Iicaeiaa noaei auyniyoueny, /oi neaiaeu iiaoo aicieeaoue
ii/oe ec ethaie iiaeoiaeyuae oi?iu iiaaaeaiey. E /eneo iaeioi?uo
aeiiieieoaeueiuo enoi/ieeia aeaiiino?aoeee ioiineony:

1. Iaiai ei?iii. Aeaiiino?aoeee iiaoo aicieeiooue a i?ioeanna yaiethoeee
ec iaiaia ei?iii, eae a neo/aa ?eooaeueiiai ei?ieaiey ia?aceo/ieeia.

2. Caueoiua ?aaeoeee. I?eaaonoaaiiua aeaiiino?aoeee, iaaethaeaaiua o
i?eiaoia i?e ano?a/a ae?oa n ae?oaii, ii-aeaeeiiio, aicieeee ec caueoiuo
aeaeaeaiee, i?iecaiaeeiuo ieaeiieoathueie a ioaao ia iaiaeeaeaiiua eee
iai?eyoiua noeioeu.

3 Eiioi?oiua aeaeaeaiey. Iiiaea neaiaeu o ooie e aonae i?iecioee io
oaeeo eiioi?oiuo aeaeaeaiee, eae /enoea iia?aiey, io?yoeaaiea,
iioyaeaaiea e eoiaiea.

4. Oa?ii?aaoeyoeey. Iaaethaeaaiua o ioeoe aeaiiino?aoeee,
nii?iaiaeaeaaiua ?aniooaieai ia?ueaa i?iecioee io oa?ii?aaoeyoi?iiai
iiaaaeaiey.

?acee/aaony o?e iniiaiuo oeia naeaeoeaiuo aeaaeaiee,
eioi?ia ieacuaaao aeaiiino?aoeaiia iiaaaeaiea:

1. Aeaaeaiea ia iaaeaeaeiaua neaiaeu. Aieueoay iaeiicia/iinoue neaiaeia
niinianoaoao ?ai?iaeoeoeaiie ecieyoeee e i?aaeioa?auaao niaoeaaiea; iia
oaeaea nieaeaao /anoioo aa?anneaiuo ano?a/ iaaeaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
aeeceeo aeaeia, ia eiieo?e?othueo ca iaeie e oa aea yeieiae/aneea
?ano?nu.

2. Aeaaeaiea ia aioo?eaeaeiaua neaiaeu. Aeey aeaea auaiaeii, /oiau
neaiaeu auee eae iiaeii aieaa /aoeeie, oae eae yoi naiaeeo e ieieioio
niaoaiea ?aciuo neaiaeia. Niaeanii aea?aeineiio i?eioeeio aioeoacu, aeaa
aeaiiino?aoeee eiathuea i?ioeaiiieiaeiia cia/aiea, aeieaeiu ?acee/aoueny
eae iiaeii aieueoa; /anoi iie aeeth/atho aeaeaeaiey, iai?aaeaiiua a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiua noi?iiu. Oae, iai?eia?, iicu “auoyaeaaiey oae” e
“iieiue aia?aae” o caeaiie eaaeau neoaeao niioaaonoaaiii aeaiiino?aoeeae
oa?icu e oie?ioai?aiey e naycaiu n niaa?oaiii i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie
aeaeaeaieyie.

3. Aeaaeaiea ia neaiaeu, aeaiiino?e?othuea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua ?acee/ey.
Neaiaeu iiaoo neoaeeoue aeey eaeaioeoeeaoeee iniae, i?iecaiaeyuae
aeaiiino?aoeeth.

?eooaeecaoeey iiaaaeaiey.

?eooaeecaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie yaiethoeeiiiue i?ioeann,
a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai eaeay-eeai oi?ia iiaaaeaiey eciaiyaony oaeei
ia?acii, /oi eeai noaiiaeony neaiaeii, eniieuecoaiui aeey iauaiey, eeai
oneeeaaao naith yooaeoeaiinoue a ea/anoaa oaeiai neaiaea. Oaeiae e
Oeiaa?aai ioia/atho o?e iniiaiuo iniaaiiinoe, oa?aeoa?iua aeey
?eooaeecaoeee aeaiiino?aoeaiiai iiaaaeaiey:

1. ?acaeoea a?inathueony a aeaca no?oeoo?. Eae oaea aiai?eeinue,
yaiethoeey iiaaaeaiey nii?iaiaeaeaaony eciaiaieai ?acee/iuo no?oeoo?,
auiieiythueo neaiaeueiua ooieoeee.

