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Iaaeaeo iooeaie e aeaoueie auneoueny noaia

?iainoe ,nouaea ,iaiiieiaiey ,oycaeaiiie

iaaeiinoe ,*oiau yoa noaia ia au?inea,

o?aaothony oneeey ,ia eioi?ua aea oaaoa-

ao /aeiaa/aneie aeecie ,Ii aeaoe ?iaeyony

o ian a oo ii?o ,eiaaea iu aua ia?aiieiaiu

niaie ,naeeaaaiu /anoiethaeai e io aeaoae

i?inei ia noieueei aeiaa?ey ,neieueei iieiy.

Iooeia ioaeaeytho io aeaoae eo nianoaaiiua

no?anoe .Anee ou iiiieoue i naieo a?aoao,

a /ai ou niaaoue oi?aeaoue naiaai nuia?

Iaeia Ec aeaaiuo iniaaiiinoae iiae?inoeiaiai e ?aiiaai thiioaneiai
aic?anoa – niaia cia/eiuo eeoe e ia?ano?ieea acaeiiioiioaiee ni
ac?ineuie.

“Iu e ac?ineua” – iinoiyiiay oaia iiae?inoeiaie e thiioaneie ?aoeaenee
.Eiia/ii, aic?anoiia “Iu” nouanoaotho e o ?aaaiea .Ii ?aaaiie i?eieiaao
?acee/ea aeaoo ie?ia – aeaoneiai e ac?ineiai – e oi, /oi ioiioaiey
iaaeaeo ieie ia?aaiii?aaiu, eae ia/oi aannii?iia, naii niaie
?acoiathuaany. Iiae?inoee noiyo aaea-oi “iina?aaeeia”, e yoa
i?iiaaeooi/iinoue iieiaeaiey ii?aaeaeyao iiiaea naienoaa eo ineoieiaee,
aeeth/ay e naiiniciaiea.

O?aioeocneea ineoieiae (A. Cacci, 1969 ) ni?aoeaaee aeaoae io 5 aei 14
eao, n/eoatho ee iie naay “iaeaiueeeie”, “aieueoeie” eee “n?aaeieie” (
ia ii ?inoo, a ii aic?anoo); i?e yoii auynieeanue yaiethoeey naieo
yoaeiiia “?inoa”. Aeioeieueieee /anoi n?aaieaatho naay n ieaaeoeie e
iioiio ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi iie “aieueoea”. Oeieueiue aic?ano aeaao
?aaaieo aioiaue eiee/anoaaiiue yoaeii n?aaiaiey – ia?aoiae ec eeanna a
eeann; aieueoeinoai aeaoae n/eoatho naay “n?aaeieie”, n ioeeiiaieyie
i?aeiouanoaaiii a noi?iio ” aieueoiai “.N 11 aei 12 eao oi/ea ion/aoa
iaiyaony; aa yoaeiiii ana /aua noaiiaeoueny ac?ineue, “?anoe” – cia/eo
noaiiaeoueny ac?ineui.

Niaaoneea ineoieiae, ia/eiay n E. N. Auaioneiai, aaeeiiaeooii n/eoatho
aeaaiui iiaiia?aciaaieai iiae?inoeiaiai aic?anoa /oanoai ac?ineinoe
.Iaeiaei i?eaioaoeey ia ac?ineua oeaiiinoe e n?aaiaiea naay ni ac?ineuie
ca/anooth canoaaeytho iiae?inoea niiaa aeaeaoue naay ioiineoaeueii
iaeaiueeei, ianaiinoiyoaeueiui. I?e yoii , a ioee/ee io ?aaaiea, ii oaea
ia n/eoaao oaeia iieiaeaiea ii?iaeueiui e no?aieoueny aai i?aiaeieaoue.
Ionthaea i?ioeai?a/eainoue /oanoaa ac?ineinoe – iiae?inoie i?aoaiaeoao
auoue ac?ineui e a oi aea a?aiy ciaao, /oi o?iaaiue aai i?eoycaiee
aeaeaei ia ai anai iiaeoaa?aeaeai e ii?aaaeai.

Iaeiie ec naiuo aaaeiuo iio?aaiinoae ia?aoiaeiiai aic?anoa noaiiaeoueny
iio?aaiinoue a inaiaiaeaeaiee io eiio?iey e iiaee ?iaeeoaeae, o/eoaeae,
noa?oeo aiiaua, a oaeaea io onoaiiaeaiiuo eie i?aaee e ii?yaeeia. Eae
aea iiyaeyaony yoa aic?anoiay oaiaeaioeey ( ia niaoeaaoue n ioiioaieyie
iaaeaeo iieieaieyie!) a ioiioaieyo noa?oaeeannieeia n iaeaieaa cia/eiuie
aeey ieo eiie?aoiuie ac?ineuie ,eioi?ua yaeythony ia oieueei noa?oeie ii
aic?anoo, ii e iieiiii/iuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie iauanoaa ac?ineuo a oeaeii,
– ?iaeeoaeyie e o/eoaeyie?

Ec oaeoi?ia nioeeaeecaoeee ,?anniao?eaaaiuo ii ioaeaeueiinoe ,naiui
aaaeiui e aeeyoaeueiui auea e inoaaony ?iaeeoaeueneay naiuey eae
ia?ae/iay y/aeea iauanoaa ,aeeyiea eioi?ie ?aaaiie eniuouaaao ?aiueoa
anaai ,eiaaea ii iaeaieaa aini?eei/ea. Naiaeiua oneiaey ,aeeth/ay
nioeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea ,?iae caiyoee ,iaoa?eaeueiue o?iaaiue e
o?iaaiue ia?aciaaiey ?iaeeoaeae ,a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a i?aaeii?aaeaeytho
aeeciaiiue iooue ?aaaiea. E?iia niciaoaeueiiai, oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai
ainieoaiey, eioi?ia aeatho aio ?iaeeoaee, ia ?aaaiea aicaeaenoaoao any
aioo?enaiaeiay aoiinoa?a, i?e/ai yooaeo yoiai aicaeaenoaey iaeaieeaaaony
n aic?anoii, i?aeiieyynue a no?oeoo?a ee/iinoe.
Iao i?aeoe/anee
ie iaeiiai nioeeaeueiiai eee ineoieiae/aneiai aniaeoa iiaaaeaiey
iiae?inoeia e thiioae, eioi?ue ia caaenae au io eo naiaeiuo oneiaee a
ianoiyuai eee i?ioeii.

I?aaaea ,iaiyaony oa?aeoa? yoie caaeneiinoe. Oae ,anee a i?ioeii
oeieueiay oniaaaaiinoue ?aaaiea e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aai iao/aiey
caaenaee aeaaiui ia?acii io iaoa?eaeueiiai o?iaiy naiuee ,oi oaia?ue
yoio oaeoi? iaiaa aeeyoaeai.

Ii aeaiiui eaieia?aaeneiai nioeeieiaa Y. E. Aaneeueaaie (1975), o
?iaeeoaeae n aunoei ia?aciaaieai aeiey aeaoae n aunieie oniaaaaiinoueth
( n?aaeiee aaee auoa 4 ) ao?ia auoa ,/ai a a?oiia naiae n ia?aciaaieai
?iaeeoaeae ieaea naie eeannia. Yoa caaeneiinoue nio?aiyaony aeaaea a
noa?oeo eeannao, eiaaea aeaoe eiatho iaauee naiinoiyoaeueiie ?aaiou e ia
ioaeaeathony a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie iiiiue ?iaeeoaeae.

Iiieii ia?aciaaoaeueiiai o?iaiy ?iaeeoaeae ,neeueii aeeyao ia noaeueao
iiae?inoeia e thiioae ninoaa naiuee e oa?aeoa? acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo
aa /eaiaie. Iaaeaaii?eyoiua naiaeiua oneiaey oa?aeoa?iu aeey
iiaeaaeythuaai aieueoeinoaa oae iacuaaaiuo o?oaeiuo iiae?inoeia.

Cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia ee/iinoue iiae?inoea ieacuaaao noeeue aai
acaeiiioiioaiee n ?iaeeoaeyie ,eioi?ue eeoue io/anoe iaoneiaeai eo
nioeeaeueiui iieiaeaieai.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei ioiineoaeueii aaoiiiiiuo ineoieiae/aneeo
iaoaieciia ,iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo ?iaeeoaee aeeytho ia naieo aeaoae.
Ai-ia?auo , iiaee?aieaiea : iiiu?yy iiaaaeaiea ,eioi?ia ac?ineua
n/eoatho i?aaeeueiui ,e iaeacuaay ca ia?ooaiea onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee
,?iaeeoaee aiaae?ytho a niciaiea ?aaaiea ii?aaeaeaiioth nenoaio ii?i
,niaethaeaiea eioi?uo iinoaiaiii noaiiaeoueny aeey ?aaaiea i?eau/eie e
aioo?aiiae iio?aaiinoueth. Ai-aoi?uo , eaeaioeoeeaoeey : ?aaaiie
iiae?aaeaao ?iaeeoaeyi ,i?eaioe?oaony ia eo i?eia? ,noa?aaony noaoue
oaeei aea ,eae iie . A-o?aoueeo ,iiieiaiea : ciay aioo?aiiee ie? ?aaaiea
e /ooei ioeeeeaynue ia aai i?iaeaiu ,?iaeeoaee oai naiui oi?ie?otho aai
naiiniciaiea e eiiioieeaoeaiua ea/anoaa.

