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Yiioeee e ycue.

1.1 Yiioeee e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue.

Iauea i?iaeaiu eco/aiey.

Oacen i oii, /oi yiioeee – iaeia ec oi?i io?aaeaiey, iiciaiey, ioeaiee
iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, i?eciaaony i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ?aciuo iaoe,
i?aaeaea anaai ineoieiaaie e oeeinioaie. Yoi enoiaeiia iieiaeaiea o anao
enneaaeiaaoaeae eiaao iauaa ooi/iaiea: yiioeee – iniaay, naiaia?aciay
oi?ia iiciaiey e io?aaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, oae eae a ieo /aeiaae
aunooiaao iaeiia?aiaiii e iauaeoii, e noauaeoii iiciaiey, o.a. yiioeee
naycaiu n iio?aaiinoyie /aeiaaea, eaaeaueie a iniiaa iioeaia aai
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ineoieiae/aneay e ineoieeiaaenoe/aneay iaoee iaoeaeaiu i?aaeaea anaai
ia enneaaeiaaiey ooieoeee yiioeee a aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. Ianiio?y ia
/aoeinoue iao/iuo iiceoeee, ninoiyiea eco/aiey ineoieiaee yiioeee, ii
iiaieth naieo ineoieiaia, inoaaony e?aeia iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui. Aei
neo ii? ia ?aoaia caaea/a iino?iaiey oeaeinoiie, iiiaio?iaiaaie
ineoieiae/aneie oai?ee yiioeee (ni. iiceoeeth 59). Yoi nicaeaao
ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe aeey eeiaaenoia, ia?auathueony e i?iaeaiai
ycueiaiai iaania/aiey yiioeee. Iaeia ec ieo – ?aciiia?acea
eeanneoeeaoeee yiioeee. A.E. Aeiaeiiia ooaa?aeaeaao aeaaea, /oi
“oieaa?naeueiie eeanneoeeaoeee yiioeee nicaeaoue aiiaua iaaiciiaeii e
eeanneoeeaoeey, oi?ioi neoaeeaoay aeey ?aoaiey iaeiiai e?oaa caaea/,
iaecaaaeii aeieaeia auoue caiaiaia ae?oaie i?e ?aoaiee eiiai e?oaa
caaea/. Nai ia?a/aiue iniiaiuo yiioeee ia onoaiiaeai ieii/aoaeueii ie a
ineoieiaee, ie a oeceieiaee (ineoieiae ian/eouaatho aieaa 500 ?acee/iuo
yiioeee).

Aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiuie ieacuaathony e i?ioeannu iaicia/aiey yiioeee.
Oae, ii iaaethaeaieyi Aeiaeiiiaa “a ?acaiai?iie i?aeoeea iu /anoi
iieuecoainy iaeiei e oai aea neiaii aeey iaicia/aiey ?aciuo
ia?aaeeaaiee, oae /oi eo aeaenoaeoaeueiue oa?aeoa? noaiiaeony yniui
oieueei ec eiioaenoa. A oi aea a?aiy iaeia e oa aea yiioeey iiaeao
iaicia/aoueny ?aciuie neiaaie”.

Oaeei ia?acii, o/eouaay ana o?oaeiua e ia?aoaiiua aii?inu
ineoieiae/aneie oai?ee yiioeee, eeiaaeno a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeieaeai
enneaaeiaaoue nianoaaiii ycueiaua iaoaieciu iaicia/aiey e au?aaeaiey
yiioeee, oai aieaa, /oi “/oanoaa oieueei oiaaea i?eia?aoatho cia/aiea
aeey eeiaaenoa, eiaaea iie au?aaeaiu ycueiauie n?aaenoaaie” (ni.
iiceoeeth 17). Iaiaoiaeeiinoue nianoaaiii eeiaaenoe/aneiai aiaeeca
n?aaenoa, ioia?aaeathueo yiioeee /aeiaaea, iioeae?oaony
ia?ac?aaioaiiinoueth i?iaeaiu, oai, /oi “ycueiaia au?aaeaiea yiioeee aei
neo ii? enneaaeiaaii iaaeinoaoi/ii” (ni. iiceoeeth 36).

1.2 Oa?ieiieiae/aneee aiia?ao enneaaeiaaiey.

Yiioeee /aeiaaea e iaoaieciu eo eeiaaenoe/aneiai iaania/aiey anaaaea
auee i?aaeiaoii iao/iuo ecuneaiee. Oeaeue ?yae iaoe eco/atho yoio
ineoieiae/aneee oaiiiai: ineoieiaey, oeceieiaey, nioeeieiaey, oeeinioey,
yoeea, iaaeeoeeia, aeioeiey, eeiaaenoeea, eeoa?aoo?iaaaeaiea. I/aaeaeii,
iiiaiia?aceai iiceoeee e iiaeoiaeia iauyniyaony iaeeea e
iaoii?yaei/aiiinoue oa?ieiieiaee a ?aaioao ii i?iaeaia yiioeee. Eae
oieueei ia iaicia/atho yoo niiniaiinoue /aeiaaea ia?aaeeaaoue,
eniuouaaoue yiioeee: ineoe/aneay ?aaeueiinoue, ineoe/aneia ninoiyiea,
aioo?aiiaa ninoiyiea, yiioeeiiaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue… Anoue aeaaea
iiaiea, /oi yiioeee e /oanoaa – ?acee/iua oi?iu io?aaeaiey ie?a:
“…/oanoaa e yiioeee yaeythony ?acee/iuie nooiaiyie ?acaeoey
yiioeeiiaeueiie noa?u io?aaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe…” (ni. iiceoeeth
74). A oi aea a?aiy /oanoaa, yiioeee e aeaaea iuouaiey oae oanii naycaiu
iaaeaeo niaie, /oi ia anaaaea aeeooa?aioee?othony e ia eiatho /aoeeo
a?aieoe (ni. iiceoeeth 27). O/eouaay yoi e no?aiynue e aaeeiiia?aceth
oa?ieiieiaee, iu oiio?aaeyai i?aeiouanoaaiii oa?ieiu “yiioeee” e
“/oanoaa” eae yeaeaaeaioiua iaicia/aiey eiathueo ianoi a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ineoe/aneeo ninoiyiee, ia?aaeeaaiee, iuouaiee
/aeiaaea.

Iaoaieciu ycueiaiai au?aaeaiey yiioeee aiai?yuaai e ycueiaiai
iaicia/aiey, eioa?i?aoaoeee yiioeee eae iauaeoeaiie nouiinoe aiai?yuaai
e neooathuaai i?eioeeieaeueii ?acee/iu. Iiaeii aiai?eoue i ycuea
iienaiey yiioeee e ycuea au?aaeaiey yiioeee.

Ia ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia noaei iaiaoiaeeii eae-oi ?aca?aie/eoue eaeneeo,
a ?aciie noaiaie yiioeeiiaeueii ca?yaeaiioth, n oeaeueth enneaaeiaaiey
?acee/iie i?e?iaeu au?aaeaiey yiioeeiiaeueiuo niuneia. Iiyaeeinue
oa?ieiieiae/aneia ?aca?aie/aiea: eaeneea yiioeee e yiioeeiiaeueiay
eaeneea. Auaeaeaiea aeaoo oeiia yiioeaiie eaeneee o/eouaaao ?acee/ioth
ooieoeeiiaeueioth i?e?iaeo yoeo neia: eaeneea yiioeee ni?eaioe?iaaia ia
iauaeoeaaoeeth yiioeee a ycuea, eo eiaaioa?ecaoeeth (iiieiaoeaiay
ooieoeey), yiioeeiiaeueiay eaeneea i?eniiniaeaia aeey au?aaeaiey yiioeee
aiai?yuaai e yiioeeiiaeueiie ioeaiee iauaeoa ?a/e (yeni?anneaiay e
i?aaiaoe/aneay ooieoeee). Oaeei ia?acii, eaeneea yiioeee aeeth/aao
neiaa, i?aaeiaoii-eiae/aneia cia/aiea eioi?uo ninoaaeytho iiiyoey ia
yiioeeyo. E yiioeeiiaeueiie eaeneea ioiinyo yiioeeiiaeueii ie?aoaiiua
neiaa, niaea?aeauea /oanoaaiiue oii. I?eieiay ai aieiaiea ?acee/ea
i?e?iaeu yiioeaiie ca?yaeaiiinoe yoeo neia, iaaei o/eouaaoue, /oi
eaeneea oiai e ae?oaiai iiiaeanoaa o/anoaoao a ioia?aaeaiee yiioeee
/aeiaaea. Iia niioiineony n ie?ii yiioeee e ioia?aaeaao yoio ie?,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?aaeeueiaa aoaeao neeoue yoe aeaa iai?aaeaiey a iaeii.
E.A. Aaaaiei i?aaeeaaaao, nio?aiyy ca oa?ieiaie “eaeneea yiioeee” e
“yiioeeiiaeueiay eaeneea” eo o?aaeeoeeiiiia iniuneaiea, iacaaoue
niaieoiiinoue iaicia/aaiuo eie n?aaenoa yiioeaiie eaeneeie.

Iniiaaieai aaeeiie iiaeaee aeiaaeueiiai iienaiey anaai iiiaeanoaa
yiioeaiie eaeneee iiaeao neoaeeoue eaoaai?ey yiioeaiinoe. Yoa eaoaai?ey
iiea eiaao aeeneonneiiiue oa?aeoa?, oa?ieiieiae/aneee aiia?ao oaeaea aei
eiioea ia ioi?ieai, ii noaoon a? eae eaoaai?ee aeieacuaaaony ?yaeii
enneaaeiaaiee. I?aaeaea anaai ?ane?uaaaony ioee/ea yiioeaiinoe io
yiioeee: “Ia ycueiaii o?iaia yiioeee o?ainoi?ie?othony a yiioeaiinoue,
yiioeee – ineoieiae/aneay eaoaai?ey, yiioeaiinoue – ycueiaay” (ni.
iiceoeeth 73).

Iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue oceia e oe?ieia iiieiaiea yiioeaiinoe. Ai aoi?ii
neo/aa yoa eaoaai?ey ioaaouaaao ana ycueiaua n?aaenoaa ioia?aaeaiey
yiioeee. Iiaeiaiia iniuneaiea eaoaai?ee yiioeaiinoe i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi
iia iauaaeeiyao naiaioe/anee aeeceea ycueiaua aaeeieoeu ?aciuo o?iaiae.
Iu i?eaea?aeeaaainy iiaeiaiiai iniuneaiey eaoaai?ee yiioeaiinoe.

I?e ?anniio?aiee eaoaai?ee yiioeaiinoe ia iaoa?eaea eaeneee iau/ii
anoaao e i?iaeaia yiioeaiiai cia/aiey. Eae iieacaei eco/aiea iao/iie
eeoa?aoo?u ii yoiio aii?ino, o?aeoiaea yiioeaiiai cia/aiey oanii naycaia
n iiieiaieai eaoaai?ee yiioeaiinoe. A nayce n yoei auaeaeyaony oceia
iiieiaiea yiioeaiiai cia/aiey, eiaaea iii ?anniao?eaaaony eae niinia
au?aaeaiey yiioeee aiai?yuaai e ioaaouaaao nianoaaiii iaaeaeiiaoey e
yiioeeiiaeueii ie?aoaiioth eaeneeo (ni. iiceoeee 5, 76, 73). Ii iaoaio
iiaieth, yiioeaiia cia/aiea – yoi cia/aiea (naiaia), a aaeeiie no?oeoo?a
eioi?iai niaea?aeeony naia yiioeaiinoe oiai eee eiiai ?aiaa, o.a. yoi
cia/aiea, a eioi?ii eaeei eeai ia?acii i?aaenoaaeaiu (au?aaeaiu eee
iaicia/aiu) yiioeaiia niuneu. Yoe niuneu iiaoo auoue iieiinoueth ?aaiu
eaene/aneiio cia/aieth neiaa (eae o iaaeaeiiaoee), iiaoo auoue
eiiiioaoeaiuie (eae o yeni?anneaia) eee iiaoo auoiaeeoue a
eiaeei-i?aaeiaoioth /anoue cia/aiey (yiioeau-iiieiaoeau).

Oaoianeee aaae a iao/iue iai?io iiiyoea yiinaiu, nouiinoue eioi?ie oae
?ane?uaaaony a aai eiioeaioeee: “Yoi niaoeeoe/aneee aeae nai,
niioiineiuo n yiioeeyie aiai?yuaai e i?aaenoaaeaiiuo a naiaioeea neiaa
eae niaieoiiinoue naiaioe/aneiai i?eciaea “yiioeey” e naiiuo
eiie?aoecaoi?ia “ethaiaue”, “i?ac?aiea”, “oieaeaiea” e ae?., nienie
eioi?uo ioe?uo e eioi?ua aa?uee?otho oiiiyiooue naiaioe/aneee i?eciae
(niaoeeoeeaoi?) a ?aciuo neiaao ii-?aciiio (ni. iiceoeeth 73).
Niaeaoaynue n oaeei ii?aaeaeaieai, iu n/eoaai, /oi naia yiioeaiinoe
iiaeao ioia?aaeaoue yiioeeiiaeueiue i?ioeann ioiineoaeueii ethaiai
eeoea: aiai?yuaai, neooathuaai eee eaeiai-eeai o?aoueaai eeoea.

