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Конституционная защита прав граждан от неправомерных действий (бездействия) чиновников

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EAOAAe?A AINOAeA?NOAAIIIAI NO?IEOAEUeNOAA E I?AAA

EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA

II OAIA:

“Eiinoeoooeeiiiay caueoa i?aa a?aaeaeai io iai?aaiia?iuo aeaenoaee
(?aoaiee) e aacaeaenoaey ainoaea?noaaiiuo e ioieoeeiaeueiuo /eiiaieeia”

Auiieiee:

MDV

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

?inoia-ia-Aeiio

Niaea?aeaiea

TOC \o “1-2” Aaaaeaiea PAGEREF _Toc446737824 \h 3

Aeaaa 1. I?aai a?aaeaeaieia ia caueoo io iai?aaeeueiuo aeaenoaee
(?aoaiee) e aacaeaenoaey ainoaea?noaaiiie e ioieoeeiaeueiie
aaeieieno?aoeee PAGEREF _Toc446737825 \h 5

§1. Niiniau caueou i?aa a?aaeaeai PAGEREF _Toc446737826 \h 5

§2. I?aai a?aaeaeai ia ia?auaiey a i?aaiu ainoaea?noaa e
ioieoeeiaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee PAGEREF _Toc446737827 \h 8

§3. I?aai a?aaeaeaieia ia aaeieieno?aoeaioth aeaeiao PAGEREF
_Toc446737828 \h 9

§4. I?iecaiaenoai ii aaeieieno?aoeaiui aeaeiaai a?aaeaeai PAGEREF
_Toc446737829 \h 17

§5. I?aai a?aaeaeai ia noaeaaiia iaaeaeiaaiea iacaeiiiuo ?aoaiee
(aeaenoaee) i?aaiia eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe e eo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe.
I?aai a?aaeaeaieia ia aiciauaiea oua?aa, i?e/eiaiiiai iacaeiiiuie
aeaenoaeyie eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe e aa aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe PAGEREF
_Toc446737831 \h 19

Aeaaa 2. I ?AAIOA N IA?AUAIEssIE A?AAEAeAI A NIAAOA OAAeA?AOeEE
OAAeA?AEUeIIAI NIA?AIEss ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE PAGEREF _Toc446737832
\h 21

CAEETH*AIEA PAGEREF _Toc446737835 \h 24

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u 26

Aaaaeaiea

A aeaiie?aoe/aneii ainoaea?noaa oi?ie?iaaiea e ii?yaeie aeayoaeueiinoe
aaeieieno?aoeaiie (eniieieoaeueiie) aaoae ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe
aeieaeiu auoue /aoei o?aaoee?iaaiu th?eaee/aneeie ii?iaie.

Aaeieieno?aoeaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai yaeyaony i?aaiaie iniiaie
iino?iaiey e yooaeoeaiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey naiie aieueoie, naiie
aeoeaiie, naiie iiuiie iiaenenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa –
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe.

Aaeieieno?aoeaiia i?aai – aaaeiaeoay io?aneue i?aaiaie nenoaiu ethaie
no?aiu. Iniaaiii aaeeea aai ?ieue a ?innee, aaea oaeea oaeoi?u, eae
ia?iiiay oa??eoi?ey, iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiue ninoaa ianaeaiey, o?aaeeoeeiiii
aieueoie iauai ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe, enoi?e/aneea aea?aeaaiua
o?aaeeoeee, iaoneiaeee cia/aiea aaeieieno?aoeaiie aeanoe,
ainoaea?noaaiiie aaeieieno?aoeee a aeecie iauanoaa. Yoa io?aneue
ioaee/iiai i?aaa cae?aieyao i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe a?aaeaeai e eiuo
iaaeanoiuo noauaeoia a ioiioaieyo n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoe, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua iniiau, nenoaio ainoaea?noaaiiie
aaeieieno?aoeee, iieiiii/ey aa no?oeoo?iuo aaeeieoe, i?eioeeiu, iaoiaeu,
oi?iu eo aeayoaeueiinoe.

Nicaeaiea ?inneeneie noaa?aiiie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, aeoaieea
iieeoe/aneea, yeiiiie/aneea, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua ?aoi?iu a no?aia iiaeaeee
ei?aiiua eciaiaiey anaai ianneaa aaeieieno?aoeaii-i?aaiauo ii?i. A 90-o
aiaeao OO aaea ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee i?eoeinue iieiinoueth iaiiaeyoue e
auno?i ?anoe?youe nenoaio aaeieieno?aoeaii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. Auee
cae?aieaiu aeaiie?aoe/aneea ia/aea i?aaiecaoeee e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, ?anoe?aiu i?aaa a?aaeaeai, cia/eoaeueii iiauoaia
?ieue caeiia a ?aaoee?iaaiee aeanoaioiioaiee.

I?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ee/iinoe, i eioi?uo aiai?eony a
aaeieieno?aoeaii-i?aaiauo ii?iao, i?iecaiaeiu io eiinoeoooeeiiiuo (no.2
Eiinoeoooeee ?O), e /anoi eiie?aoece?otho iineaaeiaa. I?aaeaea anaai,
aaeieieno?aoeaii-i?aaiaie noaoon a?aaeaeai ?O onoaiaaeeaaaony
Eiinoeoooeeae, aeoaie i?aaiia i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie aeanoe. A oi?ie?iaaiee
e, iniaaiii a ?aaeecaoeee ninoaaeythueo aeaiiue noaoon i?aa e
iaycaiiinoae, cia/eoaeueia oaeaea ?ieue i?aaiia eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe.
I?aaeoaeuenoai, ieienoa?noaa, aoaa?iaoi?u ecaeatho iaiaei ii?iaoeaiuo
aeoia, eioi?ua i?aaeinoaaeytho ii?aaeaeaiiui eaoaai?eyi eeoe, eueaiou,
cae?aieytho i?ioeaaeo?u aeayoaeueiinoe ?acee/iuo einiaeoeee,
onoaiaaeeaatho iauaiaycaoaeueiua i?aaeea (ioiou, aei?iaeiiai
aeaeaeaiey).

Ia?yaeo n aeoeaiie ii?iioai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth ainoaea?noaaiiay
aaeieieno?aoeey iaiin?aaenoaaiii o/anoaoao a ?aaeecaoeee a?aaeaeaiaie eo
i?aa e iaycaiiinoae (ieaie?oao, oeiaine?oao, eiio?iee?oao yoo ?aaioo,
iaania/eaaao aa eaae?aie, ?ano?naie, iaoiaee/aneeie iaoa?eaeaie e o.ae.)
caueuaao i?aaa e naiaiaeu a?aaeaeai. Iiaeii aiai?eoue ia ii?aaeaeaiiii
aeoaeecia oeaeaauo onoaiiaie aaeieieno?aoeaiiai i?aaa: n iaeiie
noi?iiu, yooaeoeaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe; n
ae?oaie – ?aaeecaoeey, caueoa i?aa e naiaiae.

A naiii iauai aeaea iiaeii neacaoue, /oi aaeieieno?aoeaiia i?aai –
oi?aaeai/aneia i?aai. Iii ?aaoee?oao ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea a oiaea
oi?ie?iaaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie aaeieieno?aoeee,
ianeoaeeaaao noa?o ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey.
Aaeieieno?aoeaii-i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea i?iecaiaeeony iooai:

oii?yaei/aiey, cae?aieaiey, niaa?oainoaiaaiey nouanoaothueo iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee;

eiino?oe?iaaiey iiauo iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, niioaaonoaothueo
o?aaiaaieyi caeiiia ?acaeoey iauanoaa, iieiaeaieyi Eiinoeoooeee ?O;

io?aiu o?aaoee?iaaiiuo ii?iaie aaeieieno?aoeaiiai e ae?oaeo io?aneae
i?aaa iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.

Aeaaa I.

I?aai a?aaeaeaieia ia caueoo io iai?aaeeueiuo aeaenoaee (?aoaiee) e
aacaeaenoaey ainoaea?noaaiiie e ioieoeeiaeueiie aaeieieno?aoeee

§1. Niiniau caueou i?aa a?aaeaeai

I?aai ia caueoo aeecie, caei?iauey, naiaiaeu, nianoaaiiinoe e ae?oaeo
aeaa yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei, iaiouaieaiui i?aaii a?aaeaeaieia. Ainoaea?noai
aai eaaaeecoao, oi anoue oi?ioee?oao, ooi/iyao iauaiu, cae?aieyao
i?ioeaaeo?u ?aaeecaoeee, onoaiaaeeaaao iaycaiiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaiia, aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, neoaeaueo a ii?aaeaeaiiua n?iee
?anniao?eaaoue e i?eieiaoue ia?u a nayce n ia?auaieyie, e iii
noaiiaeony ?aaoee?oaiui caeiiii, th?eaee/aneei i?aaii.

Anee th?eaee/aneeie ii?iaie cae?aieaii eaeia-oi noauaeoeaiia i?aai
a?aaeaeai, ii iii ia iaania/aii iaaeeaaeauae caueoie, oi oaeea ii?iu a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie aeaeea?aoeaiu. Nicaeaiea neii?aeeie?iaaiiie
nenoaiu aa?aioee ee/iuo i?aa a?aaeaeai – iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea
noaiiaeaiey i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa.