Naiaeiay nioeeaeecaoeey ia naiaeeoueny e iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio «ia?iiio»
acaeiiaeaenoaeth ?aaaieo n ?iaeeoaeyie. Oae, yooaeo eaeaioeoeeaoeee
iiaeao auoue iaeo?aeeciaai ano?a/iie ?ieaaie acaeiiaeiiieieoaeueiinoueth
: iai?eia?, a naiuea, aaea iaa ?iaeeoaey oiatho i/aiue oi?ioi aanoe
oicyenoai, ?aaaiie iiaeao e ia au?aaioaoue yoeo niiniaiinoae , oae eae ,
oioy o iaai ia?aae aeacaie oi?ioee ia?acaoe , naiuey ia ioaeaeaaony a
i?iyaeaiee yoeo ea/anoa; iai?ioea , a naiuea , aaea iaoue
aanoicyenoaaiia, yoo ?ieue iiaeao acyoue ia naay noa?oay aei/ue. Ia
iaiaa aaaeai iaoaieci ineoieiae/aneiai i?ioeaiaeaenoaey : thiioa,
naiaiaeo eioi?iai aeanoei ia?aie/eaatho, iiaeao au?aaioaoue iiauoaiioth
oyao e naiinoiyoaeueiinoe , a oio , eiio ana ?ac?aoatho, au?anoe
caaeneiui. Iiyoiio eiie?aoiua naienoaa ee/iinoe ?aaaiea a i?eioeeia
iaauaiaeeiu ie ec naienoa aai ?iaeeoaeae ( ie ii noiaenoao, ie ii
eiio?anoo), ie ec ioaeaeueii acyouo iaoiaeia ainieoaiey

(Ae. Aaoi?eiae, 1975) .

Aianoa n oai aanueia aaaeiu yiioeeiiaeueiue oii naiaeiuo
acaeiiioiioaiee e i?aiaeaaeathuee a naiuea oei eiio?iey e aeenoeeieeiu.

Yiioeeiiaeueiue oii ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ?iaeeoaeyie e aeaoueie ineoieiae
i?aaenoaaeytho a aeaea oeaeu, ia iaeiii iiethna eioi?ie noiyo
iaeneiaeueii aeeceea , oaieua, aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiua ioiioaiey
(?iaeeoaeueneay ethaiaue) , a ia ae?oaii – aeaeaeea, oieiaeiua e
a?aaeaeaaiua. A ia?aii neo/aa iniiaiuie n?aaenoaaie ainieoaiey yaeythony
aieiaiea e iiiu?aiea , ai aoi?ii – no?iainoue e iaeacaiea. Iiiaeanoai
enneaaeiaaiee aeieacuaatho i?aeiouanoaa ia?aiai iiaeoiaea. ?aaaiie,
eeoaiiue neeueiuo e iaaeaoniuneaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa ?iaeeoaeueneie
ethaae , eiaao iaiueoa oainia ia aunieia naiioaaaeaiea , oaieua e
ae?oaeanoaaiiua ioiioaiey n ae?oaeie ethaeueie e onoie/eaue
iieiaeeoaeueiue ia?ac «ss». Eco/aiea thiioae e ac?ineuo, no?aaeathueo
ineoioeceieiae/aneeie e ineoiniiaoe/aneeie ia?ooaieyie, iaa?ioe/aneeie
?anno?ienoaaie, o?oaeiinoyie a iauaiee, oinoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe eee
o/aaa, iieacuaaao, /oi ana yoe yaeaiey cia/eoaeueii /aua iaaethaeathony
o oao, eiio a aeaonoaa iaaeinoaaaei ?iaeeoaeueneiai aieiaiey e oaiea.
Iaaeia?iaeaeaoaeueiinoue eee iaaieiaiea ni noi?iiu ?iaeeoaeae aucuaaao
iainiciaiioth acaeiioth a?aaeaeaaiinoue o aeaoae. Yoa a?aaeaeaaiinoue
iiaeao i?iyaeyoueny eae yaii, ii ioiioaieth e naiei ?iaeeoaeyi, oae e
ne?uoii. Aacio/aoiay, iaiioeae?iaaiiay aeanoieinoue, i?iyaeyaiay
iaeioi?uie iiae?inoeaie e thiioaie ii ioiioaieth e iinoi?iiiei ethaeyi,
ia naeaeaaoei ei ie/aai ieioiai, ia?aaeei ieacuaaaony neaaenoaeai
aeaoneeo ia?aaeeaaiee. Anee aea yoa aanneeueiay aa?anney iai?aaeyaony
aioo?ue ,iia aeaao ieceia naiioaaaeaiea, /oanoaa aeiu, o?aaiae e o.ae.

Yiioeeiiaeueiue oii naiaeiiai ainieoaiey nouanoaoao ia nai ii naaa , a
a nayce n ii?aaeaeaiiui oeiii eiio?iey e aeenoeeieeiu , iai?aaeaiiuo ia
oi?ie?iaaiea niioaaonoaothueo /a?o oa?aeoa?a. ?aciua niiniau
?iaeeoaeueneiai eiio?iey oaeaea iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea oeaeu, ia
iaeiii iiethna eioi?ie aunieay aeoeaiinoue, naiinoiyoaeueiinoue e
eieoeeaoeaa ?aaaiea, a ia ae?oaii – ianneaiinoue, caaeneiinoue, neaiia
iineooaiea ( A. Yeaea?, 1971) .

Ca yoeie oeiaie ioiioaiee noieo ia oieueei ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeanoe , ii e
?aciia iai?aaeaiea aioo?enaiaeiie eiiioieeaoeee : a iaeieo neo/ayo
eiiioieeaoeey iai?aaeaia i?aeiouanoaaiii eee eneeth/eoaeueii io
?iaeeoaeae e ?aaaieo, a ae?oaeo – io ?aaaiea e ?iaeeoaeyi.

?acoiaaony, niiniau i?eiyoey ?aoaiee a aieueoeinoaa naiae aa?uee?otho a
caaeneiinoe io i?aaeiaoa:

a iaeieo aii?inao noa?oaeeannieee eiatho ii/oe iieioth
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue , a ae?oaeo ( iai?eia?, a oeiainiauo) – i?aai
?aoaoue inoaaony ca ?iaeeoaeyie. E?iia oiai, ?iaeeoaee ia anaaaea
i?aeoeeotho iaeei e oio aea noeeue aeenoeeieeiu: iooeu, eae i?aaeei,
aini?eieiathony thiioaie e ia naiii aeaea auaatho aieaa aeanoeeie e
aaoi?eoa?iuie, /ai iaoa?e, oae /oi iauee naiaeiue noeeue a ecaanoiie
ia?a eiii?iienniue. Ioaoe e iaoue iiaoo acaeiii aeiiieiyoue, a iiaoo e
iiae?uaaoue aeeyiea ae?oa ae?oaa.

Iaeeo/oea acaeiiioiioaiey noa?oaeeannieeia n ?iaeeoaeyie neeaaeuaathony
iau/ii oiaaea, eiaaea ?iaeeoaee i?eaea?aeeaathony aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
noeey ainieoaiey . Yoio noeeue a iaeaieueoae noaiaie niinianoaoao
ainieoaieth naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, aeoeaiinoe, eieoeeaoeau e nioeeaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe . Iiaaaeaiea ?aaaiea iai?aaeyaony a yoii neo/aa
iineaaeiaaoaeueii e aianoa n oai aeaei e ?aoeeiiaeueii :

?iaeeoaeue anaaaea iauyniyao iioeau naieo o?aaiaaiee e iiiu?yao eo
ianoaeaeaiea iiae?inoeii ;

aeanoue eniieuecoaony eeoue a ia?o iaiaoiaeeiinoe ;

a ?aaaiea oeaieoueny eae iineooaiea , oae e iacaaeneiinoue;

?iaeeoaeue onoaiaaeeaaao i?aaeea e oaa?aei i?iaiaeeo eo a aeeciue, ii
ia n/eoaao naay iaiia?aoeiui ;

ii i?eneooeaaaony e iiaieyi ?aaaiea, ii ia enoiaeeo oieueei ec aai
aeaeaiee.

E?aeiea oeiu ioiioaiee , ana ?aaii, eaeoo ee iie a noi?iio
aaoi?eoa?iinoe eee eeaa?aeueiie anaoa?ieiinoe , aeatho ieioea
?acoeueoaou. Aaoi?eoa?iue noeeue aucuaaao o aeaoae io/oaeaeaiea io
?iaeeoaeae, /oanoai naiae iacia/eoaeueiinoe e iaaeaeaiiinoe a naiuea.
?iaeeoaeueneea o?aaiaaiey, anee iie eaaeoony iaiainiiaaiiuie, aucuaatho
eeai i?ioano e aa?anneth, eeai i?eau/ioth aiaoeth e ianneaiinoue.
Ia?aaea a noi?iio anaoa?ieiinoe aucuaaao o iiae?inoea iuouaiea , /oi
?iaeeoaeyi iao aei iaai aeaea. E?iia oiai, ianneaiua, iacaeioa?aniaaiiua
?iaeeoaee ia iiaoo auoue i?aaeiaoii iiae?aaeaiey e eaeaioeoeeaoeee , a
ae?oaea aeeyiey – oeieu , naa?noieeia, n?aaenoa ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee –
/anoi ia iiaoo ainiieieoue yoio i?iaae , inoaaeyy ?aaaiea aac
iaaeeaaeauaai ?oeiaiaenoaa e i?eaioaoeee a neiaeiii e iaiythuainy ie?a .
Ineaaeaiea ?iaeeoaeueneiai ia/aea , eae e aai aeia?o?ioey , niinianoaoao
oi?ie?iaaieth ee/iinoe ni neaaui «ss» .