Iu ?anniao?eaaai ycueiaua ciaee, i?aaeiaoii ioia?aaeaiey eioi?uo
yaeythony yiioeee /aeiaaea, e a aeaeueiaeoai aeey iaicia/aiey yoiai
iauaeoa, ioia?aaeaiiiai a neiaa, i?aaeeaaaai iieueciaaoueny oa?ieiii
“yiioeaiue niune”, i?aaeeiaeaiiui E.A. Aaaaiei. Yiioeee e /oanoaa – yoi
nouiinoe yeno?aeeiaaenoe/aneea; yiioeaiua niuneu – yoi eo ioia?aaeaiea a
ycuea, eiiiiiaiou eaene/aneie naiaioeee. Yiioeaiua niuneu ianoo
eioi?iaoeeth ia yiioeeyo /aeiaaea, iie i?aaenoatho a niaea?aeaiee
?acee/iuo ycueiauo e ?a/aauo aaeeieoe a aeaea niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo
naiaioe/aneeo eiiiiiaioia, naienoaaiiuo yoei aaeeieoeai.

O?aaeeoeeiiii a eeiaaenoeea auaeaeytho aeaa iae?ieiiiiiaioa a iiaeaee
eaene/aneie naiaioeee – aeaiioaoeeth e eiiiioaoeeth. Iaeioi?ua
enneaaeiaaoaee auaeaeytho o?e eiaeei-i?aaeiaoiue, yiioeaiue e
ooieoeeiiaeueii – noeeenoe/aneee (ni. iiceoeeth 72); aeaiioaoeeth,
eiiiioaoeeth e ia?aciue eiiiiiaio (ni. iiceoeeth 30).

Aeaiioaoeey iiieiaaony eae noa?a cia/aiey, i?eaioe?iaaiiay ia io?aaeaiea
iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ( a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue eiiiioaoeee,
i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia aiai?yuaa eeoei e eiiioieeaoeaioth neooaoeeth). I?e
oaeii iiieiaiee aeaiioaoeey iieiinoueth iie?uaaao eiaeei-i?aaeiaoioth
/anoue cia/aiey. A yoii neo/aa aeiioneaaony, /oi aeaiioaoii neia iiaoo
auoue e eiie?aoiua, ?aaeueii nouanoaothuea iauaeou e i?aaenoaaeaiey e
iiiyoey i naienoaao, ea/anoaao, ninoiyieyo e ae?. Oaeei ia?acii,
aeaiioaoeey – /anoue eaene/aneie naiaioeee, iiiaieiiiiiaioiay,
ea?a?oe/anee i?aaieciaaiiay, niaea?aeauay eioi?iaoeeth i ?aciiia?aciuo
oaeoao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a oii /enea e eioi?iaoeeth i /aeiaa/aneeo
yiioeeyo.

Eiiiioaoeey – ia?eoa?eeiay /anoue eaene/aneiai cia/aiey,
oaeoeueoaoeaiay, niaea?aeauay eioi?iaoeeth i ee/iinoe aiai?yuaai, a oii
/enea e i aai yiioeeiiaeueiii ninoiyiee, neooaoeee iauaiey, oa?aeoa?a
ioiioaiey aiai?yuaai e niaanaaeieeo e i?aaeiaoo ?a/e. A noa?a
eiiiioaoeee auaeaeytho ?acee/iua eiiiiiaiou – eiiiioaou, ?acee/athueany
ooieoeeiiaeueiie iai?aaeaiiinoueth (ia aioo?aiiee ie? /aeiaaea, ia ycue
e ia aiaoithth ii ioiioaieth e ycueo aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue), a nayce n /ai
eo aeaeyo ia iniiaiua oeiu: yiioeeiiaeueiue, ioeaii/iue, ia?aciue,
yeni?anneaiue.

Iaeiie ec caaea/ iaoae ?aaiou yaeyaony iienaiea no?oeoo?u
eaeneei-naiaioe/aneiai iiey yiioeee. Iia?e?oy iiiyoeai ENI iu
i?eaea?aeeaaainy aai o?aeoiaee Aaeioaieiaie (ni. iiceoeeth 12).

Eaene/aneay nenoaia ai anao iiin?aaeiaaieyo a? aaeeieoe iaeaieaa iieii e
aaeaeaaoii io?aaeaaony a naiaioe/aneii iiea – eaene/aneie eaoaai?ee
aunoaai ii?yaeea.

Naiaioe/aneia iiea (NI) – yoi ea?a?oe/aneay no?oeoo?a iiiaeanoaa
eaene/aneeo aaeeieoe, iauaaeeiaiiuo iauei (eiaa?eaioiui) cia/aieai.

Eaene/aneea aaeeieoeu aeeth/athony a ii?aaeaeaiiia NI ia iniiaaiee oiai,
/oi iie niaea?aeao iauaaeeiythuoth eo a?oenaio, a iaoai neo/aa “yiioeey”
– aeey anao iaicia/aiee /oanoa e yiioeee.

Iiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaeii?iaeiui iiiyoeeiui niaea?aeaieai naieo
aaeeieoe, iiyoiio aai “no?iaauie yeaiaioaie” iau/ii yaeythony ia neiaa,
niioiineiua naieie cia/aieyie n ?aciuie iiiyoeyie, a
eaeneei-naiaioe/aneea aa?eaiou.

Eaeneei-naiaioe/aneei aa?eaioii (ENA) iu aoaeai iacuaaoue neiai a iaeiii
ec aai cia/aiee, o.a. oaeie aeaonoi?iiiee ycueiaie ciae, eioi?ue
yaeyaony aaeeinoaii cao/aiey e cia/aiey, nio?aiyy oiaeaeanoai
eaene/aneiai cia/aiey a i?aaeaeao i?enouae aio ia?aaeeaiu e
neioaene/aneeo ooieoeee.

A NI eae oaeiaia (a ioee/ea io ENA) aoiaeyo neiaa (ENA) ?aciuo /anoae
?a/e. Iiyoiio aaeeieoeai iiey naienoaaiiu ia oieueei 1) neioaaiaoe/aneea
e 2) ia?aaeeaiaoe/aneea, ii e 3) annioeeaoeaii-aea?eaaoeeiiiua
ioiioaiey.

Ianiio?y ia aieueoia ?aciiia?acea a i?aaiecaoeee NI e niaoeeoeeo
eaaeaeiai ec ieo, iiaeii aiai?eoue i iaeioi?ie i?eioeeieaeueiie
no?oeoo?a NI, eioi?ay i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea aai yae?a, oeaio?a e
ia?eoa?ee.

1.3 Yiioeee e ycueiaay ea?oeia ie?a.

Yiioeee e ioeaiea.

Au? a ia/aea XIX a. A. oii Aoiaieueaeo ioiaoee, /oi ycue eae
aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea i?iiecai /oanoaaie. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
eeiaaenoeea aiiaue ia?aoeeanue e aai o/aieth, i?ecuaaaoaai eco/aoue ycue
a oaniie nayce n /aeiaaeii. A naaoa yoie eiioeaioeee aiieia inouanoaeii
e eeiaaenoe/aneia iniuneaiea nenoaiiuo yiioeaiuo n?aaenoa.

Ai ana a?aiaia ethaee eniuouaaee, eniuouaatho e aoaeoo eniuouaaoue iaeie
e oa aea /oanoaa: ?aaeinoue, ai?a, ethaiaue, a?onoue. Iaeiieai ia?iiiue
yiioeeiiaeueiue iiuo. A nayce n yoei ineoieiae aiai?yo ia
oieaa?naeueiinoe yiioeee, nai ia?a/aiue eioi?uo io?aaeaao
iaua/aeiaa/aneee iiuo iniuneaiey ineoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea:
“Iaeioi?ua ioaeaeueiua yiioeee yaeythony oieaa?naeueiuie,
iauaeoeueoo?iuie oaiiiaiaie. E eiaee?iaaiea, e aeaeiaee?iaaiea ?yaea
yiioeeiiaeueiuo au?aaeaiee iaeeiaeiau aeey ethaeae anaai ie?a,
aacioiineoaeueii e eo eoeueoo?a, ycueo eee ia?aciaaoaeueiiio o?iaith”
(ni. iiceoeeth 33).

sscue ia anoue ca?eaeueiia io?aaeaiea ie?a, iiyoiio, i/aaeaeii, ie?
yiioeee e iaai? ycueiauo n?aaenoa, eo ioia?aaeathueo, ia iiaoo
iieiinoueth niaiaaeaoue.

Oaeei ia?acii, o/eouaay iaee/ea a yiioeeiiaeueiii iiuoa /aeiaa/anoaa
a?oiiu aaaeoueo oieaa?naeueiuo yiioeee, iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue
nouanoaiaaiea oieaa?naeueiuo yiioeaiuo niuneia e a eaene/aneie
naiaioeea, /oi iaoneiaeaii naiaioeeie io?aaeaiey, oae eae iiuo
/aeiaa/anoaa a iiciaiee yiioeee, eae e eaeiai-eeai ae?oaiai o?aaiaioa
ie?a, cae?aieyaony a ycueiauo aaeeieoeao. A eeiaaenoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?a
eniieuecothony ?acee/iua iaicia/aiey yoeo oieaa?naeueiuo yiioeee:
aeiieiaioiua yiioeee (ni. iiceoeeth 13), eeth/aaua yiioeee ,
yiioeeiiaeueiue oii (ni. iiceoeeth 49), aaaeouea eee aaciaua yiioeee e
ae?. A oi aea a?aiy ineoieiae ioia/atho, /oi neiaa?ue yiioeee a ?aciuo
ycueao aeaeaei ia iaeeiaeia, oioy iao ie iaeiiai ia?aaeeaaiey, eioi?ia
auei au aeinooiii aeey iaeiie iaoeeiiaeueiinoe e iaaeinooiii aeey
ae?oaie, o.a. naie yiioeee – oieaa?naeueiu, a oeiieiae/aneay no?oeoo?a
yiioeeiiaeueiie eaeneee ia niaiaaeaao a ?aciuo ycueao, eiaao
iaoeeiiaeueioth niaoeeoeeo, oae eae io?aaeaiea eo a eaaeaeii ycuea
naiiauoii.

Yiioeaiay eaeneea o?aaeeoeeiiii eco/aaony n o/aoii oaeeo eaoaai?ee, eae
ioeaii/iinoue, yeni?anneaiinoue, ia?aciinoue, i?e/ai nayce a? n ioeaieie
ieacuaathony iniaaiii oaniuie. Nii?yaeaiea yiioeee e ioeaiee ia
oo?a/eaatho aeooaeueiinoe.

Eoae, yiioeeiiaeueiinoue e ioeaii/iinoue – eaoaai?ee, aaconeiaii,
acaeiinaycaiiua, a aio ia n/ao oa?aeoa?a eo nayce eiathony ?acee/iua
oi/ee c?aiey.

Niaeanii ia?aie oi/ea c?aiey, ioeaii/iinoue e yiioeeiiaeueiinoue –
ia?anoi?aeeiia aaeeinoai. Oae, iai?eia?, n/eoaao I. A. Eoeueyiiaa:
“Ioeaii/iinoue, i?aaenoaaeaiiay eae niioianaiiinoue neiaa n ioeaieie, e
yiioeeiiaeueiinoue, naycaiiay n yiioeeyie, /oanoaaie, ia ninoaaeytho
aeaoo ?aciuo eiiiiiaioia cia/aiey, iie aaeeiu” (ni. iiceoeeth 49). Yoiai
aea iiaiey i?eaea?aeeaaaony e A. E. Oaoianeee . Aieueo, iaiai?io,
?acaiaeeo eiiiiiaiou “yiioeeiiaeueiinoue” e “ioeaii/iinoue”,
?anniao?eaay eo eae /anoue e oeaeia (ni. iiceoeeth 22).

Au? iaeia iiceoeey: ioeaii/iinoue e yiioeaiinoue – eiiiiiaiou oioue e
i?aaeiieaaathuea ae?oa ae?oaa, ii ?acee/iua. ?acee/ea yoeo eiiiiiaioia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao oio oaeo, /oi ioaeaeueiui iiaeeeannai yiioeeiiaeueiuo
yaeaiee ooieoeey ioeaiee naienoaaiia ia a iaeeiaeiaie noaiaie. Ii
iiaieth noi?iiieeia yoie iiceoeee, ioeaii/iinoue ia a ?aaiie noaiaie
naienoaaiia yiioeeiiaeueiie eaeneea. Oae, aeieaia a?aiy a ia?aiao?a
ioeaiee ia ?anniao?eaaeanue eaeneea yiioeee oeia ” ethaiaue”, “a?onoue”,
ii a iineaaeiea aiaeu enneaaeoaony oa?aeoa? ioeaii/iinoe e iiaeiaiuo
neia (ni. iiceoeee 21, 63). A ?acoeueoaoa auaeaeaiu oeiu ioeaii/iuo
neia: iauaioeaii/iay eaeneea oeia “i?aaeony / ia i?aaeoueny, iaeia?aiea
/ ia iaeia?aiea”; /anoi ioeaii/iua neiaa eee eioa?i?aoe?othuea
“yiioeaiue aniaeo” ioeaiee neiaa, oeia “ethaiaue”, “i?ac?aiea”. Aoi?ua
niaea?aeao ia?yaeo n ioeaii/iie iiaeaeueiinoueth iaicia/aiea yiioeee.