Iaiauaiii iiaeii aiai?eoue i aeaoo aeaaiuo iai?aaeaieyo
th?eaee/aneie caueou ee/iinoe:

io i?anooieaiee, aeaeeeoia e eiuo iai?aaiia?iuo aeaenoaee ae?oaeo
a?aaeaeai, th?eaee/aneeo eeoe;

io iai?aaiia?iuo e iaoeaeaniia?aciuo aeaenoaee noauaeoia aeanoe.

Aaeieieno?aoeaiiio i?aao i?eiaaeeaaeeo aaaeiay ?ieue a caueoa a?aaeaeai
io iai?aaeeueiuo aeaenoaee ainoaea?noaaiiie, ioieoeeiaeueiie e /anoiie
aaeieieno?aoeee.

Iniiaiuie n?aaenoaaie caueou i?aa e eioa?ania a?aaeaeai io
ceioiio?aaeaiee, ath?ie?aoecia, iaeiiiaoaioiinoe, eia?oiinoe e eiuo
aiiiaeee a aeayoaeueiinoe iaeaaeaoaeae aeanoiuo iieiiii/ee yaeythony:

nicaeaiea e i?aaiecaoeey iianaaeiaaiie ?aaiou oiieiiii/aiiuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo (ioieoeeiaeueiuo i?aaiia, noaea, i?ieo?aoo?u,
ainoaea?noaaiiuo einiaeoeee e ae?.), aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae eioi?uo
yaeyaony caueoa i?aaiii?yaeea;

nouanoaiaaiea e aeayoaeueiinoue iacaaeneiuo io ainoaea?noaa einoeoooia
a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa, niiniaiuo ieacuaaoue iiiiuue a?aaeaeaiai.
N?aaee ieo anoue einoeooou, nicaeaiiua niaoeeaeueii aeey yoie oeaee
(aaeaieaoo?a, iauanoai caueou i?aa iio?aaeoaeae), aeey eioi?uo oaeay
aeayoaeueiinoue yaeyaony aaaeiie (i?ionithcu), a oaeaea eiua (n?aaenoaa
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, ia?oee, ?aeeaeiciua iauaaeeiaiey, aeia?iaieueiua
iauanoaa e o.i.)

aeoeaiay aeayoaeueiinoue naieo a?aaeaeai, eniieuecothueo
i?aaeinoaaeaiiua ei i?aaa;

o/eouaay aieueooth cia/eiinoue, ?aciiia?acea oi?i e iaee/ea aieueoiai
/enea i?aaiauo ii?i, iiaeii auaeaeeoue i?ioeannoaeueioth caueoo.

Oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiia, a?aaeaeainei-i?ioeannoaeueiia,
aaeieieno?aoeaiia e o?oaeiaia i?aai aeinoaoi/ii iiae?iaii
?aaeaiaioe?otho i?aaa eeoea, i?eaeaeaaiiai e ioaaonoaaiiinoe, ia caueoo
io i?aaeuyaeaiiiai aio iaaeiaiey, i?eiaiyaiuo e iaio i?eioaeeoaeueiuo
ia?.

A ?aaeueiie aeecie ana iacaaiiua niiniau oanii naycaiu, /aua anaai
eniieuecothony iaeiia?aiaiii. A?aaeaeaiei caueuaao naie i?aaa
iaiin?aaenoaaiii nai (iaiaoiaeeiay iai?iia, ioeac auiieiyoue iacaeiiiia
?anii?yaeaiea aeieaeiinoiiai eeoea e o. i.), eeai ia?auaynue ca
niaeaenoaeai e ainoaea?noaaiiui e iaainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaiecaoeeyi,
eieoeee?oy eo i?aaicaueoioth aeayoaeueiinoue.

I/aaeaeii, /oi ana a?aaeaeaia anooiatho ai acaeiiioiioaiey n i?aaiaie
ioaee/iie aaeieieno?aoeee iaiiiai /aua, /ai n eiuie ainoaea?noaaiiuie e
ioieoeeiaeueiuie i?aaiaie. Aaeieieno?aoeey i?eieiaao, i?ecuaaao,
auaeaeyao, ecuiaao e iianaaeiaaii ?aaeecoao iiiaea aeanoiua iieiiii/ey.
Ioaee/iay aaeieieno?aoeey ia?ooaao i?aaa a?aaeaeai ai iiiai ?ac aieueoa,
/ai ana eiua noauaeou ioaee/iie aeanoe (noaeu, i?aaiu i?ieo?aoo?u e
ae?.) aianoa acyoua, a io iaeiiai aa iai?aaeeueiiai aeaenoaey n?aco
iiaoo iino?aaeaoue ieeeeiiu. Iiyoiio caueoa i?aa e caeiiiuo eioa?ania
a?aaeaeai io iai?aaeeueiuo aeayiee aeanoe – yoi, i?aaeaea anaai caueoa
io iai?aaeeueiuo aeayiee ainoaea?noaaiiie e ioieoeeiaeueiie
aaeieieno?aoeee.

A 90-o aiaeao OO aaea a ?innee na?ueacii iaiiaeeny e ?anoe?eeny iannea
i?aaiauo ii?i, ?aaeaiaioe?othueo i?aai a?aaeaeai ia caueoo. Ai-ia?auo,
cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eeenue aiciiaeiinoe aeey noaeaaiie caueou. Ai-aoi?uo,
oaaee/eeenue aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?aaeecaoeee eiuo i?aa ia caueoo.
Iai?eia?, cae?aieaiea i?aaa ia i?oaeea, ia /anoioth aeaoaeoeaioth e
io?aiioth aeayoaeueiinoue iicaieyao oe?a eniieueciaaoue i?aai ia
iaiaoiaeeioth iai?iio. A aicieeiiaaiea iauanoa caueou i?aa iio?aaeoaeae,
nieaeaoneeo iaoa?ae, iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, iiyaeaiea iacaaeneiuo n?aaenoa
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee nicaeaao a?aaeaeaiai aieaa aeaaii?eyoiua
aiciiaeiinoe aeey ia?auaiey ca th?eaee/aneie iiiiuueth a
iaainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee. A-o?aoueeo, nicaeaia iiaay
ainoaea?noaaiiay i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay oi?ia caueou a?aaeaeai –
oiieiiii/aiiua ii i?aaai /aeiaaea a ?O e a ?yaea noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee.
A-/aoaa?ouo, n 5 iay 1998 aiaea a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee anooieea a neeo
Eiiaaioeey “I caueoa i?aa /aeiaaea e iniiaiuo naiaiae”.* A niioaaonoaee
n iae ethaia eeoei, a?oiia /anoiuo eeoe, eioi?ua ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi
yaeeenue aea?oaaie ia?ooaiee, ai?aaa ia?aoeoueny n aeaeiaaie a
Aa?iiaeneoth eiienneth ii i?aaai /aeiaaea. Eiienney iiaeao i?eiyoue
aeaei e ?anniio?aieth oieueei iinea oiai, eae auee en/a?iaiu ana
aioo?aiiea n?aaenoaa i?aaiaie caueou… e a oa/aiea oanoe ianyoeaa, n/eoay
io aeaou auianaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuie i?aaiaie ieii/aoaeueiiai ?aoaiey ii
aeaeo (no. 26 Eiiaaioeee) Aa?iiaeneee noae ii i?aaai /aeiaaea “iiaeao
i?eiyoue aeaei e ?anniio?aieth eeoue iinea oiai eae Eiienney
eiinoaoe?iaaea aac?acoeueoaoiinoue oneeee ii ae?oaeaneiio
o?aaoee?iaaieth” (no.48 Eiiaaioeee). A-iyouo, no. 30,31,33,37
Eiinoeoooeee ?O 1993 aiaea auee cae?aieaiu e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oe?iei
eniieuecothony eieeaeoeaiua oi?iu caueou i?aa. A?aaeaeaiai
i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aai ia i?iaaaeaiea caaanoiaie, nia?aiee, ieoeiaia
,aeaiiino?aoeee, ieeaoe?iaaiea. ?aaeueiui noaei i?aai ia iauaaeeiaiea
aeey caueou naieo eioa?ania. A Eiinoeoooeee neacaii e i i?aaa ia
eieeaeoeaiua ia?auaiey a ainoaea?noaaiiua e ioieoeeiaeueiua i?aaiu.

Aua ?ac ioiaoei, /oi i?aai a?aaeaeai ia caueoo ?anoe?aii a 90-o aiaeao.
Auniei ioeaieaay ana i?iaeaeaiiia, neaaeoao neacaoue, /oi, e
niaeaeaieth, ?aaeueiay caueuaiiinoue a?aaeaeai caaenoe ia oieueei io
eiee/anoaa e ea/anoaa th?eaee/aneeo ii?i, ?aaiou i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo
i?aaiia e iaainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee. ?aceee ?ino yeiiiie/aneeo e
ianeeuenoaaiiuo i?aaiia?ooaiee, ineaaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe ii
?yaeo iauaeoeaiuo e noauaeoeaiuo i?e/ei cia/eoaeueii ineaaeee ?aaeueioth
caueuaiiinoue i?aa a?aaeaeai. Nae/an eo iaaeinoaoi/ii caueuatho noaeu,
ieeeoeey, i?aaiu eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe /anoi ia i?eieiatho iaiaoiaeeiuo
ia? ii eo aeaeiaai. TH?eaee/aneea iaoaieciu i?aaicaueoiie aeayoaeueiinoe
ii yeiiiie/aneei, i?aaiecaoeeiiiui e eiui i?e/eiai a iieiie ia?a ia
eniieuecothony. *oiau oaeoe/anee oneeeoue caueoo i?aa a?aaeaeai,
i?aaenoieo naeaeaoue aua i/aiue iiiaia.