A iaoae no?aia nouanoaotho ?aciua noeee naiaeiiai ainieoaiey, eioi?ua
ai iiiaii caaenyo eae io iaoeeiiaeueiuo o?aaeeoeee, oae e io
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae. Iaeiaei a oeaeii iaoa ia?auaiea n
aeaoueie yaeyaony cia/eoaeueii aieaa aaoi?eoa?iui e aeanoeei, /ai iu yoi
neeiiiu i?eciaoue. I?e aiiieiiii aieaoe?iaaiee aeaoae ?aciiai aic?anoa
ec 15 ai?iaeia no?aiu auynieeinue, /oi 60 i?ioeaioia ?iaeeoaeae
eniieuecotho oece/aneea iaeacaiey; n?aaee ieo 85 i?ioeaioia – ii?ea, 9
i?ioeaioia – noiyiea a oaeo (eiiaaea ia eieaiyo ia ai?ioa , niee eee
ee?ie/ao ), 5 i?ioeaioia – oaea?u ii aieiaa e eeoeo e o.ae.

Ii/aio oae aeeao/e aaoi?eoa?iua iaoiaeu? Ai-ia?auo, oaeiaa o?aaeeoeey.
Noaa ac?ineui, ethaee /anoi aini?iecaiaeyo oi, /oi n ieie naieie
i?iaeaeuaaee ?iaeeoaee, aeaaea anee iie iiiiyo, eae o?oaeii ei
i?eoiaeeeinue. Ai-aoi?uo, oa?aeoa? naiaeiiai ainieoaiey i/aiue oanii
naycai ni noeeai iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee aiiaua: naiaeiue aaoi?eoa?eci
io?aaeaao e iiaee?aieyao eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiue noeeue,
oei?aieaoeeny ia i?iecaiaenoaa e a iauanoaaiiie aeecie. A-o?aoueeo,
ethaee aanniciaoaeueii auiauatho ia aeaoyo naie neoaeaaiua iai?eyoiinoe,
?acae?aaeaiea, aicieeathuaa a i/a?aaeyo, ia?aiieiaiiii o?ainii?oa e o.
i. A-/aoaa?ouo, ieceee o?iaaiue iaaeaaiae/aneie eoeueoo?u,
oaaaeaeaiiinoue a oii, /oi eo/oee niinia ?ac?aoaiey ethauo eiioeeeoiuo
neooaoeee – neea.

Ii anee n iaeaiueeeie aeaoueie aaoi?eoa?iinoue aua « i?ioiaeeo» , oi
oaia?ue iia iaieioaii ii?iaeaeaao eiioeeeou, i?e/ai i?eoiaeeony ieaoeoue
e ii noa?ui, aeaaii caauoui n/aoai.

Eae ie aaeeei aeeyiea ?iaeeoaeae ia oi?ie?iaaiea ee/iinoe, iee aai
i?eoiaeeony ia ia ia?aoiaeiue aic?ano, a ia ia?aua aiaeu aeecie. E
noa?oei eeannai noeeue acaeiiioiioaiee n ?iaeeoaeyie aeaaii oaea
neiaeeeny, e «ioiaieoue» yooaeo i?ioeiai iiuoa iaaiciiaeii.

*oiau iiiyoue acaeiiioiioaiey noa?oaeeannieea n ?iaeeoaeyie,
iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue, eae iaiythony n aic?anoii ooieoeee yoeo ioiioaiee e
naycaiiua n ieie i?aaenoaaeaieyie. A aeacao ?aaaiea iaoue e ioaoe
aunooiatho a ianeieueeeo «eiinoanyo»:

eae enoi/iee yiioeeiiaeueiiai oaiea e iiaeaea?aeee, aac eioi?uo ?aaaiie
/oanoaoao naay aaccaueoiui e aaniiiiuiui;

eae aeanoue, aee?aeoeaiay einoaioeey, ?anii?yaeeoaeue aeaa, iaeacaiee e
iiiu?aiee;

eae ia?acaoe , i?eia? aeey iiae?aaeaiey, aiieiuaiea ioae?inoe e eo/oeo
/aeiaa/aneeo ea/anoa;

eae noa?oee ae?oa e niaao/ee, eioi?iio iiaeii aeiaa?eoue ana.

Niioiioaiea yoeo ooieoeee e ineoieiae/aneay cia/eiinoue eaaeaeie ec ieo
n aic?anoii iaiyaony.

Ia?aoiaeiue aic?ano – ia?eiae yiaineiaoeee ?aaaiea io ?iaeeoaeae.
I?ioeann yoio yaeyaony neiaeiui e iiiaiia?iui . Yiaineiaoeey iiaeao
auoue yiioeeiiaeueiie , iieacuaathuae , ianeieueei cia/ei aeey thiioe
yiioeeiiaeueiue eiioaeo n ?iaeeoaeyie ii n?aaiaieth n i?eaycaiiinoyie e
ae?oaei ethaeyi (ae?oaeaie, ethaiaueth), iiaaaeai/aneie , i?iyaeythuaeny
a oii , ianeieueei aeanoei ?iaeeoaee ?aaoee?otho iiaaaeaiea nuia eee
aei/a?e, eee ii?iaoeaiie , iieacuaathuae, i?eaioe?oaony ee thiioa ia oa
aea ii?iu e oeaiiinoe, /oi aai ?iaeeoaee , eee ia eaeea-oi ae?oaea.
Eaaeaeue ec yoeo aniaeoia yiaineiaoeee eiaao nianoaaiioth eiaeeo.

A iniiaa yiioeeiiaeueiie i?eaycaiiinoe ?aaaiea e ?iaeeoaeyi
ia?aiia/aeueii eaaeeo caaeneiinoue io ieo. Ii ia?a ?inoa
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, iniaaiii a ia?aoiaeiii aic?anoa, oaeay caaeneiinoue
ia/eiaao ?aaaiea oyaioeoue. I/aiue ieioi, eiaaea aio ia oaaoaao
?iaeeoaeueneie ethaae. Ii anoue aiieia aeinoiaa?iua ineoieiae/aneea
aeaiiua i oii , /oi ecauoie yiioeeiiaeueiiai oaiea oiaea a?aaeai eae
aeey iaeue/eeia , oa e aeey aeaai/ae. Ii cao?oaeiyao oi?ie?iaaiea o ieo
aioo?aiiae aiaoiiee e ii?iaeaeaao onoie/eaoth iio?aaiinoue a iiaea,
caaeneiinoue eae /a?oo oa?aeoa?a. Neeoeii othoiia ?iaeeoaeueneia aiacaei
ia noeioee?oao au?inoaai ioaioea e aueaoo a i?ioeai?a/eaue e neiaeiue
ac?ineue ie?.

Ethayuea iaoa?e , ia niiniaiua iuneeoue i ?aaaiea ioaeaeueii io naieo
naay, /anoi ia iiieiatho yoiai. Ii thiioa ia iiaeao iiac?ineaoue, ia
?aci?aaa «ioiiaeio» yiioeeiiaeueiie caaeneiinoe io ?iaeeoaeae e ia
aeeth/ea naie ioiioaiey n ieie a iiaoth , ai?acaei aieaa neiaeioth
nenoaio yiioeeiiaeueiuo i?eaycaiiinoae , oeaio?ii eioi?ie yaeythony ia
?iaeeoaee , a ii nai. Ecauoie iaoa?eineie eanee e iieiaeaiea
«iaiaiueeeiiai nuiea» ia/eiatho aai ?acae?aaeaoue ia oieueei iioiio ,
/oi aucuaatho ianiaoee naa?noieeia , ii e iioiio, /oi i?iaoaeaeatho a
iai naiii /oanoai caaeneiinoe , n eioi?ui iiae?inoie ai?aony. *oanoaoy
ioeaaeaeaiea , iiiaea ?iaeeoaee aeoiatho, /oi aeaoe eo ?acethaeee ,
aeaeothony ia eo /a?noainoue e o. ae. Ii iinea oiai eae e?eoe/aneee
ia?eiae i?ioiaeeo , yiioeeiiaeueiue eiioaeo n ?iaeeoaeyie, anee iie naie
aai ia enii?oeee, iau/ii ainnoaiaaeeaaaony, oaea ia aieaa aunieii,
niciaoaeueiii o?iaia.

?ino naiinoiyoaeueiinoe ia?aie/eaaao e ooieoeee ?iaeeoaeueneie aeanoe
.E noa?oei eeannai iiaaaeai/aneay aaoiiiiey, eae i?aaeei, oaea aanueia
aaeeea: noa?oaeeanniee naiinoiyoaeueii ?ani?aaeaeyao naia a?aiy,
auae?aao ae?ocae, niiniau aeinoaa e o. ae. A naiueyo n aieaa eee iaiaa
aaoi?eoa?iui oeeaaeii yoa aaoiiiiecaoeey eiiaaea aucuaaao ino?ua
eiioeeeou.

