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Гениальность и помешательство

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?AOA?AO II OEEINIOEE IA OAIO:

Ineoiaiaeec e i?iaeaia /aeiaaea.

“ AAIEAEUeIINOUe

E

IIIAOAOAEUeNOAI.”

Ia?aeeaeue

iaaeaeo aaeeeeie ethaeueie

e iiiaoaiiuie

ii
*aca?a Eiia?ici.

Nooaeaioee III eo?na IIOO NIEE e O

Anoaoiaie TH.O.

Oaeoeueoaoa: Aoaeeiaecoaeueiay oaoieea

Niaea?aeaiea:

I. Aaaaeaiea e enoi?e/aneee iaci?.

II. Noiaenoai aaieaeueiuo ethaeae n iiiaoaiiuie.

III. Aeeyiea aoiinoa?iuo yaeaiee ia aaieaeueiuo ethaeae e iiiaoaiiuo.

IV. Aeeyiea iaoai?ieiae/aneeo yaeaiee ia ?iaeaeaiea aaieaeueiuo ethaeae.

V. ?aciiaeaeiinoe iaooieaeia-a?aoiiaiia.
(ii *. Eiia?ici)

VI.“I?i?iee” e ?aaiethoeeiia?u.

Eneeth/eoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe aaieaeueiuo ethaeae. Caeeth/aiea.

«Aaiee -/aeiaae iaea?aeeiue,

ii ii oai?aoe…»

I. A. Aa?aeyaa.

“Aaieaeueiinoue e iiiaoaoaeuenoai”.

I.

Aaaaeaiea e enoi?e/aneee iaci?.

E niaeaeaieth ii?ie n iiiiuueth iaoiieeiiai aiaeeca ?ac?ooatho e
oie/oiaeatho iaeio ca ae?oaie oa naaoeua, ?aaeoaeiua eeethcee, eioi?uie
iaiaiuaaao e aicaaee/eaaao naay /aeiaae. Oae a neeo ?ieiaie
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ii i?eoiaeeo e oaaaeaeaieth, /oi ethaiaue anoue, a
nouiinoe, ia /oi eiia, eae acaeiiia aea/aiea ou/eiie e ianoeeia… a
iunee – i?inoia aeaeaeaiea iieaeoe. Aeaaea aaieaeueiinoue – yoa
aaeeinoaaiiay aea?aeaaiay aeanoue, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoay /aeiaaeo, ia?aae
eioi?ie ia e?aniay iiaeii i?aeeiieoue eieaie, – aeaaea aa iiiaea
ineoeao?u iinoaaeee ia iaeei o?iaaiue ni neeiiiinoueth e i?anooieaieyi,
aeaaea a iae aeaeyo oieueei iaeio ec oa?aoieiae/aneeo oi?i /aeiaa/aneiai
oia, iaeio ec ?aciiaeaeiinoae noianoanoaey.

Au? A?enoioaeue, yoio aaeeeee ?iaeiia/aeueiee e o/eoaeue anao
oeeinioia, caiaoee, /oi iiae aeeyieai i?eeeaia e?iae e aieiaa “iiiaea
eiaeeaeaeooiu aeaeathony iiyoaie, i?i?ieaie eee i?i?eoeaoaeyie e /oi
Ia?e Ne?aeocneee ienae aeiaieueii oi?ioea noeoe, iiea aue iaiueyeii, ii,
aucaei?iaaa, niaa?oaiii oo?aoee yoo niiniaiinoue”.

Ii aea aiai?eo a ae?oaii ianoa: “Caia/aii, /oi ciaiaieoua iiyou,
iieeoeee e ooaeiaeieee auee /anoueth iaeaioieeee e iiiaoaiiua, /anoueth
– iecaio?iiu, eae Aaeea?ioiio. Aeaaea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iu aeaeei oi aea
naiia a Nie?aoa, Yiieaeieea, Ieaoiia e ae?oaeo, e neeueiaa anaai a
iiyoao. Ethaee n oieiaeiie, eciaeeueiie e?iaueth auaatho ?iaee e
ia?aie/aiiu, a ethaee n ai?y/ae e?iaueth – iiaeaeaeiu, ino?ioiiu e
aieoeeau”.

Ieaoii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi “a?aae nianai ia anoue aieaciue, a, iai?ioea,
aaee/aeoaa ec aeaa, aea?oaiuo iai aiaaie; iiae aeeyieai a?aaea
aeaeueoeeneea aeiaeiineea i?i?eoeaoaeueieoeu ieacaee ouny/e oneoa
a?aaeaeaiai A?aoeee, oiaaea eae a iaueiiaaiiii ninoiyiee iie i?eiineee
iaei iieuecu eee aea nianai ieacuaaeenue aaniieaciuie… Iniaue ?iae
a?aaea, aicaoaeaeaaiiai Iocaie, aucuaaao a i?inoie e iaii?i/iie aeooa
/aeiaaea niiniaiinoue au?aaeaoue a i?ae?aniie iiyoe/aneie oi?ia iiaeaeae
aa?iaa, /oi niaeaenoaoao i?inaauaieth aoaeoueo iieieaiee”.

Aeaiie?eo aeaaea i?yii aiai?ee, /oi ia n/eoaao enoeiiui iiyoii /aeiaaea,
iaoiaeyuaainy a cae?aaii oia. Excludit sanos, Helcone poetas.

Aneaaenoaea iiaeiaiuo acaeyaeia ia aacoiea ae?aaiea ia?iaeu ioiineeenue
e iiiaoaiiui n aieueoei ii/oaieai, n/eoay eo aaeioiiaeaiiuie nauoa, /oi
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony, e?iia enoi?e/aneeo oaeoia, aua e oai, /oi neiaa mania
– ii-a?a/anee, navi e mesugan – ii-aa?aenee, a nigrata – ii-naie?eonee
icia/atho e noianoanoaea e i?i?i/anoai.

Oaeeen Ieaoa? ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ciae iiiaeo ethaeae, eioi?ua, ioee/aynue
caia/aoaeueiui oaeaioii a ?aciuo eneonnoaao, a oi aea a?aiy auee
iiiaoaiiuie. Iiiaoaoaeuenoai eo au?aaeaeinue iaeaiie no?anoueth e
iioaaeai, a oaeaea no?aiiuie e iai?eee/iuie iinooieaie. Iaaeaeo i?i/ei,
Ieaoa? ano?aoee i?e aeai?a iieueciaaaoeony aieueoie neaaie a?oeoaeoi?a,
neoeueioi?a e iocueaioa, ianiiiaiii noianoaaeoeo. A Ianeaeue iinoiyiii
aiai?ee, /oi aaee/aeoay aaieaeueiinoue a?aie/eo n iieiaeoei
noianoanoaeai, e aiineaaenoaee aeieacae yoi ia nianoaaiiii i?eia?a.

II.

Noiaenoai aaieaeueiuo ethaeae n iiiaoaiiuie.

Eae ie aeanoie e ia/aeai oaeiai ?iaea ia?aaeien, ii, ?anniao?eaay aai n
iao/iie oi/ee c?aiey, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi a iaeioi?uo ioiioaieyo ii
aiieia iniiaaoaeai, oioy n ia?aiai acaeyaea e eaaeaony iaeaiui.

Iiiaea ec aaeeeeo iuneeoaeae iiaeaa?aeaiu, iiaeiaii iiiaoaiiui,
noaei?iaeiui nie?auaieyi ioneoeia e ioee/athony ?aceeie, oae iacuaaaiuie
“oi?ae/aneeie” oaeiaeaeaeaieyie. Oae i Eaiao e Iiioaneuea ?anneacuaatho,
/oi ia iieo o noieia, aaea iie caieiaeenue, iiaeii auei caiaoeoue
oaeoaeaiey io iinoiyiiiai iiaea?aeaaiey eo iia. Iaiieaii no?aaeae
iinoiyiiui iiae??aeaaieai i?aaiai iea/a e aoa, a ai a?aiy i?eiaaeeia
aiaaa – oaeaea e ee?. “ss, aa?iyoii, aue i/aiue ?anna?aeai, – niciaaaeny
ii nai iaeiaaeaeu iinea ai?y/aai nii?a n Eio, iioiio /oi /oanoaiaae
ae?iaeaiea naieo ee?, /aai ni iiie aeaaii oaea ia neo/aeinue”. I?o?
Aaeeeee aue iiaeaa?aeai iiae??aeaaieyi eeoeaauo ioneoeia, oaeanii
eneaaeaaoeo aai eeoei.

*aca?a Eiia?ici ia iniiaaiee caeiia i ?aaiiaanee iaaeaeo neeie e
iaoa?eae, oi?aaeythuaai anai ie?ii aeeauo nouanoa, auaae e ae?oaea,
aieaa ecoieoaeueiua aiaeiaee: iai?eia?, naaeeia e iaeunaiea, ooaeiaa
oaea, a oaeaea ieioay ioneoeueiay e iieiaay aeayoaeueiinoue,
naienoaaiiua anai iiiaoaiiui, i/aiue /anoi ano?a/athony e o aaeeeeo
iuneeoaeae. Oeaca?ue “aiyeny” aeaaeiuo e ooaeuo Eanneaa. Ae’Aeaiaa?,
Oaiaeii, Iaiieaii auee a iieiaeinoe ooaeu, eae neaeaou. I Aieueoa?a
Naath? ieoao: “Ooaeiaa aeieacuaaao, eae iiiai ii ?aaioaao, eciiaeaeaiiia
e nai?aeaiiia oaei aai neoaeeo oieueei iaiei/eie, neaicue eioi?oth eae
aoaeoi aeaeeoue aeooo e aaiee yoiai /aeiaaea”.

Aeaaeiinoue anaaaea n/eoaeanue i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth e aeaaea oe?aoaieai
aaeeeeo ethaeae. E?iia oiai, iuneeoaeyi ia?aaia n iiiaoaiiuie
naienoaaiiu: iinoiyiiia ia?aiieiaiea iicaa e?iaueth (aeia?aiey),
neeueiue aea? a aieiaa e ioeaaeaeaiea eiia/iinoae, neeiiiinoue e ino?ui
aieaciyi iicaa e neaaay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e aieiaeo e oieiaeo.

I aaieaeueiuo ethaeyo, oi/ii oae aea eae e i noianoaaeoeo, iiaeii
neacaoue, /oi iie anth aeeciue inoathony iaeeiieeie, oieiaeiuie,
?aaiiaeooiuie e iaycaiiinoyi naiueyieia e /eaia iauanoaa. Ieeaeaiaeaeaei
iinoiyiii oaa?aeee, /oi “aai eneonnoai caiaiyao aio aeaio”. A?oa, Aaeia,
Aae?ii, *aeeeie, Iaiieaii, Iuethoii oioy e ia aiai?eee yoiai, ii naieie
iinooieaie aeieacuaaee aua ia/oi ooaeoaa.

Ia?aaeee neo/ae, eiaaea aneaaenoaea oao aea i?e/ei, eioi?ua oae /anoi
aucuaatho noianoanoaea, oi anoue aneaaenoaea aieaciae e iia?aaeaeaiey
aieiau, naiua iaueiiaaiiua ethaee i?aa?auathony a aaieaeueiuo. Aeei a
aeaonoaa oiae n auni/aeoae eanoieoeu e ?acae?iaee naaa i?aaoth oaiaiioth
einoue. A?ao?e, aia/aea ieioie iaaaoe, naeaeaeny ciaiaieoui a?oenoii
iinea neeueiiai ooeaa aieiau a?aaiii. Iaaeeueii, niieiaeo niaa?oaiii
neaaioiiue, aeinoea ecaanoiinoe naieie oaeaioaie, eioi?ua ?acaeeenue a
i?i aneaaenoaea iieo/aiiie ei ?aiu a aieiao.

