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Общерусский судебник 1497 года

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Ieienoa?noai iauaai e n?aaeiaai i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey

?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

*oaaoneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao

Eiaie E.I. Oeueyiiaa

Einoeooo yeiiiieee, oeiainia e i?aaa

TH?eaee/aneee oaeoeueoao

Eaoaae?a ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiauo aeenoeeieei

Eo?niaay ?aaioa ia oaio:

“Iaua?onneee Noaeaaiee

1497 a.”

Auiieiee nooaeaio

a?oiiu THO-14-98

Nie?iia I.N.

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

aeieoi? th?eaee/aneeo iaoe,

i?ioanni? Oeiioaaa A.A.

*aaiena?u 1999

Ieai

Aaaaeaiea 3

Enneaaeiaaiey Noaeaaieea 1497 a. 4

Aeaaa 1. Ia?aciaaiea e ?acaeoea ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa

1.1. I?aaeiinueee ia?aciaaiey ?onneiai

oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa 12

1.2. Iauanoaaiiue no?ie 14

1.3. Ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie 18

1.4. Caieaaeaaeaiea 24

Aeaaa 2. Noaeaaiee

2.1. Iaycaoaeuenoaa 26

2.2. Ianeaaenoaaiiia i?aai 26

2.3. Iiiyoea e aeaeu i?anooieaiee 27

2.4. Aeaeu iaeacaiee 34

2.5. Noaeaaiua i?aaiu 37

2.6. Iniiaiua /a?ou noaeii?iecaiaenoaa 41

Caeeth/aiea 50

Eniieueciaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a 51

Aaaaeaiea

Iiy ?aaioa iinayuaia iaua?onneiio Noaeaaieeo 1497 a. Yoo oaio y
aua?ae iioiio, /oi Noaeaaiee yaeyaony aeieoiaioii, eioi?ue ciaiaioao
iiaoth yiioo a enoi?ee ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ?innee – noaiiaeaiea
aaeeiiai ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa.

?acaeoea oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee, ia?aciaaiea oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai
ainoaea?noaa o?aaiaaee nicaeaiey nouanoaaiii iiauo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo
aeoia. A oeaeyo oeaio?aeecaoeee ainoaea?noaa, an? aieueoaai iiae/eiaiey
iano aeanoe iineianeiai eiycy ecaeaaaeenue onoaaiua a?aiiou
iaianoie/ueaai oi?aaeaiey, ?aaeaiaioe?iaaaoea aeayoaeueiinoue
ei?ieaiueeia, ia?aie/eaoea a eaeie-oi ia?a eo i?iecaie. Iaeaieaa ?aiieie
onoaaiuie a?aiioaie auee Aeaeineay (1397 eee 1398) e Aaeica?neay (1488).
Iaiyoieeii oeiainiaiai i?aaa yaeyaony Aaeic??neay oaiiaeaiiay a?aiioa
1497 a., i?aaeoniao?eaaaoay nai? aioo?aiieo oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei ioo?i
naea/e eo ia ioeoi.

Ii naiui cia/eoaeueiui iaiyoieeii i?aaa aue Noaeaaiee 1497 a. Aeaaiie
oeaeueth aai auei ?ani?ino?aiaiea th?enaeeeoeee aaeeeiai eiycy ia anth
oa??eoi?eth ?onneiai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa. Noaeaaiee ai?n
aaeeiiia?acea a noaeaaioth i?aeoeeo ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa. Ii eiae e
ae?oaoth oeaeue – cae?aieoue iiaua iauanoaaiiua ii?yaeee, a /anoiinoe,
iinoaiaiiia auaeaeaeaiea iaeeeo e n?aaeieo oaiaeaeia – aeai?yi e aeaoae
aiy?neeo. A oaiaeo yoei nioeeaeueiui a?oiiai ii ai?n iiaua ia?aie/aiey a
noaeaaioth aeayoaeueiinoue ei?ieaiueeia, a aeaaiia, iieiaeee ia/aei
anaiauaio cae?aiiuaieth, aaaaey iianaianoii o.i. TH?ueaa aeaiue.
Noaeaaiee noi?ioee?iaae yeiiiie/aneea iniiau aeecie ?innee: aue
ii?aaeaeai noaoon aio/ei e iiianoee, i?eioeeiu nianoaaiiinoe e aeanoe –
ia oieueei eae oaeiaua, ii e ii ioaeaeueiui a?oiiai. Iaiaei ianoa
oaeaeaii nenoaia oaieiaiuo iaeacaiee ca ?acee/iua i?anooieaiey. E,
iaeiiaoe, Noaeaaiee io?aaoee?iaae i?aaiecaoeeiiii-nenoaiiua ioiioaiey
noaeaaiie aeanoe – ?aiueoa naiui ?ani?ino?aiaiiui niiniaii noaeaaiiai
?acae?aoaeuenoaa aue iiaaeeiie, e aaiaeeiua yeaiaiou ?anneaaeiaaiey, a
oaeaea nai?a e o/aoa naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee (oioy au e aeiauouo a
iuoeao) auee na?ueaciui iiaiaaaaeaieai. A Noaeaaieea oi?ioee?oaony
aia?aua /?acau/aeii aaaeiia i?eioeeieaeueiia iinoaiiaeaiea i oii, /oi
Noaeaaiee yaeyaony ia i?aaii noaeaaiuo e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiia, ia
eo aeioiaeiie noaoue?e, a eo iaycaiiinoueth; ?aoeoaeueiui ia?acii
i?iaiaeeony acaeyae i oii, /oi /anoiue eioa?an aeieaeai onooiaoue
oaieiaiiio o?aaiaaieth ainoaea?noaa, a ee/iue eioa?an noaeaaiiai i?aaia
– eioa?ano noi?iiu a i?ioeanna. Oeene?othony iiiai/eneaiiua
ceioiio?aaeaiey noaeaaiuo e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe e
i?eieiathony ia?u e eo ono?aiaieth. A Noaeaaieea i?iaiaeyony i?eioeeiu
eeanniaie thnoeoeee e a aeooa yoeo i?eioeeiia oneeaiu iaeacaiey aeey
?acee/iuo a?oii i?anooiieeia e aianoa n oai onoaiaaeeaaaony iiaay oi?ia
i?ioeanna (?icune).

Enoi/ieeaie Noaeaaieea yaeeenue ?I, INA, oaeouaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
iineianeeo eiycae. Ii ii ia i?inoi iaiauee iaeiieaoeeny i?aaiaie
iaoa?eae. Aieueoa iieiaeiu noaoae auei iaienaii caiiai, a noa?ua ii?iu
/anoi a ei?ia ia?a?aaioaiu. Noaeaaiee 1497 a. niaea?aeae aeaaiui ia?acii
ii?iu oaieiaiiai e oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiiai i?aaa. Aai iiaeii n/eoaoue
iniiaiui yae?ii, aie?oa eioi?iai noaea neeaaeuaaoueny nenoaia
iineianeiai, a iioii e ana?inneeneiai i?aaa.

ss n/eoath, /oi eco/aiea i?aaiauo einoeoooia a eo?na enoi?ee aeieaeii
auoue oanii acaeiinaycaii n eco/aieai iauanoaa e ainoaea?noaa. Eiaiii
iiyoiio y iiianoee a naith ?aaioo ioieou i ainoaea?noaaiiii e
iauanoaaiiii ono?ienoaa Iineianeiai (?inneeneiai) ainoaea?noaa.

Enneaaeiaaiey Noaeaaieea 1497 a.

Ia?aia oiiieiaiea i Noaeaaieea eiaaony a “Caieneao i Iineiaee”
aano?eeneiai aeeieiiaoa Neaecioiaea Aa?aa?ooaeia, auaoaai iineii
eiia?aoi?a Iaeneieeeaia i?e aeai?a Aaneeey III. Iioaeeeiaaiiua a 1556 a.
a Aacaea ia eaoeineii ycuea, yoe caienee ?ane?uaaee niaea?aeaiea eeoue
ia?auo noaoae Noaeaaieea (3-7, 9-16) i ii?yaeea ?aoaiey nii?ia i?e
iiiiue noaeaaiiai iiaaeeiea e iaeacaieyo ca ?aciiai ?iaea i?anooieaiey.

?oeiienue Noaeaaieea 1497 a. auea iaia?oaeaia a 1817 a. I.I. No?iaaui
e iioaeeeiaaia ei niaianoii n E.O. Eaeaeaeiae/ai a 1819 a. Iia inoa?ony
aei neo ii? aaeeinoaaiiui ecaanoiui nieneii Noaeaaieea e o?aieony a
oiiaea Ainoaea?noaaiiiai ae?aaeao?aieeeua Oeaio?aeueiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai a?oeaa ae?aaieo aeoia a Iineaa.

A niaaoneia a?aiy auoei aeaaeaie/aneia ecaeaiea Noaeaaieea 1497 a.
(iiaeaioiaea oaenoa e ia/aoe e eiiiaioa?ee E.A. *a?aiieia). Enneaaeoy
aaeeinoaaiiue nio?aieaoeeny nienie Noaeaaieea 1497 a., ii i?eo?e e
auaiaeo, /oi oaeno aai aue ia?aienai n iiaeeeiieea eee n ae?oaiai nienea
ia iaiaa /ai o?aiy niaiyaoeie ae?oa ae?oaa ienoeaie. ?oeiienue
Noaeaaieea ia eiaao iinoaoaeiie ioia?aoeee. A? oaeno iiae?acaeaeyaony n
iiiiuueth eeiiaa?iuo caaieiaeia ia 36 ?acaeaeia, aioo?e eioi?uo eiathony
aieaa iaeeea iiae?acaeaeaiey – auiieiaiiua oaeaea eeiiaa?ueth eieoeeaeu.
Nenoaiaoece?oy yoe iiae?acaeaeaiey, I.O. Aeaaeeie?neee-Aoaeaiia i?e
ioaeeeaoeee oaenoa a naiae “O?anoiiaoee”, ecaeaiiie a 1873 a., ?acaeaeee
aai ia 68 noaoae. Iaeiaei, eae iieacae E.A. *a?aiiei, yoi aeaeaiea
eneonnoaaiii. I.O. Aeaaeeie?neee-Aoaeaiia, iieueciaaaoeeny
eneeth/eoaeueii ioaeeeaoeeae E.O. Eaeaeaeiae/a e I.I. No?iaaa, a eioi?ie
ia anthaeo o/eouaaeinue iaee/ea auiieiaiiuo eeiiaa?ueth eieoeeaeia, ia
io?acee iieiinoueth a?oeoaeoiieeo iaiyoieea. Ii iiaieth E.A. *a?aiieia,
iaiyoiee neaaeoao ?acaeoue ia 100 noaoae. Iaeiaei aaeaeo oiai, /oi ana
iao/iua ?aaiou, iinayu?iiua Noaeaaieeo 1497 a., iniiaaiu ia ioia?aoeee
I.O. Aeaaeeie?neiai-Aoaeaiiaa, a aeaaeaie/aneii ecaeaiee nio?aiaii
iauai?eiyoia aeaeaiea.

A 1955-56 aa. iiae ?aaeaeoeeae E.A. *a?aiieia auoee 3-e e 4-e auionee
“Iaiyoieeia ?onneiai i?aaa”, ioaaouaaaoea ia?eiaeu ia?aciaaiey e
oe?aieaiey ?onneiai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa. A ieo iioaeeeiaaiu
oaenou Noaeaaieeia 1497 e 1550 aiaeia (aaaaeaiea e enoi?eei-i?aaiaie
iaci? e iei iiaeaioiaee A.A. Iieye).

Noaeaaieee yoe a aei?aaiethoeeiiiie eeoa?aoo?a ia noaee iauaeoii
niaoeeaeueiiai iiiia?aoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey. I ieo, eae i?aaeei,
aiai?eeinue a iauai ieaia a o?oaeao ii enoi?ee ?innee eee ioaeaeueiui
io?aneyi ?onneiai i?aaa.

I.I. No?iaa e E.O. Eaeaeaeiae/ naycuaaee iiyaeaiea Noaeaaieea 1497 a.
n iaaeaieai i?aeuineiai aeaaeu/anoaa, eiaaea “n aica?auaieai naiaiaeu e
iieeoe/aneie naiiauoiinoe, ioa/anoai iaoa eiaei iaaeiaiinoue a eo/oai
ia?aciaaiee aioo?aiiaai oi?aaeaiey”.

Iaeiaei naienoaaiiia aeai?yinei-ao?aeoaciie enoi?eia?aoee
i?aoaaee/aiea i?aaiecothuae ?iee ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo iaiyoieeia aac o/?oa ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia auaeaeaaei ia
1-e ieai aeayoaeueiinoue eiycy-caeiiiaeaoaey. “Aaeeeee eiycue Eiaii
Aaneeueaae/, – ieooo aeaeaa No?iaa e Eaeaeaeiae/, – aaaeae nae
iaaeinoaoie e i?eiye ia?u iiue eni?aaeoue”. Ioia/ay, /oi ii?iu
Noaeaaieea 1497 a. “oa?aeoa?ii naiei iiiai ?acinoaotho io ss?ineaaiauo”,
yoe aaoi?u ia oieueei ia iieacaee, /ai aeaiiua eciaiaiey aucaaiu, ii,
n?aaiea Noaeaaieee 1497 e 1550 aiaeia, i?eoee e iaaa?iiio auaiaeo ia
ionoonoaee oaeoe/aneie ?acieoeu iaaeaeo ieie. No?iaa e Eaeaeaeiae/
?anoeaieee eiycy Eaaia III eae “caeiiiaeaoaey”, a Eaaia IV – eeoue eae
“eni?aaeoaey” aai caeiiia. Aianoa n oai eie ioia/aaony aieueoay iieiioa
e ii?aaeae?iiay nenoaia Noaeaaieea 1550 a., eiathuaai iiaua, ii
n?aaiaieth n Noaeaaieeii 1497 a., noaouee. Iaeiaei yoe ?acii/oaiey iie
iauyniytho ia i?e/eiaie oeaio?aeecaoeee ainoaea?noaa, a ioeaeaie
ia?aien/eeia.

Iiiai naeaeae aeey aaaaeaiey a iao/iue iai?io Noaeaaieea 1497 a. I.O.
Aeaaeeie?neee-Aoaeaiia. Iioaeeeiaaa aai oaeno n iiae?acaeaeaieai ia
noaouee, ii ioiaoee iaee/ea a Noaeaaieea ii?aaeae?iiie nenoaiu ii
n?aaiaieth n i?aaeoanoaothueie aeoaie. I?aaeeiaeaiiia ei auaeaeaiea ec
ninoaaa Noaeaaieea 4 /anoae – iinoaiiaeaiey i noaea oeaio?aeueiii, noaea
ianoiii, iaoa?eaeueiiai i?aaa e aeiiieieoaeueiuo noaoae – auei
aini?eiyoi anaie iineaaeothueie enneaaeiaaoaeyie. ?anniao?eaay Noaeaaiee
1497 a. eae iauaaeeiaiea ianoiuo caeiiia a iaeei iauee,
Aeaaeeie?neee-Aoaeaiia aia?aua i?aaei?eieiaao iiiuoeo aieaa aeaoaeueiiai
eco/aiey aii?ina i aai enoi/ieeao. Oi?iaeueii-th?eaee/aneia n?aaiaiea,
i?iaaae?iiia ioo?i oaenoieiae/aneiai aiaeeca, i?eaiaeeo aai e auaiaeo,
/oi a ea/anoaa “ia oieueei iniiaiiai, ii ii/oe aaeeinoaaiiiai enoi/ieea”
Noaeaaieea aunooiatho onoaaiua a?aiiou, a ii?iu iau/iiai i?aaa
oiio?aaeaiu a iacia/eoaeueiie noaiaie. Eniieueciaaia Ineianeay Noaeiay
a?aiioa, ianeieueei eciai?iiay ii n?aaiaieth n aa/aaui
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. Noaeaaiee cia/eoaeueii aaaeiaa ii n?aaiaieth n INA
eae ii niaea?aeaieth, oae e ii eneonnoao ?aaeaeoeee. Ii iaoiaeeo e
iaecaanoiua ?anniio?aiiui ?aiaa iaiyoieeai noaouee, iai?eia?, cai?auaiea
ioeacuaaoue a i?aainoaeee (no. 2), caeiiu i acyoi/ie/anoaa e
eaeanaeaeaoaeuenoaa (no. 67) e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea, aaoi?ii eioi?uo ii
n/eoaao naiiai Eaaia III. A iaoe?iuo eiiiaioa?eyo Aeaaeeie?neee-Aoaeaiia
i?iaiaeeo n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec Noaeaaieeia 1497 e 1550 aiaeia,
iiae/??eeaay ii?aaeae?iioth naycue iaaeaeo ieie.

Aicieeiiaaiea Noaeaaieea 1497 a., ia/eiay n ecaeaiey I.I. No?iaaa e
E.O. Eaeaeaeiae/a, naycuaaeinue n eeeaeaeaoeeae iiiaiei-oaoa?neiai eaa e
oeaio?aeecaoeeae ainoaea?noaa e oi?aaeaiey. Iaeiaei iauyniyeinue yoi ia
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie iaoneiaeaiiinoueth enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna, a
no?aieaieai noaaoaai aaeeiiaea?aeaaiui ainoaea?y “ooaa?aeeoue aioo?aiia
aeaaiono?ienoai ?innee iaueie a?aaeaeaineeie caeiiaie”. I?e yoii
i?aaiecothuoth ?ieue ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo
iaiyoieeia I.I. No?iaa e E.O. Eaeaeaeiae/ naiaeeee e aeayoaeueiinoe
“ioae?iai ainoaea?y”, aeaenoaiaaaoaai a eioa?anao anaai iauanoaa eae
iaaeeeanniaay neea. “eiy aeia?iai a?aaeaeaieia aac anyeiai eiaai oeoea,
– ienae I.I. Ea?aicei, oa?aeoa?ecoy Noaeaaiee 1497 a., – auei i?aaii ia
ainoaea?noaaiiia oaaaeaiea”. Caia/ay, /oi n aeaiiiai Noaeaaieea “ia/aeny
iiaue ii?yaeie a enoi?ee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa”, E.Ae. Aaeyaa oa?aeoa?ecoao
yoio iiaue ii?yaeie eae iiiuoeo onoaiiaeoue ?aaiue noae aeey anao
aeeoaeae ainoaea?noaa, /oiau “ieeiio ia auei i?eaeeaaee a noaea”.

Aii?in ia enoi/ieeao e cia/aiee Noaeaaieea ?aoaeny ii-?aciiio.
Aieueoeinoai enneaaeiaaoaeae ia oieueei ia?aie, ii e aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIX
a. aini?eiyee auaeaeioooth I.I. Ua?aaoiaui aa?neth i oii, /oi Eaai III
“iiaaeae” aeueyeo Aeaaeeie?o Aonaao “nia?aoue ana i?aaeiea a?aiiou,
onoaiiaeaiey, ia?yaeu, iau/ae e ii iiui iiaaeae anai noaeeyi naiei noae
e ?ani?aao i?iecaiaeeoue”. Oai naiui Noaeaaiee 1497 a. ?anoeaieaaeny eae
iaiyoiee, ia eiathuee naiinoiyoaeueiiai cia/aiey. E.Ae. Aaeyaa n/eoae,
/oi ii ia eciaiyao th?eaee/aneeo aicc?aiee ?onneiai ia?iaea, inoaaeyy eo
oaeeie, eaeeie iie auee a ?I e ae?oaeo iaiyoieeao i?aaeiaai a?aiaie.
Aaaeiuo iiauo caeiiia Noaeaaiee ia niaea?aeeo, iiyoiio iaeiia?aiaiii n
iei ai iiiaeo ianoiinoyo ?innee eiaea neeo ?I e ?acee/iua onoaaiua
a?aiiou. Iaeioi?ua aanueia iacia/eoaeueiua ocaeiiaiey neoaeao oieueei
aeiiieiaieai e aeaeueiaeoei ?acaeoeai ia/ae, eceiaeaiiuo a ?aiieo
iaiyoieeao i?aaa. Iuneue i oii, /oi eiyaeaneee Noaeaaiee ia nicaeaaae
iiaiai i?aaa, auea auneacaia I.I. Caaineeiui, A.I. A?eaianeei, I.A.
Aeueyeiiiaui, A.I. Eaoeeiui. Iineaaeiee iacuaae Noaeaaiee 1497 a. ia?aui
caeiiiaeaoaeueiui nai?ieeii, aei ecaanoiie noaiaie nenoaiaoece?iaaaoei
an? aeaenoaothuaa i?aai. Eiay iauaaeeieoaeueioth, oeaio?aeecaoi?neoth
caaea/o, Noaeaaiee aia?ae a naay ianno caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo ii?i,
?aca?inaiiui ii ioaeaeueiui a?aiioai e th?eaee/aneei aeoai. I?e yoii
Noaeaaiee /anoi aeaeieciaiye ii?iu ae?oaeo iaiyoieeia, iai?eia? INA,
ca/anooth eca?auay eo, /oi, ii iiaieth A.I. Eaoeeia, yaeyeinue
?acoeueoaoii “ieceie noaiaie th?eaee/aneiai niciaiey iineianeeo
aeueyeia”. Noaeaaiee, n/eoae Eaoeei, noieo ieaea aa/aaiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Ineiaa. Iineieueeo iiauo noaoae (i eeoieinoaa,
eaeanaeaeaoaeuenoaa, ioeaca a i?aainoaeee e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo) iaei,
iinoieueeo “Noaeaaiee – naiae ia iiauo, a noa?uo ocaeiiaiee”. Eae i?aai,
iiaeaaeaoaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iaeanoae e niaaeeieaoaa iiae naiae ?oeie
ia/aea anao i?aa, a ieo nouanoaiaaaoeo, ioeaieaaao “iineianeia i?aai”,
oi anoue Noaeaaiee, A.A. Nooia. Eioa?anii iiaeio?e e aii?ino ia
enoi/ieeao Noaeaaieea Ae.I. Iae/ee. N/eoay iaaa?iyoiui, /oiau Iineaa
caeinoaiaaea /oi-eeai ec aieueiuo ai?iaeia, ii ?anniao?eaae INA oieueei
eae eeoa?aoo?iia iiniaea, ni?aai/iue iaoa?eae, ii ioithaeue ia
?oeiaiaeyuee enoi/iee. Ia?yaeo n yoei auea auneacaia e ae?oaay oi/ea
c?aiey. Aia?aua ioiaoea cia/eoaeueiia ioee/ea Noaeaaieea 1497 a. io ?I,
No?iaa e Eaeaeaeiae/ iauynieee yoi ia /ai eiui, eae caneoaith Eaaia III,
i?iyaeaoaai no?aieaiea e ia?aie/aieth noaeaaiie aeanoe ei?ieaiueeia e
iaycaoaeueiiio ooaa?aeaeaieth eiycai ?aoaiee ii iaeaieaa aaaeiui aeaeai.
Yoi aea iiaoi?eee N. Nie?iia e I.E. Aethaa?ioa. Ii iiaieth iineaaeiaai,
Noaeaaiee aue ia noieueei i?iaeoeoii ?acaeoey i?aaa, neieueei nai?ieeii
?aciiia?aciuo oeacia e iioeei aaeeeiai eiycy. A.E. Na?aaaae/ iieaaae,
/oi Noaeaaiee naiei enoi/ieeii eiae eae nia?aiaiiia i?aai, oae e
ae?aaiaa, ia/eiay n ?I. A ea/anoaa enoi/ieea Noaeaaieea ii iacuaaao e
Ei?i/oth eieao.

Aii?in i aeeyiee eiicaiiiai i?aaa ia Noaeaaiee oaeaea yaeeny
i?aaeiaoii nii?ia a aei?aaiethoeeiiiie eeoa?aoo?a. Au? I.I. Ea?aicei,
ioe?uaoee niaianoii n E.O. Eaeaeaeiae/ai Neiiaeaeueiue e ?ycaineee
nienee Ei?i/ae eieae e eniieueciaaaoee a? a naiae “Enoi?ee…”, n/eoae,
/oi aei ecaeaiey Noaeaaieea “a?aaeaeaineei oeiaeaieai a neo/ayo, ia
ii?aaeae?iiui ?inneeneei i?aaii, neoaeeea o ian Ei?i/ay eieaa”. I
cia/aiee Ei?i/ae eieae eae iaeiiai ec enoi/ieeia ?onneiai i?aaa aiai?ee
e N.I. Oieeaaneee. Aa?iue eiioeaioeee “anaiauaai cae?aiiuaiey”, ii
?anniao?eaaao oeaio?aeecaoeeth Iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa eae onoaiiaeaiea
e?aiinoiiai i?aaa aeey anao nineiaee, /aio niaeaenoaiaaei aeeyiea
aecaioeeneeo caeiiia e iau/aaa. Iiae/??eeaay, /oi Ei?i/ay eieaa eiaea a
?onneie caiea cia/aiea e neeo aeaenoaothuaai i?aaa ia oieueei a noa?a
oea?eiaiuo, ii e naaoneeo noaeia, I.I. Caaineei oaeaea iieaaae, /oi iia
aeieaeia auoue ioianaia e /eneo enoi/ieeia Noaeaaieea.

?anoeaieaay Noaeaaiee eae iaiyoiee i?aeiouanoaaiii i?ioeannoaeueiiai
i?aaa, aei?aaiethoeeiiiay enoi?eia?aoey, iaeiaei, aanueia ii-?aciiio
ioeaieaaao aai cia/aiea. Oae, A.O. ?aeoe, I.I. *aaeieia, I.E.
Aethaa?ioa, A.I. A?eaianeee, I.A. Aeueyeiiia, A.I. Eaoeei e ae?.,
ioia/ay “aaaeiinoue e noiao?” niaea?aeaiey Noaeaaieea 1497 a. e oaeo
iineaaeothuaai aeeth/aiey aai a Noaeaaiee 1550 a., ia i?eaeatho aio
cia/aiey naiinoiyoaeueiiai i?aaiaiai iaiyoieea. I.O. ?iaeaeanoaaineee,
I.I. Ieoaeeia, I.I. I?i/ae-Ae?icaeianeee aeaeyo aai cia/aiea eeoue a
oii, /oi yoi aeo, ii?aaeaeeaoee ono?ienoai noaeaaiie /anoe a Iineaa e
iaoneiaeaoee iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiyaeaiey aieaa iiae?iaiiai Noaeaaieea 1550
a. I.O. Aeaaeeie?neee-Aoaeaiia, I.I. Caaineei, A.E. Na?aaaae/
?anoeaieaatho Noaeaaiee 1497 a. eae ia?aue, oioy e iaoaea/iue iiuo
eiaeeoeeaoeee, cia/eoaeueii oeo/oaiiue iineaaeothuei Noaeaaieeii.

N/eoay, /oi aeaaiia aieiaiea caeiiiaeaoaey i?e ninoaaeaiee iaieo
Noaeaaieeia auei ia?auaii ia ono?ienoai noaeia, I.A. Eaea/?a aeaeeo a
Noaeaaieea 1497 a. “aac niiiaiey, ia?aue ienueiaiiue eiaeaen,
iaia?iaeiaaiiue aeey anae ?innee io eiaie aa?oiaiie aeanoe, eiaeaen a
aunoae noaiaie i?eia/aoaeueiue, eae iaiyoiee, iniiaaiiue ia i?i/iii
ooaa?aeaeaiee naiiaea?aeaaey a iaoai iauanoaa, eae e?aaoaieueiue eaiaiue
anaai iineaaeothuaai ?acaeoey ienueiaiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa”. Oaeaea
auniei ioeaieaaao yoio Noaeaaiee 1497 a. O.I. Aeieo?eaa. Ii
iiae/??eeaaao, /oi ninoaaeoaeue Noaeaaieea eiae a ea/anoaa naiae iniaie
caaea/e io?aaeaiea iaueo ii?i i noaeiono?ienoaa e noaeii?iecaiaenoaa e
iiae/eiaiee ianoiiai noaea oeaio?aeueiiio. Eiaiii yoi e ninoaaeyao
“yiioo a enoi?ee iaoaai noaea… Nio?aiea eacoenoe/aneoth oi?io caeiia,
auoaaeoaai ec noa?u iineianeie i?aeoeee, ii anei?a noaiiaeony caeiiii
aeey anae ?innee, neoaea aniiiiaaoaeueiui enoi/ieeii i?aaa aeey anyeiai
iaeanoiiai noaea, aeey anyeie onoaaiie a?aiiou. Yoi ia?aia iauaa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a aaia?aoe/aneii niunea, ii oieueei a aaia?aoe/aneii.
A i?i aani?anoaiii i?iaeyaeuaaao ii?yaeie, neiaeeaoeeny aeey iaeiiai,
iaaieueoiai oaeaea e iioii i?eiai?iiue e oeaeiio ainoaea?noao”.

A niaaoneie enoi?eei-th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a iaeaieaa e?oiiua
niaoeeaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey Noaeaaieea 1497 a. i?eiaaeeaaeao N.A.
THoeiao e E.A. *a?aiieio. Oi/ee c?aiey o/?iuo ia enoi/ieeao e cia/aiee
Noaeaaieea a iniiaiii niaiaaeatho.

Ia?aui, eoi ioiaoee iai?aaiia?iinoue ieaeeenoe/aneiai ioiioaiey
aeai?yinei-ao?aeoaciie enoi?eia?aoee e Noaeaaieeo 1497 a., aue THoeia.
Iiae/??eeaay cia/aiea yoiai Noaeaaieea eae ia?aiai iiuoa iineianeie
eiaeeoeeaoeee, ii aeoaiei enneaaeiaae aai i?ienoiaeaeaiea, enoi/ieee,
niaea?aeaiea. A ioee/ea io ao?aeoaciuo o/?iuo N.A. THoeia naycuaae
?anniio?aiea yoeo aii?inia n ?acaeoeai oaiaeaeecia e nicaeaieai ii?i
aaeeiiai ?onneiai i?aaa. Oaeay o?aeoiaea Noaeaaieea auea iaoeaeaia
i?ioea eiaaoaainy a ao?aeoaciie iaoea iiaiey i oii, /oi aieioue aei XVII
a. i?ienoiaeeei ocaeiiaiea iau/ay eae aaeeinoaaiii “oai?/aneie” nee,
eneeth/aaoae eeanniaue oa?aeoa? i?aaa. N oi/ee c?aiey N.A. THoeiaa,
oeaio?aeecaoeey oa??eoi?eaeueiay i?aaeii?aaeaeeea oeaio?aeecaoeeth
caeiiiaeaoaeueioth. Iaeiaei ainiiaenoaiaaaoay a 20-a aiaeu eiioeaioeey
“oi?aiaiai eaieoaeecia” i?e ii?aaeaeaiee iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai no?iy
?innee ia?eiaea XIV-XVI aa. ieacaea aeeyiea e ia o?oaeu, iinayu?iiua
i?iaeaiai th?eaee/aneiai ioi?ieaiey i?ioeanna eeeaeaeaoeee oaiaeaeueiie
?acae?iaeaiiinoe e ia?aciaaiey aaeeiiai ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa.
Noaeaaiee 1497 a. o?aeooaony N.A. THoeiaui eae iaiyoiee i?aaa,
?aaeaiaioe?iaaaoee ii?aaeae?iiua nioeeaeueiua naeaeae ia iooe caiaiu
oaiaeaeueiuo iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee ioiioaieyie “oi?aiaiai eaieoaeecia”.

Noaeaaieeo Eaaia III iinayuaaony a ?aaioa E.A. *a?aiieia i ?onneeo
oaiaeaeueiuo a?oeaao XIV-XV aa. aieueoay aeaaa, yaeythuayny oaeoe/anee
niaoeeaeueiui iiiia?aoe/aneei enneaaeiaaieai yoiai aeieoiaioa.
Nieeaea?ece?oynue a iniiaiii n N.A. THoeiaui ii aii?inai ia enoi/ieeao
Noaeaaieea, a oaeaea ioeaiea ?yaea aai noaoae e cia/aiey aeey i?ioeanna
oeaio?aeecaoeee ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa, E.A. *a?aiiei i?aaeeiaeee eiia
?aoaiea i?iaeaiu aaoi?noaa Noaeaaieea 1497 a. Ii i?eo?e e auaiaeo, /oi
ninoaaeoaeai Noaeaaieea ia aue e ia iia auoue nui aiy?neee Aeaaeeie?
Aonaa (yoio auaiae E.A. *a?aiieia aue iicaeiaa iiaeoaa?aeae?i A.I.
Ianiiiaui), e i?aaeiieiaeee, /oi aeoeaiia o/anoea a nicaeaiee Noaeaaieea
i?eieiaee aiy?a – eiycuey E.TH. e A.E. Iao?eeaaau, N.E. ?yiieianeee, a
oaeaea aaeeeieiyaeaneea aeueyee A. Aeieiaoia, O. Eo?eoeui e ae?..