Aeaaiaea?y ooiaeaiaioaeueiui enneaaeiaaieyi Aieueo, Eoa?yeiaie, Oaeee,
iu eiaai naaiaeiy aeinoaoi/ii iieiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i nenoaia ioeaii/iuo
cia/aiee a oii /enea e i no?oeoo?a ioeaiee yiioeaiie eaeneee.

Oioy iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi yiioeaiay eaeneea aeeth/aao a naia cia/aiea
ioeaii/iue eiiiiiaio, e /oi ioeaii/iay no?oeoo?a ?acee/iuo eeannia
yiioeaiie eaeneee iaiaeeiaeiaa, iiaeii n/eoaoue iauai?eciaiiui, ii
ecae?aoue ioeaii/iua neiaa a ea/anoaa oeaio?aeueiiai e?eoa?ey i?e
auai?a iaoa?eaea yiioeeiiaeueiie eaeneee, eae yoi i?aaeeaaaao I. A.
A?eaeei, iai i?aaenoaaeyaony iaoeaeaniia?aciui, oae eae ooieoeeiiaeueiay
i?e?iaea ioeaiee ?acee/ia. Yoi i?iyaeyaony a ianiaiaaeaiee oeiieiaee
ioeaiie a o?oaeao ?acee/iuo aaoi?ia (ni. iiceoeee 24, 63).

Iiaeiaiui ia?acii ?acee/athony yiioeeiiaeueiinoue e yeni?anneaiinoue.
Aiaeeeneea eaeneeia?aou (iai?eia?, Oi?iae eee Oaoea?), i?aaaea, ia
?aca?aie/eaatho yoe iiiyoey(ni. iiceoeeth 5). Iiiaea n/eoatho, /oi
yeni?anneaiinoue anaaaea aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao yiioeeiiaeueiinoe. Oaeia
?anoe?aiiia iiieiaiea ii?iaa?aaaony eiie?aoiui iaoa?eaeii. Iaee/ea
yiioeeiiaeueiie eiiiioaoeee ii/oe anaaaea aea/ao ca niaie
yeni?anneaiinoue, ii ia?aoiia iaaa?ii.

1.4 Yiioeaiua niuneu a naiiie no?oeoo?a neiaa

A iineaaeiea aiaeu eaeneeieiaey aeinoeaea auaeathueony ?acoeueoaoia a
iienaiee nenoaiiinoe eaeneee, a auyaeaiee e iienaiee
no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee ?acee/iuo eaene/aneeo iiiaeanoa.
Yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, noaei aiciiaeiui aeaaiaea?y ouaoaeueiie
?ac?aaioea oai?ee naiaioe/aneie e naiiie no?oeoo?u neiaa (ni. iiceoeee
3, 61, 66). Ieii/aoaeueii noi?ie?iaaeanue iaeanoue ciaiey,
niaoeeaeece?othuayny ia eco/aiee naiaioe/aneie no?oeoo?u neiaa,-
naianeieiaey n ?acaeaeaie naiiie e naiaiiie naianeieiaee.

Naiiay naianeieiaey oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaeeeai iiceoeee e iiaeoiaeia e
iienaieth naiiie no?oeoo?u neiaa. Iauai?eciaiiuie yaeythony
i?aaenoaaeaiey i no?oeoo?iii oa?aeoa?a naiaiu, a? iieaaie iiaeaee, i
iaee/ee iae?ieiiiiiaioia a no?oeoo?a cia/aiey (aeaiioaoeey e
eiiiioaoeey)(ni. iiceoeeth 61).

Yiioeaiua niuneu iaiaueiiaaiii aeaee, iiaeaeaeii e aa?eaoeaii
io?aaeathony a eaene/aneie naiaioeea (ni. iiceoeee 24, 72). Iniiaaieai
aaeeiie iiaeaee aeiaaeueiiai iienaiey anaai iiiaeanoaa yiioeaiie eaeneee
iiaeao neoaeeoue naia yiioeaiinoe, o/anoaothuay a iaieoanoaoeee yiioeee
a naiaioeea neiaa. Noaoon naiu ia oieueei ii?aaeaeyaony a? iiceoeeae a
naiiie no?oeoo?a neiaa, ii e nai ii?aaeaeyao oa?aeoa? iaieoanoaoeee
yiioeaiuo niuneia neia.

Neiaa?iua aeaoeieoeee aieueoae /anoe yiioeaiie eaeneee naeeaeathony
aeaaiaea?y iauaio niaea?aeaieth, eiathuaiony a ieo. A.A.Ooeioeaaa
iacuaaao “yoo eioaa?aoeaioth ii nouiinoe e o?ainoi?ie?iaaiioth ii oi?ia
au?aaeaiey iauoth aeey oeaeiai ?yaea aaeeieoe nouiinoioth /anoue
neiaa?iie aeaoeieoeee – eaeaioeoeoee?othuei i?aaeeeaoii”(ni. iiceoeeth
66).

Naia yiioeaiinoe, aunooiay a noaoona eaoaai?eaeueii-eaene/aneie naiu,
auiieiyao ooieoeeth eaeaioeoeoee?othuaai e iau/ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aiaeeoe/aneia ni/aoaiea, iino?iaiiia ii iiaeaee “iiiyoea i /oanoaa +
eiie?aoiia iaeiaiiaaiea eaeiai-eeai /oanoaa”, iai?eia?: aiyciue –
/oanoai no?aoa, iianaiey; ethaeoue – /oanoaiaaoue aeoaieoth
i?eaycaiiinoue e eiio-, /aio-eeai.

Ia?aue eiiiiiaio iiaeaee – iniiaiie eaeaioeoeeaoi? yiioeaiinoe,
eaeaioeoeeaoi? ia?aie noaiaie (EY1). Iau/ii ii au?aaeaaony neiaaie
iaiuaiiie naiaioeee oeia “/oanoaiaaoue – feel”, “eniuouaaoue –
experience”. Aoi?ie eiiiiiaio – aeiiieieoaeueiue eaeaioeoeeaoi?
yiioeaiinoe aoi?ie noaiaie (EY2), caiauaaony /aua anaai eiie?aoiuie
iaeiaiiaaieyie yiioeee oeia “ethaiaue – love, no?ao – scare/fear,
iaiaaenoue – hatred” e ae?oaea. Eoae, eaoaai?eaeueii-eaene/aneay naia
yiioeaiinoe (EENY) iau/ii ?aaeecoaony ni/aoaieai iaiauaiiiai e
eiie?aoiiai i?aaeeeaoia yiioeaiinoe (EENY = EY1 + EY2).

A ea?a?oee aioo?enaiiuo eiiiiiaioia EENY caieiaao iaeio ec ia?auo
naiaioe/aneeo iiceoeee, o.a. iia yaeyaony caaeneiie io oaeeo
eiiiiiaioia, eae “ninoiyiea”, “ioiioaiea”, “aeaenoaea”, “aicaeaenoaea”,
“i?eciae”, “eeoei” e ae?oaea. A nayce n yoei a neiaa?iuo aeaoeieoeeyo
naia yiioeaiinoe neeaaaony a aaeeiia oeaeia n iiaeiaiuie naiaie, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai yiioeee ia?aaeathony a ycuea /aua ia eae ioaea/aiiua
nouiinoe, a eae oa?aeoa?iua i?iyaeaiey iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe:
eae ninoiyiea, ioiioaiea e ae?oaia. Iai?eia?, aanaei ” i iaee/ee
aanaeuey, i ?aaeinoiii iano?iaiee”; aanaeaoue “noaiiaeoueny aanaeui”;
aanaeeoue “aucuaaoue aanaeuea”; aanaeue “iieiue aanaeuey”; aanaeue/ae ”
oio, eoi eiaao aanaeue i?aa”; aanaeuea “?aaeinoiia iano?iaiea”.

Aaciaua eaeaioeoeeaoi?u yiioeaiie eaeneee ia?aaeatho iauoth eaeath
eaene/aneiai iiey – eaeath /oanoaa, yiioeee eae iniaie ineoe/aneie
?aaeueiinoe. Eiaiii iie oi?ie?otho eaene/aneia iiea yiioeee.

Aeiiieieoaeueiua eaeaioeoeeaoi?u, eiie?aoece?oy eaeath /oanoaa,
ia?aaeatho niaea?aeaiea yiioeee, eioi?ia iacuaatho “oiiii”,
“oiiaeueiinoueth”, “eaaioii”. Oai naiui iie auiieiytho
eeanneoeeaoeeiiii-iiieiaoeaioth ooieoeeth. A nenoaia eaeneee
iaoeeiiaeueiiai ycuea iie i?aaenoaaeytho nenoaio yiioeee oae, eae iia
neiaeeeanue a aeecie /aeiaa/anoaa e eae iia iniciaaony /aeiaa/anoaii ia
ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia aai nouanoaiaaiey. O/eouaay yoi, yiioeaiua niuneu,
ia?aaeaaaaiua aeiiieieoaeueiuie eaeaioeoeeaoi?aie, iacuaatho
aeaiioaoeaii-enoiaeiuie yiioeaiuie niuneaie. *anoioiinoue,
iiaoi?yaiinoue yiioeaiuo niuneia a naiaioe/aneie no?oeoo?a neiaa
yaeyaony e?eoa?eai auai?a eiaie iiiaeanoa, niaea?aeaueo yoe yiioeaiua
niuneu. Ecaanoiue ineoieia E.Eca?ae Aeeth/aao a iioeaaoeeiiioth nenoaio
/aeiaaea 10 ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo yiioeee: eioa?an, ?aaeinoue, oaeeaeaiea,
ai?a, aiaa, ioa?auaiea, i?ac?aiea, no?ao, nouae, aeia.

Eae aeaeei, enoiaeiua yiioeaiua niuneu niaiaaeatho n iiieiaoeeyie
aaciauo yiioeee e n naiuie /anoioiuie neiaaie ec iiiaeanoaa yiioeaiie
eaeneee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii iie ninoaaeytho naiaioe/aneia yae?i yiioeaiie
eaeneee.

Anee o/eouaaoue eaene/aneoth iaieoanoaoeeth yiioeaiuo niuneia, oi iiaeii
ioiaoeoue, /oi aa?oeio ea?a?oee caieiatho naiaioe/aneea
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey “ethaiaue – iai?eyciue”, “?aaeinoue – ai?a”. Yoa
naiaioe/aneay iiiiceoeey eiaao aeiaaeueiue oa?aeoa?, oae eae aoiaeeo a
iaai? iniiaiuo naiaioe/aneeo i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiee, eiathueo aeey ia?iaeia
ie?a oieaa?naeueiue oa?aeoa?. Aa?iyoii e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea yiioeaiua
niuneu (a?onoue, aeia?ioa, ceinoue, no?ao, nouae e o.ae.) iiaeii ioianoe
e ?ac?yaeo oieaa?naeueiuo, o/eouaay eo oe?ieoth i?aaenoaaeaiiinoue eae
a ?onneii ycuea, oae e a aiaeeeneii e ae?oaeo ycueao. Oaeei ia?acii,
yiioeaiua niuneu, ioia?aaeathuea iniiaiua /aeiaa/aneea yiioeee, –
oieaa?naeueiu, a eo eaene/aneay iaieoanoaoeey, n ?aciie noaiaiueth
aeoaeiu e a ?acee/iuo aniaeoao eiie?aoece?othuay eo, eiaao
iaoeeiiaeueioth niaoeeoeeo. Enoiaeiua yiioeaiua niuneu ec ?ac?yaea
oieaa?naeueiuo e ninoaaeytho iniiaiie ea?ean ineoe/aneiai neeaaea
ee/iinoe. Yoio ea?ean ia?anoaao iiiaeanoaii aeaoaeece?iaaiiuo
iiieiaoeee. I?aaenoaaeaiey /aeiaaea i iiiaieeeinoe e iiiaiia?acee
yiioeaiuo ithainia ioia?aaeathony a eaene/aneii cia/aiee neiaa ai
aioo?aiiae eaene/aneie eiie?aoecaoeee ca n/ao ?acee/iuo
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuo i?eciaeia, ooi/iythueo eaoaai?eaeueii-eaene/aneoth
naio.