Au? ca ianeieueei ianyoeaa aei oneeaiey naiae aieacie Aaeia ienae i
naaa (Correspondance inedite. Paris, 1877): “Ii? oinoaaiiia
aicaoaeaeaiea anoue nei?aa ?acoeueoao aieacie, /ai aaieaeueiinoe – /oiau
oioue iaiiiai ooaoeoue iie no?aaeaiey, y ni/eiye noeoe. A yoe oaeaniua
ii/e, iaacoiaa io aiee, aaaeiay aieiaa iiy ia/aony ec noi?iiu a noi?iio
e canoaaeyao caaiaoue n aeanoieie aanaeinoueth aoaai/eee eciioaiiiai
aeo?aoeeiai eieiaea”.

Yoie caaeneiinoueth aaiey io iaoieiae/aneeo eciaiaiee io/anoe iiaeii
iauynieoue ethaiiuoioth iniaaiiinoue aaieaeueiinoe ii n?aaiaieth n
oaeaioii: iia yaeyaony /ai-oi aanniciaoaeueiui e i?iyaeyaony niaa?oaiii
iaiaeeaeaiii.

TH?aai Iaea? aiai?eo, /oi oaeaioeeaue /aeiaae aeaenoaoao no?iai
iaaeoiaiii; ii ciaao, eae e ii/aio ii i?eoae e ecaanoiie oai?ee, oiaaea
eae aaieth yoi niaa?oaiii iaecaanoii: anyeay oai?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue
aanniciaoaeueia.

Oa ec aaieaeueiuo ethaeae, eioi?ua iaaethaeaee ca niaith, aiai?yo, /oi
iiae aeeyieai aaeioiiaaiey iie eniuouaatho eaeia-oi iaau?aceii i?eyoiia
eeoi?aaei/iia ninoiyiea, ai a?aiy eioi?iai iunee iaaieueii ?iaeyony a eo
oia e a?ucaeoo naie niaith, oi/ii ene?u ec ai?y/ae aieiaie.

Iaiieaii aiai?ee, /oi enoiae aeoa caaeneo io iaeiiai iaiiaaiey, io
iaeiie iunee, a?aiaiii inoaaoaeny aacaeayoaeueiie; i?e ianooieaiee
aeaaii?eyoiiai iiiaioa iia aniuoeaaao, iiaeiaii ene?a, e a ?acoeueoaoa
yaeyaony iiaaaea (Ii?i). Nie?ao ia?aue oeacae ia oi, /oi iiyou nicaeatho
naie i?iecaaaeaiey ia aneaaenoaea noa?aiey eee eneonnoaa, ii aeaaiaea?y
iaeioi?iio i?e?iaeiiio einoeieoo. Oaeei aea ia?acii i?i?eoeaoaee aiai?yo
i?ae?aniua aaue, niaa?oaiii ia niciaaay yoiai.

“Ana aaieaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey, – aiai?eo Aieueoa? a ienueia e Aeeae?i,
– nicaeaiu einoeieoeaii. Oeeiniou oeaeiai ie?a aianoa ia iiaee au
iaienaoue A?ieaeu Eeii eee aanie “Ii? caa?ae”, eioi?oth Eaoiioai
aeeeoiaae, aeaaea ia ciay oi?ioaiueei, /oi ec iaa aueaeao. Ei?iaeue
iaienae o?aaaaeeth “Ai?aoeee” oae aea einoeieoeaii, eae ioeoea aueao
aiacaei”.

Oaeei ia?acii, aaee/aeoea eaeae iuneeoaeae, iiaeaioiaeaiiua, oae
neacaoue, oaea iieo/aiiuie aia/aoeaieyie e a aunoae noaiaie
/oanoaeoaeueiie i?aaiecaoeeae noauaeoa, ?iaeyony aiacaiii e ?acaeaathony
ianoieueei aea aanniciaoaeueii, eae e iaiaaeoiaiiua iinooiee iiiaoaiiuo.
Yoie aea aanniciaoaeueiinoueth iauyniyaony iaiieieaaeiinoue oaaaeaeaiee
a ethaeyo, oaiaoe/anee onaieaoeo naaa ecaanoiua oaaaeaeaiey. Ii eae
oieueei i?ioae iiiaio yenoaca, aicaoaeaeaiey, aaiee i?aa?auaaony a
iaueiiaaiiiai /aeiaaea eee iaaeaao aua ieaea, oae eae ionoonoaea
?aaiiia?iinoe (?aaiiaaney) anoue iaeei ec i?eciaeia aaieaeueiie iaoo?u.
Ia iiaeeaaeeo ieeaeiio niiiaieth, /oi iaaeaeo iiiaoaiiui ai a?aiy
i?eiaaeea e aaieaeueiui /aeiaaeii, iaaeoiuaathuei e nicaeathuei naia
i?iecaaaeaiea, nouanoaoao iieiaeoaa noiaenoai. Eaoeineay iineiaeoea
aeaneo: “Aut insanit homo, aut versus fecit” (“Eee aacoiaoe, eee
noeoiieao”).

I/aaeaeii, ana iie einoeieoeaii oiio?aaeyee oaeea n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua
a?aiaiii oneeeaatho i?eeea e?iae e aieiaa a oua?a inoaeueiui /eaiai
oaea. Caeanue enoaoe oiiiyiooue i oii, /oi iiiaea ec aea?iaeouo e a
iniaaiiinoe aaieaeueiuo ethaeae ceioiio?aaeyee nie?oiuie iaieoeaie. Ia
aiai?y oaea ia Aeaenaiae?a Aaeeeii, eioi?ue iiae aeeyieai iiueyiaiey
oaee naiaai eo/oaai ae?oaa e oia? iinea oiai, eae aeanyoue ?ac inooee
eoaie Aa?eoeana, – naiiai Oeaca?y nieaeaou /anoi i?eiineee aeiiie ia
naieo iea/ao. Nie?ao, Naiaea, Aeeeaeaae, Eaoii, a a iniaaiiinoe Naioeiee
Naaa? e Iaoioae II aei oaeie noaiaie ioee/aeenue iaaicaea?aeaiiinoueth,
/oi ana oia?ee io aaeie ai?y/ee. Oanni ienae a iaeiii ec naieo ienai:
“ss ia io?eoeath, /oi y aacoiaoe; ii iia i?eyoii aeoiaoue, /oi iia
aacoiea i?iecioei io iueyinoaa e ethaae, iioiio /oi y aeaenoaeoaeueii
iueth iiiai”.

Iaiaei iueyieoe ano?a/aaony e a /enea aaeeeeo iocueaioia, iai?eia?
Aethnnae, Aaiaeaeue e Aethe, aiai?eaoee, /oi “ii n/eoaao aiieia
ni?aaaaeeeaui ethaeoue cieioi, aeii e neaao, iioiio /oi ia?aia aeaao aio
n?aaenoai eiaoue aoi?ia, eioi?ia, aaeioiiaeyy, aeinoaaeyao aio neaao”.
Ai?i/ai, e?iia aeia, ii ethaee oae aea aiaeeo e iaeiiaoe iieeny ath.

Caia/aii, /oi ii/oe ana aaeeeea nicaeaiey iuneeoaeae iieo/atho
ieii/aoaeueioth oi?io eee ii e?aeiae ia?a auyniythony iiae aeeyieai
eaeiai-ieaoaeue niaoeeaeueiiai iuouaiey, eioi?ia ea?aao caeanue, oae
neacaoue, ?ieue eaiee nieaiie aiaeu a oi?ioi ono?iaiiii aieueoiaii
noieaa. Oaeou aeieacuaatho, /oi ana aaeeeea ioe?uoey auee naeaeaiu iiae
aeeyieai i?aaiia /oanoa, eae yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaao e Iieaoioo. Ianeieueei
eyaooae, ec eioi?uo i?aaeiieaaaeinue i?eaioiaeoue oeaeaaiue ioaa? aeey
aeaiu Aaeueaaie, noaee i?e/eiie ioe?uoey aaeueaaiecia. Ecio?iie/aneea
(iaeiia?aiaiiua) ea/aiey ethno?u e iaaeaiea yaeiea iaoieeioee Iuethoiia
e Aaeeeay ia nicaeaiea aaeeeeo nenoai. Acaeyioa ia eaeiai-oi
iineeueueea, Eaiia?aei caaeoiae naiaai Eoaeo, a Oi?aaeueaenai iaoae
iiaeoiaeyuoth iico aeey neaeyuaai aiaaea i?e aeaea e?eaeyiee naiaai
iaoo?ueea e o.ae.

Ii aaaeue oi/ii oae aea ecaanoiua iuouaiey aucuaatho iiiaoaoaeuenoai eee
neoaeao enoiaeiie oi/eie aai, yaeyynue eiiaaea i?e/eiie naiuo no?aoiuo
i?eiaaeeia aaoainoaa. Neieueei ethaeae auee aiaea/aiu a oaeenoai,
iiaeaeia eee ?ac?uaaiea iiaee i?e aeaea oiii?a, iueathuaai eino?a e
o?oia!

Neaaeoao aua i?eaaaeoue, /oi aaeioiiaaiea, yenoac anaaaea ia?aoiaeyo a
ianoiyuea aaeethoeeiaoeee, iioiio /oi /aeiaae aeaeeo oiaaea i?aaeiaou,
nouanoaothuea eeoue a aai aiia?aaeaiee. Oae A?inne ?anneacuaae, /oi
iaeiaaeaeu ii/ueth, iinea oiai eae ii aeieai o?oaeeeny iaae iienaieai
iiyaeaiey i?ec?aea I?eia, ii oaeaeae yoio i?ec?ae ia?aae niaith e
aeieaeai aue caaea/ue naa/o, /oiau ecaaaeoueny io iaai. Aaeue
?anneacuaaao i nuia ?aeiieaena, /oi ii iia aeaeaoue aei o?aonio
ii?o?aoia a aiae, oae eae aio auei aeinoaoi/ii iiniio?aoue ia
eiai-ieaoaeue a i?iaeieaeaiea iieo/ana, iiea ii iaa?anuaae yneec, /oiau
iioii oaea yoi eeoei iinoiyiii auei ia?aae iei, eae aeeaia. Ethoa?
neuoae io naoaiu a?aoiaiou, eioi?uo ?aiueoa ii ia iia i?eaeoiaoue nai.

Anee iu ia?aoeiny oaia?ue e ?aoaieth aii?ina – a /?i eiaiii ninoieo
oeceieiae/aneia ioee/ea aaieaeueiiai /aeiaaea io iaueiiaaiiiai, oi, ia
iniiaaiee aaoiaeia?aoee e iaaethaeaiee, iaeaeai, /oi ii aieueoae /anoe
any ?acieoea iaaeaeo ieie caeeth/aaony a ooii/aiiie e ii/oe aieaciaiiie
aia/aoeeoaeueiinoe ia?aiai. Aeeea?ue eee eaeeio iaei/oanoaeoaeueiu e
oece/aneei no?aaeaieyi, no?anoe eo iaiiiai/eneaiiu, ec iuouaiee aea
aini?eieiathony eie eeoue oa, eioi?ua iaiin?aaenoaaiii eanathony eo a
niunea oaeiaeaoai?aiey aeeciaiiuo iio?aaiinoae. Ii ia?a ?acaeoey
oinoaaiiuo niiniaiinoae aia/aoeeoaeueiinoue ?anoao e aeinoeaaao
iaeaieueoae neeu a aaieaeueiuo ee/iinoyo, yaeyynue enoi/ieeii eo
no?aaeaiee e neaau. Yoe eca?aiiua iaoo?u aieaa /oanoaeoaeueiu a
eiee/anoaaiiii e ea/anoaaiiii ioiioaiee, /ai i?inoua nia?oiua, a
aini?eieiaaiua eie aia/aoeaiey ioee/athony aeoaeiith, aeieai inoathony a
iaiyoe e eiiaeie?othony ?acee/iui ia?acii. Iaei/e, neo/aeiua
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, iiae?iaiinoe, iacaiaoiua aeey iaueiiaaiiiai /aeiaaea,
aeoaiei caiaaeatho ei a aeooo e ia?a?aaaouaathony ia ouny/o eaaeia,
/oiau aini?iecaanoe oi, /oi iaueiiaaiii iacuaatho oai?/anoaii, oioy yoi
oieueei aeia?iua e eaaoa?ia?iua eiiaeiaoeee iuouaiee.