2. Noaiaoecaoeey aeaeaeaiee. Oa?aeoa? aeaeaeaiee eciaiyaony a
niioaaonoaee n iauei oa?aeoa?ii iee?iyaiethoeeiiiuo eciaiaiee.

3. Yiaineiaoeey. A i?ioeanna ?eooaeecaoeee, ii ia?a oiai eae aeaiiay
oi?ia iiaaaeaiey ia/eiaao ooieoeeiie?iaaoue a iiaii eiioaenoa, iia
“yiaineie?oaony”, o.a. noaiiaeony iacaaeneiie io ia?aiia/aeueiiai
iioeaaoeeiiiiai eiioaenoa. Oae, iai?eia?, eaeay-eeai aeaiiino?aoeey,
aicieeoay ia iniiaa niauaiiie aeoeaiinoe, i?iyaeyaony oaea ia a
eiio-eeeoiuo neooaoeeyo, a a nayce n ooaaeeaaieai, oa?icie eee a
eaeii-ieaoaeue eiii neo/aa.

Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ioeanna iao/aiey.

Iaoiaeu eco/aiey i?ioeanna iao/aiey o aeeaioiuo.

Aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue iao/aiea a i/aiue oe?ieii niunea-eae oaeoth
iiaeeoeeaoeeth iiaa-aeaiey, eioi?ay aicieeaao a ?acoeueoaoa
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iiuoa. Niaeanii iiiaei yoiei-aai (iai?eia?, Oi?io),
iao/aiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeaioeaiia eciaiaiea iiaaaeaiea.

OI?IU IAO*AIEss.

I?eaueaiea (eee aaaeooaoeey) iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae nieaeaiea
aa?iyoiinoe eee aiieeooaeu ?aaeoeee, i?ienoiaeyuaa i?e iaiaeiie?aoiii
iiaoi?aiee aucuaathuaai aa ?acae?aaeeoaey.

Eeanne/aneee oneiaiue ?aoeaen.I?e enneaaeiaaiee annioeeaoeaiiai
iao/aiey i?eiaiytho aeaa iniiaiuo iaoiaea- au?aaioeo eeanne/aneeo e
au?aaioeo eino?oiaioaeueiuo oneiaiuo ?aoeaenia. ?acee/ea iaaeaeo yoeie
aeaoiy iaoiaeaie i/aiue i?inoia. I?e au?aaioea eeanne/aneiai oneiaiiai
?aoeaena iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue niauoee a iiuoa ieeae ia caaeneo io
iiaaaeaiey aeeaioiiai. *oi au aeeaioiia ie aeaeaei, oiae niauoee
onoaiiaeai eeai yenia?eiaioaoi?ii, eeai aiia?aoo?ie, aeaenoaothuae ii
ii?aaeaeaiiie i?ia?aiia. A ioee/ea io yoiai i?e eino?oiaioaeueiii
iao/aiee iiaaaeaiea aeeaioiiai neoaeeo iaeiei ec aaaeiuo oaeoi?ia,
ii?aaeaeythueo oiae niauoee. Iau/ii i?ioeaaeo?a eino?oiaioaeueiiai
iao/aiey ninoieo a oii, /oi iiaee?aieaiea eee iaeacaiea iiaeathony eee
ono?aiythony i?e ii?aaeaeaiiie ?aaeoeee aeeaioiiai-«i?aaeeueiie» eee
«iai?aaeeueiie». I?e au?aaioea eeanne/aneiai oneiaiiai ?aoeaena oeie/iue
iiuo ia/eiaaony ni noeioea (aaconeiaiiai), eioi?ue aucuaaao niaa?oaiii
ii?aaeaeaiiue ioaao (aaconeiaiue ?aoeaen). Caoai ia i?ioyaeaiee ?yaea
i?ia ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii n aaconeiaiui noeioeii i?aaeuyaeytho aoi?ie
noeioe, eioi?ue, eae i?aaeei, ia aucuaaao aaconeiaiue ?aoeaen
(iioaioeeaeueiue oneiaiue noeioe). A ?acoeueoaoa iiaoi?ythuaainy
ni/aoaiey oneiaiue noeioe e aaconeiaiue ?aoeaen iiyaeyaony oneiaiue
?aoeaen, eioi?ue aucuaaaony oneiaiui noeioeii. Oneiaiue ?aoeaen
iiaeiaai, ii ia iaycaoaeueii eaeaioe/ai aaconeiaiiio ?aoeaeno.

