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Общение как деятельность. Уровни общения и его особенности

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II?AeIANEAss YENOA?IAss AOIAIEOA?IAss AEAAeAIEss

?AOA?AO

ia oaio:

IAUAIEA EAE AeAssOAEUeIINOUe. O?IAIE IAUAIEss E AAI INIAAIIINOE

Auiieiee: Aaithoeeia E.A.

nooaeaio 1-ai eo?na

oaeoeueoao th?eaee/aneee

niaoeeaeueiinoue th?eno-ainoaea?noaiaaae

I?iaa?ee: Aiae?iiia A.I.

Na?aine, 1994

NIAeA?AEAIEA

1. I?iaeaia ineoieiaee iauaiey

2. O?iaie iauaiey e aai iniaaiiinoe a ?acee/iuo oneiaeyo

3. Iauaiea eae iaiai eioi?iaoeeae

Ineoieiaey iauaiey — iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo aii?inia nioeeaeueiie
ineoieiaee.

Naii ni/aoaiea neia «nioeeaeueiay ineoieiaey» oeacuaaao ia
niaoeeoe/aneia ianoi, eioi?ia caieiaao yoa aeenoeeieeia a nenoaia
iao/iiai ciaiey. Aicieeioa ia nouea iaoe — ineoieiaee e nioeeieiaee,
nioeeaeueiay ineoieiaey aei neo ii? nio?aiyao naie iniaue noaoon,
eioi?ue i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi eaaeaeay ec «?iaeeoaeueneeo» aeenoeeieei
aeiaieueii ioioii aeeth/aao aa a naay a ea/anoaa ninoaaiie /anoe. Oaeay
iaiaeiicia/iinoue iieiaeaiey iao/iie aeenoeeieeiu eiaao iiiai ?acee/iuo
i?e/ei. Aeaaiie ec ieo yaeyaony iauaeoeaiia nouanoaiaaiea oaeiai eeanna
oaeoia iauanoaaiiie aeecie, eioi?ua naie ii naaa iiaoo auoue
enneaaeiaaiu eeoue i?e iiiiue iauaaeeiaiiuo oneeee aeaoo iaoe:
ineoieiaee e nioeeieiaee. N iaeiie noi?iiu, ethaia iauanoaaiiia yaeaiea
eiaao naie «ineoieiae/aneee» aniaeo, iineieueeo iauanoaaiiua
caeiiiia?iinoe i?iyaeythony ia eia/a eae /a?ac aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae,
a ethaee aeaenoaotho, aoaeo/e iaaeaeaiiuie niciaieai e aieae. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, a neooaoeeyo niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae aicieeatho
niaa?oaiii iniaua oeiu naycae iaaeaeo ieie, naycae iauaiey e
acaeiiaeaenoaey, e aiaeec eo iaaiciiaeai aia nenoaiu ineoieiae/aneiai
ciaiey. [2]

Eiaiii iiyoiio i?e ?aaioa iaae ?aoa?aoii eniieueciaaeanue e eeoa?aoo?a
ii nioeeieiaee.

1. I?iaeaia ineoieiaee iauaiey

Ie/oi ai Anaeaiiie ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue, oae eee eia/a ia
i?eiaaeeaaea e eaeie-ieaoaeue i?aaieciaaiiie nenoaia. Aoii, ia?acoaiue
naycaiiuie iaaeaeo niaie /anoeoeaie, anaai eeoue iaeei ec yeaiaioia, ec
eioi?uo iino?iaia iieaeoea, a iieaeoea a naith i/a?aaeue,
acaeiiaeaenoaoy n ae?oaeie iieaeoeaie, o/anoaoao a i?aaiecaoeee eeaoeo.
Niaoeeoe/aneea eeaoee ia?acotho oeaie e i?aaiu, eioi?ua, eii?aeeie?oy
naith aeayoaeueiinoue, iicaieytho aeeaiio i?aaiecio caiyoue naia ianoi a
?anoeoaeueiie eee aeeaioiie nenoaia, ana a?aiy no?aiyuaeny aeinoe/ue
?aaiiaaney. Ninouanoaiaaiea yoeo nenoai a naith i/a?aaeue iaania/eaaao
?aaiiaanea ieaiaou a Nieia/iie nenoaia, aeaeaeouaeny ia?yaeo n nioiyie
ieeeea?aeia ae?oaeo caacae a iaoae Aaeaeoeea, a naia Aaeaeoeea — eeoue
iaeei ec yeaiaioia, ec eioi?uo i?aaieciaaia Anaeaiiay. *aeiaae
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie caaii yoiai eiioeiooia, e auaeeaaiea aai aiciiaeii
oieueei a a?oiia, i?eiaaeeaaeauae e /aeiaa/aneiio iauanoao. [4]