“Aaeea? ienae i naaa: “*oi inoaeinue o iaiy, e?iia aia/aoeeoaeueiinoe,
yoiai iiao/aai /oanoaa, yaeythuaainy neaaenoaeai oaiia?aiaioa, eioi?ue
aeeai aini?eieiaao ?aaeinoe ethaae e /oaeana iaoee? Naienoaaiiay iia
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue, eiia/ii, e i?eaeaao iiei noeoioai?aieyi oio
no?anoiue oii, eioi?iai iao o ae?oaeo iiyoia”.

“I?e?iaea ia nicaeaea aieaa /oanoaeoaeueiie aeooe, /ai iiy”, – ienae i
naaa Aeeae?i. A ae?oaii ianoa ii aiai?eo: “Oaaee/ueoa /enei
/oanoaeoaeueiuo ethaeae, e au oaaee/eoa eiee/anoai oi?ioeo e aeo?iuo
iinooieia”.

Noa?i, iinea Oaenie?a iaeaieaa aeoaieee ec iiyoia-ineoieiaia, aiai?eo a
iaeiii ienueia: “*eoay aeia?aoee ae?aaieo aa?iaa, y iea/o i ieo, eae
aoaeoi i aeeauo ethaeyo… Aaeioiiaaiea e aia/aoeeoaeueiinoue –
aaeeinoaaiiua i?oaeey aaiey. Iineaaeiyy aucuaaao a ian oa
ainoeoeoaeueiua iuouaiey, eioi?ua i?eaeatho aieueooth neeo ?aaeinoe e
aucuaatho ne?cu oieeaiey”.

Ecaanoii, a eaeii ?aaneii iiae/eiaiee iaoiaeeeenue Aeueouea?e e Oineiei
o aeaiuei, ia anaaaea aeinoieiuo oaeiai iaiaeaiey. E?anioa e ethaiaue
Oi?ia?eiu neoaeeee aeey ?aoayey enoi/ieeii aaeioiiaaiey ia oieueei a
aeeaiiene, ii e a iiycee.

A eae ?aii i?iyaeythony no?anoe o aaieaeueiuo ethaeae!

Aeaioa e Aeueouea?e auee aethaeaiu a aeaayoue eao, ?onni – a
iaeeiiaaeoeaoue, Ea??ii e Aae?ii – a ainaiue. N iineaaeiei oaea ia
oanoiaaeoeaoii aiaeo naeaeaeenue noaei?iae, eiaaea ii ociae, /oi
ethaeiay ei aeaaooea auoiaeeo caioae. “Ai?a aeooeei iaiy, – ?anneacuaaao
ii, – oioy iieiaia aea/aiea iia auei aua ia ciaeiii, ii ethaiaue y
/oanoaiaae aei oiai no?anoioth, /oi a?yae ee e aiineaaenoaee eniuoae
aieaa neeueiia /oanoai”.

Ei?ae aeaeae o/aiuo, iaaeaaoeo a iaii?ie io ainoi?aa i?e /oaiee
ni/eiaiee Aiia?a.

AEeaiienaoe O?ai/ea oia? io ainoeuaiey, iinea oiai eae oaeaeae ea?oeio
?aoayey.

Ii eiaiii yoa neeoeii neeueiay aia/aoeeoaeueiinoue aaieaeueiuo eee
oieueei aea?iaeouo ethaeae yaeyaony a a?iiaaeiii aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
i?e/eiith eo ian/anoee, eae aeaenoaeoaeueiuo, oae e aiia?aaeaaiuo.
Aaiee ?acae?aaeaaony anai, e /oi aeey iaueiiaaiiuo ethaeae eaaeaony
i?inoi aoeaai/iuie oeieaie, oi i?e aai /oanoaeoaeueiinoe oaea
i?aaenoaaeyaony aio oaea?ii eeiaeaea. Aieaciaiiay aia/aoeeoaeueiinoue
ii?iaeaeaao oaeaea e iaiiia?iia ouaneaaea, eioi?ui ioee/athony ia
oieueei ethaee aaieaeueiua, ii e aiiaua o/aiua, ia/eiay n ae?aaiaeoeo
a?aiai; a yoii ioiioaiee oa e ae?oaea i?aaenoaaeytho aieueoia noiaenoai
n iiiiiaiueyeaie, no?aaeathueie ai?aeaeeaui iiiaoaoaeuenoaii.

“*aeiaae – naiia ouaneaaiia ec aeeaioiuo, a iiyou – naiua ouaneaaiua ec
ethaeae”, – ienae Aaeia, iiae?acoiaaay, eiia/ii, e naiiai naay. A
ae?oaii ienueia ii aiai?eo: “Ia caauaaeoa, /oi y –

– iiyo e iioiio aeoiath, /oi eaaeaeue aeieaeai a?ineoue ana naie aeaea e
caiyoueny /oaieai noeoia”.

Iiyo Ethoeee ia anoaaae n ianoa i?e iiyaeaiee THeey Oeaca?y a nia?aiee
iiyoia, iioiio /oi n/eoae naay auoa aai a eneonnoaa noeoineiaeaiey.

Oiiaiaaoy? i?eoiaeee a y?inoue e ioeacuaaeny ieaoeoue ii n/aoai, anee
aai oaieeey auea iaienaia /a?ac aeaa “n”.

Ana , eiio auiaei ia aeieth ?aaeeia n/anouea aeeoue a iauanoaa
aaieaeueiuo ethaeae, ii?aaeaeenue eo niiniaiinoueth ia?aoieeiauaaoue a
aeo?ioth noi?iio eaaeaeue iinooiie ie?oaeathueo, aeaeaoue anthaeo
i?aneaaeiaaiey e ai an?i iaoiaeeoue iiaiae e aeoaieie, aaneiia/iie
iaeaioieee. Yoa niiniaiinoue iaoneiaeeaaaony eiaiii aieaa neeueiui
?acaeoeai oinoaaiiuo nee, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui aea?iaeoue /aeiaae aieaa
niiniaai iaoiaeeoue enoeio e a oi aea a?aiy eaa/a i?eaeoiuaaao eiaeiua
aeiaiaeu a iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea iniiaaoaeueiinoe naiaai io/eoaeueiiai
caaeoaeaeaiey. Io/anoe i?a/iue acaeyae aaieaa ia ie?oaeathuaa caaeneo,
ai?i/ai, e io oiai, /oi, yaeyynue iiaaoi?aie a oinoaaiiie noa?a, iie n
iaiieieaaeiie oaa?aeinoueth iooaeeeaatho io naay aieueoeinoai
aethaeeiiuo ethaeae.

Ii ana-oaee aeaaiaeooth i?e/eio iaeaioieee e iaaeiaieuenoaa aeeciueth
eca?aiiuo iaoo? ii *.Eiia?ici ninoaaeyao caeii aeeiaiecia e ?aaiiaaney,
oi?aaeythuee oaeaea e ia?aiie nenoaiie, caeii, ii eioi?iio aneaae ca
/?acia?iie o?aoie eee ?acaeoeai neeu yaeyaony /?acia?iue oiaaeie oie aea
naiie neeu, – -caeii, aneaaenoaea eioi?iai ie iaeei ec aeaeeeo nia?oiuo
ia iiaeao i?iyaeoue ecaanoiie neeu aac oiai, /oiau ia iiieaoeoueny ca
yoi a ae?oaii ioiioaiee, e i/aiue aeanoiei, iaeiiaoe, oio caeii, eioi?ui
iaoneiaeeaaaony iaiaeeiaeiaay noaiaiue niaa?oainoaa eo nianoaaiiuo
i?iecaaaeaiee.

Iaeaioieey, oiuiea, canoai/eainoue, yaieci – aio aeanoieay ?anieaoa ca
aunoea oinoaaiiua aea?iaaiey, eioi?ua iie o?aoyo, iiaeiaii oiio eae
ceioiio?aaeaiey /oanoaaiiuie ianeaaeaeaieyie aeaeoo ca niaith ?acee/iua
?anno?ienoaa.

A?oa, nai oieiaeiue A?oa, niciaaaeny, /oi aai iano?iaiea auaaao oi
/a?an/o? aanaeui, oi /a?an/o? ia/aeueiui.

*.Eiia?ici: “Aiiaua, y ia aeoiath, /oiau a ie?a iaoaeny oioy iaeei
aaeeeee /aeiaae, eioi?ue, aeaaea a ieioou iieiiai aeaaeainoaa, ia n/eoae
au naay, aac anyeiai iiaiaea, ian/anoiui e aiieiui eee oioy au a?aiaiii
ia no?aaeae io/eoaeueiuie i?eiaaeeaie iaeaioieee”.

Eiiaaea /oanoaeoaeueiinoue eneaaeaaony e aeaeaaony iaeiinoi?iiiae,
nin?aaeioi/eaaynue ia iaeiii eaeii-ieaoaeue ioieoa. Ianeieueei eaeae
ecaanoiiai ii?yaeea e iaeioi?ua iniaaiii ecethaeaiiua iuouaiey iiiaiiiao
i?eia?aoatho cia/aiea aeaaiiai (niaoeeoe/aneiai) noeioea, aeaenoaothuaai
ia iica aaeeeeo ethaeae e aeaaea ia aanue i?aaieci.

Ioannii aiai?ee, /oi aeeoue noieo eeoue aeey oiai, /oiau caieiaoueny
iaoaiaoeeie. Ae’Aeaiaa? e Iaiaae, niieieii ia?aiineaoea naiua
io/eoaeueiua iia?aoeee, ieaeaee io eaaeeo oeieia e?eoeee. Eth/ei aea
Eainaaaeue niayeny, eiaaea aio io?acaee iiao, ii ia iia auianoe ?aceie
e?eoeee AEio?oa.

Neaaeoao aua caiaoeoue, /oi n?aaee aaieaeueiuo eee nei?aa o/aiuo ethaeae
/anoi ano?a/athony oa oceea niaoeeaeenou, eioi?uo Aaoaeaeio iacuaaao
“iiiioeie/iuie” noauaeoaie; iie anth aeeciue caieiathony iaeiei
eaeei-ieaoaeue auaiaeii, nia/aea caieiathuei eo iica e caoai oaea
ioaaouaathuei aai anaoeaei: oae, Aaeiai a i?iaeieaeaiea oeaeie aeecie
eco/ae iaoieiaeth ii/ae, O?ania? – eoio, Ieaea? – io?aaueaa, /oi
i?aaenoaaeyao ia?iiiia noiaenoai n iiiiiaiaie.