Noi?ioee?iaaiiay E.A. *a?aiieiui iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea Noaeaaieea 1497
a. eae iaiyoieea, io?aaeathuaai aioo?eeeanniaoth ai?ueao oaiaeaeia, ii a
oi aea a?aiy i?iaiaeeaoaai eeieth caueou eioa?ania anaai eeanna
oaiaeaeia, caeioa?aniaaiiuo a oaea?aeaiee a ocaea yenieoaoe?oaiiai
aieueoeinoaa iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae, io?aaeaao eeanniaue
niune Noaeaaieea.

A.A. Ceiei oaeaeyao niaoeeaeueiia aieiaiea “iaua?onneiio noaeaaieeo”
1497 a., i?ineaaeeaay eciaiaiey yeiiiie/aneie aeecie, eeanniaie ai?ueau,
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie iunee ?innee ia ?oaaaea XV-XVI noieaoee. Ii
iiaeaa?aaao niiiaieth iiaiea E.A. *a?aiieia i iaee/ee ia aeioaaeoeo aei
ian iniaiai Noaeaaieea, ninoaaeaiiiai a ia?aie iieiaeia XV a. i?e Niouea
Aeoiaoiaia, e iniaiai “nai?ieea” caeiiia ii caiaeueiui aeaeai (ieiei
1491 a.). Enoi/ieeaie iineaaeiaai ?acaeaea Noaeaaieea 1497 a., n/eoaao
Ceiei, auee ii?iu ?I, INA e oaeouaai eiyaeaneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
iniaaiii onoaaiua (Aeaeineay e Aaeica?neay) a?aiiou iaianoie/ueaai
oi?aaeaiey. Oi, /oi ii?iu noaeii?iecaiaenoaa nicaeaaaeenue ia iniiaa
th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeea, a ia iauaainoaea?noaaiiuo onoaaia, yeiau
nouanoaiaaaoeo aei ecaeaiey Noaeaaieea, “iiiiaaao iiiyoue, ianeieueei
aieueooth ?aaioo i?eoeinue i?iaanoe ?onneei eiaeeoeeaoi?ai eiioea XV a.”
N?aaieaay eiaeaen Ae?aaiae ?one – I?ino?aiioth I?aaaeo n Noaeaaieeii
1497 a., iniiaiie i?iaeaiie eioi?iai “auea i?aaiecaoeey
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa ia anae oa??eoi?ee ainoaea?noaa… e ?aaeaiaioaoeey
noaeaaiuo iioeei i?aaenoaaeoaeai, inouanoaeyaoei noae a oeaio?a e ia
ianoao”, Ceiei aianoa n oai i?ecia?o, /oi Noaeaaiee 1497 a., aoaeo/e
iauaainoaea?noaaiiui eiaeaenii, yaeyaony caiaoiie aaoie a enoi?ee
?onneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

A.Ae. A?aeia, naycuaay iiyaeaiea Noaeaaieea 1497 a. n oneeaieai
aeanoe iineianeiai ainoaea?y e aai no?aieaieai e eeeaeaeaoeee
naia?aoenoneeo oaiaeaioeee oaeaeueiuo eiycae, ia?auaao iniaia aieiaiea
ia noaouee, io?aaeathuea i?aaiaia iieiaeaiea e?anoueyi e oieiiia.
Iiyaeaiea no. 57 Noaeaaieea 1497 a. “I o?enoeaineii ioeaca”, oae aea
eae eciaiaiea ii n?aaiaieth n ?I i?aaiaiai iieiaeaiey iieiuo e
aeieeaaeiuo oieiiia, A.Ae. A?aeia iauyniyao oai, /oi oicyenoai ia ?one
n eiioea XV a. i?aa?auaaony ec caieiooiai, ia?i/iiai, ianeoaeeaaaiiai
aeaaiui ia?acii o?oaeii /aeyaee, a aieueooth i?aaiecaoeeth, aaea
iniiaiui i?iecaiaeeoaeai noaee e?anoueyia. A niioaaonoaee n yoei
Noaeaaiee ia?aie/eaaao enoi/ieee iieiiai oieiinoaa ca n/?o ?acaeoey
eaaaeueiiai, oi anoue aeieaiaiai, e ii?aaeaeytho iieiaeaiea anao
eaoaai?ee e?anoueyi a ioiioaiee i?aaa eo auoiaea. Iineaaeiee
ia?aie/eaaaony onoaiiaeaieai aaeeiiai n?iea auoiaea e auieaoie
iiaeeeiai.

Auyniaiea aii?ina i iiaeeeii aeaii a noaouea A.E. Oaie?i. Iiaeeeia,
ii aai iiaieth, “yaeyeinue eae ?ac oie iiaeiiinoueth, eaeay
niioaaonoaiaaea oi?iai caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe e aiayeiiiie/aneiai
i?eioaeaeaiey, ainiiaenoaiaaaoei a ?innee XV-XVI aa. Caieaaeaaeaeaoe ia
yaeyeny oiaaea nianoaaiieeii e?anoueyi, ii aue nianoaaiieeii anao
caiaeue, iaoiaeeaoeony a eo iieueciaaiee… Aeey oaiaeaeueiiai oicyenoaa
e i?aaa oa?aeoa?ia iiyoiio ioaaonoaaiiinoue e?anoueyieia ia?aae
ainiiaeeiii ca ninoiyiea naiaai e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa. Ooo-oi e
aicieeaee niaoeeoe/anee oaiaeaeueiua, th?eaee/aneea iniiaaiey aeey
aceiaiey iiaeeeiai i?e caionoaiee aeai?a”.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa XV-XVI aa. i oieiiao e e?anoueyiao
e, a /anoiinoe, Noaeaaieeia 1497 e 1550 aa. eiathony a ?aaioao A.E.
Eieu/aaie, A.I. Iaiayoa, TH.A. Aeaenaaaa.

Noaeaaiee 1497 a. i?eae?e aieiaiea eiino?aiiuo enneaaeiaaoaeae. A
1956 a. ai O?aioeee e NOA auoee ?aaiou i Noaeaaieea “oea?y Eaaia III”.
Iie iniiaaiu ia eniieueciaaiee ?onneie aei?aaiethoeeiiiie e
niaoeeaeueiie niaaoneie eeoa?aoo?u.

Ia?aaiae ia aiaeeeneee ycue e eiiiaioe?iaaiea Noaeaaieea 1497 a.
inouanoaeye Aeuethe. Aaoi? inaauaao aii?inu i?eiyoey e niaea?aeaiey
yoiai Noaeaaieea, ia cao?aaeaay eiaaoeony a eeoa?aoo?a iieaie/aneeo
aii?inia.

Noaeaaieeo 1497 a. iinayuaia niaoeeaeueiay noaouey I. Oaooaey. Iia
ninoieo ec 3 /anoae – enoi?e/aneia aaaaeaiea, oaeno Noaeaaieea,
ia?aaaae?iiue Oaooaeai ia o?aioeocneee ycue, e eiiiaioa?ee e iaiyoieeo.
Aini?eieiay onoaiiaeaoaany a niaaoneie enoi?eia?aoee iiaiea i oii, /oi
Noaeaaiee 1497 a., aoaeo/e ia?aui caeiiiaeaoaeueiui iaiyoieeii, aue
ninoaaeai ia oieueei aeey iaeiiai aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa Iineianeiai, ii
aeey anae oa??eoi?ee ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa, I. Oaooaeue inia?eaaao,
iaeiaei, i?aaeiieiaeaiea E.A. *a?aiieia ia aaoi?noaa Noaeaaieea. Ii
e?eoe/aneea caia/aiey, naeaeaiiua Oaooaeai, iinyo i?aeiouanoaaiii
oi?iaeueiue oa?aeoa?.

Noieo ia?aoeoueny e naeaeaoaeuenoaai eiino?aiiuo aeeieiiaoia e
iooaoanoaaiieeia, iiauaaaoeo a ?innee a XV-XVI aa. e oa?aeoa?eciaaaoeo
?onneia i?aai eae naiiauoiia e iaeaaeathuaa ii?aaeae?iiui aaeeinoaii.
Iaaae Eiaee Iiaieiineee aiai?ee i i?inoioa caeiiia ii noaeaaieeo 1497
a.; ?e/a?ae *ainea?, iaoiaeeaoeeny i?e Iineianeii aeai?a a 1553-1554
aa., ioia/ae i?aeiouanoai ?onneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia?aae aiaeeeneei
oaea ii Noaeaaieeo 1550 a. Ii iniaaiii iaeia?ye onoaiiaeaiiia
Noaeaaieeii i?aai eaaeaeiai iaeaeaiiiai ia iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ia?auaiea a
noae, a eioi?ii “aaeeeee eiycue iinoaiiaeyao ?aoaiey ii anai aii?inai
i?aaa”, a oaeaea oi, /oi a ioee/ea io iiiai/eneaiiuo aiaeeeneeo noaoooia
?onneea caeiiu auee eiaeeoeoee?iaaiu. Yoi, enoaoe, auaiaeii ioee/aei
?onneia i?aai XV-XVI aa. io i?aaa ?yaea caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai.

Caneoaeeaaao aieiaiey i?aaeiieiaeaiea E.A. *a?aiieia, /oi i?e
i?eiyoee a 1532 a. a Aa?iaiee iauaeiia?neiai caeiia – “Ea?ieeiu” – aue
eniieueciaai iiuo eiaeeoeeaoeee ?onneiai i?aaa, iineieueeo ia?aui
eeoeii, niiaueaoei Caiaaeo i nouanoaiaaiee Noaeaaieea 1497 a., aue
Neaecioiae Aa?aa?ooaei. Eiaeeoeeaoeeiiiua ?aaiou i?eia?aee iniaue ?aciao
anei?a iinea aica?auaiey aai ec Iineau.

Nenoaiaoecaoeey ?onneiai i?aaa, ia/aoay n Noaeaaieea 1497 a.,
yaeyeanue eoiaii anae i?aaeuaeouae caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
?onneiai ainoaea?noaa. ?I e XV a., eae e iieaaaei aieueoeinoai
enneaaeiaaoaeae, oo?aoeea nai? cia/aiea. Ia?aiia/aeueii N.A. THoeia
oiaea n/eoae, /oi ?I n yoiai a?aiaie ia?anoaea iiiauaoueny a ?acee/iuo
th?eaee/aneeo nai?ieeao, ninoaaeyaiuo aeey i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey
(iai?eia?, a Ia?eea I?aaaaeiii), a aeeth/aeanue a eaoiiene a ea/anoaa
enoi?e/aneiai iaiyoieea. Iaeiaei, caaa?oay a 50-o aa. iiiaieaoiea
enneaaeiaaiea oaenoia ae?aaia?onneeo th?eaee/aneeo enoi/ieeia e nieneia
?I, ii i?eo?e e auaiaeo, /oi Nie?au?iiay ?aaeaeoeey ?I auea ia?a?aaioaia
n o/?oii aeaenoaiaaaoeo a XV a. ii?i iau/iiai i?aaa. Eco/aiea A.E.
Eieu/aaie yoie ?aaeaeoeee ?I iiaeoaa?aeeei auneacaiioth N.A. THoeiaui
iuneue i aiciiaeiinoe ioianaiey a? e /eneo enoi/ieeia, eniieueciaaiiuo
ninoaaeoaeyie Noaeaaieea. Eco/ay aii?in ia enoi/ieeao Noaeaaieea 1497
a., N.A. THoeia e E.A. *a?aiiei i?eoiaeyo e auaiaeo, /oi i?e aai
ninoaaeaiee auee eniieueciaaiu ia oieueei ?I, INA e onoaaiua a?aiiou, ii
e ?aciiai ?iaea aeaeiaaiiua e eiua a?aiiou. Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaee oae
iacuaaaiua onoaaiua a?aiiou iaianoie/ueaai oi?aaeaiey. Iai?eia?,
aeioaaeoea aei ian Aeaeineay 1397 a. e Aaeica?neay 1488 a. onoaaiua
a?aiiou, a eioi?uo, iiieii aii?inia ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey e noaea,
niaea?aeaeenue e ii?iu iaoa?eaeueiiai, a?aaeaeaineiai e oaieiaiiai
i?aaa. Aeaenoaiaaei oaeaea ianoiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, ii?aaeaeyaoaa
ei?i iaianoieea, noaeaaiua e oi?aiaua iioeeiu, oaieiaiua oo?aou,
ioiioaiea iaianoieea e noaeo oeaio?aeueiiio, a oaeaea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
i?eniaaeei?iiuo e Iineaa eiyaeanoa e caiaeue. Oae, iiieii ecaanoiuo iai
Ineianeie e Iiaai?iaeneie Noaeiuo a?aiio, A.I. Oaoeuaa oiiieiaao i ia
aeioaaeoeo aei ian ?inoianeeo e ?ycaineeo caeiiao.

E enoi/ieeai Noaeaaieea ioiinyony i?aaua (noaeaaiua ?aoaiey,
ninoiyaoea ec i?ioieiea noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa e ?aoaiey noaea e
auaeaaaaoeany iau/ii ii i?inueaa noi?iiu, auea?aaoae aeaei) e
aeaeiaaiiua a?aiiou, oeacu e eino?oeoeee, eanathueany noaea e oi?aaeaiey
e ecaeaaaaoeany eae Iineianeei, oae e eiuie eiyaeanoaaie. Oaeia, a
/anoiinoe, “Oeac iaianoieeii i noaea ai?iaeneui”, ecaeaiiue a 1483-1484
aa. a nayce n ianniaie eiioeneaoeeae caiaeue e?oiiuo oaiaeaeia,
i?ioeaeaoeony oeaio?aeecaoeee, e ia?aaea/ae yoeo caiaeue aeai?yinoao.
Oeac i?aaeoniao?eaae i?eaea/aiea e o/anoeth a noaea i?aaenoaaeoaeae
aa?oia ianoiiai ianaeaiey, ?aaeaiaioaoeeth noaeaaiuo iioeei,
onoaiiaeaiea oa??aeuo n?ieia, eioi?uo aeieaeiu i?eaea?aeeaaoueny
ei?ieaiueee, i?ecuaaaiua i?enoaaii e ioaaoo. A Noaeaaiee oaeaea aioee
“Oeac i acaeo”, niaea?aeauee oaeno iioeei ca iiacaeeo i?enoaaia a
?acee/iua ai?iaea Iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa, e “Oeac i iaaeaeueueeao”.

Enoi/ieeaie i?e ninoaaeaiee Noaeaaieea neoaeeee a?aiiou ioaeaeueiuo
eiyaeanoa, onoaiaaeeaaaoea n?iee ioeaca e?anoueyi, n?iee eneiaie
aeaaiinoe ii caiaeueiui nii?ai e ae?. Ii iiaieth N.A. THoeiaa, a
Iineianeii aaeeeii eiyaeanoaa, aa?iyoii, nouanoaiaae e aei Noaeaaieea
1497 a. nai?iee i?aaee i noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, i?eiaiyaoeeny a
oeaio?aeueiuo noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo e, aanueia aiciiaeii, a oao
iaeanoyo, eioi?ua ia iieo/eee onoaaiuo a?aiio. Yoio nai?iee aeieaeai aue
aeeth/aoue a naay “…ii e?aeiae ia?a, en/eneaiea iioeei e nai?ia,
neaaeoaiuo n oyaeoueony a iieueco noaeae e a iieueco aoi?inoaiaiiuo
i?aaiia, a oaeaea nai?ia, aceiaaoeony i?e auaea/a ?acee/iiai ?iaea
ioeoeeaeueiuo aeoia”. Enneaaeoy ?onneea oaiaeaeueiua a?oeau XIV-XV aa.,
E.A. *a?aiiei ooi/iyao yoi i?aaeiieiaeaiea e i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi
ieiei 1491 a. aue ninoaaeai “iineianeee nai?iee”, aini?eiyaoee iaeioi?ua
ianoiua, iniaaiii caaieai?iaeneea, i?aaiaua ii?iu e yaeyaoeeny
?oeiaiaenoaii aeey ?acai?a a noaea iicaiaeueiuo aeae. Eeeaeaeaoeey
caiaeueiuo eiioeeeoia ai aiiaue i?eniaaeei?iiuo aeaaeaieyo yaeyeanue
i/a?aaeiie caaea/ae iineianeiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

I?iaiaey aeineiiaeueiia niiinoaaeaiea anaai i?aaeoanoaiaaaoaai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa n oaenoii Noaeaaieea 1497 a., N.A. THoeia i?eo?e,
iaeiaei, e auaiaeo, /oi oieueei a 27 noaoueyo Noaeaaieea iiaeii iaeoe
neaaeu iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aeeyiey eaeeo-eeai ecaanoiuo iai th?eaee/aneeo
iaiyoieeia eee ii?i iau/iiai i?aaa (12 noaoae ec onoaaiuo a?aiio, 11 ec
INA, 2 noaouee ec ?I (no. 55 i caeiao e no. 66 i oieiiao) e 2 noaouee ec
ii?i iau/iiai i?aaa). Ii e i?e caeinoaiaaiee ec noa?uo enoi/ieeia ii?iu
i?aaa ia?a?aaaouaaeenue i?eiaieoaeueii e eciaiaieyi a
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneii no?ia. Oneeeaay a nayce n iaino?aieai
eeanniaie ai?ueau ?ai?annee, Noaeaaiee aaiaeeo nia?oioth eaciue aeey
“eeoeo” ethaeae, oiaaea eae noaouee Aaeica?neie onoaaiie a?aiiou,
iineoaeeaoea enoi/ieeii niioaaonoaothueo noaoae Noaeaaieea,
i?aaeinoaaeyee ?ac?aoaiea aii?ina i iaeacaiee oaeeo ethaeae ia
oniio?aiea noaea. Noaeaaiee eciaiyao ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeiei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ii?yaeie ia?auaiey e noaeo, iaycaiiinoe noaeae,
aaiaeeo iiaia iiiyoea einoeoooa iineooanoaa e o.ae.

40 noaoae, oi anoue ieiei o??o iyouo anaai ninoaaa Noaeaaieea ia
eiatho eaeie-eeai nayce n aeioaaeoeie aei ian iaiyoieeaie. Iie eeai
ecaea/aiu ec ianio?aieaoeony caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia Eaaia III, eeai
i?eiaaeeaaeao naiiio ninoaaeoaeth Noaeaaieea e i?aaenoaaeytho oaeei
ia?acii iiaua ii?iu, ia ecaanoiua i?aaeiae noaeaaiie i?aeoeea. Eiaiii
iiaeciie Noaeaaieea iauyniyaony, ii iiaieth N.A. THoeiaa, oi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi aeaeaei ia ana aai noaouee inouanoaeyeenue ia
i?aeoeea. *anoue eo inoaaaeanue i?ia?aiiie, iiaeaeaieai, aeey
?aaeecaoeee eioi?ie o?aaiaaeinue a?aiy. Eiaiii iiyoiio Noaeaaiee 1497 a.
aue iieiaeai a iniiao oea?neiai Noaeaaieea 1550 a., a ioaeaeueiua aai
iieiaeaiey e i?eioeeiu iieo/eee aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea e a iineaaeothuai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. ?ieue e cia/aiea Noaeaaieea 1497 a. iniaaiii
aic?anoatho a naaoa enneaaeiaaiee E.A. *a?aiieia, E.E. Nie?iiaa e A.A.
?iiaiiaa.

Caaieiaie naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi Noaeaaiee aue i?eiyo a
naioya?a 1497 a. Eaaiii III niaianoii n Aiy?neie Aeoiie. Ii iiaieth E.A.
*a?aiieia, yoa aeaoa – naioya?ue 1497 a. – oeacuaaao eeoue ia ia/aei
?ac?aaioee Noaeaaieea, eioi?ay caaa?oeeanue a oaa?aea 1498 a. Oaeay
oi/ea c?aiey auea auneacaia ?aiueoa I.I. I?i/ae-Ae?icaeianeei,
eiaiiaaaoei Noaeaaiee Eaaia III Noaeaaieeii 1498 a.

Iaeiaei, i?aaenoaaeyaony aieaa aa?iyoiui, /oi caeii aue i?eiyo eiaiii
a naioya?a 1497 a. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony oa?ieiii “oeiaeee”,
niaea?aeaueiny a caaieiaea e icia/athuei “o/?aaeee”, “ocaeiiee”. Nii?ii
oaeaea aeeth/aiea E.A. *a?aiieiui neia “eae noaeeoe noae aiy?ii
ieieie/ei” a ea/anoaa caaieiaea eeoue aeey ia?auo o??o noaoae.

Aeaaa 1. Ia?aciaaiea e ?acaeoea ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa

1.1. I?aaeiinueee ia?aciaaiey ?onneiai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai
iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa.

Eiaaea a 1462 aiaeo ia i?anoie anooiee Eaai III, Aaeeeia eiyaeanoai
Iineianeia auei n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoei ainoaea?noaii. Aai oa??eoi?ey
ia?aie/eaaeanue i?eia?ii 430 ouny/ ea. eeeiiao?ia.

N ia/aea XIV a. ae?iaeaiea ?onneeo eiyaeanoa i?ae?auaaony, onooiea
ianoi eo iauaaeeiaieth. Nicaeaiea ?onneiai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai
ainoaea?noaa auei aucaaii a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue oneeaieai yeiiiie/aneeo
naycae iaaeaeo ?onneeie caieyie, /oi auei neaaenoaeai iauaai
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey no?aiu.

Ioi?aaiui ioieoii a ?acaeoee oaiaeaeueiie yeiiiieee iineoaeee
i?ia?ann naeueneiai oicyenoaa. N/o i?iecaiaenoai oa?aeoa?ecoaony a
aeaiiue ia?eiae an? aieueoei ?ani?ino?aiaieai iaoaiiie nenoaiu, eioi?ay
noaiiaeony a oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiao no?aiu i?aiaeaaeathuei niiniaii
ia?aaioee caiee. Iaoaiiay nenoaia caiaoii auoaniyao iiaena/ioth,
?ani?ino?ai?iioth i?aeiouanoaaiii a naaa?iuo eaniuo ianoiinoyo, e
ia?aeia, ainiiaenoaothuee au? ia thaa.

Iaoaiiay nenoaia o?aaoao iinoiyiiie ia?aaioee caiee. Iineieueeo
caeanue e?anoueyiei anaaaea eiaao aeaei n iaeiei o/anoeii, eioi?ue
ioaeuoaao io iinaaia eeoue /a?ac aiae (aeaoiieueiay nenoaia) eee 2
(o??oiieuea), oi aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a oaeia?aiee iieae. An? yoi
o?aaoao aieaa niaa?oaiiuo i?oaeee i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii iiaeu?i naeueneiai
oicyenoaa aue iaoneiaeai ia oieueei e ia noieueei ?acaeoeai i?oaeee
i?iecaiaenoaa, neieueei nenoaiaoe/aneei ?anoe?aieai iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae
ca n/?o inaiaiey iiauo e ?aiaa caa?ioaiiuo caiaeue. Oaaee/aiea
ecauoi/iiai i?iaeoeoa a caieaaeaeee iicaieyao ?acaeaaoue
aeeaioiiaiaenoai, a oaeaea i?iaeaaaoue oeaa ia noi?iio.

An? aieueoay iio?aaiinoue a n/o i?oaeeyo iaoneiaeeaaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?acaeoey ?aianea. A ?acoeueoaoa i?ioeann ioaeaeaiey
?aianea io naeueneiai oicyenoaa eae?o an? aeoaaea. Eiee/anoai
?aianeaiieeia, ia?anoaaoeo caieiaoueny caieaaeaeeai, aic?anoaao.

Ioaeaeaiea ?aianea io naeueneiai oicyenoaa aea/?o ca niaie
iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaiaia iaaeaeo e?anoueyieiii e ?aianeaiieeii, o.a.
iaaeaeo ai?iaeii e aea?aaiae. Yoio iaiai i?ienoiaeeo a oi?ia oi?aiaee,
eioi?ay a aeaiiue ia?eiae niioaaonoaaiii oneeeaaaony. Ia aaca oaeiai
iaiaia nicaeathony ianoiua ?uiee. Anoanoaaiiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea
iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie ?aeiiaie no?aiu, iaoneiaeaiiia eo i?e?iaeiuie
iniaaiiinoyie, ia?acoao yeiiiie/aneea nayce a ianooaaa anae ?one.
Onoaiiaeaieth aioo?aiieo yeiiiie/aneeo naycae niinianoaiaaei e ?acaeoea
aiaoiae oi?aiaee.

An? yoi ianoiyoaeueii o?aaiaaei iieeoe/aneiai iauaaeeiaiey ?onneeo
caiaeue, o.a. nicaeaiey oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa. A yoii auee
caeioa?aniaaiu oe?ieea e?oae ?onneiai iauanoaa e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
aeai?yinoai, eoioeu e ?aianeaiieee.

Ae?oaie i?aaeiinueeie iauaaeeiaiey ?onneeo caiaeue auei iaino?aiea
eeanniaie ai?ueau, oneeaiea eeanniaiai nii?ioeaeaiey e?anoueyinoaa.

Iiaeu?i oicyenoaa, aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aoue an? aieueoee i?eaaai/iue
i?iaeoeo iiaoaeaeatho oaiaeaeia oneeeaaoue yenieoaoaoeeth e?anoueyi.
I?eoii oaiaeaeu no?aiyony ia oieueei yeiiiie/anee, ii e th?eaee/anee
cae?aieoue e?anoueyi ca naieie aio/eiaie e iiianoueyie, cae?aiinoeoue
eo. Iiaeiaiay iieeoeea aucuaaao anoanoaaiiia nii?ioeaeaiea
e?anoueyinoaa, i?eia?aoathuaa ?aciiia?aciua oi?iu. E?anoueyia oaeaatho
oaiaeaeia, caoaaouaatho eo eiouanoai, iiaeaeeaatho eiaiey. Oaeay o/anoue
iinoeaaao ia?aaeei ia oieueei naaoneeo, ii e aeooiaiuo oaiaeaeia –
iiianou?e. Oi?iie eeanniaie ai?ueau aunooiae eiiaaea e ?acaie,
iai?aaeaiiue i?ioea ainiiae. Ii?aaeae?iiua ianooaau i?eieiaao e aaanoai
e?anoueyi, iniaaiii ia tha, ia naiaiaeiua io iiiaueeia caiee.

A oaeeo oneiaeyo ia?aae eeannii oaiaeaeia anoaea caaea/a oaea?aeaoue
a ocaea e?anoueyinoai e aeiaanoe aei eiioea aai cae?aiiuaiea. Yoa
caaea/a iiaea auoue ?aoaia oieueei iiuiui oeaio?aeeciaaiiui
ainoaea?noaii, niiniaiui auiieieoue aeaaioth ooieoeeth yenieoaoaoi?neiai
ainoaea?noaa – iiaeaaeaiea nii?ioeaeaiey yenieoaoe?oaiuo iann.

Oeacaiiua aeaa i?e/eiu ea?aee aaaeouoth ?ieue a aeaea iauaaeeiaiey
?one. Aac ieo i?ioeann oeaio?aeecaoeee ia iia au aeinoeaiooue
neieueei-ieaoaeue cia/eoaeueiuo oniaoia. Aianoa n oai naii ii naaa
yeiiiie/aneia e nioeeaeueiia ?acaeoea no?aiu a XIV-XVI aa. au? ia niiaei
au i?eaanoe e ia?aciaaieth oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa.

Oioy yeiiiie/aneea nayce a aeaiiue ia?eiae e aeinoeaee nouanoaaiiiai
?acaeoey, iie an? aea ia auee aeinoaoi/ii oe?iee, aeoaiee e neeueiu,
/oiau naycaoue aiaaeeii anth no?aio. A yoii ninoieo iaeii ec ioee/ee
ia?aciaaiey ?onneiai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa io aiaeiae/iuo
i?ioeannia a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia. Oai oeaio?aeeciaaiiua ainoaea?noaa
nicaeaaaeenue a oiaea ?acaeoey eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee. Ia ?one aea
a XIV-XVI aa. au? ia iiaei auoue e ?a/e i aicieeiiaaiee eaieoaeecia,
ao?aeoaciuo ioiioaiee.

Oi aea neaaeoao neacaoue e i ?acaeoee eeanniauo ioiioaiee, eeanniaie
ai?ueau. Eae ie aaeee aue a? ?aciao a aeaiiue ia?eiae, an? aea yoa
ai?ueaa ia i?eia?aea oaeeo oi?i, eaeea iia eiaea oaea ia Caiaaea eee a
aieaa iicaeiaa a?aiy a ?innee (e?anoueyineea aieiu ii ?oeiaiaenoaii
Aieioieeiaa, ?aceia a XVII a.). Aeaaea aeey ia/aea XVI a. oa?aeoa?ii
i?aeiouanoaaiii aiaoia iacaiaoiia, iiaenioaeiia iaeiieaiea eeanniauo
i?ioeai?a/ee.

Oaeoi?ii, onei?eaoei oeaio?aeecaoeeth ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa, yaeeanue
oa?ica aiaoiaai iaiaaeaiey, canoaaeyaoay niea/eaaoueny ?onneea caiee
ia?aae eeoeii iauaai a?aaa. Aaneiia/iua iaaeaeioniaiua aieiu, iaaaae
e?uioeaa e i?aeuioeaa, aoi?aeaiey eeaiioeaa oyainoii io?aaeaeenue ia
ia?iaeao. Ii?iaeueiua oneiaey ?acaeoey oicyenoaa iiaee auoue iaania/aiu
oieueei a ?aieao aaeeiiai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai iiuiiai ainoaea?noaa,
iiyoiio a oniaoiii caaa?oaiee iauaaeeieoaeueiiai i?ioeanna auee e?iaii
caeioa?aniaaiu ia oieueei i?aaenoaaeoaee ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna, ii e
oe?ieea iannu iinaaeneeo ethaeae e e?anoueyi. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi eiaaea
ia/aeinue ia?aciaaiea ?onneiai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa, noae
aiciiaeai ?aca?ii iiiaiei-oaoa? ia Eoeeeiaii iiea. A eiaaea Eaaio III
oaeaeinue nia?aoue ii/oe ana ?onneea caiee e iiaanoe eo i?ioea a?aaa,
oaoa?neia eai auei naa?aiooi ieii/aoaeueii. (O. Yiaaeuen: “…a ?innee
iiei?aiea oaeaeueiuo eiycae oei ?oea ia ?oeo n inaiaiaeaeaieai io
oaoa?neiai eaa, /oi auei ieii/aoaeueii cae?aieaii Eaaiii III”.)

N?aaee iauaaeeiythueo oaeoi?ia iiaeii oaeaea auaeaeeoue ia?aciaaiea
iiauo ai?iaeia e oe?aieaiea nioeeaeueiiai neiy aeai?yinoaa.

Ia?aciaaiea ?onneiai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa caaa?oeeinue e
eiioeo XV a. E 30-i aiaeai XVI a. oa??eoi?ey aai au?inea aieaa /ai a 6
?ac, e ?onue noaea iaeiei ec e?oiiaeoeo aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa. A
aaeeiia ?onneia ainoaea?noai e ia/aeo XVI a. auee aeeth/aiu a iniiaiii
caiee, ianae?iiua ?onneei ia?iaeii. Aianoa n Iiaai?iaeneie,
Ieaeaai?iaeneie, Ia?ineie e ae?oaeie caieyie a ninoaa Iineianeiai
ainoaea?noaa aioee e iaaieueoea ia?onneea ia?iaeu, eo ianaeyaoea:
iaua?a, ia?y, ea?aeu, naaie, iaioeu, oaeio?ou, ii?aeaa e ae?. Ia naaa?a
no?aiu aeeee eiie, oaiou e iaine e ae?. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo
anneieee?iaaeenue, ?anoai?eeenue a ninoaaa aaeeei?onneie ia?iaeiinoe, ii
aieueoeinoai nio?aieei naith naiiauoiinoue. Aaeeiia ?onneia ainoaea?noai
n naiiai ia/aea neeaaeuaaeinue eae iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiia.

