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Исследование религиоведческой концепции Фрейда – психоаналитического метода в целом

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IEIENOA?NOAI IA?ACIAAIEss OE?AEIU

AeIIAOeEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIE OAOIE*ANEEE OIEAA?NEOAO

? A O A ? A O

ia oaio: Enneaaeiaaiea ?aeeaeiaaae/aneie eiioeaioeee

C. O?aeaea –
ineoiaiaeeoe/aneiai iaoiaea a oeaeii

Auiieiee: anie?aio Eocei
A.A.

I?iaa?ee: i?io., e.i.i. Eaa/aiei A.A.

Aeiiaoee 1997

AAAAeAIEA………………………………………………………
………..……………..

1. C. O?AEAe E AAI O*AIEA
…………………………………..……………….

1.1. “Eiia?ieeianeee ia?aai?io”: caiuneu e eoiae…….………

1.2. Enoiaeiua ie?iaicc?ai/aneea onoaiiaee

iniiaaoaey
ineoiaiaeeca………………………….…………………….

1.3. O/aiea i aanniciaoaeueiii.

Yaiethoeey acaeyaeia C.
O?aeaea…………………………………………

2. I?IENOIAEAeAIEA E NOUIINOUe ?AEEAEE

A NAAOA
INEOIAIAEECA…………………………….…………………..

2.1. Neo/ae e noaaa?ea. Iaa?ic e
?aeeaey…………….…………………

2.2 I?ienoiaeaeaiea
?aeeaee…………………………………….………………

2.3. Oaao eae oi?ia nioeeaeueiie
?aaoeyoeee…………………………….

2.4. Oai?ey
aoaecia………………………………………………………..
.……..

CAEETH*AIEA…………………………………………………….
…………….……..

AAAAeAIEA

Iai?aaeaiea, a eioi?ii oei ?acaeoea yoiai caoyioaoaainy ia ianeieueei
aeanyoeeaoee nii?a, iaaeaoniuneaiii iieacuaaao, /oi ca noieeiiaaieai
?acee/iuo oi/ae c?aiey ne?uaathony iioeau, aeaeaeea io i?inoiai
no?aieaiey onoaiiaeoue enoeio. Yia?ae/iua oneeey aiieiaaoia ?aeeaee ii
ia?aioeaiea ee/iinoe e o/aiey iniiaaoaey ineoiaiaeeca naeaeaoaeuenoaotho
i oii, /oi a iaoe aeie aii?in ia aoaecia O?aeaea auoae ca ?aiee /enoi
aeaaeaie/aneeo nii?ia e i?eia?ae y?ei au?aaeaiiia eaeaieiae/aneia
cao/aiea.

I?iaeaia ?aeeaee caieiaao iniaia ianoi a nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee
ineoiaiaeeca. O?aeae ia?auaeny e iei iaiaeiie?aoii oieueei a
niaoeeaeueiuo ?aaioao, ii e a enneaaeiaaieyo iauaineoieiae/aneiai e
nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneiai oa?aeoa?a.

Ii?aaeaeea ?aeeaeth eae “i?iaoee?iaaiioth ai aiaoiae ie? ineoieiaeth”,
O?aeae iinoaaee aii?in i iaiaoiaeeiinoe eco/aiey aa aeoaieeo enoieia,
aa?oueo naia ia/aei a iniaaiiinoyo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey /aeiaa/aneie
ineoeee. Yoio iaoiae, ii aai iiaieth, aeieaeai ?ane?uoue caiiua,
/aeiaa/aneea iniiau ieoia i ?aa e aaea, aeia?a e cea, aiaa e aannia?oee.
Oaeei ia?acii, aaia?aeueioth caaea/o ineoiaiaeeoe/aneiai eco/aiey O?aeae
aeaeae a oii, /oiau i?aa?aoeoue “i?aa?aoeoue iaoaoeceeo a
iaoaineoieiaeth”, o.a. naanoe o/aiea i naa?o/oanoaaiiie ?aaeueiinoe e
iauae oai?ee /aeiaa/aneie ineoeee.

O?aeae n/eoae, /oi ?aeeaey – yoi ia i?inoi ianniaay eeethcey, ii
eeethcey, ii naiaio i?ienoiaeaeaieth e ooieoeeyi noiaea n iaa?icii
iaayc/eauo ninoiyiee. Eae e iaa?ic, iia aicieeaao aneaaenoaea
iiaeaaeaiee ia?ae/iuo i?e?iaeiuo aea/aiee e, iiaeiaii iaa?ico, n
iiiiuueth noa?aioeiiuo aeaenoaee e ?eooaeia nicaeaao neiaeioth nenoaio
ineoieiae/aneeo eiiiainaoeee, iiiiaathuee ethaeyi i?eniiniaeony ethaeyi
i?eniiniaeoueny e iaauiineiui oneiaeyi naiaai nouanoaiaaiey.

I/aaeaeii, caeanue O?aeae iaia?oaeee ecaanoioth iaaethaeaoaeueiinoue.
Aio oaeaeinue auynieoue eioa?aniua ia?aeeaee iaaeaeo ?eooaeeciii
iaa?ioeea e aa?othuaai, a eiaiii: neiaieeci, noa?aioeiiinoue,
i?eioaeeoaeueiinue niaa?oaaiuo aeaenoaee, eeethci?iinoue eaaeaueo a eo
iniiaa eaeae.

