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Методы воздействия наружной рекламы

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11

???? – y? ??ue ??e ??e. I? y?y?ny ????i ???ey ??????? ? ??? ???yo. A?
??th?y ???? ???, ??i ? ???i ???a ??o ?e ??????? ia ?????y, ??u ? ????y
???eth, ??ye ? ??????? ??iiithth ????eth e ?e ????o – ??e a ???i e ???
??? ? ????th, ???th ?o ???? ? ?????th ?e ? ??? a ???a ?e ? ???a?

???? (? ????? ??a reklamo) – ?????ay, o.a. ????ath?y ??e, ????? n???
????e e ??a, ???? e ??? ?y I????ey.

I??a ??i ???? au ????, ?i ? ??? 2001 ??, 52% ??eyi ??iatho ??????a ???,
a 59% ?oyo ??i??? ??a ????. A??a ???? ae??? ???e ?????tho ??? ? ?e??ue
????? ??e ???a, ?? a ???yo ???e y???e; 29% ?? n???u ?????ue, ? ???
????th ????e, ????????e ?ay ??u. Y? ??u ???yo i ?i, ?i ??????e ??? ???i,
? ? ?????, ?y?y? i ??e ????e – ?e, ??u ???? ??e ?? “? ??o”. “A?yo” ????
????? ??????a ??? 26% ???e ?O. I?? 36% ??ath?y ??? ??oth ??, a 23%
?e???? ??yo ? ??e.

*?ue ??? ???? (51%) ????y ??n? ???ny ???y ???a, a 57% ??eyi ???tho
??????, ??y y??, ???a ???y. E?? ??, ??? ???? (51%) ???e ??? n ???ueth
????atho ???? e ????? ?????a ????.

E? ????, ???a ??o ??oue ??i ??????? ????, e y? ??? ???y ?y ?????oth?o
???a e ????e. I????, ?i?????i ????? ???? ?????a ??????? ???y, ? ? ????
a??, ??e ??o ??? o ??????ie ???e ????? ????y.

????-????a ??o ???e ???? – ? ?ay???a ??? ? ??ay???i ???. A?????y ?y
??????? ??, ?i ??? ??? ?? ?????, ??o ?? ????y. I?????ay: “A?e ? ?????a
y?o ???, ? ???? ?????? ??ae ???e; ??????y: “A?e Au ????? ? ??????? ??i-?
????i, A? ??o ???ue ??a-? ??ey???”. Ii, ?e ???i, eth? ?c???? ???atho ?ay
? ??????o y??e e ???atho “???oth” ???o.

I??i e ?, ?i ? ????i?o ???o, ??th?y ??????? ????ey?, ?? ??? ??e ????
????oth ?y ?o ?ath. E?????y ????tho, ?i ????a e ???a, ???a ? ?????e
??y?o ?????, ? ???o ?????y ????? e ??????? ???. O? ? ??e ???n ?e e ?
C??a, ? ??? ?ny???y ??ae. O ?n ?a ???e.

???? ????o ?? ?? a ?i ???, ?? ?e ? ???? ??o ?????y ?????e ?????? i???.
I???iy?e ???th ???y?y ??a? ??y? ???ue AIDMA model, ?????ath?th ??oth?th
???o “A???a-E???-AE???-I??-Ae????.

I??a ??i, ???a ??? ???? ???? ??????? I????ey, ?o?? ??o ?? ?e ??????, ?e
e ???????. I??a ????o ??a, ??a ???o ???i ?e ? ??a?i, ?c ?????i ???ey ?
?? ? ???u. A??a – ???o ??????i ??y??y, ?y???i n ?i, ?i ? ?????i ??i ?i-?
???ue.

Ae?? ???a ??? ????ue ???? I????ey, ?????y ? ?i ??e?? ?e y??e. C?? ?????
????ue, ?i, ????, ???? ??o ???e eth?? ??????ny ?-???o. I?e ???? ?????tho
?? ???a?a e y???u ???u a ? ???aa, ???, ?ay y?????? ???y?a, ????? ?
?????? ????eyo, ?????atho y?????? ???u a ???; ??uee – ?????tho ? ???u
????? ???, ???a ? ??i-e?i ???? ??ath?y ? a ??a.

A?e ???a ??e y?????? ?i??e ??? ???? ????, ? ??i ?a ??? ??????? ?i ??i
?????i, ???ue ? ?e ?oth ???th, n?????? ?????? y????ue?a ??iy?a. I????,
?????, ??????ue, ???ue, ?????. O??ay ???a ? ??? ????? a ???? ????
??????a i ????e, ???o ????e ??c, ? e ???? a ?i ???a ????ia??y ? ?e ath.
Y?, a ???? ???, e ?? ? ???y ???.