1.2. Iauanoaaiiue no?ie

Oaiaeaeu. Eeann oaiaeaeia ?aniaaeaeny ia neaaeothuea a?oiiu:
neoaeeeuo eiycae, aiy?, neoa aieueiuo e aeaoae aiy?neeo, “neoa iiae
aeai?neei.

Neoaeeeua eiycuey ninoaaeyee aa?oooeo eeanna oaiaeaeia. Yoi auaoea
oaeaeueiua eiycuey, eioi?ua iinea i?eniaaeeiaiey eo oaeaeia e
Iineianeiio ainoaea?noao iioa?yee naith naiinoiyoaeueiinoue. Iaeiaei iie
nio?aieee i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth. Ii iineieueeo oa??eoi?ey
oaeaeia auea, eae i?aaeei, aaeeea, neoaeeeua eiycuey yaeyeenue iaeaieaa
e?oiiuie caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie. Neoaeeeua eiycuey caieiaee ?oeiaiaeyuea
iinou e yaeyeenue ia aieio ni naiae nianoaaiiie ae?oaeeiie.
Aiineaaenoaee iie neeeenue n aa?oooeie aiy?noaa.

Aiy?a, eae e eiyaeaoa, ninoaaeee yeiiiie/anee ainiiaenoaothuoth
a?oiie?iaeo aioo?e eeanna oaiaeaeia, /oi iaania/eaaei ei e
niioaaonoaothuaa iieeoe/aneia iieiaeaiea. Aiy?a caieiaee eiiaiaeiua
iinou a ainoaea?noaa.

N?aaeieie e iaeeeie oaiaeaeaie auee neoae aieueiua e aeaoe aiy?neea.
Oa e ae?oaea oaeaea ianee neoaeao aaeeeiio eiycth.

Oaiaeaeu iaeaaeaee i?aaii iouacaea, o.a. iie ai?aaa auee auae?aoue
naaa nthca?aia ii naiaio oniio?aieth. I?e iaee/ee a XIV-XV aa. ?acee/iuo
eiyaeanoa o oaiaeaeia auee aeiaieueii oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe aeey oaeiai
auai?a. Iouacaeathuee aannae ia oa?ye naieo aio/ei. Iiyoiio neo/aeinue,
/oi caiee o aiy?eia auee a iaeiii eiyaeanoaa, a neoaeee ii a ae?oaii,
eiiaaea a?aaeaeothuai n ia?aui.

Aiy?a no?aieeenue neoaeeoue iaeaieaa neeueiiio e aeeyoaeueiiio
eiycth, niiniaiiio caueoeoue eo eioa?anu. A XIV -ia/aea XV a. i?aai
iouacaea auei auaiaeii iineianeei eiycueyi, o.e. niinianoaiaaei
niae?aieth ?onneeo caiaeue.

Ii ia?a oe?aieaiey oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa i?aai iouacaea
noaei iaoaoue iineianeei aaeeeei eiycueyi, eai yoei i?aaii iuoaeenue
ainiieueciaaoueny neoaeeeua eiycuey e aa?oooea aiy?noaa n oeaeueth
aini?aiyonoaiaaoue aeaeueiaeoae oeaio?aeecaoeee e aeaaea aeiaeoueny
i?aaeiae naiinoiyoaeueiinoe. Iiyoiio iineianeea aaeeeea eiycuey
noa?athony ia?aie/eoue i?aai iouacaea, a caoai e aiana aai ioiaieoue.
Ia?ie ai?ueau n iouacaeathueie aiy?aie auei eeoaiea eo aio/ei. Iicaea ia
iouacae ia/eiatho niio?aoue oaea eae ia eciaio.

Iecooth a?oiio oaiaeaeia ninoaaeyee “neoae iiae aeai?neei”, eioi?ua
/anoi iaae?aeenue ec eiyaeaneeo oieiiia. Ni a?aiaiai iaeioi?ua ec ieo
caieiaee aieaa eee iaiaa aunieea iinou a aeai?oeiaii e ainoaea?noaaiiii
oi?aaeaiee. I?e yoii iie iieo/aee io eiycy caieth e noaiiaeeenue
ianoiyueie oaiaeaeaie. “Neoae iiae aeai?neei” nouanoaiaaee eae i?e
aaeeeieiyaeaneii aeai?a, oae e i?e aeai?ao oaeaeueiuo eiycae.

A XV a. a iieiaeaiee oaiaeaeia i?ienoiaeyo caiaoiua naeaeae,
naycaiiua n oneeaieai i?ioeanna oeaio?aeecaoeee ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa.
I?aaeaea anaai eciaieeenue ninoaa e iieiaeaiea aiy?noaa. Ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia XV a. /enei aiy? i?e iineianeii aeai?a au?inei a 4 ?aca ca n/?o
oaeaeueiuo eiycae, i?eoaaeoeo ia neoaeao e iineianeiio aaeeeiio eiycth
aianoa ni naieie aiy?aie. Eiyaeaoa iooanieee ia aoi?ie ieai noa?eiiia
iineianeia aiy?noai, oioy iineianeea aiy?a noiyee ia?aaia eee aeaaea
auoa iaeioi?uo ieaaeoeo eaoaai?ee eiyaeao. A nayce n yoei iaiyaony niune
naiiai oa?ieia “aiy?ei”. Anee ?aiueoa ii icia/ae eeoue i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue
e ii?aaeae?iiie nioeeaeueiie a?oiia – e?oiiui oaiaeaeai, oi oaia?ue
aiy?noai noaiiaeony i?eaeai?iui /eiii, eioi?ue aeaeiaae aaeeeee eiycue
(aaaaeaiiua aiy?a). Yoio /ei i?enaaeaaeny i?aeiouanoaaiii neoaeeeui
eiycueyi. Aoi?ui i?eaeai?iui /eiii noae /ei ieieueie/aai. Aai iieo/eea
iniiaiay ianna i?aaeiaai aiy?noaa. Aiy?a, ia eiaaoea i?eaeai?iuo /eiia,
neeeenue n aeaoueie aiy?neeie e neoaaie aieueiuie.

Eciaiaiea i?e?iaeu aiy?noaa iiaeeyei ia aai ioiioaiey e aaeeeiio
eiycth. I?aaeiaa iineianeia aiy?noai naycuaaei naith noaeueao n oniaoaie
eiycy e iiyoiio anaia?ii iiiiaaei aio. Oaia?aoiea aiy?a – a/a?aoiea
oaeaeueiua eiycuey – auee iano?iaiu aanueia iiiiceoeeiiii. Aaeeeea
eiycuey ia/eiatho eneaoue iii?o a iiaie a?oiia eeanna oaiaeaeia –
aeai?yinoaa. Aeai?yia oi?ie?iaaeenue i?aaeaea anaai ec “aeai?iuo” neoa,
eee “neoa iiae aeai?neei”, i?e aeai?a aaeeeiai eiycy, oaeaeueiuo eiycae
e e?oiiuo aiy?. E?iia oiai, aaeeeea eiycuey, iniaaiii Eaai III, aeaaaee
caieth ia i?aaao iiianouey iiiaei naiaiaeiui ethaeyi e aeaaea oieiiai
i?e oneiaee ianaiey aiaiiie neoaeau. Aeai?yinoai oeaeeeii caaenaei io
aaeeeiai eiycy, a iioiio yaeyeinue aai aa?iie nioeeaeueiie iii?ie. Ca
naith neoaeao aeai?yinoai iaaeayeinue iieo/eoue io eiycy iiaua caiee,
e?anoueyi. ?ino cia/aiey aeai?yinoaa o?e iaeiia?aiaiii n oiaiueoaieai
aeeyiey aiy?noaa. Iineaaeiaa ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu XV a. neeueii
iioaoioeinue a naieo yeiiiie/aneeo iiceoeeyo.

E?oiiui oaiaeaeii ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaaeanue oea?eiaue. A oeaio?aeueiuo
?aeiiao no?aiu iiianou?neia caieaaeaaeaiea ?anoe?yaony ca n/?o
iiaeaeiaaiee ianoiuo eiycae e aiy?, a oaeaea a neeo caaauaiee. Ia
naaa?i-ainoiea iiianou?e caoaaouaatho iainaiaiiua, a /anoi e /a?iinioiua
caiee. Aaeeeea eiycuey, iaaniieiaiiua ineoaeaieai aiy?neeo ?iaeia,
i?eieiatho aeaaea ia?u e ia?aie/aieth ia?aoiaea eo caiaeue iiianou?yi.
Aeaeaaony e iiiuoea ioia?aoue caiee o iiianou?ae, /oiau ?acaeaoue eo
iiiaueeai, ii iia oa?ieo e?ao.

E?anoueyia. Naeueneia oaiaeaeueiia ianaeaiea e ia/aeo aeaiiiai
ia?eiaea eiaiiaaeinue ne?ioaie. A XIV a. yoio oa?iei iinoaiaiii
auoaniyeny iiaui – e?anoueyia (io “o?enoeaia”), oioy a XV a.
oiio?aaeyaony e ae?aaiee – nia?aeu. E?anoueyinoai aeaeeeinue ia 2
eaoaai?ee – /a?iioyaeuo e aeaaeaeue/aneeo. Aeaaeaeue/aneea e?anoueyia
aeeee ia caieyo, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo iiiaueeai e aio/eiieeai, /a?iioyaeua –
ia inoaeueiuo, ia ioaeaiiuo eaeiio-ieaoaeue oaiaeaeo. Yoa aoi?ay
eaoaai?ey caiaeue n/eoaeanue i?eiaaeeaaeauae iaiin?aaenoaaiii eiycth.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, /a?iioyaeua e?anoueyia aeeee a aeiiaieaeueiuo
aeaaeaieyo aaeeeeo e oaeaeueiuo eiycae. XV a. ciaiaioaony i?ee?aieaieai
/a?iioyaeuo (/a?iinioiuo) e?anoueyi e caiea e oneeaiiui cae?aiiuaieai
aeaaeaeue/aneeo. I?ee?aieaiea /a?iinioiuo e?anoueyi e caiea
inouanoaeyeinue ioo?i aeiaiai?ia iaaeaeo eiycueyie i iai?eiyoee ia naie
caiee /oaeeo oyaeuo ethaeae. Cae?aiiuaieai aeaaeaeue/aneeo yaeyeinue
i?ee?aieaiea e?anoueyieia e ii?aaeae?iiie aio/eia eee iiianoueth, o.a. e
caiea e a? aeaaeaeueoeo, eeoaiea e?anoueyieia aiciiaeiinoe auae?aoue
naaa ainiiaeeia, ia?aoiaeeoue io iaeiiai oicyeia e ae?oaiio.

Onoaiiaeaiea oaiaeaeueiie caaeneiinoe i?aaeiieaaaao yeiiiie/aneia
i?eioaeaeaiea e?anoueyieia e o?oaeo ia oaiaeaea, caoaaoeaoaai iniiaiia
n?aaenoai i?iecaiaenoaa – caieth. N ?acaeoeai oaiaeaeecia o?aaothony
oaea ia?u iieeoe/aneiai, i?aaiaiai i?eioaeaeaiey. Oaiaeaeu an? aieaa
oneeeaatho yenieoaoaoeeth e?anoueyi, ii iineaaeiea, eiay th?eaee/aneoth
aiciiaeiinoue ia?aoiaeeoue io iaeiiai aeaaeaeueoea e ae?oaiio,
inouanoaeytho yoi i?aai, noa?aynue iaeoe ianoi, aaea aeeoue auei au
eaa/a. Iau/ii oaeeie ianoaie auee e?oiiua aio/eiu. A neeo yoiai io
e?anoueyineeo ia?aoiaeia no?aaeaee i?aeiouanoaaiii iaeeea oaiaeaeu.
Iie-oi e no?aieeenue e cae?aiiuaieth e?anoueyi. I?aaieciaaiiia
cae?aiiuaiea ia/aeinue n oiai, /oi aaeeeea eiycuey iniauie a?aiioaie
cae?aieyee ca ioaeaeueiuie aeaaeaeueoeaie ii?aaeae?iiua a?oiiu
e?anoueyi. Iaeieie ec ia?auo auee i?ee?aieaiu noa?iaeeeueoeu.

Noa?iaeeeueoeu – yoi a iniiaiii ethaee, ennoa?e aeeaouea o oiai eee
eiiai oaiaeaea e ianoea a aai iieueco iau/iua oaiaeaeueiua iiaeiiinoe, a
oaeaea oyaei ainoaea?noao. Iie au? iieueciaaeenue i?aaii ia?aoiaea io
iaeiiai ainiiaeeia e ae?oaiio, an? aieaa ia?aie/eaaaoeiny a XV a.

Noa?iaeeeueoeai i?ioeaiiinoaaeyeenue iiaiii?yae/eee (iiaii?eoiaeoeu).
Oaiaeaeu, caeioa?aniaaiiua a i?eoiea ?aai/ae neeu, ioioii i?eieiaee
e?anoueyi a naie aio/eiu e iiianouey. *aua anaai yoi auee e?anoueyia,
aaaeaaoea io ae?oaeo oaiaeaeia. Iiaiii?yae/ee inaiaiaeaeaeny io
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oyaea, a eiiaaea e io oaiaeaeueiuo iiaeiiinoae.
Iiaiii?yae/eee iieo/aee eiiaaea io aio/eiieea eee iiiaueea iiaeiiao eee
nnoaeo. Iie eiaee i?aai ia?aeoe io iaeiiai oaiaeaea e ae?oaiio,
?anieaoeaoenue ni naiei ainiiaeeiii. Anee iiaiii?yae/ee iiiai eao
i?iaeeaae ia iaeiii ianoa, ii n/eoaeny noa?iaeeeueoeai.

Neaaeothuoth a?oiio caaeneiuo ethaeae ninoaaeyee na?aa?yieee. Yoi
auee ethaee, acyaoea o oaiaeaea “na?aa?i”, o.a. aeaiueae a aeiea, e
iaycaiiua io?aaaouaaoue aai. ?aniea/eaaoueny n oaeeie aeieaaie /anoi
auei o?oaeii ec-ca aunieeo i?ioeaioia. Na?aa?yiee aei oieaou aeieaa ia
iia oeoe io oicyeia.

Iaeiie ec a?oii caaeneiuo ethaeae auee iieiaieee. Iie iaoaee
ainiiaeneoth caieth ia naieo eioaaeyo, ioaeaaay iieiaeio o?iaeay
oicyeio. Yoi auee aaaeiyee, ia eiaaoea caiee.

A eiioea XV a. iiyaeyaony au? iaeia eaoaai?ey caaeneiuo ethaeae –
aiauee. Aiauee iieo/aee o oaiaeaeia aeeeeua, eiiaaea e caieth
(iaoyaeoth, o.a. ia iaeaaaaioth iaeiaaie). Aiauee eiaeenue ia oieueei o
naaoneeo oaiaeaeia, ii e o oea?eae. Auee aeaaea aiauee, aeeaouea ia
/??iuo caieyo. A yoii neo/aa iie caaenaee ia io ainiiaeeia, a io
e?anoueyineie iaueiu. Noaeaaiee 1497 a. iieiaeee ia/aei anaiauaio
cae?aiiuaieth e?anoueyi. Noaouey 57 onoaiiaeea, /oi e?anoueyia iiaoo
ooiaeeoue io naieo ainiiae oieueei a TH?ueaa aeaiue inaiiee (26 iiya?y),
ca iaaeaeth aei iaai e iaaeaeth iinea iaai. Aaeeiue n?ie ia?aoiaea
ioaa/ae iio?aaiinoyi oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa e aue cae?aie?i a
no. 57. Aeey ooiaeeaoaai e?anoueyieia onoaiaaeeaaeanue iiaeiiinoue
(iiaeeeia): ii aeieaeai aue caieaoeoue 1 ?oaeue, anee aai aeai?
iaoiaeeeny “a iieao”, e iieoeio a iaiaa ieiaei?iaeiuo eanenouo
ianoiinoyo (“a eanao”). Ii oai a?aiaiai yoi auea cia/eoaeueiay noiia.
Iieiay noiia auoiaea ieaoeeanue i?iaeeaoeie ia caiea ia iaiaa 4 eao.
Aeey i?iaeeaoeo iaiueoa iia nieaeaeanue ca eaaeaeue aiae ia /aoaa?oue.

Oieiiu. Iiiaiei-oaoa?neia eai i?eaaei e nie?auaieth /eneaiiiai
ninoaaa oieiiia ia ?one. Ieai eae enoi/iee oieiinoaa iioa?ye cia/aiea.
Iaiai?io, oaoa?u oaiaeeee a?iiaaeiia /enei ?onneeo a ?aanoai.

Oieiiu iiae?acaeaeyeenue ia ianeieueei a?oii. Eiaeenue aieueoea,
iieiua e aeieeaaeiua oieiiu. Aieueoea oieiiu – yoi aa?oooea oieiinoaa,
eiyaeaneea e aiy?neea neoae, eiiaaea caieiaaoea aunieea iinou. Oae, aei
XV a. eiyaeaneie eaciie aaaeaee aeieaeiinoiua eeoea ec oieiiia. A XV a.
iaeioi?ua oieiiu iieo/atho ca naith neoaeao eiycth caieth. Iieiua e
aeieeaaeiua oieiiu ?aaioaee a oicyenoaa oaiaeaea a ea/anoaa i?eneoae,
?aianeaiieeia, caieaiaooeaa. An? aieaa i/aaeaeiie noaiiaeony
yeiiiie/aneay iaauaiaeiinoue oieiineiai o?oaea. Iiyoiio iaaethaeaaony
oaiaeaioeey e ioiineoaeueiiio nie?auaieth oieiinoaa. Ii no. 66
Noaeaaieea a ioee/ea io ?I naiaiaeiue /aeiaae, iinooieaoee a eeth/ieee a
ai?iaea, oaea ia n/eoaeny oieiiii. Ioiaiyeinue e i?aa?auaiea oaiaeaeueii
caaeneiiai e?anoueyieia a oieiia ca aaanoai io ainiiaeeia.

Aianoa n oai oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea naiii?iaeaaea a oieiiu.
I?iaeaaaeenue a oieiiu iaaaeiaaoea e?anoueyia. Oeaia oieiia a XV a.
eieaaaeanue io iaeiiai aei o??o ?oaeae. Eiee/anoai oieiiia nie?auaeinue
oaeaea ca n/?o ioionea eo ia aieth. N oa/aieai a?aiaie yoi noaiiaeony
aiieia iau/iui yaeaieai. *aua anaai ioioneaee oieiiia ii caaauaieth.
Oae, aaeeeee eiycue Aaneeee Aeieo?eaae/ aeae naiaiaeo ii/oe anai naiei
oieiiai, inoaaea ianeaaeieoeai eeoue ii iyoe oieiineeo naiae eaaeaeie.

Inaiaiaeaeaee naieo oieiiia e iiianou?e. Oieii, aaaeaaoee ec
oaoa?neiai ieaia, n/eoaeny naiaiaeiui (no. 56).

A aeaiiue ia?eiae ?acaeaaaony i?ioeann iinoaiaiiiai noe?aiey a?aie
iaaeaeo oieiiaie e e?anoueyiaie, ia/aaoeeny au? a Ae?aaiae ?one. Oieiiu
iieo/atho iaeioi?ua eiouanoaaiiua e ee/iua i?aaa, a cae?aiiu?iiua
e?anoueyia an? aieueoa eo oa?ytho. N?aaee oieiiia ?acee/athony
no?aaeieee, o.a. oieiiu, iinaaeaiiua ia caieth.

Ia?yaeo n ioiineoaeueiui nie?auaieai /enea oieiiia aicieeaao iiaue
?ac?yae ethaeae, noiaeiuo ii iieiaeaieth n oieiiaie, – eaaaeueiua
ethaee. Eaaaea aicieeaea ec aeieaiaie caaeneiinoe. *aeiaae, acyaoee a
aeiea (iau/ii 3-5 ?oaeae), aeieaeai aue io?aaaouaaoue i?ioeaiou. *aua
anaai eaaaea noaiiaeeanue iiaeeciaiiie.

Ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea. Ai?iaea aeaeeeenue iau/ii ia 2 /anoe:
nianoaaiii ai?iae, o.a. iai?iaeaiiia noaiie ianoi, e?aiinoue e
ie?oaeathuee ai?iaeneea noaiu oi?aiai-?aianeaiiue iinaae. Niioaaonoaaiii
yoiio aeaeeeinue e ianaeaiea. A e?aiinoe – aeaoeioea – aeeee a ie?iia
a?aiy i?aeiouanoaaiii i?aaenoaaeoaee eiyaeaneie aeanoe, aa?iecii e neoae
ianoiuo oaiaeaeia. Ia iinaaea naeeeenue ?aianeaiieee e oi?aiaoeu. Ia?aay
/anoue ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey auea naiaiaeia io iaeiaia e
ainoaea?noaaiiuo iiaeiiinoae, aoi?ay ioiineeanue e oyaeiio “/??iiio”
ethaeo.

I?iiaaeooi/ioth eaoaai?eth ninoaaeyei ianaeaiea neiaiaeie e aeai?ia,
i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo ioaeaeueiui oaiaeaeai e ?aniieiaeaiiuo a ai?iaeneie
/a?oa. Yoe ethaee, yeiiiie/anee naycaiiua n iinaaeii, auee oai ia iaiaa
naiaiaeiu io ai?iaeneiai oyaea e ianee iiaeiiinoe oieueei a iieueco
naiaai ainiiaeeia. Oicyenoaaiiue iiaeu?i a XV a., ?acaeoea ?aianea e
oi?aiaee oe?aieyee yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea ai?iaeia, a neaaeiaaoaeueii,
iiaeieiaee e cia/aiea iinaaeneeo ethaeae. A ai?iaeao auaeaeythony
iaeaieaa ninoiyoaeueiua e?oae eoia/anoaa – ainoe, aaaeouea eiicaiioth
oi?aiaeth. Iiyaeeanue iniaay eaoaai?ey ainoae – no?iaeaia, aaaeouea oi?a
n E?uiii (n No?iaeai – Noaeaeii). Ianeieueei ieaea noiyee noeiiieee –
oi?aiaoeu noeiii.

1.3. Ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie

Ai aoi?ie /aoaa?oe XIII a. n oneeaieai aeanoe eiycae iaaeaeo?a/uey
Iee e Aieae, a oaeaea n ineaaeaieai ai?iaeia iinea iiiaiei-oaoa?neiai
iaoanoaey aa/a oa?yao eaeoth-eeai neeo. Aieueoia cia/aiea i?e eiyca
i?eia?aoaao oaiaeaeueiue niaao, ninoiyaoee ec ianeieueeeo (10-15)
iaeaieaa ciaoiuo aiy?. A ia?aoth iieiaeio XV a. ec n?aaeu aiy?noaa
auaeaeeeanue iniaay eaoaai?ey “aiy? aaaae?iiuo” – iinoiyiiuo niaaoieeia
aaeeeiai eiycy e eniieieoaeae aai ii?o/aiee ii anai aii?inai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey.

Oaiaeaeueiue niaao aianoa n eiycai inouanoaeye caeiiiaeaoaeueiua
ooieoeee e aa?oiaiia oi?aaeaiea, aue ieii/aoaeueiie einoaioeeae noaea.

Aieueoie aan a oaiaeaeueiii niaaoa eiaee oaeea aeieaeiinoiua eeoea,
eae ounyoeeee, ieieueie/ee e eacia/ae. Aeieaeiinoue ounyoeeiai a
Iineianeii eiyaeanoaa i?aa?aoeeanue a ianeaaenoaaiioth; a? oco?ie?iaaee
iiaouanoaaiiua aiy?neea oaieeee. Ecaanoiay naiinoiyoaeueiinoue
ounyoeeiai, aaaeaaoaai ai?iaeneei iiie/aieai, a oaeaea noaeaaiui e
oeiainiaui iaaeci?ii, i?aa?aoeea aai a aeaao aiy?neie iiiiceoeee
aic?anoaieth aeanoe aaeeeiai eiycy. A 1373 a., eiaaea i?aaenoaaeeny
ounyoeeee Aaneeee I?ioanueaa, yoa aeieaeiinoue auea oi?acaeiaia.

Aeieaeiinoe ieieueie/aai e eacia/ay auee oanii naycaiu n ?inoii
aeanoe e aaeeiiaea?aeaaey aaeeeiai eiycy iineianeiai. Ieieueie/ee
yaeyeny aeeaeaeoei niaaoieeii e eniieieoaeai ii?o/aiee aaeeeiai eiycy,
iniaaiii a iaeanoe aeai?oeiaiai oi?aaeaiey.

Iniaia ianoi a ainoaea?noaaiiii oi?aaeaiee Iineianeiai eiyaeanoaa
caieiae eacia/ae – o?aieoaeue aaeeeieiyaeaneie eaciu e a?oeaa
(aeooiaiuo, aeiaiai?iuo a?aiio, oaineeo y?eueia e ae?.). Ii-aeaeeiiio,
au? aei ia?aciaaiey oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa i?e eacia/aa
neiaeeeinue ia?aia ainoaea?noaaiiia o/?aaeaeaiea – “Eacia”
(aiineaaenoaee Eac?iiue aeai?). Oaea a 1450 a. aia?aua oiiieiaaony
eac?iiue aeueye, a a 1467 – eac?iiue iiaeuey/ee – aeieaeiinoiua eeoea,
aaaeathuea ianeiaeiui aeaeii?iecaiaenoaii yoiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
o/?aaeaeaiey. ssaeyynue aeaaie aaaeiaeoaai aaaeiinoaa, neiaeeaoaainy
?aiaa ae?oaeo, eacia/ae iiieii iniiaiuo naieo ooieoeee auiieiye e
iaeioi?ua ae?oaea iauaainoaea?noaaiiua caaea/e: aaaeae yineeie,
iiianoiuie, oieiiueeie e iinieueneeie aeaeaie; aeaeii?iecaiaenoai ii
yoei aeaeai aaeinue oaeaea ia Eac?iiii aeai?a.

Iineianeia ainoaea?noai inoaaaeinue au? ?aiiaoaiaeaeueiie iiia?oeae.
A neeo yoiai ioiioaiey iaaeaeo oeaio?ii e ianoaie no?ieeenue
ia?aiia/aeueii ia iniiaa nthca?aieoaoa-aannaeeoaoa. Iaeiaei n oa/aieai
a?aiaie iieiaeaiea iinoaiaiii iaiyeinue. Iineianeea eiycuey, eae e ana
ae?oaea, aeaeeee naie caiee iaaeaeo ianeaaeieeaie. Iineaaeiea iieo/aee
iau/iua oaeaeu e auee a ieo oi?iaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiu. Iaeiaei
oaeoe/anee noa?oee nui, i?eia?aooee “noie” aaeeeiai eiycy, nio?aiye
iieiaeaiea noa?oaai eiycy. Ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIV a. aaiaeeony ii?yaeie,
ii eioi?iio noa?oee ianeaaeiee iieo/ae aieueooth aeieth ianeaaenoaa, /ai
inoaeueiua. Yoi aeaaaei aio yeiiiie/aneia i?aeiouanoai. E oiio aea ii
aianoa n aaeeeieiyaeaneei “noieii” iaycaoaeueii iieo/ae e anth
Aeaaeeie?neoth caieth.

Iinoaiaiii eciaieeanue e th?eaee/aneay i?e?iaea ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
aaeeeei e oaeaeueiuie eiycueyie. Aaeeeea eiycuey aicaeaaeee oeaeoth
ea?a?oeth oaiaeaeia ec oaeaeueiuo eiycae e aiy?, acaeiiioiioaiey n
eioi?uie ii?aaeaeyeenue iiiai/eneaiiuie aeiaiai?iuie e aeaeiaaiiuie
a?aiioaie, onoaiaaeeaaaoeie ?acee/iua noaiaie oaiaeaeueiie caaeneiinoe
aeey ?aciuo noauaeoia. A aeiaiai?ao eiycuey i?eciaaaee aaeeeiai eiycy
“a?aoii noa?aeoei”, iaycuaaeenue aeaenoaiaaoue “caiaeei” i?ioea a?aaia
(oaoa?, iaioeaa) e ii?aaeaeyee iaeioi?ua iauea ii?yaeee aioo?e eiyaeanoa
(auaea/o aaaeuo oieiiia, oaiiaeaiioth iieeoeeo). Ai iiiaeo a?aiioao
iiae/??eeaaeanue oa??eoi?eaeueiay iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue eaaeaeie ec
noi?ii. AEaeiaaiiua a?aiiou auaeaaaeenue aaeeeeie eiycueyie oai
aannaeai, /uee caiee aoiaeeee a ninoaa aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa (eiycueyi,
aiy?ai, iiianou?yi), e ii?aaeaeyee oaiaeaeueiue eiioieoao, o.a. i?aai
inouanoaeaiey yoeie oaiaeaeaie ia naieo caieyo iaeioi?uo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ooieoeee (noaea eee nai?a iaeiaia, eiiaaea e oiai e
ae?oaiai) aac aiaoaoaeuenoaa aaeeeieiyaeaneie aaeieieno?aoeee.

Aeaaie ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa aue aaeeeee eiycue, iaeaaeaaoee oe?ieei
e?oaii i?aa. Ii ecaeaaae caeiiu, inouanoaeye ainoaea?noaaiiia
?oeiaiaenoai, eiae noaeaaiua iieiiii/ey.

Oaea a XII a. (au? aei aoi?aeaiey iiiaieia) ia ?one noaea
oi?ie?iaaoueny eaeaieiaey aaeeeieiyaeaneie aeanoe, eioi?ay iiaea au
i?aiaeieaoue ?aniaae e ?acae?iaeaiea ?one. A “Neiaa” Aeaieeea Caoi/ieea
?enoaony ia?ac neeueiiai e ni?aaaaeeeaiai aaeeeiai eiycy. Eiycue
aeieaeai eiaoue aeec naay aeoioeaa e iie?aoueny ia eo Niaao. Aio ioaeii
aieueoia e neeueiia aienei. Oieueei yoi iiaeao iaania/eoue naiiaeanoea
eiycy e caueoeoue no?aio io aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo a?aaia. Eaeaieiae
ia?iaeaeathuaainy naiiaea?aeaaey inoaeaeatho aiy?neia naiioi?aanoai e
caneeuea, eioi?ua ii?iaeaeatho iao?yaeeoeu a aea?aeaaa e ineaaeytho a?
ia?aae a?yaeouei iaiaaeaieai a?iciiai a?aaa. ?aaeueiay eiyaeaneay
aeanoue n oa/aieai a?aiaie oneeeaaaony e eciaiyaony. Yoe eciaiaiey oee a
2 iai?aaeaieyo – aioo?aiiai e aiaoiai. Ia?aiia/aeueii naie
caeiiiaeaoaeueiua, aaeieieno?aoeaiua e noaeaaiua i?aaiii/ey aaeeeee
eiycue iia inouanoaeyoue eeoue a i?aaeaeao nianoaaiiiai aeiiaia. Aeaaea
Iineaa aeaeeeanue a oeiainiai-aaeieieno?aoeaiii e noaeaaiii ioiioaieyo
iaaeaeo eiycueyie-a?aoueyie. A XIV-XV aa. aaeeeea eiycuey inoaaeyee a?
iau/ii naiei ianeaaeieeai ia i?aaao iauae nianoaaiiinoe. N iaaeaieai
aeanoe oaeaeueiuo eiycae aaeeeee eiycue noae iiaeeeiiui aeanoaeeiii anae
oa??eoi?ee ainoaea?noaa. Eaai III e Aaneeee III ia noaniyeenue a?inaoue
a oth?ueio naieo aeeaeaeoeo ?iaenoaaiieeia – oaeaeueiuo eiycae,
iuoaaoeony i?ioeai?a/eoue eo aiea.