Ii, ?acoiaaony, aeaaiui ii?ieii ?aeeaeiaaae/aneie eiioeaioeee O?aeaea
aue aa iieiue aioeenoi?eci. Iia iieieeanue ia neiaeiie oeaie
enoi?eei-ineoieiae/aneeo ia?aeeaeae, a iniiaa eioi?uo eaaeaei ?aciuaaiea
a?aiae iaaeaeo ii?iie e iaoieiaeae, ineoieiae/aneei e nioeeaeueiui.
Iieaaay, /oi iniiaiia yae?i /aeiaa/aneie ineoieiaee iaeciaiii, O?aeae
n/eoae aiciiaeiui oiiaeiaeyoue ineoeeo ?aaaiea e aeeea?y, aeeea?y e
iaa?ioeea, iaa?ioeea e ?aaaiea.

?aeeaeiaaae/aneay eiioeaioeey O?aeaea, oaeei ia?acii, i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie e?aeia caiooaiiia e i?ioeai?a/eaia yaeaiea. Nianoaaiii caeanue e
noaeeeaathony n ia?aaeienaeueiui ianiioaaonoaeai iaaeaeo
ie?iaicc?ai/aneie iiceoeeae o/aiiai e aa oai?aoe/aneei iainiiaaieai,
iaaeaeo oa?aeoa?ii iinoaaeaiiuo i?iaeai e iaoiaeaie eo ?aoaiey, iaaeaeo
noauaeoeaiuie iaia?aieyie e iauaeoeaiui ?acoeueoaoii aai
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo oneeee.

1. C. O?AEAe E AAI O*AIEA

1.1. “Eiia?ieeianeee ia?aai?io”: caiuneu e eoiae

Naaiaeiy a?yae ee eiio-eeai i?eaeao a aieiao inia?eaaoue aaaeiinoue
iinoaaeaiiuo O?aeaeii i?iaeai. I?eaea/aiea aieiaiey iao/iie
iauanoaaiiinoe e neiaeiie e iaeienneaaeiaaiiie noi?iia ineoe/aneie
aeecie /aeiaaea, ia iniciaaaaiue ei, ii ioithaeue ia ianneaiie,
aeaenoaeoaeueii eiaei aieueoia oai?aoe/aneia e i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea.
“Ii nouanoao, – ioia/aao A.A. Oa?icey, – yoi icia/aei iiiuoeo iaeoe
iniaoth oi?io iiaeeoeeaoeee /aeiaa/aneie ineoeee ca i?aaeaeaie niciaiey
e naeaeaoue aa i?aaeiaoii iauaeoeaiiai iaaethaeaiey. …Aeaaiaea?y yoiio
a ea/anoaa i?aaeiaoa ineoieiaee noaea aunooiaoue ineoeea ai anao naieo
aiciiaeiuo oi?iao aa i?iyaeaiey, eae a niciaoaeueiie, oae e iayao, eae a
ii?ia, oae e a iaoieiaee”. I?iaeaia, oaeei ia?acii, iinoaaeaia oi/ii e
naiaa?aiaiii, ii iaeoe ioaeiue eeth/ e aa ?aoaieth O?aeaeo, e
niaeaeaieth, ia oaeaeinue.

Ineoiaiaeec i?aaenoaaeyao niaie e?aeia i?ioeai?a/eaia o/aiea, a eioi?ie
oaeou ninouanoaotho n aeiiuneaie, ycue no?iaie iaoee niaiauaaony n
ycueii eiineacaiee e ia?acia. I?e/ai, a aieueoeinoaa neo/aao iiceoeaiua
iiiaiou ia aeaiu a oai?ee O?aeaea a /enoii aeaea. Iie nieioue e ?yaeii
caoaiiaiu e eneaaeaiu oa?ieiieiae/aneeie ooeu?aieyie, i?iecaieueiuie
caeeth/aieyie e iai?iaa?aiiuie aeiioacaie.

O?aeae ia ?ac iacuaae ineoiaiaeec naiei “aeaoeuai”. Iiyoiio,
?anniao?eaay ?aeeaeiaaae/aneea aicc?aiey O?aeaea a ?aieao iauae oai?ee
ineoiaiaeeca, iaeuecy ia einiooueny oao aao aai aeecie e oai?/anoaa,
eioi?ua ieacaee iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aeeyiea ia eo ioi?ieaiea e ?acaeoea.

1.2. Enoiaeiua ie?iaicc?ai/aneea onoaiiaee

iniiaaoaey ineoiaiaeeca

Ceaioiae O?aeae ?iaeeeny 6 iay 1856 a. ai O?aeao?aa, i?iaeioeeaeueiii
ai?iaeea ia ie?aeia Aano?i-aaiaa?neie eiia?ee, a naiuea iaeeiai
oi?aiaoea. O?aeae ?in a naiuea, a eioi?ie ?aeeaeiciua o?aaeeoeee e
iau/ae oaea oo?aoeee neeo. Iiae aeeyieai iooea a iaeue/eea i?iaoaeeeanue
ethaiaue e eieaai e no?anoue e ciaieyi.

A aeiiace/aneea aiaeu ie?iaicc?aiea C. O?aeaea oi?ie?iaaeinue iiae
aeeyieai eaeae ?aoeeiiaeecia e anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai yiie?ecia. ?aoathuoth
?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee ie?iaicc?aiey O?aeaea nua?aei eco/aiea anoanoaaiiuo
iaoe. Aua a aeiiace/aneea aiaeu O?aeae iiciaeiieeny n o/aieai *.
Aea?aeia, ninoaaeaoaai oeaeoth yiioo a enoi?ee iao/iiai ciaiey.