Eino?oiaioaeueiia iao/aiea. Eino?oiaioaeueiia iao/aiea ioee/aaony io
eeanne/aneiai oai, /oi iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue niauoee a iiuoa caaeneo
caeanue io iiaaaeaiey aeeaioiiai. Iau/ii eniieuecoaony
«aiciaa?aaeaeaiea» eee “iaeacaiea» oiai eee eiiai ?iaea. A ?aciuo iiuoao
i?eiaiythony naiua ?aciiia?aciua iaoiaeeee, ii ana iie niioaaonoaotho
iauae noaia au?aaioee eino?oiaioaeueiie ?aaeoeee. Aeaeye e Ei?ieia
i?aaei?eiyee eioa?anioth iiiuoeo ninoaaeoue eeanneoeeaoeeth iaoiaeee
eino?oiaioaeueiiai iao/aiey. Iu ?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua i?eia?u,
i?aaenoaaeythuea iaeaieueoee eioa?an aeey n?aaieoaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee.

Iaoiaeeee n iieiaeeoaeueiui iiaee?aieaieai. Caeanue aeeaioiia iieo/aao
eaeiai-eeai ?iaea aiciaa?aaeaeaiea (/anoi iacuaaaiia “iieiaeeoaeueiui
iiaee?aieaieai”), anee iii niaa?oeei ?aaeoeeth, ioeaieaaaioth
yenia?eiaioaoi?ii eae «i?aaeeueiay». Iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa aeaaiua
?aciiaeaeiinoe oaeeo iaoiaeee – n eniieueciaaieai aeene?aoiuo i?ia e
naiaiaeii-iia?aioioth.

Iaoiaeeea aeene?aoiuo i?ia. A yoii neo/aa yenia?eiaioaoi? eiio?iee?oao
oiae iiuoia, i?aaeuyaeyy aeeaioiiio na?eth /aoei ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?ia.

Iaeei ec /anoi eniieuecoaiuo aa?eaioia ninoieo a oii, /oi aeeaioiia
aeieaeii i?ieoe ii?aaeaeaiiue i?yiie iooue, /oiau iieo/eoue

iiaee?aieaiea. Iai?eia?, Oeaae e Iaa?iaea? iao/aee cieiouo ?uaie
i?iieuaaoue ei?eaei? io noa?oiaie eaia?u aei oeaeaaie eaia?u, eniieuecoy
a ea/anoaa iiaee?aieaiey ieuo. Iie iaoee, /oi a?aiy, iaiaoiaeeiia ?uaea,
/oiau aueoe ec noa?oiaie eaia?u e i?iieuoue ei?eaei?, iaoeeiiii
nie?auaaony io i?iau e i?iaa.

Naiaiaeii-iia?aioiay iaoiaeeea. A yoii neo/aa aeeaioiia iiaeaa?aaaony ia
ioaeaeueiui i?iaai, a iiaeao naiaiaeii niaa?oaoue eino?oiaioaeueioth
?aaeoeeth a ethaia a?aiy. Iau/ii a yenia?eiaioaeueiie onoaiiaea
iaoiaeeony i?eniiniaeaiea (?u/aa e o. i.), ia eioi?ia aeeaioiia aeieaeii
ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii aicaeaenoaiaaoue, e oaeia aicaeaenoaea aaaeao e
iiaee?aieaieth. A iaeaieaa ecaanoiii aa?eaioa yoie iaoiaeeee
eaai?aoi?iay e?una iaaeeiaao ia ?u/aa e iieo/aao ieuo. A ?acoeueoaoa
i?yiie caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo ?aaeoeeae (iaaeaoeai ia ?u/aa) e
iiaee?aieaieai (ieuae) aa?iyoiinoue niaa?oaiey aeaiiay ?aaeoeee
aic?anoaao.