Aneaaenoaea oaeie i?aoaaee/aiiie e nin?aaeioi/aiiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe
aaeeeeo ethaeae e iiiaoaiiuo /?acau/aeii o?oaeii oaaaeeoue eee
?acoaaaeeoue a /?i au oi ie auei. E yoi iiiyoii: enoi/iee enoeiiuo e
eiaeiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee eaaeeo o ieo aeoaaea e ?acaeo neeueiaa, iaaeaee o
ethaeae iaueiiaaiiuo, aeey eioi?uo iiaiey ninoaaeytho oieueei iniiaioth
oi?io, ?iae iaeaaeaeu, iaiyaiie ii i?eoioe iiaeu eee ii o?aaiaaieth
ianoiyoaeuenoa. Ionthaea neaaeoao, n iaeiie noi?iiu, /oi ia aeieaeii
ieeiio aa?eoue aaconeiaii, aeaaea aaeeeei ethaeyi, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
/oi ii?aeueiia ea/aiea iaei i?eiineo iieuecu iiiaoaiiui.

E?aeiaa e iaeiinoi?iiiaa ?acaeoea /oanoaeoaeueiinoe, aac niiiaiey,
neoaeeo i?e/eiith oao no?aiiuo iinooieia aneaaenoaea a?aiaiiie aianoacee
e aiaeueaacee, eioi?ua naienoaaiiu aaeeeei aaieyi ia?aaia n iiiaoaiiuie.

Oae, i Iuethoiia ?anneacuaatho, /oi iaeiaaeaeu ii noae iaaeaaoue naaa
o?oaeo iaeueoeai naiae ieaiyiieoeu e /oi, eiaaea aio neo/aeinue
ooiaeeoue ec eiiiaou, /oiau i?eianoe eaeoth-ieaoaeue aauue, ii anaaaea
aica?auaeny, ia caoaaoea aa. Aaooiaai e Iuethoii, i?eiyaoenue – iaeei ca
iocueaeueiua eiiiiceoeee, a ae?oaie ca ?aoaiea caaea/, aei oaeie noaiaie
noaiiaeeenue ia/oanoaeoaeueiuie e aieiaeo, /oi a?aieee neoa, eiaaea oa
i?eiineee ei eooaiuey, oaa?yy, /oi iie oaea iiiaaaeaee. Aeaeeiey a
i?eiaaeea oai?/anoaa iaienae oeaeoth aeaao ia aeinea ienueiaiiiai noiea
aianoi aoiaae.

Iiaeiaiui aea ia?acii iauyniyaony, ii/aio aaeeeea aaiee ia iiaoo eiiaaea
onaieoue iiiyoee, aeinooiiuo naiui aethaeeiiui oiai, e a oi aea a?aiy
auneacuaatho oaeea niaeua eaeae, eioi?ua aieueoeinoao eaaeoony iaeaiuie.
Aeaei a oii, /oi aieueoae aia/aoeeoaeueiinoe niioaaonoaoao e aieueoay
ia?aie/aiiinoue iuoeaiey. Oi, iaoiaeyueeny iiae aeeyieai yenoaca, ia
aini?eieiaao neeoeii i?inouo e e?aeeo iieiaeaiee, ia niioaaonoaothueo
aai iiuiie yia?aee. Oae, Iiiae, aeaeaaoee naiua neiaeiua
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiua au/eneaiey, cao?oaeiyeny a ecaea/aiee eaaae?aoiiai
ei?iy, oioy yoo caaea/o eaaei ?aoee au anyeee o/aiee.

Aaaai n/eoaao i?eaeiaeueiinoue oai ea/anoaii, eioi?ia ?acei ioee/aao
aaiee io oaeaioa. Oi/ii oae aea TH?aai Iaea? aiai?eo: “Oaioacey
oaeaioeeaiai /aeiaaea aini?iecaiaeeo oaea iaeaeaiiia, oaioacey aaiey –
niaa?oaiii iiaia. Ia?aay aeaeaao ioe?uoey e iiaeoaa?aeaeaao eo, aoi?ay
ecia?aoaao e nicaeaao. Oaeaioeeaue /aeiaae – yoi no?aeie, iiiaaeathuee a
oeaeue, eioi?ay eaaeaony iai o?oaeiiaeinooiiie; aaiee iiiaaeaao a
oeaeue, eioi?ie iai aeaaea e ia aeaeii. I?eaeiaeueiinoue – a iaoo?a
aaiey”.

Aaiee iaeaaeaao niiniaiinoueth oaaaeuaaoue oi, /oi aio ia aiieia
ecaanoii: iai?eia? A?oa iiae?iaii iienae Eoaeeth, aua ia aeaeaaoe aa.
Eiaiii aneaaenoaea oaeie i?ici?eeainoe, aicauoathuaeny iaae iauei
o?iaiai, e aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi aaiee, iiaeiuaiiue aunoeie
niia?aaeaieyie, ioee/aaony io oieiu a naa?oiinooieao eee aeaaea,
iiaeiaii noianoaaeoei (ii a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue oaeaioeeaui ethaeyi),
iaia?oaeeaaao neeiiiinoue e aanii?yaei/iinoe, – aaieaeueiua iaoo?u
ano?a/atho i?ac?aiea ni noi?iiu aieueoeinoaa, eioi?ia, ia caia/ay
i?iiaaeooi/iuo ioieoia a eo oai?/anoaa, aeaeeo oieueei ?anoiaeaeaiea
naeaeaiiuo eie auaiaeia n iauai?eciaiiuie e no?aiiinoe a eo iiaaaeaiee.
Neieueei aeaaeaieeia n oeuaeie nino?aaeaiey ioianeenue e aaaeiiio
Ia?oeiei, eioi?ue ioe?ue niaa?oaiii iiaoth iaeanoue oeeieiaee; Aieueye,
ioe?uaoaai /aoaa?oia ecia?aiea e iaienaaoaai aioe-Aaeeeaeiao aaiiao?eth,
iacaaee aaiiao?ii noianoaaeoeo e n?aaieaaee n iaeueieeii, eioi?ue
acaeoiae au ia?aiaeuaaoue eaiie aeey iieo/aiey ioee.

Anoue no?aiu, aaea o?iaaiue ia?aciaaiey i/aiue iecie e aaea iiyoiio n
i?ac?aieai ioiinyony ia oieueei e aaieaeueiui, ii aeaaea e oaeaioeeaui
ethaeyi. Ii i?eaeiaeueiinoue, oioy ii/oe anaaaea aanoeaeueiay, ia?aaeei
caia/aaony oae aea a iinooieao ethaeae iiiaoaiiuo, a iniaaiiinoe aea a
eo ni/eiaieyo, eioi?ua oieueei aneaaenoaea yoiai iieo/atho eiiaaea
iooaiie aaieaeueiinoe. Iaaeaeo i?i/ei, aaieaeueiua ethaee ioee/athony
ia?aaia n iiiaoaiiuie e neeiiiinoueth e aanii?yaei/iinoe, e iieiui
iaaaaeaieai i?aeoe/aneie aeecie, eioi?ay eaaeaony ei oaeie ie/oiaeiie a
n?aaiaiee neo ia/oaie.

I?eaeiaeueiinoueth aea iaoneaaeeaaaony neeiiiinoue aaieaeueiuo e
aeooaaiiaieueiuo ethaeae i?eaeoiuaaoue iiaua, iaiiiyoiua aeey ae?oaeo
neiaa eee i?eaeaaaoue ecaanoiui neiaai iniaue niune e cia/aiea, /oi iu
iaoiaeei o Aeei, Ea??aaei, Aeueouea?e, Ia?oeiei e Aeaioa.

III.

Aeeyiea

aoiinoa?iuo yaeaiee

ia aaieaeueiuo ethaeae e iiiaoaiiuo.

Ia iniiaaiee oeaeiai ?yaea ouaoaeueiuo iaaethaeaiee, i?iecaiaeeaoeony a
i?iaeieaeaiee o?ao eao a eeeieea, *.Eiia?ici oaaaeeeny, /oi ineoe/aneia
ninoiyiea iiiaoaiiuo eciaiyaony iiae aeeyieai eieaaaiee aa?iiao?a e
oa?iiiao?a. “Eco/aiea 23 602 neo/aaa aeieacaei iia, /oi ?acaeoea
oiiiiiaoaoaeuenoaa niaiaaeaao iaueiiaaiii n iiauoaieai oaiia?aoo?u
aaniie e eaoii e aeaaea eaeao ia?aeeaeueii n iei, ii i?e yoii aanaiiyy
aea?a, aneaaenoaea eiio?anoa n ceiiei oieiaeii, aeaenoaoao aua neeueiaa
eaoiae, oiaaea eae n?aaieoaeueii ?iaiay oaieioa aaaonoianeeo aeiae
ieacuaaao iaiaa aoaeoaeueiia aeeyiea.” Iieiaeoay aiaeiaey n yoeie
yaeaieyie caia/aaony e a oao ethaeyo, eioi?uo – o?oaeii neacaoue,
aeaaiaeaoaeueiay eee aeanoieay, – i?e?iaea uaae?i iaea?eea oinoaaiiuie
niiniaiinoyie. ?aaeeea ec yoeo ethaeae ia aiai?eee naie, /oi aoiinoa?iua
yaeaiey i?iecaiaeyo ia ieo a?iiaaeiia aeeyiea. A naieo ee/iuo niioaieyo
e a ienueiao iie iinoiyiii aeaeothony ia a?aaeiia aeaenoaea ia ieo
eciaiaiee oaiia?aoo?u, n eioi?ui iie aeieaeiu eiiaaea auaea?aeeaaoue
iaeanoi/aiioth ai?ueao, /oiau oie/oiaeeoue eee niya/eoue ?ieiaia aeeyiea
aeo?iie iiaiaeu, ineaaeythuae e caaea?aeeaathuae niaeue iieao eo
oaioacee. “Eiaaea y caei?ia e iiaiaea yniay, y /oanoaoth naay
ii?yaei/iui /aeiaaeii”, – ienae Iiioaiue. “Ai a?aiy neeueiuo aao?ia iia
eaaeaony, /oi iica o iaiy ia a ii?yaeea”, – aiai?ee Aeeae?i.

Iaiieaii, neacaaoee, /oi “/aeiaae anoue i?iaeoeo oece/aneeo e
i?aanoaaiiuo oneiaee”, ia iia auiineoue eaaeiai aao?a e aei oiai ethaee
oaiei, /oi i?eeacuaae oiieoue a eiiiaoa aeaaea a ethea. Eaaeiaou
Aieueoa?a e Athooiia ioaieeaaeenue ai anyeia a?aiy aiaea. ?onni aiai?ee,
/oi nieia/iua eo/e a eaoithth ii?o aucuaatho a iai oai?/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue, e ii iiaenoaaeye iiae ieo naith aieiao a naiue
iieaeaiue.

Aae?ii aiai?ee i naaa, /oi aieony oieiaea, oi/ii aacaeue. Aaeia oaa?ye,
/oi ii aieaa niiniaai ienaoue noeoe ai O?aioeee, /ai a Aa?iaiee n aa
no?iaui eeeiaoii . “A?ii a?aieo, eaeao niaa, – ieoao ii a iaeiii ec
naieo ienai, – a eaieia o iaiy iaei iaiy, e ienueii iia oieiaeii”.

Naeaaoi?a ?ica, ii neiaai eaaee Ii?aai, niayeny a iieiaeinoe iaae oai
i?aoaaee/aiiui cia/aieai, eaeia aoaeoi au ieacuaaao iiaiaea ia
oai?/anoai aaieaeueiuo ethaeae, ii, ninoa?eaoenue, iaeeaeyeny e iieo/ae
niiniaiinoue iuneeoue eeoue n ianooieaieai aaniu; a iineaaeiea aiaeu
aeecie ii iia caieiaoueny aeeaiienueth oieueei eaoii. A iaa Oeeea?
ienae: “ss iaaeathnue naeaeaoue iiiai, anee iiaiaea ia eciaieony e
ooaeoaio”.