Aieueoay /anoue yiioeaiie eaeneee niaea?aeaoaeueii aiaaoua.
Eaeaioeoeoee?othuee naiiue i?aaeeeao aoi?ie noaiaie ia?aaeaao nouiinoue
yiioeee, a ooi/iythuea aai aeeooa?aioeeaeueiua naiaioe/aneea i?eciaee
ii?aaeaeytho a? ea/anoaa, naienoaa. E oieueei aianoa, a ?acee/iuo
eiiaeiaoeeyo, iie ia?aaeatho an? iiiaiia?acea yiioeee. Iai?eia?,
iaicia/aiea a?onoe neiaaie: a?onoue, aeai?anney, e?o/eia, iaeaioieey //
sadness, depression, melancholy.

Yiioeaiua niuneu iiaoo auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu a eaene/aneie naiaioeea eae
aeiiieieoaeueiua, i?e yoii iie a noaoona aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuo nai
ooi/iytho niaea?aeaoaeueii ?acee/iua eaoaai?eaeueii-eaene/aneea naiu
(EEN). Iai?eia?, ioe?iaaiea – ioe?iaaiiia i?eciaiea, niiauaiea (EEN
niiauaiea); eo?ueac – niaoiie, caaaaiue neo/ae (EEN niauoea).

I?eiyoi n/eoaoue, /oi aeeooa?aioeeaeueiua naiu oa?aeoa?ecotho
ioaeaeueiua noi?iiu i?aaeiaoa iiieiaoeee a ?acee/iuo aniaeoao:
noauaeoii-iauaeoiii, nianoaaiii ii?aaeaeeoaeueiii, ianoiyoaeuenoaaiiii.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiay naia yiioeaiinoe (AeNY) i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/aaony
io ae?oaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae yoiai eeanna nai: iia niaea?aeeo oaeiai ?iaea
eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?oth i?ecaaia iaicia/aoue, niaea?aeaoue EEN. Ii naiaio
niaea?aeaieth, ii aeaiioaoeaiie niioianaiiinoe (iaicia/aiea /oanoaa), –
yoi i?aaeeeaoiay naia, /oi eaaei aeieacuaaaony o?ainoi?iaoeeyie
neiaa?iuo aeaoeieoeee. Iai?eia?, iiie?aoue – oiioaoue eiai-, /oi-eeai,
ianooiaoue ia eiai-eeai (n i?ac?aieai) ~ oiioaoue eiai-, /oi-eeai e
eniuouaaoue i?e yoii i?ac?aiea. Ii iiceoeee a naiiie no?oeoo?a neiaa e
ii ooieoeee – yoi aeeooa?aioeeaeueiay naia, caaeneiay io EEN e
ooi/iythuay a? a ?acee/iuo naiaioe/aneeo ia?aiao?ao. Oaeei ia?acii,
iaaethaeaaony niaiauaiea, iaeiaeaiea aeaiioaoeaii-i?aaeeeaoeaiiai e
ooieoeeiiaeueii-iiceoeeiiiiai niuneia, iai?eia?: aaeaao?eoue – aiai?eoue
aanaei, caaaaii (EEN “aiai?aiea” + AeNY), aaea AeNY au?aaeaao neiaeiue
niune: 1) iaicia/aao ii?aaeaeaiiia yiioeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea (aanaeuea)
– aeaiioaoeaii-i?aaeeeaoeaiue niune; 2) au?aaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiia
neioaene/aneia cia/aiea (ianoiyoaeuenoaaiii oa?aeoa?ecothuaa) –
iiceoeeiiii-ooieoeeiiaeueiue niune. Eoae, yoi iniaay, neie?aoe/iay ii
i?e?iaea naia, caieiathuay ia?aoiaeiia iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo
eaeaioeoeoee?othuei i?aaeeeaoii (EEN) e nianoaaiii aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuie
naiaie. Oaeoe/anee yoi ne?uoay, aeeth/aiiay i?aaeeeaoiay naia,
nouanoaothuay a neiaa a noaoona aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie naiu.

Eiiiioaoeaii-yiioeaiua niuneu iaoiaeyony ca i?aaeaeaie
eiaeei-i?aaeiaoiie /anoe cia/aiey (ni. iiceoeee 24, 49, 63, 72).
Niaoeeaeenou ii eiiiioaoeee naycuaatho yiioeaiua niuneu yoiai oeia
i?aaeaea anaai n yeni?anneaiie ooieoeeae ycuea, o/eouaay oi, /oi iie
eaaeao a ieineinoe yiioeeiiaeueiiai naiiau?aaeaiey aiai?yuaai,
iaiaaeaiey aai yiioeeiiaeueiiai ninoiyiey e yiioeeiiaeueiiai ioiioaiey
(yiioeau-yeni?anneau). A nayce n yoei eaene/aneea cia/aiey, aeeth/athuea
yiioeaiua niuneu oaeiai ?iaea, i?eiyoi n/eoaoue yiioeaii ie?aoaiiuie eee
ioeaii/ii-yeni?anneaiuie. ?anniao?eaaaiay eaeneea iaia?oaeeaaao
aeaoiai?aaeaiiinoue i?ioeanna iiieiaoeee: aiaioo?ue (naiiau?aaeaiea
aiai?yuaai) e a ie?oaeathuee ie? ( yiioeeiiaeueiay ioeaiea aai).
Yiioeeiiaeueiia ioiioaiea, au?aaeaaiia e iaicia/aaiiio i?aaeiaoo
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, niioiineony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n
/oanoaaie-ioiioaieyie oeia “i?ac?aiea”, “i?aiaa?aaeaiea”, “ii?eoeaiea”
eee “ainoi?a”, “ainoeuaiea” e o.i. Iaai? au?aaeaaiuo /oanoa i?aaeaeueii
ia?aie/ai enoiaeiuie aaciauie yiioeeyie, aa?uee?oaiuie a iiethnao
iaeia?aiey / iaiaeia?aiey.

A eoiaa iaaethaeaaony aaeeiia, ia?an/eaiaiiia iaicia/aiea iaeiie
eaenaiie e iauaeoa – enoi/ieea yiioeee aiai?yuaai, e naiiai
yiioeeiiaeueiiai ioiioaiey aiai?yuaai (ioeaii/ii oa?aeoa?ecothuea neiaa,
neiaa noauaeoeaii-ioeaii/iua).

Eiiiioaoeaiay yiioeaiay naiaioeea eiaao au?aaeaiea a aeaea nenoaiu
eaeneeia?aoe/aneeo iiiao. *enei iiiao no?iai ia?aie/aiii, e
?aniieaaathony iie ia ioeaii/iie oeaea ia?aoiaeiinoe a aeeaiaciia io
io?eoeaoaeueiie aei iieiaeeoaeueiie ioeaiee. Aa?oeio eeanneoeeaoeee yoeo
iiiao ia?acotho aeaa aa?eaioa ioeaiee – iieiaeeoaeueiay e
io?eoeaoaeueiay, aeaeueoa iaaethaeaaony eo a?aaeaoeey a ii?aaeaeaiiii
yiioeaiii ?aaeno?a n o/aoii eiie?aoiie ?aciiaeaeiinoe yiioeee. A
/anoiinoe, a IAN eiiiioaoeaii-yiioeaiay naiaioeea iienuaaaony n
eniieueciaaieai 8 iniiaiuo yiinai: iaeiie yiinaiu iaeei?aoeaiie ioeaiee
(eaneaoaeueiia) e 7 yiinai iaei?aoeaiie (oie/eaeeoaeueiie) ioeaiee
(oooeeaia, e?iie/aneia, iaiaeia?eoaeueiia, i?aiaa?aaeeoaeueiia,
i?ac?eoaeueiia, a?oaia, a?aiiia).

I?eioeeieaeueiia ioee/ea eiiiioaoeaiuo yiioeaiuo niuneia io
aeaiioaoeaiuo ninoieo a oii, /oi iie nouanoaotho ia aeey io?aaeaiey ie?a
/oanoa a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a aeey io?aaeaiey yiioeeiiaeueiiai
ioiioaiey aiai?yuaai e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Ionthaea eo yaiay
ioeaii/iinoue. Yoe niuneu a aieueoae noaiaie aeooaeueiu e
eiiioieeaoeaiu, oi?ia eo nouanoaiaaiey aeeaay ?a/aaay aeayoaeueiinoue. A
ieaia niaea?aeaiey eo ioee/aao, ai-ia?auo, i?aaeaeueiay ia?aie/aiiinoue,
ocinoue e?oaa au?aaeaaiuo yiioeee (a ?aciuo enneaaeiaaieyo ian/eouaaaony
io 7 aei 17 yiioeaiuo eiiiioaoia), ai-aoi?uo ioeaii/iinoue. Naiu
yiioeaiinoe (yiioeau-eiiiioaou), eo iaieoanoe?othuea, caieiatho ianoi ia
ia?eoa?ee eaene/aneiai cia/aiey e auiieiytho i?e yoii ooieoeeth
au?aaeaiey yiioeee aiai?yuaai e i?eaeaiey neiao ii?aaeaeaiiie
yiioeeiiaeueiie oiiaeueiinoe, a nayce n /ai neiaa, niaea?aeauea yoe
niuneu, aiaeaaeaioiu: iie iaeiia?aiaiii iaicia/atho iauaeo – enoi/iee
yiioeee (iiieiaoeaiay ooieoeey) e au?aaeatho yiioeeiiaeueii-ioeaii/iia
ioiioaiea e iaio aiai?yuaai (yeni?anneaiay ooieoeey).

1.5 No?oeoo?a eaene/aneiai iiey yiioeee

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a eeiaaenoeea i?i/ii ooaa?aeeeny iieaaie iiaeoiae e
iienaieth ?acee/iuo ycueiauo oaeoia. Anee aiai?eoue i eaeneea, oi ioaeii
ioiaoeoue, /oi nae/an aeoeaii ?ac?aaaouaaaony eae eiioeaioeey iieaaie
i?aaiecaoeee ioaeaeueiie naiaiu (ni. iiceoeeth 61), oae e eiioeaioeey
iieaaie i?aaiecaoeee eaene/aneeo iiiaeanoa.

Iieaaie i?eioeei i?aaeiieaaaao i?aaeaea anaai auaeaeaiea yae?a e
ia?eoa?ee enneaaeoaiiai iiiaeanoaa ycueiauo n?aaenoa. Eae ecaanoii,
yae?i aeeth/aao, ai-ia?auo, ycueiaua n?aaenoaa, niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua aeey
au?aaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo eaoaai?eaeueiuo cia/aiee, ai-aoi?uo, ycueiaua
n?aaenoaa, iaeneiaeueii aiieiuathuea yoe cia/aiey, a-o?aoueeo, iaeaieaa
oiio?aaeoaeueiua ycueiaua n?aaenoaa.

Anee n yoeo iiceoeee ?anniio?aoue yiioeaioth eaeneeo, oi ieaaeaony, /oi
yae?i eaeneei-naiaioe/aneiai iiey yiioeee (ENIY) ia?acoao
eaoaai?eaeueii-yiioeaiay eaeneea (yiioeau-iiieiaoeee n enoiaeiuie
yiioeaiuie n?aaenoaaie), eioi?ay iieiaa ioaa/aao iio?aaiinoyi
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai iaicia/aiey yiioeee, oae eae yiioeee a iae
ia?aaeathony yaea?iie eaoaai?eaeueii-eaene/aneie naiie (EENY) .

Aeeaeaeooth ia?eoa?eth ninoaaeyao aeeooa?aioeeaeueii-yiioeaiay eaeneea
(yiioeau-iiieiaoeee n aeeth/aiiuie yiioeaiuie niuneaie), a eioi?ii
yiioeaiua niuneu io?aaeathony ?acee/iuie naiaioe/aneeie ?aciiaeaeiinoyie
aeeooa?aioeeaeueii-yiioeaiuo nai. Aeaeueiaeoay ia?eoa?ey i?aaenoaaeaia
eiiiioaoeaii-yiioeaiie eaeneeie (yiioeaiua yeni?anneau n niioonoaothueie
yiioeaiuie niuneaie). A? naiiay no?oeoo?a aeeth/aao yiioeaiua niuneu a
noa?o eiiiioaoeee eae niioonoaothuea.

Eaoaai?eaeueii-yiioeaiay

eaeneea

Anee niioianoe iieaaoth i?aaiecaoeeth ioaeaeueiie yiioeaiie naiaiu e
iieaaoth i?aaiecaoeeth anaai eaene/aneiai iiey yiioeee, oi iiaeii
ioiaoeoue eo eciii?oeci: yae?i ENIY ninoaaeyao eaeneea, niaea?aeauayny a
yaea?iie /anoe eaene/aneiai cia/aiey, aeeaeaeooth ia?eoa?eth (ciio
ia?aoiaeiinoe) caieiaao eaeneea n aeeth/aiiie aeeooa?aioeeaeueii
-yiioeaiie naiie, oaeaea iaoiaeyuothny a ciia ia?aoiaeiinoe iaaeaeo
yae?ii naiiie no?oeoo?u e a? ia?eoa?eae, e, iaeiiaoe, ia ia?eoa?ee
iaoiaeeony eaeneea, eiathuay naio yiioeaiinoe a noa?a eiiiioaoeee.