Au?aaioea aeoeaiiai ecaaaaiey. I?e iao/aiee aeoeaiiio ecaaaaieth
aeeaioiia aeieaeii niaa?oeoue ii?aaeaeaiiia aeaenoaea, /oiau ia
iiaeaa?aiooueny «iaeacaieth». AEeaioiia, oaeea ia?acii, ia/eiaao aanoe
naay oae, eae onoaiiaeaii yenia?eiaioaoi?ii, /oiau ecaaaeaoue aieaauo
noeioeia.

A iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiie iaoiaeeea eniieuecoaony /aeii/iay eaia?a.
Iau/ii iia ninoieo ec aeaoo ioaeaeaiee, iaeii ec eioi?uo ie?aoaii a
aaeue, a ae?oaia a /a?iue oeaao. AEeaioiiio i?aaeinoaaeyaony ianeieueei
naeoiae, a oa/aiea eioi?uo iii iiaeao iieeiooue noa?oiaoth eaia?o e
ia?aeoe a ae?oaoth /anoue onoaiiaee. Anee aeeaioiia ia naeaeaao yoiai a
caaeaiiia a?aiy, iii iieo/aao yeaeo?e/aneee oaea? (/a?ac iaoaeee/aneea
yeaeo?iaeu, iaoiaeyueany a iieo eaia?u). Ii ia?a iiaoi?aiey na?ee oaeeo
i?ia i?ioeaio oniaoiuo ?aaeoeee ecaaaaiey (ooiaea ec noa?oiaie eaia?u
aei ia/aea aieaaiai ?acae?aaeaiey) aic?anoaao.

Caaea/a ia ecaaaeaiea. Iaeioi?ua iiuou i?iaiaeyony oaeei ia?acii, /oi
aeeaioiia iao/aaony auno?i ecaaaeyoueny io aieaaiai noeioea eee
iai?eyoiie neooaoeee; nianai ecaaaeaoue eo iii ia eiaao aiciiaeiinoe. A
oaeeo iiuoao iiaeii eniieueciaaoue /aeii/ioth eaia?o, aeeth/ay oie a oio
iiiaio, eiaaea ioe?uaaaony aeaa?oea iaaeaeo ioaeaeaieyie. A iaeioi?uo
yenia?eiaioao e?unu iao/athony auae?aoueny ec aaiiu n aiaeie ii ?aiia.

Au?aaioea ianneaiiai ecaaaaiey. I?e iao/aiee ianneaiiio ecaaaaieth
eniieuecotho aeeaioiia, eioi?ia oaea auiieiyao ii?aaeaeaiioth ?aaeoeeth.
Yoi iiaeao auoue eee eaeie-oi aeaeiniaoeeoe/aneee iiaaaeai/aneee aeo,
eee ?aaeoeey, au?aaioaiiay a yenia?eiaioa. A caaea/a ia ianneaiia
ecaaaaiea yenia?eiaioaoi? iaiineo aieaaia ?acae?aaeaiea i?e eaaeaeii
inouanoaeaiee oaeie ?aaeoeee. Iao/aiea a yoii neo/aa i?eaiaeeo e
caoi?iaaeeaaieth ?aaeoeee, eioi?ay ?aiaa inouanoaeyeanue n aieueoae
/anoioie. Yoa iaoiaeeea, ii nouanoao, iniiaaia ia iaeacaiee.

Au?aaioea aeeooa?aioee?iaee. A yoeo iiuoao aeeaioiiio i?aaeeaaatho aeaa
eee ianeieueei noeioeia e i?aaeinoaaeytho aiciiaeiinoue eae-ieaoaeue
?aaae?iaaoue. ?aaeoeee ia iaeei ec noeioeia iiaee?aieythony, a ia
inoaeueiua-iao. Noeioeu ia aucuaatho ?aaeoeee, a nei?aa nicaeatho iiaiae
aeey aa iiyaeaiey. Iao/aiea ninoieo caeanue o iiauoaiee i?ioeaioa
?aaeoeee ia «i?aaeeueiue» noeioe.