A????? ???u ???o e ? ?????ny a ?e ??? ??????e ????e, e ? ?????? a ? ???.
A?e ??e ??? e ????a?e I????? ? ??????, ? e ?ey?a ???u ?????i i????o.
A???? ??i ?????? ? ?????a, ????e ????th?a ???? ??????e ????e, ? ??????a
?????e, e ? ???th?a ?????? y??e e ?????.

*?? ???a ???? ??, ?a ??? ia ??a-? ??y ?????y I????eth. Y? ??o ???? ? ?
???? e ???????e. I??i ????th ????eth ????eytho ? ?e ??.

E ??? ??nyo ????eth, ???th I????? ??o ???? e ??a ??, ?? ?? ?. I? ??i
?ni????ny e ??? ?????ny.

A??e ?ae – ????y a ??? i??o ?y ???? ????ey. I? ?? ? ?????ny ???, ?? n
???i ???.

O??e ?ae – ???ay ??? ???? ????ey. Ia ??th ???o I????eue ? ???? ???ey, a
a ????o ??ayo ?a ??o e ????? ?i, ????, ??a ath ?a???ny ??c ????th?e ?i
???? e o. ae.

N??????, ?e ??? ???e ?i??o, ?i ??????y ????y ?e o??a – y? ??? ?, ?i ?o
??i, ? ????o ??i?, ? ???i e ???o ????. N?a ???ue /?????? ???, ?e ???tho
?????a?, ???o, ? ???e ??, ? ??o ????:

?-???, ? ?c????? e ???? ????i ???, ???e ??? ???????ue ??a ???a?e e ???io
????eth ???u (???, ??e ????ey, ?eth???e e o.ae.);

?-???, ? ?a?? ????, ???e ????o o ??o?y a ???? ??ey;

a-???o, ? ?a?? ????y e ??????? ???.

Ae??i ? ????e ??o ?? iay???? ??o?i? Ia y?o ??o ?? ??? ??ey. E??? ?,
????ue ????????. Ii, a ???? ??oa, ?? ???o ? ??, ?i ??????ue. Aeey ????o
???a ????i n??a, ????, ????? e ?? y?? ??, ?? ? ???ue i ???a ???? o?????i
???y, ?e??????i ? ??????.

E?? ? ? ?e ????e ??o, ???i ?e ????, ? ??? ???? ??i ???? ?a ?????a
??????e ????e. I????? ?yae ? ??? ??? ??th ?uy??? ? ?io e ? ? ????th a
??ae? ???? a ?o ?i-? ?a ia ????a a ???. Iiy?? ??? ???o ???? ? ??, ?i
???i? ?uy??? ?????o ?????? n ???e ????e, e ?? ??? ?? ?? ???ue ?i
I????eth – ??? ?e ???a.

O???i? O???a I????? (OOI)

?.??n, ????e ??? ??ey?uo ????o ???a (????), ? ??? ???ey ?ny/ ????o
?uy??? ?e?e e ??oth?? ???:

“I????? ???i ????oue ? ????? ?uy??ey ??? ??i ??: ?? ?? ???e ??ae, ?? ??
???th ???.

N??????, ??? ????a ?uy??? ??? ???ue I????eth ??a-? ????? ???? ?????a. I?
??? ???? ???o ????? ???eth: “E?e ??? y? ????th e ???? ??ii y? ??e???oth
???”.

I????? ??? ?? ??i, ??? ????o ?? ? ??o ??, e?i ??? ? ????o. I? ??? ??
?????.

A? ?????? ??? ?? ?y?? ?? n ??????th ????th, ?? n ??????, ???? ?? ? ??ee
a ae??e ??a ???u.

I????? ??? ?? ????i ???i, ??u ???? a ???? ????, o. a. ???? e ?????th
????e ??o I?????e.

Ia ???? ???? ???ey, ?i ??ue ??? ?? ????e, ? ??? ??yae, ??eth?u ????u.
I?a? ?? ??a ???? ? ?o, ??e ??? ???y ?????e. N?? ??ei ?????? ???? ?????ey
e e???ey, ?e ? ?????ue ????o o????? ???a ????? ???? ??e?e ?? ??o ??? ???
????e, ?? ??o ????e ? ?????ey, i ???o ??a ??e ae?a e ? ?????ue. E??
????y ??i ????, OOI ???oth ?????o ???eyth?th ?????ue ??????ue ??.

Ia ???o ?e y?i ???? ? ??ue ??? ??? ???u:

???? ???e?? ?? ???e ????e e ???y? ??? ???.

????ay ???ey, ?????th?y ?e??????a ???a, ???a I????? ? a ??iy?e ???ue,
???y? ??? ????e.

E ?a-?? ?????? ??? a?? ????e ??i ?y?? ??? i?? ????y.