A 1873 a. ii iinooiee ia iaaeeoeeineee oaeoeueoao Aaineiai oieaa?neoaoa
e /a?ac ainaiue eao iieo/ee noaiaiue aeieoi?a iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe. Iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii Y. A?oeea O?aeae inouanoaee ianeieueei i?eaeiaeueiuo
enneaaeiaaiee, niinianoaothueo ioi?ieaieth iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie oai?ee
iae?iiia. Ii aue oaaaeaeai, /oi i?aaiii ineoeee yaeyaony iica e
ineoe/aneea i?ioeannu nouanoaotho a ia?ac?uaiie nayce n
oeceieiae/aneeie. Aeaaeaie/aneay ea?uea?a, ianiio?y ia oniaoioth
enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth ?aaioo, auea aeey iaai cae?uoa. E?ooaieai
oai?/aneeo ieaiia onoaoaeyeinue oyaeaeui iaoa?eaeueiui iieiaeaieai
naiuee. I?ieaey noaaee?iaeo a Aaineie ia?iaeiie aieueieoea, O?aeae
ioe?ue a?a/aaiue eaaeiao e caiyeny ea/aieai iaa?icia.

Iaeiaei i/aiue nei?i ii iaia?oaeee, /oi ia ?aniieaaaao ie eaeie oai?eae,
ie yooaeoeaiuie iaoiaeaie, iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey ai?ueau n yoei
?ani?ino?aiaiiui, ii niaa?oaiii ia eco/aiiui caaieaaaieai. Cao?oaeiaiey
O?aeaea auee anoanoaaiiui io?aaeaieai iaueo o?oaeiinoae iaoee aai
a?aiaie.

No?anoiia aeaeaiea eae iiaeii nei?aa iaeoe iiaia oa?aiaaoe/aneia
n?aaenoai, yiooceaci, io/ayiea, iaoa?iaiea O?aeaea i?ae?anii io?aaeaao
enoi?ey n eieaeiii (1883 a.), aeaenoaea eioi?iai ii eco/ae ia naaa e
aeeceeo. Yenia?eiaiou O?aeaea iaianee na?ueaciue oua?a caei?iaueth
iaeioi?ui aai aeia?iaieueiui eniuooaiuo.

Ia/aeueiue yoai iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe O?aeaea niaiae n ?anoeaaoii a
iaa?ieiaee oeceei-oeie/aneiai iai?aaeaiey enneaaeiaaoaeae. Aei oao ii?
iiea O?aeae caieiaeny nianoaaiii iae?ioeceieiaeae, aenoiaiaoiieae e
i?aaie/aneie iaa?iiaoieiaeae, iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu
oeceei-oeie/aneiai iiaeoiaea aiieia naay ii?aaaeuaaea. Ii, eae oieueei
ii i?enooiee aeey eco/aiey aunoeo oi?i ineoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
ia?aie/aiiinoue iiaeiaiuo iaoiaeia n?aco aeaea i naaa ciaoue. “Iaaeeee,
– aniiieiaao O?aeae a iineaaenoaee, – auee ainieoaiu a aeooa
eneeth/eoaeueii aunieie ioeaiea aiaoiie/aneeo, oece/aneeo e oeie/aneeo
iaoiaeii. E ioeaiea ineoe/aneiai iaoiaea iie ia auee iiaeaioiaeaiu, o.a.
iie ioianeenue e iaio aac?acee/ii eee io?eoeaoaeueii. Iaei /ai iiaea
iiii/ue O?aeaeo e ineoieiaey, eioi?ay aeaeaea naie ia?aua oaae.

O?aeae eneae oaeinoaaiioth i?e/eio iaa?icia ii/oe iieoi?a aeanyoeeaoey.
A 1885 a., i?ieaey ii eiieo?no ia ianoi i?eaao-aeioeaioa iaa?ieiaee a
Aaineii oieaa?neoaoa, O?aeae iieo/ee aiciiaeiinoue iiaoae ia noaaee?iaeo
a Ia?eae, ai anaie?ii ecaanoioth eeeieeo “Naeueiao?ea?”, eioi?oth
aicaeaaeye e?oiiaeoee iaa?iiaoieia AEai Ia?oai Oa?ei. Iuneue Oa?ei i
oii, /oi i?e/eiu ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ineoe/aneeo ?anno?ienoa neaaeoao
eneaoue ia a aiaoiiee, a a ineoieiaee, aeoaiei caiaea a niciaiea
O?aeaea.

Iaoieeioaoenue ia eieao aeieoi?a Eiiieeoa Aa?iaaeia “Aiooaiea e aai
i?eiaiaiee a ea/anoaa oa?aiee”, ii iiiuoaeny i?eiaieoue aeiiic a oeaeyo
ea/aiey aieueiuo. A ?yaea neo/aaa aeiiioe/aneia aiooaiea aaei e iieiiio
en/aciiaaieth o aieueiuo enoa?e/aneeo neiioiiia. Iniaaiii ii?acee aai
yenia?eiaio n iaoeeaioeie, eioi?ie a ninoiyiee aeiiioe/aneiai nia auei
i?eeacaii ii i?iaoaeaeaieth ioe?uoue ciioee, /oi iia e naeaeaea. Ia
aii?in, ca/ai iia ioe?uea ciioee, iaoeeaioea niouaiii ioaaoeea, /oi
oioaea oaeinoiaa?eoueny aa ee ciioee.

Iaeiaei anei?a ii oaaaeeeny, /oi ea/aiea aeiiicii aeaao ianoieeee
?acoeueoao e cao?oaeiyao iiieiaiea i?e?iaeu ia?aii-ineoieiae/aneeo
caaieaaaiee. Iiyoiio iiae aeiiicii iaiaoiaeeii canoaaeoue aieueiiai
aniiiieoue, caiiai ia?aaeeoue e oai naiui ?ac?yaeeoue iiaeaaeaiiue
ineoe/aneee eiioeuen, aucaaaoee aieaciue. Iaiauea iaeiieaiiue iaoa?eae,
O?aeae i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi i?aaieci ?aniieaaaao iinoiyiiui eiee/anoaii
yia?aee ineoe/aneie yia?aee. Anee yoa yia?aey naiaa?aiaiii e
aani?aiyonoaaiii ia ?aaeecoaony, anee iia caaea?aeeaaaony eee
iiaeaaeyaony, oi aicieeaao yeaeaaeaioiue ii neea iaoieiae/aneee
eiioeuen. Niune i?aaeeiaeaiiiai ninoiye a oii, /oiau “?ac?yaeeoue”
iaoiaaiiue ca?yae ineoe/aneie yia?aee. Yoa ?aaioa iiaeaiaeeea eoiai
iiiaieaoiei ecuneaieyi O?aeaea.