Aeiaeaaynue ?anoe?aiey naieo i?aa, noa?oaeeannieee ia?aaeei
i?aaeuyaeytho e ?iaeeoaeyi caauoaiiua o?aaiaaiey, a oii /enea e
iaoa?eaeueiua. Ai iiiaeo iaania/aiiuo naiueyo aeaoe ia ciatho enoi/ieeia
naiaeiiai athaeaeaoa e ia caaioyony ia yoii. Ii/oe aeaayoue aeanyouo
ii?ioaiiuo E.I. AEeeeiie e I.O O?ieiaie (1969 ) iineianeeo aeaayoe- e
aeanyoeeeannieeia iaaeayeenue , /oi eo aeaeaiey eiaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua
aaue inouanoayony, i?e/ai aeaa o?aoe oaa?aiu, /oi inouanoaeoue yoi
aeaeaiea – aeaei ?iaeeoaeae («eoiyo ?iaeeoaee»). Iiaaaeaiea e cai?inu
yoeo noa?oaeeannieeia i?aeoe/anee aaoiiiiiu , iineieueeo aeaeaiey
i?eia?anoe oo eee eioth aauue niaiaaeaee n ieaiaie ?iaeeoaeae oieueei a
10 i?ioeaioao neo/aaa. Oai ia iaiaa aeaoe oaa?aiu, /oi eo aeaeaieyi
aoaeao ioaeaii i?aaeii/oaiea.

Noaiaiue eaeaioeoeeaoeee n ?iaeeoaeyie a thiinoe iaiueoa, /ai a
aeaonoaa. ?acoiaaony, oi?ioea ?iaeeoaee inoathony aeey noa?oaeeannieeia
aaaeiui yoaeiiii iiaaaeaiey. Ia aii?in «Oioaee au au auoue oaeei
/aeiaaeii, eae aaoe ?iaeeoaee?» iieiaeeoaeueii ioaaoeee nauoa 70
i?ioeaioia naieo-iaoa?ao?aneeo noa?oaeeannieeia, ii?ioaiiuo O.I.
Iaeueeianeie (1971). Ia aii?in «Oioaee au iioiaeeoue ia ?iaeeoaeae eia a
/ai?» iieiaeeoaeueii ioaaoeee 10 i?ioeaioia ii?ioaiiuo, ie a /ai – 7
i?ioeaioia e oeeiieeenue io ioaaoa ia aii?in 11 i?ioeaioia ii?ioaiiuo.

Iaeiaei ?iaeeoaeueneee i?eia? oaea ia aini?eieiaaony oae aaniethoii e
iae?eoe/ii , eae a aeaonoaa. O noa?oaeeannieeia anoue e ae?oaea
aaoi?eoaou, e?iia ?iaeeoaeae. *ai noa?oa ?aaaiie, oai aa?iyoiaa, /oi
eaeaaeu ii /a?iaao ia oieueei ec aeeaeaeoaai ie?oaeaiey, ii e ec aieaa
oe?ieiai e?oaa eeoe (iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneea aeayoaee, aa?ie eeii e
eeoa?aoo?u). Caoi ana iaaeinoaoee e i?ioeai?a/ey a iiaaaeaiee aeeceeo e
noa?oeo aini?eieiathony ino?i e aieaciaiii . Iniaaiii yoi eanaaony
?anoiaeaeaiea neiaa e aeaea. Ec o?ao ouny/ noa?oaeeannieeia e o/aueony
IOO, ii?ioaiiuo nioeeieiaaie , nauoa 2/3 ioiaoeee, /oi caia/atho
nouanoaaiiua ?anoiaeaeaiey iaaeaeo oai, /aio o/ao eo ?iaeeoaee, aeeceea
?iaenoaaiieee e o/eoaey, e oai , eae iie naie iinooiatho a iianaaeiaaiie
aeecie

(N.E. Ieaenee, 1987). Yoi ia oieueei iiae?uaaao aaoi?eoao noa?oeo, ii e
yaeyaony i?aeoe/aneei o?ieii i?eniiniaeai/anoaa e eeoeaia?ey.

A ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneie eeoa?aoo?a oe?iei aeaaaoe?oaony aii?in i
ia?a n?aaieoaeueiiai aeeyiey ia iiae?inoeia ?iaeeoaeae e naa?noieeia.
Iaeiaei ia iaai ia iiaeao auoue iaeiicia/iiai ioaaoa. Iauay
caeiiiia?iinoue ninoieo a oii, /oi /ai ooaea ioiioaiey iiae?inoea ni
ac?ineuie, oai /aua ii aoaeao iauaoueny ni naa?noieeaie e oai aaoiiiiiaa
aoaeao yoi iauaiea io ac?ineuo. Ii aeeyiey ?iaeeoaeae e naa?noieeia ia
anaaaea i?ioeaiiieiaeiu, /aua iie auaatho e acaeiiaeiiieieoaeueiuie .

«Cia/eiinoue» aeey thiioae e aeaaooae eo ?iaeeoaeae e naa?noieeia
i?eioeeieaeueii iaiaeeiaeiaa a ?aciuo noa?ao aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaeaieueoay
aaoiiiiey io ?iaeeoaeae i?e i?eaioaoeee ia naa?noieeia iaaethaeaaony a
noa?a aeinoaa, ?acaea/aiee, naiaiaeiiai iauaiey, iio?aaeoaeueneeo
i?eaioaoeee.

Aieueoa anaai noa?oaeeannieeai oioaeinue au aeaeaoue a ?iaeeoaeyo
ae?ocae e niaao/eeia. I?e anae eo oyae e naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, thiioe e
aeaaooee ino?i ioaeaeathony a aeeciaiiii iiuoa e iiiiue noa?oei. Iiiaea
aieiothuea i?iaeaiu iie aiiaua ia iiaoo ianoaeaeaoue ni naa?noieeaie,
oae eae iaoaao naiiethaea. Aea e eaeie niaao iiaeao aeaoue /aeiaae,
eioi?ue i?iaeee oae aea iaei, eae e ou? Naiuey inoaaony oai ianoii ,
aaea iiae?inoie, thiioa /oanoaoao naay iaeaieaa niieieii e oaa?aiii.
Ioaa/ay ia aii?in: «*uea iiieiaiea aeey aan aaaeiaa anaai, iacaaeneii io
oiai, eae oaeoe/anee iiieiaao aan yoio /aeiaae?» – aieueoeinoai
iineianeeo iaeue/eeia (n 5 ii 11 eeann), iinoaaeee ia ia?aia ianoi
?iaeeoaeae (ioaaou aeaai/ae aieaa i?ioeai?a/eau).

Iaeiaei acaeiiioiioaiey noa?oaeeannieeia n ?iaeeoaeyie /anoi ia?aiaiaiu
eiioeeeoaie e eo acaeiiiiieiaiea inoaaeyao aeaeaoue eo/oaai.

«Iia oaea 17 eao, a n iaiie iu aua ie ?aco ia aiai?eee ii aeooai… ss
au aeaaea ?anneacaea ana, /oi iaiy aieioao, ethaie ae?oaie aeaiueia».

«Aa/a?ii ?iaeeoaee oieueei oniaaatho ni?ineoue: «Eae aeaea a oeiea?» A
iai ia yoio aii?in iaaeiaei ioaa/aoue e eaaeaony, /oi ?iaeeoaeae aieueoa
ie/aai ia eioa?anoao… Iu /anoi iiyoiio ia iiieiaai ?iaeeoaeae, a
?iaeeoaee ian…»

E oaeeo ienai iiiaeanoai.

I?e enneaaeiaaiee thiioaneie ae?oaeau auei niaoeeaeueii caoeene?iaaii,
eae ioeaieaatho oeieueieee n 7 ii 11 eeann o?iaaiue iiieiaiey ni noi?iiu
?iaeeoaeae, eaaeinoue iauaiey e nianoaaiioth ioe?iaaiiinoue n ieie.
Ieacaeinue, /oi ii anai yoei iieacaoaeyi ?iaeeoaee onooiatho ae?ocueyi –
naa?noieeai ii?ioaiiuo e /oi noaiaiue ineoieiae/aneie aeecinoe n
?iaeeoaeyie ?acei nieaeaaony n 7 e 9 eeanno.

I?e/eia yoiai ei?aieony i?aaeaea anaai a ineoieiaee ac?ineuo,
?iaeeoaeae, ia aeaeathueo caia/aoue eciaiaiea aioo?aiiaai ie?a
iiae?inoea e thiioe.