O.i., oeaio?aeecaoeey ainoaea?noaa yaeeanue aioo?aiiei enoi/ieeii
oneeaiey aaeeeieiyaeaneie aeanoe. Aiaoiei enoi/ieeii a? oneeaiey auei
iaaeaiea aeanoe Cieioie I?aeu. Aia/aea iineianeea aaeeeea eiycuey auee
aannaeaie i?aeuineeo oaiia, ec ?oe eioi?uo iie iieo/aee i?aai ia
aaeeeieiyaeaneee noie. (Oae, a 1325 a. iineianeee eiycue Eaai Eaeeoa
iieo/ee oeooe aaeeeiai eiycy anay ?one e oaineee y?eue ia aaeeeia
eiyaeaiea.) N Eoeeeianeie aeoau yoa caaeneiinoue noaea oieueei
oi?iaeueiie, a iinea 1480 a. iineianeea eiycuey noaee ia oieueei
oaeoe/anee, ii e th?eaee/anee iacaaeneiuie, noaa?aiiuie ainoaea?yie.
Iiaiio niaea?aeaieth aaeeeieiyaeaneie aeanoe auee i?eaeaiu e iiaua
oi?iu. Ia/eiay n Eaaia III, iineianeea aaeeeea eiycuey eiaiiaaee naay
“ainoaea?yie anay ?one”. Eaai III e aai i?aaiiee iuoaeenue i?enaieoue
naaa e oea?neee oeooe, i?eciaiiue iaeioi?uie aa?iiaeneeie aea?aeaaaie.

A oeaeyo oe?aieaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?anoeaea Eaai III aeaieeny ia
ieaiyiieoea iineaaeiaai aecaioeeneiai eiia?aoi?a Niouea Iaeaieia –
aaeeinoaaiiie ianeaaeieoea oaea ia nouanoaothuaai eiinoaioeiiiieueneiai
i?anoiea. Aeaeaeenue iiiuoee eaeaieiae/aneiai iainiiaaiey i?eoycaiee
Eaaia III ia naiiaea?aeaaea. E?iia a?a/iuo naycae n Nioueae Iaeaieia
noa?athony onoaiiaeoue, eiia/ii ieoe/aneia, i?ienoiaeaeaiea ?onneeo
eiycae io ?eineeo eiia?aoi?ia. Auea nicaeaia oai?ey aiaeanoaaiiiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey eiyaeaneie aeanoe. Aeai?yineea enoi?eee, ia/eiay n I.I.
Ea?aiceia, n/eoaee, /oi iineianeea aaeeeea eiycuey auee oaea
naiiaea?aeoeaie. Yoi aa?ii a oii niunea, /oi Eaai III, caaa?oeaoee
inaiaiaeaeaiea ?one io oaoa?, “nai aea?aeae” naie eiyaeaneee noie,
iacaaeneii io I?aeu. Iaeiaei aiai?eoue i naiiaea?aeaaee a iieiii niunea
neiaa, o.a. i iaia?aie/aiiie iiia?oee a XV e aeaaea XVI a., ia
i?eoiaeeony. Aeanoue iiia?oa (aaeeeiai eiycy iineianeiai e oea?ae “anay
?one”) auea au? ia?aie/aia ae?oaeie i?aaiaie ?aiiaoaiaeaeueiiai
ainoaea?noaa, i?aaeaea anaai Aiy?neie aeoiie. Iia au?inea ec niaaoa i?e
eiyca, nouanoaiaaaoaai au? a Ae?aaia?onneii ainoaea?noaa. Ioi?ieaiea
Aeoiu neaaeoao ioianoe e XV a. Aiy?neay aeoia ioee/aeanue io i?aaeiaai
niaaoa aieueoae th?eaee/aneie e i?aaiecaoeeiiiie ioi?ieaiiinoueth. Iia
auea iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuei i?aaiii, eiaea n?aaieoaeueii noaaeeueiue
ninoaa. A ia? e?iia aiy? iineianeiai eiycy aoiaeeee auaoea oaeaeueiua
eiycuey e eo aiy?a. N ia?aie iieiaeiu XVI a. a aeoia iiyaeeenue e iaiaa
ciaoiua oaiaeaeu – ieieueie/uee, a oaeaea i?aaenoaaeoaee iiianoiiai
neoaeeeiai aeai?yinoaa – aeoiiua aeai?yia (“aeaoe aiy?neea, eioi?ua a
aeoia aeeaoo”) e aa?oiaiie neoaeeeie ath?ie?aoee – aeoiiua aeueyee;
iineaaeiea aaee aeaeii?iecaiaenoai Aiy?neie aeoiu (4 /aeiaaea
ia?aiia/aeueii).

Eiycue (oea?ue) ?acaeaeye aeanoue n e?oiiaeoeie oaiaeaeaie no?aiu,
iineieueeo ooieoeee Aiy?neie aeoiu auee iaioaeaeeiu io aai i?a?iaaoea,
oioy oi?iaeueii yoi ieaaea ia auei caoeene?iaaii. Aaeeeee eiycue
th?eaee/anee ia iaycai aue n/eoaoueny n iiaieai Aeoiu, ii oaeoe/anee ia
iia iinooiaoue naiiaieueii, eai ethaia aai ?aoaiea ia i?eaiaeeeinue a
aeeciue, anee ia auei iaeia?aii aiy?noaii. *a?ac Aeoio aiy?noai
inouanoaeyei iieeoeeo, oaiaeioth e auaiaeioth aio.

Aiy?neay aeoia ?ac?aoaea aaaeiaeoea ainoaea?noaaiiua aeaea. Iia auea
caeiiiaeaoaeueiui i?aaiii. Ath auee ooaa?aeaeaiu noaeaaieee 1497 e 1550
aiaeia. Noaouey 98 Noaeaaieea 1550 a. n/eoaea i?eaiai? Aiy?neie aeoiu
iaiaoiaeeiui yeaiaioii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa: oeac i eaaaeueiii oieiinoaa a
ai?aea 1597 a. oea?ue “i?eaiai?ee ni anaie aiy?u”, iiya?ueneee oeac oiai
aea aiaea i aaaeuo e?anoueyiao oea?ue “oeacae e aiy?a i?eaiai?eee”.
Aianoa n aaeeeei eiycai, a caoai e n oea??i Aeoia ooaa?aeaeaea ?acee/iua
“onoaau”, “o?iee”, iiaua iaeiae e o.ae. Aoaeo/e aunoei i?aaiii
oi?aaeaiey, Aiy?neay aeoia inouanoaeyea iauaa ?oeiaiaenoai i?eeacaie,
iaaece?aea ca ianoiui oi?aaeaieai, i?eieiaea ?aoaiey ii aii?inai
i?aaiecaoeee a?iee, caiaeueiui aeaeai. Ia?aaiai?u n eiino?aiiuie iineaie
aaea niaoeeaeueiay ioaaoiay eiienney ec /eaiia aeoiu. Eoia yoeo
ia?aaiai?ia auiineeny ia ?anniio?aiea aaeeeiai eiycy (oea?y) e aeoiu.

Canaaeaiey Aiy?neie aeoiu i?iaiaeeeenue a E?aiea: a A?aiiaeoie
iaeaoa, eiiaaea a ee/iie iieiaeia aeai?oea (Ia?aaeiae, Noieiaie, Cieioie
iaeaoao), ?aaea aia aeai?oea, iai?eia?, a ii?e/iii aeai?oea Eaaia IV a
Iineaa eee Aeaenaiae?ianeie neiaiaea.

Oe?aieyy naith aeanoue, aaeeeea eiycuey e oea?e XVI a. no?aieeenue
ineaaeoue cia/aiea aiy?neie a?enoie?aoee. Oaea n na?aaeeiu XVI a. ec
Aiy?neie aeoiu auaeaeeeanue o.i. “eiiiaoa”, “aeeaeiyy aeoia” – aieaa
oceee ninoaa aa?iuo oea?th ethaeae, n eioi?uie ii ?aoae aaaeiaeoea
aeaea.

Cia/eoaeueiay ?ieue Aiy?neie aeoiu a nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia
e ainiiaenoai a iae e?oiiuo oaiaeaeia yaeythony oa?aeoa?iuie
iniaaiiinoyie ?aiiaoaiaeaeueiie iiia?oee.

Oaiaeaeueiua nuacaeu eiaee oio aea oa?aeoa?, /oi e ai a?aiaia
Ae?aaiae ?one, ii ii ia?a oe?aieaiey oeaio?aeecaoeee ainoaea?noaa
iinoaiaiii ioie?aee.

I?iaeieaeay inoaaaoueny ?aiiaoaiaeaeueiie iiia?oeae, Iineianeia
ainoaea?noai oianeaaeiaaei io i?aaeuaeouaai ia?eiaea e i?aaiu
oeaio?aeueiiai oi?aaeaiey, iino?iaiiua ii aeai?oeiai-aio/eiiie nenoaia.
Iaeiaei ?anoe?aiea oa??eoi?ee ainoaea?noaa e oneiaeiaiea aai
aeayoaeueiinoe i?eoiaeyo a noieeiiaaiea ni noa?uie i?aaiaie oi?aaeaiey,
iiaeaioaaeeaatho iinoaiaiiia ioie?aiea aeai?oeiai-aio/eiiie nenoaiu e
ca?iaeaeaiea iiaiai, i?eeaciiai oi?aaeaiey.

I?aia?aciaaiea noa?ie nenoaiu ia/eiaaony n a? oneiaeiaiey. Iia
iiae?acaeaeyaony ia 2 /anoe. Iaeio ninoaaeyao oi?aaeaiea aeai?oea, ai
aeaaa eioi?ie noieo aeai?aoeeee (aeai?neee), eiathuee a nai?i
?anii?yaeaiee iiiai/eneaiiuo neoa. Aeai?aoeeee aaaeae e iaoaiiuie
eiyaeaneeie e?anoueyiaie. Ae?oaoth /anoue ia?aciauaaee o.i. iooe
(ioaeaeueiua io?anee ee/iiai oicyenoaa aaeeeiai eiycy), iaania/eaathuea
niaoeeaeueiua neoaeau eiycy e aai ie?oaeaiey. Iooe ii?o/aeenue aiy?ai,
eioi?ua iieo/eee iacaaiea “aiy? iooiuo”. A aaaeiinoaa eaaeaeiai “iooe”
iaoiaeeeenue caiee, n?ea, aea?aaie. Eaaeaeiio “iooiiio” aiy?eio auee
iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiu iecoea aeieaeiinoiua eeoea (eeth/ieee, iinaeueneea).
Eeoei, aicaeaaeyaoaa “iooue”, iieo/aei i?aai oi?aaeaiey e noaea iaae
ianaeaieai oa??eoi?ee, iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiie aeaiiiio “iooe”; a aai iieueco
iinooiaea /anoue aeioiaeia io nai?ia n yoiai ianaeaiey. “Iooe” eae
ca/aoee ioaeaeueiuo aeai?oeiauo aaaeiinoa a oi?ia ii?o/aiee –
“ei?ieaiee” – iiyaeeenue aeiaieueii ?aii. Oaea a aeiaiai?iie a?aiioa
nuiiaae Eaaia Eaeeou (50-a aiaeu XIV a.) oiiieiaeenue Nieieueie/ee,
Eiithoee e Eia/ee “iooe”. Aiineaaenoaee ano?a/athony Noieueie/ee e
*aoie/ee “iooe”. “Iooiua” aiy?a, aicaeaaeyaoea yoe “iooe”, eiaee
niioaaonoaothuea iacaaiey: nieieueiee, eiithoee, eia/ee, noieueiee,
/aoiee.

Aneaae ca oneiaeiaieai nenoaiu aeai?oeiai-aio/eiiuo i?aaiia
aic?anoaee eo eiiiaoaioeey e ooieoeee. Ec i?aaiia, ianeoaeeaaaoeo a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue eiycy, iie an? aieueoa i?aa?auaeenue a
iauaainoaea?noaaiiua o/?aaeaeaiey, auiieiyaoea aaaeiua caaea/e ii
oi?aaeaieth ainoaea?noaii. Oae, aeai?aoeeee n XV a. noae a ecaanoiie
ia?a aaaeaoue aii?inaie, naycaiiuie n caieaaeaaeaieai oea?eiaiuo e
naaoneeo oaiaeaeia, inouanoaeyoue iauee eiio?ieue iaae ianoiie
aaeieieno?aoeeae. Aianoa n oai auiieiaiea oao eee eiuo iaycaiiinoae a
ainoaea?noaaiiii oi?aaeaiee oa?yei i?aaeiee oa?aeoa? a?aiaiiiai
eiyaeaneiai ii?o/aiey e i?aa?auaeinue a iinoiyiioth neoaeao. Oneiaeiaiea
ooieoeee aeai?oeiauo i?aaiia iio?aaiaaei nicaeaiey aieueoiai e
?acaaoae?iiiai aiia?aoa. *eiu aeai?oea – aeueyee – niaoeeaeece?iaaeenue
a ii?aaeae?iiii e?oaa aeae. Ec ninoaaa aeai?oeiaie neoaeau auaeaeyeanue
aaeeeieiyaeaneay eacia, noaaoay naiinoiyoaeueiui aaaeiinoaii. Auea
nicaeaia aieueoay aeai?oeiaay eaioeaey?ey n a?oeaii e eiuie
iiae?acaeaeaieyie.

An? yoi iiaeaioaaeeaaei ia?aoiae e iiaie, i?eeaciie nenoaia
oi?aaeaiey, au?anoaaoae ec i?aaeiae. Oaeia ia?a?anoaiea ia/aeinue a
eiioea XV a. Ii eae nenoaia i?eeaciia oi?aaeaiea ioi?ieeinue oieueei ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia XVI a. Oiaaea aea ooaa?aeeeny e nai oa?iei “i?eeac”.
Ia?auie o/?aaeaeaieyie i?eeaciiai oeia auee Aieueoie aeai?aoe, au?inoee
ec aaaeiinoaa aeai?aoeeiai, e Eac?iiue i?eeac. Eiithoaiiue iooue
i?aa?aoeeny a Eiithoaiiue i?eeac, oaia?ue ia oieueei ianeoaeeaaaoee
ee/iua iio?aaiinoe eiycy, ii e naycaiiue n ?acaeoeai eiiiiai
aeai?yineiai iiie/aiey. A ia/aea XVI a. neiaeeeny ?ac?yae (?ac?yaeiue
i?eeac), aaaeaaoee o/?oii neoaeeeuo ethaeae, eo /eiia e aeieaeiinoae.
Ia?a?anoaiea aeai?oeiai-aio/eiiie nenoaiu a i?eeacioth yaeeinue iaeiei
ec iieacaoaeae oeaio?aeecaoeee ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa, eai aeai?oeiaua
i?aaiu, aaaeaaoea ?aiaa ii nouanoao eeoue eiyaeaneei aeiiaiii, oaia?ue
noaiiaeeenue o/?aaeaeaieyie, ?oeiaiaeyueie anai a?iiaaeiui ?onneei
ainoaea?noaii.

Ianoiia oi?aaeaiea Aeaaeeie?i-Nocaeaeueneiai e Iineianeiai eiyaeanoa
ia?aiia/aeueii auei ianeiaeiui. A ai?iaeao iaoiaeeeenue iaianoieee, a
naeueneeo ianoiinoyo (“aieinoyo”) – aieinoaee. N ?inoii oa??eoi?ee
Iineianeiai eiyaeanoaa a XIV – ia?aie iieiaeia XV a.
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiia aeaeaiea oneiaeieeinue. ?onneia
ainoaea?noai iiae?acaeaeyeinue ia oacaeu – iaeaieaa e?oiiua
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiua aaeeieoeu. Oacaeu aeaeeeenue ia noaiu,
noaiu – ia aieinoe. Ai?i/ai, iieiiai aaeeiiia?acey e /?oeinoe a
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiii aeaeaiee au? ia au?aaioaeinue: eiiaaea
noaiu e aieinoe auee ?aaiicia/iuie oa??eoi?eaeueiuie aaeeieoeaie.
Ia?yaeo n oacaeaie eia-aaea nio?aiyeenue au? e caiee. Nouanoaiaaee
oaeaea ?ac?yaeu – aiaiiua ie?oaa, aoau – noaeaaiua ie?oaa.

Ai aeaaa ioaeaeueiuo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aaeeieoe noiyee aeieaeiinoiua
eeoea – i?aaenoaaeoaee oeaio?a. Oacaeu aicaeaaeyeenue iaianoieeaie,
aieinoe – aieinoaeyie. Yoe aeieaeiinoiua eeoea ca oi?aaeaiea oacaeii eee
aieinoueth “aianoi” aaeeeiai eiycy (ionthaea oa?iei “iaianoiee”)
aeaeiaaiuey ia iieo/aee, a niaea?aeaeenue ca n/?o ianoiiai ianaeaiey –
iieo/aee io iaai “ei?i”. Iacia/aiea ia “ei?ieaiea” auei n?aaenoaii
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey eiycae, aiy? e aieaa iaeeeo oaiaeaeia ca eo neoaeao
aaeeeiio eiycth. I?eaoaaoaai ia “ei?ieaiea” iaianoieea ianoiia ianaeaiea
ano?a/aei “auacaeei ei?iii”. 2-3 ?aca a aiae, ia ?iaeaeanoai, Ianoo e
Iao?ia Aeaiue, ianaeaiea iaycaii auei iinoaaeoue iaianoieeo iniiaiie
“ei?i” a oi?ia ?acee/iuo i?iaeoeoia, oo?aaea aeey eioaaeae (“eiineia
iyoii”) e o.ae. A iieueco iaianoieea iinooiaea ecaanoiay /anoue
?acee/iuo iioeei n oi?aia e eaaie (iieaai/iua, iiai?ioiua, oaiiaeaiiua,
noaeaaiua, a?a/iua). Cia/eoaeueiui enoi/ieeii aeioiaeia aeey iaianoieeia
aue noae.

Aceiaaiua n ianaeaiey “ei?ia” auee ianoieueei aaeeee, /oi eie
ei?ieeenue ia oieueei iaianoiee eee aieinoaeue n eo naiueyie, ii e eo
iiiai/eneaiiay /aeyaeue. Aaeieieno?aoeaiiio ia?niiaeo iaianoieea
iieaaaeny iniaue “ei?i”. Yoio ia?niiae ninoiye ec eo oeoiia, noaeae,
aeiaiae/eeia (eee iaaeaeueueeia) – eeoe, inouanoaeyaoeo aucia a noae, –
e i?aaao/eeia (noaeaaiuo eniieieoaeae). Ana yoe aeieaeiinoiua eeoea auee
/aua anaai aeai?iauie ethaeueie iaianoieea eee aieinoaey.

Iaianoieee e aieinoaee eiaee aaeieieno?aoeaii-iieeoeaeneea,
noaeaaiua, aiaiiua ooieoeee, a oaeaea aaaeaee neoaeeeuie ethaeueie a
ai?iaeao.

Nenoaia “ei?ieaiee” ia?aiia/aeueii ie/ai ia ia?aie/eaaeanue.
Ei?ieaiiay a?aiioa, auaeaaaaiay iaianoieeo, auea aeiaieueii eaeiie/iie e
niaea?aeaea noa?aioeiioth o?aco – i?ecua e ianaeaieth: “E au, ana ethaee
oia aieinoe, /oeoa aai (o.a. iaianoieea eee aieinoaey) e neooaeoa, a ii
aan aaaeaao e noaeeo e oiaeeo o aan ii anai ii oiio, eae auei i?aae
naai”.

Ei?ieaiueee auee iaycaiu oi?aaeyoue niioaaonoaothueie oacaeaie e
aieinoyie nianoaaiiuie neeaie, o.a. niaea?aeaoue naie aiia?ao oi?aaeaiey
(oeoiia, aeiaiae/eeia e ae?.) e eiaoue naie aiaiiua io?yaeu aeey
iaania/aiey aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae ooieoeee oaiaeaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa.
I?enueaaiua ec oeaio?a, iie ia auee ee/ii caeioa?aniaaiu a aeaeao
oi?aaeyaiuo eie oacaeia eee aieinoae, oai aieaa /oi eo iacia/aiea auei
iau/ii n?aaieoaeueii e?aoein?i/iui – ia aiae-aeaa. Ana eioa?anu
iaianoieeia e aieinoaeae auee nin?aaeioi/aiu i?aeiouanoaaiii ia ee/iii
iaiaauaiee ca n/?o caeiiiuo e iacaeiiiuo iiai?ia n ianoiiai ianaeaiey.
Nenoaia ei?ieaiey auea ia niiniaia a oneiaeyo iaino?ythuaeny eeanniaie
ai?ueau iaania/eoue a aeieaeiie ia?a iiaeaaeaiea nii?ioeaeaiey
ainnoathuaai e?anoueyinoaa. Io yoiai iniaaiii no?aaeaee iaeeea
aio/eiieee e iiiaueee, eioi?ua auee ia a ninoiyiee naiinoiyoaeueii
iaaciianeoue naay io “eeoeo” ethaeae. Iiaeieiathuaany aeai?yinoai auei
iaaeiaieueii nenoaiie ei?ieaiey e ii ae?oaie i?e/eia. Aai ia
ono?aeaaei, /oi aeioiaeu io ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey oee a ea?iai aiy? e
ei?ieaiea iaania/eaaei aiy?noao aieueoie iieeoe/aneee aan.

Ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey ia ?ani?ino?aiyee naith
eiiiaoaioeeth ia oa??eoi?eth eiyaeaneeo aio/ei. Eiyaeaoa e aiy?a, eae e
i?aaeaea, nio?aiyee a naieo aio/eiao eiioieoaoiua i?aaa. Iie auee ia
i?inoi caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie, ii e aaeieieno?aoi?aie e noaeueyie a naieo
aea?aaiyo e n?eao.

N na?aaeeiu XV a. ia/aeny i?ioeann iinoaiaiiiai ecaeeaaiey
iniaaiiinoae ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy ia?eiaea oaiaeaeueiie
?acae?iaeaiiinoe: eiioieoaoiua i?aaa oaiaeaeueiuo aeaaeaoaeae
noaniyeenue, ooieoeee iaianoieeia ia?aie/eaaeenue, a eo i?aaa e aeioiaeu
?aaeaiaioe?iaaeenue.

Ai?iaeneia oi?aaeaiea a Iineianeii ainoaea?noaa ianeieueei
eciaieeinue ii n?aaiaieth n eeaaneeie a?aiaiaie. Ai?iaea a aeaiiue
ia?eiae ia eiaee naiioi?aaeaiey. A oaeaeueiuo eiyaeanoaao oi?aaeaiea
ai?iaeaie inouanoaeyeinue ia?aaia n naeueneie ianoiinoueth. N
i?eniaaeeiaieai oaeaeueiuo eiyaeanoa e Iineaa aaeeeea eiycuey, nio?aiyy
ana caiee oaeaeia ca eo i?aaeieie aeaaeaeueoeaie, anaaaea ecuiaee
ai?iaea ec th?enaeeeoeee auaoeo oaeaeueiuo eiycae, ?ani?ino?aiyee ia ieo
iaiin?aaenoaaiii naith aeanoue. Yoi aeaeaeinue enoiaey ec cia/aiey
ai?iaeia ia oieueei eae yeiiiie/aneeo oeaio?ia, ii e i?aaeaea anaai ii
aiaiiui niia?aaeaieyi. Ai?iaea auee e?aiinoyie. Iaeaaeaiea eie
iaania/eaaei aaeeeei eiycueyi e oaea?aeaiea auaoaai oaeaea a naieo
?oeao, e iai?iio io aiaoieo a?aaia. Ia?aiia/aeueii aaeeeea eiycuey
oi?aaeyee ai?iaeaie oae aea, eae ?aiueoa oaeaeueiua eiycuey, o.a. ia
auaeaeyy eo ec naieo i?i/eo caiaeue. Iaianoieee e aieinoaee, ?oeiaiaey
naiei oacaeii eee aieinoueth, oi?aaeyee a oie aea ia?a e ai?iaeaie,
iaoiaeyueieny ia eo oa??eoi?ee.

Iicaea iiyaeythony iaeioi?ua niaoeeaeueiua i?aaiu ai?iaeneiai
oi?aaeaiey. Eo aicieeiiaaiea naycaii n ?acaeoeai ai?iaeia, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue eae e?aiinoae. A na?aaeeia XV a. iiyaeeanue aeieaeiinoue
ai?iae/eea – naiaia?aciiai aiaiiiai eiiaiaeaioa ai?iaea. Ii iaycai aue
neaaeeoue ca ninoiyieai ai?iaeneeo oe?aieaiee, ca auiieiaieai ianoiui
ianaeaieai iiaeiiinoae, naycaiiuo n iai?iiie. Oaea a XV a. ai?iae/eee
eniieueciaaeenue e aeey ae?oaeo aaeeeieiyaeaneeo aeae, a /anoiinoe
caiaeueiuo. Aeieaeiinoue ai?iae/eeia caiauaeanue ianoiuie
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie, i?aeiouanoaaiii aeai?yiaie e aeaoueie aiy?neeie.
Ai?iae/eee, ia?aiia/aeueii auaoea aeiaieueii iaeicia/eoaeueiuie oeao?aie
a ainoaea?noaaiiii oi?aaeaiee, oaea e eiioeo XV a. noaee ea?aoue
na?ue?cioth ?ieue. Nia/aea a?aiaiii, a iioii iinoiyiii ca ieie
cae?aieyeenue oe?ieea iieiiii/ey a caiaeueiie, oeiainiaie e ae?oaeo
io?aneyo oi?aaeaiey, i?e/?i a i?aaeaeao ia oieueei ai?iaea, ii e
i?eeaaathuaai oacaea. A niioaaonoaee n ?anoe?aieai ooieoeee eciaieeinue
e iacaaiea yoeo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe. Eo ia/eiatho eiaiiaaoue ai?iaeiauie
i?eeac/eeaie. Aaaeay ?yaeii aii?inia aiaiii-oicyenoaaiiiai e i?inoi
oicyenoaaiiiai ii?yaeea, ai?iaeiaua i?eeac/eee iiae/eiyeenue
aaeeeieiyaeaneei eacia/ayi. Ia iaeei ai?iae iacia/aeinue eiiaaea 2 e
aieueoa oaeeo i?eeac/eeia. A eeoea ai?iaeiauo i?eeac/eeia aeai?yia e
aeaoe aiy?neea iieo/eee naie i?aai ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey, a aaeeeee eiycue
– iaae?aeiuo i?iaiaeieeia iieeoeee oeaio?aeecaoeee.

A ia/aea ia?eiaea ?onneay i?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue i?aaenoaaeyea niaie
aieueooth neeo, ia oieueei iiaeaea?aeeaathuoth ainoaea?noai, ii e
niia?ie/athuoth n iei. A oneiaeyo i?aeuineiai eaa oea?eiaue noiaea
nio?aieoue naie yeiiiie/aneea e iieeoe/aneea iiceoeee. Iiiaiei-oaoa?u
ia niae?aeenue ia?auaoue ?onue a naith aa?o. Iie i?aaeii/ee oi?aaeyoue
ath /a?ac i?eau/iia aeey ia?iaea i?aaineaaea. I/aiue nei?i i?aaineaaiua
ieo?iiieeou aeiaiai?eeenue n I?aeie, iieo/eee io oaiia y?euee,
cae?aieyaoea i?eaeeaaee oea?eae ie/ooue ia iaiueoea, /ai iie eiaee io
?onneeo eiycae. Iaeiaei ii ia?a iiaeu?ia aeaeaeaiey ca inaiaiaeaeaiea
?onneiai ia?iaea eo/oea neeu i?aaineaaiie oea?eae noaiiaeeenue ia iooue
ai?ueau n iiiaiei-oaoa?aie. ?yaeiaua iiiaoe e ?oeiaiaeeoaee oea?eae
anoaaaee a ?yaeu aieoeia ca inaiaiaeaeaiea ?innee.

Oea?eiaue a eeoea ieo?iiiee/ueaai aeiia, aieneiineeo eaoaae?, e?oiiuo
iiianou?ae e ai?iaeneeo niai?ia iaeaaeaea ia?iiiui eiouanoaii, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue caiaeueiui, aunooiay a ea/anoaa oaiaeaea. Aianoi aeanyoeiu,
eioi?ie iia auea iaaeaeaia au? i?e e?auaiee ?one, oea?eiaue a Iineianeii
ainoaea?noaa iieo/eea eiua enoi/ieee aeioiaeia: iinooieaiey io
ii?aaeae?iiuo noaoae eiyaeaneeo aeioiaeia – ai?iaeneeo oi?aiauo,
oaiiaeaiiuo, noaeaaiuo iioeei.

Yeiiiie/aneia e yeieiae/aneia iiaouanoai iicaieyei oea?eae
/oanoaiaaoue naay iacaaeneiie io ainoaea?noaa e aeaaea aeiaeaaoueny
i?ei?eoaoa iaae iei. Iaeiaei e eiioeo ia?eiaea ?onneei eiycueyi
oaeaeinue acyoue aa?o. A iaiai ca nio?aiaiea a iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe a?
caiaeueiuo eiouanoa oea?eiaue i?eciaea aa?oiaainoai naaoneie aeanoe.
I?ioeai?a/eaui auei e ioiioaiea oea?eae e oeaio?aeecaoeee ?onneiai
ainoaea?noaa. Nouanoaiaaee neeu, eioi?ua i?aiyonoaiaaee yoiio i?ioeanno,
ii auee e ai?y/ea noi?iiieee oe?aieaiey aaeeinoaa ?one.

A i?aaiecaoeeiiiii ioiioaiee oea?eiaue i?aaenoaaeyea niaie neiaeioth
nenoaio. Ai aeaaa a? noiye ieo?iiieeo. A 1448 a. ?onneay oea?eiaue
naiiaieueii noaea aaoieaoaeueiie, o.a. naiinoiyoaeueiie ii ioiioaieth e
anaeaineiio iao?ea?oo, neaeaaoaio a Aecaioee. Any oa??eoi?ey
iiae?acaeaeyeanue ia aicaeaaeyaiua aieneiiaie aia?oee. Aei XV a. ?onneea
ieo?iiieeou iacia/aeenue eiinoaioeiiiieueneei iao?ea?oii. Oaia?ue iie
noaee ecae?aoueny niai?ii ?onneeo aieneiiia nia/aea ii niaeaniaaieth ni
naaoneie aeanoueth, a iioii e ii i?yiiio oeacaieth iineianeeo aaeeeeo
eiycae.

1.4. Caieaaeaaeaiea

Oaiaeaeueiia caieaaeaaeaiea ia ?oaaaea XV-XVI aa., i?aaenoaaeaiiia
aieueoei ?aciiia?aceai oi?i, oa?aeoa?ecoaony na?ue?ciuie naeaeaaie a
no?oeoo?a. Ia ?one nouanoaiaaee oiaaea a iniiaiii 4 aeaea oaiaeaeueiiai
caieaaeaaeaiey: naaoneia, oea?eiaii-iiianou?neia, aeai?oeiaia
(ianeoaeeaoaa ioaeaeu Ainoaea?aaa aeai?a) e, iaeiiaoe, /a?iinioiia.
Caieaaeaaeaiea naaoneeo e aeooiaiuo ?inei i?aaeaea anaai ca n/?o
caiaeue, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo “/??iui” e?anoueyiai. Caoaao e?anoueyineeo
caiaeue aue oeie/iui aeey oiai a?aiaie. Noaeueau e?oiiiai naaoneiai
caieaaeaaeaiey auee i?ioeai?a/eau. N iaeiie noi?iiu, i?ienoiaeee
i?ioeann ?acae?iaeaiey e?oiiuo aiy?neeo eaoeooiaeee, nie?auaiea, a n
ia/aea XVI a. e eeeaeaeaoeey iiaeaoiuo i?eaeeaaee naaoneeo oaiaeaeia, a
n ae?oai? – ?ino iiauo iaaiaoneeo aeaaeaiee eeoe, oanii naycaiiuo n
aaeeeieiyaeaneei aeai?ii. Enoi/ieeii oi?ie?iaaiey aeai?oeiaiai
caieaaeaaeaiey auei aeaaeaiea eiyaeaneeo neoa (“neoaeie caiee”). N.A.
Aanaeianeee aeaoe?iaae auaeaeaiea aeai?oeiauo caiaeue ec /a?iinioiuo
iineaaeiae /aoaa?oueth XV a.

Aeey naaoneiai caieaaeaaeaiey oa?aeoa?ia auea eineooiinoue aeaaeaiee,
?aca?inaiiinoue ii ianeieueeei oacaeai. Ei?ie yoiai yaeaiey ooiaeeee a
aeoaieoth ae?aaiinoue e naycaiu auee n i?ienoiaeaeaieai “ia?aiaio/ei”
aiy? a oeaio?aeueiuo oacaeao e ?anoe?aieai eo caiaeueiuo aiaaonoa ii
ia?a iauaaeeiaiey caiaeue Iineaie. ?ino aiy?neeo caiaeue i?eaiaeee e
?acae?iaeaieth aio/ei. I?eoiaeeeinue ecuneeaaoue iiaua aio/eiu. ?inea
iiaeeecaoeey caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, a oai a?aiaiai cia/eoaeueii
iiauneeenue oeaiu ia caieth. Caiaeue aea aeey neoaeeeuo ethaeae ia
oaaoaei.