AEeciue /aeiaaea a a?oiia e iauanoaa iaaiciiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue aac
iauaiey. I?iaeaio ineoieiaee iauaiey ?ac?aaaouaaee auaeathueany iaoe
ineoieiae E.N. Auaioneee, A.I. Iyneuaa, A.A. Aiaiueaa e ae?oaea. Oae, n
oi/ee c?aiey Auaioneiai, iaeiiai ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia niaaoneie
ineoieiaee, a i?ioeanna eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ?acaeoey ia?ae/iu oaeea oi?iu
/aeiaa/aneiai iauaiey, eae acaeiiaeaenoaea aeaoo eiaeeaeaeia, ioiioaiey
aeeaeiaa, nii?a e o.ae. [5]

Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua oai?ee iauaiey e n?aaee ieo — oai?ey iauaiey
Ceaioiaea O?aeaea, iniiaaiiay ia oaaaeaeaiee, /oi a i?ioeanna
acaeiiaeaenoaey ethaeae aini?iecaiaeeony eo aeaoneee iiuo. Niaeanii
O?aeaeo, a ?acee/iuo aeeciaiiuo neooaoeeyo iu i?eiaiyai iiiyoey,
onaiaiiua a ?aiiai aeaonoaa. Iu neeiiiu n oaaaeaieai ioiineony e
/aeiaaeo, iaea/aiiiio aeanoueth, iai?eia? e ia/aeueieeo — iai ii
iaiiieiaao eiai-oi ec ?iaeeoaeae. Aeaei?aeae Oioiain n/eoaao, /oi ethaee
iauathony ae?oa n ae?oaii ia iniiaa naiaai iiuoa, acaaoeaay aiciiaeiua
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey e cao?aou. Yoa oai?ey iaiaia i?ieeaaao iaeioi?ue naao
ia oi, ii/aio ethaee aaaeoo naay n ae?oaeie oae eee eia/a, ii yoei ia
en/a?iuaaaony aanue i?ioeann iaaeee/iinoiiai iauaiey. Ae?oaay oai?ey
i?aaeeiaeaia Aeaei?aeaeai Aa?aa?oii Ieaeii. Ii n/eoae, /oi iu ?aaae?oai
ia oieueei ia iinooiee ae?oaeo ethaeae, ii e ia eo iaia?aiey. Eiaaea
ciaeiiue iiaeieaeaaao, eioa?anoao, /oi ii iiae?acoiaaaao: no?aieony
iiooaaeeaaoue, aianoa iiniayoueny iaae oooeie, ia eneeth/aii, /oi ii
i?inoi no?aaeaao ia?aiui oeeii. Iu ?acaaaeuaaai iaia?aiey ae?oaeo
ethaeae, aiaeece?oy eo iinooiee e iie?aynue ia naie i?ioeue iiuo. Oaeie
i?ioeann neiaeai, ii ii i?iyaeyaony ii/oe ai anao acaeiiioiioaieyo n
ae?oaeie ethaeueie. Iu niiniaiu ia yoi, iioiio /oi n aeaonoaa i?eo/aiu
i?eaeaaaoue cia/aiea i?aaeiaoai, aeaenoaeyi e niauoeyi. Eiaaea iu
i?eaeaai cia/aiea /aio-oi, iii noaiiaeony neiaieii. A iauanoaa eieueoei
ia i?inoi ae?aaioeaiiinoue, iii neiaie no?aieaiey aeaoo iieiaeuo ethaeae
anooieoue a a?ae. Auoyiooay ?oea iiaeao neiaieece?iaaoue i?eaaonoaea,
iieueao i iiiiue eee iaiaaeaiea. Eeoue i?eaeaa aeanoo cia/aiea, iu
iiaeai ia iaai ?aaae?iaaoue — iiaeaoue ?oeo ae?oaiio /aeiaaeo, e?aiei
noaaoeoue aa eee oaeaeeoueny. Ia ian aicaeaenoaoao ia oieueei aeaenoaea,
ii e iaia?aiea.