§2. I?aai a?aaeaeai ia ia?auaiey a i?aaiu ainoaea?noaa e
ioieoeeiaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee

Oaeia i?aai cae?aieaii a no. 33 Eiinoeoooeee ?O; “A?aaeaeaia ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee eiatho i?aai ia?auaoueny ee/ii, a oaeaea iai?aaeyoue
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua e eieeaeoeaiua ia?auaiey a i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeanoe e i?aaiu ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey”. A yoie noaouea Eiinoeoooeee
?a/ue eaeao i aaaeiaeoai yeaiaioa aeaiie?aoe/anee i?aaieciaaiiiai
iauanoaa. Ia?auaiey a?aaeaeai e noauaeoai aeanoe – aeaaiia n?aaenoai
?aaeecaoeee, caueou i?aa. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iie iicaieytho oe?aieoue
caeiiiinoue, iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaiou i?aaiia aeanoe, eni?aaeoue
eo ioeaee. Ia?auaiey iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue e eae oi?io ia?aoiie nayce,
ii eaiaeai eioi?ie ?oeiaiaeeoaee iieo/atho eioi?iaoeeth i iieiaeaiee
aeae ia ianoao, ia ioiioaiee a?aaeaeai e aeayoaeueiinoe aeanoiuo
noauaeoia.

Aaeaaiaeii a ainoaea?noaaiiua, ioieoeeiaeueiua e iauanoaaiiua
i?aaiecaoeee iinooiatho ieeeeiiu ia?auaiee a?aaeaeai. Eo iiaeii
a?oiie?iaaoue:

ii niaea?aeaieth (iaineiiiua, iaeiaiaua e o.ae.),

ii aaoi?ai (eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua, a?oiiiaua),

ii oi?ia (onoiua, ienueiaiiua),

ii aae?anaoai,

iiaeii aeaeeoue ia ia?ae/iua e aoi?e/iua e o. ae.

12 ai?aey 1968 aiaea aue ecaeai Oeac I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN?
“I ii?yaeea ?anniio?aiey i?aaeeiaeaiee, cayaeaiee e aeaeia a?aaeaeai”,
eioi?ue iiea aeaenoaoao a ?innee a ?aaeaeoeee Oeaca io 4 ia?oa 1980
aiaea.* Eae aeaeii ec iacaaiey, nae/an a ?O ?acee/athony o?e aeaea
ia?auaiee: i?aaeeiaeaiea, cayaeaiea, aeaeiaa.

§3. I?aai a?aaeaeaieia ia aaeieieno?aoeaioth aeaeiao

I?aai a?aaeaeaieia iaaeaeiaaoue aeou noauaeoia aeanoe – ao?eaoo
aeaiie?aoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee ainoaea?noaa, iauanoaa. Iii iaoneiaeaii
iniaaiiinoyie aeanoaioiioaiee, aneiiao?e/iuo, iino?iaiiuo ia ia/aeao
ia?aaainoaa noi?ii. A oaeeo i?aaiioiioaieyo iaeia ec noi?ii,
iaeaaeathuay aeanoiuie iieiiii/eyie, eiaao i?aai ?aoaoue aii?inu, Iiuo
?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, aeou noauaeoia
aeanoe iiaoo auoue aeaoaeoiuie. I?e/eiu aeaoaeoiinoe ?acee/iu: auai? ia
naiiai eo/oaai aa?eaioa, ec-ca iaa?aaeiinoe, i?eno?anoiinoe,
iaeiiiaoaioiinoe ,ceioiio?aaeaiea i?aaii e ae?. Iiyoiio a eioa?anao
aeaea i?aai iaeiie noi?iiu ?aoaoue, eniieueciaaoue aeanoue aeieaeii
auoue o?aaiiaaoaii i?aaii ae?oaie noi?iiu iaaeaeiaaoue aeo, o?aaiaaoue
aai ia?aniio?a, ioiaiu.

A a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo ioiioaieyo, iino?iaiiuo ia i?aaiaii ?aaainoaa,
caueoa i?aa noi?ii iaania/eaaaony aeaaiui ia?acii n?aaenoaaie
i?aaicaueou e noaeaaiuie eneaie. A aaeieieno?aoeaii-i?aaiauo ioiioaieyo
i?aaa iaaeanoiiai noauaeoa, a?aaeaeaieia caueuaaony aeaaiui ia?acii aai
ia?auaieyie a ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu, i?aaicaueoiua iauanoaaiiua
i?aaiecaoeee.

Aeey oyniaiey th?eaee/aneeo naienoa e i?ioeaaeo? ?ac?aoaiey ana aeaeiau
neaaeoao iiaeaeeoue ia aeaa oeia:

aaeieieno?aoeaiua, oi anoue ?anniao?eaaaiua ai aianoaeaaiii, a
aaeieieno?aoeaiii ii?yaeea;

noaeaaiua, ?anniao?eaaaiua noaeaie a i?ioeanna inouanoaeaiey
i?aainoaeey, a ii?yaeea oaieiaiiai, a?aaeaeaineiai eee eiinoeoooeeiiiiai
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa.

Eiuie neiaaie, ei aoi?iio oeio ioiinyony ia?auaiey a?aaeaeai a noae,
?aoaiey ii eioi?ui i?eieiathony ia iniiaa ii?i OIE, AIE. E yoiio oeio
ia?auaiee ioiinyony e aeaeiau, ?anniao?eaaaiua eiinoeoooeeiiiuie
(onoaaiuie) noaeaie. Ana inoaeueiua aeaeiau, ?anniao?eaaaiua noaeueyie,
yaeythony aaeieieno?aoeaiuie.

N?aco aea iaiaoiaeeii naeaeaoue ianeieueei iiyniaiee. Ai-ia?auo, a
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia?auaiey ia?aiai oeia iacuaathony aeaeiaaie, ii
eiiaaea e cayaeaieyie (no. 109 OIE), aiaeeyoeeyie. Ai-aoi?uo,
aaeieieno?aoeaiua aeaeiau iiaoo iiaeaaaoueny e noaeu. Oae, ooaea
iinooiaao iiiai ienai ii aii?inai ianaiaa?aiaiiiai ?anniio?aiey aeae,
aiciauaiey oua?aa. ?anniao?eaathony oaeea ia?auaiey ia noaeii, a
noaeueae, i?aaenaaeaoaeai noaea a niioaaonoaee n ii?iaie
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai i?aaa. Oaeei ia?acii, aaeieieno?aoeaiay e noaeaaiay
aeaeiau ?acee/athony, aeaaiui ia?acii , ia aae?anaoii, a ii?yaeeii
?anniio?aiey.

Ia?auaiey a?aaeaeai a noae caeii iacuaaao aeaeiaaie e eneaie, e iauaa
iacaaiea – noaeaaiay aeaeiaa – yaeyaony a ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie
oneiaiui. N?aaee ieo iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaeiau:

ia aaeieieno?aoeaiua aeou, ?anniao?eaaaiua a ii?yaeea aaeieieno?aoeaiie
thnoeoeee;

ii aeaeai /anoiiai iaaeiaiey;

eannaoeeiiiua;

iaaeci?iua.

Yoe aeaeiau a?aaeaeai yaeythony th?eaee/aneeie oaeoaie, i?eaiaeyueie a
aeaenoaea iaoaieci i?aainoaeey, e ?acoeueoao ?anniio?aiey eioi?uo –aeo
i?aainoaeey, ?aoathuee noaeueao aicaoaeaeaiiiai aeaeiaie oaieiaiiai eee
a?aaeaeaineiai aeaea.

N?aaee aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aeaeia ii i?aaiaui i?eciaeai ?acee/athony iauay
e niaoeeaeueiay aeaeiau. Ii?yaeie ?anniio?aiey ia?auo ?aaoee?oaony
Oeacii I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? io 12 ai?aey 1968 aiaea a
?aaeaeoeee io 4 ia?oa 1980 aiaea “I ii?yaeea ?anniio?aiey i?aaeeiaeaiee,
cayaeaiee e aeaeia a?aaeaeai”. Iniiaaiey e ii?yaeie i?iecaiaenoaa ii
niaoeeaeueiui aeaeiaai ?aaoee?othony niaoeeaeueiuie ii?iaie,
niaea?aeaueieny a Onoaaa nayce, Aeenoeeieeia?iii Onoaaa Aii?oaeaiiuo
nee, Iieiaeaiee i ii?yaeea ?anniio?aiey o?oaeiauo nii?ia, Oaiiaeaiiii e
Iaeiaiaii eiaeaenao, EiAI ?NON? e a iaeioi?uo eiuo aeoao.