?annoaeaeay aano?aeoii, oi?ioea ?iaeeoaee ciatho i naiai ?aaaiea
cia/eoaeueii aieueoa , /ai eoi au ie auei ae?oaie, aeaaea aieueoa, /ai
ii nai. Aaaeue ?iaeeoaee iaaethaeatho eci aeiy a aeaiue ia i?ioyaeaiee
anae aai aeecie. Ii eciaiaiey, i?ienoiaeyuea n iiae?inoeii, /anoi
niaa?oathony neeoeii auno?i aeey ?iaeeoaeueneiai aeaca. ?aaaiie au?in ,
eciaieeny, a ethayuea ?iaeeoaee ana aua aeaeyo aai oaeei, eaeei ii aae
ianeieueei eao iacaae, i?e/ai nianoaaiiia iiaiea eaaeaony ei
iaiia?aoeiui. «Aeaaiay aaaea n ?iaeeoaeyie – oi, /oi iie ciaee ian,
eiaaea iu auee iaeaiueeeie», – caiaoee 15 – eaoiee iaeue/ee.

Iiiyoue ae?oaiai /aeiaaea iiaeii oieueei i?e oneiaee oaaaeaiey e iaio,
i?eiya aai eae iaeoth aaoiiiiioth ?aaeueiinoue. Naiay ?ani?ino?aiaiiay
(e niaa?oaiii ni?aaaaeeeaay!) aeaeiaa thiioae e aeaaooae : «Iie iaiy ia
neooatho!» Niaoea, iaoiaiea e iaaeaeaiea auneooaoue , iiiyoue oi, /oi
i?ienoiaeeo a neiaeiii thiioaneii ie?a, iinoa?aoueny acaeyiooue ia
i?iaeaio aeacaie nuia eee aei/a?e, naiiaeiaieueiay oaa?aiiinoue a
iaiia?aoeiinoe naiaai aeeciaiiiai iiuoa – aio /oi a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
nicaeaao ineoieiae/aneee aa?uea? iaaeaeo ?iaeeoaeyie e ?anooueie
aeaoueie.

Nio?oaeieee Einoeoooa ineoieiaee AII ii?ineee 164 noa?oaeeannieea
ioiineoaeueii eo iio?aaiinoe a ?aciuo aeaeao iauaiey e ?aaeueiuo
acaeiiioiioaiee n ?aciuie ia?oia?aie. Iauaiea ni ac?ineuie, aeeth/ay
?iaeeoaeae, ieacaeinue ai?acaei aieaa oi?iaeueiui e ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiui ,
/ai iauaiea ni naa?noieeaie. Iii aucuaaao o thiioae ino?oth
iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue.

?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiia iauaiea Ia?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiia iauaiea

Ia?oia?u

iio?aaiinoue ?aaeueiia
iio?aaiinoue ?aaeueiia

a iai
iauaiea a iai iauaiea

?iaeeoaee e aeeceea ?iaenoaai-

ieee 4,7
70,8 66,6
29,2

O/eoaey 8,3
95,7 10,9 4,3

Ae?oaea ac?ineua 2,6
98,6 6,5 1,4

Aeeceea ae?oa – naa?noieee 0
0 68,2 56,2

Ae?oaea naa?noieee 4,6
68,4 24,3 31,6

Eae aeaeii ec oaaeeoeu, iio?aaiinoue a iaoi?iaeueiii iauaiee n
?iaeeoaeyie oaeiaeaoai?yaony iaiueoa /ai iaiieiaeio. A oiaea
aeiiieieoaeueiiai eioa?aueth auynieeinue, /oi iauaieai n iaoa?ueth
oaeiaeaoai?aiu oieueei 31,1 i?ioeaioa, a n iooeii – anaai 9,1 i?ioeaioa
ii?ioaiiuo. A aaaeue yoio aeae iauaiey ineoieiae/anee i/aiue aaaeai.
N?aaee oeieueieeia, eiathueo aeiaa?eoaeueiua ioiioaiey n ?iaeeoaeyie,
onoie/eaie naiiioeaieie iaeaaeatho 79,1 i?ioeaioa ii?ioaiiuo , a n?aaee
oao, o eiai iauaiea n ?iaeeoaeyie aeanoei ?aaeaiaioe?iaaii, – oieueei 25
i?ioeaioia. Iaaaeaeaaoioth naiiioeaieo a ia?aie a?oiia eiatho 8,3
i?ioeaioa , a ai aoi?ie – 87,9 i?ioeaioa ianeaaeiaaiiuo.

A ae?oaii enneaaeiaaiee ioiioaiey noa?oaeeannieeia n ?iaeeoaeyie
eco/aeenue n oi/ee c?aiey aeiaa?eoaeueiinoe iauaiey ni noi?iiu
noa?oaeeannieeia , eioi?iaoeeiiiiai niaea?aeaiey iauaiey , aieiaiey,
i?iyaeyaiiai aeaoueie e aeaeai e aeecie ?iaeeoaeae, e aaoi?eoaoiinoe
iiaiee ?iaeeoaeae aeey noa?oaeeannieeia. Auei ii?ioaii 140
eaieia?aaeneeo naiae, i?e/ai aeaoe e ?iaeeoaee ii?aoeaaeenue ioaeaeueii.
Auynieeinue, /oi noa?oaeeannieee , iacaaeneii io iiea, aieaa ioe?iaaiiu
n iaoa?ueth, iaaeaee n iooeii, /aua ia?auathony e iae ca niaaoii e aieaa
ni/oanoaaiii ioiinyony e iae. Iooeu eiatho i?aeiouanoai oieueei a
«eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?a», eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i iieeoeea e nii?oeaiuo
niauoeyo.

A?inaaony a aeaca oaeaea ?acei au?aaeaiiay aneiiao?e/iinoue eioa?ania
aeaoae e ?iaeeoaeae : ?iaeeoaee i?iyaeytho aieiaiea ei anai noi?iiai
aeecie aeaoae, oiaaea eae aeaoe iaei eioa?anothony aeeciueth e o?oaeii
?iaeeoaeae. Iniaaiii io/aoeeai yoi i?iyaeyaony a iauaiee n iooeaie :
aeaoe ?aaeei ?anni?aoeaatho eo i neoaeaaiuo aeaeao, aiaeao aeaonoaa e
thiinoe e o.ae.

Ioiioaiey aeaoae e ?iaeeoaeae aneiiao?e/iu , ia?aaiii?aaiu. Iiiaea
?iaeeoaee, i?eaueioa ?anii?yaeaoueny aeaoueie, aieaciaiii ia?aaeeaatho
ineaaeaiea naiae aeanoe. E?iia oiai, aeaenoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua
eoeueoo?iua cai?aou. Iai?eia?, o ian ia i?eiyoi ianoaeaeaoue
naenoaeueiua i?iaeaiu n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ae?oaeo aic?anoiuo a?oii, yoi
aeaeaaony oieueei ni naa?noieeaie. A ?acoeueoaoa aaaeiaeoay noa?a
eioeiiuo ia?aaeeaaiee iiae?inoea ec iauaiey n ?iaeeoaeyie «ecuiaaony».
I?e ii?ina 402 ia? iieiaeuo iineae/ae, iiaeaaoeo cayaeaiea i anooieaiee
a a?ae, 85 i?ioeaioia iaaano e 80 i?ioeaioia aeaieoia neacaee, /oi
ieeiaaea ia ianoaeaeaee n iooeaie i?iaeaiu a?aea e naiuee . *?acau/aeii
aaaeiua aeey ia?aoiaeiiai aic?anoa e ?aiiae thiinoe oaiu – «yoaiu
iieiaiai nic?aaaiey» e «eioeiiua ioiioaiey» – caieiatho iineaaeiea ianoa
a ?acaiai?ao n ?iaeeoaeyie.

Ii anee i oii, /oi aieueoa anaai aieioao, aiai?eoue iaaiciiaeii,
iauaiea iaecaaaeii i?eieiaao oi?iaeueiue, ?ooeiiue oa?aeoa?. Iaa
noi?iiu /oanoaotho aicieeoee iaaeaeo ieie aa?uea? , no?aaeatho io yoiai,
ii naeaeaoue ie/aai ia iiaoo. *ai aieueoa ?iaeeoaee «iaaeeiatho» ia
iiaaaeaiea, oniaaaaiinoue e i?i/ea oi?iaeueii- ?ieaaua aniaeou aeecie
aeaoae, oai nooa, eacaiiaa , ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiaa noaiiayony eo
acaeiiioiioaiey.

Aio oeie/iia ienueii noa?oaeeannieea : « Iiaio ae?oao iiaacei n
?iaeeoaeyie, iioiio /oi iie n/eoatho naiaai nuia ca /aeiaaea. ss oeaeua
aeie i?iaiaeo a eo aeiia. Aai ioaoe ethaeo ioaaaeuaaoue e?innai?aeu,
caaiaeeoue ?aaeeieo; iaoo iocueo iacuaaao «ooi» , ii ?ac?aoaao
neooaoue… Iie ?iaeeoaee , iaiai?io , aeoiatho oieueei i iieo o?ieao.
*oi y /aeiaae , o iaiy iiaoo auoue aeaea – yoi ei aeaaea a aieiao ia
i?eoiaeeo. Eaiaeeaeaou iaoe, a e oaeaoiio ia ciaoo. ?acaiaa?eaatho ni
iiie eae aoaeoi anaaaea n iaeaeie, oioy au y aeaaea ana auo/ee. A aeiia
o ian caeaiay oinea…»

THiioe, a naith i/a?aaeue, iaaieiaoaeueiu e ?iaeeoaeyi a neaaenoaee
naiaai aic?anoiiai yaioeaio?ecia. Iiaeiuaiiua niaie, iie aeaeyo naieo
?iaeeoaeae oieueei a eaeeo-oi ii?aaeaeaiiuo e iiae/an ia naiuo
i?eaeaeaoaeueiuo eiinoanyo , ?acaeoue eioi?ua iiaeao oieueei iiaay
eioi?iaoeey, aunaa/eaathuay i?eau/iue ia?ac «i?aaeea» n eaeie-oi
iaiaeeaeaiiie noi?iiu. A ?iaeeoaee aeaeoo io au?inoeo aeaoae oaiea e
iiieiaiey e aianoa n oai nia?oaeueii aiyony iaia?oaeeoue naie
/aeiaa/aneea neaainoe, eioi?ua aeaoyi aeaaii ecaanoiu.