Aa?ieueae Aa?oeieaeue n/eoaao, /oi iauaiea ?aaoee?oaony i?aaeeaie
acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo ethaeueie. Yoe i?aaeea ii?aaeaeytho, eiaaea
oianoii /oi-oi neacaoue eee i?iiie/aoue, iioooeoue eee oeeiieoueny io
ianiaoee, aeaeeeaoii i?ae?aoeoue ?acaiai? o.ae. Ii?aaeaeaiiua noa?aioeiu
aicaeaenoaotho ia ethaeae iacaaeneii io oiai, eaeia cia/aiea iie ei
i?eaeatho. Iiae/eiaiiue e ia/aeueiee iiaoo aeiaiai?eoueny i i?aaeeao,
?aaoee?othueo eo acaeiiaeaenoaea; aiciiaeii, eiiaaea iiae/eiaiiue iiaeao
oeacaoue ia/aeueieeo, /oi neaaeoao aeaeaoue. Ii nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiue
i?aaeae: yoi oio iiiaio, eiaaea iiae/eiaiiue no?aieony iiiaiyoueny
ianoaie ni naiei ia/aeueieeii. [8]

Iiiaeanoai oai?ee iaoneaaeeaathony iiiaiia?aceai /aeiaa/aneiai iauaiey e
iiiaiia?aceai iiaeoiaeia e i?iaeaia ineoieiaee iauaiey.

2. O?iaie iauaiey e aai iniaaiiinoe a ?acee/iuo oneiaeyo

Ethaee, eae i?aaeei, aoiaeyo a ninoaa ?aciuo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii. *aeiaae
iaeiia?aiaiii iiaeao caieiaoueny ii?aaeaeaiiie ?aaioie, ninoiyoue /eaiii
nii?oeaiiai eeoaa, auiieiyoue iauanoaaiiua ooieoeee, o/anoaiaaoue a
iieeoe/aneie aeecie e aua auiieiyoue i?e yoii iaycaiiinoe iaoa?e eee
iooea naiaenoaa. A eaaeaeie ec a?oii, eoaea aoiaeeo /aeiaae, ii caieiaao
ii?aaeaeaiiia nioeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea, niioaaonoaothuaa oie ?iee,
eioi?ie, ii ?an/aoai ae?oaeo /eaiia a?oiiu, ii aoaeao i?eaea?aeeaaoueny
e eioi?ay iicaieyao ei iaeeaeaoue io iaai ii?aaeaeaiiiai iiaaaeaiey.
Oaeea iaeeaeaiey aoaeoo ?acee/iu a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeao ee ?a/ue i
a?a/a, nooaeaioa, oooaieenoa, ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?aaei?eyoey eee
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiii /eiiaieea.

A naia a?aiy aeaeiue niaaoneee ineoieia A.A. Aiaiueaa, iaeiei ec ia?auo
oeacaaoee ia iiiaio?iaiaaoth, ea?a?oe/aneoth, iiiaiia?ioth i?aaiecaoeeth
iauaiey, ?acee/ae iae?i-, iaci- e iee?io?iaie iauaiey: iauanoai, a
eioi?ii iauathueany ethaee aeeaoo, ?acee/iua oeiu eieeaeoeaia, /eaiaie
eioi?uo iie aunooiatho, aeeaeaeoaa ie?oaeaiea, n eioi?ui iie /aua anaai
anooiatho a eiioaeo, a oaeaea oi?ie?othueany e ?aaeecothueany a iauaiee
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee acaeiiaeaenoaothueo ethaeae eae
noauaeoia yoie aeayoaeueiinoe. [5]

Iee?io?iaaiue ninoieo ec naiuo iaeeeo yeaiaioia iaaeee/iinoiiai iauaiey.
Iae?io?iaaiue aeeth/aao oaeea e?oiiua no?oeoo?u, eae oi?aaeaiea e
oi?aiaey. I?e ethauo nioeeaeueiuo oneiaeyo ethaee acaeiiaeaenoaotho ia
anao o?iaiyo.