A y?i ??? ??i ???? ??????a ???? ??e ????e ? ????? ???, ?ath??y ? ??a, e
?y?? i ??????o ??? ?????y, ? ???y ???? ??o ?????a. Ii ??? e ?e, ?i ??a
?e????eth ?e a? ????? ??? ???? a ??? ????ath?y ?o, ??y?ay ?ay. ????i-? ?
??o???! – ????tho ?e. – E ? ???, a ??? y?o ????a ? ???”. Y? ???? ?????e
?ae, ?? ?e ???e ???o ?????, ?????? ?i ????? ??? ???ae?, o. e. ?????
?????a ????a?o ? ?????ue ?c ?y?o ???? ? ???o n ? ???u. E ?io ? o I?????e
??o ????? ???: n ?? y? A? ?e ???o ????y ??? e ? ?????a ? Au ??i au? ???
A??a ?????i, ??a y?? ?e ???ny ????i ????e ?????a e, ?e ????a, ????, ???
???? ?.

A????? ????e ???u.

Aeyaey ? ????e ???, ???ue ? ??? ??o ???ue, ??? ? ?o ? ???ny. Ii ????o,
????th?e ? ??? ??????a, ??? ????, ?i ????? a ??? ???y. E ?e ??i ???y? ?i
??y? e ????e, ??u ????e ? a ??? ??i.

Ia ???? ?????a ???y ? ???a ?ey? ??a “????? e “??i?” ????.

“A????a ” ???eytho ???????th ????? ???y e ???y?th. I? ??ue ??????. A?
??? ??o?? ? ?o: ?ey?a ????? ????e ????, ????????ue ???y i ?y?a, ????a e
????a e ???a ???, ????? ???? ?y, ??????? ????e, ??????? e ???e ?e ???e
??e ?????? e ?e ??a. “O???u” ?????u ??e ? ??y?o – ? ???? ????, ???a ??o
?? ??? a ???????o ?????eyo, ? ????a??o ith??a ???.

E ???th, “?????” ???u ???i??, ??????u e ???y?u. A?? i???, ????y “???a”
???u (????? e nth??? ??????a ????), ??o ???ey? ????? ???a ???y n ???th
???????o ???a e ???.

A????? ???? ???y?y.

E?? ???????? (?e ? ???i, ?i ????y ??) ???ue ???? ???, ? ?????o ???th,
??e ????oth ???????th ???. ?????ey e ???ey ?i ???eyth?y ? i?????? ??,
??iy?? ? ?y? ???aey?o ?a a ??a ????a. E ?oy ????y ??a ??o ?????e ??
(????e ???), ???? ??? ??o ?? ???e.

I???o ????a ???y?y ???:

1. I???????a ????a ????e.

2. ???ay ??????y, ???? ????e.

3. A???y ??? ???a ????.

4. “ss ?iye!”

1. . I???????a ????a ????e:

C??? ???i ?????? ??, ?i ?????, ? ?e ? ?????y “???” ???a, ?i ???a ????u
???? ?????e (?? ? ???a ?? eth? ?e ????), ? ????i “????o ??????a ???u ?
??e ??”.

O?? ???? ?????ny a ???a ??, ?? (?????a ???), ????e (???? ????, ????e ??n
e o.i.), ???i (????? ???), ?????e (?????? ? ???e ??) e o.ae.

2. ???ay ??????y, ???ee ????e:

C??? ??o ????e ?, ?i ??o, ? ??i ???i ??e (“I? – ??a ?, ?e y!”) ?e ????ue
??a-? ????a ????,. I? y?i ???? ??? ????y eth?e ?? ?? ?????a ???ey
????thony ??????? n ?i, ?i ??o ia ???a.

Y?o ???? ?????ny ??a a ???a ??, ?? e o.i. (???a), ???????? (???a, ????a
???ee), ????? ??a (???a ???i), ?????e, ??, ??u e ?????.

Y?o ???? ???? ??a a “y???th?e” ???a. C?? ???ue ????? ?? ???ey ? ???u n
???ey? ???, ????y ?? ???i ??a??e (?? ???a ??? ?i y???? ????e), ?? ???i
??????a (?? o ?? “????a ??y?”). ?a??a ??e e ????e ???? ??? ????? ??e
???u a ????.