I?aai ia iauoth aeaeiao nae/an oaeoe/anee yaeyaony aaniethoiui,
iaia?aie/aiiui, iaio/oaeaeaaiui i?aaii a?aaeaeaieia. Eaaeaeue
aeaaniiniaiue /aeiaae iiaeao iiaeaoue ii ethaiio cia/eiiio aeey iaai
iiaiaeo, a ethaia a?aiy. Aeey ?aaeecaoeee yoiai i?aaa ia ioaeii
/ueaai-eeai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai niaeaney. I?aai ia iauoth aeaeiao ia
ia?aie/aii ii niaea?aeaieth. Iaaeaeiaaiu iiaoo auoue ethaua aeaenoaey, a
oaeaea aacaeaenoaey ?aaioieeia ethauo i?aaiia, i?aaei?eyoee,
o/?aaeaeaiee, i?aaiecaoeee, ?anoeaieaaaiua eae iai?aaeeueiua. I?aaeiao
aeaeiau – ia oieueei ia caeiiiua, ii e iaoeaeaniia?aciua eee
aii?aeueiua aeayiey. A ienueiao a?aaeaeai ca/anooth ?a/ue eaeao i
iai?aaeeueiii eniieueciaaiee “naiaiaeu oniio?aiey”, iani?aaaaeeeaii
?aoaiee aii?inia, ionoonoaee aeieaeiie /aoeinoe, aanoaeoiinoe,
iaaieiaiee e e?eoe/aneei caia/aieyi, eniieueciaaiee onoa?aaoeo i?eaiia a
?aaioa, iaiainiiaaiiii auai?a ieiuaaeie aeey iiaiai no?ieoaeuenoaa

I?aaeiaoii aeaeiau iiaoo auoue aeayiey, ouaieythuea i?aaa e caeiiiua
eioa?anu, eae naiiai a?aaeaeaieia, oae e ae?oaeo eeoe. Ia?auaiea
a?aaeaeaieia iiaeao auoue iai?aaeaii ia caueoo ia oieueei /ueeo-oi
ee/iuo, ii e iauanoaaiiuo eioa?ania. I/aiue oe?iei a?aaeaeaia
eniieuecotho i?aai iaaeaeiaaoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua aaeieieno?aoeaiua
aeou. ?aaea ano?a/athony aeaeiau i iacaeiiiinoe ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia, oioy
oaeea ia?auaiey a?aaeaeai e aaoi?o aeoa eee a eiie eiiiaoaioiue i?aai
aiieia i?aaiia?iu.

A Oeaca aiai?eony ia iaaeaeiaaiee aeaenoaee aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe,
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiia. Ia i?aeoeea aeaiiia iieiaeaiea
oieeoaony cia/eoaeueii oe?a. Ia?aaeei a?aaeaeaia ieooo i aacaeaenoaee
neoaeaueo, i iai?eiyoee iaaeeaaeaueo ia? e ia?ooeoaeyi iauanoaaiiiai
ii?yaeea, iaaeaeotho aeaenoaey ?aaioieeia, ia yaeythueony aeieaeiinoiuie
eeoeaie. Iiaeii iaeoe iaiaei ienai, niaea?aeaueo i?aoaicee a?aaeaeai e
?aaioa aioae, aieueieoe, oeie e ae?oaeo nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo
o/?aaeaeaiee.

E eiio iiaeii ia?aoeoueny n aeaeiaie? No. 4 caeiia “Ia iaaeaeiaaiee a
noae aeaenoaee e ?aoaiee, ia?ooathueo i?aaa e naiaiaeu a?aaeaeai”
iacuaaao aae?anaoia aeaeia. A iae neacaii: “A?aaeaeaiei ai?aaa
ia?aoeoueny n aeaeiaie …eeai e auoanoiyuaio a ii?yaeea iiae/eiaiiinoe
ainoaea?noaaiiiio i?aaio, i?aaio ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, o/?aaeaeaieth,
i?aaei?eyoeth, aeieaeiinoiiio eeoeo, ainoaea?noaaiiiio neoaeauaio,
iauanoaaiiiio iauaaeeiaieth”. Oaaea?aeueiuie caeiiaie i?aaeoniio?aii
oaeaea, /oi i?aaiu i?ieo?aoo?u, aeaiooaou i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo i?aaiia
?anniao?eaatho e i?iaa?ytho aeaeiau a?aaeaeai, a cia/eo, iauea
aaeieieno?aoeaiua aeaeiau iiaoo auoue iai?aaeaiu e yoei aae?anaoai.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai e neiaeeaoayny i?aeoeea
ii/oe ia ciatho ia?aie/aiee i?aaa a?aaeaeai ia iauoth aeaeiao ii
niaea?aeaieth. Iaaeaeiaaiu iiaoo auoue iacaeiiiua, iaoeaeaniia?aciua e
aii?aeueiua aeayiey, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua e ii?iaoeaiua aeou, aeaenoaey e
aacaeaenoaey a noa?a oi?aaeaiey, i?iecaiaenoaa, ianeoaeeaaiey. Noauaeou
iaaeaeoaiuo aeayiee – ia oieueei i?aaiu, ii e i?aaei?eyoey,
o/?aaeaeaiey, i?aaiecaoeee, ia oieueei aeieaeiinoiua eeoea, ii e
?yaeiaua neoaeauea. Ia?auaiea iiaeao auoue iiaeaii n oeaeueth caueou
ee/iuo i?aa e eioa?ania, i?aa e eioa?ania ae?oaeo eeoe, ioaee/iuo i?aa e
eioa?ania.

I/aiue oe?iee aiciiaeiinoe aeey iaaeaeiaaiey e n oi/ee c?aiey oi?iu eo
?aaeecaoeee. Iauea aaeieieno?aoeaiua aeaeiau a?aaeaeaia iiaoo iiaeaaaoue
ee/ii, /a?ac naieo i?aaenoaaeoaeae, eniieuecoy n?aaenoaa nayce. Oaeea
ia?auaiey iiaoo auoue ienueiaiiuie e onoiuie, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie e
eieeaeoeaiuie. Iiaea/a iauae aeaeiau ia ia?aie/aia eaeei-eeai n?ieii. A
caeiia ionoonoaotho e eiee/anoaaiiua ia?aie/aiey i?aa ia aeaeiao. Ii
iaeiiio e oiio aea oaeoo a?aaeaeaiei iiaeao ia?auaoueny iiiai ?ac a
iaeei e oio aea, eeai a ?aciua i?aaiu, iaeiia?aiaiii eee a ?aciia a?aiy.
I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi anee a eiiiaoaioioth i?aaiecaoeeth iaiin?aaenoaaiii
eee ec ae?oaie i?aaiecaoeee iinooiaao iiaoi?iia ienueii, niaea?aeaiea
eioi?iai aiaeiae/ii ia?aiio, oi i/a?aaeioth i?iaa?eo iiaeii e ia
i?iaiaeeoue.

Ii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy nouanoaoao ?yae aiieia ii?aaaeaiiuo ia?aie/aiee
aeey eeoe, eniieuecothueo i?aai ia iauoth aaeieieno?aoeaioth aeaeiao.
Iia aeieaeia auoue eceiaeaia ia ainoaea?noaaiiii, oi anoue ?onneii
ycuea. Ec yoiai iauaai i?aaeea aiciiaeiu eneeth/aiey. Iai?eia?, anee a
noauaeoa Oaaea?aoeee onoaiiaeai aua e naie ainoaea?noaaiiue ycue, anee
eeoei, aini?eieiathuaa aeaeiao, niiniaii iiiyoue niune eceiaeaiiiai ia
eiii ycuea.

Oeacii I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? io 2 oaa?aey 1988 aiaea auei
onoaiiaeaii “Ienueiaiiia ia?auaiea a?aaeaeaieia – aeieaeii auoue ei
iiaeienaii n oeacaieai oaieeee, eiaie e io/anoaa e niaea?aeaoue, iiieii
eceiaeaiey nouanoaa i?aaeeiaeaiey, cayaeaiey eeai aeaeiau, oaeaea
aeaiiua i ianoa aai aeeoaeuenoaa, ?aaiou eee o/aau. Ia?auaiea, ia
niaea?aeauaa yoeo naaaeaiee, i?eciaaony aiiieiiui e ?anniio?aieth ia
iiaeeaaeeo”.