Iau/ii ?anniao?eaatho aeaa oi?iu iaaeee/iinoiiai iauaiey:
iiiieiae/aneay, eiaaea oieueei iaeiiio ec ia?oia?ia ioaiaeeony ?ieue
aeoeaiiai o/anoieea, a ae?oaiio — ianneaiiai eniieieoaey, e —
aeeaeiaiaay, au?aaeathuayny a nio?oaeie/anoaa o/anoieeia. Neia,
iaicia/athueo i?ioeann iauaiey aeaoo ethaeae, ia oae oae iiiai —
aanaaea, ?acaiai?, aeeaaee/aneia iauaiea (iauaiea aeaieo). Ethaeae,
i?eieiathueo o/anoea a yoii i?ioeanna, iacuaatho niaanaaeieeaie,
aiai?yuei e neooathuei eee aea ia?oia?aie ii iauaieth. O?oaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue aieueoaa iiiaiia?acea aeeciaiiuo neooaoeee, /ai oi,
eioi?ia neeaaeuaaaony, eiaaea aeaia ethaeae anooiatho a eiioaeo ae?oa n
ae?oaii. Yoi e ?acaiai? ia/aeueieea n iiae/eiaiiui, e ano?a/a a?a/a n
iaoeeaioii, e aanaaea o/aieea n o/eoaeai, e o.ae. Eaaeaeay ec ieo
oa?aeoa?ecoaony naieie iniauie i?iyaeaieyie. Aeey ?acaiai?a ia/aeueieea
n iiae/eiaiiui iau/ii niaethaeaiea aeinoaoi/ii aieueoie i?ino?ainoaaiiie
aeenoaioeee (ia iaiaa 1,5 i) e ecaaaaiea aeieaeo i?yiuo acaeyaeia.

Nianai ii-ae?oaiio neeaaeuaaaony iauaiea aethaeaiiuo. Oaaee/aiea
i?ino?ainoaaiiie aeenoaioeee iaaeaeo ieie aiai?eo i oii, /oi iie a
nni?a, /aua anaai iie no?aiyony i?eeiniooueny ae?oa e ae?oao. Aeaiiua
ineoieiae/aneeo yenia?eiaioia naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi ieeoi oae aeieai,
eae aethaeaiiua, ia niio?eo a aeaca ae?oa ae?oao. Eo acaeyaeu neoaeao
iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai acaeiiie ethaae, no?aieaieai e aeecinoe.

Yoe ia?aiao?u (i?ino?ainoaaiiay aeecinoue e iai?aaeaiiinoue acaeyaea)
aeaeaei ia en/a?iuaatho niaoeeoeeo iiaeiaiuo neooaoeee. E iei
aeiaaaeythony iiiaeanoai ae?oaeo: eioiiaoeee e iacu a ?a/e, iaeaieaa
/anoi oiio?aaeyaiua neiaa e o.ae.

A iaeaieaa iauai aeaea n?aaenoaa iauaiey ?acaeaeythony ia aeaa aieueoea
a?oiiu — aa?aaeueiua e iaaa?aaeueiua. A ia?aoth a?oiio iiiaaeaao ana,
/oi naycaii n ?a/ueth, oi anoue eae e /oi ethaee aiai?yo ae?oa ae?oao.
Ai aoi?oth a?oiio aieaeoo ieieea e aeanou, iicu, acaeyaeu, i?aaiecaoeey
i?ino?ainoaa iauaiey e o.ae.

Aeaaioth ?ieue a iauaiee ea?aao ?a/ue. A i?ioeanna «aiai?aiey» aaaeii
aoeaaeueii ana: eae ia?auathony e niaanaaeieeo, /oi aiai?eony aia/aea, a
/oi iioii, niioaaonoaotho ee neiaa oiio auneacuaaiee e o.ae. Aua
ae?aaiea oeeiniou ioia/aee, /oi aaaeaiea aanaaeu — ianoiyuaa eneonnoai.
Oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi ethaee, ciay i naiai iaoiaiee ioaee/ii aunooiaoue e
any/anee no?aiynue iao/eoueny yoiio, i?aeoe/anee ia caaeoiuaathony,
oaeaaony ee ei oniaoii iauaoueny n ie?oaeathueie ethaeueie — ae?ocueyie,
eieeaaaie, ?iaenoaaiieeaie e o.ae. Iaaeaeo oai /anoi a aeecie auaaao,
/oi iu oioei neacaoue iaeii, a, naie oiai ia iniciaaay, aiai?ei ae?oaia
eee aiiaua ia iaoiaeei neia aeey au?aaeaiey eaeie-oi aaaeiie iunee eee
/oanoaa.