O/aiea i aanniciaoaeueiii.

Yaiethoeey acaeyaeia C. O?aeaea

Niaeanii i?aaeeiaeaiiie O?aeaeii iiaeaee, a ineoeea eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea
nouanoaotho aeaa ea/anoaaiii ?acii?iaeiua noa?u: niciaiea e
aanniciaoaeueiia. E ia?aie ioiinyony ana ineoe/aneea aeou, “i?enouea a
iaoai niciaiee e aini?eieiaaiua iaie”, ei aoi?ie – ana, /oi ia aeaii
iaiin?aaenoaaiii a naiiniciaiee. Niciaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
iiaa?oiinoiue neie aeooaaiiai aiia?aoa, eaaeauaai ia a?aieoea
aioo?aiiaai e aiaoiaai ie?a. Caeanue i?ienoiaeeo ia?a?aaioea eae
aiaoieo, oae e aioo?aiieo eiioeuenia. Niciaiea, ienae O?aeae,
eieaeecoaony a iicaiaie ei?a.

Aeoeaioe?iaaa aieiaiea ia ?iee naenoaeueiuo aea/aiee eae iniiau
ineoieiae/aneie aeeiaieee, O?aeae aeiaae aei eiae/aneiai eiioea iniiaiie
i?eioeei einoeieoeaecia, oai naiui iaaieueii iieacae aano?aeiinoue
ethauo iiiuoie neiino?oe?iaaoue aioo?aiiee ie? /aeiaaea n iiiiuueth
oiuae noaiu, ninoiyuae ec iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo einoeieoia,
iio?aaiinoae eee aea/aiee.

O?aeae ia?aoee aieiaiea ia /anoua niaiaaeaiey aieaciaiiuo ainiiieiaiee
iaoeeaioia n eo aeaoneei naenoaeueiui iiuoii. Yoe oaeou iaaaee O?aeaea
ia iuneue, /oi enoi/ieeii ineoe/aneeo caaieaaaiee yaeyaony naenoaeueiay
o?aaia, /oi enoa?ey, iai?eia?, naycaiia n eiaaoei ianoi a aeaonoaa
ianneaiui nia?auaieai ?aaaiea eai-ieaoaeue ec ac?ineuo, a iaa?ic
iaayc/eainoe – n aeoeaiui nio/anoeai naiiai iaoeeaioa a aeoa nia?auaiey.

Naenoaeueiua aea/aiey a oi a?aiy i?aaenoaaeyee niaie ia i?inoi
neaaieco/aiioth i?iaeaio, ii e iaeanoue, ie?oaeaiioth ia?iiiui
eiee/anoaii i?aae?annoaeeii e nioeeaeueiui oaao, canoaaeaoeo iiiaeo
aeaeiuo o/aiuo niciaoaeueii iaoiaeeo aa noi?iiie.

Nenoaiaoe/anee iaaethaeay a naiae i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ?acee/iua
ioeeiiaiey a naenoaeueiie noa?a, O?aeae ia?aioeaiee aa cia/aiea a
aeecie ii?iaeueiiai /aeiaaea. Auiany i?iaeaiu iiea ca i?aaeaeu
nioeeaeueiuo e enoi?e/aneeo ?aiie, O?aeae iaecaaaeii aeieiaece?iaae eo,
/oi e iaoei io?aaeaiea a ioianaiee naenoaeueiuo aea/aiee e ?ac?yaeo
ecia/aeueiuo e /ooue ee ia aaeeinoaaiiuo aeaoa?ieiaio /aeiaa/aneiai
iiaaaeaiey.

Ii iiiaea aiaeu ?aaioae a iaeeii/anoaa. Ii oaea a 1902-1903 aa. aie?oa
iaai ia/ae neeaaeuaaoueny e?oaeie o/aieeia e aaeeiiiuoeaiieeia e 1907 a.
a Oeth?eoa nicaeaaony Iauanoai O?aeaea.

2. I?IENOIAEAeAIEA E NOUIINOUe ?AEEAEE

A NAAOA INEOIAIAEECA

2.1. Neo/ae e noaaa?ea. Iaa?ic e ?aeeaey

Iinooee?iaaa aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiinoue ethauo ineoe/aneeo oaiiiaiia e
aiciiaeiinoue i?e i?aaeeueiii enoieeiaaiee i?aaeaeaeaoue eo aeaeueiaeoea
iineaaenoaey, O?aeae ia iia ia caiaoeoue, /oi a ?iee i?aaeneacaoaey
aoaeouaai ineoiaiaeeca aanueia iaiiieiaao iaoeiia?aciia noaaa?ea.

O?aeae n/eoae noaaa?ea ?acoeueoaoii i?iaeoeee, o.a. ia?aianaiey
/aeiaaeii aiaia ianiciaoaeueiuo iioeaia naiaai iiaaaeaiey. Niooii iuouay
aioo?aiithth iaoneiaeaiiinoue naieo iinooieia, ii ia iaoiaey ei
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiiai iauyniaiey, noaaa?iue /aeiaae, iiaeiaii ia?aiieeo,
ia/eiaao iiiauaoue eo enoi/iee ai aiaoiee ie?. Yoio iaoaieci, ii iiaiey
O?aeaea, eaaeeo a iniiaa ethauo oi?i noaaa?ey, a oii /enea naiiai
ianniaiai e onoie/eaiai noaaa?ey /aeiaa/anoaa – ?aeeaee.