Ec anao yoeo i?eia?ia iiaeii oaea n iaeioi?ui iniiaaieai naeaeaoue
auaiae: aunieay oaiia?aoo?a, aeaaii?eyoii aeaenoaothuay ia
?anoeoaeueiinoue, niinianoaoao, ca iaiiiaeie eneeth/aieyie, e
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aaiey, iiaeiaii oiio eae ii aucuaaao aieaa neeueiia
aicaoaeaeaiea a iiiaoaiiuo.

*. Eiia?ici ooaa?aeaeaao: “Anee au enoi?eee, enienaaoea noieueei aoiaae
e iio?aoeaoea noieueei a?aiaie ia iiae?iaiaeoaa ecia?aaeaiea aeanoieeo
aeoa eee aaaioth?iuo i?aaei?eyoee, inouanoaeaiiuo ei?ieyie e aa?iyie,
anee au yoe enoi?eee n oaeie aea ouaoaeueiinoueth enneaaeiaaee
aeinoiiaiyoioth yiioo, eiaaea auei naeaeaii oi eee ae?oaia aaeeeia
ioe?uoea eee eiaaea auei caaeoiaii caia/aoaeueiia i?iecaaaeaiea
eneonnoaa, oi iie ii/oe iaaa?iia oaaaeeeenue au, /oi a iaeaieaa ciieiua
ianyoeu e aeie ieacuaathony naiuie ieiaeiaeouie ia oieueei aeey anae
oece/aneie i?e?iaeu, ii oaeaea e aeey aaieaeueiuo oiia”.

I?e anae eaaeouaeny iai?aaaeiiiaeiaiinoe oaeiai aeeyiey iii
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony iiiaeanoaii ianiiiaiiuo oaeoia. Aeaioa ni/eiee naie
ia?aue niiao 15 ethiy 1282 aiaea, aaniie 1300 aiaea ii iaienae “Vita
nuova”, a 3 ai?aey ia/ae ienaoue naith aaeeeoth iiyio.

Ieeueoii caaeoiae naith iiyio aaniie.

Aaeeeae ioe?ue eieueoei Naoo?ia a ai?aea 1611 aiaea.

Eo/oea aaue Oineiei auee iaienaiu a ethea e aaaonoa.

Aieueoa? iaienae “Oaie?aaea” a aaaonoa.

Aae?ii ieii/ee a naioya?a 4-th ianith “Pelligrinaggio”, a ethea
“I?i?i/anoai Aeaioa”, a eaoii a Oaaeoea?ee – “Oeeueiineiai ocieea”,
“I?ae” e “Nii”.

Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e caaeoiae noaooth O?ai/anei Noi?oea e ia/ae ienaoue
naia ni/eiaiea “I naaoa e oaie” 23 ai?aey 1490 aiaea.

Ia?aay iuneue ia ioe?uoee Aia?eee yaeeanue o Eieoiaa a eiioea iay e a
ia/aea ethiy 1474 aiaea, eiaaea ii caaeoiae iouneaoue caiaaeiue iooue a
Eiaeeth.

Eaiea? a iaa 1618 aiaea ioe?ue caeiiu aeaeaeaiey ie?iauo oae.

Ioe?uoea Neeaia?aeee ioiineoaeueii iaaeathueo caacae auei naeaeaii a
aaaonoa 1866 aiaea.

Ieeieuenii ioe?ue ieeneaiea iaoaeeia n iiiiuueth aieueoiaa noieaa eaoii
1800 aiaea e oae aeaeaa.

Iaeiaei, iaaei neacaoue, /oi ii/oe ana i?iecaaaeaiey aaeeeeo oiia, e a
iniaaiiinoe ioe?uoey a oeceea, yaeythony ia ?acoeueoaoii iaiiaaiiiai
aaeioiiaaiey, a nei?aa neaaenoaeai oeaeiai ?yaea iai?a?uaiuo e
iaaeeaiiuo ecuneaiee ni noi?iiu aeeaoeo a i?aaeiaa a?aiy o/aiuo, oae /oi
iiaaeoee ecia?aoaoaeue anoue, a nouiinoe, oieueei eiiieeyoi?, o?oaeai
eioi?iai ia i?eiaieia o?iiieiaey, oae eae i?eaaaeaiiua /enea
ii?aaeaeytho nei?aa a?aiy ieii/aiey oiai eee ae?oaiai i?iecaaaeaiey, /ai
oio iiiaio, eiaaea iii auei caaeoiaii. Ii iiae oo aea eaoaai?eth iiaeii
iiaeaanoe e ii/oe ana inoaeueiua i?iyaeaiey /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
aeaaea iaeiaiaa i?iecaieueiua. Iieiaeioai?aiea, iai?eia?, e oi caaeneo
io oi?ioaai ieoaiey i?aaiecia e io ianeaaenoaaiiinoe; naia nia?oue e
noianoanoaea eeoue, ii-aeaeeiiio, iaoneaaeeaathony iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie
eee neo/aeiuie i?e/eiaie, ii a nouiinoe iie iaoiaeyony a iieiaeoae
caaeneiinoe, n iaeiie noi?iiu, io aoiinoa?iuo yaeaiee, a n ae?oaie – io
i?aaie/aneeo oneiaee; ai iiiaeo neo/ayo iiaeii neacaoue, /oi nia?oue e
noianoanoaea auaatho iiaeaioiaeaiu ca?aiaa e a?aiy ianooieaiey eo n
oi/iinoueth iaicia/aii a iiiaio naiiai ?iaeaeaiey eiaeeaeaea.

IV.

Aeeyiea

iaoai?ieiae/aneeo yaeaiee

ia ?iaeaeaiea aaieaeueiuo ethaeae.

Oaaaeeaoenue a a?iiaaeiii aeeyiee iaoai?ieiae/aneeo yaeaiee ia
oai?/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue aaieaeueiuo ethaeae, eaaei iiiyoue, /oi e ia
eo ?iaeaeaiea eeeiao e no?iaiea ii/au aeieaeiu oaeaea ieacuaaoue
iiaouanoaaiiia aeaenoaea.

Ianiiiaiii, /oi ?ana (iai?eia?, a eaoeineie e a?a/aneie ?ana aieueoa
aaeeeeo ethaeae, /ai a ae?oaeo), iieeoe/aneea aeaeaeaiey, naiaiaea iunee
e neiaa, aiaaonoai no?aiu, iaeiiaoe, aeecinoue eeoa?aoo?iuo oeaio?ia –
ana yoi ieacuaaao aieueoia aeeyiea ia iiyaeaiea aaieaeueiuo ethaeae, ii
ianiiiaiii oaeaea, /oi ia iaiueoaa cia/aiea eiatho a yoii ioiioaiee
oaiia?aoo?a e eeeiao.

Oaea ecaeaaia caia/aii auei eae i?inoiia?iaeueai, oae e o/aiuie, /oi a
ai?enouo no?aiao n oaieui eeeiaoii auaaao iniaaiii iiiai aaieaeueiuo
ethaeae. Ia?iaeiay oineaineay iiaiai?ea aeaneo: “O ai?oeaa iiae oienoua,
a iicae iaaeiua”. Aaaeaeaoeei ienae: “Eeeiao aeeyao ia oieueei ia
oece/aneia, ii e ia aeooaaiia caei?iauea; Ieia?aa eca?aea naiei
ianoii?aauaaieai ai?iae Aoeiu ca aai aeaai?anoai?aiiue aicaeoo,
aneaaenoaea /aai oai ?iaeyony ioae?aoeu”. Oeeoea?ii oiaea ia ?ac
oiiieiaao i oii, /oi a Aoeiao, aeaaiaea?y oaieiio eeeiaoo, ?iaeyony
oiiua ethaee, a a Oeaao, aaea eeeiao no?iaue, – aeoiua. I
naeaeaoaeuenoao Aaca?e, Ieeaeaiaeaeaei aiai?ee aio: “Anee iia oaeaeinue
nicaeaoue /oi-ieaoaeue aeaenoaeoaeueii oi?ioaa, oi y iaycai yoei
/oaeiiio aicaeooo aaoaai ?iaeiiai A?aoeoei”. Iaeieae aiai?eo, /oi
Oioeaiaeey iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo no?ai Aa?iiu, caieiaao a iae ia?aia ianoi
ii /eneo o/aiuo e ienaoaeae; ae i?eiaaeeaaeao: Ieoaee Neioo, Iaia? –
ecia?aoaoaeue eiaa?eoiia, caoai Aooaiai, Aaeueoa? Neioo, Aae?ii,
Aeaeiinoii e io/anoe Iuethoii.

Oei?aioeey, aaea eeeiao i/aiue iyaie, a ii/aa /?acau/aeii oieienoa,
aeinoaaeea Eoaeee naioth aeanoyuoth ieayaeo aaeeeeo ethaeae. Aeaioa,
Aeaeiooi, Iaeeaaaeee, Etheee, Eaiia?aei, *aeeeie, Aaaoi Aiaeaeaeeei,
Aiae?aa aeaeue Na?oi, Aanio//e, Aieea//i, Aeueaa?oe, Ieeieeie e Aeiiaoe
e ae?. – aio aeaaiua eiaia, eioi?uie eiaao i?aai ai?aeeoueny yoio
ai?iae.

Iai?ioea, Ieca, iaoiaeyuayny a iao/iii ioiioaiee eae oieaa?neoaoneee
ai?iae a ia iaiaa aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo, /ai Oei?aioeey, aeaea ii
n?aaiaieth n iath aeaaea cia/eoaeueii iaiueoaa /enei auaeathueony
aaia?aeia e iieeoeeia, /oi e auei i?e/eiith aa iaaeaiey, ianiio?y ia
iiiiuue neeueiuo nithcieeia. Ec aaeeeeo aea ethaeae Ieca i?eiaaeeaaeeo
oieueei Ieeeiei Iecaii, Aeaeeoioa e Aaeeeae, ?iaeeoaee eioi?iai auee,
iaeiaei, oei?aioeeoeaie. A iaaeaeo oai Ieca ioee/aaony io Oei?aioeee
aaeeinoaaiii naiei ieciaiiui ianoiiieiaeaieai.

Iaeiiaoe, eae aiaaoa aaieaeueiuie ethaeueie ai?enoay i?iaeioeey
A?aoeoei, aaea ?iaeeeenue Ieeaeaiaeaeaei, Iao?a?ea, Aaeaei ?aie, ?aaee,
Aaca?e e o?ia A?aoeii. Aeaeaa, neieueei aea?iaeouo ee/iinoae auee ?iaeii
ec Anoe (Aeueouea?e, Iaeaea?i, N. A?oiiia, Aaeee, Iaooa, Eiooa, Aeeiia,
Aeaei?aeaeei e Aaioo?a) e oae iiaeii i?iaeieaeaoue aei aaneiia/iinoe.

Einaaiiia aeeyiea ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeu ia ?iaeaeaiea aaieaeueiuo
ethaeae i?aaenoaaeyao iaeioi?oth aiaeiaeth n aeeyieai aa ia ?acaeoea
oiiiiiaoaoaeuenoaa.