3. Aeoeaiay ioeaiea ieaeaoa c?eoaeai:

C?eoaeue n?aaieaaao oi, /oi ii aeaeeo aeia ieaeaoa, ni naieie
ynoaoe/aneeie onoaiiaeaie e i?aaeuaeouei iiuoii. Ii aaaeao iuneaiiue
aeeaeia n aaoi?aie ieaeaoa (i?iaeaaoeaie oiaa?a, aeaaeaeueoeaie
a?yiaea): “I, iie yoi oi?ioi naeaeaee!” eee “Eaeay /ooue!”. I?e yoii ii
iiaeao ioeaieaaoue eae ooaeiaeanoaaiiia, oae e eiino?oeoeaiia ?aoaiea
ieaeaoa (eee oiai, /oi ia iai ecia?aaeaii). Iai?eia?, caeao iaae ?aeie
e?anea, a iaoaieci /ania aacoi?a/ai. E?anioa e eniieieoaeueneia
ianoa?noai aeinoaaeytho oaeiaieuenoaea e aucuaatho oaaaeaiea. Einaaiii
iiceoeaiay eee iaaaoeaiay ioeaiea ieaeaoa ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ioiioaiea
e a?yiaeo (e aaoi?ai).

4. “ss iiiye!”:

Yoi ea?a. Aeeth/aiea c?eoaey a aeoeaiua ?aciuoeaiey e annioeeaoeee i
nthaeaoa ieaeaoa e aai niaea?aeaiee, n?aaiaiea /anoae ieaeaoa eae
aieiaieiiee, ?aoaiea eioi?ie niiauaao ia/oi aaaeiia i naienoaao oiaa?a
eee a?yiaea. Aeaenoaea yoiai noeaia?ey iioiaea ia aeaenoaea aiaeaeioa:
iai?yaeaiea iunee – ica?aiea-?aoaiea – ?anneaaeaiea n oaeiaieuenoaeai.

Yoio iooue iaeaieaa /anoi eniieuecoaony a nia?aiaiiie caiaaeiie ?aeeaia.
Oaeie iooue iiaeii ano?aoeoue a ?aeeaia oaaa/iuo ecaeaeee,
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo oeiainiauo oneoa, a ?aeeaia business-to-business.
No?aoaae/anee – yoi einaaiiia aiaea/aiea c?eoaey a “eioeiiue ie?
a?yiaea”, a ioee/ea io aiaea/aiey a i?ino?ainoai ieaeaoa, eae a
i?aaeuaeouai aa?eaioa noeaia?ey.

Eiaiii iaee/ea ianeieueeeo aa?eaioia noeaia?eaa (i?e i?ioanneiiaeueiii
ineoieiae/aneii aiaeeca eo neaaeoao auaeaeyoue ianeieueei aieueoa, ii
aeey iaaeyaeiinoe iu ia?aie/eeenue /aou?ueiy) i?eaiaeeo e no?aiiinoyi
i?e ioeaiea ?aeeaiu. Iai?eia?, oieon-a?oiia iiaeao auyaeoue ianno
iaaeinoaoeia a i?iaeoa, eioi?ue caoai i?iecaaaeao oaaaeaeathuaa
aia/aoeaiea ia c?eoaey. E iaiai?io, “aaca?aoiue” ia ia?aue acaeyae
ieaeao ieaaeaony iaeioaaaeeoaeueiui.

Ia ia?aue acaeyae iiaeao iieacaoueny, /oi /ai aieueoa noeaia?eaa, oai
eo/oa. Ii yoi ia oae. *aeiaaeo oaeiaiaa niio?aoue e aini?eieiaoue,
eiaaea aai /oanoaa e iunee iai?aaeaiu ii ii?aaeaeaiiiio iooe, – yoi
aeaao /oanoai naiaiaeu e i?aaeeueiinoe.

A i?ioeanna aini?eyoey noeaia?ee iiaoo /a?aaeiaaoueny, e i/aiue aaaeii,
/oiau iie iiaeaea?aeeaaee ae?oa ae?oaa, a ia “oyioee” a ?aciua noi?iiu.
A oae oai aieaa a noi?iio io ?aeeaiiiai iineaiey. A aeey no?aoiaee
iaiaoiaeeii i?iaeoiaoue ana oae, /oiau iioaioeeaeueii ?aciua iooe aaee
i?eaeeceoaeueii a iaeiii iai?aaeaiee. Io/anoe iiaeii “oi?aaeyoue”
auai?ii noeaia?ey /a?ac oi?iaeueiua n?aaenoaa, iaiaeay ia ioaeiue ioo
/a?ac nai ieaeao.

I?e aiaeeca eiiiiceoeee ianeieueei ?ac oiiieiaeenue “iainiciaaaaiua
c?eoaeai aicaeaenoaey, oi anoue yeaiaiou eiiiiceoeee, eioi?ua
“iaiaeatho, ii i?yii ia aiai?yo” c?eoaeth /oi-oi i oiaa?a, a?yiaea. Yoe
niiauaiey eaaeoony iacaiaoiuie, ii i?iaioee?otho /oanoaa, einaaiii
oi?aaeytho aieiaieai, onoaiiaeaie c?eoaey. *oanoaa, aucaaiiua yoei
aeeyieai, c?eoaeue iau/ii iauyniyao i?eaeoiaiiuie “?aoeeiiaeueiuie
i?e/eiaie”.