Ii iiaiaeo niaea?aeaiey e i?eiaiaiey yoie ii?iu neaaeoao auneacaoue ?yae
niia?aaeaiee. Ai-ia?auo, ia i?aeoeea ia n/eoatho aiiieiiuie aeaeiau,
anee a ieo oeacaiu oaieeey, eiy, io/anoai e aae?an cayaeoaey, eeai ianoi
aai ?aaiou, o/aau e ionoonoaoao iiaeienue. I?eciaaony, /oi oaieeey e eiy
aeieaeiu oeacuaaoueny iaycaoaeueii, aae?an e ianoi ?aaiou (o/aau) –
aeueoa?iaoeaii, oi anoue eeai oi, eeai ae?oaia, a iaee/ea iiaeiene ia
iaycaoaeueii. Ai-aoi?uo, ?anniao?eaaaiay ii?ia yaeyaony iauae, a iiyoiio
iia ia eciaieea niaoeeaeueiie. Iai?eia?, a no. 110 OIE ?NON?, neacaii:
“Ienueiaiiia cayaeaiea aeieaeii auoue iiaeienaii eeoeii, io eioi?iai
enoiaeeo” e ia niaea?aeeony o?aaiaaiea oeacuaaoue eiy, io/anoai, aae?an,
ianoi ?aaiou eee o/aau. A-o?aoueeo, iinooieaoay aeaeiaa aeieaeia auoue
ca?aaeno?e?iaaia. Ia oaoie/aneee ?aaioiee, a ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ai?aaa
i?eciaoue aa aiiieiiie e ia iiaeeaaeauae ?anniio?aieth. Ii aea ai?aaa,
anee aaoi? ienueia ecaanoai, ii?aeiiaiaeiaaoue aio aianoe a ia?auaiea
iaiaoiaeeiua naaaeaiey. A-/aoaa?ouo, anee a oiaea i?iaa?ee onoaiiaeaii,
/oi aaoi? oeacae eiaeioth oaieeeth, aae?an e o.ae., oi i?iecaiaenoai ii
iae aeieaeii auoue i?ae?auaii. A-iyouo, i?aaiecaoeey, aeieaeiinoiia
eeoei, a?aaeaeaiei, i?eaeaeaaiua e ?anniio?aieth aeaeiau, iinea oiai,
eae aoaeao onoaiiaeaii, /oi iia aiiieiia, ai?aaa iio?aaiaaoue
i?ae?auaiey i?iecaiaenoaa ii iae. Ioeac aeaoue iiyniaiea niaa?oaoue
eaeea-eeai aeaenoaey a yoii i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaiia?ai, a aeaenoaey
neoaeaueo, o?aaothueo iauyniaiee, i?aaeinoaaeaiey aeieoiaioia e o. ae.,
ia iainiiaaiu. Iieacii auei au cae?aieoue i?aaeei, /oi neoaeauea iaycaiu
nio?aiyoue a oaeia eiy e ae?oaea aeaiiua i cayaeoaea, anee ii i?ineo ia
yoii.

Aiaeec niioiioaiey niaoeeaeueiie e iauae aeaeia iicaieyao aieaa /aoei
oynieoue niune ?yaea iieiaeaiee niaoeeaeueiuo ii?i ia iaaeaeiaaiee. Oae,
a no. 266 EiAI ?NON?* aiai?eony: “Iinoaiiaeaiea ?aeiiiiai, ai?iaeneiai
ia?iaeiiai noaea (ia?iaeiiai noaeuee) i iaeiaeaiee aaeieieno?aoeaiiai
acuneaiey yaeyaony ieii/aoaeueiui e iaaeaeiaaieth a ii?yaeea
i?iecaiaenoaa ii aeaeai ia aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiia?ooaieyo ia
iiaeeaaeeo”. Eiuie neiaaie, onoaiiaeaiiue EiAI ii?yaeie iaaeaeiaaiey
iinoaiiaeaiee ii aeaeai ia aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiia?ooaieyo ia
?ani?ino?aiyaony ia iinoaiiaeaiea noaeae. Cia/eo, niaoeeaeueiay aeaeiaa
ia iinoaiiaeaiea noaeuee ia aeiioneaaony, ii iauay aiciiaeia.
Niiinoaaeaiea iauae aaeieieno?aoeaiie aeaeiau e niaoeeaeueiie,
i?aaeoniio?aiiie EiAI ?NON? iicaieyao auyaeoue eo ioee/ey. Ai-ia?auo,
oaeay niaoeeaeueiay aeaeiaa iiaeao auoue iiaeaia oieueei eeoeii,
i?eaea/aiiui e ioaaonoaaiiinoe, iioa?iaaoei eee io eo eiaie aaeaieaoai
(no. 250, 266 EiAI ?NON?), a iauay aeaeiaa – eaaeaeui a?aaeaeaieiii.
Ai-aoi?uo, niaoeeaeueiay aeaeiaa aeaiiiai aeaea aeieaeia auoue
ienueiaiiie (/. 2 no. 267 EiAI ?NON?), a aeey iauae aeaeiau oi?ia ia
onoaiiaeaia. A-o?aoueeo, aae?anaoaie niaoeeaeueiie aaeieieno?aoeaiie
aeaeiau aunooiatho auoanoiyuee i?aai ,e?oa aea aae?anaoia iaueo aeaeia
cia/eoaeueii oe?a. A-/aoaa?ouo, niaoeeaeueiay aeaeiaa aeieaeia auoue
iai?aaeaia aae?anaoo a ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie (aeanyoue aeiae) ni aeiy
auianaiey iinoaiiaeaiey, a aeey iauae n?iee ia ii?aaeaeaiu. A- iyouo,
iiaea/a a onoaiiaeaiiue n?ie niaoeeaeueiie aeaeiau i?einoaiaaeeaaao
eniieiaiea iinoaiiaeaiey i iaeiaeaiee aaeieieno?aoeaiiai acuneaiey (no.
270 EiAI ?NON?), ia?auaiea aea n iauae aeaeiaie oaeeo iineaaenoaee ia
aea/ao.

Aua iaeiei i?eia?ii niaoeeaeueiie aeaeiau iiaeao neoaeeoue aeaeiaa,
eioi?ay iiaeaaony a niioaaonoaee ni no. 139, 141 Iaeiaiaiai eiaeaena ?O.
Ia aeaenoaea, aacaeaenoaea iaeiaiaiai i?aaia aeaeiaa iiaeaaony a
auoanoiyuee iaeiaiaue i?aai eee auoanoiyuaio aeieaeiinoiiio eeoeo yoiai
i?aaia a ienueiaiiie oi?ia a oa/aiea o?ao ianyoeaa ni aeiy, eiaaea
iaeiaiieaoaeueuee eee eiia iaycaiiia eeoei ociaei eee aeieaeii auei
ociaoue i ia?ooaiee naieo i?aa. Eeoei, iiaeaaoaa aeaeiao, aei i?eiyoey
?aoaiey iiaeao aa ioicaaoue ia iniiaaiee ienueiaiiiai cayaeaiey. Iocua
aeaeiau eeoaao iiaeaaoaa aa eeoei i?aaa ia auaea/o iiaoi?iie aeaeiau ii
oai aea iniiaaieyi a oio aea iaeiaiaue i?aai eee oiio aea aeieaeiinoiiio
eeoeo.

Iiaea/a aeaeiau ia i?einoaiaaeeaaao eniieiaiey iaaeaeoaiiai aeoa eee
aeaenoaey. Ii anee iaeiaiaue i?aai (aeieaeiinoiia eeoei),
?anniao?eaathuee aeaeiao, eiaao aeinoaoi/iua iniiaaiey iieaaaoue, /oi
iaaeaeoaiue aeo eee aeaenoaea ia niioaaonoaoao caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ?O, ii
ai?aaa iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii i?einoaiiaeoue eniieiaiea iaaeaeoaiiai
aeoa eee aeaenoaey. Oaeia ?aoaiea i?eieiaaony ?oeiaiaeeoaeai iaeiaiaiai
i?aaia, i?eiyaoei oaeie aeo, eeai auoanoiyuei iaeiaiaui i?aaiii.

Ec i?eaaaeaiiuo i?eia?ia, i/aaeaeii, /oi i?aai ia niaoeeaeueioth
aaeieieno?aoeaioth aeaeiao iaiiiai oaea i?aaa ia iauoth. Onoaiiaeaiea
niaoeeaeueiiai iaaeaeiaaiey i?aneaaeoao oeaeue aieaa eaaeeoeoee?iaaiii e
a naeaoua n?iee ?anniao?eaaoue aeaea, oneeeoue caueoo i?aa a?aaeaeai. A
naiii aeaea, oaeea ia?auaiey aae?anothony i?aaiai, oiieiiii/aiiui
i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey ii nouanoao. Cae?aieaiea e?aoeeo n?ieia iaaeaeiaaiey
i?ecaaii iiaoaeeoue a?aaeaeai aeaenoaiaaoue aieaa iia?aoeaii, e oiio aea
a ?yaea neo/aaa onoaiiaeaiu aieaa ei?ioeea n?iee ?anniio?aiey
niaoeeaeueiuo aeaeia, e aeaenoaea iaaeaeoaiiai aeoa iiaeao auoue
i?einoaiiaeaii. A a oeaeii i?aai ia iauoth aaeieieno?aoeaioth aeaeiao e
aeiiieiythuaa aai i?aai ia niaoeeaeueiia iaaeaeiaaiea – aaaeiaeoaa
n?aaenoai caueou i?aa a?aaeaeai.

I?aao a?aaeaeai ia aeaeiau ei??aniiiaee?oao iaycaiiinoue
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e ioieoeeiaeueiuo i?aaiia, i?aaiecaoeee, aeieaeiinoiuo
eeoe e eiuo noauaeoia aeanoe nicaeaaaoue oneiaey aeey aai ?aaeecaoeee.
Iie aeieaeiu:

?acuyniyoue a?aaeaeaiai oaeia i?aai;

i?eieiaoue e onoiua e ienueiaiiua aeaeiau;

?aaioaoue n ieie;

eioi?ie?iaaoue i ?aaioa n ia?auaieyie eo aaoi?ia;

nenoaiaoe/anee iaiauaoue ia?auaiey n oeaeueth eco/aiey iauanoaaiiiai
iiaiey, niaa?oainoaiaaiey naiae ?aaiou, naiaa?aiaiiiai auyaeaiey e
ono?aiaiey i?e/ei ia?ooaiey i?aa e caeiiiuo eioa?ania a?aaeaeai.