I?e iaoiaeeea iaeiia?aiaiiie aeeooa?aioee?iaee iaa noeioea (eee ana iie)
i?aaeuyaeythony a iaeii e oi aea a?aiy. Caaea/a aeeaioiiai-aua?aoue
«i?aaeeueiue» noeioe e ioaaoeoue ia iaai. I?e iineaaeiaaoaeueiie
aeeooa?aioee?iaea noeioeu i?aaeuyaeythony ii iaeiiio, aeeaioiia aeieaeii
iao/eoueny ioaa/aoue ia “i?aaeeueiue” (iiaee?aieyaiue) noeioe e
oi?iiceoue ?aaeoeeth a i?enoonoaee «iai?aaeeueiiai».

Aeey eco/aiey iaeiia?aiaiiie aeeooa?aioee?iaee o i?eiaoia /anoi
i?eiaiytho oae iacuaaaioth aeneiineineoth onoaiiaeo. Iia iicaieyao
yenia?eiaioaoi?o i?aaeuyaeyoue iaacueyiai ia?u noeioe-iauaeoia a
eiio?iee?oaiuo oneiaeyo. AEeaioiia aeieaeii iao/eoueny auae?aoue
«i?aaeeueiue» iauaeo, /oiau iieo/eoue ieuo, eioi?ay iau/ii ni?yoaia a
oaeoaeaiee iiae yoei iauaeoii. Iieiaeaiea i?aaeuyaeyaiuo i?aaeiaoia e
ieue iiaeao iaiyoueny io iiuoa e iiuoo.

«I?aaeeueiie» iiaeao n/eoaoueny ?aaeoeey ia ii?aaeaeaiiue noeioe-iauaeo
eee ia aai iieiaeaiea (neaaa eee ni?aaa).

“AEeaioiua aeaenoaotho einoeieoeaii, a /aeiaae-?acoiii”. Yoa iiaeiay
o?aca oaea iniiaaoaeueii onoa?aea, ii aei neo ii? eiaao oe?ieia
oiaeaeaiea. Eae e anyeia iauaa ianoi, oaeia auneacuaaiea iiaeii
oieeiaaoue ii-?aciiio, ii a oeaeii ?a/ue eaeao i oii, eaeei ia?acii
oi?ie?oaony iiaaaeaiea eiaeeaeaeooia. Eiuie neiaaie, aeeaioiua
iiyaeythony ia naao, oae neacaoue, a «aioiaii aeaea», ?aniieaaay oaea a
iiiaio ?iaeaeaiey cia/eoaeueiie /anoueth i?eniiniaeoaeueiuo oi?i
iiaaaeaiey, oiaaea eae /aeiaae aeieaeai aua iiiaiio iao/eoueny. Nooue
i?iaeaiu caeeth/aaony a oii, eae a oa/aiea aeecie aeeaioiiai a oiaea
neiaeiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey n aiaoiae n?aaeie ?acaeaaaony aai iiaaaeaiea.

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U:

1. Aeuethnaa?e Ae. “Iiaaaeaiea aeeaioiuo”, I., “Ie?”, 1981.

2. Oeiaa?aai I. “Iiaaaeaiea aeeaioiuo”, I., “Ie?”, 1978.

A aeiaea?aeiianeee ia?eiae aieiaiea auei nin?aaeioi/aii ia oeeinioneeo e
anoanoaaiiienoi?e/aneeo i?iaeaiao. Aeaaiay oeeinioneay i?iaeaia
ninoiyea a auyniaiee ioiioaiee iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii, aeaeaie e inoaeueiie
Anaeaiiie.