Aaaeiaeoay iaaa?aaeueiay ninoaaeythuay i?ioeanna iauaiey — oiaiea
neooaoue. Eiaaea /aeiaae aieiaoaeueii neooaao ae?oaiai /aeiaaea, a iai
aoeaaeueii ana — aeaca, iica, au?aaeaiea eeoea ia?auaiu e aiai?yuaio,
/oi, a naith i/a?aaeue, ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia niaanaaeieea, iiiiaaao aio
noi?ioee?iaaoue naie iunee, ?ane?uoueny, auoue iaeneiaeueii ene?aiiei.
?annayiiinoue, aaco/anoiinoue, ?aaiiaeooea iiaoo i?eaanoe e ia?aoiiio
?acoeueoaoo. Ii ia i?ioeann aanaaeu ieacuaaao aeeyiea e iiiaeanoai
ae?oaeo «iaaa?aaeueiuo iaei/ae», oaeeo, eae a?aiy e ianoi, aaea iia
i?ienoiaeeo, aa aeeeoaeueiinoue e o.ae.

A nioeeaeueiie ineoieiaee nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai oeiieiaee iauaiey,
eniieuecothueo naiua ?aciua iniiaaiey, — aeeeoaeueiinoue, iiceoeee
o/anoieeia, iniaaiiinoe eo acaeiiaeaenoaey e o.ae. Iioeiaeueiui aoaeao
auaeaeaiea iaeaieaa /anoi ano?a/athueony iauaeaiiuo neooaoeee: aeaeiaia
iauaiea, ainieoaoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea, aeeaaiinoe/aneoth aanaaeo e
eioeiii-ee/iinoiia iauaiea.

Aeaeiaia iauaiea — yoi neooaoeey, eiaaea oeaeueth acaeiiaeaenoaey
noaiiaeony aeinoeaeaiea eaeiai-eeai /aoeiai niaeaoaiey eee
aeiaiai?aiiinoe. *aua anaai iiaeiaiia acaeiiaeaenoaea aicieeaao iaaeaeo
ethaeueie, ia ninoiyueie ae?oa n ae?oaii a aeeceeo iaaeee/iinoiuo
ioiioaieyo (iaaeaeo eieeaaaie, aeaoiy eiiia?naioaie, ia/aeueieeii e
iiae/eiaiiui e o.ae.), e noaoon eaaeaeiai ec ia?oia?ia ii ioiioaieth e
ae?oaiio /aoei ii?aaeaeai. A oaeeo neooaoeeyo aaaeai i?aaeiao eee
iiaiae, i?eaaaeoee e iauaieth, aac eioi?iai aeaeiaay aanaaea ninoiyoueny
ia iiaeao.

Ainieoaoaeueiia iauaiea — yoi neooaoeee, a eioi?uo iaeei ec o/anoieeia
oeaeaiai?aaeaiii aicaeaenoaoao ia ae?oaiai, aeinoaoi/ii /aoei
i?aaenoaaeyoue naaa aeaeaaiue ?acoeueoao, oi anoue ciay, a /ai ii oi/ao
oaaaeeoue niaanaaeieea, /aio ii oi/ao aai iao/eoue e o.ae. Oaeea aanaaeu
aiciiaeiu, eiaaea iao/athuee iaeaaeaao neooaoeeiiii eee iinoiyiii
aaoi?eoaoii e ciaieyie.

Aeeaaiinoe/aneia iauaiea, oeaeue eioi?iai — noi?ie?iaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i niaanaaeieea eee iieo/eoue o iaai eaeoth-eeai
eioi?iaoeeth (oaeiai iauaiea a?a/a n iaoeeaioii e o.i.). Ia?oia?u
iaoiaeyony a ?acee/iuo iiceoeeyo: iaeei ni?aoeaaao, ae?oaie — ioaa/aao.
*oiau iieo/eoue iieiioeaiiue ioaao, ni?aoeaathuee aeieaeai i?aaeeueii
caaeaaaoue aii?inu, o/eouaay nianoaaiiue noaoon e noaoon ioaa/athuaai,
aai aioiaiinoue aeaaaoue ioaaou e o.ae.