Iauaecaanoiue oaeo, /oi a ai?enouo no?aiao aeeoaee aieaa iiaeaa?aeaiu
noianoanoaeth, /ai a ieciaiiuo, iiaeoaa?aeaeai aiieia ineoeao?e/aneie
noaoenoeeie. E?iia oiai, iiaaeoea iaaethaeaiey aeieacuaatho, /oi
yieaeaie/aneia aacoiea ano?a/aaony ai?acaei /aua a ai?ao, /ai a
aeieeiao. Ia neaaeoao oae aea caauaaoue, /oi oieiu Eoaeae auee
eieuaaeueth iiiaeo i?i?ieia e /oi a ai?ao Oioeaiaeee iiyaeyeenue ethaee,
iaea?aiiua yniiaeaeaieai; oa e ae?oaea i?eiaaeeaaeao e /eneo aaieaeueiuo
aacoioeaa e iieoiiiaoaiiuo i?i?eoeaoaeae.

V.

?aciiaeaeiinoe

iaooieaeia-a?aoiiaiia.

(ii *. Eiia?ici)

Iaooieaeaie-a?aoiiaiaie *aca?a Eiia?ici iacuaaao ?aciiaeaeiinoue,
ninoaaeythuoth i?iiaaeooi/iia caaii, ia?aoiaeioth nooiaiue iaaeaeo
aaieaeueiuie aacoioeaie, caei?iauie ethaeueie e nianoaaiii iiiaoaiiuie.

Yoi iniaue oei eiaeeaeaeia, ia eioi?uo aia?aua oeacae Iaoaeaee, iacaaa
eo “ethaeueie n oaiia?aiaioii iiiaoaiiuo” e eioi?uo iioii Ii?aeue,
Eaa?ai aea Nieue e Othea iacaaee “no?aaeathueie ianeaaenoaaiiui
iaa?icii”, Aaeeeineee e ae?. – ineoiiaoaie, a ?aaeaee – iaa?iiaoaie.

Yoio iineaaeiee, ouaoaeueii e aeieai eco/aaoee iiaeiaiuo noauaeoia
i?aaeeiaeee ?acaeaeeoue eo ia /aou?a eaoaai?ee, niio?y ii oiio,
ioiineony ee eo iaii?iaeueiinoue e iaeanoe /oanoaaiiie, aooaeoeaiie eee
eioaeeaeooaeueiie.

Ia?aoth eaoaai?eth ninoaaeytho io/anoe enoa?e/iua noauaeou, io/anoe
eiioiiae?eee n aieaa ino?ie aia/aoeeoaeueiinoueth, /ai o ae?oaeo
ethaeae, e ni neeiiiinoueth iauyniyoue naie aiia?aaeaaiua ian/anouey
auaeoiaiiuie i?e/eiaie.

Ei aoi?ie eaoaai?ee i?eiaaeeaaeao noauaeou n eca?auaiiuie einoeieoaie,
ceioiio?aaeythuea oi yenoeannaie, oi aicaea?aeaieai e neeiiiua e
?acee/iui iaii?iaeueiinoyi. Aooaeoeaiua ii?aeueiua iaooieaeu ia?acotho a
iieiii niunea neiaa noano?ao eee ia?aoiaeioth nooiaiue e a?iaeaeaiiui
i?anooiieeai. Iaueiiaaiii oaeea ee/iinoe noaiiayony, ii iiaieth
Eiia?ici, ai aeaaa oaeiuo iauanoa. canaaeathueo a eaoa eee iieeoe/aneii
eeoaa, aeaeathony iniiaaoaeyie iiauo naeo e o.ae. Ouaneaaiua aei e?aeiae
noaiaie, iie ca/anooth niaa?oatho i?anooieaiey ec aeaeaiey
i?ineaaeoueny, caauaay i?e yoii, /oi aianoa n oo?aoie i?anoeaea
eeoathony e /anoiiai eiaie, e oaaaeaiey ie?oaeathueo, /aai iie oae
no?anoii aeiaeaaeenue.

Eioaeeaeooaeueiua iaooieaeu – yoi, ii iiaieth ?aaeaee, oa iaoaea?aeeiua
aieooiu, eioi?ua, ?ac caaiai?ea, oaea ia iiaoo inoaiiaeoue iioiea naiaai
e?anii?a/ey, aeaaea anee au e aeaeaee yoiai. Iaoiaeynue iiae aeeyieai
eaeiai-oi eeoi?aaei/iiai oinoaaiiiai aicaoaeaeaiey, iie aiai?yo aac
eiae/aneie nayce e ia?aaeei i?eoiaeyo e auaiaeai, niaa?oaiii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiui oiio, /oi iie oioaee aeieacaoue. Eiiaaea o ieo auaaao
iaiaueiiaaiii ?acaeoa iaiyoue, oae /oi iie caiiieiatho oeaeua no?aieoeu
ec i?i/eoaiiiai eee aea oi?ioi iiiiyo oieueei /enea, eiino?aiiua neiaa,
ii caauaatho /a?ou eeoea aeaaea naieo ae?ocae. Oaeea noauaeou i/aiue
iaei ioee/athony io aeooaaiiaieueiuo, no?aaeathueo ai?aeaeeaui
iiiaoaoaeuenoaii e i?., e /anoi noaiiayony eie i?e ia?aii aea iiaiaea.

?aciiaeaeiinoue oiai aea oeia, niaaeeiythuoth eioaeeaeooaeueiiai
iaooieaea n ii?aeueiui eee aooaeoeaiui, i?aaenoaaeytho a?aoiiaiu.
Ioee/eoaeueiay iniaaiiinoue iaooieaea – i?aoaaee/aiiia iiaiea i naaa, i
naieo aeinoieinoaao e aianoa n oai eneeth/eoaeueii aio naienoaaiiay
niiniaiinoue auneacuaaoue naie oaaaeaeaiey aieueoa ia aoiaaa, /ai ia
neiaao eee ia aeaea, ia aiciouaynue ieneieueei oaie iaacaiaeaie e
i?ioeai?a/eyie, eioi?ua ia eaaeaeii oaao ano?a/athony a i?aeoe/aneie
aeecie e iaueiiaaiii ia aeatho iieiy eae aaieaeueiui ethaeyi, oae e
noianoaaeoei. Iaii?iaeueiinoue ienaoaeae-iaooieaeia ia anaaaea eaaei
caiaoeoue, anee au, i?e anae eaaeouaeny na?ueaciinoe e oaea/aiee aeaiiie
eaeaae, – a /ai iie iaia?oaeeaatho noiaenoai n iiiiiaiueyeaie e
aaieaeueiuie ethaeueie, – e eo ni/eiaieyi ia i?eiaoeaaeinue ca/anooth
iiiaeanoai iaeaiuo auaiaeia, iinoiyiiuo i?ioeai?a/ee, iiiaineiaey e
aeaaiui ia?acii naayethaey e ouaneaaey, ninoaaeythueo i?aiaeaaeathuaa
naienoai aaieaeueiuo ethaeae, eeoeaoeony ?annoaeea.

Aeoi iaia?aaaeny nianoe ?anioaeeeo, oaea aa i?aceaeaioa, e i?iaicaeanea
naay aaeeeei caeiiiaaaeii e oeeinioii.

Ea?o, ciaiaieoue ia?eaeneee aeaiooao, aa?eaoee a ia?anaeaiea aeoo e a
eaaaaeo, oae ii?aaeaeee ethaiaue: “eaeaaeueiinoue ?aaeueiinoe iaeiie
/anoe oeaeiai a aaneiia/iii nouanoaa e i?.”.

Anaeeue ooaa?aeaeae, /oi /aeiaae iiaeao aeeoue aa/ii, eeoue au o iaai
auea aa?a a aannia?oea.

Oeeaiaioe i?eciaaae nouanoaiaaiea o?ao Aaeaiia e n aaee/aeoae
oi/iinoueth ii?aaeaeye, a eaeii eiaiii aiaeo iie aeeee e /ai
caieiaeenue.

Auaaao, iaeiaei, /oi n?aaee oaioe/aneiai a?aaea a i?iecaaaeaieyo
iaooieaeia-a?aoiiaiia iiiaaeathony niaa?oaiii iiaua, cae?aaua
noaeaeaiey.

Iannaiaioa a naieo noaoueyo, e iniaaiii a ?acaiai?a eiiaaea auneacuaae
iaoeea i?eaeiaeueiua noaeaeaiey, canoaaeythuea iiiaeo niiiaaaoueny a
oii, aeaenoaeoaeueii ee ii noianoaaeoee. Iai?eia?, aai ec?a/aiea: “Oai,
aaea o/aiue oa?yaony, iaaaaeaea eiaao oniao”. Eee aio aua ae?oaia:
“Enoi?ey, i?aiiaeaaaaiay ia?iaeaie, iio/eoaeueiaa oie, eioi?ay eco/aaony
ii eieaai”.

Ai?i/ai, iaii?iaeueiinoue neacuaaaony ia noieueei a i?aoaaee/aieyo
ioiineoaeueii oie eee ae?oaie oaiaeaioeee, a, nei?aa, a
iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, a iinoiyiiuo i?ioeai?a/eyo, oae /oi ?yaeii n
aicauoaiiuie, eiiaaea i?ae?anii eceiaeaiiuie acaeyaeaie ano?a/athony
noaeaeaiey aeaeeea, iaeaiua, ia?aaeienaeueiua, i?ioeai?a/auea iniiaiiio
ieaio ni/eiaiey e nioeeaeueiiio iieiaeaieth aaoi?a. I?e /oaiee oaeeo
noaoae iaaieueii aniiieiaaony Aeii Eeoio, aaeeeiaeooiua iinooiee
eioi?iai aianoi ni/oanoaey aucuaatho oeuaeo nino?aaeaiey, oioy a eiia
a?aiy eo, iiaeao auoue, i?eciaee au aa?ieneeie, aeinoieiuie oaeeaeaiey.
Aiiaua aaieaeueiua /a?ou ninoaaeytho a i?iecaaaeaieyo iaooieaeia ?aaeeia
eneeth/aiea.

Iaooieaeu-aaiee. I?iiaaeooi/iua oi?iu e iacaiaoiua a?aaeaoeee
nouanoaotho ia oieueei iaaeaeo noianoaaeoeie e caei?iauie, ii oaeaea
iaaeaeo iiiaoaiiuie e iaooieaeaie. Aeaaea n?aaee yoeo iineaaeieo,
i?aaenoaaeythueo iieiaeoaa ionoonoaea aaieaeueiinoe, ano?a/athony
ee/iinoe, aei oiai aiaaoi iaea?aiiua, /oi neiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue iaooieaeu
yoi eee aaieaeueiua ethaee.

Aiieia anoanoaaiii iiyoiio i?eeoe e caeeth/aieth, /oi anee oaeea
ia?aoiaeiua nooiaie nouanoaotho a iaeanoe, oae neacaoue, eeoa?aoo?iiai
noianoanoaey, oi iie aiciiaeiu e a iaeanoe e?eieiaeueiiai
iiiaoaoaeuenoaa, e /oi aeey oae iacuaaaiuo i?anooiieeia eee noianoaaeoeo
iaiaoiaeeii aeiionoeoue niya/athuea ianoiyoaeuenoaa, oioy a?yae ee
iaeaeaony /aeiaa/aneee oi, niiniaiue i?iaanoe aiieia oi/ioth a?aieoeo
iaaeaeo i?anooieaieai e noianoanoaeai.

VI.

“I?i?iee” e ?aaiethoeeiia?u.

Ethaiiuoii, eaeei ia?acii aaeeeea oniaoe a iaeanoe iieeoeee e ?aeeaee
ia?iaeia ia?aaeei auaaee aucaaiu eee, ii e?aeiae ia?a, iaia/aeenue
aeaaiaea?y iiiaoaiiui eee iieoiiiaoaiiui.