?anniio?ei iniiaiua niiniau aiaeeca c?eoaeueiuo yeaiaioia.

Niinia 1: Niuneiaua ciiu ieaeaoa.

Eiaaea /aeiaae niio?eo ia ieaeao, o iaai “aeeth/athony” iaeioi?ua
iaeeaeaiey, naycaiiua ni noaiaea?oaie aini?eyoey yeaiaioia eiiiiceoeee.

Ia ieaeaoa iiaeii auaeaeeoue iyoue cii, naycaiiuo ni “niuneii
i?ienoiaeyuaai”. Aoaeouaa ia ieaeaoa “?aciauaaony ni?aaa aaa?oo, i?ioeia
– neaaa aieco. Yoi oa?aeoa?ii aeey Aa?iiu, aaea i?eaueee /eoaoue neaaa
iai?aai. A no?aiao, aaea iieuecothony ea?iaeeoaie, YOIO AAOIIAOECI IA
ANAAAeA N?AAAOUAAAO.

Eoae, eiaaea c?eoaeue niio?eo a eaaue ieaeiee oaie, ii ia/eiaao
?aciuoeyoue i niauoeyo aeaeaeiai i?ioeiai. Iai?ioea, a i?aaii aa?oiai
oaeo ieaeaoa c?eoaeue iaeeaeaao oaeaeaoue /oi-oi, /oi niiaueo aio i
aoaeouai, ia?niaeoeaao e iaeeaeaieyo.

Eiaaea c?eoaeue ia?aiauaao acaeyae a i?aaue ieaeiee oaie, oi aieueoa
ia?auaaony e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe, aanniciaoaeueiui oaiaeaioeeyi
nianoaaiiie aeooe, e oaeaniinoe.

A eaaii aa?oiai oaeo – oaia eiio?iey, iaaethaeaiey, ii?iaoeaia. Oai
iaoiaeeony “oi, /oi i?aaeeueii”.

A oeaio?aeueiie ciia, niioaaonoaaiii, ?aciauaaony “aeaaiue niune”.

Ooaeiaeieee a noa?ua a?aiaia ciaee ia yoeo “ineoieiae/aneeo i?aaeeao” e
/anoi ?aciauaee “iaaethaeathuaa iei Ainiiaea” eiaiii a eaaii aa?oiai
oaeo.

Nae/an yoe iaaethaeaiey iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu enneaaeiaaieyie ii
ineoioeceieiaee – i?e ia?aiauaiee acaeyaea iaiyaony niinia aini?eyoey
iaoa?eaea. Eiaaea /aeiaae niio?eo aaa?o, ii aanniciaoaeueii aeeth/aao
“c?eoaeueiua oeaio?u” naiaai iicaa e ia/eiaao ?aciuoeyoue i oii, /oi ii
aeaeae eiaaea-oi a i?ioeii (acaeyae iaeaai) eee i?eaeoiuaaao /oi-oi ia
aoaeouaa (acaeyae iai?aai).

Eiaaea acaeyae ia?aiauaaony ii ai?eciioaee ai?aai eee aeaai,
aeeth/athony “neooiaua oeaio?u” -/aeiaae ia/eiaao i?eneooeaaoueny e
neiaai eee aniiieiaoue oneuoaiiia. Eiaaea acaeyae iai?aaeyaony aiec,
/aeiaae neeueiaa ia/eiaao /oanoaiaaoue naia nianoaaiiia oaei e iiyoiio
ia?auaao aieiaiea ia ana, /oi eae-oi caaeaaaao aai oaeaniinoue.

Niinia 2: I?ioeia – aoaeouaa.

Yoi /anoue neo/ae neiaiee/aneiai aeaeaiey i?ino?ainoaa eenoa. Oi, /oi
neaaa, – nei?aa i?ioeia, oi, /oi ni?aaa, – aoaeouaa. Ineoiaiaeec
i?eienuaaao eaaie noi?iia “aeaineia, oaiiia” ia/aei, i?aaie – “ioaeneia,
naaoeia”.

Niinia 3: Aio?iiiii?oiinoue ieaeaoa.

Ethaia ecia?aaeaiea yaeyaony a iaeioi?ii niunea ii?o?aoii /aeiaaea, eee
aaoiii?o?aoii oiai, eoi naeaeae yoi ecia?aaeaiea.