A aiaeu i?aaeaiey Eaaia III (iinea 1485 a.) iniaui oeiaeaieai
cai?auaeinue i?iaeaaaoue eiiai?iaeiei aio/eiu a Oaa?e, Ieeoeeia,
Oi?aeea, Iaieainea, ?ycaie e ia Aaeiica?a. Aiciiaeii, aiaeiae/iua
ia?ii?eyoey einioeenue e aeaaeaiee nocaeaeueneeo, y?ineaaneeo e
noa?iaeoaneeo eiyaeao. Yoi oeiaeaiea, eiaaoaa oeaeueth iinoaaeoue
i?aaeae i?ioeanno ae?iaeaiey eiyaeaneiai caieaaeaaeaiey, a?yae ee auei
inouanoaeaii. Ai anyeii neo/aa aai i?eoeinue iiaeoaa?aeaeaoue Aaneeeth
III e Eaaio IV A?iciiio.

Ia?yaeo n aio/eiiui caieaaeaaeaieai auei ?ani?ino?aiaii e
caieaaeaaeaiea iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiuo eiycueyi anaaiciiaeiuo aiaiiuo e
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo neoa “iiae aeai?neei”. Iii auei oeaeeeii iaoneiaeaii
neoaeaie e iineei oneiaiue oa?aeoa?. Neoae “iiae aeai?neei”
(iinaeueneea, aeueyee, eeth/ieee) iaae?aeenue eae ec naiaiaeiuo, oae
eiiaaea e ec oieiiia, i?eia?aoaaoeo naiaiaeo.

I?aaenoaaeaiea i “aaconeiaiii” oa?aeoa?a caieaaeaaeaiey aio/eiieeia
ioeai/ii. Aio/eiieee iaycaiu auee neoaeaie oaiaeaeo. Oneiaiia
caieaaeaaeaiea neoa (naiaiaeiuo e ianaiaiaeiuo) e oneiaiia aio/eiiia
caieaaeaaeaiea noaee enoieaie oi?ie?iaaiey iiianoiie nenoaiu a eiioea XV
a. ?aiiyy enoi?ey iiianouey inoa?ony iaaeinoaoi/ii eco/aiiie. Ia ynii,
iai?eia?, auei ee ia?aiia/aeueii iiianouea iiaeeciaiiui aeaaeaieai eee
aaconeiaiui. A.ss. Aeaaoy??a iieacae, /oi ia ?aiiai yoaia iniiaiay ianna
iiianoee ia?aoiaeeea io iooea e nuio. TH.A. Aeaenaaa e A.E. Eiiaiaa
n/eoatho, /oi ia ?aiiai yoaia ?acaeoey iiianoiie nenoaiu yeaiaiou
oneiaiinoe aeaaeaiey iiianoueai neacuaaeenue neeueiaa, /ai ia
iineaaeothueo (a /anoiinoe, ionoonoaiaaei i?aai caaauaiey iiianoiuo
caiaeue). A aeaeueiaeoai aea i?ienoiaeeei naeeaeaiea iiianouey n
aio/eiie, eioi?ia i?eaaei e eo ieii/aoaeueiiio neeyieth. Yoe oacenu
i?aaenoaaeythony iai iaaeieacaiiuie. Iiianouea e aio/eia, i?ienoiaey ec
iaeiiai ei?iy, ia ii?aaeae?iiii yoaia ?acioeenue. E niaeaeaieth,
ii?aaeaeeoue oneiaey iiianoiie neoaeau e iiianoiiai aeaaeaiey ia ?oaaaea
XV-XVI aa. iiea e?aeia o?oaeii. A oiaea inouanoaeaiey iiianoiie ?aoi?iu
a Iiaai?iaea caieth iieo/eei i?eia?ii 2,5 ouny/e iiiaueeia. A
?acoeueoaoa cia/eoaeueii oi?i/eeenue aeaaeaeue/aneea iiceoeee ?yaeiaiai
aeai?yinoaa, /oi niaeaenoaiaaei iiauoaieth aianiiniaiinoe aienea.

Eeeaeaeaoeey naiinoiyoaeueiinoe Aaeeeiai Iiaai?iaea i?eaaea e
eiioeneaoeee caiaeue o iiaai?iaeneeo aiy?. *anoue aiy? auea ia?anaeaia a
oeaio?aeueiua ?aeiiu no?aiu e neeeenue n iannie aeaoae aiy?neeo
(iai?eia?, Eaoeineea a ?ycaie). Iaeioi?ua ec iiaai?iaeneeo aiy?
(iai?eia?, Aiiniau), noaa aeaaeaeueoeaie caiaeue ia Aeaeia, a
aeaeueiaeoai o?ainoi?ie?iaaeenue a /a?iinioiuo e?anoueyi.

?acaeoea caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee oa?aeoa?eciaaeinue iieiui eee ii/oe
iieiui en/aciiaaieai naiinoiyoaeueiie iaueiiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth.
Caiee iauei ia?aoiaeeee a ?oee aio/eiieeia e iiiaueeia, aeeth/aeenue a
ninoaa eiyaeaneiai aeiiaia. A oi aea a?aiy an? aieaa /?oei ioi?ieyeinue
aio/eiiia e iiianoiia caieaaeaaeaiea. Aio/eia ioee/aeanue oai, /oi
nianoaaiiee iaeaaeae ii/oe iaia?aie/aiiui i?aaii ia ia?. Ii iia ia
oieueei aeaaeaoue e iieueciaaoueny naiae caie?e, ii e ?anii?yaeaoueny
ath: i?iaeaaaoue, aea?eoue, ia?aaeaaaoue ii ianeaaenoao. A oi aea a?aiy
aio/eia – oaiaeaeueiia caieaaeaaeaiea, iiyoiio – oneiaiia. Iai?eia?,
eiycue iia ioia?aoue aio/eio o iouaoaaoaai aannaea.

Au? aieaa oneiaiay oi?ia caieaaeaaeaiey – iiianouea. Iii aeaaaeinue
naiuei?ii naiei aannaeai oieueei ia a?aiy neoaeau eae aiciaa?aaeaeaiea
ca ia?. Iiyoiio ?anii?yaeaoueny caie?e iiiauee ia iia.

Aaeeeieiyaeaneee aeiiai ?acaeaeyeny ia /a?iioyaeua e aeai?oeiaua. Iie
?acee/aeenue eeoue ii oi?ia yenieoaoaoeee ianaeyaoeo yoe caiee e?anoueyi
e ii i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeaiey eie. Aeai?oeiaua e?anoueyia ianee aa?ueio
eee iaoo?aeueiue ia?ie e oi?aaeyeenue i?aaenoaaeoaeyie aeai?oeiaie
aeanoe. *a?iioyaeua ieaoeee aeaiaaeioth ?aioo e iiae/eiyeenue
iauaainoaea?noaaiiui /eiiaieeai. Caiee aeiiaia iinoaiaiii ?acaeaaaeenue
aaeeeeie eiycueyie a aio/eiu e iiianouey.

Aeaaa 2. Noaeaaiee

2.1. Iaycaoaeuenoaa

Iaycaoaeuenoaai ec aeiaiai?ia Noaeaaiee 1497 a. oaeaeye iaiueoa
aieiaiey, /ai ?I. I caeia aiai?eea eeoue no. 55, i?aaeoniao?eaaaoay,
iiaeiaii ?I, ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ianinoiyoaeueiinoue aeieaeieea. Yoa
noaouey aaiaeeea iiaua oa?ieiu: iieaoiay a?aiioa – ia oieaoa aeieaa a
?ann?i/eo; enoeia – noieiinoue oiaa?a eee noiia aeaiaa, acuneeaaaiay
enooeii n ianinoiyoaeueiiai aeieaeieea.

Eiaeenue oiiieiaiey i aeiaiai?ao eoiee-i?iaeaaee (no. 46 “I oi?aiaoeao”
e no. 47) e ee/iiai iaeia. Noaeaaiee aneaae ca INA i?aaeoniao?eaae, /oi
iaeieo, ia aeineoaeeaoee naiaai n?iea eee ia auiieieaoee iaoneiaeaiiia
caaeaiea, eeoaeny iieaou (no. 54).

Noaeaaiee 1497 a. aieaa /?oei, /ai ?I, auaeaeye iaycaoaeuenoaa ec
i?e/eiaiey a?aaea, i?aaaea, eeoue a iaeiii neo/aa: no. 61
i?aaeoniao?eaaea eiouanoaaiioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iio?aao. Eae
naiaia?aciua iaycaoaeuenoaa ec i?e/eiaiey a?aaea ?anniao?eaaao Noaeaaiee
iaeioi?ua i?aaiia?ooaiey, naycaiiua n noaeaaiie aeayoaeueiinoueth.
Noaeuey, auianoee iai?aainoaeiia ?aoaiea, iaycai aicianoeoue noi?iiai
i?ienoaaeoea io oiai oauoee. Oaeay aea ia?a i?eiaiyeanue e
eaeanaeaeaoaeyi. Caeii i?yii oeacuaaao, /oi iaeacaieth noaeuey (oi/iaa,
aiy?ei e aeueye) ca naie i?inooiie ia iiaeeaaeeo (no. 19): “…a aiy?eio
e aeeaeo a oii iaie iao…”.

2.2. Ianeaaenoaaiiia i?aai

Iaei eciaieeinue e ianeaaenoaaiiia i?aai. Noaeaaiee, iaeiaei,
onoaiaaeeaae iauoth e /?oeoth ii?io i ianeaaeiaaiee (no. 60). I?e
ionoonoaee caaauaiey (aeooiaiie a?aiiou) anooiaei a aeaenoaea
ianeaaeiaaiea ii caeiio. Ianeaaenoai iieo/ae nui, i?e ionoonoaee nuiiaae
– aei/a?e. Aei/ue iieo/aea ia oieueei aeaeaeeiia eiouanoai (“noaoie”),
ii e caiee. Ca iaeiaieai aei/a?ae ianeaaenoai ia?aoiaeeei aeeaeaeoaio ec
?iaenoaaiieeia.

2.3. Iiiyoea e aeaeu i?anooieaiee

Anee a?aaeaeaineea i?aaiioiioaiey ?acaeaaeenue n?aaieoaeueii
iaaeeaiii, oi oaieiaiia i?aai a aeaiiue ia?eiae i?aoa?iaei nouanoaaiiua
eciaiaiey, io?aaeay iaino?aiea i?ioeai?a/ee oaiaeaeueiiai iauanoaa e
oneeaiea eeanniaie ai?ueau.

I?anooieaiea iiieiaaony Noaeaaieeii ia eae “iaeaea”, oi anoue
iaianaiea iaoa?eaeueiiai, oece/aneiai eee ii?aeueiiai a?aaea, a eae
“eeoia aeaei”, oi anoue niaa?oaiea oaeiai aeayiey, eioi?ia ia?ooaao
eioa?anu ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna e ainoaea?noaa.

I?e yoii Noaeaaiee aea?o eeoue i?eia?iia ia?a/eneaiea aeayiee,
ioiineiuo e eaoaai?ee eeoeo aeae, inoaaeyy ca ainiiaenoaothuei eeannii
i?aai iiaeaiaeeoue iiae yoi iiiyoea ethaia aeayiea, ia?ooathuaa eioa?anu
ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna eee iinyaathuaa ia onoaiiaeaiiue a ainoaea?noaa
ii?yaeie. Ia?a/eneyy oaeea aeaeu i?anooieaiee, eae oaoueaa, ?acaie,
aeooaaoanoai, yaaaeie/anoai, Noaeaaiee a noaouea 8 aaiaeeo iiaia
iiiyoea: “…eiia eaeia eeoia aeaei…”.

?acaeoea oaiaeaeecia iaoei nai? io?aaeaiea a iaeioi?ii eciaiaiee
acaeyaea ia noauaeo i?anooieaiey. Ii Noaeaaieeo ioaaonoaaiiinoe
iiaeeaaeaee ana eeoea, niaa?oeaoea i?anooieaiey, a oii /enea e oieiiu.

Ii “?onneie I?aaaea” oieiiu ioaa/aee ca niaa?o?iiua eie i?anooieaiey
e i?inooiee ia?aae naiei ainiiaeeiii. Oaeenoai ainiiaeeiii naiaai oieiia
ia n/eoaeinue i?anooieaieai, a oaeenoai /oaeiai ?aaa ?anniao?eaaeinue
eae iaianaiea iaoa?eaeueiiai oua?aa aai aeaaeaeueoeo e aeaeei
iaycaiiinoue aicianoeoue iaian?iiue oua?a e oieaoeoue oo?ao ca
naiiaieueiia eno?aaeaiea /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe.

A nayce n ?acaeoeai oaiaeaeecia e i?aa?auaieai oieiiia a e?aiinoiuo
Noaeaaiee i?ecia?o oieiiia noauaeoaie i?anooieaiey, ?ani?ino?aiyy ia ieo
oaieiaioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca niaa?o?iiua i?anooieaiey.

Noaeaaiee ie/aai ia aiai?eo i iiiaioao, eneeth/athueo aiaiaiea, oi
anoue ia oneiaeyo, inaiaiaeaeathueo eeoei io ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
niaa?o?iiia i?anooieaiea a neeo iaeieaonoaa eee i?aeeiiiiai aic?anoa,
oyae?eie aieacie, oaa/uey e o.ae.

A neo/ayo, eiaaea /aeiaae ia iia nai aanoe aeaei, aio
i?aaeinoaaeyeinue i?aai iaiyoue iaeieoa, oi anoue /aeiaaea aaaeouaai
i?ioeann ca iaai. “A ia eii /aai acuuao aeiiea, eee aeaoeia iae, eee eoi
noa?, eee iaiiuai, eee /ai oaa/ai, eee iii, eee /a?iaoe, eee /a?ieoea,
eee eoi io oao a iineooanoaa aoaeao eiio, eii iaeieoa iaiyoe aieii (no.
52).

A Noaeaaieea ia oeacuaaaony, inaiaiaeaeaaony ee io iaeacaiey
nianoaaiiee, oaeaoee ai?a a nai?i aeai?a, o/eouaaaony ee i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee aeiu ninoiyiea iiueyiaiey i?anooiieea, ?acee/aaony ee
i?anooieaiea ii noaaeeyi niaa?oaiey – i?eaioiaeaiea, iieooaiea,
iaieii/aiiia i?anooieaiea, ieii/aiiia i?anooieaiea.

Ii naaaeaieyi Aa?aa?ooaeia – aano?eeneiai aeeieiiaoa, auaoaai iineii
i?e aeai?a Eaaia III e inoaaeaoaai caienee i i?aaao e iau/ayo
Iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa oiai ia?eiaea, – nianoaaiiee eiouanoaa,
iieiaaoee ai?a ia ianoa i?anooieaiey, iia “aaciaeacaiii oaeoue aai,
iaeiaei iiae oai oneiaeai, /oi ii i?eian?o oaeoaai ai aeai?aoe eiycy e
?anneaaeao, eae auei aeaei”.

Iaino?aiea eeanniauo i?ioeai?a/ee, ai?ueaa ca oeaio?aeecaoeeth
ainoaea?noaa e onoaiiaeaiea aaeeiiaea?aeaaiie aaeeeieiyaeaneie aeanoe
iaoneaaeeaaee oneeaiea ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca iinyaaoaeuenoaa ia
ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie e iniao ainoaea?y. E oioy noaouee Noaeaaieea ia
onoaiaaeeaaee ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca iaieii/aiiia i?anooieaiea eee
iieooaiea, a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eeoea, iieooaaoeany ia ainoaea?noaaiiue
no?ie eee iniao oea?y, iiaeeaaeaee oaeie aea ioaaonoaaiiinoe, eae e ca
niaa?o?iiia i?anooieaiea. Iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi a yoeo neo/ayo
iaeacuaaee aeaaea ca aieue oiunae.

Oae, a 1456 a. ca i?aaeiea aeayiey e iiaeic?aiey a oiuneao “e?aiieu”
aue “iieiai” ia Iineaa e nineai a Oaee/ Na?iooianeie eiycue Aaneeee
ss?ineaae/.

Iiiuoea na?iooianeeo aeaoae aiy?neeo e aeai?yi inaiaiaeeoue eiycy ec
caoi/aiey, eiaaea “iaee/eny iuneue eo”, auea iiaeaaeaia n ianeuoaiiie
aeey oiai a?aiaie aeanoieinoueth. AEanoieie eacie iiaeaa?aeenue
o/anoaiaaaoea a caaiai?a i?ioea i?aaeoaeuenoaa Eaaia III Aeaaeeie? Aonaa
e ae?.

“E naaaeaa oi e iauneaa eiycue aaeeeee Eaai Aaneeueaae/ ceoth eo
iuneue, e aaeae eciaiieeia eacieoe”.

Noaeaaiee 1497 a. y?ei i?iaiaeeo iniiaiie i?eioeei oaiaeaeueiiai
i?aaa – i?aaa-i?eaeeaaee. Iaeii e oi aea i?anooieaiea aeaeei ca niaie
?acee/ioth noaiaiue ioaaonoaaiiinoe a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eai e ii
ioiioaieth e eiio iii auei niaa?oaii.

A niioaaonoaee n yoei a noaoueyo Noaeaaieea iiae/??eeaaaony
nioeeaeueiay i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue aeiiaiiai eee iino?aaeaaoaai: “A acuuao
aiy?ei ia aiy?eia…”(no. 63), “A acuuao /a?iie ia /a?iii…”(no. 63),
“A eoi ni?aoue iaaeo eee a?aie nna/?o ec aaeeeiai eiycy caiee aiy?eia e
iiianou?y… eii oiai aeoe eiooeai, aea enooeo acyoe ia i?i ?oaeue”(no.
62), “A o?enoeaia i?iiaaeo naay… eoi o eiai iaaeo ia?ai?ao eee
ia?aeineo… eii aieinoaeai eee iinaeneiio eiaoe ia oii ca ai?ai ii aeaa
aeouia e ca ?aio i?enoaeyo, iiniio?y ii /aeiaaeo e ii ?aia e ii
?annoaeaeaieth”(no. 62).

Noaeaaiee aaiaeeo iiiyoea “aeia?uo” e “eeoeo” ethaeae.

E ethaeyi aeia?ui Noaeaaiee ioiineo iaeaieaa caaeeoi/iuo,
aeaaiiaia?aiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna eee /??iiai
e?anoueyinoaa, ca?aeiiaiaeiaaaoeo naay ?a/eoaeueiuie oicyaaaie eee iniai
?aaiinoii i?iyaeyaoeo naay ia neoaeaa. Ei i?aaeinoaaeyeinue i?aai
“iaeeoiaaoue”, oi anoue i?eciaoue “aaaeiiui eeoei /aeiaaeii” ethaiai.
Aeieacuaaoue aeiiaiinoue iaiai??iiiai ia o?aaiaaeinue.

*aeiaae, i?eciaiiue aeia?uie ethaeueie “aaaeiiui eeoei /aeiaaeii”,
iiaeeaaeae i?e iaaeiaiee aai a niaa?oaiee “eeoiai aeaea” nia?oiie eacie,
a a inoaeueiuo neo/ayo aue iaycai oaeiaeaoai?eoue o?aaiaaiey enooea aia
caaeneiinoe io oiai, niaa?oee ii i?anooieaiea eee iao.

A ioee/ea io ?I Noaeaaiee auaeaeyao oaea i?anooieaiey i?ioea
ainoaea?noaa e aai iieioa – oea?eae, a oaeaea i?anooieaiey, niaa?oaaiua
oaiaeaeueii-caaeneiui ianaeaieai i?ioea naieo ainiiae.

Iniaaiiinoueth Noaeaaieea yaeyaony ia oieueei aeeth/aiea iiauo, ia
ecaanoiuo ?I aeaeia i?anooieaiee, ii e oi, /oi ii aeaaiia aieiaiea
nin?aaeioa/eaaao ia iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiuo, iniai iianiuo aeey
oaiaeaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa i?anooieaieyo – aeooaaoanoaa, ?acaia,
oaoueaa, iiaeaeiaao, ceinoiie eeaaaoa e ae?., iaiueoa oaeaeyy aieiaiey
iacia/eoaeueiui i?inooieai i?ioea ee/iinoe, aeaaiui ia?acii, i?ioea
oaeaniie iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe (?aiu, iaiineiua i?oaeeai, oaea?u ?oeie,
iaeeie, ino?ie eee oueueiie noi?iiie ia/a e ae?oaeie i?aaeiaoaie,
iia?aaeaeaiea ?oee, iiae, aeaca, coaa, onia e o.ae.).

Noaeaaiee 1497 a. onoaiaaeeaae neaaeothuea aeaeu i?anooieaiee:

1. Iieeoe/aneea i?anooieaiey

E eo /eneo Noaeaaiee ioiinee “e?aiieo”. Iiae e?aiieie iiieiaeanue
eciaia, caaiai?, i?ecua e ainnoaieth eee iiaeiyoea ainnoaiey e ae?oaea
aeaenoaey, niaa?oaaiua i?aeiouanoaaiii i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna e iai?aaeaiiua i?ioea i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Eiaiii
eae e?aiieo noaee ?anniao?eaaoue aaeeeea eiycuey iouacae aiy? e ae?oaiio
eiycth. Oaa?neie eaoiienaoe, iai?eia?, iacuaaao e?aiieueieeaie eiycae e
aiy?, iouaoaaoeo a 1485 a. ec Oaa?e e iineianeiio aaeeeiio eiycth.

Ia?eiae XV a. iiieii iouacaeia, i?aeoeeiaaaoeony oaeaeueiuie
eiycueyie, eciaeeiaae ainnoaieyie e caaiai?aie i?ioea aeanoe e aeecie
naiiai aaeeeiai eiycy.

An? eiyaeaiea Aaneeey II O?iiiai (1425-1462) nii?iaiaeaeaeinue
iai?ae?auathuaeny ai?ueaie n oaeaeueiuie eiycueyie. Iie o?eaeaeu
iuoaeenue caiyoue aaeeeieiyaeaneee i?anoie. A 1435 a. Aaneeeth II
i?eoeinue iiaeaaeyoue ainnoaiey a Aaeeoeeii oaeaea, a oaeaea ia Onothaa.
A 1456 a. Aaneeee II o?aaiaae io iiaai?iaeoeaa auaea/e aio “aai
eeoiaeaaa, eciaiieeia”, ne?uaaaoeony ca a?aieoeae aai eiyaeanoaa. A 1497
a. aue ?ane?uo caaiai? Aeaaeeie?a Aonaaa e aai niiauieeia i?ioea
i?aaeoaeuenoaa Eaaia III.

A naiae ai?ueaa i?ioea aaeeeiai eiycy e?oiiua oaiaeaeu eneaee
iiaeaea?aeee ca i?aaeaeaie ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa – a Eeoaa, Iieueoa,
Cieioie I?aea. A eiioea 1470 – ia/aea 1471 aa. aiy?neay aa?oooea
Iiaai?iaea caeeth/eea aeiaiai? n aaeeeei eiycai Eeoianeei e ei?ie?i
Iieueneei Eaceie?ii 4, ii eioi?iio Iiaai?iae iieo/ae aiaiioth iiiiuue
aeey ai?ueau n aaeeeei eiycai ?onneei, a ca yoi auiea/eaae ei?ieth
iiaeaoue, o.i. “*??iue ai?”, e noaiiaeeny aai aannaeii. Iiaeiaiia aea
niaeaoaiea a 1483 a. caeeth/ee Oaa?neie aaeeeee eiycue Ieoaee
Ai?eniae/. A 1491 a. a?ao Eaaia III, “…/eiy eciaio aaeeeiio eiycth,
i?anooiay e?anoiia oeaeiaaiea”, oeeiieeny io iioiaea ia oaoa?, aicaeaaee
caaiai? i?ioea aaeeeiai eiycy, caeeth/ea niioaiey n Eaceie?ii e oaiii
Aoiaoii.

Iiieii aioo?eeeanniaie ai?ueau n i?ioeaieeaie oeaio?aeecaoeee, XV a.
oa?aeoa?ai ia?anoaieai eeanniaie ai?ueau a ai?iaea e aea?aaia,
aueeaaaoaeny a noeoeeiua aunooieaiey e?anoueyi e ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey,
aeanoiei iiaeaaeyaiua i?aaeoaeuenoaii. Ai?ueaa e?anoueyi i?ioea
oaiaeaeia, caoaaouaaaoeo e?anoueyineea, iaueiiua caiee, au?aaeaeanue
/anoi a eno?aaeaiee nianoaaiiinoe oaiaeaeia: ii?oaea eania, oie/oiaeaiee
iinaaia, iiaeaeiaao no?iaiee, a /anoi e a oaeenoaa naiiai oaiaeaea.

Noaouey 9, aiai?y i e?aiiea, auaeaeyao oaeeo i?anooiieeia, eae
“iiaeuiuee” e “caaeeaaeiee”. Iiaeuiuee aeiniaaoneie enoi?eia?aoeae
o?aeoiaaeny i?aeiouanoaaiii eae iiaeaeeaaoaeue aeiia, aeai?a, aeeeiai
iiiauaiey (aeuia), a ioee/ea io iiaeaeeaaoaey ai?iaea, oe?aieaiee –
caaeeaaeieea. Ioia/ay, /oi aeaiiay o?aeoiaea ia iauyniyao, ii/aio
iiiaaeiaeeinue oaeia iiae?acaeaeaiea, anee iaa aeaea iiaeaeiaa ioiinyony
e /eneo iaeaieaa iianiuo i?anooieaiee e aeaeoo aunooth ia?o iaeacaiey,
E.A. *a?aiiei caiaiyao oa?iei “iiaeuiuee” ae?oaei, niaea?aeaueiny a no.
61 Noaeaaieea 1550 a. oa?ieiii – iiaei?o/ee. A enoi?e/aneie e
enoi?eei-th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a iiae iiaeiao/eeaie i?eiyoi iiieiaoue
eeoe, iiaea?anuaathueo a /oaeie aeii eiouanoai n oeaeueth iaaeieoue
/aeiaaea a e?aaea eee iiaeeeaaeuaathueo ai aeai? o?oi n oeaeueth
iaaeieoue aeeoaeae yoiai aeai?a a oaeenoaa e caaeaaeaoue eo eiouanoaii,
a iiae caaeeaaeieeaie – iiaeaeeaaoaeae /oaeiai aeai?a.

A ?aaioa “?onneea oaiaeaeueiua a?oeau 14-15 aa.” e a nai?ieea
“Noaeaaieee 15-16 aa.” E.A. *a?aiiei auneacae i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oii, /oi
a aeaiiie noaouea, aaea ?a/ue eae?o i iieeoe/aneeo i?anooieaieyo,
“iiaeiao” icia/aao oieiiaae, ?acaeaoaiea nae?aoiuo naaaeaiee
(“iiaeiaoiia ienueii”), a caaeeaaeueieeii yaeyaony eeoei, niaa?oathuaa
ia i?inoie iiaeaeia, a iiaeaeia ai?iaea n oeaeueth ia?aaea/e aai a?aao.

Aia?aua ia iaoi/iinoue oaeie o?aeoiaee ia?aoee aieiaiea I.E.
*enoyeia. Ii ioiaoee ia oieueei iai?aaiia?iinoue i?iecaaae?iiie caiaiu e
ioiaeaeanoaeaiey oa?ieia “iiaeuiuee” n oa?ieiii “iiaei?o/ee”, ii e ia
niaeaneeny n oai, /oi iiaei?o icia/aao oieiiaae. Iiaei?o, ii aai
iiaieth, yoi iiaea?anuaaiea eiio-eeai ia oieueei iioeuaiiiai eiouanoaa n
oeaeueth iaaeiaiey aai a ?acaia eee oaoueaa, ii e iiaei?oiuo ienai.
Aiaeiae/ioth o?aeoiaeo aeaaae A.I. Oaoeuaa: “Iiiao/ee aeaiyeia: 1)
eioi?ue iiee/iia eiio iiaeeeiao, oioy iiiai iaaeiii iiiee/eoue…; 2)
ianeaeeyio, eioi?ue iiiineoaeueiua eee aiciooeoaeueiua ienueia, ni/eiy,
iiaeeeaaeuaaao…”. Iiaei?oiia ienueii, ii iiaieth *enoyeiaa, ia
oieiiaae, a nei?aa eaeay-oi i?ieeaiaoeey, eioi?oth iiaea?anuaatho aeey
aicaoaeaeaiey ia?iaea i?ioea aeanoe eee a? i?aaenoaaeoaeae, iiyoiio
iiaeuiueea iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae /aeiaaea, iiaeieiathuaai aoio,
aiciouaiea. Yoi i?aaeiieiaeaiea iaoiaeeo iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea a ?ane?uoee
cia/aiey neiaa “iiaeuiuee”. Ii Aeaeth, iii ioiaeaeanoaeyaony ia n
“aeuiii”, a n oa?aeoa?enoeeie /aeiaaea – iiaeueiaiiue, iiaeueiaiuee,
i?eiyaoee /oaeia eiy, aeeaouee ia iiae naiei, a iiae eiaiai ae?oaiai.

Oiiieiaiea a noaouea 9, ia?a/eneythuae iniai iianiua aeaeu
i?anooieaiee, oaeiai “eeoiaeay”, eae “caaeeaaeiee”, aeinoaoi/ii ynii
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi aeayiea, niaa?o?iiia ei, aeieaeii
ioee/aoueny io “iiaeaaa”, i eioi?ii aiai?eo noaouey 7. Niaeanii ae,
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca “iiaeia” ?aoaaony iieai, o.a. i?inoui ninoycaieai
noi?ii, e nia?oiie eacie ca niaa?oaiea aai ia i?aaeoniao?eaaaony.

O.i., e iieeoe/aneei i?anooieaieyi ii Noaeaaieeo 1497 a. iiaeii
ioianoe “e?aiieo”, o.a. caaiai? i?ioea ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, iiaeaeia
ai?iaea eee e?aiinoe n oeaeueth ia?aaea/e a? iai?eyoaeth, “iiaeiao”,
o.a. oieiiaae, ?acaeaoaiea nae?aoiuo naaaeaiee, i?ecua e caaiai?ai e
eciaia ioo?i ?ani?ino?aiaiey “aiciooeoaeueiuo” e “iiiiniuo” ienai.

Oneeaiea cae?aiiuaiey aucaaei iaino?aiea ai?ueau
oaiaeaeueii-caaeneiiai e cae?aiiuaaiiai ianaeaiey. Aunooieaiey i?ioea
ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna i?eiyee ianniaue oa?aeoa?. A nayce n yoei
ia?yaeo n ii?aaeae?iiuie aeayieyie, i?eciaaaaiuie i?anooiiuie, Noaeaaiee
1497 a. aaiaeeo iiiyoea “eeoiai aeaea” e “aaaeiiuo eeoeo ethaeae”.
“Eeoei” /aeiaaeii iia auoue i?eciai ethaie /aeiaae, oioy au e ia
niaa?oeaoee ieeaeiai eiie?aoiiai aeayiey – eciaiu, iiaeaeiaa, iiaei?oa,
ii ni/oanoaothuee, iiaeaea?aeeaathuee o?aaiaaiey ia?iaea e a neeo yoiai
yaeythueeny /aeiaaeii, iianiui aeey ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna.

I?aai ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna ?ani?aaeyoueny n iianiuie aeey iaai
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie oaiaeaeueii-caaeneiiai ianaeaiey cae?aieyeinue noaoue?e
9 Noaeaaieea, ia?a/eneyaoae ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iniai iianiua
i?anooieaiey.

2. Eiouanoaaiiua i?anooieaiey

Nianoaaiiinoue oaiaeaea ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e iaiieiay
nianoaaiiinoue ia ?aaioieea i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony iniiaie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee i?e oaiaeaeueiii no?ia. Caueuay eioa?anu
ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna, Noaeaaiee onoaiaaeeaae ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
ia?ooaiea i?aaa oaiaeaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe.