Eioeiii-ee/iinoiia iauaiea ai iiiaii oieeaeueii e niaoeeoe/ii. Iii
aiciiaeii oieueei eiaaea ia?oia?u aioo?e aicieeoae neooaoeee /oanoaotho
naay ia ?aaiuo, iaeeiaeiai caeioa?aniaaiu a onoaiiaeaiee e
iiaeaea?aeaiee aeiaa?eoaeueiiai e aeoaieiai eiioaeoa. *aua anaai oaeia
iauaiea aicieeaao iaaeaeo aeeceeie ethaeueie e a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii i?aaeoanoaothueo acaeiiioiioaiee.

Iauaiea ea?aao aaaeiaeooth ?ieue a aeecie /aeiaaea. Aeeaaee/aneia
iauaiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony ?yaeii aanueia niaoeeoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae.
I?aaeaea anaai aeey iaai oa?aeoa?ii oaeia acaeiiaeaenoaea niaanaaeieeia,
eiaaea eaaeaeue ec ieo iaoiaeeony a iiea c?aiey ae?oaiai e ethaay
?aaeoeey — iica, acaeyae, aeano iiaoo auoue eaaei caia/aiu e o/oaiu
niaanaaeieeii. Yoi eiaao naie iiceoeaiua e iaaaoeaiua noi?iiu. N iaeiie
noi?iiu, i?enoaeueiia iaaethaeaiea ca ia?oia?ii aeaao aiaaooth
eioi?iaoeeth i iai, eniieueciaaiea eioi?ie iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue aieaa
eaaeiio e auno?iio onoaiiaeaieth acaeiiiiieiaiey. Ii n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
i?e oaeii oaniii eiioaeoa naay iiaeii iaia?ieii auaeaoue, i?iyaeoue
eaeia-oi /oanoai eee ioiioaiea, eioi?ia a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe oioaeinue
au ne?uoue, e yoi iiaeao iineoaeeoue i?e/eiie iai?yaeaiiinoe iauaiey.
[1]

*anoi auiieiyao ooieoeee eaoaeecaoi?a iauaiey neaa?aoa: caeo?ea, iiaeii
ne?uoue naia niouaiea a iauanoaa iaciaeiiuo ethaeae — «naaoneay» aanaaea
oa/ao eaa/a, eiaaea niaanaaeieee eo?yo. Iniaue iiaiae aeey eo?aiey anoue
o aeaiuei. Eo iaieioeyoeee n neaa?aoie /anoi eiatho naenoaeueiia
cia/aiea, i?eaeaeatho e iei aieiaiea ioae/ei. Oa?aeoa?iua aeaineea
aeanou eieaonoaa iaycaoaeueii i?aaeiieaaatho aeaiiino?aoeeth caiynouey e
iieo?ane?uoua, eae au ciaouea aoau, a eo/oee niinia iieacaoue ana yoi —
aea?aeaoue a ?oea ecyuioth neaa?aoo e aeaeaoue eaaeea caoyaeee. [3]

A neooaoeee a?oiiiaie aeeneonnee e a ioaee/iii aunooieaiee oniaoiinoue
acaeiiaeaenoaey ia noieue cia/eoaeueii caaeneo io oiai, ianeieueei iaa
noi?iiu aioiau e iano?iaiu ia acaeiiaeaenoaea ae?oa n ae?oaii, eae a
neo/aa aeaoo ethaeae. A aieueoie aoaeeoi?ee anaaaea anoue aa?iyoiinoue,
/oi eaeay-oi a?oiia ethaeae aoaeao aioiaa auneooaoue ia i/aiue
eioa?anioth eee oaea ciaeiioth eioi?iaoeeth, eiaaea aea ia?aae oiaie
oieueei iaeei /aeiaae, i?eoiaeeony eae iiaeii oi/iaa o/eouaaoue aai
acaeyaeu e aeonu, eia/a iauaiea iiaeao ia iieo/eoueny. Eiaiii iiyoiio a
neooaoeeyo aeeaaee/aneiai iauaiey iniaaiii aaaeiu i?iyaeaiey acaeiiiai
eioa?ana, ae?oaeaethaey e aeiaa?ey. Niaoeeoeea aeeaaee/aneiai iauaiey
ii?aaeaeyaony oi?iaeueiuie ?ieyie, a eioi?uo iaoiaeyony niaanaaeieee.
[1]