I?e/eia oaeiai yaeaiey i/aaeaeia: oieueei a ieo, a yoeo oaiaoeeao,
?yaeii n i?eaeiaeueiinoueth, ninoaaeythuae iaiouaieaioth
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue eae aaieaeueiuo ethaeae, oae e iiiaoaiiuo, a a aua
aieueoae noaiaie aaieaeueiuo aacoioeaa, yecaeueoaoeey e oaea/aiea
aeinoeaatho oaeie neeu, /oi iiaoo aucaaoue aeueo?oeci, canoaaeythuee
/aeiaaea aea?oaiaaoue naieie eioa?anaie e aeaaea naiie aeeciueth aeey
i?iiaaaiaeu eaeae oieia, anaaaea a?aaeaeaaii ioiinyuaeny ei anyeie
iiaecia e niiniaiie eiiaaea ia e?iaaaoth ?ani?aao n iiaaoi?aie.

“Iiniio?eoa, – aiai?eo Iaoaenee, – eae iiaeiaiua noauaeou oiatho
oeiaeoue naiua nie?iaaiiua iooaiee eaeae, inoaaoeany iacaia/aiiuie aieaa
iiuiuie oiaie, e aeaaiaea?y yoiio niaa?oaiii eia/a inaaoeoue aeaiiia
yaeaiea. E oaeay niiniaiinoue caia/aaony o ethaeae, ia iaeaaeathueo ie
aaieai, ie oaeaioii; iie ?anniao?eaatho i?aaeiao n iiauo, ia caia/aiiuo
ae?oaeie oi/ae c?aiey, a a i?aeoe/aneie aeecie oeeiiythony io
iauai?eiyoiai ia?aca aeaenoaee… ?ac onaiea eaeea-ieaoaeue aa?iaaiey,
iie oaea aea?aeaony ca ieo n ianie?ooeiui oii?noaii, eniiaaaeotho eo
ai?y/i, ia ia?auay aieiaiey ie ia eaeea i?aiyonoaey e ia io/aynue
niiiaieyie, eioi?ua iao?aaatho neaioe/aneea, niieieiua oiu”.

Aio ii/aio ec yoeo ethaeae oae /anoi auoiaeyo ?aoi?iaoi?u.

Naii niaith ?acoiaaony, /oi iie ia nicaeatho ie/aai iiaiai, ii eeoue
niiauatho oie/ie aeaeaeaieth, iiaeaioiaeaiiiio a?aiaiai e
ianoiyoaeuenoaaie; iaea?aeeiua iieiaeeoaeueiie no?anoueth ei anyeie
iiaecia, ei anaio i?eaeiaeueiiio, iie ii/oe anaaaea aaeioiiaeythony
oieueei /oi iiyaeaoeiny ioe?uoeai, iiaiaaaaeaieai e ia iai oaea no?iyo
naie auaiaeu ioiineoaeueii aoaeouaai. Oae, Oiiaiaaoy?, aeeaoee a yiioo,
eiaaea ianneieci, n i?eianueth ienoeoeecia e ainoi?aeaiiinoe, ia/ae
aoiaeeoue a iiaeo, ii iiaieth ?eai, oieueei niaaeeiee a no?ieioth
oeeinioneoth nenoaio eaeae naiaai a?aiaie.

Oi/ii oae aea Ethoa? eeoue ?acthie?iaae acaeyaeu naieo
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia, aeieacaoaeuenoaii /aai neoaeao i?iiiaaaee Naaiia?ieu.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ia neaaeoao caauaaoue, /oi, eiaaea iiaia o/aiea
neeoeii ?acei i?ioeai?a/eo oei?aieaoeiny a ia?iaea oaaaeaeaieyi eee
neeoeii oae iaeaii naii ii naaa, iii en/acaao aianoa ni naiei
i?iaicaanoieeii e ia?aaeei noaiiaeony i?e/eiie aai aeaaee.

Iaoaeaee aiai?eo a naiae eieaa “Ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe”, /oi oae eae
iiiaoaiiue ia ?acaeaeyao iiaiee aieueoeinoaa, oi ii oaea ii naiie
nouiinoe naiae yaeyaony ?aoi?iaoi?ii; ii eiaaea aai oaaaeaeaiey
i?iieeatho a ianno, ii iiyoue inoaaony iaeeiieei n iaiiiai/eneaiiui
e?oaeeii eeoe, aio i?aaeaiiuo.

Neaaeoao oaeaea aeiaaaeoue, /oi iiiaoaiiua anaaaea, ia/eiay n
ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai, aucuaaee aeaaiaiaaiea o i?inoiai ia?iaea.

O aeeea?ae, iai?eia?, eee o ae?aaieo iieoaa?aa?neeo ia?iaeia oiaeeoaiiue
ia oieueei ia n/eoaeny aieueiui, ii aiooae e naaa oaaaeaiea; oieia
o?aiaoaea ia?aae iei, iaiaeaea aai, e ii ia?aaeei aeaeaeny aaca?aie/iui
aeanoaeeiii iaae iath. A noa?eio ia ?one oi/ii oae aea niio?aee ia
th?iaeeauo, yieeaioeeia e i?., n/eoay eo i?i?ieaie, ethaeueie,
aaeioiiaaiiuie naiei Aiaii, e ia?aaeei aeaaea nayouie.

Nouanoaiaaiea yieaeaie/aneiai noianoanoaey o ae?aaieo aa?aaa e
nia?aoueaa eo – oeieeeyi, ea?oaaaiyi e i?. – aeieacuaaaony aeaeaeneie
enoi?eae e naiei ycueii, a eioi?ii iaeie e oa aea neiaa neoaeao aeey
iaicia/aiey i?i?iea, noianoaaeoaai e i?anooiieea. A Aeaeee
?anneacuaaaony, /oi Aeaaeae, iianaynue auoue oaeoui, i?eoai?yeny
noianoaaeoei, auia/eae naaa ai?iaeo e iinoaaee iaae aeaa?ueth naiaai
aeiia iniaue ciae, /oi canoaaeei oea?y Aoeca neacaoue: “?acaa ia
aeinoaoi/ii o iaiy noianoaaeoeo e aac Aeaaeaea?” Yoio oaeo oeacuaaao ia
/anoia iiaoi?aiea neo/aaa iiiaoaoaeuenoaa e ia oi, /oi iiiaoaiiua auee
iai?eeiniiaaiiu, aa?iyoii, aneaaenoaea i?aae?annoaeea, ia?aoaaeoaai e
aa?ayi aua io a?aaia, o eioi?uo i?i?ie e noianoaaeoee iacuaathony
iaeeiaeiai – “iaaae”.

A Aeaee?a, ii neiaai Aa?a?thaa?a, aanueia iiiai/eneaiiu eiaeeaeaeooiu,
aiaaeathuea i?e ecaanoiuo oneiaeyo a ninoiyiea, i/aiue iaiiieiathuaa
eiiaoeueneiia?ia N. Iaaea?aei. *oiau oaaaeeoueny, eaeei oaaaeaieai
iieuecothony noianoaaeoea a Ia?ieei e o ninaaeieo ei/othueo ieaiai,
neaaeoao i?i/anoue eieao Aeoiiiiae-Aay, eioi?ue, iaaeaeo i?i/ei,
aiai?eo: “Ii iiaieth aa?aa?ia, eeoue oaei noianoaaeoeo iaoiaeeony ia
caiea, ?acoi aea eo oaea?aeeaaaony aiaeanoaii ia iaaa e aica?auaaony e
iei oieueei a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iie aeieaeiu aiai?eoue, aneaaenoaea
/aai eaaeaeia neiai, eie neacaiiia, n/eoaaony ioe?iaaieai”. Nai aaoi?
eieae e aiaeeeneee eiinoe aaeaa ia auee oaeou iaeiei ec yoeo “nayouo”,
aaaathueo anthaeo ia?aaeei n i?oaeeai a ?oeao.

Oo?ee ioiinyony e noianoaaeoei n oaeei aea oaaaeaieai, eae e e
aea?aeoai, n/eoay eo iaeaieaa aeeceeie e aiaeanoao ethaeueie,
aneaaenoaea /aai ei ioe?uo aeinooi aeaaea a aeiia ieieno?ia.

A Aaoaee, ii neiaai Eaeu Ioaeoa?, /aeiaaeo iaea?aeeiiio ieacuaatho
aaee/aeoaa ii/oaiea: eaaeaeia neiai aai n/eoaaony i?i?i/anoaii, a
aeaeaiea – caeiiii.

A Eeoaa aaeeinoaaiiie i?aaenoaaeoaeueieoeae ianniaiai iiiaoaoaeuenoaa
neoaeeo iaeia naeoa ?aeeaeiciuo oaiaoeeia – yaeaiea iaiau/aeiia aeey
yoie neaioe/aneie iaoeee. E?iia oiai, iineaaeiaaoaee Oai ii/eoatho
aaniothueony, iiiaoaiiuo e ouaoaeueii caienuaatho eo ec?a/aiey, aeoiay,
/oi iie neoaeao au?aceoaeyie iuneae aana ioiineoaeueii aoaeouaai.

A Ieaaiee, ia ino?iaa Oaeoe, nouanoaotho oaeaea naie i?i?iee, oi anoue
oa aea noianoaaeoea, iaoiaeyueany ii iiaieth ia?iaea, iiae iniaui
iie?iaeoaeuenoaii aiaeanoaaiiiai aeooa.

A Ia?o e?iia nianoaaiiiai aeooiaainoaa anoue aua e i?i?iee, ec?aeathuea
?aciua “enoeiu” ai a?aiy i?eiaaeeia no?aoiuo eiiaoeuenee. Yoe ethaee a
aieueoii ii/oaiee o i?inoiai ia?iaea, ii aunoee eeann ioiineony e iei n
i?ac?aieai.

Oaeia noiaenoai ai acaeyaeao ia iiiaoaoaeuenoai a ?aciuo no?aiao
aeieaeii iaoneiaeeaaoueny iaueie i?e/eiaie. *. Eiia?ici i?eaiaeeo
neaaeothuea:

1) ?aniieaaay eeoue iaaieueoei /eneii i?eau/iuo iuouaiee, i?inoie ia?iae
n ecoieaieai ioiineony ei anyeiio iiaiio yaeaieth e aioia iieeiiyoueny
anaio iaiaueiiaaiiiio; iaiaeaiea yaeyaony o iaai, iiaeii neacaoue,
iaiaoiaeeiui ?aoeaenii, aneaaenoaea eaaeaeiai neeoeii neeueiiai iiaiai
aia/aoeaiey.

2) Iaeioi?ua ec iiiaoaiiuo iaeaaeatho iaiaueiiaaiiie oece/aneie neeie, a
ia?iae oaaaeaao neeo.

3) Ia?aaeei iie iaia?oaeeaatho ii?aceoaeueioth ia/oanoaeoaeueiinoue e
oieiaeo, aieiaeo e ei anaaiciiaeiui oece/aneei no?aaeaieyi.

4) Iaeioi?ua ec ieo, iaea?aeeiua ?aeeaeiciui eee ai?aeaeeaui
iiiaoaoaeuenoaii, naie auaeatho naay ca aaeioiiaaiiuo aiaaie, ca
aeanoaeeiia, iiaaeeoaeae ia?iaea e yoei ca?aiaa ?aniieaaatho aai a naith
iieueco.