Ca i?aaiecaoeeth ?aaiou n aeaeiaaie e eiuie ia?auaieyie a?aaeaeai
?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?aaiecaoeee ianao ee/ioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue.

§4. I?iecaiaenoai ii aaeieieno?aoeaiui aeaeiaai a?aaeaeai

?iaioa n aeaeiaaie a?aaeaeai – iniaue aeae aaeieieno?aoeaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, a i?ioeanna eioi?ie inouanoaeyaony iineaaeiaaoaeueiue
?yae aeaenoaee, auiieiythony iaycaiiinoe, ?aaeecothony i?aaa.
Niioaaonoaothuea iaycaiiinoe e i?aaa eiie?aoece?othony nenoaiie
i?ioeannoaeueiuo ii?i, ?aaeaiaioe?othueo i?ioeaaeo?u ?aaiou n
ia?auaieyie a?aaeaeai. Eiuie neiaaie, nouanoaoao aeiaieueii ?acaeoia,
iieiia e /aoeia i?iecaiaenoai ii aeaeiaai. Ia oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia iii
o?aaoee?iaaii iiea aua aeaenoaothuei Oeacii I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai
Niaaoa NNN? io 12 ai?aey 1968 aiaea (a ?aaeaeoeee Oeaca io 4 ia?oa 1980
aiaea). Yoio enoi/iee aaeieieno?aoeaii-i?ioeannoaeueiuo ii?i oae e
iacuaaaony: “I ii?yaeea ?anniio?aiey i?aaeeiaeaiee, cayaeaiee e aeaeia
a?aaeaeai”. A eaeie-oi ia?a aai ii?iu, ?aaoee?othuea i?ioeaaeo?o
?anniio?aiey iaueo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aeaeia, aeiiieiythony ii?iaie
caeiiia noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee. *oi aea eanaaony iniaaiiinoae i?ioeaaeo?
?anniio?aiey niaoeeaeueiuo aeaeia, oi iie onoaiaaeeaathony oieueei
oaaea?aeueiuie caeiiaie.

A i?iecaiaenoaa ii iauei aaeieieno?aoeaiui aeaeiaai iiaeii auaeaeeoue
/aou?a noaaeee:

Ia?aay ec ieo – noaaeey ia?ae/iie ia?aaioee. Caeanue iieo/atho
ienueiaiiua e auneooeaatho onoiua ia?auaiey e ?aaeno?e?otho eo. A
iyoeaeiaaiue n?ie ?oeiaiaeeoaeue iaycai iaania/eoue ia?ae/iia aeaeaeaiea
aeaeiau, oi anoue ii?aaeaeeoue, eoi e eae aoaeao ?aaioaoue n aeaeiaie,
eeai ia?aneaoue aa a eiiiaoaioioth i?aaiecaoeeth. AEaeiao, eioi?ay
iai?aaeyaony a ae?oaea i?aaiecaoeee, noauaeo aeanoe iiaeao acyoue “ia
eiio?ieue”. Yoi icia/aao o?aaiaaiea auneaoue aio eiieth ioaaoa
a?aaeaeaieio, eeai aa?iooue aeaei iinea ?ac?aoaiey aeaeiau. Anee aeaeiaa
yaeyaony iiaoi?iie, oi e iae iaiaoiaeeii i?eiaueoue ana iaoa?eaeu
i?aaeuaeouaai ?anniio?aiey.

Aoi?ay noaaeey – i?iaa?ea aeaeiau (aiaeec neooaoeee). I?aaeaea anaai,
aeieaeia auoue nia?aia e i?iaiaeece?iaaia eioi?iaoeey, iaiaoiaeeiay aeey
i?eiyoey i?aaeeueiiai ?aoaiey. Eiiaaea aeey i?iaa?ee ia?acothony
niaoeeaeueiua eiiennee. E i?iaa?eai i?eaeaeathony niaoeeaeenou,
aeoeaenou. Aeiaieueii /anoi i?iaa?ythuei i?eoiaeeony auacaeaoue ooaea,
aaea iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu naaaeaiey, ioaeiua aeey aeaea.

O?aouey noaaeey – i?eiyoea ?aoaiey ii aeaeiaa. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a
ethaie aeanoiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?eiyoea aeoa (?aoaiey, caeiia,
i?eaiai?a) yaeyaony oeaio?aeueiui iiiaioii ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. A noaaeey
i?eiyoey ?aoaiey – aeaaiay a ethaii aaeieieno?aoeaiii i?iecaiaenoaa.
Iineieueeo ?aoaiea iiaeaiaeeo eoia oaea i?iaeaeaiiie ?aaiou, onoaiiaeaiu
n?iee aai i?eiyoey, a cia/eo, n?iee ?anniio?aiey ia?auaiey (aeaea).
Iauee n?ie ?anniio?aiey aeaeia a?aaeaeai – iaeei ianyoe. Caeii /aoei
ii?aaeaeee ia/aei oa/aiey n?iea ?ac?aoaiey aeaeiau – ni aeiy aa
iinooieaiey a ainoaea?noaaiioth eee iauanoaaiioth i?aaiecaoeeth,
iaycaiioth ?aoeoue aii?in ii nouanoao. N?ie ieai/eaaaony a aeaiue
i?eiyoey (iiaeienaiey) ?aoaiey, a anee ia i?eieiaaony, eiioeii n?iea
neaaeoao n/eoaoue aeaoo iiaeienaiey ioaaoa ia ienueii a?aaeaeaieia. I?e
yoii anee ieii/aiea n?iea ?anniio?aiey aeaeiau i?eoiaeeony ia ia?aai/ee
aeaiue, aeiai ieii/aiey n?iea neaaeoao n/eoaoue ia?aue, neaaeothuee ca
iei ?aai/ee aeaiue. A ?acoeueoaoa ?anniio?aiey aeaeiau iiaeao auoue
i?eiyoi ?aoaiea:

I iieiii oaeiaeaoai?aiee;

I /anoe/iii oaeiaeaoai?aiee;

Ia ioeaca a oaeiaeaoai?aiee aeaeiau (a nayce n aa iaiainiiaaiiinoueth, n
enoa/aieai n?iea, iaaiciiaeiinoueth aa i?iaa?ee e o. ae.)

I ?acuyniaiee ii iinoaaeaiiui aii?inai (ia eo iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiinoe,
i?aaiaii ?aaoee?iaaiee e o. ae.).

*aoaa?oay noaaeey i?iecaiaenoaa ii aeaeiaai – eniieiaiea i?eiyoiai
?aoaiey. I?aaeaea anaai, iaiaoiaeeii auneaoue ioaao ia ienueiaiioth
aeaeiao, a ia onoioth iiaeii ioaaoeoue onoii. Eiia/ii, iaeuecy n/eoaoue
aeaeiao ?ac?aoaiiie, anee iia /anoe/ii eee iieiinoueth oaeiaeaoai?aia,
iaienai e auneai ioaao, ii oaeoe/anee ie/aai ia naeaeaii. Noauaeo aeanoe
a oaeeo neo/ayo iaycai i?eiyoue iaiaoiaeeiua ia?u aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey
ia?ooaiiuo i?aa a?aaeaeaieia, i?eianoe aio ecaeiaiey. Ii i?inueaa
a?aaeaeaieia i i?eiyouo ia?ao iaiaoiaeeii i?ieioi?ie?iaaoue
caeioa?aniaaiiuo a ?anniio?aiee aeaeiau eeoe.

§5. I?aai a?aaeaeai ia noaeaaiia iaaeaeiaaiea iacaeiiiuo ?aoaiee
(aeaenoaee) i?aaiia eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe e eo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe.
I?aai a?aaeaeaieia ia aiciauaiea oua?aa, i?e/eiaiiiai iacaeiiiuie
aeaenoaeyie eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe e aa aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe

Noaeaaiue ii?yaeie ?ac?aoaiey aeaeia yaeyaony iaaeaaeiui niiniaii io?aiu
a?aaeaeai, iniaaiii a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea eo i?aaa e eioa?anu
ia?ooathony iai?aaiia?iuie aeaenoaeyie noauaeoia aeanoe. Yoi iaoneiaeaii
oai, /oi aeaea ?anniao?eaathony naiaiaeiuie io aaaeiinoaaiiuo aeeyiee e
eioa?ania noaeueyie, noaeuee iacaaeneiu, iaeaaeatho iaiaoiaeeiie
eaaeeoeeaoeeae aeey ?acae?aoaeuenoaa aeae, a i?ioeaaeo?a i?aainoaeey
iaeeo/oei ia?acii i?eniiniaeaia aeey auyaeaiey enoeiu. AEaeiaa, eae
i?aaeei, iiaeaaony a noae ii ianoo aeeoaeuenoaa a?aaeaeaieia, cayaeoaeue
ee/ii o/anoaoao a ?anniio?aiee aeaea e iiaeao aeoeaii caueuaoue naie
eioa?anu, a noaeaaiii nii?a ii – noi?iia ?aaiii?aaiay n ae?oaie noi?iiie
aeaea, eioi?ie yaeyaony noauaeo aeanoe, /uee aeaenoaey iaaeaeothony.
Noaeaaiue iaaeci? ca caeiiiinoueth aaeieieno?aoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeae ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey. Aai niaoeeoeea
ninoieo a oii, /oi i?iaa?yaony oieueei caeiiiinoue aeanoiuo aeoia,
aeaenoaee e aacaeaenoaey noauaeoia aeanoe. I?iaa?eo i?iaiaeeo i?aai
i?aainoaeey i?e ?anniio?aiee eiie?aoiuo aeae ii aeaeiaai e eneai
a?aaeaeai.