O?aeae iuoaaony “iaeoe caiiia yae?i” ooiaiiuo ?aeeaeiciuo
i?aaenoaaeaiee, naanoe “iaaaniia” e “caiiiio”. Ii aeaeeo a ?aeeaee
ienoeoeoee?iaaiioth ineoieiaeth, eioi?oth iaoea aeieaeia i/enoeoue io
a?oca “nayuaiiuo” ianeiaiee. I?iaeoeoeaiinoue yoiai iaoiaea auea
aeanoyua aeieacaia Oaea?aaoii a ?aaioao “I?ienoiaeaeaiea o?enoeainoaa”
e “Eaeoeee i nouiinoe ?aeeaee”. O?aeae, aeaeaaoee a ?aeeaee eeoue
i?iaeoeeth aioo?eineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia, aeiionoee ioeaeo –
aio?iiieiaece?iaae e ineoieiaece?iaae ?aeeaeth.

Noi?iieei ineoiaiaeeca ia?aaeei ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi, aaaaey iiiyoea
aanniciaoaeueiiai, O?aeae ?aaiethoeeiiece?iaae ?aeeaeth. Ia naiii aea
aeaea i?ei?eoao a yoii aii?ina i?eiaaeeaaeeo ioithaeue ia O?aeaeo. Ca
iieaaea aei iaai Oaea?aao a “Eaeoeee i nouiinoe ?aeeaee” ienae, /oi
i?aaeiaoii ?aeeaee yaeyaony ia oieueei aiaoiyy i?e?iaea, ii aioo?aiiyy
i?e?iaea /aeiaaea. Oaeia ?aeeaee anoue a eiioea eiioeia oaeia ni/aoaiey
niciaiey n aanniciaoaeueiui. *aeiaae ni naiei “ss” eee n niciaieai noieo
ia e?ay aacaeiiiie i?iianoe, yaeythuaeny, iaeiaei, ia /ai eiui, eae aai
nianoaaiiui aanniciaoaeueiui nouanoaii, i?aaenoaaeythueiny aio /oaeei.
*oanoai, ioaaoeaoaa /aeiaaea, ia?aae eeoeii yoie i?iianoe e
eceeaathuaany a neiaao ecoieaiey: /oi y oaeia? ioeoaea? ca/ai? – ii
nooe aeaea, e anoue ?aeeaeiciia /oanoai, /oanoai oiai, /oi “ss” ie/oi
aac iaeiaai “Ia-ss”, ia?aae eioi?ui /aeiaae eniuouaaao oaeoth aea
caaeneiinoue e no?ao, eae e ia?aae iaoi?aaeyaiuie noeoeyie i?e?iaeu.
Iiyoiio ia?aaeei n?aaee aa?othueo /anoi ano?a/athony ethaee, aeey
eioi?uo eoeueo, eae i?eau/iay oi?ia iiaaaeaiey, yaeyaony iniiaie
naycuaathuae ieoueth n ?aeeaeae.

Niiinoaaeyy ?oooaeeci iaa?ioeea e aa?othuaai, O?aeae ienae i oii, /oi
“eaaei aeaeaoue, a /ai ninoieo noiaenoai iaa?ioeea ni nayuaiiiaeaenoaeai
?aeeaeiciiai ?eooaea: a oa?ucaieyo niaanoe i?e iaeniieiaiee a iieiie
ecieyoeee (cai?auaiea iaoaoue) e aeia?iniaanoiii auiieiaiee iaei/ae”.

2.2. I?ienoiaeaeaiea ?aeeaee

?aciuaaiea a?aieoe iaaeaeo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui e iauanoaaiiui,
ineoieiae/aneei e nioeeaeueiui, ii?iie e iaoieiaeae, caei?iaueth e
aieaciueth, iineoaeeei iaoiaeieiae/aneie i?aaeiinueeie aeey oe?ieie
na?ee enoi?eei-ineoieiae/aneeo ia?aeeaeae, eaaoeo a iniiao
ineoiaiaeeoe/aneie eiioeaioeee i?ienoiaeaeaiee ?aeeaee.

A ?aaioa “Oioai e oaao” O?aeae n/eoae, ii nianoaaiiiio ii?aaeaeaieth,
iiiuoaeny “?ac?aaioaoue n iiiiuueth ineoiaiaeeca i?iaeaio ia?iaeia
eioi?ay aaea iaiin?aaenoaaiii e i?ienoiaeaeaieth aaaeiaeoeo eoeueoo?iuo
onoaiiaeaiee, ainoaea?noaaiiuo ii?yaeeia, i?aanoaaiiinoe e ?aeeaee, a
oaeaea e e cai?aoai e?iainianeoaeuenoaa e aaeaiey niaanoe”.

O?aeae aue oi?ioi ciaeii n nia?aiaiiie aio enoi?eei-?aeeaeiaaae/aneie e
yioia?aoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?ie ii i?iaeaia oioaiecia. I?aaaea, ie iaeia ec
yoeo oai?ee ia oaeiaeaoai?yea O?aeaea, eai, n aai oi/ee c?aiey, ana iie
auee neeoeii ?aoeeiiaeueiuie. Ineoieiae/aneea oai?ee naycuaaee
aicieeiiaaiea oioaiecia n aa?ie a aeooia, ni no?aoii ia?aae aeaiiiaie,
o.a. ii nouanoao, ioiaeanoaeyee oioaieci n aieieciii.