A ethayueo aeooao ?iaeeoaeae aeeaao eeethcey, /oi iie ioaeiu au?inoei
aeaoyi a oii aea ea/anoaa , /oi e a ?aiiai aeaonoaa. Eaeaaeueiue
ainieoaiiee Yieeue, aeaieaoenue e aioiaynue noaoue iooeii, aiai?eo
naiaio eaeaaeueiiio ainieoaoaeth: «Niaaooeoa, ?oeiaiaeeoa iaie, iu
aoaeai iineooiu; iiea y aoaeo aeea, y aoaeo iaaeaeaoueny a aan»
?ano?iaaiiue nianoaaiiie ooiieae , ?onni ia caia/aao, /oi iineooaiea e
iio?aaiinoue a ?oeiaiaenoaa – ia naiua oeaiiua ea/anoaa ac?ineiai
/aeiaaea, /oi nouanoaotho ae?oaea oi?iu ethaae e /aeiaa/aneeo
acaeiiioiioaiee. Oae i?eyoii aeey naiiethaey anaaaea e ai anao
neooaoeeyo inoaaaoueny aeey naieo aeaoae e o/aieeia ioae?ui ianoaaieeii
e o/eoaeai aeecie! Ii a yoie onoaiiaea – enoi/iee iinoiyiiuo eiioeeeoia.

E caeanue iniaaiii o?oaeii i?eoiaeeony iooeai. Naaiaeiy iooeianeay
?ieue noaea iniaaiii neiaeiie e i?iaeaiaoe/iie. Ia aiai?y oaea i oii ,
/oi ai iiiaeo naiueyo iooeu aiiaua ionoonoaotho , eo aeeyiea ia aeaoae
aieueoae /anoueth ieaea, /ai aeeyiea iaoa?ae. Ii iiaieth ii?ioaiiuo
ooeineeo oeieueieeia, nauoa o?aoe eo iooeia i?aeoe/anee ia caieiathony
aeiiaoieie auoiauie aeaeaie, aeaa o?aoe iooeia ia iiiiaatho aeaoyi a
o/aaa, ia ianoaeaeatho n ieie eiea, oeeueiia , oaeaia?aaea/. Ioaa/ay ia
aii?in : «N eai ou aeaeeoueny naieie nae?aoaie?» – aeaoe, ia/eiay n 5
eeanna, noaayo ia ia?aia ianoi ae?ocae , caoai eaeoo iaoa?e, aaaooee e
ia i?aaeiineaaeiai ianoa, iia?aaeay oieueei a?aoueaa e nanoa?, – iooeu.
A iaeioi?uo naiueyo aaeeinoaaiiay oi?ia iooeianeiai iauaiey n aeaoueie –
niaianoiue i?iniio? oaeaia?aaea/, iinea /aai naiaenoai iooiaeeo ei nio.
N?aaieoaeueii ?aaeei iaaethaeaaony e ineoieiae/aneay aeecinoue n
iooeaie.

Aeaei, ii-aeaeeiiio , ia a oii, /oi nia?aiaiiua ioae/eiu oaeaeytho
iaiueoa aieiaiey naiuea e aeaoyi, a a oii, /oi iiaei?aaii eo
o?aaeeoeeiiiia iieiaeaiea a naiuea , a iiaua ?iee onaaeaathony
iaaeeaiii. Ioaoe ia?anoae auoue aaeeinoaaiiui ei?ieeueoeai e
aeenoeeieeie?othuei oaeoi?ii. O?oae, eioi?ue anaaaea aue e inoaaony
aeaaiie noa?ie naiiooaa?aeaeaiey ioae/eiu, a iaoe aeie i?ino?ainoaaiii
ioaeaeai io naiaeiiai auoa. Eae ?aaioaao ioaoe, ?aaaiie ia aeaeeo. *oi
aea eanaaony aioo?enaiaeiuo ooieoeee, ?ieue iaoa?e caeanue auaeyaeeo
ai?acaei aieaa aaaeiie e cia/eiie, /ai ?ieue iooea. E?iia oiai,
acaeiiioiioaiey iooeia n aeaoueie ( iu aeaeaee auoa , /oi
noa?oaeeannieee /aua iuouatho aeecinoue n iaoa?ueth e ioe?iaaiiaa n iae,
/ai n iooeii) ineiaeiyaony iaiueoae yeni?anneaiinoueth ioae/ei, eo
/anoui iaoiaieai au?aaeaoue n?aaieoaeueii oiieea /oanoaa e
ineoieiae/aneea ia?aaeeaaiey. Yoe ea/anoaa, noieue oeaieiua a iaoe aeie,
ia aoiaeeee a o?aaeeoeeiiiue noa?aioei ioae/eiu.

Iooeianeea /oanoaa e iooeianeay ?ieue naie o?aaotho ii?aaeaeaiiiai
ainieoaiey e iao/aiey. A noa?ii, iao?ea?oaeueiii iauanoaa, ia ii?iu
eioi?iai iu ana aua i?eaioe?oainy, o/eoueny iooeianoao ia auei
iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Aoaeue neeueiui e i?aoniaaathuai ioae/eiie a iauanoaa ,
e ana inoaeueiia – aeaaiono?iaiiue aeii , oaaaeaiea ie?oaeathueo,
iineooiay aeaia e aeaoe – iiyaeony aaoiiaoe/anee. Aiceony n aeaoueie e
?acaiaeeoue «iaaeiinoe oaey/uee» – ia ioaeneia aeaei. Oaeiaa auea
ainiiaenoaothuay onoaiiaea, e, oioy i/aiue iiiaea ioae/eiu
/oanoaiaaee naay a yoii ie?a iaothoii e eniuouaaee aeaoeoeeo
yiioeeiiaeueiiai oaiea e eioeiiinoe, yoi ia aini?eieiaeinue eae
nioeeaeueiay i?iaeaia.

Naaiaeiy iieiaeaiea ?acei eciaieeinue. ?ane?aiiuaiea aeaiuei e ae?oaea
i?ioeannu eeoeee ioae/ei eo i?eaeeaae?iaaiiiai iieiaeaiey. *oiau eiaoue
aeooaaiia niieienoaea e aaoi?eoao a naiuea, ioae/eia aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue
?yaeii oiieeo ineoieiae/aneeo naienoa, eioi?ua ieeiaaea ia aoiaeeee a
o?aaeeoeeiiiue noa?aioei ianeoeeiiinoe , – /ooeinoueth,
aieiaoaeueiinoueth, iocua/eainoueth e o.ae. Eo iaaeinoaoie aieaciaiii
neacuaaaony ia ineoeea e caei?iauea ioae/ei. ?aaiyynue ia nenoaio
oeaiiinoae , i?eiyouo a iauanoaa naa?noieeia, iaeue/eee-iiae?inoee
noa?aoaeueii enei?aiytho a naaa yoe yeiau «aeaineea» ea/anoaa, a noaa
ac?ineui, iaia?oaeeaaao, /oi ia a ninoiyiee au?aceoue aieiothuea eo
ia?aaeeaaiey. A?iiy, eioi?ie iiae?inoie ie?oaeee naay a ii?yaeea
naiicaueou, i?aa?auaaony a oth?ueio, ec eioi?ie ac?ineue ioae/eia ia
iiaeao inaiaiaeeoueny. A oii, /oi eanaaony au?aaeaiey yiioeee,
«ianoiyuee ioae/eia» iaiiieiaao ii?ie niaaeo ec iiaiai?ee: ana iiieiaao,
a neacaoue ia iiaeao. Ii o?iaith aeooaaiiai naii?ane?uoey ioae/eiu
nouanoaaiii onooiatho aeaiueiai, e yoi ino?i i?iyaeyaony a naiuea e
ioiioaieyo n aeaoueie. Iiyoiio, aiaeaeay iooeia a aeaei ainieoaiey,
oeiea aeieaeia iaeiia?aiaiii ieacuaaoue ei iaiaoiaeeioth
ineoieiae/aneoth iiiiuue.

-Ao oae! Oiaaea aiiaua ieeoaea ia iieaeaoue!

-Iieaeo!

-Ou n eai ?acaiaa?eaaaoue? Ia iieaeaoue, anee ioaoe ia ?ac?aoaao!

-Eae au ia oae!

Nooe aoiaeiie aeaa?e iinoaaee oi/eo ia ?acaiai?a.

Naiueea aaaeae ii oeeoea, ie/aai ia aeaey e ia neuoa, e?iia aiciouaiey,
aooaaaaoaai a iai.