Iaoaieci aio?iiiii?oiiai aini?eyoey aeey nia?aiaiiiai ai?iaeneiai
/aeiaaea noae ii/oe iainiciaaaaiui. Ii iaoi?aaeyaiay oaioacey c?eoaey
iiaeao i?eaanoe a aeaenoaea e oaeie n?aaieoaeueii ae?aaiee iaoaieci. A
?acoeueoaoa – niooiia /oanoai i?eyoiinoe eee iai?eyoiinoe, iauynieoue
eioi?ia c?eoaeue, eae i?aaeei, nai naaa ia iiaeao. Ieaeao iiaeii
?anniio?aoue eae i?iaeoeeth oaea eee eae i?iaeoeeth eeoea.

Niinia 4: Neiiao?ey.

Oiaey/ay “eiie/aneay” o?aca ec ia i/aiue-oi aeaaieo a?aiai: “Neiiao?e/ii
– cia/eo, e?aneai”. Eiaaea o/eoueny eiiiiceoeee, eaaeaony, /oi yoi
i/aiue niaoii. Nae/an oi/aony ioianoenue e yoiio auneacuaaieth aieaa
inoi?iaeii.

Ca?eaeueii-neiiao?e/iay eiiiiceoeey aeaenoaeoaeueii i?iecaiaeeo
aia/aoeaiea oii?yaei/aiiinoe. Io/anoe iia iaiiieiaao i neiiao?e/iinoe
/aeiaa/aneie oeao?u, io/anoe aiai?eo i ?aaiiaanee. Oi, /oi a oeaio?a
neiiao?e/iie eiiiiceoeee – aeaenoaeoaeueii a oeaio?a!

A oi aea a?aiy neiiao?e/iinoue iiania. Anee aua?aia neiiao?e/iay
eiiiiceoeey, noieo o/eouaaoue ana oaiiiaiu, naycaiiua n
aio?iiiii?oiinoueth e neiaiee/aneeie cia/aieyie ?acee/iuo aecoaeueiuo
cii ieaeaoa.

Niinia 5: Oeaao e ni/aoaiey oeaaoia.

Oeaaoiaay neiaieeea – yoi ioaeaeueiay naiinoiyoaeueiay oaia. Oeaaoiaua
annioeeaoeee, aicieeathuea o /aeiaaea a oi?iuaiiii aeaea iiaeii
eeanneoeoee?iaaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:

E?aniue – aeoeaiaeoee e i?eaeaeaoaeueiaeoee neaiaeueiue oeaao, n?aco
a?inaaony a aeaca, anaaaea aeaeai, ineoieiae/anee niioaaonoaoao aieaaui
ethaeyi, eaaei aicaoaeeiui oiea?eeai. Neiaieece?oao caei?iaoth
ioaeanoaaiiinoue, iaii?, iiuue, i?eoycaiey ia ainiiaenoai.

Io?io?iue – aeaai?iaeiue, iiuiue, oeaiiue, iiiiaciue, ei?ieue, ?uoea?ue,
neoaeaiea, ii?ua, i?acaeie/iinoue, aeinoieinoai.

?iciaue – iaaeiue, ?iaeee, aeaanoaaiiue, neaaeeee, neauaaue, aeooenoue,
oeoee, oiieee, iyaeee, iieiaeay aeaaooea, aaeuea, aanaiiee, aaeao,
einiaoeea.

I?aiaeaaue – na?aea/iue, eo/enoue, nuoiue, c?aeue, aeeao/ee, iaieue,
aeeceie, ?aniaeythuee, nooie, inaiiee, iaueoaeueiue, thiioaneee.

AEaeoue – ii?uaathuee iiaa?oiinoe, io?aaeathuee naao, neyiea ii anthaeo.
*aeiaa/aneay iio?aaiinoue a iii?a, eciai/eaia, ?aneiaaiiia iiaaaeaiea,
niyoea iai?yaeaiey. Naao, yniinoue, eaaeinoue, caaenoue, ethaiiuonoai,
ia?aiciinoue.

Cieioenoue – eo/enoue, nieia/iue, aicaoaeaeathuee, a?athuee, eaaeee,
i?eaeooaiiue, ioe?uoinoue, niaea?aeaoaeueiinoue, aicaoaeaeaiea aieiaiey.

Caeaiue – ineoieiae/anee aini?eieiaaony eae iieacaoaeue oii?noaa, neeu
aiee, nin?aaeioi/aiiinoe, iieiy, aa?iiiee. Aa?iue, anoanoaaiiue,
oniieaeaathuee, inaaaeathuee, i?ioeaaeiue, eeneiaaoue, aeaaeiue,
yaeiaeoue.

Neiee – aeoaeiiue, aeainoaaiiue, nicaeathuee aoiinoa?o niieienoaey e
?aneiaaiiinoe. Au?aaeaao c?aeinoue, eioi?ay. Iaeiaei, ia io?aeaaony io
ainiiieiaiee aeaonoaa. Niioaaonoaoao ninoiyieth oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe.