Yiieaiay eaeneea, ninoaaeythuay yae?i ENIY, iaiaeii?iaeia ii
a?aiiaoe/aneie ioi?ieaiinoe. Anee iiaeeeth/eoue e aiaeeco aeeiaie/aneee
aniaeo, oi iiaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi yae?i ENIY oaeaea ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii
no?oeoo?e?iaaii (ni. iiceoeeth 10).

Oeaio? yae?a ninoaaeytho ia?ae/iua ecinaie/aneea i?aaeeeaou yiioeee,
o.a. neiaa, niaea?aeaoaeueiay i?e?iaea eioi?uo, cae?aieaiiay a
eaene/aneie naiaioeea, niioaaonoaoao eo naiaioeei-neioaene/aneie
ooieoeee a ?a/e. Aeeaeaeoaa ie?oaeaiea oeaio?a i?aaenoaaeaii aoi?e/iuie
iaoaoi?e/aneeie i?aaeeeaoaie yiioeee, ooieoeeiiaeueii-oiaeaeanoaaiiuie
ia?ae/iui i?aaeeeaoai, ii ioee/athueiny io ieo oa?aeoa?ii cia/aiey
(iaoaoi?e/anee – i?iecaiaeiia) e ?aaeeie oiio?aaeoaeueiinoueth a ?a/e.
Ciio ia?aoiaeiinoe caieiatho aeeth/aiiua i?aaeeeaou yiioeee,
ia?aaeathuea eioi?iaoeeth ia yiioeeyo a niaa?oaiiii aeaea.

Eoae, n o/aoii eaene/aneie e ooieoeeiiaeueiie naiaioeee eeannu yiioeaiie
eaeneee ?ani?aaeaeaiu oae:

1. Yiioeau-iiieiaoeee aaciaua:

1) Ia?ae/iua ecinaie/aneea i?aaeeeaou yiioeee n enoiaeiie
eaoaai?eaeueii-yiioeaiie naiaioeeie oeia “a?onoeoue”;

2) Aoi?e/iua iaoaoi?e/aneea i?aaeeeaou yiioeee n i?iecaiaeiie
eaoaai?eaeueii-yiioeaiie naiaioeeie oeia “eaiaiaoue”;

3) Yenieeoeeoiua aeeth/aiiua i?aaeeeaou yiioeee n
eaoaai?eaeueii-yiioeaiie naiaioeeie oeia “a?onoiue, a?onoii”

4) Yenieeoeeoiua aeeth/aiiua i?aaeeeaou yiioeee n i?iecaiaeiie
eaoaai?eaeueii-yiioeaiie naiaioeeie oeia “eaciue”.

2. Yiioeau-iiieiaoeee aeiiieieoaeueiua:

1) eiieeoeeoiua (ne?uoua) aeeth/aiiua i?aaeeeaou yiioeee n
aeeooa?aioeeaeueii-yiioeaiie naiaioeeie oeia “aeoiuo, caniio?aoueny”.

3. Yiioeau-yeni?anneau:

1) Nianoaaiii yiioeau-yeni?anneau n enoiaeiie yiioeaiie naiaioeeie
(iaaeaeiiaoey) oeia “ao! oau!”

2) yiioeau-eiiiioaoeau oeia “ieaeii”

?anniio?aa no?oeoo?o NIY, ia?aeaeai iaiin?aaenoaaiii e n?aaiaieth NIY
aiaeeeneiai e ?onneiai ycueia.

A ea/anoaa ninoaaeythueo naiaioe/aneiai iiey yiioeee acyou neiaa?iua
aaeeieoeu, ?anniao?eaaaiua eae iaeiicia/iua aaeeieoeu, ii?aaeaeyaiua
oieueei ioiineoaeueii cia/aiey “/oanoai”. Iiieiaiea cia/aiey neiaa eae
eiiieaena nai, naiaioe/aneeo eiiiiiaioia, ninoaaeytho iniiao iaoiaea
eieaiiiaioiiai aiaeeca.

A aeaiiie ?aaioa cia/aiea nouanoaeoaeueiuo NI yiioeee (NIY) iienuaaaony
eae iaai? ioaeaeueiuo naiaioe/aneeo eiiiiiaioia, onoaiaaeeaaaiuo ia
iniiaa

1) niioaaonoaothueo neiaa?iuo noaoae;

2) iaaethaeaiee iaae naiaioeei-neioaene/aneie ni/aoaaiinoueth
aiaeece?oaiuo aaeeieoe.

Oacen acaeiinayce cia/aiey neiaa e oiio?aaeaiey eniieuecoaony a ?aaioa
TH.Ae. Ai?anyia (ni. iiceoeeth 3).

Aiaeec aeeno?eaooeaiuo oi?ioe, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ioiineoaeueii
nouanoaeoaeueiuo NIY, oi?ia eo nayce e naiaioe/aneia ioiioaiea
naiaeeony a oeaeii e iaicia/aieth eeoea (S), eniuouaathuaai eaeia-eeai
/oanoai (P), aucaaiiiai oie eee eiie i?e/eiie (N).

Aiaeeeneea nouanoaeoaeueiua NIY oa?aeoa?ecothony i?aainoi?iiiei
oiio?aaeaieai a eiino?oeoeee n aeaaieaie, nouanoaeoaeueiuie
i?eeaaaoaeueiuie. I?e aeaiiie ni/aoaaiinoe i?iyaeythony neaaeothuea
eiiiiiaiou cia/aiey nouanoaeoaeueiuo NIY: “i?enouaa aeeaiio”,
“eaoce?oaiia /ai-eeai /oanoai”, “i?iyaeythuaany a ii?aaeaeaiiuo ineoi
-oece/aneeo i?eciaeao”.

Ia?aaeeaaiea /oanoaa nii?iaiaeaeaaony niiniaiinoueth eee
ianiiniaiinoueth ?annoaeaeaoue, nouanoaoao aeeooa?aioeeaoeey ii
aeeeoaeueiinoe – e?aoeinoe. Oae “eeeiaaiea” e “n/anouea” i?eiueatho e
ENA “?aaeinoue”, ii “n/anouea” – yoi aieaa aeeeoaeueiia /oanoai.
Ia?aaeeaaiea /oanoaa nii?iaiaeaeaaony ?acee/iuie i?eciaeaie i?iyaeaiey
yoiai /oanoaa. Eiiiiiaio cia/aiey “eioaineaiia i?iyaeaiea” i?ioeainoieo
eiiiiiaioo “neaaia i?iyaeaiea /oanoaa”.

Iaeiaei neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi a aiaeece?oaiii NI ia ana aaeeieoeu
iiae/eiythony aeanoeiio ?aiaee?iaaieth, iiyoiio oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaaony
ia ii i?enoonoaeth eee ionoonoaeth i?eciaea, a a caaeneiinoe io aieueoae
eee iaiueoae niiniaiinoe ei iaeaaeaoue.

?acee/iua /oanoaa e iooaiee aai iiaoo eiiaeie?iaaoueny iaaeaeo niaie.
Iiyoiio ?yae aiaeeeneeo nouanoaeoaeueiuo niaea?aeao naio
i?aaeiieaaathuea ae?oaea /oanoaa: no?ao, iiei?iinoue, ethaiaue.
Iai?eia?: awe,

reverence, veneration.

Iaeioi?ua naiaioe/aneea eiiiiiaiou ninoaaeytho aeia?iua iiiiceoeee:
love-hate, joy-boredom.

Iieiaeeoaeueiay eee io?eoeaoaeueiay ioeaiea yiioeee ionoonoaoao o iiiaeo
nouanoaeoaeueiuo iniiaiiai ?yaea NIY (ii iaoei iiaen/aoai 21,2% ).

Ii/oe ana ?anniao?eaaaiua aaeeieoeu aeiioneatho oiio?aaeaiea n aeaaieaie
/oanoaiaaoue, eniuouaaoue, iuouaoue.

?onneea nouanoaeoaeueiua NIY, iiaeiaii niioaaonoaothuei aaeeieoeai
aiaeeeneiai NIY, oiio?aaeythony i?aaeii/oeoaeueii n nouanoaeoaeueiui –
eeoeii.

?onneea nouanoaeoaeueiua NIY ia noieue iiiai/eneaiiu eae aiaeeeneea, ii
naoea iaueo e a?oiiiauo aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuo i?eciaeia niaiaaeaao a iaaeo
ycueao.

Caia/aiea, eanathuaany aiaeeeneeo NIY, i oii, /oi ia ana
oa?aeoa?ecothuea yoe aaeeieoeu i?eciaee iieo/atho ?acei au?aaeaiioth
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue, aeaenoaeoaeueii e aeey nouanoaeoaeueiuo ?onneiai NIY.

Eoae, iaaeaeo nouanoaeoaeueiuie NI “feelings and emotions” e NIY
iaaethaeaaony aiaeiaey no?oeoo?u NI iiieiaoeaiuo aaeeieoe i?e eo
eiee/anoaaiiii ianiaiaaeaiee. NIY nouanoaeoaeueiuo aiaeeeneiai ycuea
eiee/anoaaiii aieueoa ?onneiai NIY ia 21% ca n/ao i?aiaeaaeaiey i?aaeaea
anaai aaeeieoe, iaicia/athueo eioaineaiia /oanoai. Iai?eia?, neiao
“aiaa” niioaaonoaotho 7 aiaeeeneeo neia, neiai “?acae?aaeaiea” eiaao 6
yeaeaaeaioia a aiaeeeneii ycuea.

A aeaiiii neo/aa iaeeoei iiiiceoeey aeeth/aiey, ?onneay aaeeieoea oe?a
ii cia/aieth, oiaaea eae aiaeeeneea nouanoaeoaeueiua NIY i?eia?aee
?acee/athuea eo naiaioe/aneea aeeooa?aioee?othuea i?eciaee.
Eiee/anoaaiiua ?anoiaeaeaiey i?eaiaeyo e oaeiio ia?a?aceiaeaieth
naiaioe/aneeo niioaaonoaee iaaeaeo iaieie NI, i?e eioi?ii ?onneia
nouanoaeoaeueiia oa?aeoa?ecoaony aieueoae aa?eaoeaiinoueth niuneiauo
eiiiiiaioia. Oae, “aaniieienoai” niioaaonoaoao nouanoaeoaeueiui anxiety,
nervousness, concern, aditation.

A niuneiaie no?oeoo?a ?onneeo nouanoaeoaeueiuo iao iinoiyiii
au?aaeaiiiai naiaioe/aneiai eiiiiiaioa “iiei?iinoue”, neaaeiaaoaeueii, o
nouanoaeoaeueiiai reverence iao i?yiiai aiaeiaa a ?onneii NIY.

Niaoeeoe/aneea niuneiaua iooaiee, ia?aaeathuea iiiyoea eaeie-eeai
yiioeee iaeeaaeuaathony ia ae?oaea naiaioe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Ia niuneiaoth no?oeoo?o aiaeeeneeo nouanoaeoaeueiuo NIY i?iaoee?othony e
a iae io?aaeathony ea/anoaa aeaoo aiaoieo yeaiaioia S e C, iaicia/athueo
iineoaey yiioeee (S) e aa i?e/eio (C) ai aiaycueiaie, iauaeoeaiie
?aaeueiinoe. Iiaeiaiay yeno?aiieyoeey ninoaaeyao iaeio ec eioa?aniuo
iniaaiiinoae aaeeieoe aeaiiiai NI.

1.6 N?aaenoaa au?aaeaiey yiioeee

Oieeaeueiinoue yiioeee n?aaieoaeueii n ae?oaeie iauaeoaie iiieiaoeee
iaia?oaeeaaaony i?aaeaea anaai a iiiaiia?acee e aiaaonoaa ycueiauo
n?aaenoa eo au?aaeaiey, eioi?ua aeeth/atho niioaaonoaothuoth eaeneeo,
o?acaieiaece?iaaiiua neioaene/aneea eiino?oeoeee, iniaoth eioiiaoeeth,
ii?yaeie neia. A aeaiiie ?aaioa iu iiae?iaiaa inaaoei oieueei
eaene/aneea, neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiua, neioaene/aneea n?aaenoaa au?aaeaiey
/oanoa e yiioeee a noeeenoe/aneii aniaeoa.

1.6.1 No?oeoo?iue o?iaaiue

A aeaiiii ia?aa?aoa ?a/ue iieaeao i neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiuo e
neioaene/aneeo n?aaenoaao au?aaeaiee yiioeee a oai?aoe/aneii aniaeoa.

Neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiua i?ioeannu nii?iaiaeaeathony neiaeiuie
naiaioe/aneeie i?aia?aciaaieyie, aicieeathueie eae iaaeaeo enoiaeiui
neiaii e i?iecaiaeiui, oae e aioo?e i?iecaiaeiiai neiaa iaaeaeo iniiaie
e aooeenii.

Ia oi?ie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea naiaioe/aneeo no?oeoo? i?iecaiaeiuo neia
naiaioe/aneea oaeoi?u ieacuaatho oaeaea ia?iiiia aeeyiea. Io ieo
caaeneo aiciiaeiinoue ni/aoaiey eiiiiiaioia i?iecaiaeiiai neiaa.