«Iaiaaeaeo! Iaiaaeaeo! ss ia iaeaiueeee, /oiau iiie oae eiiaiaeiaaoue!
Aanue eeann eaeao a iioiae, e ana aianoa aa?ioony. Oieueei iia ii/aio-oi
i?eeacuaatho auoue aeiia e iyoe. Cia/eo y iaeei aeieaeai aica?auaoueny?
Ii/aio? *oi eciaieony, anee y i?eaaeo iiiicaea, ni anaie? I?inoi aio
iaaei iieacaoue naith aeanoue e oieceoue iaiy! Aa/ii oae! A anee y
aeaenoaeoaeueii i?iaeithnue – /oi aea oiaaea? Oaeoue iaiy, /oi ee? Ia
iiaeao ioaoe iiiyoue, /oi y oaea auoae ec oiai aic?anoa , eiaaea iiaeii
iiith eiiaiaeiaaoue!»

…Ioaoe ia?aii iinooeeaae eoeaeii ii noieo, nin?aaeioi/aiii onoaaynue
a iaeio oi/eo, e ?aciuoeye

«Eae ?acaiaa?eaaoue noae , ia?oeaaoe! Au?anoee, iacuaaaony , nuiea! *oi
ie neaaee – ana ano?a/aao a oouee! Aio eaaeaony, /oi iiiai iiieiaoue
noae! Oae aaaeue oieueei eaaeaony! *oi aeanyoue eao, /oi
iyoiaaeoeaoue… Ii ii/aio oae? *oi auei!»

Auea ethaiaue. Naiueea aua ia oiae aiai?eoue e aoeyoue, aai aiceee a
eieynea aei iieiaeiu caaa?iooui a iaeayei. Ii noieei iiyaeoueny ?yaeii
iooeo, eae ec eieynee ?acaeaaaeinue ?aaeinoiia iie?yoouaaiea. Iii
icia/aei, /oi i?aai aacoe eieyneo ia?aoiaeeei e iaia. Eiaaea aea iaia
ooiaeee, aneaae ianny ai?anoiue iea/.

-Iaia! – neacae Naiueea a /enea ia?auo naieo o?ao neia e iaiaaeeaiii
naeaeae yoi neiai neiiieiii aunoaai aeinoieinoaa.

Auea ae?oaeaa. Auoiaeiie aeaiue i?aa?auaeny a i?acaeiee.

-Iicaaioueny i euaeao! – iaeaioia ieiioiaeii a?inae ioaoe. E nui
aeiiicaeia eieaeiaae iaae aaii/eaie n iacyie, iaiieiyaoeie eooith aaeeei
niieyiui caiaoii. Niaaeiui aine?aniui oo?ii e euaeieeai a ia?ea
i?eaaaeyeinue aua aeaia – aunieee, ieioiue a neiai einothia e iaeaiueeee
a e?aniii n aaeuie iieineaie. Iaa auee iaooiieiu e ioaaaeiu.

-Nuaaeai? – ni?aoeaaao noa?oee, oeacuaay iaeeie ia e?oooth ai?eo.

-Nuaaeai! – ioaa/ae ieaaeoee, e ieeoi ia niia au oeiaeoue iaoaa?aiiinoe
a aai ioaaoa, oioy aioo?e oieiaeaei i?e iaeii acaeyaea ia ai?o. Ii
iieacaoue naay o?onii ia?aae iaiie? Ie ca /oi! I?enanoue, iaeee iacaae!
Oo! Oaea?aeaeny!

-Iieiaeaoe! – e?e/ae ioaoe. E Naiy n/anoeeai acaeuoae. A anee ii
iaaeae, oi neuoae nienoiaeeoaeueiia: «Oeae? Io, io! Ia ?aceaaeeaaeny!
Anoaaae!»

Auei oaaaeaiea. A yueea ienueiaiiiai noiea eaaeaee iooeianeea aiaaua
iaa?aaeu. Ia 23 oaa?aey e ia 9 iay iie ia?aoiaeeee ec naieo ei?iai/ae ia
eaoeeaiu iooeianeiai ieaeaeaea. Naith caiieiyea aei e?aaa ai?aeinoue.
Ii neooae iooeianeea ?anneacu, ?aaeoynue e no?aaeay, a?aiy io a?aiaie
oaaoay oe?ieoth, e?oiioth ?oeo, /oiau oaaaeeoueny: ana oi, no?aoiia,
iicaaee! Iaia caeanue, ?yaeii!

Auei iineooaiea.

-Ecaieue aeaeaoue oae, eae y aiai?th!

Eiiaaea iaeue/eoea aic?aaeae. Ii oieueei ii nouanoao.

-Iaia iia ia oi/aony…

-*oi ca ?acaiai?u! Neacaii – aeaeae!

E aae?oa – aiciouaiea, ioe?uoay iai?eyciue ai acaeyaea, a oiia, a
neiaao nuia. Neiaii eaeay-oi ceay neea ioa?ineea eo ae?oa io ae?oaa.
Aia/aea ioaoe eniuouaae aiaaiia oaeeaeaiea: /oi neo/eeinue? Ii
einoeieoeaii iii?iaiaae oaaee/eoue neeo naiae aeanoe , naiaai
iie?iaeoaeuenoaa, anaai oiai, /oi noieueei eao iaaeaaeii i?eoyaeaaei e
iaio nuia. E oaaaeeeny, /oi oio ioaeaeyaony aua aieueoa. Oiaaea ioaoe
?anoa?yeny: iiiyoii, ia?aoiaeiue aic?ano e ana oaeia, ii eaeia ioiioaiea
eiaao yoi e iaio? E iaeiiaoe, ii/oanoaiaae neeueiia eneooaiea: iaoiooue
ia ana ?oeie e niyoue ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aeaeueiaeoaa. *oi au ia
i?iecioei – anaaaea iiaeii aoaeao neacaoue: «Ia oioae aeaeaoue ii-iiaio?
Nai Aeiiaao!»

Iaoa ciaeiinoai n Ei?ioeiauie ninoiyeinue oiaaea, eiaaea iaaeaeo iooeii
e Naiae ioiioaiey onoaiiaeeenue: ia?eiaeu ino?ie a?aaeaeaaiinoe
/a?aaeiaaeenue n ia?eiaeaie iiae/a?eiooiai aac?acee/uey. Ia?aua
iaiieiyee aeii nni?aie e ceuie aniuoeaie ii ethaiio iiaiaeo. Ai a?aiy
aoi?uo oea?eei oa?thiia iie/aiea. Iaoue noa?aeanue ?ac?yaeeoue
ianoaiiaeo, ii yoi ieioi ae oaeaaaeinue. Aiyciue iia?aaeeoue
?iaeeoaeueneiio aaoi?eoaoo iaoaea ae iaaeieoue a /ai-oi iooea, a iiiuoee
ii?aaaeaoue nuia iaoaeeeaaeenue ia ?acae?aaeaiea ioaea: «Ia o?aaoaony
aiana anoaaaoue a?oaeueth ia caueoo Naiueee!»

-Eae oieueei aianoa niaa?oony, oae eee aoeaieythony ae?oa a ae?oaa
ec-ca eaaeaeie iaei/e, eee iie/ao! – onoaei iiaeaeiaaeanue Ieueaa
Aeeoi?iaia . – I?inoi o?aaaaeey!

Aua ia o?aaaaeey. Ie/aai aaciaaeaaeii iaiii?aaeiiai ia i?iecioei. Ii
i?iecieoe iiaeao, anee o?oaeiiiauynieiua naiaeiua iaeaaeu i?eaaaeoo e
iieiiio ?acuaaeeiaieth oao, eoi iaaeaaii aue naycai, eacaeinue ,
ia?ac?uaii.

Auaaao e oae: nui ooiaeeo ec aeiia. E nionoy aiaeu c?aeue
naiinoiyoaeueiue /aeiaae noa?aaony, eae iiaeao, ecaaaaoue iauaiey n
iooeii, A ioaoe, oaea noa?ee, oae e aeeaao n /oanoaii iaeaeu e
iaaeioiaiey: ca /oi?

-Ca /oi? – ni?ineea e y.

Nui iiaeae iea/aie.

Ia nioeenue oa?aeoa?aie e acaeyaeaie!

O ac?ineuo ethaeae oa?aeoa? e acaeyaeu, anoanoaaiii, iaeaaeatho
ecaanoiie noaaeeueiinoueth, eioi?ay iaecaaaeii i?iyaeyaony e a
ioiioaieyo n aeaoueie.

-Oaaaeaiey iaaei nia/aea caneoaeeoue! – aanei neacae Aeaenae Iao?iae/.
– A Naiueea aai aua ia caneoaeee!

-Aea eoi aai oieaeaao?! E a iuneyo iao! – na?aeeony Aeaenae Iao?iae/.

A Naiy, eaey ii oeeoea, aniiieiaao:

-O iaiy A?eoea n Eaiie neaeaee , a ioaoe i?eoae a eiiiaoo e ia/ae:
«Iiniio?eoa, ?aayoa, ia aai iaoeu! Ia eiai ii iioiae! *o/aei eaeia-oi!
Oioue au au aai i?enouaeeee e naiaeeee a ia?eeiaoa?neoth!! Oiaeeoue a
oaeii aeaea – iaoaaaeaiea e iauanoao!»