Noaeaaiee i?aaeoniao?eaae neaaeothuea aeaeu i?anooieaiee i?ioea
eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa: 1) ?acaie, 2) iioeuaiea /oaeiai eiouanoaa (oaoueaa),
3) eno?aaeaiea eee iia?aaeaeaiea /oaeiai eiouanoaa, 4) i?ioeaicaeiiiia
iieueciaaiea /oaeei eiouanoaii.

a) ?acaie

Noaeaaiee ia onoaiaaeeaae ?acee/ey iaaeaeo a?aaaaeii e ?acaiai. A XV
a. iiae ?acaiai iiieiaeinue ioe?uoia iaiaaeaiea, i?iecaiaeeiia iau/ii
oaeeie, ii ia iaycaoaeueii nii?iaiaeaeaaoaany oaeenoaii.
Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ?acaie auea ?acee/iie a caaeneiinoe io oiai,
niaa?oaeny ee ii “aaaeiiui eeoei /aeiaaeii” eee iao. Niaa?oaiea ?acaiy
“aaaeiiui eeoei /aeiaaeii” ea?aeinue nia?oiie eaciueth (no. 8). Anee
iaaeiyaiue a ?acaia ia aue “aaaeiiui eeoei /aeiaaeii”, ii aeieaeai aue
aicianoeoue iino?aaeaaoaio iaian?iiue oua?a (“enoeaai aeii?aaeoe”) e
iaeacuaaeny “i?iaeaaeae” (no. 38), /oi icia/aei a aeaiiii neo/aa
aeaiaaeiue oo?ao.

a) iioeuaiea /oaeiai eiouanoaa

Iioeuaiea /oaeiai eiouanoaa, eiaioaiia a Noaeaaieea “oaoaie”, aoaeo/e
iauaoaieiaiui i?anooieaieai, yaeyeinue oaeaea naiaia?aciie oi?iie
au?aaeaiey i?ioanoa yenieoaoe?oaiuo iann i?ioea nioeeaeueiiai ai?oa. Ii
Noaeaaieeo oaoueaa, oi anoue e?aaea, iiae?acaeaeyeanue ia i?inooth e
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiioth. E eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui aeaeai e?aaee ioiineeanue
e?aaea oea?eiaiay, aieiaiay (no. 9), iiaoi?iay e?aaea (no. 11 e 13), a
oaeaea ia?aay e?aaea n iiee/iui, niaa?o?iiay “aaaeiiui eeoei /aeiaaeii”
(no. 13).

Oea?eiaiay oaoueaa, oiiieiaaiay a no. 9, ia?a/eneythuae iniai iianiua
i?anooieaiey, icia/aao, ii iiaieth aieueoeinoaa enneaaeiaaoaeae
Noaeaaieea, ia oieueei e?aaeo oea?eiaiiai eiouanoaa. Iiae oea?eiaiui
oaoai iiieiaaony eeoei, niaa?oeaoaa nayoioaonoai, o.a. aeayiea, oae eee
eia/a ia?ooathuaa i?aaa e eioa?anu oea?eae, yaeythuaeny iieioii
oaiaeaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa.

Ii onoaiiaeaoaiony a enoi?eei-th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a iiaieth,
aieiaiay oaoueaa icia/aao ai?ianoai, e?aaeo ethaeae (oieiiia e
e?aiinoiuo). E.A. *a?aiiei a auoaoiiiyioouo ?aaioao aea?o eiia
oieeiaaiea. Ii n/eoaao, /oi “oe?uaaoaeuenoai ethaeae” aeaeei ca niaie ia
nia?oioth eaciue aeey aeiiaiuo, a i?aa?auaiea eo naieo a oieiiia a
neo/aa iaaiciiaeiinoe aica?aoeoue iioeuaiiuo ethaeae. Iiyoiio iiae
aieiaiie oaoueaie neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue ia ai?ianoai ethaeae, a
ai?ianoai aiiaua, ii nii?iaiaeaeathuaany oaeenoaii.

Oaeay oi/ea c?aiey i?aaenoaaeyaony aieaa oaaaeeoaeueiie. Aieiaiay
oaoueaa oae aea, eae oaoueaa oea?eiaiay, noieo a /enea iniai iianiuo
i?anooieaiee, i?aaeoniao?eaaaiuo no. 9, iniai caueuathuae eioa?anu e
i?aaa ainoaea?noaa e ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna io iinyaaoaeuenoa ni
noi?iiu yenieoaoe?oaiuo.

Yenieoaoe?oaiia ianaeaiea (e?aiinoiua, oieiiu), anoanoaaiii, ia eiaee
aiciiaeiinoe e n?aaenoa “ai?iaaoue” /oaeeo ethaeae (oaeaea e?aiinoiuo e
oieiiia), oe?uaaoue eo eee ia?ai?aaeyoue ca ?oaaae.

Aianoa n oai o?oaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oiau caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai auei
oae no?iai a ioiioaiee naiiai eeanna oaiaeaeia, oai aieaa, /oi ia?eiae
14-15 aa. ia aue au? ia?eiaeii anaiauaai e iieiiai cae?aiiuaiey, e
neo/ae ia?aiaieaaiey e oaiaea oaiaeaeueii-caaeneiiai ianaeaiey iaeiei
aeaaeaeueoeai io ae?oaiai auee aeiaieueii /anou.

Enoiaey ec anaai yoiai, iao iniiaaiee iieaaaoue, /oi iiae aieiaiie
oaoueaie Noaeaaiee iiieiae ai?ianoai ethaeae.

Caueoa oaiaeaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe e ee/iinoe oaiaeaea e?aniie ieoueth
i?ioiaeeo /a?ac Noaeaaiee 1497 a. Oneeeaathuayny eeanniaay ai?ueaa ia
iiaea ia aucaaoue oaaee/aiey iinyaaoaeuenoa ia nianoaaiiinoue oaiaeaea,
ca/anooth nii?iaiaeaeaaoeony oaeenoaii nianoaaiieea. Yoi oaeaea iiaei
auoue n?aaenoaii ?ani?aau n oai eee eiui i?aaenoaaeoaeai
ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna, ii niaa?oaaiie ia a?oiiie eeoe, a a iaeeii/eo.
Iiyoiio onoaiiaeaiea Noaeaaieeii iaeacaiey ca oaeia eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiia
i?anooieaiea, eae e?aaea, nii?iaiaeaeathuayny oaeenoaii, auei aiieia
caeiiiia?iui yaeaieai. Niaa?oaiea yoiai i?anooieaiey aeaeei ca niaie
nia?oioth eaciue.

Yoei aea iauyniyaony e ioianaiea Noaeaaieeii e eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui
aeaeai i?anooieaiee e?aaee, niaa?o?iiie aoi?e/ii, e e?aaee, oioy e
niaa?o?iiie aia?aua, ii eiaaea /aeiaae oee/?i, iieiai n iiee/iui e
i?eciai ii iaiai?o “aaaeiiui eeoei /aeiaaeii”.

Ana aeaeu eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo e?aae ea?aeenue nia?oiie eaciueth (no.
9, 11, 13).

I?inoie oaoueaie n/eoaeanue e?aaea, niaa?o?iiay aia?aua, e?iia
oea?eiaiie, aieiaiie oaoueau (no. 10) e oaoueau n iiee/iui (no. 13), a
oaeaea iaaeiaiea a e?aaea ni noi?iiu aeia?uo ethaeae i?e ionoonoaee
aeieacaoaeuenoa i niaa?oaiee iaiai??iiui e?aae aei yoiai iaiai?a (no.
12).

Oaoueaa, niaa?o?iiay aia?aua, iaeacuaaeanue “oi?aiaie eaciueth”, o.a.
aeoue?i eiooii, aiciauaieai oauoeia enooeo, a oaeaea acuneaieai
“i?iaeaaee” a niioaaonoaee n ?aoaieai noaea. I?e iaaiciiaeiinoe
aicianoeoue oauoee ec-ca ionoonoaey eiouanoaa aeiiaiue auaeaaaeny enooeo
“aieiaith ia i?iaeaaeo”, o.a. a oieiinoai (no. 10).

Iaiai? a e?aaea ni noi?iiu aeia?uo ethaeae ae?e ca niaie aeey
iaiai??iiiai iaycaiiinoue oieaoeoue “enoeaao auaaeue aac noaea”, o.a.
noiio i?aaeuyaeyaiiai enooeii enea (no. 12).

a) Eno?aaeaiea eee iia?aaeaeaiea /oaeiai eiouanoaa

E yoiio aeaeo i?anooieaiee Noaeaaiee ioiinee “iiaeia” – i?inoie
iiaeaeia aeai?a eee ae?oaiai eiouanoaa. Aeiiaiinoue iaaeiyaiiai
aeieacuaaeanue iieai, o.a. ninoycaieai noi?ii. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue
caeeth/aeanue a iaiaoiaeeiinoe aiciauaiey oauoeia iino?aaeaaoaio e
auieaou “i?iaeaaee”.

Aieueoia aieiaiea Noaeaaiee oaeaeyao io?aia i?aa nianoaaiiinoe
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa ia caieth.

Ii onoaiaaeeaaao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iia?aaeaeaiea ecai?iaeae e
o/eiaiea iio?aa, iia?aaeaeaiea eee oie/oiaeaiea iaaeaauo ciaeia e
caiaoeo /oaeie caiee.

Iaonoaiiaeaiea eee iia?aaeaeaiea ecai?iaeae e o/eiaiea iio?aa,
iia?aaeaeaiea eee oie/oiaeaiea iaaeaauo ciaeia e caiaoeo /oaeie caiee.

Iaonoaiiaeaiea eee iia?aaeaeaiea ecai?iaeae e o/eiaiea a ?acoeueoaoa
yoie iio?aau aeaeei ca niaie iaycaiiinoue aicianoeoue iaian?iiue oua?a.
*oi eanaaony iia?aaeaeaiey iaaeaauo ciaeia e caiaoee /oaeeo caiaeue, oi
iaeacaiea ca yoi iineei y?ei au?aaeaiiue eeanniaue oa?aeoa?.

Ca iia?aaeaeaiea iaaeaauo ciaeia eee ia?aiaoeo iaaee “aaeeeiai eiycy
caiee aiy?eia e iaianou?y…” aeiiaiiai i?aaeienuaaeinue “aeoe eiooeai,
aea enoeo acyoe ia i?i ?oaeue”.

Oi aea naiia i?anooieaiea, ii niaa?oaaiia e?anoueyiaie “i?iiaaeo
naay”, aeaeei ca niaie aeaiaaeiue oo?ao a 2 aeouia e aiciauaiea oauoeia
iino?aaeaaoaio, ?acia? eioi?uo onoaiaaeeaaeny oi?aaeythuei aeai?oeiaui
naeii, “…iiniio?y ii /aeiaaeo e ii ?aia e ii ?annoaeaeaieth” (no. 62).

Iao niiiaiey, /oi e /eneo yoiai aeaea i?anooieaiee a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ioiineeinue cia/eoaeueii aieueoaa eiee/anoai aeayiee
– oie/oiaeaiea eee iia?aaeaeaiea i/aeeiuo oeueaa, i?oaeee eiaee aia?ia,
iia?aaeaeaiea eee ceinoiia eno?aaeaiea neioa e eiouanoaa – iaeacaiey ca
eioi?ua onoaiaaeeaaeenue au? a noaoueyo ?onneie I?aaaeu. Iaaei
iieaaaoue, /oi yoe noaouee i?iaeieaeaee aeaenoaiaaoue e ai a?aiaia
Noaeaaieea.

a) I?ioeaicaeiiiia iieueciaaiea /oaeei eiouanoaii

Cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai i?anooieaiee yoiai aeaea – naiiaieueiay
acaea ia /oaeii eiia, oe?uaaoaeuenoai aaaeuo oieiiia, i?enaiaiea
iaeaeaiiiai i?aaeiaoa e ae?., i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue au? “?onneie I?aaaeie”
e, aa?iyoii, ath aea ?aaoee?iaaeinue e ai a?aiaia Noaeaaieea.

A naiii Noaeaaieea aiai?eony eeoue i ceinoiie iaauieaoa aeieaa.

Nii?u, aicieeaaoea ec iaycaoaeuenoa ii aeiaiai?ai, ?ac?aoaeenue
“iieai”, o.a. ninoycaieai noi?ii, e aeaeee aeey aeiiaiiai iaycaiiinoue
oieaou o?aaoaiiai enooeii e noaeaaiuo ?anoiaeia (no. 6).

I?e yoii Noaeaaiee onoaiaaeeaae ?acee/ioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue a
caaeneiinoe io iaee/ey eee ionoonoaey ceie aiee aeiiaiiai.

Iaoieaoa aeieaa aneaaenoaea i?ienoaaeoaai n aeiiaiui ian/anoiiai
neo/ay – “…ooa?yaony oiaa? aanoeo?inoii, enoiiao, eee cai?eoue, eee
?aoue aiciaoue…” – aeaeea ca niaie iaycaiiinoue aica?aoeoue acyooth
noiio “aac ?inoo”, o.a. aac i?ioeaioia (no. 55). Anee aea iaaica?auaiea
aeieaa eee iioa?y /oaeiai eiouanoaa i?iecioee ii aeia ioaao/eea – “A eoi
o eiai acyaoe /oi a oi?aiaeth, aea oaae i?iieao eee eiui eaeei aacoieai
iiaoaeo oiaa? naie aac iai?acaeiuenoaa…” – oi ii auaeaaaeny enooeo
“aieiaith ia i?iaeaaeth” (no. 55). Auaea/a aieiaie ia i?iaeaaeo, ii
onoaiiaeaoaiony iiaieth, icia/aea ioaea/o aeiiaiiai enooeo a oieiinoai.

I?anooieaiey i?ioea ee/iinoe

Noaeaaiee ciaao neaaeothuea i?anooieaiey i?ioea ee/iinoe: oaeenoai
(aeooaaoanoai), yaaaeie/anoai (ceinoiay eeaaaoa) e i?anooieaiey i?ioea
/anoe. E yoei i?anooieaieyi iiaeii oaeaea ioianoe “aie” (iiaie; aeaei i
iiaiyo ?aoaeinue iieai – no. 6).

Iaeaieaa na?ue?ciui i?anooieaieai i?ioea ee/iinoe auei oaeenoai.
Noaeaaiee ?acee/aao oaeenoai eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiia e i?inoia.
Eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui oaeenoaii, aeaeouei ca niaie nia?oioth eaciue, auei
oaeenoai e?anoueyieiii naiaai aeaaeaeueoea.

“A ainoaea?neiio oaieoea… aeeaioa ia aeaoe, eacieoe aai nia?oiith
eacieth”, – aeaneo no. 9 Noaeaaieea, ia?a/eneythuay ?yae iniai iianiuo
i?anooieaiee.

Aaaaeaiea niaoeeaeueiiai iiiyoey – “ainoaea?neee oaieoea” e
onoaiiaeaiea aunoae ia?u iaeacaiey aeey eeoe, niaa?oeaoeo yoi aeayiea,
iaoneiaeeaaeinue o/auaieai neo/aaa aunooieaiey e?anoueyi i?ioea naieo
ainiiae e iaiaoiaeeiinoueth caueou aeecie i?aaenoaaeoaeae
ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna.

I?inoia oaeenoai aeaeei ca niaie iaycaiiinoue aeey aeiiaiiai
oieaoeoue “i?iaeaaeo”, oi anoue oo?ao, e iiianoe iaeacaiea, iacia/aaiia
ii oniio?aieth noaeuee. Iaeiaei anee niaa?oeaoee oaeenoai aue “aaaeiiui
eeoei /aeiaaeii”, oi ii oae aea, eae e “ainoaea?neee oaieoea”,
iiaeeaaeae nia?oiie eacie (noaouee 7 e 8).

ssaaaeie/anoai icia/aei ceinoioth eeaaaoo, eiaaooth naiae oeaeueth
iaaeieoue a i?anooieaiee iaaeiiaiiai n oai, /oiau ainiieueciaaoueny aai
eiouanoaii. Yoi aeayiea, niaa?o?iiia “aaaeiiui eeoei /aeiaaeii”,
ioiineeinue oaea e eaoaai?ee “eeoeo” aeae, ia?a/eneaiiuo no. 8 e no. 39
Noaeaaieea, e ea?aeinue nia?oiie eaciueth.

I?anooieaiey i?ioea /anoe aeeth/aee a naay inei?aeaiea aeaenoaeai e
inei?aeaiea neiaii. A ioee/ea io ?I, eioi?ay ciaea eeoue inei?aeaiea
aeaenoaeai, Noaeaaiee 1497 a. onoaiaaeeaaao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iaa
aeaea yoeo i?anooieaiee. Nii?u ii eneai ia inei?aeaiee aeaenoaeai eee
neiaii ?aoaeenue “iieai” e aeaeee aeey aeiiaiiai iaycaiiinoue oieaou
“i?iaeaaee” e o?aaoaiiai enooeii aiciaa?aaeaeaiey.

A neo/ayo i?eie?aiey noi?ii aei iiey ioaao/ee inaiaiaeaeaeny io
oieaou “i?iaeaaee” e noi?iiu aeieaeiu auee aicianoeoue ?anoiaeu,
i?iecaaae?iiua noaeii a nayce n aeaiiui aeaeii – acae eee oiaeaiia (no.
53).

I?anooieaiey i?ioea noaea

Eiay naie oeaeueth iaania/eoue iaiaoiaeeiia aeey ainiiaenoaothuaai
eeanna oneeaiea ?iee noaea, Noaeaaiee i?aaeoniao?eaae ioaaonoaaiiinoue
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe ca ia?ooaiea onoaiaaeeaaaiiai Noaeaaieeii ii?yaeea
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa.

Niaeanii no. 19 – “I iai?aaii noaea”, ?anniio?aiea aeaea n ia?ooaieai
onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa aeaeei ca niaie
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey ii aeaiiiio aeaeo. Noaeuey,
aeiiaiue a ?acai?a aeaea “ia ii noaeo”, iaycai aue aicianoeoue noi?iiai
iiian?iiua eie ?anoiaeu. Iaeiaei, e?iia aiciauaiey “acyoiai” o noi?ii,
noaeuey ia iiaeaa?aaeny eaeiio-eeai eiiio iaeacaieth (no. 19).

Noaeaaiee onoaiaaeeaae, “/oiau euay e ioaao/ee noaeeai e i?enoaaii
iinoeo ia noeeoe a noaeo…”, oi anoue cai?auae aeaaaoue noaeuea acyoee,
a oaeaea aaiaeee ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca eaeanaeaeaoaeuenoai: “… a
iineooii ia aeaeaa ia iineooanoaiaaoe, a aeaeaaoe neacaoe i?aaaeo” (no.
67).

Aea/a noaeo eiaeiuo iieacaiee aeaeea aeey eaeanaeaeaoaeuenoaa
iaycaiiinoue aicianoeoue iioa?iaaoaio aanue iiian?iiue ei oua?a e
oauoee, naycaiiua n aaaeaieai aeaea (no. 67).

Noaeaaiee cai?auaao ia oieueei aeaaaoue, ii e a?aoue acyoee, oioy
oaeaea ia onoaiaaeeaaao au? iaeacaiey ca iieo/aiea acyoee (noaouee 33,
34).

2.4. Aeaeu iaeacaiee

Iaino?aiea eeanniaie ai?ueau, aucaaiiia oneeaieai cae?aiiuaiey
e?anoueyinoaa e yenieoaoaoeee anaai o?oaeyuaainy ianaeaiey, no?aieaiea
ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna e io?aia /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe aiiaua e,
aeaaiui ia?acii, nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth i?eaiaeeo e onoaiiaeaieth
iiauo, aieaa aeanoieeo aeaeia iaeacaiee.

Ii Noaeaaieeo iaeacaiea eiaei oeaeue ia oieueei iiea?aoue i?anooiieea
e ecaea/ue i?e yoii eiouanoaaiiua auaiaeu, eae auei a ia?aiia/aeueiue
ia?eiae ?acaeoey oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee, ii e ono?aoaiea iann.

A yoio ia?eiae ia/eiaao neeaaeuaaoueny iieo/eaoee aiineaaenoaee
oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea i?eioeei: “/oiau, niio?y ia oi, ae?oaei
iaiiaaaeii auei oae aeaeaoue”.

Eiaiii a oeaeyo ono?aoaiey ianaeaiey ?ani?aau n o/anoieeaie
caaiai?ia, ainnoaiee e eiuie “ei?iiieueieeaie” niaa?oaeenue ioe?uoi, i?e
ianniaii noa/aiee ia?iaea e ioee/aeenue iniaie aeanoieinoueth.

Eneeth/eoaeueiia aia/aoeaiea ia ianaeaiea i?iecaaea iaeia ec oaeeo
?ani?aa, o/ei?iiay Aaeeeei eiycai Aaneeeai II iaae o/anoieeaie caaiai?a
na?iooianeeo aeaoae aiy?neeo e aeai?yi, eioi?uo eiycue iiaaeae:
“…eacieoe, aeoe e io/eoe e eiiie aiei/eoe ii anaio a?aaeo e ii anai
oi?aii, a iineaaee iiaaea ei aeaau ionaue; iiiaeanoai aea ia?iaea,
aeaeyua nea, io aiey? e io eoiaoe aaeeeeo e io nayuaiieeia e io i?inouo
ethaeae ai iiica auoa oaeana e oaeeaeaiee… yei ieeiee aea oaeiaay ie
neuoaoa, ieaea aeaeaoa a ?onneeo eiycao auaaaii”.

Iniaaiiinoueth Noaeaaieea yaeyaony ecaanoiay iaii?aaeae?iiinoue a
iaeacaieyo.

Noaeaaiee onoaiaaeeaaao eeoue aeae iaeacaiey, ii ia ooi/iyao aai
eiie?aoiia niaea?aeaiea. Aiai?y i nia?oiie eacie eee i?iaeaaea, ii ia
ooi/iyao, eaeea nouanoaotho aeaeu nia?oiie eacie eee ?acia?u i?iaeaaee,
i?aaeinoaaeyy yoi ia ?anniio?aiea noaeuee.

Aaiaeeiay Noaeaaieeii iaii?aaeae?iiinoue iaeacaiey, ?acaeaaaoayny e
cae?aieyaoayny aeaeueiaeoei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, iaeaa/aea
ainiiaenoaothuaio eeanno aiciiaeiinoue iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiie ai?ueau n
iaoaiaeiuie aio yeaiaioaie.

A Noaeaaieea onoaiaaeeaaeenue neaaeothuea aeaeu iaeacaiee: 1)
nia?oiay eaciue; 2) oi?aiaay eaciue; 3) i?iaeaaea; 4) aiciauaiea
oauoeia.

Nia?oiay eaciue onoaiaaeeaaeanue ca iniai iianiua i?anooieaiey:
oaeenoai caaeneiui naiaai ainiiaeeia, e?aiieo, oea?eiaioth e aieiaioth
oaoueao, iiaeiao, iiaeaeia ai?iaea (no. 9), a oaeaea oaoueao, ?acaie,
aeooaaoanoai, yaaaeie/anoai eee ethaia eeoia aeaei, niaa?o?iiia
«aaaeiiui eeoei /aeiaaeii» (no. no. 8, 39), e ca iiaoi?ioth e?aaeo (no.
11).

A naiii Noaeaaieea ia oeacuaathony niiniau inouanoaeaiey nia?oiie
eacie.

Iaeiaei enneaaeiaaiea aeieoiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo iieacuaaao, /oi
niiniau inouanoaeaiey nia?oiie eacie auee /?acau/aeii ?aciiia?aciu.
Aieueoae /anoueth nia?oiay eaciue inouanoaeyeanue /a?ac iiaaoaiea eee
iona/aiea aieiau. Inouanoaeyy ?ani?aao n ainnoaaoeie onothaeaiaie,
Aaneeee III “aiaaiaeo aaeeeiai eiycy Aeaaa Iaaeaineaai oaee, a
aeanyoeiieea aeaaeu/iy Eaaa Aoeaoiaa iiaanee, e iiiai onothaeai nae e
aaoae”. O/anoieeai caaiai?a i?ioea Eaaia III “eiycue Aaneeee, Eaai
Aaneeueaae/, aieiau nnaeioa”.

Eaoiiene oiai ia?eiaea oiiieiatho ia inouanoaeaiee nia?oiie eacie
/a?ac ooiieaiea. A yiaa?a 1498 a. Eaai III aaeae “…eacieoe, iioiieoe a
Iineaa ?aea iiuueth…” “eeoeo aaa”, i?eoiaeeaoeo n caeueai e aaeeeie
eiyaeia Niouea – o/anoieoea caaiai?a i?ioea Eaaia III.

Iiieii iiaaoaiey, iona/aiey aieiau, ooiieaiey, yaeyaoeony iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?ai?iiuie aeaeaie nia?oiie eacie, i?aeoeea oiai ia?eiaea ciaea
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiioth nia?oioth eaciue, oi anoue eaciue, nii?yae?iioth n
iniauie io/aieyie aeey i?anooiieea: n i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui ecaeaieai
eiooii, nia?oiay eaciue ioo?i /aoaa?oiaaiey e o.i. *aoaa?oiaaieth,
iai?eia?, auee iiaeaa?aioou iaeaieaa aeayoaeueiua caaiai?ueee i?ioea
Eaaia III: “…eacieoa eo ia Iineaa ?aea, iiieaea iinoa, oanoa?uo:
Aoaianeth A?ii/aieo ?oee aea iiae ionaeee e aieiao ionaeioa, a Iiy?eo,
?oiiao a?aoo, ?oee ionaeee e aieiao nnaeioa”.

Oi?aiaay eaciue ninoiyea a aeouea eiooii ia oi?aiaie ieiuaaee. Eae
aeae iaeacaiey iia i?eiaiyeanue aei na?aaeeiu XIX a., ii iniaaiiiai
?acaeoey aeinoeaea a XVII a. Eioo eae i?oaeea oi?aiaie eacie a ia?eiae
XVII a. i?aaenoaaeye niaie i?ee?aie?iiue e aea?aayiiie ?oeiyoea
ieao?iiue ec eiaee oi?oaee noieaaoe, eiathuee ia eiioea eieueoei. E
yoiio eieueoeo i?ee?aieyeny naeaeaiiue ec oienoie nu?iiyoiie eioaaeeiie
eee eineiie eiaee ?aiaiue, niaiooue aaeieue iaiiaeiaea aeaeiaea,
caino??iiue ia eiioea e a oaeii aeaea canooaiiue. Aeeeia ?aiiy auea
ieiei iao?a. Ca/anooth eioo caeai/eaaeny ia iaeiei, a ianeieueeeie
?aiiyie. Yoio eiiaoe, oa??aeue, eae aea?aai eee einoue, naee?ae ia
oieueei eiaeo, ii e iyni ni nieiu enoycaaiiai.

Enoi?ee XVIII a. Eioioeoei oae iienuaaao aeoue? eiooii: “Eae oaea?eo
ii eioi?iio ianoo e ia nieia noaiao oae neiai a neiai aoaeoi aieueoie
?aiaiue au?acai iiaeai, iaei ia aei einoae”. *enei oaea?ia a
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia ii?aaeaeyeinue. A XVIII-XIX aa. /enei oaea?ia
aeioiaeeei aei 400, a XVII – aeey iuoee onoaiiaeee 300 oaea?ia. Ii oaea
50 oaea?ia n/eoaeenue aeoue?i iauaaeiui. Ii naeaeaoaeuenoao ?onneeo e
eiino?aiiuo i/aaeaeoeaa, iaeacaiea eiooii a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
caeai/eaaeinue nia?oueth. Oaeou i?eiaiaiey aeouey eiooii eae
caianee?iaaiiiai aeaea nia?oiie eacie iiaeoaa?aeaeathony e ioaeaeueiuie
niiauaieyie aieaa iicaeiaai a?aiaie.

Onoaiiaeaiea Noaeaaieeii oi?aiaie eacie ca i?anooieaiey, iai?aaeaiiua
i?ioea oaiaeaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe e iniaaiii nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth,
iieacuaaao, eae oneeaiii caueuae ainiiaenoaothuee eeann iniiao naiaai
ainiiaenoaa.

Noaeaaiee, eae e ?I, ciaao i?iaeaaeo, ii iia oaia?ue ioaeaeueii
i?eiaiyaony ?aaeei: iau/ii a ni/aoaiee ni nia?oiie eee oi?aiaie
eaciueth. I?iaeaaea icia/aea aeaiaaeiue oo?ao ca i?anooieaiea e oea a
iieueco eiycy eee eeoe, inouanoaeyaoeo i?aainoaeea. ?acia? i?iaeaaee,
eae i?aaeei, onoaiaaeeaaeny ii oniio?aieth noaea. I?iaeaaea, ii iiaieth
Aeaaeeie?neiai-Aoaeaiiaa, iiaea icia/aoue a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo e
eiioeneaoeeth anaai eiouanoaa.

*aua anaai i?iaeaaea yaeyeanue aeiiieieoaeueiui iaeacaieai e
i?eiaiyeanue a ni/aoaiee n oi?aiaie eee nia?oiie eaciueth (no. 8, 10,
13, 39). “…Oiai aaeaoe eacieoe nia?oiith eaciueth a enoeaai aaeaoe
aeii?aaeoe ecu aai noaoea, a /oi ny o noaoea inoaiaoue, eii oi aiy?eio e
aeeaeo eiaoe naaa. A i?ioeaaiue e i?iaeaaea aiy?eio e aeeaeo aeaeeoe…”
(no. 8).

Ii i?iaeaaea iiaea auoue e naiinoiyoaeueiui aeaeii iaeacaiey ca
ceinoioth iaauieaoo aeieaa, inei?aeaiea neiaii eee aeaenoaeai.

Aeaiaaeiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea a iieueco iioa?iaaoaai eee ?iaenoaaiieeia
oaeoiai acuneeaaeinue n aeiiaiiai iaeiia?aiaiii n auieaoie i?iaeaaee. “A
iiaethony ia iiee a iiaeaaa, eee a aeooaaoanoaa, eee a ?acaie, eee a
oaoueaa, eii ia oaeoii enoeaai aeii?aaeoe; …A nai oaeoie a eacie e a
i?iaeaaea aiy?eio e aeeyeo” (no. 7). Anee aeiiaiue ia eiae n?aaenoa,
/oiau auieaoeoue o?aaoaiia enooeii aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, ii auaeaaaeny
enooeo “aieiaith ia i?iaeaaeth”, o.a. a oieiinoai aei io?aaioee aeieaa
(no. 10).

Oaeei ia?acii, ana onoaiiaeaiiua Noaeaaieeii aeaeu iaeacaiee, a o./.
e eiouanoaaiiua iaeacaiey, auee n?aaenoaii ?ani?aau ainiiaenoaothuaai
eeanna n caaeneiui e cae?aiiu?iiui ianaeaieai, n?aaenoaii aai
aeaeueiaeoaai caeaaaeaiey.

Iiieii iaeacaiee, oeacaiiuo a Noaeaaieea, i?aeoeea ciaea e oaeea
aeaeu iaeacaiee, eae oth?ueia, nnueea, iiaeeciaiiia caeeth/aiea,
/eaiia?aaeeoaeuenoai ?aciiai ?iaea.

Oth?aiiiio caeeth/aieth auee iiaeaa?aioou iaeioi?ua o/anoieee
caaiai?a i?ioea Eaaia III: “A eiuo aeaoae aiy?neeo aaeae eiycue aaeeeee
a oth?ueio iiiaoaoe”.

Ooaa?aeeaoenue ia aaeeeii eiyaeaiee, Aaneeee Aaneeueaae/ aa?ioe naaa
Aeieo?ia, a “Iaianoieeia aeieo?ianeeo nineae…”.

Iinea aieiaiee a Aaee/a eee Onothaa Oaiyea aue ioi?aaeai ia caoi/aiea
a Eieiiio.

Ca iiaeic?aiea a oiuneao “e?aiieu” aue “iieiai” ia Iineaa e nineai a
Oaee/ na?iooianeee eiycue Aaneeee ss?ineaae/. Ii iiaeaa?any
iiaeeciaiiiio caeeth/aieth e oia?, i?iaua a caoi/aiee ieiei 30 eao.

Ec /eaiia?aaeeoaeueneeo iaeacaiee ecaanoiu ineaieaiea, io?acaiea
ycuea ca “aea?ceea ?a/e” e ae?.

2.5. Noaeaaiua i?aaiu

Noaeaaiee 1497 a. au?aaeae no?aieaiea ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna e
nicaeaieth oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa, a oii /enea
noaeaaiiai aiia?aoa.