Eiuie neiaaie, a ycuea nouanoaotho ii?aaeae?iiua naiaioe/aneea
caeiiiia?iinoe, neeo eioi?uo i?ienoiaeyo i?ioeannu neiaiia?aciaaiey
aeaiiiai ycuea. Nenoaia neiaiia?aciaaiey ethaiai ycuea ninoieo ec
niiniaia neiaiia?aciaaiey, eioi?ua eiatho ia naiai aii?oaeaiee
niioaaonoaothuea neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiua n?aaenoaa, i?enouea aeaiiiio
ycueo. A oeaeii nenoaia neiaiia?aciaaiey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i/aiue
neiaeiue i?aaieci, eioi?ue ninoieo eae ec oi?iaeueiuo eiiiiiaioia
(niiniaia neiaiia?aciaaiey e neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiuo n?aaenoa), oae e
niuneiauo, eoaea aoiaeyo ?acee/iua cia/aiey neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiuo
n?aaenoa, oaniaeoei ia?acii naycaiiuo n naiaioe/aneie no?oeoo?ie
i?iecaiaeyueo iniia.

Ana niiniau neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiie nenoaiu nia?aiaiiiai ?onneiai ycuea
i?eiyoi aeaeeoue ia 2 a?oiiu:

a) niiniau ia?aciaaiey neia, niioiineoaeueiuo n iaeiiiioeae?othuae
iniiaie:

1) aooeenaoeey, neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiui n?aaenoaii (oi?iaioii) eioi?ie
yaeyaony aooeen;

2) eiiaa?neth, neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiui n?aaenoaii eioi?ie yaeythony
ia?aaeeaia ia?acoaiie /anoe ?a/e e a? ni/aoaaiinoue a i?aaeeiaeaiee;

3) noanoaioeaaoeeth, aaea neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiui n?aaenoaii aunooiaao
ia?aaeeaia iioeae?iaaiiiai neiaa, i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie /anoue
ia?aaeeaiu iioeae?othuath ia?aaeeaio iaeiiai a?aiiaoe/aneiai ?iaea eee
iiiaeanoaaiiiai /enea.

a) niiniau neiaiia?aciaaiey n aieaa /ai iaeiie iioeae?othuae iniiaie:

1) /enoia neiaeaiea, neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie eioi?iai
yaeyaony: niaaeeieoaeueiay ii?oaia, iaeo?aeecothuay a?aiiaoe/aneia
cia/aiea i?aaeoanoaothuaai ae eiiiiiaioa; cae?aie?iiue ii?yaeie
eiiiiiaioia; aaeeiia aeaaiia oaea?aiea ia iaeio ec iniia.

2) Niaoaiiua niiniau neiaiia?aciaaiey, n o/anoeai neiaeaiey e
aooeenaoeee. Neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiui n?aaenoaii i?e yoii niiniaa yaeyaony
noiia “oi?iaioia”, i?enoueo ninoaaeythuei niiniaai neiaiia?aciaaiey, a a
neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiii cia/aiee oaeaea ni/aoathony iauaaeeieoaeueiia
cia/aiea, i?enouaa neiaeaieth, e eaoaai?eaeueiia cia/aiea aooeena (n?.
long-tongued, shoe-maker).

3) N?auaiea, eiaaea iioeae?iaaiiia neiai, ninoiyuaa ec aeaoo e aieaa
eiiiiiaioia, iieiinoueth oiaeaeanoaaiii ii ii?oieiae/aneiio ninoaao
neioaene/aneiio ni/aoaieth e, oaeei ia?acii, neioaene/aneay naycue yoiai
neiaini/aoaiey (oi?aaeaiea, i?eiueaiea) nio?aiyaony a no?oeoo?a
n?auaiey. Neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie yoiai niiniaa yaeyaony:
aaeeiia aeaaiia oaea?aiea ia neioaene/anee aeiieie?othuai eiiiiiaioa e
ianaiaiaeiue ii?yaeie neia-eiiiiiaioia (iaycaoaeueiay i?aiiceoeey
iiae/eiaiiiai eiiiiiaioa – n?. mother-of-pearl, father-in-law,
forget-me-not).

4) Aaa?aaeaoeey, eoaea aoiaeyo ana oeiu neiaeiinie?auaiiuo e
nie?auaiiuo ia?aciaaiee oeia USSR, UNO, NATO. Nthaea aea ioiineony e
oaeia neiaiia?aciaaiea eioi?ia iieo/eei iacaaiea “blending”, a
i?iecaiaeiua – “blends”. N?. smog, motel, trustard.
Neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie caeanue neoaeeo: ona/aiea iniiau,
aaeeiia oaea?aiea e a?aiiaoe/aneia ioi?ieaiea (ioianaiea aaa?aaeaoo?u e
ii?aaeaeaiiiio oeio neeiiaiey eee oeio ianeeiiyaiuo nouanoaeoaeueiuo).

E?iia oiai, iaeioi?ua eeiaaenou (ni. iiceoeee 48, 65) ioia/atho, /oi ia
oiia neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiuo n?aaenoa, ninoaaeythueo oi?iaio, ae?oaea
n?aaenoaa iinyo eeoue aeiiieieoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Oaeeie n?aaenoaaie iie
n/eoatho ii?oieiae/aneea eciaiaiey. Ni?aaaaeeeai eo caia/aiea i oii, /oi
a ?aciuo ycueao iaai? yoeo aeiiieieoaeueiuo n?aaenoa oaeaea
aa?uee?oaony. Yoe aeiiieieoaeueiua n?aaenoaa (/a?aaeiaaiea, ?acee/ea
noai oaea?aiey, ona/aiea iioeae?othuae iniiau, ?anoe?aiea iniiau ca n/ao
iaii?oaiiiai yeaiaioa, iaeiaeaiea ii?oai e ae?.) anaaaea nii?iaiaeaeatho
ae?oaea iniiaiua n?aaenoaa neiaiia?aciaaiey e ia iiaoo aunooiaoue a
ea/anoaa aaeeinoaaiiiai n?aaenoaa i?e neiaiia?aciaaiee.

I?iecaiaenoai iiauo eaene/aneeo aaeeieoe i?ienoiaeeo, eae aeaeei ii
ii?aaeaeaiiui neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiui iiaeaeyi, enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoeiny a
aeaiiii ycuea.

Anoanoaaiii, /oi ioianaiea eaaeaeie neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiie eiino?oeoeee e
oie eee eiie iiaeaee iiaeao auoue i?iecaaaeaii aoiaea
neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiiai aiaeeca, oeaeueth eioi?iai yaeyaony
aeieacaoaeuenoai i?iecaiaeiinoe eiino?oeoeee e aa ioiaeaeanoaeaiea. Yoi
aeinoeaaaony iooai onoaiiaeaiey ioiioaiey neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiie
i?iecaiaeiinoe iaaeaeo ii?aaeaeaiiuie aaeeieoeaie ii?aaeaeaiey
iai?aaeaiey e oa?aeoa?a yoeo ioiioaiee. A neeo yoiai eeth/aaie i?iaeaiie
neiaiia?aciaaiey yaeyaony i?iaeaia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe (aea?eaaoeee).

A ioiioaieyo i?iecaiaeiuo neia n eo i?iecaiaeyueie e eniieueciaaiiuie
aeey eo ia?aciaaiey neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie eiaaony aeaa
noi?iiu – no?oeoo?iay e naiaioe/aneay. Aaeeinoai oi?iu e niaea?aeaiey
au?aaeaaony i?e yoii a aaeeinoaa no?oeoo?iie e naiaioe/aneie noi?ii
yoiai niioiioaiey: cia/aiea e no?oeoo?a i?iecaiaeiiai oi?ie?oaony ia
iauae iniiaa – ia iniiaa aeaiiiai i?iecaiaeyuaai neiaa eee
neiaini/aoaiey e aeaiiiai neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiiai n?aaenoaa.

Aiai?y i aaeeinoaa oi?iu e niaea?aeaiey, iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue, /oi
naiaioeea i?aaie/anee naycaia ni neiaiia?aciaaieai, oae eae iaeiie ec
iniiaiuo ooieoeee neiaiia?aciaaiey yaeyaony oi?ie?iaaiea cia/aiey eee
iooaieia cia/aiey i?iecaiaeiiai.

Caeiiiia?iinoe e iniaaiiinoe ia?aciaaiey iiauo eaene/aneeo aaeeieoe
onoaiaaeeaathony a i?ioeanna neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiiai aiaeeca, eioi?ue
aeeth/aao a naay ii?oieiae/aneee, naiaioe/aneee, aaiaoe/aneee e
ooieoeeiiaeueiue aiaeec.

Aiaeec i?iecaiaeiuo neia i?aaeiieaaaao eco/aiea ni/aoaaiinoe
neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiuo yeaiaioia n iniiaaie e auyaeaiea oao naycae,

eioi?ua nouanoaotho iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeyueie iniiaaie ?acee/iuo
naiaioe/aneeo eeannia e aooeenaie. Neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiue aiaeec
ia/eiaaony n onoaiiaeaiey aea?eaaoeeiiiuo ioiioaiee e caaa?oaaony
ii?aaeaeaieai oi?iaeueii-naiaioe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae i?iecaiaeiiai, o.a.
eaeaioeoeeaoeeae e auyaeaieai aai ianoa a nouanoaothuae
no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/aneie eeanneoeeaoeee i?iecaiaeiuo.

A i?ioeanna neiaiia?aciaaiey i?ienoiaeyo oi?iaeueiua naiaioe/aneea
i?aia?aciaaiea. Iie eiatho ianoi eae iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeyueie e
i?iecaiaeiuie neiaaie(iaaeaeoneiaiua),oae e iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeyueie
iniiaaie e neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiuie yeaiaioaie(aioo?eneiaiua eciaiaiey).

Iineieueeo neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiua ioiioaiey auaatho aeaoo oeiia
(oi?iaeueiua e naiaioe/aneea), neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiue aiaeec aeieaeai
ninoiyoue ec aiaeeca ii?oieiae/aneie no?oeoo?u i?iecaiaeiuo neia
(ii?oaiiue aiaeec) e aiaeeca naiaioe/aneeo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo enoiaeiuie
e i?iecaiaeiuie neiaaie, iaaeaeo enoiaeiuie iniiaaie e neiaiia?acothueie
yeaiaioaie (naiaioe/aneee aiaeec). Ooieoeeiiaeueiue aiaeec i/aiue aaaeai
a eco/aiee eiiaa?neiiiuo i?iecaiaeiuo.

Oaeie iiiainoi?iiiee neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiue aiaeec iiaeao aa?aioe?iaaoue
i?iaiice?iaaiea oao caeiiiia?iinoae, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?iu aeey ?acaeoey
aeaiiiai ycuea e eioi?ua eniieuecothony iineoaeyie ycuea aeey nicaeaiey
iiauo eaene/aneeo aaeeieoe. Enoiaey ec yoiai iu i?iaaee
neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiue aiaeec eaeneee ENI yiioeee e auyaeee
neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiua n?aaenoaa, iaeaieaa oeie/iua aeey aeaiiiai eeanna
neia e n iiiiuueth eioi?uo aiciiaeii au?aceoue ii?aaeaeaiiua /oanoaa.
Iai?eia?, aiaeeeneee noooeen -dom iiaeao au?aaeaoue niae?aoaeueiia
cia/aiea n iooaieii i?aiaa?aaeaiey, oiaeaiey, oie/eaeaiey. A yoii neo/aa
ii i?eniaaeeiyaony e iniiaai oao aaaioeaiuo nouanoaeoaeueiuo, eioi?ua
eiatho a naiai cia/aiee yeaiaiou io?eoeaoaeueiie ioeaiee: noodldom (io
noodle “aaeaea, i?inoae, aeo?aiue”); rascaldom (io rascal-iioaiiee),
dandydom (io dandy-“aeaiaee”, “uaaieue”).

Noooeen -ish i?e aeiaaaeaiee e iniiaa i?eeaaaoaeueiiai iiaeao ia?yaeo n
iau/iuie yiioeeiiaeueii-iaeo?aeueiuie aa?eaioaie (brown: brownish),
ia?aciauaaoue iiaeaeueiua “oaeoe/iua” neiaa, eioi?ua nicaeathony eae
ieeaceiiaeueiua, anee aiai?yuee ia oi/ao aiai?eoue neeoeii i?yii?acei:
baldish, biggish, dublish. A ?onneii ycuea ii niioaaonoaoao noooeeno
-iaao- ( -aaao- ): euniaaoue, neo/iiaaoue. Aeiaaaeaiea yoiai aea
noooeena e eiaiiui iniiaai ia?acoao i?eeaaaoaeueiua n io?eoeaoaeueiie
ioeaiieie,a eiiaaea e i?ac?eoaeueii-?acae?aaeeoaeueiua: bookish,
childishdoggish, goafish, sheepish, woomanish aeaoneee (eaiao),
aaaneee, niaa/ee, eiceeiue. Io?eoeaoaeueiay ioeaiea oneeeaaaony, anee
noooeen -ish i?eniaaeeiyaony e neiaeiui neiaai stand-offish,
come-hithennish, honey-monish. I?eniaaeeiyynue e eiaiai nianoaaiiui,
noooeen – ish niiauaao ei i?aiaa?aaeeoaeueioth ie?aneo: Dickenish, Mark
Twainish.