Aieoaie – ianneaiue, iiaeaoeeaue, oieiaeiue, oeoee, ia/oaoaeueiue,
/enoue, i?aae/oanoaea n/anouey, ?acaeoiuey.

Oeieaoiaue – oaeinoaaiiinoue, caaaaeea, iaaeeoaoeey, i?a/iinoue,
aeoaeia, aeaienoaaiiinoue, iaeeii/anoai, a?onoue, eioeiiinoue.

Na?ue – iieiinoueth eeoai niiniaiinoe aicaoaeaeaoue, ia ioyaiuai
ineoieiae/aneeie oaiaeaioeeyie. Iaeo?aeueiinoue, ioaeeaoaa, iiaeaeoaa,
ioie?athuaa.

Ei?e/iaaue – oeaao iieuecu, oaeaniie oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe, nieeaeiue,
neo/iue, i?ecaieaiiue, noaaeeueiue, iai?iieoeaaiue,
aeenoeeieeie?iaaiiue, neeueiue, aacaeooiue.

*a?iue – oneeeaaao ethaie niaaeiue oeaao. Iniciaiiia i?iaioee?iaaiea,
oa?ica, auioaeaeaiea, aeoaeia, nia?oue, ii/ue, eiioeeeo, i?ioano,
iniaaiiinoue, no?ac, aeinoieinoai, aeenoaioee?iaaiea.

N/eoaaony, /oi ?acee/iua aic?anoiua a?oiiu aini?eieiatho oeaaoa e
oeaaoiaua ni/aoaiey ii-?aciiio. Iai?eia?, aeaoe aini?eieiatho eieaeueiua
oeaaoa, aac iieooiiia; iieiaeaaeue – naaoeua, aeeaua oiia; ac?ineua –
ianuuaiiua, naa?eathuea oeaaoa, iieooiia; iiaeeeua ethaee – oaiiua,
iay?eea oeaaoa. Iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue oaeaea aeeyiea ni/aoaiey oeaaoia
e naienoaa oeaaoa aucuaaoue caoeiaua annioeeaoeee.

A yoii iai?aaeaiee i?iaaaeaii iiiaeanoai enneaaeiaaiee. Nouanoaoao oaeia
iiiyoea eae “naaoiaie neoo”. Iiiai/eneaiiua yenia?eiaiou n o/anoeai
ouny/ eioi?iaioia iieacaee, /oi a iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa eniuooaiua,
ii e?aeiae ia?a, aeaniua ie?aoeaatho aiieia ii?aaeaeaiii. Aeaeeii,
caeanue i?iyaeyaony “eieeaeoeaiay eiooeoeey” ethaeae: oeaaoiaia
ono?ienoai ie?a io?aceeinue a oeaaoiaii ono?ienoaa ycuea. Iacaaiey
aeaaiue oeaaoia ano?a/athony a ?a/e iaeaieaa /anoi, a caoee I, A, A, E
iaeaieaa /anoioiu ec aeaniuo.

CaoeiaoeauOeaaoaAAonoi-e?aniuessss?ei-e?aniueINaaoei-aeaeoueACaeaiue?AEa
eoi-caeaiueENeieeENeiaaaoueOOaiii-neiee, oaiiue, neia-caeaiue,
oaiii-eeeiaueTHAieoaiaaoueUI?a/iue, oaiii-ei??e/iaaue, /a?iue

Niioaaonoaea caoeia ?a/e ii?aaeaeaiiui oeaaoai nouanoaotho a
iiaeniciaiee eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea, a cia/eo aeaenoaaiiinoue ?aeeaiu
iaeaieaa oniaoia, eiaaea, e i?eia?o, neiaai ia?aaeaaony oeaaoii
(Coca-cola: EieA-eieA – NeeA naeeaeaiess).

Niinia 6: I?iaiaioaeueiinoue.

Naiua eo/oea i?eia?u i?iaiaioaeueiinoe iiaeii iaeoe a ethaii
o?aaeeoeeiiiii eia?a: oi?ia aini?eieiaaony oeaeeeii, aac i?i/oaiey
niunea, ioaeaeueiua caei?th/ee, iioeau niaaeeiythony a aieueoea iyoia e
oi?iu. I?iaiaioaeueiinoue iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia eae iniiaiie
i?eioeei ieaeaoa, yoi naeaeaao aini?eyoea aieaa oeaeinoiui,
aeaei?aoeaiui. I?eciaee i?iaiaioaeueiinoe: neiiao?ey yeaiaioia aioo?e
eiiiiceoeee, iiaoi? yeaiaioia (?aiii?o). A i?iaiaioa iao ?acaeaeaiey ia
oii e aeaaiue iauaeo. Oii e anoue iauaeo. I?aaaea, aeey ?aeeaiiiai
ieaeaoa oaeia niaaeeiaiea yeaiaioia a “aaeeioth ea?oeio” ?aaeei auaaao
auaiaeiui.