E?eoeeoy iiaeiaiue iiaeoiae e i?iaeaia oioaiecia, O?aeae i?iyaee
ecaanoioth i?iieoeaaiinoue. Niaeanii O?aeaeo, ana nouanoaothuea oai?ee
ia ?ane?uee aeoaeiiuo enoieia oioaiecia, e, /oiau ainiieieoue yoio
i?iaae, ii aa?ao ia naay niaeoth iiiuoeo inaaoeoue i?e iiiiue
ineoiaiaeeoe/aneiai iaoiaea oi, /oi inoaaaeinue oaiiui e niiieoaeueiui a
ineoieiaee ia?iaeia.

A iniiaa enneaaeiaaiey nouiinoe e i?e?iaeu oioaiecia o O?aeaea iieiaeaia
eaeay i i?eioeeieaeueiii noiaenoaa yaeaiee iauanoaaiiie e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie ineoieiaee. “A aeooaaiie aeecie ia?iaeia, – ieoao ii,
– aeieaeiu auoue ioe?uou… iiaeiaiua i?ioeannu e nayce, eaeea auee
auyaeaiu i?e iiiiue ineoiaiaeeca o eiaeeaeaeooia”. A eaaeaeii
oeeaeeeciaaiiii /aeiaaea, ooaa?aeaeae O?aeae, neaeeo aeeea?ue. E yoi
ooaa?aeaeaiea ia auei aeey iniiaaoaey ineoiaiaeeca i?inoie iaoaoi?ie.
Eaaeaeue /aeiaae, ii iiaieth O?aeaea, io ?iaeaeaiey ianao a naaa a?oc
a?oae/aneiai ianeaaeey /aeiaa/anoaa, eioi?ue “aeeth/aao ia oieueei
i?aae?aniieiaeaiey, ii e eaeaeiia niaea?aeaiea, neaaeu ainiiieiaiee,
iiuoa i?aaeieo iieieaiee”.

Niaeanii O?aeaeo, ioeiaeeaoaany a aanniciaoaeueiie noa?a ineoe/aneia
ianeaaeea i?ioeiai ia inoaaony aacaeaenoaaiiui. Iii iinoiyiii aeaao i
naaa ciaoue, i?iyaeyynue ai iiiaeanoaa caianee?iaaiiuo oi?i. Iaeaieaa
yanoaaiii yoi a?oae/aneia i?ioeia iaia?oaeeaaaony naay a iiiaiou, eiaaea
eiio?ieue ni noi?iiu niciaiey ineaaaaaao. Oaeei ninoiyieai, i?enouee
anai ethaeyi, yaeyaony nii. Iiyoiio ia?aui ianoii?aauaaieai i?ioeiai a
aeooiaiie aeecie /aeiaaea O?aeae n/eoae eiaiii niiaeaeaiey. O?aeae
?anniao?eaaao nii eae i?eia? ?aa?annee, aica?auaiey e i?ioeiio, eae
oi?io aic?iaeaeaiey ae?aaieo einoeieoeaiuo eiioeuenia, eae ?anoaa?aoeeth
“ia?aiauoiiai ia?oeennecia”.

Ae?oaei ianoiiaoiaeaeaieai i?ioeiai O?aeae n/eoae aeaonoai.
Aiaeiaey iaaeaeo ca?ae oeeaeeecaoeee e aeaonoaii /aeiaaea, iaaeaeo
aeeea?ai e ?aaaieii, i?eia?aea oe?ieoth iiioey?iinoue a ia/aea OO aaea
n?aaee i?aaenoaaeoaeae iauanoaaiiuo iaoe, iaoaie/anee ia?aiineaoeo
aeeaeaeoeeo yaiethoeee aeieiae/aneeo aeaeia a iaeanoue nioeeaeueiiai
?acaeoey. Nooue aa ninoiyea a oii, /oi ?aaaiie a i?ioeanna ?inoa
ae?aooea iiaoi?yao iooue aeooiaiiai ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa,
iineaaeiaaoaeueii aeaeaaynue io aeieiae/aneeo ?aeeaeicii-iaae/aneeo oi?i
ie?iaini?eyoey e nia?aiaiiiio iao/iiio iuoeaieth. A ia?eiae aeaonoaa
/aeiaae, ii iiaieth O?aeaea, aeieaeai i?iaeaeaoue ia?iiiue iooue io
eaiaiiiai aaea aei o/anoey a nia?aiaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee.

O?aoueei i?eaaaeeuai i?ioeiai, niaeanii O?aeaeo, yaeyaony aieaciue.
Acaeyae ia ineoe/aneia ?anno?ienoai eae ia “?aa?anneth”, aica?auaiea
ineoeee ia aieaa ieceea nooiaie ?acaeoey ia aue i?eaeiaeueiui. Yoo eaeae
aua a ia/aea O(O aaea ionoaeaae iaiaoeeee ineoieia-eaeaaeeno E.A.
Ea?on. Iicaeiaa aiaeiae/ioth oi/eo c?aiey ?acaeaaee e ae?oaea o/aiua.
Noiie?iaaa e aeiaaaey yoe eaeae aei eiae/aneiai eiioea, O?aeae i?eoae e
i?yiiio ioiaeanoaeaieth iaii?iaeueiinoe n ia?aiauoiinoueth. O?aeae
ooaa?aeaeae, /oi iniiaiie eiiieaen iaa?ica caeeth/aaony a ioiioaiee e
?iaeeoaeyi, iaoiaeyueiny ai aeanoe eioeanooiciuo aeaeaiee, o.a. yaeyaony
oai naiui eiiieaenii, eioi?ue i?enou ethaiio ?aaaieo e aeieaeai auoue
i?aiaeieai a i?ioeanna aai ?inoa e ?acaeoey.