Ii ia no?oeoo?iii o?iaia ycuea auaeaeyaony aua e neioaenen.

A iauae ycueiaie nenoaia neioaene/aneay noi?iia caieiaao iniaia ianoi –
yoi yaeaiea aunoaai ii?yaeea, eai aeey au?aaeaiey iunee e yiioeee
iaaeinoaoi/ii oieueei ioai?a eaene/aneiai iaoa?eaea, iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaeeueiia e /aoeia onoaiiaeaiea nayce iaaeaeo neiaaie, a?oiiaie neia.

Iaai? neioaene/aneeo aaeeieoe, au/eaiyaiuo a ycuea, ia?acoao aai
neioaene/aneea n?aaenoaa. Neioaene/aneay oi?ia neiaa e neiaini/aoaiea e
i?aaeeiaeaiea – yoi neioaene/aneea aaeeieoeu ycuea (ni. iiceoeeth 15).
Eae e ethaua ae?oaea, neioaene/aneea n?aaenoaa eiatho nai?
niaoeeoe/aneia iacia/aiea. *anoiua ooieoeee neioaene/aneeo aaeeieoe
ii?aaeaeythony iauae eiiioieeaoeaiie ooieoeeae neioaenena.

Eco/aiea neioaene/aneeo aaeeieoe e eo noeeenoe/aneeo naienoa nicaeaao
aiciiaeiinoue oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai ioai?a au?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa ycuea.
Auai? neioaene/aneeo aaeeieoe anaaaea naycai n iieneii iioeiaeueiiai
aa?eaioa. I?e/ai yoio iioeiaeueiue aa?eaio aeieaeai oaeiaeaoai?youe
o?aaiaaieyi ia oieueei ioaeiiai yiioeeiiaeueiiai cao/aiey. E yoa /enoi
yiioeeiiaeueiay noi?iia auneacuaaiey i/aiue /anoi nicaeaaony n?aaenoaaie
neioaenena.

Neioaenen a ioee/ea io eaeneee e o?acaieiaee ia iaeaaeaao ie noieue
/aoeie noeeaaie ie?aneie naieo aaeeieoe ie no?iaie ooieoeeiiaeueiie eo
i?ee?aie?iiinoueth e ii?aaeaeaiiui ?a/aaui noa?ai. E aianoa n oai
ni?aaaaeeeai n/eoaaony /oi eiaiii neioaenen oaeo a naaa ia?iiiua
noeeenoe/aneea aiciiaeiinoe, eioi?ua caeeth/athony i?aeiouanoaaiii a aai
niiniaiinoe ia?aaeaaaoue oii/aeoea iooaiee iunee. Iiiaea n?aaenoaa
neioaenena ioee/athony neeueiie yiioeeiiaeueiinoueth, iai?eia?:
i?aaeeiaeaiey, ?acee/iua ii oeaee auneacuaaiey ( iiaoaeeoaeueiua,
aineeeoeaoaeueiua, ia?aaeei aii?ineoaeueiua); iiiaea neo/ae iaiieiuo e
iaeiininoaaiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee; ?yae yaeaiee ii?yaeea neia; neo/ae
eniieueciaaiey iaeii?iaeiuo /eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey, aeaeia aannithciuo
i?aaeeiaeaiee e ae?.

Oaeaea aaconeiaiuie noeeenoe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie a neioaenena
yaeythony ooieoeeiiaeueii ia?aie/aiiua e oai naiui ie?aoaiiua
neioaene/aneea aaeeieoeu. Iai?eia?, iiiaea yeeioe/aneea eiino?oeoeee,
eioeieoeaiua e aacee/iua i?aaeeiaeaiey, neacoaiua, au?aaeaiiua
iaaeaeiiaoeyie i?aeiouanoaaiii oiio?aaeoaeueiu a ?acaiai?ii-auoiaie
?a/e.

A aeaiiii ia?aa?aoa iu e?aoei ?anniio?ei eeoue iaeioi?ua neioaene/aneea
n?aaenoaa a oai?aoe/aneii aniaeoa.

A aiaeeeneii ycuea o eaaeaeiai /eaia i?aaeeiaeaiey, eae ecaanoii, anoue
iau/iia ianoi, ii?aaeaeyaiia niiniaii aai neioaene/aneiai au?aaeaiey,
naycyie n ae?oaeie neiaaie e oeiii i?aaeeiaeaiey. Ia?ooaiea iau/iiai
ii?yaeea neaaeiaaiey /eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai
eaeie-ieaoaeue yeaiaio ieacuaaaony auaeaeaiiui e iieo/aao niaoeeaeueiua
eiiiioaoeee yiioeeiiaeueiinoe eee yeni?anneaiinoe, iacuaaaony eiaa?neae.
Eiaa?ney ii?aaeaeyaony iieiaeaieai neioaene/anee naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie
/eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey ioiineoaeueii ae?oa ae?oaa. Iau/ii n/eoaaony, /oi
?onneiio ycueo naienoaai naiaiaeiue ii?yaeie neia, iaeiaei yoa naiaiaea
ia aaniethoia. Ii?yaeie neia ii?aaeaeyaony e a?aiiaoe/anee: nenoaiie
ycuea a /anoiinoe no?oeoo?ie neiaini/aoaiey, niuneiaie noi?iiie oaenoa.
Iiyoiio iiiyoea eiaa?nee ia /oaeaei e ?onneiio ycueo. Aaaeiia cia/aiea
eiaao ioi?aaiie ioieo auneacuaaiey – oaia (“ecaanoiia”) e oi, /oi i i?i
aiai?eony – ?aia (“iiaia”). Aeaeaeaiea io oaiu e ?aia niioaaonoaoao
aeooaeueiiio /eaiaieth i?aaeeiaeaiey e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ieacuaaaony
noeeenoe/anee iaeo?aeueiui. A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea oaeie ii?yaeie
ia?ooai, o.a. i?e ia/aeueiii iieiaeaiee ?aiu, a?, eae eiae/aneee
i?aaeeeao, auaeaeyao oaea?aiea, /oi i?aa?auaao eioiiaoeeth a
yioaoe/aneoth: Her love letters i returned to the detectives for filing
(G. Green).

Eaaeaeue ec ?ac?yaeia i?aaeeiaeaiee (iiaanoaiaaoaeueiua,
aii?ineoaeueiua, aineeeoeaoaeueiua, iiaoaeeoaeueiua) eiaao naie
oi?iaeueiua e eioiiaoeeiiiua i?eciaee. Eaaeaeue iiaeao, iaeiaei,
ano?aoeoueny e a cia/aiee ethaiai ec inoaeueiuo, i?eia?aoay i?e yoii
iniaia iiaeaeueiia eee yiioeeiiaeueiia cia/aiea. Iai?eia?, ?eoi?e/aneea
aii?inu neoaeao yioaoe/aneei ooaa?aeaeaieai, a iiaaeeoaeueiua
i?aaeeiaeaiey iiaoo eiiaaea ia?aaeaaaoue ia iiaoaeaeaiea e aeaenoaeth, a
oa?ico eee ianiaoeo. Ana yoe naeaeae, oi anoue oiio?aaeaiea
neioaene/aneeo no?oeoo? a ianaienoaaiiuo ei aeaiioaoeaiuo cia/aieyo e n
aeiiieieoaeueiuie eiiiioaoeeyie, iacuaaaony o?ainiiceoeeae.

Iai?eia?, LVII niiao Oaenie?a ia/eiaaony n yiioeeiiaeueiiai aii?ina,
eioi?ue a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yaeyaony ooaa?aeaeaieai:

Being your slave, what should I do but tend

Upon the hours and times of your desire?

N.ss. Ia?oae e ia?aaiaeeo aai ooaa?aeaeaieai:

Aeey aa?iuo neoa iao ie/aai ae?oaiai,

Eae iaeeaeaoue o aeaa?e ainiiaeo.

Neioaene/aneay oi?ia i?eaeiaea aieueoa ia?aaeaao e?iie/aneoth a?onoue e
iaaeiinoue.

Iniaia ianoi n?aaee neioaene/aneeo n?aaenoa ycuea caieiatho n?aaenoaa
neioaene/aneie nayce. I?iaeaiu nayciinoe oaenoa i?eaeaeatho iiiaeo
o/aiuo. I?eia/aoaeueiu ?aaiou I. Oieeeaeay, aaea enneaaeoaony au?aaeaiea
neioaene/aneeo naycae n iiiiuueth ianoieiaiee, ia?a/iay naycue, ?aciua
aa?eaiou iiaoi?ia, i?iione iiae?acoiaaaaiiai neiaa e aai caiauaiea e
ae?.

O.E. Neeueiai ?acee/aao 2 niiniaa nayce i?aaeeiaeaiee: 1) naycue i?e
iiiiue yaii au?aaeaiiuo a?aiiaoe/aneeo e eaene/aneeo n?aaenoa e 2)
naycue niuneiaay. Naie n?aaenoaa nayce ?acaeaeythony ei ia 2 aieueoea
a?oiiu a caaeneiinoe io eo ooieoeee: “1) ia oa, eioi?ua inouanoaeytho
naycue iaaeaeo i?aaeeiaeaieyie eee io?aceaie oaenoa a oeaeii (nithcu,
ianoieiaiiua ia?a/ey, /anoeoeu, oeacaoaeueiua ianoieiaiey); 2) ia oa,
eioi?ua inouanoaeytho naycue iaaeaeo naiinoiyoaeueiuie i?aaeeiaeaieyie
/a?ac naycue ioaeaeueiuo /eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey (ee/iua e oeacaoaeueiua
ianoieiaiey, noaiaie n?aaiaiey i?eeaaaoaeueiuo e o.i.)” (ni. iiceoeeth
59)

A aeaeueiaeoai iu nin?aaeioi/ei aieiaiea ia n?aaenoaao nayce aioo?e
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Niiniau au?aaeaiey neioaene/aneeo ioiioaiee aioo?e
i?aaeeiaeaiee i?e iiiiue nithcia, ioiineoaeueiuo ianoieiaiee eee ae?oaeo
n?aaenoa iiaoo iaeiia?aiaiii n eiae/aneeie auiieiyoue e aaaeiua
noeeenoe/aneea ooieoeee.

Au?aceoaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie neioaenena yaeythony ia?auaiey. A
?acaiai?iie e ooaeiaeanoaaiiie ?a/e oe?iei eniieuecothony aaiaeiua
neiaa, au?aaeathuea yiioeeiiaeueioth ioeaieo auneacuaaiey eee aai
yeni?anneaiue oa?aeoa?.

1.6.2 Eaeneei-naiaioe/aneee o?iaaiue

Eaeneea ycuea ?aniieaaaao ia?iiiuie aiciiaeiinoyie aeey ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee a a? oii/aeoeo niuneiauo e noeeenoe/aneeo iooaieao.

Noeeenoe/aneia aiaaonoai eaeneei-naiaioe/aneiai o?iaiy iaoneiaeaii ia
oieueei eieinnaeueiui /eneii aoiaeyueo a iaai aaeeieoe, ii e
?aciiia?aceai eo ea/anoaa, a oaeaea neiaeiie, iiiaiy?oniie nenoaiie eo
noeeenoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee. A i?aaeaeao eaeneei-naiaioe/aneie iaeanoe
ycuea eiaai, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aaeeieoeu, iaeaaeathuea aaeeinoaaiiui a
naiai ?iaea cia/aieai e noieue aea eiie?aoii-iaiiaoi?eiui noeeenoe/aneei
iooaieii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, – ioaea/aiiua, ioaaouaathuea iiiaea nioie
neia noeeenoe/aneea eaoaai?ee (ie?anee), ia onooiathuea ii naiae
aano?aeoeee iiiaei neioaene/aneei eaoaai?eyi. ?a/ue eaeao i oaeeo aeaeao
yeni?anneaii-yiioeeiiaeueiie ie?aoaiiinoe, eae “oooeeaia”,
“e?iie/aneia”, “aunieia” e ae?. Iaeie ec oaeeo iooaieia i?eaeatho neiao
iieiaeeoaeueioth, ae?oaea – io?eoeaoaeueioth ie?aneo. Oa?aeoa? ie?anee
iiaeao aeaeieciaiyoueny a caaeneiinoe io eiioaenoa e ?a/aaie neooaoeee.