3. Iauaiea eae iaiai eioi?iaoeeae

Eiiioieeaoeey — yoi i?ioeann ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee io ioi?aaeoaey e
iieo/aoaeth. Ioi?aaeoaeue, oeaeue eioi?iai caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau
ieacaoue ia iieo/aoaey ii?aaeaeaiiia aicaeaenoaea, ia?aaeaao oi eee eiia
niiauaiea n iiiiuueth ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiaea. Iieo/aoaeue, /oiau iiiyoue
yoi niiauaiea, aeieaeai aai aeaeiaee?iaaoue. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo a ?iee
ioi?aaeoaey aunooiaao iaeei /aeiaae, a ?iee iieo/aoaey — ianeieueei
(o/eoaeue e o/aieee), auaaao iaiai?io, e oae, /oi e ioi?aaeoaeue e
iieo/aoaeue yaeythony eeai eiaeeaeaeaie, eeai a?oiiaie. Oeaee
ioi?aaeoaey iiaoo auoue naiuie ?aciiia?aciuie:

niiaueoue eioi?iaoeeth;

iauynieoue;

aeaoue i?eeac eee oeacaiea;

io/eoaoue iieo/aoaey, naeaeaoue aio aiooaiea;

iiaeaeeoueny naiei iano?iaieai;

auneacaoue naith oi/eo c?aiey ia oio eee eiie aii?in.

Ia iaeeiaeiau oeaeue eiiioieeaoeee e aa iiaoaeeoaeueiay i?e/eia. Oeaeue
— yoi yniia e /aoeia, niciaoaeueiia e ia?aaeei ?aoeeiiaeueiia iaia?aiea,
iiaoaeeoaeueiay i?e/eia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ne?uoia, ?aaeueiia e
nioeeaeueiia iaiaeia?yaiia iaia?aiea. I/aiue /anoi a ?acaiai?a iu
ne?uaaai naith enoeiioth oeaeue, iiaoaeeoaeueioth i?e/eio, ciay, /oi iia
ia iaeia?yaony iauanoaii. [7]

Eioi?iaoeey ia?aaeaaony n iiiiuueth onoiie e ienueiaiiie ?a/e, a oaeaea
aeanoa. Ia?aaeaaony oaeaea n iiiiuueth iauaai ioiioaiey, ieieee —
e?anii?a/eaua oeuaee e iinooiee eiiaaea noiyo aeeeiiuo ?a/ae.
Aieueoeinoai enneaaeiaaoaeae niaeaoathony, /oi n iiiiuueth neia
ia?aaeaaony a iniiaiii eioi?iaoeey, a n iiiiuueth aeanoia — ?acee/iia
ioiioaiea e yoie eioi?iaoeee, a eiiaaea aeanou iiaoo caiaiyoue e neiaa.
Eiaaea aeaiueia a?inaao «oaeenoaaiiue» acaeyae ia ioae/eio, ana
noaiiaeony ynii, oioy i?e yoii iia ia ioe?uaaao ?oa. Aia caaeneiinoe io
noaiaie eoeueoo?u neiaa e aeanou oae neeueii caaenyo ae?oa io ae?oaa,
/oi oi?ioi iiaeaioiaeaiiue /aeiaae iiaeao neacaoue, eaeie eiaiii aeano
eee eaeia eiaiii aeaeaeaiea aeaeaao ae?oaie /aeiaae, ia aeaey aai, a
oieueei neuoa aai neiaa. *aeiaae ?aaeei caaeoiuaaaony iaae oai, eaeea
aeaeaeaiey ii aeaeaao ai a?aiy ?acaiai?a, e iiaeao ieacaoueny oae, /oi
ii aiai?eo iaeii, a aai aeanou yaii iieacuaatho, /oi ii eiaao a aeaeo
nianai ae?oaia. [6]

Iieo/aai aea iu eioi?iaoeeth n iiiiuueth /oanoa. A iaoo yiioo
aoaeeiaecoaeueiuo n?aaenoa neoo e c?aiea — aeaaiua i?aaiu aini?eyoey.

A i?aaiecaoeee iauaiey ia iineaaeithth ?ieue ea?atho iaoa?eaeueiua
oneiaey eiiioieeaoeee (?aniieiaeaiea noiea e nooeueaa). Noieu e nooeuey
iiaoo ?annoaaeyoueny ii-?aciiio a caaeneiinoe io oeaee nia?aiey.