Niinia 7: Aio?iiiii?oiinoue ia?niiaaea.

“Ieaeao eae i?iaeoeey /aeiaaea” – ecia?aaeaiea ia /aeiaaea ia ieaeaoa
aini?eieiaaony eae “/aeiaa/aneia”. Ia /aeiaaea iiaeao auoue iioiaea
?anoaiea, yeaiaio o?eooa, iaoaie/aneee i?eai? eee aeeaioiia. Oaeay
iioiaeanoue n?aco iaiaeaao ia /oanoaa e aeaeaeaiey. Oi anoue
aio?iiiii?oiay oeao?ea iiaeao “aeeoue eae /aeiaae” e oai naiui
i?eaeaeaoue aieiaiea naiae yiioeeiiaeueiinoueth eee iiaeneacuaaoue
/oanoaa.

Nouanoaaiii oi, /oi i?e aio?iiiii?oiinoe ia?niiaaea iiaoo
iiaeaea?aeeaaoueny ?aciua noeaia?ee aini?eyoey ?aeeaiiiai ieaeaoa.
Iai?eia?, a iaeiii aa?eaioa iooenoiai eioaiea ?oea iioneaao a oieiaeioth
aiaeo, /anoue aai oa?noe oaea iaiieea (noeaia?ee “ca?aaeaiea
/oanoaaie”), a ae?oaii eioaiie ec ioeueooeeueia niaei ieuaao /a?ac
Eaaeiaeoue ieaai (noeaia?ee “?iee-ioiioaiey”).

Niinia 8: Ecia?aaeaiea /aeiaaea.

Neo/ae, eiaaea ia ieaeaoa anoue ecia?aaeaiea iaiin?aaenoaaiii /aeiaaea,
ianeieueeeo ethaeae eee o?aaiaioia /aeiaa/aneiai oaea.

Yoa oaia a aiaeeca ieaeaoia iaoiaeeony ia nouea “a?aoe/aneeo” e
ia??aoeaiuo (niaea?aeaoaeueiuo) iiceoeee. Ia oaeoaeyynue a aiaeec
nthaeaoia, eo enoi/ieeia, iainiiaaiiinoe auai?a e o. ae., ioiaoei
iaeioi?ua i?iaeaiu, iaoiaeyueany ia nouea nthaeaoiinoe e oi?iu.

Anoue iiiai niiniaia ecia?aaeaiey /aeiaa/aneiai oaea ia ieaeaoa:
oeaeeeii eee “/anoyie”; a iaoo?aeueiuo “i?e?iaeiuo” oiiao eee a
eneonnoaaiiie a?aoe/aneie iaia?a; eeethci?ii eee oneiaii-a?aoe/anee; eae
“iauaeo” (oi anoue oaeoo?a) eee eae “noauaeo” (oi anoue n aeoeaiinoueth,
n /oanoaaie); a aeaea “iaoo?aeueiiai oaea” eee aai “ia?iaeeeiie noaiu”
(“aaaouee aea?aayiiue /aeiaa/ae”) e oae aeaeaa.

I?e yoii anoue eae ieieioi aeaa aa?eaioa aini?eyoey /aeiaa/aneie oeao?u
ia ieaeaoa: eae aeoeaiie ia?niiu, eioi?ay /oi-oi aeaeaao, n eioi?ie
iiaeii anooiaoue a ioiioaiey, eee eae neiaiea, oiia.

Anee a ieaeaoa ecia?aaeaia aeoeaiay oeao?a, oi iaaei aniiiieoue ana oi,
/oi ecaanoii i neiaieeea iic, au?aceoaeueiinoe aeanoia e oae aeaeaa.
Anee /aeiaa/aneia oaei eniieueciaaii eae neiaieeea, eae ao?eaoo – noieo
aiai?eoue i iiaeniciaoaeueiuo iaoaieciao ?aaae?iaaiey.

Caeeth/aiea.

I?e iaeioi?ie aeiee oaioacee iiaeii ethaie aiaeeoe/aneee i?eai
?acaa?iooue “iaiai?io”. Oi anoue ia iniiaa ca?aiaa caaeaiiiai ia?aiao?a
aeeyiey neiino?oe?iaaoue ecia?aaeaiea, eioi?ia auiieiyao ?aeeaiioth
caaea/o. Oaeei ia?acii, iu eiaai niaieoiiinoue iaoiaeee, n iiiiuueth
eioi?uo iiaeii eco/aoue i?ioeann aicaeaenoaey ?aeeaiu ia niciaiea
iio?aaeoaey, e eae neaaenoaea, iiiaeanoai niiniaia nicaeaaaoue oniaoiua
?aeeaiiua niiauaiey.

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