E?oa, eae aeaeii, caieioeny. Oeaeue aiaeiaee e oiiaeiaeaiey i?eaaea
O?aeaea e neaaeothuaio: iineieueeo iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee oaao e
iaa?ica iaayc/eainoe niaiaaeatho, a ineoieiae/aneee iaoaieci iaa?ica
ecaanoai, oi ii ?aoaao ii aiaeiaee n oaao niiaeaee?iaaoue iaoaieci
aeaenoaey oaao.

Iii?iuie ioieoaie o?aeaeianeie eiioeaioeee i?ienoiaeaeaiey oioaiecia
noaee ineoiaiaeeoe/aneay o?aeoiaea aeaoneie naenoaeueiinoe, eiioeaioeey
i?ienoiaeaeaiey o?aiac e oai?ey “oeeeeiie/aneie naiuee”.

Niaeanii O?aeaeo, oaao i?ecaaii iaocaeaoue naenoaeueiua, aa?anneaiua,
yaienoe/aneea aea/aiey e eiioeuenu. Aio caeanue e i?ieaaaao
aeaia?eaoeeiiiay eeiey iaaeaeo oaao e iaa?icii.

2.3. Oaao eae oi?ia nioeeaeueiie ?aaoeyoeee

Aeaaiay i?e/eia iaoaea/e O?aeaea ia ieaa enoi?e/aneiai ?aeeaeiaaaeaiey
ei?aieony a ecia/aeueiie caaeaiiinoe aai eiioeaioeee, aicieeoae aei e
iacaaeneii io eco/aiey eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneie ?aaeueiinoe.

Inouanoaeoue yoo caaea/o aac ianeeey iaae oaeoaie auei iaaiciiaeii.
I?iecaieueiinoue a ioai?a e eioa?i?aoaoeee yiie?e/aneiai iaoa?eaea aeaao
naay ciaoue oaea a ia?auo i/a?eao “Oioaia e oaao”, iinayuaiiuo aiaeeco
ia?aiauoiie oaooaoeee.

Yoi yaeaiea aia?aua auei iaia?oaeaii a eiioea OV111 aaea aiaeeeneei
ii?aieaaaoaeai Eoeii a Iieeiacee. Iicaeiaa aiaeiae/iua oi?iu
nioeeaeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey auee ioe?uou o iiiaeo ia?iaeia ie?a. Naii
iiiyoea “oaao” eiaao aeaienoaaiiue niune (nayoie; cai?aoiue) e icia/aao
eaoaai?e/aneee cai?ao.

O?aeae enneaaeiaaiea nouiinoe oaao ia/eiaao n oaea ecaanoiiai oacena i
noiaenoaa ?aeeaee e iaa?ica, eeethno?e?oaiiai ia yoio ?ac ia iaoa?eaea
ia?aiauoiie oaaoaoeee.

Acaeyioa iiae oaeei oaeii c?aiey ia oaao, O?aeae i?eoiaeeo e iiaieth i
oii, /oi oaao yaeyaony i/aiue ae?aaiei cai?aoii, iaeiaeaiiui eai-oi ec
aia eaeei-ieaoaeue aaoi?eoaoii e iai?aaeaiiui i?ioea neeueiaeoeo
aiaeaeaeaiee ethaeae. Neeueiia aeaeaiea ia?ooeoue aai inoaaony a
aanniciaoaeueiii.

Ii eae au ie aaeeei auei noiaenoai, oaao ana-oaee ia iaa?ic. A ioee/ea
io iaa?ica iii eiaao ia naenoaeueiia, a nioeeaeueiia i?ienoiaeaeaiea,
o.a. eieoeee?iaaii nioeeaeueiuie aea/aieyie, eioi?ua i?iecioee io
neeyiey yaienoe/aneeo e y?ioe/aneeo eiiiiiaioia.

Aiaeeco ineoieiae/aneeo iaoaieciia aicieeiiaaiey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
einoeoooa ia?aiauoiie “oaao” O?aeae iinayuaao aeaa i/a?ea: “Aiyciue
eioeanoa” e “Oaao e aiaeaaeaioiinoue /oanoa”. Iiieiaiea “oaao”,
niaeanii O?aeaeo, yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii oiiaeiaeaiey aai iaayc/eaui. E
oai e ae?oaei i?enou:

iaiioeae?iaaiiinoue – eo i?ienoiaeaeaiea iaecaanoii, ?aoeeiiaeueiia
iainiiaaiea ionoonoaoao;

i?eioaeeoaeueiinoue – eo niaethaeaiea i?ienoiaeeo eae au iiieii aiee e
aeaeaiey eiaeeaeaea;

niiniaiinoue e naeaeao – oaaoe?iaaiiua iauaeou iiaoo ia?aaeaaaoue naie
iianiua naienoaa ae?oaei i?aaeiaoai e eeoeai:

?eooaeeci – niaethaeaiea e iniaaiii ia?ooaiea cai?aoa iau/ii
nii?iaiaeaeaaony neiaeiui iaae/aneei aeaenoaeai oea?aiiieaea.

Iinoaiaiii ?acee/iua aeaeu oaao ana oaniaa n?anoaeenue n ?aeeaeae e, a
eiioea eiioeia, ?anoai?eeenue a nenoaia ?aeeaeicii-i?aanoaaiiuo
i?aaeienaiee e cai?aoia. Eaaeouayny i?iecaieueiinoue e
e??aoeeiiaeueiinoue oaao iauyniyaony ia aeiieie?othuae ?ieueth
aanniciaoaeueiiai, a oneiaeyie e i?aaeiinueeaie, aucaaaoeie e aeecie yoo
oi?io nioeeaeueiie ?aaoeyoeee.