Iaeiie ec oi?i noaeaaiie caueou yaeyaony i?aaeoniio?aiiia no. 53
Eiinoeoooeeae ?O i?aai a?aaeaeai ia aiciauaiea oua?aa, i?e/eiaiiiai
iacaeiiiuie aeaenoaeyie ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee. N 1 ia?oa 1996
aiaea aiciauaiea oua?aa ?aaoee?oaony ae. 59 AE ?O. Oae, a no. 1069
neacaii: “A?aae, i?e/eiaiiue a?aaeaeaieio eee th?eaee/aneiio eeoeo a
?acoeueoaoa iacaeiiiuo aeaenoaee (aacaeaenoaey) ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaiia, i?aaiia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey eeai aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe yoeo
i?aaiia, a oii /enea a ?acoeueoaoa ecaeaiey ia niioaaonoaothuaai caeiio
eee eiiio i?aaiaiio aeoo aeoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaia eee i?aaia
ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, iiaeeaaeeo aiciauaieth. A?aae aiciauaaony ca
n/ao niioaaonoaaiii eaciu ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, eaciu noauaeoa
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee eee eaciu ioieoeeiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey”.
Iniaaiiinoue ioaaonoaaiiinoe ii no. 1069 AE a oii, /oi iia ianooiaao ca
i?ioeaii?aaiua, aeanoiua, neoaeaaiua aeayiey.

Aeaaa II.

I ?aaioa n ia?auaieyie a?aaeaeai a Niaaoa Oaaea?aoeee Oaaea?aeueiiai
Nia?aiey ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Aiaeec iinooieaoae a 1998 aiaeo ei??aniiiaeaioeee naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
oii, /oi eciaiaiea ninoaaa Niaaoa Oaaea?aoeee iinea i?ioaaeoeo auai?ia
?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?aaiia caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe
noauaeoia niinianoaiaaei ?inoo aaoi?eoaoa aa?oiae iaeaou ia?eaiaioa.
A?aaeaeaia aiceaaatho iaaeaaeaeo ia iiaia I?aaeoaeuenoai ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee e Niaao Oaaea?aoeee eae ia ainoaea?noaaiiue i?aai, niiniaiue
iaeaieaa eiino?oeoeaii aeeyoue ia yeiiiieeo e iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneoth
ianoaiiaeo a no?aia. Aieaa oiai, ai iiiaeo ia?auaieyo au?aaeaaony
oaa?aiiinoue, /oi yoi aeeyiea auei au ai?acaei yooaeoeaiaa i?e
iaaeaeaiee Niaaoa Oaaea?aoeee eiio?ieueiuie ooieoeeyie ca
aeayoaeueiinoueth eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe.

*anoue ia?auaiee (9,1%) niaea?aeaea a naaa i?aaeeiaeaiey e
caeiiii?iaeoai e eciaiaieth aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, aeeth/ay
Eiinoeoooeeth ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Iniaue eioa?an a?aaeaeai aue
i?iyaeai a ioiioaiee oaaea?aeueiuo caeiiia “I naiaiaea niaanoe e
?aeeaeiciuo iauaaeeiaieyo”, “I aieineie iaycaiiinoe e aiaiiie neoaeaa”,
“I aaoa?aiao”, “I ainnoaiiaeaiee e caueoa naa?aaeaiee a?aaeaeai
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee” e ae?. Na?ueaciua i?aoaicee (iniaaiii io
aeeoaeae E?aeiaai Naaa?a e i?e?aaiaiiuo e iei ianoiinoyi) auee
i?aaeuyaeaiu e Oaaea?aeueiiio Caeiio “I ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oaaee/aiey
ainoaea?noaaiiuo iainee”.

Ec niaea?aeaiey iinooieaoae ei??aniiiaeaioeee neaaeoao oae aea, /oi
nioeeaeueiay caueoa ianaeaiey inoaaony iaeiie ec ino?aeoeo i?iaeai
ainoaea?noaa. A eaaeaeii aeaaiaaeoeaoii ienueia niiauaeinue i oyaeaeii
iaoa?eaeueiii iieiaeaiee ethaeae nioeeaeueii iacaueuaiiie a?oiiu, i
ieceeo ?acia?ao iainee e eo ianaiaa?aiaiiuo auieaoao, ia ionoonoaee
oeiaine?iaaiey ia ?aaeecaoeeth i?aaeoniio?aiiuo aeaenoaothuei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii eueaio.

A oa/aiea anaai aiaea iinooiaee o?aaiaeiua neaiaeu i aieueoeo
caaea?aeeao a auieaoao ca?aaioiie ieaou, iiniaee, noeiaiaeee,
aeaiaaeiiai aeiaieuenoaey, eiiiainaoeee e ae?oaeo auieao.

A nayce n aeaiiieiaoeeae ?oaey, iiiaeie a?aaeaeaiaie auaeaeaaeinue
o?aaiaaiea i?eiyoue caeiiiaeaoaeueiue aeo i nio?aiaiee aei?aoi?iaiiuo
aeeaaeia a eiathuainy oeeo?iaii au?aaeaiee. A ienueiao oeacuaaeinue, /oi
iaania/aiea nio?aiiinoe aeaiaaeiuo naa?aaeaiee auei aa?aioe?iaaii
ainoaea?noaii. A nayce n /ai noaaeeny aii?in i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
th?eaee/aneiai ioi?ieaiey ii?yaeea iiaaoaiey aioo?aiiaai aeieaa
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii naa?aaeaieyi a?aaeaeai e i?aaiecaoeee auieao
ii iaycaoaeuenoaai.

Ii/oe a aeaa ?aca ii n?aaiaieth n i?ioeui aiaeii aic?inei eiee/anoai
ii/ou ii aii?inai ainoaea?noaa e iieeoeee (12,1%). I?iaeieaeathuayny
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey aeioiaeia ?acee/iuo a?oii ianaeaiey, iiiai/eneaiiua
ioaeeeaoeee i ei??oiie?iaaiiinoe aunieiiinoaaeaiiuo /eiiaieeia e
?acaaca?eaaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa – ana yoi iiaoaeaeaao a?aaeaeai
auneacuaaoueny ia ionoonoaee a no?aia i?iaicaeaoaiiuo aeaiie?aoe/aneeo e
i?aaiauo i?eioeeiia iino?iaiey ainoaea?noaa, i iaeniieiaiee naieo
iaycaiiinoae I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, i iaauiieiaiee
I?aceaeaioii ?innee ooieoeee aa?aioa i?aa e naiaiae a?aaeaeai.

N iniaie o?aaiaie iiiaea aaoi?u ienai ia?auaee aieiaiea ?oeiaiaenoaa e
/eaiia Niaaoa Oaaea?aoeee ia i?iaeieaeathueeny niaae i?iecaiaenoaa, ia
?acaae i?iiuoeaiiiai iioaioeeaea no?aiu. Iaaeioeiaine?iaaiea io?aneae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iaiiia?iua iaeiae, ?ino acaeiiuo iaieaoaaeae, nie?auaiea
/eneaiiinoe ?aaioathueo ia i?aaei?eyoeyo, inoaiiaea aunieioaoiieiae/iuo
i?aaei?eyoee – ana yoi n aieueth ca ioa/anoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai
io?aaeaeinue a ienueiao ?inneyi. Oaeaea iinooiaee aiciouaiiua ia?auaiey
o?oaeiauo eieeaeoeaia i ia?ooaiey a oiaea i?eaaoecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe. Aic?iaeaeaiea i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e iiaeuai
yeiiiie/aneiai iioaioeeaea no?aiu aaniethoiia aieueoeinoai aaoi?ia
ia?auaiee aeaeyo a eciaiaiee eo?na i?iaiaeeiuo ?aoi?i. Yoi iaoei
io?aaeaiea a ?aciethoeeyo ieoeiaia e nia?aiee, i?iaaaeaiiuo a aeie
ana?inneeneie aeoeee i?ioanoa e a nayce ni ciaiaieouie enoi?e/aneeie
aeaoaie.

Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ei??aniiiaeaioeee iinooieea io i?aaenoaaeoaeae
aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena. N aieueoie o?aaiaie ?aaioieee naeueneiai
oicyenoaa ienaee i ia?anoathuai aeenia?eoaoa oeai iaaeaeo i?iiuoeaiiie
e naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeeae, i iaiiia?ii aunieeo oeaiao ia
yia?aiiineoaee, iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneea ?ano?nu, i nie?auaiee ?aaeueiie
ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee. Yoe oaeoi?u, a oaeaea ieceay
iieoiaoaeueneay niiniaiinoue ianaeaiey e yaiue i?ei?eoao eiii?oiuo
i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey, ii eo iiaieth, i?eaiaeyo e aeaa?aaeaoeee
ioa/anoaaiiiai aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena e noaayo no?aio a
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiioth caaeneiinoue. Ieceay iieaoa naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
o?oaea, ino?ioa nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai, aac?aaioeoea, ?ac?ooaiea
eio?ano?oeoo?u naea – ana yoe i?iaeaiu auee inaauaiu a ia?auaieyo
aa?a?eaa ec ?acee/iuo ?aaeiiia ?innee.

Aeey auoiaea ec nicaeaaoaainy e?eceniiai iieiaeaiey aaoi?u ia?auaiee
i?aaeeaaaee iaania/eoue a iieiii iauaia auaeaeaiea anneaiiaaiee,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo a athaeaeaoa, onoaiiaeoue iaeiaiaua eueaiou
i?aaei?eyoeyi, iinoaaeythuei ?ano?nu aeey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, i?eiyoue ia?u ii ?acaeoeth nioeeaeueiie noa?u naea e
o.ae. Ienueia o?oaeaieeia aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena, a oaeaea iiiaeo
a?aaeaeai, ia naycaiiuo n naeueneei oicyenoaii, naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ia eo
iaaaoeaiii ioiioaiee e naiaiaeiie eoiea-i?iaeaaea caiee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey, o?aaotho cai?aoeoue yoi
caeiiiaeaoaeueiui aeoii.

A Niaao Oaaea?aoeee iinooieei aieueoia eiee/anoai ii/ou ii aii?inai,
aoiaeyuei a eiiiaoaioeeth i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia. I?e yoii naie
ia?auaiey e Niaaoo Oaaea?aoeee ei??aniiiaeaiou iioeae?otho oai, /oi
eiaiii aa?oiyy iaeaoa iaaeaeaia i?aaii ooaa?aeaeaoue aunoeo
?oeiaiaeeoaeae Aaia?aeueiie i?ieo?aoo?u ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e
Noaeia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ianao ii?aaeaeaiioth
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaiou yoeo no?oeoo? aeanoe.
Iaeiia?aiaiii a ienueiao iiaeieiaeenue iiiai/eneaiiua i?iaeaiu naieo
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia. Yoi ianaiaa?aiaiiay auieaoa e
ianiioaaonoaothuay o?iaith aeecie ca?aaioiay ieaoa nio?oaeieeia noaeia,
i?ieo?aoo?, i?aaiia aioo?aiieo aeae, caaeieaeaiiinoue ainoaea?noaa ii
oeiaine?iaaieth yoeo i?aaiia ia iieaoo eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa, ii/oiauo
?anoiaeia, aucia naeaeaoaeae e ae?. Oaeia iieiaeaiea aeae a
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiao, ii iiaieth aaoi?ia, i?eaiaeeo ia oieueei e
oaaee/aieth niaiyaiinoe ee/iiai ninoaaa, ii e e aiciiaeiiio n?aueaaieth
nio?oaeieeia i?aaiii?yaeea n i?aaieciaaiiie i?anooiiinoueth.

A 1998 aiaeo a Niaao Oaaea?aoeee iinooiaee ia?auaiey a?aaeaeai ia
oneeaiee aeeyiey ia aeayoaeueiinoue n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, i
iaaeiiouaiee ?inoa aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiuo ieaoaaeae aac ?aaeueiiai
oaaee/aiey aeioiaeia ianaeaiey, i oeiaine?iaaiee nenoaiu ia?aciaaiey a
iieiii iauaia e oeo/oaiee ainieoaiey iiae?anoathuaai iieieaiey, i
nioeeaeueiie caueoa aiaiiineoaeaueo e /eaiia eo naiae e ae?.

Caeeth/aiea

Ia?auaiey a?aaeaeai a ainoaea?noaaiiua e iauanoaaiiua i?aaiu n
i?aaeeiaeaieyie, cayaeaieyie, aeaeiaaie – aaaeiia n?aaenoai
inouanoaeaiey e io?aiu i?aa ee/iinoe, ?anoe?aiey naycae
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa n ianaeaieai, nouanoaaiiue enoi/iee
eioi?iaoeee, iaiaoiaeeiie i?e ?aoaiee oaeoueo e ia?niaeoeaiuo aii?inia
ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee, nioeeaeueiiai e oicyenoaaiiiai iai?aaeaiey,
yoi naiaia?aciue eiaeeeaoi? ninoiyiey iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey a?aaeaeai.

ssaeyynue iaeiie ec oi?i o/anoey o?oaeyueony a oi?aaeaiee, ia?auaiey
a?aaeaeai aeieaeiu niinianoaiaaoue oneeaieth eiio?iey ia?iaea ca
aeayoaeueiinoueth ainoaea?noaaiiie e ae?oaeo i?aaiia, a ai?ueaa n
aieieeoie, ath?ie?aoeciii, iai?aaiia?iuie aeaenoaeyie e ae?oaeie
iaaeinoaoeaie a eo ?aaioa. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy niaa?oainoaoaony
aeayoaeueiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiuo, iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiia, aeieaeiinoiuo
eeoe e i?aaiia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey a ?aaioa ii oeo/oaieth i?eaia
ianaeaiey, naiaa?aiaiiiio e i?aaeeueiiio ?anniio?aieth i?aaeeiaeaiee,
cayaeaiee, aeaeia a?aaeaeai e, iaeiiaoe, auyaeaieth e ono?aiaieth
i?e/ei, aucuaathueo aeaeiau. Iaeiaei eiee/anoai ioeeeeia ia
i?ienoiaeyuea a no?aia iieeoe/aneea e yeiiiie/aneea niauoey iaoeeiiii
?anoao, oaaee/eaaaony e iinooieaiea eieeaeoeaiuo ia?auaiee, ana /aua
a?aaeaeaia i?aaeuyaeytho naie o?aaiaaiey a oi?ia aeoeee, caaanoiaee,
ieoeiaa, aieiaeiaee e o. ae. Ia yoi ana iaeuecy cae?uaaoue aeaca e a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aunoei i?aaiai ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. Iai?eiyoea
ia?, ia ?aaae?iaaiea ia ana i?ienoiaeyuaa naaiaeiy, iiaeao i?eaanoe e
nioeeaeueiiio ac?uao. Aaaeue ana /aua a aunooieaieyo a?aaeaeai cao/ao
iieeoe/aneea o?aaiaaiey: niaia eo?na ?aoi?i, niaia i?aaeoaeuenoaa, auai?
iiaiai I?aceaeaioa e o. ae.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Ii?iaoeaiay eeoa?aoo?a

Eiinoeoooeey ?O. -I.: TH?eaee/aneay eeoa?aoo?a. 1993.

Eiaeaen ia aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiia?ooaieyo. // Nia?aiea
Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?O. 1995. ?14. no 1212.

Iaeiaiaue Eiaeaen ?O. -I. Ecaeaoaeuenoai “TH?aeo”. 1998.

Oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiue Eiaeaen ?NON?. -I. Ecaeaoaeuenoai “Eio?a-I”.
1997.

A?aaeaeaineee i?ioeannoaeueiue Eiaeaen ?NON?. -I. Ecaeaoaeuenoai
“Eio?a-I”. 1999.

A?aaeaeaineee Eiaeaen ?O. -I. Ecaeaoaeuenoai “TH?aeo”. 1999.

I ii?yaeea ?anniio?aiey i?aaeeiaeaiee, cayaeaiee e aeaeia a?aaeaeai:
Oeac I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? io 12 ai?aey 1968 aiaea, a
?aaeaeoeee Oeacia I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? io 4 ia?oa 1980
aiaea e 2 oaa?aey 1988 aiaea. // Aaaeiiinoe Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN?.
1980. ?11. no 192.

Ia iaaeaeiaaiee a noae aeaenoaee e ?aoaiee, ia?ooathueo i?aaa e naiaiaeu
a?aaeaeai: Oaaea?aeueiue Caeii ?O io 27 ai?aey 1993 aiaea.

I caueoa i?aa /aeiaaea e iniiaiuo naiaiae: Eiiaaioeey. // Nia?aiea
Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?O. 1998. ?20. no 2143.

2. Niaoeeaeueiay eeoa?aoo?a

Aao?ao Ae.I. Aaeieoieno?aoeaiia i?aai. -I. Ecaeaoaeuenoai “Aae”. 1997.

Aao?ao Ae.I. Aaeieoieno?aoeaii-i?aaiaie noaoon a?aaeaeai a ?innee,
o/aaiia iiniaea. -Aeaoa?eiao?a. 1998.

Ianyiei Ae.I. Aaeieoieno?aoeaiia i?aai. -I. Ecaeaoaeuenoai “TH?enou”.
1997

?aae/aiei A.E. Iniiau ainoaea?noaaiiiai e ioieoeeiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey:
nenoaiiue iiaeoiae. -?inoia-ia-Aeiio. 1997.

* Nia?aiea Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?O. 1998. ?20. no 2143

* Aaaeiiinoe Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN?. 1980. ?11. no 192

* Nia?aiea Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?O. 1995. ?14. no 1212.

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