-Aaaeue aeey aai aea aeaaa aiai?th! Aio aeia?a oi/o! – i?iaeieaeae
Aeaenae Iao?iae/. -?acaa aeaei a oiia? Iaoaeaee caaaicaeea a oii, /oi
oi?ia ia i?aaeony?

E a yoii oiaea. Ii, eiia/ii aea , ia oieueei a yoii. Eaaeaeiaeiaaiay
iiaea, aeicaieaiiay e iaecaaaeiay a aeaonoaa, aeaaeo oyaeaeui,
noaniythuei a?ocii ia oiai, eoi ii/oanoaiaae naay ac?ineui, aeaaea anee
aio oieueei eaaeaony , /oi ii ac?ineue. Iia ianoi?aaeeaaao: i?iaa?ytho
eaaeaeue iie oaa – ia aeiaa?ytho; noa?athony /a?an/o? iiiiaaoue –
niiiaaathony a iieo neeao; iio/atho aac eiioea – ia n/eoatho niiniaiui e
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe. THiioaneay caiaeue/eainoue anaaaea iaoiaeeo e?aeiea
ii?aaeaeaiey.

Iu-oi ciaai, eae iani?aaaaeeeau yoe auaiaeu. Ii i?eau/ea e
ii?aaeaeaiiiio noeeth ioiioaiee n aeaoueie, iaaeaeaiea eee iaoiaiea
ioeacaoueny io iaa iiaeao ieacaoue ieiooth oneoao.

Iai?aeeiiiinoue? Aea, anee ?a/ue eaeao i aeaaiii: i ii?yaei/iinoe, i
/anoiinoe, ia ioiioaiee e o?oaeo. Oa?ieiinoue a iaei/ao? Iaycaoaeueii,
anee a ieo eae-oi ?ane?uaaaony eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue iiae?inoea. Aio
oioue, e i?eia?o, Naiueeeiu «iaoeu». Aeiionoei, /oi iooea ei?iaeo
i?e/anea nuia. O iaai a ?anii?yaeaiee iiiai n?aaenoa: iiniaaoiaaoue
iiaeno?e/ueny, iiniayoueny a naiaeiii e?oao iaae «aeeeei» aeaeii.
Iiaeaeoenoa! Ii noaaoeoue ca yoio /oa e iaei?iaoue aai eee
aeaiiino?aoeaii n?aieoue nuia a i?enoonoaee oiaa?euae – yoi oaea i?eai
cai?auaiiue.

Iu noa?aainy iiiyoue aei eiioea iaoeo aeaoae. Aaeeeia n/anouea, eiaaea
yoi oaeaaony. A anee ia oaeaaony, ii?ie iaiaoiaeeii ei i?inoi iiaa?eoue.

N ?inoii aeaoae ?anooo e ?iaeeoaee, eiaiii oae, ia noa?atho, a ?anooo.
Ai anyeii neo/aa aeieaeiu ?anoe, /oiau auoue ia aunioa e oiio a?aiaie ,
eiaaea o ?aayo ia/eiaao i?ienoiaeeoue ia?aioeaiea oeaiiinoae.

«Ou o?aaoaoue io iaiy, a eaeie ou nai?» Aaoi?eoao ?iaeeoaeueneie aeanoe
eii/aaony. Oaia?ue aoaeao aeaenoaiaaoue aaoi?eoao /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe.
Oieueei ii. Cia/eo, ianooieea ii?a, eiaaea /oi-oi a ioiioaieyo
i?eoiaeeony ia?ano?ieoue. E naiiio ia?ano?ieony. Oae auaaao anaaaea, e
iaeuecy, /oiau yoi canoaaeyei a?anieio.

Oa aea o?oaeiinoe , /oi e ?iaeeoaee , ia?aaeeaatho o/eoaey. Eae oaea
aiai?eeinue, ?aaioa o/eoaey ii n?aaiaieth n iao?ea?oaeueiui i?ioeui
caiaoii oneiaeieeanue, i?e/ai iniaaiii o?oaeii eiaoue aeaei ni
noa?oaeeannieeaie. E ia iioiio, /oi ?aayoa eee o/eoaey noaee ooaea, a
iioiio , /oi i?aaeuyaeyaiua e oai e ae?oaei o?aaiaaiey noaee aieaa
i?ioeai?a/eauie.

Aeey iiiaeo noa?oaeeannieeia iiiyoey «o/eoueny» e «o/eoueny a oeiea» ia
oieueei ?acee/iu, ii aeaaea i?ioeaiiieiaeiu. Aio eae auaeyaeaee ioaaou
iaeioi?uo o/aieeia 11 eeann i/aiue iaieioie iiaeiineiaiie oeieu ia
aii?in: «Eaeoth iieueco i?eiineo oaaa iinauaiea oeieu?»

Ieeaeie.// Ieeaeie. Iiaeao , iioii naie ciaiey y niiao i?eiaieoue
aaea-ieaoaeue, ii nae/an any o/aaa iia eaaeaony aaniieaciie.// Iinauaiea
oeieu iia ia i?eiineo iieueco, ia o?ieao y iaei /aai onaaeaath
iieaciiai. Iieueca – iauaiea n eeannii, n ia?iaeii. //Iaaa?iia,
eaeoth-oi iieueco e i?eiineo, ii y aa ia caia/ath.// Aaeeeoth ?aaeinoue
iauaiey e ioaeuo io ?iaeeoaeae…//Oeiea ia aeaao iia caieiooueny a
oceii e?oao iieo caiyoee, ii y n oaeie aea ioioie e ia iinauae au aa.
//I/aiue iaei – oieueei ii eeoa?aoo?a, a oae – oieueei a?aae!

«Iai oaea 16, – ?anneacuaaea aeanyoeeeannieoea, – e ia oaaee/eo o eann
eeiioaao?ia « Aeaoe aei 16 eao ia aeiioneathony» iu niio?ei n
ianiaoeeaie oeuaeie. Eoae , o aaeieieno?aoeee eeiioaao?ia iu iieo/eee
iieiia i?eciaiea. A a oeiea? Eae ie no?aiii, a oeiea ian ai iiiaii
n/eoatho aeaoueie… Iaeiaaeaeu iaeei ec i?aiiaeaaaoaeae neacae iia :
«Aio eii/eoue oeieo, e oiaaea oaaa i?eaeaony i?eia?aoaoue nianoaaiiua
iunee». Niaoii!»

*oiau i?aiaeieaaaoue noa?aioeiu nianoaaiiiai iuoeaiey, o/eoaeue
aeieaeai ciaoue niaoeeoe/aneea iianiinoe e a?aaeiinoe naiae i?ioannee.
Aia?eeaineee nioeeieia O. Oieea? a ?aaioa « *oi o/aiea aeaeaao n
o/eoaeai» (1932) iienae iaeioi?ua ec yoeo a?aaeiinoae. Iiiaeo o/eoaeae e
aia oeieu ioee/aao iacieeeai-aeeaeaeoe/aneay, iio/athuay iaia?a
aea?aeaoue naay. I?eau/ea oi?iuaoue neiaeiua aaue, /oiau naeaeaoue eo
aeinooiiuie aeaoyi, niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth iaaeaeiai, i?yiieeiaeiiai
iuoeaiey, au?aaaouaaao neeiiiinoue aeaeaoue ie? a oi?iuaiiii,
/a?ii-aaeii aa?eaioa, a i?eau/ea iinoiyiii aea?aeaoue naay a ?oeao
cao?oaeiyao yiioeeiiaeueiia naiiau?aaeaiea.

Iieiaeaiea o/eoaey – yoi iinoiyiiue eneon, eniuoaiea aeanoueth. Aeaei
ia oieueei a noauaeoeaecia e ee/iie i?aaeacyoinoe a ioeaieao e ioiioaiee
e o/aueiny. A ath?ie?aoe/anee i?aaieciaaiiie nenoaia ia?aciaaiey
o/eoaeue yaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai ainoaea?noaaiiui neoaeauei, /eiiaieeii.
Aai aeaaiay caaea/a – ia aeiioneaoue eaeeo-eeai i?ienoanoaee e
ioeeiiaiee io ioeoeeaeueii i?eiyouo iiaiee.

THiioaneee aic?ano – ia oaca «iiaeaioiaee e aeecie» , a /?acau/aeii
aaaeiue, iaeaaeathuee naiinoiyoaeueiie, aaniethoiie oeaiiinoueth yoai
aeeciaiiiai iooe. Aoaeoo ee thiioaneea aiaeu n/anoeeauie e oai?/aneeie
eee aea inoaioony a iaiyoe naaiaeiyoiaai oeieueieea eae caiieiaiiua
iaeeeie eiioeeeoaie, oiueie coa?aaeeie e neoeie, – ai iiiaii caaeneo io
aoiinoa?u, oea?yuae a oeiea, io aai nianoaaiiuo ioiioaiee n o/eoaeyie

«Aeey ?aayo eaeay ia ioaeaeaia io ee/iinoe. Oi, /oi aiai?eo ethaeiue
o/eoaeue, aini?eieiaaony niaa?oaiii ii-ae?oaiio, /ai oi, /oi aiai?eo
i?ace?aaiue eie, /oaeaeue ei /aeiaae», – ienaea I.E. E?oineay. Ii
ethaeiui o/eoaeai iiaeao auoue oieueei o/eoaeue ethayuee.

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