Noaeaaiee onoaiaaeeaae neaaeothuea aeaeu noaeaaiuo i?aaiia:
ainoaea?noaaiiua, aeooiaiua, aio/eiiua e iiiaue/uee.

1. Ainoaea?noaaiiua noaeaaiua i?aaiu

Ainoaea?noaaiiua noaeaaiua i?aaiu aeaeeeenue ia oeaio?aeueiua e
ianoiua.

Oeaio?aeueiuie ainoaea?noaaiiuie noaeaaiuie i?aaiaie auee aaeeeee
eiycue, Aiy?neay aeoia, iooiua aiy?a, /eiu, aaaeaaoea ioaeaeueiuie
io?aneyie aeai?oeiaiai oi?aaeaiey, e i?eeacu.

Oeaio?aeueiua noaeaaiua i?aaiu auee aunoae einoaioeeae aeey noaea
iaianoieeia e aieinoaeae. Aeaea iiaee ia?aoiaeeoue ec iecoae einoaioeee
a aunooth ii aeieeaaeo noaea iecoae einoaioeee eee ii aeaeiaa noi?iiu
(ia?anoae) (no. no. 20 e 64). Aeieeaae eceaaaeny a niaoeeaeueiii
aeieeaaeiii nienea (eee aeieeaaeiie a?aiioa – no. 16) – i?ioieiea
noaeaaiiai canaaeaiey noaea ia?aie einoaioeee, ia?aaeaaaaoeiny ia
?anniio?aiea auoanoiyuae einoaioeee.

Aaeeeee eiycue ?anniao?eaae aeaea a ea/anoaa noaea ia?aie einoaioeee
ii ioiioaieth e aeeoaeyi naiaai aeiiaia, iniai aaaeiua aeaea eee aeaea,
niaa?o?iiua eeoeaie, eiathueie i?eaeeaaeth ia noae eiycy, e eioi?ui
ioiineeenue iaeaaeaoaee oa?oaiiuo a?aiio e neoaeeeua ethaee (ia/eiay n
/eia noieueieea), a oaeaea aeaea, iiaeaiiua ee/ii ia eiy aaeeeiai eiycy.

Iiieii yoiai eiycue ?anniao?eaae aeaea, iai?aaeyaiua aio “ii
aeieeaaeo” ec ieaeanoiyuaai noaea aeey ooaa?aeaeaiey eee ioiaiu
i?eiyoiai noaeii ?aoaiey, a oaeaea yaeyeny aunoae aiaeeyoeeiiiie
einoaioeeae ii aeaeai, ?ao?iiui ieaeanoiyueie noaeaie, inouanoaeyy
ia?anoae. Ia?yaeo n naiinoiyoaeueiui ?anniio?aieai aeae aaeeeee eiycue
iia ii?o/eoue ?acai? aeaea ?acee/iui noaeaaiui i?aaiai eee niaoeeaeueii
iacia/aiiui eiycai eeoeai – iooiui aiy?ai e ae?oaei /eiai, aaaeaaoei
ioaeaeueiuie io?aneyie aeai?oeiaiai oi?aaeaiey. Iiyoiio iaauaiey
aaeeeiai eiycy i naiinoiyoaeueiii ?anniio?aiee oiai eee eiiai aeaea
iau/ii caeai/eaaeenue: “eee eiio y i?eeaaeo”.

Naycothuei caaiii iaaeaeo noaeii aaeeeiai eiycy e inoaeueiuie
noaeaaiuie einoaioeeyie auea Aiy?neay aeoia. Aiy?neay aeoia ninoiyea ec
“aaaae?iiuo aiy?” – ethaeae, aaaae?iiuo ai aeai?aoe aaeeeiai eiycy a
ea/anoaa iinoiyiiuo iiiiuieeia a oi?aaeaiee, auaoeo oaeaeueiuo eiycae,
aicaaae?iiuo a /ei aeoiiiai aiy?eia, e ieieueie/eo – eeoe, caieiaaoeo
aunooth i?eaeai?ioth aeieaeiinoue. Ii ia?a ?anoe?aiey iieeoe/aneiai
aeeyiey aeai?yinoaa a ninoaa Aiy?neie aeoiu auee aaaaeaiu i?aaenoaaeoaee
aeai?yi, iau/ii caieiaaoeo a Aeoia aeieaeiinoue aeoiiuo aeueyeia.
Aii?inaie noaea e oi?aaeaiey aaaeaee aunoea /eiu Aiy?neie aeoiu – aiy?a
e ieieueie/ea. Iaeiaei aeai?yinoai, no?aiynue ia?aie/eoue i?aaa aiy?,
aeiaeeinue oiai, /oi noaeii?iecaiaenoai i?iaiaeeeinue a i?enoonoaee aai
i?aaenoaaeoaeae – aeueyeia. “Noaeeoe noae aiy?ii e ieieie/ei. A ia noaea
auoe o aiy? e o ieieie/eo aeeaeii…”, – aeaneea no. 1 Noaeaaieea,
ii?aaeaeyaoay ii?yaeie noaeii?iecaiaenoaa.

Aiy?neay aeoia a ea/anoaa noaea ia?aie einoaioeee noaeeea naieo
nianoaaiiuo /eaiia, aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe i?eeacia e ianoiuo noaeae,
?acae?aea nii?u i ianoie/anoaa e enee neoaeeeuo ethaeae, ia
iieueciaaaoeony i?eaeeaaeae aaeeeieiyaeaneiai noaea. Aiy?neay aeoia auea
aunoae einoaioeeae ii ioiioaieth e ?aoaieyi ianoiiai noaea. A ia?
ia?aoiaeeee “ii aeieeaaeo” aeaea, ecuyoua ec naiinoiyoaeueiiai
?anniio?aiey iaianoie/aneiai noaea. A Aiy?neoth aeoio oaeaea ia?aoiaeeee
aeaea io i?eeaciuo noaeae, iau/ii a 2 neo/ayo: eiaaea iaaeaeo i?eeaciuie
noaeueyie i?e ?aoaiee ia auei aaeeiiaeaney eee eiaaea ionoonoaiaaee
oi/iua oeacaiey a caeiia.

A ia?aii neo/aa aeaei iiaei auoue ?anniio?aii Aiy?neie aeoiie aac
ia?auaiey e aaeeeiio eiycth. A neo/ayo aea, eiaaea o?aaiaaeenue
iauyniaiey ii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao, aeieeaae iai?aaeyeny e eiycth eee
ianoaeaeaeny Aiy?neie aeoiie a i?enoonoaee aaeeeiai eiycy, eioi?ue
ii?aaeaeye e ooaa?aeaeae ?aoaiea ii aeaiiiio aeaeo. “A eioi?iai
aeaeiaieea a iai?eaiaea oi?aaeoe, e oi neacaoe aaeeeiio eiycth…” (no.
2).

Iiieii yoiai, Aiy?neay aeoia auea ia?yaeo n aaeeeei eiycai
aiaeeyoeeiiiie einoaioeeae.

Aieueoeinoai aeae ?acae?aeinue i?eeacaie. Aaeeeee eiycue “i?eeacuaae”
oiio eee eiiio eeoeo aaaeaoue eaeei-eeai “aeaeii” eee io?aneueth
oi?aaeaiey. Aio aea eae niaoeeaeenoo a ii?aaeae?iiie io?anee ii?o/aeny,
iaaei iieaaaoue, e ?acai? nii?ia e aeae, naycaiiuo n yoie io?aneueth.

Noaouey 2 Noaeaaieea onoaiaaeeaaao iaee/ea ii?aaeae?iiie
iiaenoaeiinoe aeey ?aciiai ?iaea aeae: “… e oiio aai iineaoe, eioi?iio
eioi?ua ethaee i?eeacaiu aaaeaoe”. Auneacaiiia E.A. *a?aiieiui iiaiea ia
ionoonoaee a ia?eiae Noaeaaieea i?eeaciie nenoaiu aucuaaao aic?aaeaiea.
Niaeanii oieeiaaieth E.A. *a?aiieia, aii?in i iacia/aiee noaeuee aeey
?acai?a oiai eee eiiai aeaea eaaeaeue ?ac ?aoaaony, “i?eeacuaaaony”
aaeeeei eiycai.

Iaeiaei oaeno no. 2 – “A eaeia aeaeiaiee e aiy?eio i?eeaeao, e aio
aeaeiaieeia io naaa ia ionueaoe, a aeaaaoe anaiue aeaeiaieeii oi?aaa a
anaiue, eioi?uiue i?eaiaea; a eioi?iai aeaeiaieea a iai?eaiaea oi?aaeoe,
e oi neacaoe aaeeeiio eiycth, eee e oiio aai iineaoe, eioi?iio eioi?ua
ethaee i?eeacaiu aaaeaoe” – iicaieyao naeaeaoue eiua auaiaeu. Ec yoiai
oaenoa aeaeii, /oi aiy?ei eee ia?auaaony e aaeeeiio eiycth ca
?acuyniaieai, eiaaea ia ciaao, eae ?aoeoue aeaei, eee aea nai aiy?ei, a
ia aaeeeee eiycue, iai?aaeyao i?eoaaeoaai e oiio /aeiaaeo, eioi?iio
i?eeacaii aaaeaoue yoeie aeaeaie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, oaea ai a?aiaia
Noaeaaieea 1497 a. ioaeaeueiua io?anee oi?aaeaiey auee “i?eeacaiu”
ii?aaeae?iiui ethaeyi.

Aea e o?oaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi aaeeeee eiycue iacia/ae,
“i?eeacuaae” noaeae ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo. Aieaa aa?iyoii, /oi e aaeeeiio
eiycth ia?auaeenue a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea aeaiiia aeaei ia ioiineeinue e
/eneo “i?eeacaiiuo” io?aneae eee nai aeaeiauee i?inee eiiai noaeueth.
Yoi i?aaeiieiaeaiea iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony iaee/eai a oio ia?eiae “aeaiiuo
noaeae”, oi anoue niaoeeaeueii iacia/aiiuo aunoae aeanoueth aeey
?anniio?aiey ii?aaeae?iiiai aeaea. E anee aaeeeee eiycue iia ia?aaeaoue,
“i?eeacaoue” ?anniio?aiea oiai eee eiiai aeaea ii naiaio oniio?aieth,
iiaeao auoue, aeaaea ecuya aeaei o oiai eeoea, eioi?iio “i?eeacaia”
aeaiiay io?aneue oi?aaeaiey, oi yoi ieeiei ia?acii ia eneeth/aao iaee/ey
ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae, eioi?ui auei i?eeacaii aaaeaoue oie eee eiie
io?aneueth. Eiaiii yoa neeaaeuaathuayny oiaaea nenoaia i?eeacia e
naeaeaea aiciiaeiui iiyaeaiea niaoeeaeueiuo noaeaaiuo i?eeacia –
Oieiiueaai, ?acaieiiai, Iiianoiiai, Noaeaaiiai.

Ia ianoao noaeaaiay aeanoue i?eiaaeeaaeaea iaianoieeai e aieinoaeyi.

Iaianoiee noaaeeny “ia ianoi eiycy” aeey inouanoaeaiey oi?aaeaiey e
noaea iau/ii ia oa??eoi?ee ai?iaea n oacaeii. A aieinoyo (/anoyo oacaea)
ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey e noaea inouanoaeyee aieinoaee. Iaianoieee e
aieinoaee iacia/aeenue eiycai ec aiy? ia ii?aaeae?iiue n?ie, iau/ii ia
aiae, e iaoiaeeeenue ia niaea?aeaiee ianaeaiey, eioi?ia i?aaeinoaaeyei
ei oae iacuaaaiue “ei?i”. Ionthaea iie e iieo/eee iacaaiea
“ei?ieaiueeia”. Iiieii iaianoieeia e aieinoaeae a Iineaa e Iineianeeo
aieinoyo auee “oeoiu ainoaea?aau”, oaeaea iieueciaaaoeany i?aaii noaea e
oi?aaeaiey e niae?aaoea aeioiae n iaianoie/ueaai e naiaai noaea a
iieueco ainoaea?y, a a ae?oaeo ianoiinoyo – oeoiu aiy?neea,
ia?aaeaaaaoea aeioiae n noaea naiaio aiy?eio. Anee a iaeio ianoiinoue
iinueaeny ia iaeei, a aeaa eee ianeieueei iaianoieeia e aieinoaeae, oi
iie aeaeeee nai? ei?ieaiea ii?iaio (no. 65).

No?aieaiea Noaeaaieea oeaio?aeeciaaoue noaeaaiue aiia?ao iniaaiii
y?ei neacaeinue i?e ii?aaeaeaiee i?aa iaianoie/ueaai noaea.

Noaeaaiee 1497 a. onoaiaaeeaaao 2 aeaea ei?ieaiee: ei?ieaiea aac
aiy?neiai noaea e ei?ieaiea n aiy?neei noaeii. Iaianoieee e aieinoaee,
aea?aeaaoea ei?ieaiea n aiy?neei noaeii, eiaee i?aai ieii/aoaeueiiai
?aoaiey ?yaea iaeaieaa aaaeiuo aeae (i oieiiao, oaoyo, ?acaieieeao).
Iaianoieee e aieinoaee, aea?aeaaoea ei?ieaiea aac aiy?neiai noaea, a
oaeaea ainoaea?aau e aiy?neea oeoiu ia eiaee i?aaa ieii/aoaeueiiai noaea
ii yoei aeaeai e iaycaiu auee aeieeaaeuaaoue nai? ?aoaiea ia
ooaa?aeaeaiea auoanoiyuaai noaea (no. no. 20, 41, 43); ia iiaee aeaaaoue
aaaeua a?aiiou – aeieoiaiou ia i?aai aica?auaiey aaaeiai oieiia aai
aeaaeaeueoeo.

Auoanoiyuae einoaioeeae aeey ei?ieaiueea aac aiy?neiai noaea auea
Aiy?neay aeoia, aeey ainoaea?aauo oeoiia – aaeeeee eiycue, aeey oeoiia
aiy?neeo – niioaaonoaothuee iaianoiee n aiy?neei noaeii.

Iiieii ecuyoey o ei?ieaiueeia aac aiy?neiai noaea iaeaieaa aaaeiuo
aeae Noaeaaiee onoaiaaeeaae eiio?ieue e ca ei?ieaiueeaie n aiy?neei
noaeii ni noi?iiu aeai?neiai, noa?inou e “aeia?uo”, “eo/oeo” ethaeae,
o.a. i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaeaieaa caaeeoi/iiai ianoiiai ianaeaiey (no. 38).
Eiiiaoaioeey ei?ieaiueeia ii?aaeaeyeanue aeaeiaaiiuie a?aiioaie e no. 38
Noaeaaieea.

2. Aeooiaiua noaeu

Aeooiaiua noaeu iiae?acaeaeyeenue a naith i/a?aaeue ia noaeu
aieneiiia, aaea noaeue?e aue aieneii eee iacia/aiiua ei iaianoieee, e
noaeu iiianou?neea, aaea noaeue?e aue eaoiai eee iacia/aiiua ei
“i?eeacueee”. Oae aea, eae e ei?ieaiueee, aieneiiu e eaoiaiu iieo/aee
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea n iiaenoaeiiai ei ianaeaiey.

Aaaeaieth aeooiaiuo noaeia iiaeeaaeaei aeooiaainoai, e?anoueyia,
iaoiaeyueany a ?anii?yaeaiee oea?eiaiuo e iiianou?neeo oaiaeaeia, a
oaeaea ethaee, ieoathueany ca n/?o oea?eae (aaeiau, no?ie – eeoea n
i?e?iaeae?iiuie iaaeinoaoeaie, iau/ii aeeaoea ca n/?o oea?eae) (no. 59).
E aaaeaieth aeooiaiuo noaeia ioiineeny oaeaea ?acai? a?a/iuo e naiaeiuo
aeae, ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ?iaeeoaeyie e aeaoueie, aeae i ianeaaenoaa.

Ec iiaenoaeiinoe aeooiaiuo noaeia ecuiaeenue:

1) iaeaieaa aaaeiua oaieiaiua aeaea – “aeooaaoanoai” e “?acaie n
iiee/iui”, oioy au e niaa?o?iiua eeoeaie, iiaenoaeiuie aeooiaiiio noaeo,
oae eae ?anniio?aiea yoeo aeae yaeyeinue eneeth/eoaeueiie eiiiaoaioeeae
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia;

2) aeaea, niaa?o?iiua eeoeaie, iiaeeaaeaueie ?aciie iiaenoaeiinoe.
Iai?eia?, nii?u iaaeaeo e?anoueyiaie e neoaaie aeooiaiuo e naaoneeo
oaiaeaeia eee e?anoueyiaie e neoaaie, i?eiaaeeaaeaueie ?aciui oaiaeaeai,
?acae?aeenue oae iacuaaaiui “nianoiui noaeii”.

“Nianoiie”, eee “aii/ae” noae ninoiye ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaieo
noaeia, eioi?ui iiaenoaeiu nii?yuea. Iai?eia?, a ?acai?a nii?ia iaaeaeo
e?anoueyiaie aeooiaiuo e naaoneeo oaiaeaeia o/anoaiaaee i?aaenoaaeoaee
io aeooiaiiai e naaoneiai noaeia. “…A aoaeao i?inoie /aeiaae n
oea?eiaiui, eii noae aii/ae…” (no. 59).

I?aaeaeu aeanoe aeooiaiuo e naaoneeo oaiaeaeia iaae iiaeaeanoiui ei
ianaeaieai onoaiaaeeaaeenue oa?oaiiuie e eiioieoaoiuie a?aiioaie,
aeaeoaiuie oaiaeaeai aaeeeei e oaeaeueiuie eiycueyie. Oae, a aeaeiaaiiie
a?aiioa Caaieai?iaeneiai eiycy TH?ey Aeeieo?eaae/a Naaai-Noi?iaeaaneiio
iiianou?th io 1404 a. aiai?eony: “…a aaaeaao eaoiai Naaaa nai naie
ethaee ai anao aeaeao e noaeeo nai ai anai, eee eiio eaoiai i?eeaaeao,
ii?e/a aeooaaoanoaa”.

3. Aio/eiiua e iiiaue/uee noaeu

Noae iiiaueeia e aio/eiieeia, eiiiaoaioeey eioi?iai ii?aaeaeyeanue,
eae e noaeu aeooiaiuo oaiaeaeia, eiioieoaoiuie a?aiioaie,
?ani?ino?aiyeny ia e?anoueyi e neoa aiy? e iiiaueeia.

Ec aaaeaiey iiiaue/ueaai e aio/eiiiai noaea oae aea, eae e noaea
aeooiaiiai, ecuiaeenue iaeaieaa aaaeiua oaieiaiua aeaea – ?acaie n
iiee/iui e aeooaaoanoai, ?anniao?eaaaiua eeoue ainoaea?noaaiiuie
noaeaaiuie i?aaiaie, e nii?u n eeoeaie eiie iiaenoaeiinoe,
iiaeeaaeaaoeie “nianoiiio” noaeo.

Noae iaae /a?iioyaeuie e?anoueyiaie inouanoaeyeny aua?aiiui eie
noaeue?e, oae iacuaaaiui neaaiae/eeii, eioi?iio auee iiaenoaeiu ana
nii?u iaaeaeo /a?iioyaeuie e?anoueyiaie, n ecuyoeai oao aea aeae, /oi e
aeey noaea aeooiaiuo e naaoneeo oaiaeaeia.

A aio/eiiii noaea oae aea, eae e a noaea ainoaea?noaaiiii, aeaea
?acae?aeenue a i?enoonoaee “eo/oeo” i?aaenoaaeoaeae ianoiiai ianaeaiey –
nioneeo, noa?ino, noaeiuo ioaeae.

Aunoae einoaioeeae aeey aio/eiiiai noaea auee ainoaea?noaaiiua
noaeaaiua i?aaiu.

Ecuyoea ec eiiiaoaioeee aio/eiiiai noaea iaeaieaa aaaeiuo aeae e
iiae/eiaiea aio/eiiiai noaea ainoaea?noaaiiui noaeaaiui i?aaiai eae
auoanoiyuae einoaioeee icia/aee oeaio?aeecaoeeth noaeaaiiai aiia?aoa.

2.6. Iniiaiua /a?ou noaeii?iecaiaenoaa

Oeaio?aeecaoeey noaeaaiiai aiia?aoa e iiae/eiaiea aai
aaeeeieiyaeaneie aeanoe i?iyaeeenue ia oieueei a iaeioi?ii ia?aie/aiee
eiiiaoaioeee noaea aiy? ia ianoao, eiio?iea ca ieie ni noi?iiu ianoiuo
aeanoae e iiae/eiaiee eo auoanoiyuei oeaio?aeueiui i?aaiai, ii e a
onoaiiaeaiee niaoeeaeueiuo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe ii ioi?aaeaieth
i?aainoaeey.

Noaeaaiee 1497 a. ciaao oeaeue ooao noaeaaiuo ?aaioieeia. Yoe eeoea
iacuaaeenue iaaeaeueueeaie eee acaeieaie a Iineaa e aeiaiae/eeaie – a
i?iaeioeee. Iie niiauaee noi?iiai i ianoa e a?aiaie ?anniio?aiey aeaea,
iiiiaaee noaeo e noi?iiai i?eaeaeaoue iaaeiyaiuo e noaeo (?acuneeaaee, a
iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo a?anoiauaaee e aeinoaaeyee a noae), aeiauaaee
aeieacaoaeuenoaa e aeiaeaaeenue i?eciaiey iaaeiyaiuo, eniieuecoy iuoeo;
i?aaieciauaaee “iiea”, eniieiyee ?aoaiea noaea. Iaeiaiiaaiea nai? iie
iieo/eee iioiio, /oi iie niaiyeenue ii iaaeaeyi.

Ii ii?aaeaeaieth Aa?aa?ooaeia, “Iaaeaeueuee anoue aei ecaanoiie
noaiaie iauay aeieaeiinoue aeey oao, eoi cia?o ethaeae ia noae, oaaoaao
ceiaeaaa e aea?aeeo eo a oth?ueiao; e Iaaeaeueueee i?eiaaeeaaeao e /eneo
aeaai?iaeiuo”. Iaaeaeueueee iiaee aeaaaoueny noaeii ii i?inueaa enooea
aeey iiiiue aio a iouneaiee ioaao/eea e iaania/aiey aai yaee a noae.
Inoaiaaeeaaynue ia yoii ianoa, Aa?aa?ooaei ienae: “Anyeee aeaeathuee
iaaeieoue ae?oaiai a ai?ianoaa, a?aaaaea eee oaeenoaa, ioi?aaeyaony a
Iineao e i?ineo iicaaoue oaeiai-oi ia noae. Aio aea?ony Iaaeaeueuee,
eioi?ue iacia/aao n?ie aeiiaiiio e i?eaiceo aai a Iineao”.

Yoe naaaeaiey iiaeoaa?aeaeathony enoi?e/aneeie aeaiiuie. Oae, i?aaay
a?aiioa 1529 a. ieo?iiiee/ueae eaoaae?a oiiieiaao iaaeaeueueea Aeaieeo
O?ioeiiaa, eioi?ue aeinoaaeye ia noae ioaao/eeia e “i?aaee” ia ieo
“enooeia ene”.

Ca ioi?aaeaiea naieo iaycaiiinoae iaaeaeueuee iieo/ae
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea io caeioa?aniaaiiie noi?iiu. Ca ?icune ioaao/eea e
a?o/aiea aio i?enoaaiie eee n?i/iie a?aiiou eee iacia/aiea ii?o/eoaeae
ca iaai a i?aaeaeao iaeiiai ai?iaea iaaeaeueuee iieo/ae
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, eiaioaiia “oiaeaiui”, a ?acia?a 10 aeaiaa (no. 29).
Anee aeey iouneaiey ioaao/eea iaaeaeueueeo i?eoiaeeeinue auacaeaoue a
ae?oaea ai?iaea, ii iieo/ae “acae”, ?acia? eioi?iai ii?aaeaeyeny
aeaeueiinoueth ?annoiyiey e eieaaaeny io 10 aeoui aei 8 ?oaeae (no. 30).
Ia?yaeo n iouneaieai ioaao/eea iaaeaeueuee iiiiaae noi?iia a iouneaiee
“i?aaaeu”, oi anoue iiiiaae ?anneaaeiaaoue aeaei ia ianoa, nia?aoue
aeieacaoaeuenoaa. A yoii neo/aa ieaoa iaaeaeueueeo oaaee/eaaeanue aaeaia
(no. 29).

Iaeiaei iaaeaeueuee aeaaaeny noi?iia oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee noiia
enea i?aauoaea noieiinoue “acaea”: “A aoaeao a i?enoaaiie ene iaioe
acaeo, e aeeyeo oao i?enoaaiuo ia iiaeienuaaoe” (no. 28). O.i., i?e
iacia/eoaeueiuo eneao, eioi?ua /aua anaai auee ?ani?ino?aiaiu n?aaee
iaeieiouaai eee caaeneiiai ianaeaiey, noae ia ieacuaae iiiiue a
iouneaiee ioaao/eea.

I?aaiecoy noaeaaiua iiaaeeiee, iaaeaeueuee iieo/ae o.i. “ayc/aa”
(“aycaaiia”) (no. no. 5-7) – iaeio ec iaeaieaa ?aiieo iioeei,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo au? a noaouea 114 ?I, ca naycuaaiea aaaeiai oieiia. A
XV-XVI aa. iiae yoei iiieiaeanue iioeeia ca naycuaaiea iiaenoaeeiiai,
iaeiaeaiey ieia ia iaai eee ca iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea caeeth/?iiiai noi?iiaie
niaeaoaiey i noaeaaiii iiaaeeiea e ca aai i?aaiecaoeeth. Ianeieueei
iiaeii noaeeoue ii noaoueyi 4-7 Noaeaaieea, ?acia? yoie iioeeiu a XV-XVI
aa. ninoaaeye 2-4 aeouia.

Iaaeaeueuee aeieaeai aue inouanoaeyoue naie ooieoeee ia oieueei ii
o?aaiaaieth noi?iiu, ii e ii eieoeeaoeaa noaea, eiaaea noae nai /a?ac
naieo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe i?eieiae ia?u e ?icuneo i?anooiieea e
?anneaaeiaaieth aeaea. E yoei neo/ayi, iaaei iieaaaoue, e ioiineony
oa?aeoa?enoeea iaaeaeueueea eae eeoea, eioi?ia “oaaoaao ceiaeaaa e
aea?aeeo eo a oth?ueiao”. Aiciiaeii, /oi iaaeaeueueee niaoeeaeueii
iinueaeenue aeey aueaaeeaaiey “oaoae” – eeoeo ethaeae, ?acaieieeia – a
iaeaieaa ianiieieiua ianoiinoe. Iaaeaeueueeo aea ii?o/aeinue e
?anneaaeiaaiea aeaea, i ?acoeueoaoao /aai ii iaycai aue aeiiineoue
eiycth eee noaeuea.

Iaaeaeueueeai cai?auaeinue a?aoue “iinoeu io noaea eee io ii?oee”, oi
anoue acyoee ni noi?ii ca i?iecaiaenoai noaea eee ii?o/eoaeuenoai,
iiionoeoaeuenoaiaaoue oaoyi, aeey iouneaiey eioi?uo iie auee iineaiu,
ioioneaoue eo eee eiui eaeei ia?acii ?anii?yaeaoueny eie (no. 33-36).
*oiau iiauneoue ioaaonoaaiiinoue iaaeaeueueea, Noaeaaiee cai?auaao
i?aii?o/aoue auiieiaiea iaycaiiinoae iaaeaeueueea iinoi?iiiei iaiyoui
aeey yoiai ethaeyi, aeaeay eneeth/aiea eeoue aeey ?iaenoaaiieeia eee
ethaeae iaaeaeueueeia (no. 31). Yoei iinoaiiaeaieai aeinoeaaeanue
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aeaenoaey iaaeaeueueea anao /eaiia aai oaieeee.

Noaeaaiee 1497 a. aia?aua onoaiaaeeaaao i?aaeei, iaycuaathuaa
noaeueth “…aeaeiaieeia io naaa ia ionueaoe, a aeaaaoe anaiue
aeaeiaieeai oi?aaa a anaiue, eioi?uiue i?eaiaea” (no. 2), a oaeaea
cai?auaao noaeuea a?aoue iinoeu e ?aoaoue aeaea, enoiaey ec ee/iuo
auaiae noaeae: “A noaeii ia inoeoe, ia ae?oaeeoe ieeiio”. Iauyniaiea
yoiai oaeoa, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuaai yeiau i ?aaainoaa noaea aeey anao
eeannia iauanoaa, ii?iaa?aiooi niaaoneeie enoi?eeaie.

Aianoa n oai iaeuecy i?eciaoue i?aaeeueiui iieiaeaiea ii yoiio
aii?ino E.A. *a?aiieia, eioi?ue n/eoaao, /oi o?aaiaaiea Noaeaaieea
“…aeaeiaieeia io naaa ia ionueaoe, a aeaaaoe anaiue aeaeiaieeai oi?aaa
a anaiue, eioi?uiue i?eaiaea” aeaaaei aiciiaeiinoue noaeueyi ai a?aiy
caiaeueiuo oyaea, caueuay caieaaeaaeaeue/aneea iiceoeee oaiaeaeia,
ioeacuaay a enea aaaeouei n ieie nii? ca caieth /??iui e?anoueyiai
eiaiii iioiio, /oi iie naiaa?aiaiii ia eneaee “oi?aau”.

Ai-ia?auo, iao ieeaeeo iniiaaiee iieacuaaoue eeanniaue oa?aeoa? noaea
oieueei ia i?eia?a caiaeueiuo oyaea, oai aieaa, /oi ii?yaeie
?anniio?aiey caiaeueiuo oyaea iniai iaiaa?eaaaony Noaeaaieeii,
niaoeeaeueii onoaiaaeeaathuei n?iee eneiaie aeaaiinoe ii caiaeueiui
oyaeaai n oeaeueth eo ia?aie/aiey.

Ai-aoi?uo, a?yae ee iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi Noaeaaiee
onoaiaaeeaae iaycaiiinoue “oi?aau” oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau eiaoue
aiciiaeiinoue ioeacaoue yenieoaoe?oaiiio a aai enea, ia ?acae?ay aeaea
ii nouanoao. Aeaaea ?acai? aeaea ii nouanoao ia aa?aioe?iaae
yenieoaoe?oaiiio iieo/aiey a noaea “oi?aau”, oaeiaeaoai?aiey naiaai
enea.

O?aaiaaiea Noaeaaieea “aeaaaoue noae anai aeaeiaieeai” iniiauaaaony
ia no?aieaiee ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna nin?aaeioi/eoue ?acai? anao aeae
eiaiii a i?aaiao ainoaea?noaaiiiai noaea, noiyuaai ia no?aaea eioa?ania
ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna, e ia aeiionoeoue ?acai? aeaea ii noa?eiiui
iau/ayi eee ioo?i ia?aaea/e aeaea auai?iiio o?aoaeneiio noaeo.
Iieiaeaiea “i aea/a noaea anyeiio aeaeiaieeo” oeacuaaao e ia oi, /oi a
ioee/ea io ?I, eeoaaoae iaeioi?ua eaoaai?ee ianaeaiey (oieiiia, /anoe/ii
caeoiia) i?aaa ia?auaiey e noaeo, Noaeaaiee 1497 a. i?ecia?o anao, a oii
/enea e oieiiia, noauaeoaie i?aaa, oi anoue iiaoueie eneaoue e ioaa/aoue
ia noaea. Iiieii yoiai, caeioa?aniaaiiinoue noaea a ?acai?a aieueoeinoaa
aeae iauyniyaony e oai ianoiyoaeuenoaii, /oi noaeaaiua iioeeiu neoaeeee
a ecaanoiie ia?a oaaee/aieth aaeeeieiyaeaneiai aeioiaea.

A oeaeyo caueou eeanniauo eioa?ania oaiaeaeia Noaeaaiee cai?aoee
a?aoue acyoee e “inoeoue” eee “ae?oaeeoue” noaeii, eai a neo/aa acyoiai
iinoea eee iniaiai ioiioaiey e noi?iia noaeuey ia?ooae onoaiiaeaiiua
caeiiu, oi anoue aieth ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna.