5) Ii naiay aeaaiay i?e/eia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iiiaea ec iiiaoaiiuo
ia?aaeei iaia?oaeeaaee oi e aieth, cia/eoaeueii i?aainoiaeeaoea iauee
o?iaaiue ?acaeoey yoeo ea/anoa o iannu inoaeueiuo nia?aaeaeai,
iiaeiuaiiuo caaioaie ia oaeiaeaoai?aiee naieo iaoa?eaeueiuo
iio?aaiinoae. Aeaeaa ecaanoii, /oi iiae aeeyieai no?anoe neea e
iai?yaeaiea oia caiaoii aic?anoatho. Aeoaieay aa?a yoeo ethaeae a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue naieo aaeethoeeiaoeee, iiuiia e?anii?a/ea, n eaeei
iie auneacuaaee naie oaaaeaeaiey, eiio?ano iaaeaeo eo aeaeeei aacaanoiui
i?ioeui e aaee/eai eo ianoiyuaai iieiaeaiey anoanoaaiii i?eaeaaaee
iiaeiaiui noianoaaeoei a?iiaaeiia cia/aiea a aeacao oieiu e aicauoaee eo
iaae iauei o?iaiai cae?aaiiuneyueo, ii aethaeeiiuo, iaueiiaaiiuo
ethaeae. I?eia?ii oaeiai iaayiey iiaoo neoaeeoue Eaca?aooe, A?eaiae,
Eieiea, Iaeeian, AEaiia ae’A?e, aiaaaioenou e i?.
VII.

Eneeth/eoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe

aaieaeueiuo ethaeae.

Caeeth/aiea.

Aicieeaao aii?in, aiciiaeii ee ia iniiaaiee anaai auoaeceiaeaiiiai
i?eeoe e caeeth/aieth, /oi aaieaeueiinoue aiiaua anoue ia /oi eiia, eae
iaa?ic, oiiiiiaoaoaeuenoai? Iao, oaeia caeeth/aiea auei au ioeai/iui.
I?aaaea, a ao?iie e o?aaiaeiie aeecie aaieaeueiuo ethaeae auaatho
iiiaiou, eiaaea yoe ethaee i?aaenoaaeytho aieueoia noiaenoai n
iiiaoaiiuie e a ineoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe oao e ae?oaeo anoue iaiaei
iaueo /a?o, iai?eia? iaino?aiiay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue, yecaeueoaoeey,
niaiythuayny aiaoeae, i?eaeiaeueiinoue ynoaoe/aneeo i?iecaaaeaiee e
niiniaiinoue e ioe?uoeyi, aanniciaoaeueiinoue oai?/anoaa e oiio?aaeaiea
iniauo au?aaeaiee, neeueiay ?annayiiinoue e neeiiiinoue e naiioaeenoao,
a oaeaea ia?aaeei ceioiio?aaeaiea nie?oiuie iaieoeaie e, iaeiiaoe,
a?iiaaeiia ouaneaaea. I?aaaea, a /enea aaieaeueiuo ethaeae auee e anoue
iiiaoaiiua, oi/ii oae aea, eae e n?aaee yoeo iineaaeieo auee noauaeou, o
eioi?uo aieaciue aucuaaea i?iaeanee aaiey, ii auaanoe ec yoiai
caeeth/aiea, /oi ana aaieaeueiua ee/iinoe iai?aiaiii aeieaeiu auoue
iiiaoaiiuie, cia/eei au aianoue a a?iiaaeiia caaeoaeaeaiea e iiaoi?eoue,
oieueei a eiii niunea, ioeai/iue auaiae aeeea?ae, n/eoathueo
aiaiaaeioiiaaiiuie ethaeueie anao noianoaaeoeo.

Anee au aaieaeueiinoue anaaaea nii?iaiaeaeaeanue noianoanoaeai, oi eae
iauynieoue, /oi Aaeeeae, Eaiea?, Eieoia, Aieueoa?, Iaiieaii,
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei, Eaao?, ethaee ianiiiaiii aaieaeueiua e i?eoii
iiaeaa?aaaoeany a oa/aiea naiae aeecie naiui oyaeaeui eniuoaieyi, ie
?aco ia iaia?oaeeaaee i?eciaeia oiiiiiaoaoaeuenoaa?

E?iia oiai, aaieaeueiinoue i?iyaeyaony iaueiiaaiii ai?acaei ?aiueoa
noianoanoaey, eioi?ia ii aieueoae /anoe aeinoeaaao iaeneiaeueiiai
?acaeoey eeoue iinea o?eaeoeaoeiyoeeaoiaai aic?anoa, oiaaea eae
aaieaeueiinoue iaia?oaeeaaaony aua n aeaonoaa, a a iieiaeua aiaeu
iaia?oaeeaaaony oaea a iieiie ia?a: Aeaenaiae? Iaeaaeiineee aue ia
aa?oeia naiae neaau a aeaaaeoeaoue eao, Ea?e Aaeeeee – a o?eaeoeaoue
eao, Ea?e XII – a ainaiiaaeoeaoue? Ae’Aeaiaa? e Aiiaia?o – a
aeaaaeoeaoue oanoue (?eai).

Aeaeaa, iaaeaeo oai eae noianoanoaea /aua anao ae?oaeo aieaciae
ia?aaeaaony ii ianeaaenoao e i?eoii oneeeaaaony n eaaeaeui iiaui
iieieaieai, aaieaeueiinoue ii/oe anaaaea oie?aao aianoa n aaieaeueiui
/aeiaaeii, e ianeaaenoaaiiua aaieaeueiua niiniaiinoe, iniaaiii o
iaeioi?uo iieieaiee, ninoaaeytho ?aaeeia eneeth/aiea. Iieiaeei, aaiee
oiaea iiaeao caaeoaeaeaoueny, iieiaeei, e ii anaaaea ioee/aaony
i?eaeiaeueiinoueth; ii ie caaeoaeaeaiea, ie i?eaeiaeueiinoue ieeiaaea ia
aeioiaeyo o iaai aei iieiiai i?ioeai?a/ey n naiei niaith eee aei
i/aaeaeiiai aano?aea, /oi oae /anoi neo/aaony n iaooieaeaie e
iiiaoaiiuie.

Anee iaeioi?ua ec yoeo iineaaeieo e iaia?oaeeaatho iaaethaeeiiua
oinoaaiiua niiniaiinoe, oi yoi eeoue a n?aaieoaeueii ?aaeeeo neo/ayo, e
i?eoii oi eo anaaaea iaeiinoi?iiai: ai?acaei /aua iu caia/aai o ieo
iaaeinoaoie oneae/eainoe, i?eeaaeaiey, oaa?aeinoe oa?aeoa?a, aieiaiey,
aeeo?aoiinoe, iaiyoe – aeaaiuo ea/anoa aaiey. E inoathony iie ii
aieueoae /anoe anth aeeciue iaeeiieeie, iaiaueoaeueiuie, ?aaiiaeooiuie
eee ia/oanoaeoaeueiuie e oiio, /oi aieioao ?iae ethaeneie, oi/ii eo
ie?oaeaao eaeay-oi iniaaiiay, ei iaeiei i?eiaaeeaaeauay aoiinoa?a.
Aiciiaeii ee n?aaieaaoue eo n oaie aaeeeeie aaieyie, eioi?ua niieieii e
n niciaieai nianoaaiiuo nee iaoeeiiii neaaeiaaee ii ?ac eca?aiiiio iooe
e naiae aunieie oeaee, ia iaaeay aeooii a ian/anoueyo e ia iicaieyy naaa
oaea/ueny eaeie au oi ie auei no?anoueth!

Oaeiau auee: Nieiica, Aaeii, Aaeeeae, Aeaioa, Aieueoa?, Eieoia,
Iaeeaaaeee, Ieeaeaiaeaeaei, Eaao?. Ana iie ioee/aeenue ia?iiiie neeie eo
iuneeoaeueiuo niiniaiinoae, naea?aeeaaaiuo iiao/ae aieae, ii ie a iaeiii
ec ieo ethaiaue e enoeia e e?anioa ia caaeooeea ethaae e naiuea e
ioa/anoao. Iie ieeiaaea ia eciaiyee naiei oaaaeaeaieyi e ia aeaeaeenue
?aiaaaoaie, iie ia oeeiiyeenue io naiae oeaee, ia a?inaee ?ac ia/aoiai
aeaea. Neieueei ianoie/eainoe, yia?aee, oaeoa aueacuaaee iie i?e
auiieiaiee caaeoiaiiuo eie i?aaei?eyoee e eaeie oia?aiiinoueth, eaeei
oeaeueiui oa?aeoa?ii ioee/aeenue a aeecie!

A aaaeue ia eo aeieth auiaaeaei oiaea iaiaei no?aaeaiee io
i?aneaaeiaaiee iaaaaeae, ei oiaea i?eoiaeeeinue eniuouaaoue e i?eiaaeee
eciaiiaeaiey, neaaeiaaaoea ca ii?uaaie aaeioiiaaiey, e ioee iaeaaeaaoaai
eie niiiaiey, eieaaaiey, ii ana yoi ie ?aco ia canoaaeei eo naa?iooue n
i?yiiai iooe a noi?iio.

Aaeeinoaaiiay, ecethaeaiiay eaeay, ninoaaeyaoay oeaeue e n/anouea eo
aeecie, anaoeaei iaeaaeaaaea yoeie aaeeeeie oiaie e eae au neoaeeea aeey
ieo iooaaiaeiie caacaeie. Aeey inouanoaeaiey naiae caaea/e iie ia
uaaeeee ieeaeeo oneeee, ia inoaiaaeeaaeenue ie ia?aae eaeeie
i?aiyonoaeyie, anaaaea inoaaaynue yniuie, niieieiuie. Ioeaee eo neeoeii
iaiiiai/eneaiiu, /oiau ia ieo noieei oeacuaaoue, aea e oa ia?aaeei
iinyo oaeie oa?aeoa?, /oi o iaueiiaaiiuo ethaeae iie nioee au ca
ianoiyuea ioe?uoey.

?acthie?oy yoe iieiaeaiey, iiaeii i?eeoe e neaaeothuei auaiaeai: a
oeceieiae/aneii ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ii?iaeueiui ninoiyieai aaieaeueiiai
/aeiaaea e iaoieiae/aneei – iiiaoaiiiai nouanoaoao iaiaei oi/ae
nii?eeiniiaaiey. N?aaee aaieaeueiuo ethaeae ano?a/athony iiiaoaiiua e
n?aaee noianoaaeoeo – aaiee. Ii auei e anoue iiiaeanoai aaieaeueiuo
ethaeae, o eioi?uo iaeuecy iouneaoue ie iaeaeoeo i?eciaeia
oiiiiiaoaoaeuenoaa, ca eneeth/aieai iaeioi?uo iaii?iaeueiinoae a noa?a
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe.

Onoaiiaea oaeia aeeceia niioaaonoaea iaaeaeo aaieaeueiuie ethaeueie e
iiiaoaiiuie, i?e?iaea eae au oioaea oeacaoue iai ia iaoo iaycaiiinoue
nienoiaeeoaeueii ioiineoueny e aaee/aeoaio ec /aeiaa/aneeo aaaenoaee –
noianoanoaeth e a oi aea a?aiy i?aaeinoa?a/ue ian, /oiau iu ia neeoeii
oaeaeaeenue aeanoyueie i?ec?aeaie aaieaa, iiiaea ec eioi?uo ia oieueei
ia iiaeieiathony a caiaea/iua noa?u, ii, iiaeiaii naa?eathuei iaoai?ai,
aniuoioa iaeiaaeaeu, iaaeatho i/aiue iecei e oiioo a ianna
caaeoaeaeaiee.

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