Ioi?aaeoaeue noieo eeoeii e iieo/aoaeyi, eioi?ua caienuaatho niiauaiey.
Yoi ?aniieiaeaiea iicaieyao ?acianoeoue aieueoia /enei ethaeae, ii
aieueoia eiee/anoai o/anoieeia cao?oaeiyao eiiioieeaoeeth iieo/aoaeae n
ioi?aaeoaeai. «Ia?aoiay naycue» inouanoaeyaony n o?oaeii. Yoi oa?iei,
caeinoaiaaiiue ec ?aaeeioaoieee icia/aao, /oi iinea ia?aaea/e niiauaiey
iaeiiio eee ianeieueeei iieo/aoaeyi iaeei eo ieo ia?auaaony e
ioi?aaeoaeth aeey iieo/aiey ooi/iaiee.

E?oaeue noie iicaieyao «iauaaeeieoue» ethaeae e ecaaaeaoue oai naiui
nicaeaiea iiaea?oii. Oaeia ?aniieiaeaiea iaeaa/aao eiiioieeaoeeth
iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie e a iaeioi?ie noaiaie iaeo?aeecoao ?ieue
?oeiaiaeeoaey.

Eeoeii e eeoeo o/anoieee i?ioeainoiyo ae?oa ae?oao a aeeneonnee,
ionoaeaay i?ioeaiiieiaeiua eioa?anu. Oaeay no?oeoo?a iaei niinianoaoao
eiiioieeaoeee, iiaoaeaeay noi?iiu nei?aa e eiio?iioaoeee, /ai e iaiaio
iiaieyie. E iae i?eaaaatho /aua anaai i?e aeaonoi?iiieo ia?aaiai?ao,
eiaaea ?oeiaiaeeoaee ?aniieaaathony a oeaio?a eaaeaeie aeaeaaaoeee.

A o?aoaieueieea o/anoieee aeaeyo ae?oa ae?oaa e iiaoo eaaei iauaoueny
iaaeaeo niaie. Iieiaeaiea ?oeiaiaeeoaey a aeaiiii neo/aa niioaaonoaoao
iieiaeaieth «eeaea?a». Oaeia ?aniieiaeaiea iicaieyao nia?aoue aieueoa
o/anoieeia, /ai «e?oaeue noie», e a oi aea a?aiy oneeeoue iieiaeaiea
?oeiaiaeeoaey. [7]

Ec anaai yoiai neaaeoao, /oi aeey nioeeaeueiie ineoieiaee, eae, iiaeao
auoue, ie aeey eaeie ae?oaie iaoee, aeooaeueia au?aaioea i?aeoe/aneeo
?aeiiaiaeaoeee, iieo/aiiuo a oiaea i?eeeaaeiuo enneaaeiaaiee.

EEOA?AOO?A

Aeaoeia TH.A., Iao?ianeay E.A. *oi oaeia iaaeee/iinoiia iauaiea?
//O?anoiiaoey ii nioeeaeueiie ineoieiaee – I.: Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay
iaaeaaiae/aneay aeaaeaiey, 1994.

Aiae?aaaa A.I. I?aaeiao nioeeaeueiie ineoieiaee e aa ianoi a nenoaia
iao/iiai ciaiey //O?anoiiaoey ii nioeeaeueiie ineoieiaee – I.:
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay iaaeaaiae/aneay aeaaeaiey, 1994.

A?iieueae A. Iniaue iiaiae, /oiau caeo?eoue neaa?aoo //«Ecaanoey»
16.11.1994a.

Aiaeo?oa AE. *oi oaeia ineoieiaey. O.2. – I.: Ie?, 1992.

A?eiae E.I. Iauaiea n niaie – I.: Ecae-ai iieeo. eeo-?u, 1991.

Iec A. Iauea iiiyoey i ycuea aeanoia //O?anoiiaoey ii nioeeaeueiie
ineoieiaee – I.: Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay iaaeaaiae/aneay aeaaeaiey, 1994.

?iaa? I., Oeeueiai O. Iauea naaaeaiey i eiiioieeaoeee //O?anoiiaoey ii
nioeeaeueiie ineoieiaee – I.: Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay iaaeaaiae/aneay
aeaaeaiey, 1994.

Niaeca? I. Nioeeieiaey – I.: Oaieen, 1994.

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