Oeacaiea O?aeaea ia aanniciaoaeueiue, aiaeaaeaioiue oa?aeoa? oaao,
aaconeiaii, caneoaeeaaao aieiaiey, oioy yoe naienoaa e ia eiatho oiai
oieaa?naeueiiai cia/aiey, eioi?ia ei i?eaeaao ineoiaiaeec.

Oai?ey aoaecia

Caaa?oay iaci? ?aeeaeiaaae/aneie eiioeaioeee O?aeaea, neaaeoao neacaoue
i aai iiieiaiee ineoieiae/aneie i?e?iaeu aoaecia. A naieo ?aaioao ii
enoiaeee ec eaeae ia?aeeaeecia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e enoi?e/aneiai
?acaeoey. Anee ?aeeaey au?anoaao ec o?oaeiinoae i?ioiaeaeaiey Yaeeiiaa
eiiieaena, oi aoaeci, ii iiaieth O?aeaea, ei?aieony a eo i?iaeoeoeaiii
i?aiaeieaiee. “Ineoiaiaeec – ienae O?aeae, – iao/ee ian aeaeaoue
eioeiioth naycue iaaeaeo iooeianeei eiiieaenii e aa?ith a aiaa, ii
iieacae iai, /oi ee/iue aia ineoieiae/anee ia /oi eiia, eae
eaeaaeece?iaaiiue ioaoe, e iu iaaethaeaai aaeaaeiaaii, /oi iieiaeua
ethaee oa?ytho ?aeeaeicioth aa?o, eae oieueei ?ooeony aaoi?eoao iooea”.

Oae, iai?eia?, eaoaai?e/anee io?eoeay eaeath aiaiaeooiiaaiiinoe ?aeeaee,
O?aeae a oi aea a?aiy neeiiyeny e auaiaeo i a?iaeaeaiiii, iaoneiaeaiiii
Yaeeiiaui eiiieaenii oa?aeoa?a ?aeeaeiciie iio?aaiinoe. Eeaeiy ?aeeaeth
eae “eieeaeoeaiue iaa?ic iaayc/eainoe”, eae “ianniaoth eeethceth”, ii
iaeiia?aiaiii aeaeae a iae nianeoaeueiia n?aaenoai io eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
oi?i iaa?ioecaoeee.

Ii a ineoiaiaeeca oaieiae iaoee aeey naay ia oieueei iaoeiia?aciia
iainiiaaiea ?aeeaeiciiai e??aoeeiiaeecia e ianneiecia, ii e iiuiia
iiaenii?uea a naiae i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. A enoi?ee iaoee iaiaei
i?eia?ia, iieacuaathueo, /oi ee/iia iai?eyoea ?aeeaee, ia iie?athuaa ia
iao/iua iniiau, eeai inoaaony /anoiui oaeoi?ii aeia?aoee, eeai
au?iaeaeaaony a ieaeeenoe/aneia aoioa?noai, ia eiathueo
neieueei-ieaoaeue na?ueaciuo iauanoaaiiuo iineaaenoaee.

Aieaa oiai, eeoaiiue iiceoeaiiai niaea?aeaiey ?aeeaeiciue ieaeeeci nai
yaeyaony ?aciiaeaeiinoueth “i?aa?aoiiai niciaiey” e iioiio ?aii eee
iicaeii i?aa?auaaony a ?aciiaeaeiinoue naenoaeueiie ?aeeaee, ec eioi?ie
oaieiae ioioii /a?iatho aeey naieo nenoai iiaua eaeae e a?aoiaiou.
Eiaiii yoa noaeueaa auea oaioiaaia O?aeaeo, eioi?ue iiieii aiee n
oa/aieai a?aiaie ec oaaaeaeaiiiai caueoieea ?acoia i?aa?aoeeny a
aiinoiea aa?u, iiie?athuee ?acoi, ec nioeeaeueiiai ?aoi?iaoi?a,
inaiaiaeaeathueo /aeiaa/anoai io aaeiauo eeethcee e caaeoaeaeaiee, – a
oai?oea inaaaeiiao/iiai ieoa, noaaoaai a iaoe aeie iii?ie
eaeaieiae/aneie ?aaeoeee.

CAEETH*AIEA

?aeeaeiaaae/aneay eiioeaioeey C. O?aeaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nianue
?aaeueiuo oaeoia e ioe?iaaiiuo aeiiuneia, enoeiu e caaeoaeaeaiey, iaoee
e ieoioai?/anoaa.

Aioeenoi?eci, iaiiieiaiea nioeeaeueiie i?e?iaeu ?aeeaee naaee ia iao
iao/ioth oeaiiinoue aai enneaaeiaaiee. Nia?aiaiiua oaieiae a
ineoiaiaeeca O?aeaea iaoee aeey naay ia oieueei iaoeiia?aciia
iainiiaaiea e??aoeeiiaeecia e ianneiecia, ii e iiuiia iiaenii?uea a
naiae aeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe,

Aeoeaioe?oy aieiaiea ia oao noi?iiao ineoiaiaeeoe/aneiai o/aiey, eioi?ua
?aaioatho ia ?aeeaeth, iie a oiaea a?aiy oaeueneoeoee?otho aoaenoe/aneea
aniaeou oai?/anoaa O?aeaea. Noaeueaa O?aeaea e aai ?aeeaeiaaae/aneiai
ianeaaeey aiai?eo i oii, /oi iineaaeiaaoaeueiue aoaeci aiciiaeai eeoue
ia aaca aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai ie?iaicc?aiey.

Iiiiaa I.A. O?aeaeeci e ?aeeaey. – I.: Iaoea, 1985. – 200 n.

?ooeaae/ A.I. Io O?aeaea e Oaeaeaaaa?o. – I.: Oeeinioey, 1985. – 175 n.

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