Yeni?anneaii-yiioeeiiaeueiay ie?anea o neiaa aicieeaao a ?acoeueoaoa
oiai, /oi naii aai cia/aiea niaea?aeeo yeaiaio ioeaiee. Ooieoeey /enoi
iiieiaoeaiay ineiaeiyaony caeanue ioeaii/iinoueth, ioiioaieai aiai?yuaai
e iacuaaaiiio yaeaieth, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, yiioeeiiaeueiinoueth. Oaeea
neiaa, eae airhead, bummer; ionoiiaey, a?thcaa, ?acaeeueaeye e o.i.,
oaea naie ii naaa a naiae naiaioeea ianoo yeni?anneaii-yiioeeiiaeueiue
ca?yae. Neiaa yoie a?oiiu iau/ii iaeiicia/iu; caeeth/aiiay a eo cia/aiee
ioeaiea ianoieueei yaii e ii?aaeaeaiii au?aaeaia, /oi ia iicaieyao
oiio?aaeyoue neiai a ae?oaeo cia/aieyo.

Yoa eaeneea eniieuecoaony i?aeiouanoaaiii a onoii-oaieeuey?iie,
nieaeaiiie ?a/e: eaioye, aania?aeiiiue; lazy-bones, cut-throat.

Aoi?oth a?oiio ninoaaeytho iiiaicia/iua neiaa, eioi?ua a naiai i?yiii
cia/aiee noeeenoe/anee iaeo?aeueiu, iaeiaei a ia?aiiniii cia/aiee
iaaeaeythony y?eie yiioeeiiaeueiinoueth, iai?eia?, o?yiea (i ioae/eia),
aieioi (ia iauanoaaiiie a?oiia); frog (i o?aioeoca), frost (i i?iaaea).

O?aouey a?oiia – yoi neiaa, a eioi?uo yiioeeiiaeueiinoue aeinoeaaaony
aooeenaoeeae, aieueoae /anoueth – noooeenaie: iaii/ea, a?ycioeueea,
aaaoey; drunkard, gangster, scare-monger, kiddo. Iaeiaei yoi yaeaiea ia
noieueei nianoaaiii eaene/aneia, neieueei neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiia (ni.
iiceoeeth 29).

Iiaeiaii eaeneea, o?acaieiaey niaea?aeeo aiaaoaeoea n?aaenoaa ?a/aaie
au?aceoaeueiinoe, i?eaeaao ?a/e iniaoth yeni?anneth e iaiiaoi?eiue
iaoeeiiaeueiue eiei?eo. Au?aceoaeueiinoue ycuea ai iiiaii caaeneo io aai
o?acaieiaee. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai o?acaieiae/aneeo aaeeieoe
iaicia/aao oa aea iiiyoey, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ia?aaeaiu neiaaie eee
iienaoaeueiuie eiino?oeoeeyie. Iaeiaei, o?acaieiaeciu ioee/athony io
neiiieie/iuo neia e iienaoaeueiuo iai?ioia ithainaie cia/aiey e, aeaaiui
ia?acii, yeni?anneae.

Caiaia o?acaieiaecia neiaii eee neiaini/aoaieai ia iiaeao auoue
?aaiicia/iie: i?e oaeie caiaia en/acatho ithainu cia/aiee, ia?acu,
yiioeee – an?, /oi ninoaaeyao naiaioeei-noeeenoe/aneia naiaia?acea
o?acaieiaeciia e aeaeaao eo “iaeue/aeoeie iiyoe/aneeie aaeeieoeaie
ycuea” (ni. iiceoeeth 45). N?aaieoa babes and sucklings – unexperienced
people; husband’s tea – not strong tea; a play with the fire – a
dangerous play; dribs and drabs – too little of smth; e?iaue n iieieii –
caei?iaue; ca?oaeoue ia iino – caiiiieoue; ieaeaoue a aeeeaoeo –
aeaeiaaoueny.

Niaiauaiea a niaea?aeaiee o?acaieiae/aneeo aaeeieoe iiieiaoeaiuo e
yiioeeiiaeueii-ioeaii/iuo yeaiaioia iicaieyao iineoaeyi ycuea
eniieueciaaoue o?acaieiaeciu aeey ia?aaea/e ia oieueei eiae/aneiai
niaea?aeaiey iunee, ii e ia?aciiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i /ai-eeai, a /a?ac
iineaaeiaa – e aeey au?aaeaiey yiioeeiiaeueiiai ioiioaiey e i?aaeiaoo
iunee. Oae, iai?eia?, o?acaieiaeciu odd (queer) fish – /aeiaae ni
no?aiiinoyie, cool as cucumber – iaaiciooeiue; oa?oue eaea/, no?aeyiue
ai?iaae ia?acii oa?aeoa?ecotho ea/anoaa /aeiaaea (/oaeaeiaaoinoue,
niieienoaea, iiuoiinoue) e aianoa n oai iieacuaatho ii?aaeaeaiiia e iaio
ioiioaiea (oooeeaia, e?iie/aneia, i?ac?eoaeueiia), /oi ia iicaieyao
eniieueciaaoue yoe au?aaeaiey a iaeo?aeueiie neooaoeee, eiaaea iiaeiaiia
ioiioaiea ionoonoaoao.

Eae e a eaeneea, ai o?acaieiaee ni noeeenoe/aneie oi/ee c?aiey
auaeaeyaony ieano iaeo?aeueiuo o?acaieiae/aneeo aaeeieoe e noeeenoe/anee
ie?aoaiiua ieanou.

ss?eay yiioeeiiaeueiay ie?aoaiiinoue, iooaiee eioi?ie /?acau/aeii
iiiaiia?aciu, oa?aeoa?ia aeey ?acaiai?iuo o?acaieiae/aneeo aaeeieoe. Iia
nicaeaaony eae ioaeaeueiuie eo eiiiiiaioaie, oae e oai
ia?acii-iaoaoi?e/aneei cia/aieai, eioi?ia aicieeaao a ?acoeueoaoa
ni/aoaiey yoeo eiiiiiaioia.

*enouie ciaeaie yiioeee yaeythony iaaeaeiiaoey. Yoe neiaa ninoaaeytho
niaa?oaiii iniaue neie eaeneee, iineieueeo o ieo iao
i?aaeiaoii-eiae/aneiai cia/aiey. A iaaeaeiiaoeyo nin?aaeioi/aiu ana
oeie/aneea /a?ou, ioee/athuea yiioeeiiaeueioth eaeneeo: neioaene/aneay
oaeoeueoaoeaiinoue, oi anoue aiciiaeiinoue iiouaiey aac ia?ooaiey
ioia/aiiinoe o?acu, ionoonoaea neioaene/aneeo naycae n ae?oaeie /anoyie
i?aaeeiaeaiey; naiaioe/aneay e??aaeaoeey, ninoiyuay a oii, /oi
i?enoonoaea oioy au iaeiiai yiioeeiiaeueiiai neiaa i?eaeaao
yiioeeiiaeueiinoue anaio auneacuaaieth (ni. iiceoeeth 45).

Iiiaea yiioeeiiaeueiua neiaa, a iaaeaeiiaoey a iniaaiiinoe, au?aaeatho
yiioeeth a naiii iauai aeaea, aeaaea ia oeacuaay ia a? iieiaeeoaeueiue
eee io?eoeaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. “Oh” , iai?eia?, iiaeao au?aaeaoue e
?aaeinoue, e ia/aeue, e iiiaea ae?oaea yiioeee: Oh, I’m so glad; Oh, I’m
so sorry; Oh, how unexpected!

Cia/eoaeueiie /anoe iaaeaeiiaoee i?enoua /aoei au?aaeaiiay
yiioeeiiaeueiay ie?anea, /oi ia?aie/eaaao eo eniieueciaaiea a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo neooaoeeyo iauaiey. Oae, iai?eia?, a?aiiui iaaeaeiiaoeyi
(by Jove, /a?o aicueie) naienoaaiia a?oaay i?inoi?a/iay ie?anea.

E?iia ioaeaeueiuo iaaeaeiiaoee nouanoaotho e iaaeaeiiaoiua
o?acaieiae/aneea aaeeieoeu IOA, /a?ac eioi?ua au?aaeathony yiioeee. IOA
ia iiaoo ni/aoaoueny ni neiaaie eee ni/aoaieyie neia. Eiioaenooaeueiay
?aaeecaoeey IOA i?ienoiaeeo iooai niioianaiiinoe.

IOA naienoaaiiu aeaa oeia o?acaieiae/aneiai cia/aiey:

1) Oeaeinoiia iaaeaeiiaoiia cia/aiea IOA n eiinoaioiie caaeneiinoueth
eiiiiiaioia;

2) ?acaeaeeoaeueii-oeaeinoiia cia/aiea IOA n eiinoaioii-aa?eaioiie
caaeneiinoueth eiiiiiaioia.

A ?acoeueoaoa yeni?anneaiiai ia?ainiuneaiey IOA i?aa?auathony a
iaiauaiiua au?aceoaee yiioeee e aieaecuyaeaiey, a eiiaaea e oiai, e
ae?oaiai aianoa e oo?a/eaatho naie ia?aiia/aeueiua i?aaeiaoii-eiae/aneea
cia/aiey, oi anoue cia/aiey iiaeiaiuo iaaeaeiiaoiuo ia?aciaaiee yaeyaony
iaiioeae?iaaiiui.

IOA ia iaeaaeatho ie iiieiaoeaiui, ie eiiioieeaoeaiui cia/aieai e
ia?acotho iniaue eeann OA n oeaeinoiui eee ?acaeaeeoaeueii-oeaeinoiui
iaaeaeiiaoiuie cia/aieyie.

A?aieoea iaaeaeo /enoi yiioeeiiaeueiuie iaaeaeiiaoeyie e
yiioeeiiaeueii-ioeaii/iuie ia anaaaea aeinoaoi/ii io/aoeeaa. N?aaee IOA
iu iaoiaeei iai?io “by the Lord Harry” – /a?o aicueie (The Lord Harry –
oooeeaia i?icaeua aeueyaiea). Yoio iai?io oiio?aaeyaony aeey oneeaiey
auneacuaaiey e /anoi au?aaeaao iaaiaeiaaiea, aiciouaiea, ?acae?aaeaiea.
Oi aea iiaeii neacaoue e i iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo IOA.

…but damn it all, I insist on your being educated. …Ii /a?o iiaea?e,
y ianoaeaath, /oiau ou iieo/ee ia?aciaaiea

Damn you, don’t hold that girl as if she was a sack of potatoes

(W.S. Maugham) *a?o aan iiaea?e, ia aea?aeeoa aeaaooeo oae, neiaii yoi
iaoie n ea?oioaeai.

(O.N. Iiyi)

A ia?aii i?eia?a ooieoeey iaaeaeiiaoey /enoi oneeeoaeueiay, ai aoi?ii
aea i?eia?a iia oaeaea au?aaeaao ?acae?aaeaiea aiai?yuaai.

Auaiaeu ii ia?aiio ?acaeaeo

Ec anaai auoaneacaiiiai iiaeii naeaeaoue neaaeothuea auaiaeu:

1) Iiuo /aeiaa/anoaa a iiciaiee yiioeee cae?aieyaony a ycueiauo
aaeeieoeao. Yiioeee oieaa?naeueiu, a no?oeoo?a yiioeaiie eaeneee ia
niaiaaeaao a ?aciuo ycueao, eiaao iaoeeiiaeueioth niaoeeoeeo. A nayce n
yoei, auaeaeythony oieaa?naeueiua yiioeaiua niuneu a eaene/aneie
naiaioeea.

2) Yiioeaiay eaeneea oanii naycaia n ioeaii/iie, ii aeey enneaaeiaaiey
yiioeaiie eaeneee ecae?aoue ioeaii/iua neiaa iaoeaeaniia?acii.

3) Iniiaaieai aaeeiie iiaeaee iienaiey anaai iiiaeanoaa yiioeaiie
eaeneee iiaeao neoaeeoue naia yiioeaiinoe. Iia o/anoaoao a iaieoanoaoeee
yiioeee a naiaioeea neiaa. Caieiay ?aciua iiceoeee a naiiie no?oeoo?a
neiaa, naia yiioeaiinoe iiaeao yaeyoueny aeaaiie
eaoaai?eaeueii-eaene/aneie eee caaeneiie aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie naiie.

4) Iieaaay i?aaiecaoeey ioaeaeueiie yiioeaiie naiaiu e iieaaay
i?aaiecaoeey ENIY eciii?oiu. ssae?ii ENIY yaeyaony eaeneea, niaea?aeauay
naio yiioeaiinoe a yaea?iie /anoe eaene/aneiai cia/aiey.

5) Yiioeeiiaeueiinoue au?aaeaaony ia anao o?iaiyo ycuea
neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiuie, neioaene/aneeie, eaene/aneeie n?aaenoaaie,
aeeth/ay o?acaieiaeth.

Ia neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiii o?iaia aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao iiiyoea
i?iecaiaeiinoe. Ia?iiiui iioaioeeaeii iaeaaeaao eaeneea e o?acaieiaey
?acaiai?iiai noeey.

6) *oanoaa e yiioeee i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii au?aceoue n iiiiuueth
oieueei iaeiiai ycueiaiai n?aaenoaa. Iau/ii yiioeeiiaeueiinoue a ?a/e
au?aaeaaony niaieoiiinoueth ycueiauo n?aaenoa ?aciuo o?iaiae.

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