Oi?aeai (1927), Oioa?n (1951) e Ae/ (1955) i?ineaaeeee
enoi?eth ciiineoieiaee aei naiuo enoieia. I?aaenoaaeaiea i ?aceie
iainiaeaiiinoe /aeiaaea io aeeaioiuo iiaeii iaeoe aua o oeeinioia
Ae?aaiae A?aoeee, ii iiaieth eioi?uo auei aeaa aeoa oai?aiey: a
?acoeueoaoa iaeiiai ec ieo auee nicaeaiu ?acoiiua nouanoaa – /aeiaae e
aiae, a a ?acoeueoaoa ae?oaiai – ia?acoiiua oaa?e, ia?acothuea eioth
eaoaai?eth aeeauo nouanoa. N/eoaeinue, /oi yoe aeaa eaoaai?ee
?acee/athony ii /eneo e oeio eiathueony o ieo aeoo. Iiaeiaiua acaeyaeu,
aicieeioa o oeeinioia noie/aneie oeieu, iiaeaea?aeeaaeenue Aeueaa?oii
Aaeeeei, Oiiie Aeaeineei, Aeaea?oii e aeioee aei iaoeo aeiae.
A?enoioaeue, niaeaoaynue n oai, /oi /aeiaae ioee/aaony io ae?oaeo aeeauo
nouanoa i?e?iaeie naieo aeoo, iiiuoaeny ?aniieiaeeoue ana aeaeu a
iai?a?uaiue ainoiaeyuee ?yae – scala naturae; a aa?oeia yoiai ?yaea
iaoiaeeeny /aeiaae.

Iiieii oeeinioee e?oiiue aeeaae a eco/aiea iiaaaeaiey
aeeaioiuo a aeiaea?aeiianeoth yiioo aianea anoanoaaiiay enoi?ey. Iiiaea
eco/aaoeany eie i?iaeaiu aei neo ii? i?aaenoaaeytho iao/iue eioa?an.
Oae, iai?eia?, Aeeaa?o Oaeo (1720-1793-) niia ?acee/eoue o?e oeia ioeoe,
i/aiue noiaeiuo a ii?oieiae/aneii ioiioaiee, ii eo iaieth. Oa?aeeiaiae
Ia?iaoy? (1660-1731) eco/ae oa??eoi?eaeueiinoue, ia?aeaou, iieiaia
iiaaaeaiea e iioiaaiac iaiey o ioeoe.

Aeeaae Aea?aeia a eco/aiea iiaaaeaiey aeeaioiuo o?oaeii
ia?aioeaieoue. Aa?iyoii, naiui aeaaiui auee oi?ioeo?iaea yaiethoeeiiiie
oai?ee e aa i?eeiaeaiea e /aeiaaeo a “I?ienoiaeaeaiee aeaeia” (1859) e
“I?ienoiaeaeaiee /aeiaaea” (1871). A yoeo ?aaioao oaaaeeoaeueii iieacaei
?iaenoai iaaeaeo aeaeaie (aeeth/ay /aeiaaea), eioi?ia, eae iu aeaeaee,
neoaeeo ?aoathuae i?aaeiinueeie aeey nicaeaiey n?aaieoaeueiie
ineoieiaee. Aeeaae Aea?aeia, iaeiaei, ia naiaeeony oieueei e yoiio.
Aea?aei nai i?aaei?eieiae nenoaiaoe/aeia n?aaieoaeueiia eco/aiea
iiaaaeaiey aeeaioiuo. Aai iaeaieaa ecaanoiue o?oae a yoie iaeanoe –
“Au?aaeaiea yiioeee o /aeiaaea e aeeaioiuo” (1873). A yoie eieaa Aea?aei
i?eaae iiiai/eneaiiua iaaethaeaiey, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea iauaa
i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, /oi au?aaeaiea yiioeee o /aeiaaea e aeeaioiuo
oeeaaeuaaaony a iaeei iai?a?uaiue ?yae. Ii aeaaea ?anniao?eaae iaeioi?ua
oi?iu au?aaeaiey yiioeee o /aeiaaea eae oianeaaeiaaiiia iiaaaeaiea,
eio?ia auei iieacii iaoei i?aaeeai, ii nae/an oaea oo?aoeei naia
ooieoeeiiaeueiia cia/aiea.

PAGE

PAGE 9

Ia ?enoiea

ecia?aaeaia

AENEIINEINEAss

onoaiiaea

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