Aianoa n oai ia?auaiea a noae aeey iaeieiouaai e caaeneiiai ianaeaiey
auei aanueia cao?oaeiaii onoaiiaeaieai oeaeiai ?yaea noaeaaiuo iioeei,
yaeyeinue aanueia aei?iaei oaeiaieuenoaeai. Oae, ii Noaeaaieeo ioaeii
auei ieaoeoue noaeuea-aiy?eio 6 % io oeaiu enea. E?iia oiai, iieaaaeinue
caieaoeoue 4 eiiaeee n ?oaey aeueyeo. Noaeaaiua iioeeiu aceiaeenue ca
ia?auaiea a noae (no. 3), ca ?icune ioaao/eea e iaania/aiea aai yaee a
noae, ca i?iecaiaenoai iaaeaeueueeii ?anneaaeiaaiey ii aeaeo (no. 29),
ca iacia/aiea noaeii n?iea ?acai?a aeaea eee ia?aianaiea aeaea ia
ae?oaie n?ie (no. 26), ca aiciiaeiinoue eneaoue i?aaaeu ia iiea (no. 6).
Iioeeia acuneeaaeanue e a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea noi?iiu “…aeinoaeyony
aei iiey, a o iiey ia noiya, iiie?youeny” (no. 4). Anee aea “iiea”
ninoiyeinue, oi iioeeiu oiea/eaaeenue e?iia aa?eia e aeueyea au? e
niaoeeaeueiui eeoeai, i?aaiecothuei iiaaeeiie (ieieueie/aio, aeueyeo e
iaaeaeueueeo – no. 4-7).

Iiea/eaaeenue noaeaaiie iioeeiie ana aeaeu auaeaaaaoeony noaeii
a?aiio – i?aaay (no. no. 15, 22, 23, 40), aeieeaaeiay (no. no. 16, 24),
aannoaeiay (no. no. 25, 27), ioioneiay (no. no. 17, 18, 40, 42 – a?aiioa
ia ioionea oieiia ia aieth). Aeiiieieoaeueiie iioeeia iiaeeaaeae o.i.
“ia?anoae”, oi anoue iaaeaeiaaiea noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey (no. 64), eee
iai?aaeaiea aeaea “ii aeieeaaeo” a auoanoiyuoth einoaioeeth (no. 24).

?acia? noaeaaiuo iioeei aue oai auoa, /ai auoa auea noaeaaiay
einoaioeey. Ii niaeanii no. 21, iioeeiu n i?iea?aaoaai aeaei a noaea
aaeeeiai eiycy eee “aeaoae aaeeeiai eiycy” ?aaiyeenue iioeeiai a
aiy?neii noaea (n ?oaey ii aeaa aeouia).

I?e ia?auaiee e noaeo iioeeiu aceiaeenue n oie noi?iiu, eioi?ay auea
iaeaieaa caeioa?aniaaia a enoiaea aeaea. Anee noi?iia, ieaoeaoay
iioeeio, auea?uaaea aeaei, iia “eneaea” a? ia aeiiaaoii.

Noaeaaiee 1497 a. niaea?aeeo iiiai /a?o, noiaeiuo n
noaeii?iecaiaenoaii, onoaiiaeaiiui au? ai a?aiaia ?I e iinyuei
ninoycaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Aianoa n oai Noaeaaiee naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
aicieeiiaaiee iiaie oi?iu i?ioeanna. Enneaaeoy aii?in i ainoaea?noaa e
i?aaa oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa, i?ioanni? N.A. THoeia ioia/aao,
/oi oneeaiea eeanniauo i?ioeai?a/ee a Iineianeii eiyaeanoaa a XV a.
i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi i?e iaaeiaiee a niaa?oaiee iaeaieaa na?ue?ciuo
i?anooieaiee i?eiaiyaony neaaenoaaiiay, eee eieaeceoeeiiiay, oi?ia
i?ioeanna, eioi?ay iineea oiaaea iacaaiea nunea eee ?icunea.

?icune ioee/aeny io ninoycaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna oai, /oi nai noae
aicaoaeaeae, a?e e caaa?oae aeaei ii nianoaaiiie eieoeeaoeaa e
eneeth/eoaeueii ii naiaio oniio?aieth. Iiaenoaeeiue aue nei?aa iauaeoii
i?ioeanna. Neaaenoaaiiay oi?ia i?ioeanna a ioee/ea io ninoycaoaeueiie
oi?iu ia i?aaeiieaaaea iaycaoaeueiiai o/anoey noi?ii a noaea e iaee/ey
aeaeiau aeey aicaoaeaeaiey aeaea. I?e yoie oi?ia i?ioeanna
?anneaaeiaaiea oiai eee eiiai aeaea e i?eaea/aiea e ioaaonoaaiiinoe
aeiiaiiai eee iiaeic?aaaaiiai iiaei ia/eiaoueny ii eieoeeaoeaa naiiai
noaea, eioi?ue a oaeii neo/aa yaeyeny enooeii io eiaie ainoaea?noaa.

Aeaea i aeooaaoanoaa, ?acaia, oaoueaa n iiee/iui ni noi?iiu “eeoiai”,
oi anoue iaaeaaiiaae?aeiiai, /aeiaaea eee ethaia “eeoia” aeaei,
iai?aaeaiiia ia iiae?ua aeanoe ainoaea?noaa eee iniia oaiaeaeueiiai
no?iy, iiaeeaaeaee ?anneaaeiaaieth noaea ?icuneiui ii?yaeeii.

Ii?yaeie ?anneaaeiaaiey yoeo aeae oaeaea ioee/aeny io
ninoycaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna. Anee a ninoycaoaeueiii i?ioeanna eieoeeaoeaa
naiiai noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa iaoiaeeeanue a iniiaiii o noi?ii, io
eioi?uo caaenaei i?aaeinoaaeaiea noaeo oao eee eiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa,
aiciiaeiu auee caiaia noi?ii iaeieoaie, ioeac io enea e i?eie?aiea
noi?ii, oi a neaaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna any eieoeeaoeaa iaoiaeeeanue a
?oeao noaea, i?eieiaaoaai ana iaiaoiaeeiua, ii aai iiaieth, ia?u e
?anneaaeiaaieth aeaea. Eneeth/aeanue aiciiaeiinoue caiaiu ioaao/eea
iaeieoii eee i?ae?auaiey aeaea.

Neaaenoaaiiay oi?ia i?ioeanna onoaiaaeeaaeanue ia oieueei ii aeaeai,
?anneaaeiaaiea eioi?uo auei ia/aoi ainoaea?noaii, ii e ii aeaeai ia
iniai iianiuo i?anooieaieyo – ?acaia, oaoueaa, aeooaaoanoaa, ia/aoui ii
eieoeeaoeaa iioa?iaaoae noi?iiu, anee yoe i?anooieaiey niaa?oaiu “eeoeie
ethaeueie” eee i?aaenoaaeytho iniaoth iianiinoue aeey ainiiaenoaothuaai
eeanna. I?e ?anniio?aiee yoeo aeae i?eiaiyeanue eiay nenoaia
aeieacaoaeuenoa e auea eneeth/aia aiciiaeiinoue ieii/aiey aeaea
i?eie?aieai noi?ii.

1. Ninoycaoaeueiue i?ioeann

Noi?iiaie a i?ioeanna iiaee auoue ana – io iaeieaoieo aei oieiiia
aeeth/eoaeueii. I?e/?i iineaaeiea iiaee aunooiaoue eeai io naiaai eiaie,
eeai a ea/anoaa iaeieoia ca naiaai ainiiaeeia eee iaiyaoeo eo eeoe.
Noi?iia a neo/aa iaaiciiaeiinoe o/anoaiaaoue a i?ioeanna ee/ii
i?aaeinoaaeyeinue i?aai aunoaaeoue ca naay iaeieoa (no. 52). Noi?iiu e
iineooe iiaee “i/enoeoue naay i?enyaie”, a aeey iaeieoia auei
iaycaoaeueii “iiea”: “A enooeai eee iineooo oeaeiaaoe, a iaeieoii
aeoeny…” (no. 52).

Yoei-oi e iauyniyaony oio oaeo, /oi a ea/anoaa iaeieoia /anoi
aunooiaee oieiiu naieo ainiiae. Iiaeii iieaaaoue, /oi ia?yaeo n caiaiie
noi?iiu iaeieoii aeiioneaeinue o/anoea ia noaea ?iaenoaaiieeia noi?ii –
iooea ca nuia, nuia ca iooea, a?aoa ca a?aoa, ieaiyiieea ca aeyaeth,
ioaea ca aeaio. Noi?iia, aicaoaeaeaaoay aeaei, eiaiiaaeanue: “euay”,
“aeaeiaiee”, “/aeiaeo/ee”, noi?iia iaaeiyaiay – “ioaao/ee”.

Aeaei ia/eiaeinue ii aeaeiaa enooea, oae iacuaaaiie “/aeiaeoiie”,
eioi?ay eceaaaea i?aaeiao nii?a e, eae i?aaeei, auea neiaaniie. Ii
iieo/aiee /aeiaeoiie noae iacia/ae noaeueth, auaeaaae i?enoaao, oi anoue
eeoeo, a iaycaiiinoue eioi?iai aoiaeeea aeinoaaea noi?ii a noae, iniaoth
“i?enoaaioth a?aiioo”, a eioi?ie oeacuaaeanue oeaia enea e aai
iniiaaiey. Iiieii “i?enoaaiie”, aeaaaeanue “n?i/iay” a?aiioa, eioi?oth
iaaeaeueuee iaycai aue a?o/eoue noi?iiai e eeai nianoaaiii?o/ii
aeinoaaeoue ioaao/eea a noae, eeai acyoue aai ia ii?oee (no. 36, 37).
Ii?o/eoaee iaania/eaaee yaeo ioaao/eea a noae e a neo/aa
iai?aaenoaaeaiey aai noaeo iiea/eaaee ana noaeaaiua iioeeiu e oo?ao. Iie
aea ioaa/aee e ca iaeniieiaiea ioaao/eeii iaeiaeaiiiai ia iaai
acuneaiey.

Noi?iiu iaycaiu auee yaeoueny ia noae a n?ie, oeacaiiue a n?i/iie
a?aiioa. N?ie iiaeii auei “ioienaoue”, oi anoue ion?i/eoue,
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii niiauea ia yoii e oieaoea aeiiieieoaeueioth iioeeio, a
oaeaea oiaeaiia eee acae (no. 26). Anee e ioaao/ee, e enoaoe iaa aeaeaee
“ioienaoue” n?ie, oi iie ieaoeee ii?iaio ii iieiaeia io yoie iioeeiu e
io oiaeaiiai.

Iayaea ioaao/eea a noae a iacia/aiiue n?ie aeaeea ca niaie i?eciaiea
aai aeiiaiui aac ?acai?a aeaea e auaea/o enooeo ia ainueiie aeaiue oae
iacuaaaiie “aannoaeiie a?aiiou” (no. no. 25, 27). Iayaea enooea aeaeea
i?ae?auaiea aeaea. Iiaea/a aeaeiau ia ia?aie/eaaeanue eaeei-eeai n?ieii,
ca eneeth/aieai nii?ia i caiea. Iiaeaaaoue ene i caiea iiaeii auei
oieueei a oa/aiea ii?aaeae?iiiai n?iea: io o??o aei oanoe eao.
O??oaiaee/iay eneiaay aeaaiinoue, oi anoue i?aai oieueei a oa/aiea yoiai
n?iea ia?auaoueny a noae, onoaiaaeeaaeanue ii eneai caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa
ae?oa e ae?oao. “A acuuao aiy?ei ia aiy?eia, eee iiianou?ue ia
iiianou?a, eee aiy?neie ia iiianou?a, eee iiianou?neie ia aiy?eia, eii
noaeeoe ca o?e aiaeu, a aeaea o?ao aiaeia ia noaeeoe” (no. 63).

Enneaaeoy aii?in ia eneiaie aeaaiinoe ii caiaeueiui nii?ai, i?ioanni?
N.A. THoeia iauyniyao aaaaeaiea 3-eaoiaai n?iea oai, /oi
“…eniieueciaaiea caiee a oa/aiea naaiiai?ioa (o??oeaoiaai) yaeyaony
oaeoii, a aeinoaoi/iie noaiaie naeaeaoaeuenoaothuei i iieiii
oicyenoaaiiii iaeaaeaiee aeaiiiai o/anoea”.

N?ie eneiaie aeaaiinoe ii caiaeueiui nii?ai oaaee/eaaeny aei 6 eao,
anee ene cao?aaeaae aaeeeieiyaeaneea caiee. “A acuuoo ia aiy?eia eee ia
iiianou?e aaeeeiai eiycy caiee, eii noaeeoe ca oanoue eao, a aeaeaa ia
noaeeoue” (no. 63). Oaaee/aiea n?iea eneiaie aeaaiinoe a yoii neo/aa a
?aaioa E.A. *a?aiieia iauyniyaony oai, /oi “iniiaiay ianna ia?ac?ao?iiuo
noaeaaiuo oyaea eanaeanue, eae iieacuaatho i?aaua a?aiiou, eiaiii
caiaeue aaeeeieiyaeaneeo e?anoueyi, caoaa/aiiuo e?oiiuie oaiaeaeaie –
aiy?aie e iiianou?yie. Eiaiii ii yoie eeiee oea, aeaaiui ia?acii,
ai?ueaa ca caieth. Ionthaea – ianeieueei iiauoaiiue n?ie aeaaiinoe a
ioiioaiee eiaiii yoie eaoaai?ee aeae”.

A neo/aa iiaea/e enea n?ie eneiaie aeaaiinoe i?einoaiaaeeaaeny, a
caiee aei ?ac?aoaiey nii?iiai aii?ina noaeii ia?aaeaaaeenue iiae
iaaethaeaiea i?enoaaa, eioi?ue aeieaeai aue neaaeeoue ca oai, /oiau yoe
caiee ia iiaeaa?aaeenue caoaaoai e iaacaeai. “A eioi?ua caiee ca
i?enoaaii a noaea, e oa caiee aeinoaeeaaoe” (no. 63). Yoe nii?iua caiee
iaoiaeeeenue a?aiaiii a ?anii?yaeaiee aaeeeiai eiycy e /anoi
ioaeaaaeenue aeey ia?aaioee eo oie eee eiie noi?iia aei ?acai?a aeaea.

I?ioeann iinee ninoycaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?, i?e eioi?ii iaa noi?iiu
n/eoaeenue enooeaie.

Aeaeu aeieacaoaeuenoa auee neaaeothuea: 1) nianoaaiiia i?eciaiea; 2)
iieacaiey naeaeaoaeae; 3) “iiea”; 4) i?enyaa; 5) ae?aaee; 6) ienueiaiiua
aeieacaoaeuenoaa.

Nianoaaiiia i?eciaiea i?aaeoniao?eaaei aiciiaeiinoue i?eciaiey eee
ioeaca io anaai eee io /anoe enea e iiaei i?iecieoe ia ethaie noaaeee
?anniio?aiey aeaea. A neo/aa iieiiai i?eciaiey enea noaeaaiia
?acae?aoaeuenoai i?ae?auaeinue (no. no. 4, 5, 53).

Naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey eiaiiaaeenue iineooanoaii. Noaeaaiee 1497
a., a ioee/ea io ?I, ia ?acaeaeyao naeaeaoaeae ia iineooia – naeaeaoaeae
aeia?ie neaau – e aeaeieia – iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo i/aaeaeoeaa. Ii
Noaeaaieeo iineoo yaeyaony naeaeaoaeai oaeoa, i/aaeaeoeai: “…a
iineooii ia aeaeaa ia iineooanoaiaaoe…”(no. 67). Iineooaie iiaee auoue
ana, a oii /enea e oieiiu. Iaeiaei iieacaiey naeaeaoaeae ?anoeaieaaeenue
a caaeneiinoe io eo nioeeaeueiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe. “Naeaeaoaeuenoai
iaeiiai /aeiaaea ec aeaai?iaeiiai nineiaey, – ioia/ae Aa?aa?ooaei, –
cia/eo aieaa, /ai naeaeaoaeuenoai iiiaeo ethaeae ieceaai ninoiyiey”.

Iaeaieaa /anoi iineooaie, iniaaiii ii caiaeueiui nii?ai, yaeyeenue
noa?iaeeeueoeu, eiaioaiua oaeaea “ciaoa?yie”. Yoi auee noa?ua ethaee,
eioi?ua iiaee neacaoue noaeuea: “yc, ainiiaeeia, iiiith ca naiaeanyo,
eee iyoueaeanyo eao”, eiathuea ?aiooaoeeth “aeia?uo”, oi anoue
aeaaiiaae?aeiuo, ethaeae e ciathuea ana iiae?iaiinoe aeaiiie caiaeueiie
oyaeau. Iineooaie iiaee auoue oaeaea i?aaeiea aeaaeaeueoeu nii?iiai
eiouanoaa, ninoaaeoaee ienueiaiiuo aeieoiaioia, aeueyee e aeieaeiinoiua
eeoea – ?acuacaeiua ioaee, “ioaiae/eee” (eeoea, o/anoaiaaaoea a ioaiaea
caiaeue) e aeaaea naie noaeuee. A ioee/ea io noi?ii iineooe ia iiaee
caiaieoue naay iaeieoii: “…a iineooo iaeieoa iao” (no. 49).

ssaea iineooia a noae auea iaycaoaeueia. A neo/aa iayaee ene e ana
oauoee e iioeeiu ia?aeeaaeuaaeenue ia iineooa: “A iineoo ia iieae?o
ia?aae noaeueth, ano ee ca iei ?a/e, iao ee, eii ia oii iineona enoeiai
e oauoee e ana iioeeiu acyoe” (no. 50). Anee iayaea iineooa i?iecioea
ec-ca iaaa?ii oeacaiiiai i?enoaaii n?iea, iineoo iia eneaoue naie oauoee
n i?enoaaa /a?ac noae: “A n i?aaao/eeii i n?ioea oiio iineooo noae” (no.
50). Eiaeiua iieacaiey iineooa, iaia?oaeeaoeany iinea noaeaaiiai
?acae?aoaeuenoaa, aeaeee ca niaie iaycaiiinoue oieaou iineooii noi?iia
noiiu enea e anao iiian?iiuo ath oauoeia: “a iineooii ia aeaeaa ia
iineooanoaiaaoe, a aeaeaaoe neacaoue i?aaaeo. A iineooanoaoao iineoo
eaeeai, ia aeaeaa, a iauuaony oi iiinea, eii ia oii iineooa aeaaeue
enoeiaa any e n oauoee” (no. 67).

Iaiiaeoaa?aeaeaiea iineooii iaycaoaeuenoa, i?eaaae?iiuo enooeii,
eeoaei enooea i?aaa ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea enea: “A iineoo ia aiai?eo ia?aae
noaeeyie a unoeaau ?a/e, e enoaoeue oai e aeiiaao” (no. 51).

Naeaeaoaee aeieaeiu auoue “aeia?uie ethaeueie”, oi anoue
iieuecothueieny ?aiooaoeeae aeaaiiaae?aeiiai /aeiaaea. Ia yoii ynii
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho noaouee Noaeaaieea, ?aaoee?othuea nii?u ii aeiaiai?ai
eoiee-i?iaeaaee. “A eoi eoieo ia oi?ao /oi iiai, ii?i/a eioaaee, a o
eiai eoieo, ia ciay aai, a aoaeao ethaeai aeia?ui aeaaia eee o?ai
aaaeiii e iieiathony o iaai, e oa ethaee aeia?ua neaaeoo ii i?aao, /oi
ia?aae ieie eoiee a oi?ao, eii oio i?aa, o eiai iieiaeenue e oeaeiaaiea
aio iao” (no. 46).

“Iiea” icia/aei iiaaeeiie noi?ii. Ii naeaeaoaeuenoao Aa?aa?ooaeia,
“iieai” iiaee caiaiyoueny naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey. “Anee enoaoe
i?eaiaeeo naeaeaoaeae, oiaaea ni?aoeaatho iaa noi?iiu, aeaeatho ee iie
iieiaeeoueny ia eo neiaa. Iaueiiaaiii ia yoi ioaa/atho: “Ionoue
naeaeaoaee aoaeoo auneooaiu ii ni?aaaaeeeainoe e ii iau/ath”. Anee iie
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i?ioea iaaeiyaiiai, oi iaaeiyaiue oio/an anooiaaony e
aic?aaeaao i?ioea naeaeaoaeuenoa e naieo eeoe, aiai?y: “O?aaoth, /oiau
iia iacia/aia auea i?enyaa e aaa?yth naay Aiaeeae i?aaaea, o?aaoth iiey
e iiaaeeiea”. E oaeei ia?acii, ii ioa/anoaaiiiio iau/ath, ei iacia/aaony
iiaaeeiie” (no?. 83). Ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao e noaouey 48 Noaeaaieea.

Ia noaeaaiue iiaaeeiie noi?iiu “iiaoo aunoaaeoue aianoi naay …
eaeia oaiaeii ae?oaia eeoei, oi/ii oae aea … iiaoo caianoenue eaeei
oaiaeii i?oaeeai, ca eneeth/aieai ieuaee e eoea. Iaueiiaaiii iie eiatho
i?iaeieaiaaoua eaou, eiiaaea aeaieiua, eieue/oao, ia?o/e, oeai, eiiue?,
oiii? e eaeia-oi aeaeaci a ?oea iaiiaeiaea eeiaeaea, iaeiaei caino??iiia
n oiai e ae?oaiai e?ath, iie aea?aeao aai iaeiie ?oeie e oiio?aaeyao oae
eiaei, /oi i?e eaeii oaiaeii noieeiiaaiee iii ia i?aiyonoaoao e ia
auiaaeaao ec ?oee. Ii ii aieueoae /anoe aai oiio?aaeytho a iaoai aith”
(no?. 84).

Iiaaeeiie, eee, ii oa?ieiieiaee Noaeaaieea, iiea, iacia/aeny oieueei
ii ee/iui eneai, ia cao?aaeaathuei eioa?ania ainoaea?noaa. O/anoea ia
iiea auei iaycaoaeueii aeey iaaeo noi?ii eeai ee/ii, eeai /a?ac
iaeieoia. Ioeac io iiey ?anniao?eaaeny eae i?eciaiea aeiu. Aith
i?aaeoanoaiaaei e?anoiia oeaeiaaiea iaaeo noi?ii, aeaaea anee aeeanue ia
naia noi?iia, a iaeieo.

Iiaaeeiie i?ioiaeee a i?enoonoaee aeia?iaeaeaoaeae e ae?ocae iaaeo
noi?ii, “…eioi?ua niio?yo ia iiaaeeiie, ia eiay i?e naaa ieeaeiai
i?oaeey, e?iia aeoaei, eioi?uie iie io a?aiaie aei a?aiaie e
iieuecothony. Eai, anee aeia?iaeaeaoaee iaeiiai ec aieoeia oaeaeyo, /oi
aio aeaeaaony eaeay-ieaoaeue iaeaea, oi oio/an aaaoo aeey io?aaeaiey
yoie iaeaeu; oiaea aeaeaao e ae?oaay noi?iia, – e oaeei ia?acii iaaeaeo
ieie i?ienoiaeeo noaaoea, eioa?aniay aeey c?eoaeae, iioiio /oi aea?oony
a iioaniaeo, eoeaeaie, aaoiaaie e aeoaeiaie n iaicaeaiiui eiioeii” (no?.
84).

Aeey iaania/aiey ii?yaeea i?e ?ac?aoaiee nii?a iieai iiaaeeiie
aeieaeai aue i?ioiaeeoue a i?enoonoaee ii?aaeae?iiuo eeoe – no?yi/eo e
ii?o/ieeia, eioi?ui ?ac?aoaeinue a ioee/ea io “ii?e/iuo”, oi anoue
iinoi?iiieo, noiyoue o iiey, iaeiaei aac i?oaeee aiy (“…a aeiniaoo e
aeoaei e ineiiia … o naay ia aea?aeaoe”). No?yi/eo e ii?o/ieeia
i?eaiaeeee naie noi?iiu. Iaaethaeaiea ca iiaaeeieii aaee ieieueie/ee e
aeueye (no. 68).

Iiaaaeae?iiay ia iiaaeeiea noi?iia oiea/eaaea ene, noaeiua e iieaaua
iioeeiu, ioaeaaaea ieieueie/aio naie aeiniao e auea “a eacie e a
i?iaeaaee” io noaeuee (no. 7). Oaeia aea acuneaiea neaaeiaaei, anee
noi?iia ia yaeyeanue ia “iiea” eee oaaaaea n iaai.

Iaeiaei “iiea” eae aeieacaoaeuenoai, ia iiaouaa io?aieoue eioa?anu
ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna, aeiioneaeinue oieueei a eneeth/eoaeueiuo
neo/ayo, eiaaea ia auei aiciiaeiinoe ?acia?aoue aeaei i?e iiiiue ae?oaeo
aeieacaoaeuenoa.

No?aieaiea ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna ia?aie/eoue i?eiaiaiea “iiey”
i?iyaeyaony au? aei Noaeaaieea 1497 a. Oae, a 1410 a. ieo?iiieeo Oioee
ienae iiaai?iaeneiio aeooiaainoao, /oiau nayuaiieee ia i?e/auaee eaeoueo
ia iiea e ia oi?iieee oaeouo. Oaeaoee naiaai i?ioeaieea eae aeooaaoaaoe
“a oea?eiaue ia aoiaeeo, ie aea?u ia i?eaieao, ie Aiai?iaeeoeuia oeaaa,
i?e/auaiey ae nayoiai ia i?eeieao iniiaaeoeaoue eao”. Nayuaiiee,
i?e/anoeaoee eee ioiaaoee “iieueueea” (o/anoieea iiey), eeoaeny
nayuainoaa.

Noaeaaiee i?aaeoniao?eaae aiciiaeiinoue caiaiu iiey i?enyaie (no.
48). Iinoaiaiii e na?aaeeia XVI a. “iiea” ieii/aoaeueii niaiyaony
e?anoiui oeaeiaaieai (i?enyaie). I?enyaa, eae e “iiea” i?eiaiyeanue i?e
ionoonoaee ae?oaeo, aieaa aeinoiaa?iuo aeaeia aeieacaoaeuenoa.
Ia?aiia/aeueii iia ninoaaeyea /anoue “iiey”, ii iinoaiaiii noaea
i?eiaiyoueny eae naiinoiyoaeueiia aeieacaoaeuenoai. Aieueoae /anoueth
i?enyaa oiio?aaeyeanue i?e nii?ao iaaeaeo eiicaiiuie oi?aiaoeaie, eiaaea
ia auei naeaeaoaeae aeiaiai?a (iieiaeaiey, ecaanoiua au? ?I). “A eioi?ie
/thaeicaiaoe ia /thaeicaioea /aai acuuao, eii oiai aiey, ia eii euoo,
oi/ao iooeaeoaony, /oi a oii ia aeiiaao, eee o e?anoa iieiaeeo /aai ia
i?i euoo, e enoaoe, iioeaeiaaa e?ano, aea aiciao” (no. 58).

A caaeneiinoe io oiai, eoi i?eiinee i?enyao – enoaoe ee
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao nai? o?aaiaaiea, eee ioaao/ee i?eianaieai i?enyae
i/euaao naay io enea, – ?acee/aeenue i?enyaa iiaeoaa?aeeoaeueiay eee
i/enoeoaeueiay. Aii?in i oii, eiio i?eiineoue i?enyao – enooeo eee
ioaao/eeo – ?aoaeny ae?aaeai. Eae naiinoiyoaeueiia aeieacaoaeuenoai
ae?aaee a Noaeaaieea ia oiiieiaaony.

Ienueiaiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa a?oiiu:
aeiaiai?iua aeou, caeeth/?iiua noi?iiaie, – ca?iiua e neoaeeeua eaaaeu,
?yaeiua, eoi/ea, caeeaaeiua, aeooiaiua, – e aeou ioeoeeaeueiua,
auaeaaaaoeany io eiaie ainoaea?noaa, – aeaeiaaiiua a?aiiou, iaaeaaua
aeou, noaeaaiua ?aoaiey: iieiua, aeieeaaeiua, aaaeua e i?aaua a?aiiou. A
neo/ayo nii?ia ii aeiaiai?iui aeoai yoe aeieoiaiou aeieaeiu auee
iiaeoaa?aeaeaoueny naeaeaoaeyie, a i?e ionoonoaee iineaaeieo – “iieai”.

Iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey o?aaiaaee e ioeoeeaeueiua aeou, iniaaiii i?aaua e
aaaeua aeou. Oae, noaeaaiia ?aoaiea aeieaeii auei auoue naa?aii n
noaeiui nieneii, n eioi?iai iii nienuaaeinue. Anee naeaeaoue yoi ia auei
aiciiaeiinoe ca nia?oueth noaeuee, o eioi?iai iaoiaeeeny nienie, eee
o?oaeiinoueth aai ?acuneaiey, noi?iiu aeieaeiu auee i?eaanoe eiua
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea oi o?aaiaaiea, eioi?ia auei
oaeiaeaoai?aii ?aoaieai.

I?e ionoonoaee oaeeo aeieacaoaeuenoa aii?in i i?eiyoee eee ioeeiiaiee
noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey eae aeieacaoaeuenoaa ?aoaeny noaeii. Yoio ii?yaeie
ioeaiee i?aauo a?aiio aeaaae aiciiaeiinoue ioeeiiyoue iaauaiaeiua
ainiiaenoaothuaio eeanno ?aoaiey.

Ii ieii/aiee ninoycaiey noi?ii, oi anoue i?aaenoaaeaiey eie
aeieacaoaeuenoa, noaeuey auiinee ?aoaiea, eioi?ia ii?aaeaeyei i?aaa e
iaycaiiinoe noi?ii e onoaiaaeeaaei acuneaiey a iieueco auea?aaoaai
aeaei. Anee yoe acuneaiey i?eoiaeeeenue ia ioaao/eea, iie iacuaaeenue
“enoeiaie aeaaeueth”. Nthaea aoiaeee ene enooea ni anaie oauoeaie, a
oaeaea iieaoa anao noaeaaiuo ?anoiaeia, aeeth/ay “i?iacae” e “aieieeoo”.
“A eoi ii eiai iioeao i?enoaaa a /ai, e /oi aio a oii oauoea noaiao a
aieieeoa, eee /oi aeano io n?i/iua e io i?aaua a?aiiou, eee io
aannoaeiua, e i?aaiio oi ana acyoe ia aeiiaaoiiue” (no. 32).

?aoaiea noaea caiineeinue a “noaeiue nienie”. Ii aeaeaieth noi?iiu ae
iiaea auoue auaeaia eiiey yoiai nienea, aeeth/aaoaai e i?ioieie
noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa.

Anee ioaao/ee ia eniieiye ?aoaiea aeia?iaieueii, aai noaaeee ia
“i?aaaae”, oi anoue, eae iienuaaao Oaoeuaa, “iaaei?iiuo e ieaoaaeo
auaiaeeee ia?aae i?eeac ?acoouo i?aae oai, eae noaeueyi iaaeeaaeeo a
i?eeac i?eacaeaoue, a nioneaee n i?aaaaea, eae noaeuey auaaeao. O
eaaeaeiai iaaeiaiiaai noiye ii noi?iio i?enoaa n i?ooii, e aee aaeieue
ii iiaa oae e?aiei, eae aio io enooea, eee ioaao/eea, ca o?oae
caiea/aii; neaaenoaaiii iaeei ia i?aaaaea noiy, aith ia /oanoaiaaee,
ae?oaea auee ecoaa/aiu”. “I?aaaae” aeeeeny ?acee/iia a?aiy a caaeneiinoe
io acuneeaaaiie noiiu. Iau/ii ca 100 ?oaeae aeieaa ioaao/ee iiaeaa?aaeny
“i?aaaaeo” a oa/aiea iaeiiai ianyoea. “I?aaaaeo” iiaeaa?aaeny eeai nai
ioaao/ee, eeai ii?o/eoaeue ca iaai. Inaiaiaeaeaeenue io i?aaaaea
caieaaeaaeaeueoeu. Ei i?aaeinoaaeyeinue i?aai iineaoue ia “i?aaaae”
naiaai /aeiaaea – e?anoueyieia eee oieiia, eioi?ue aeieaeai aue
“ionoaeaaoueny io i?aaaaea” aianoi naiaai aeaaeaeueoea. I?e iaeniieiaiee
noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey aeaaea iinea “i?aaaaea” ioaao/ee ioaeaaaeny enooeo
“aieiaie aei eneoia”, oi anoue a oieiinoai aei ia?aaioee aeieaa. Iaeiaei
yoiio ia iiaeeaaeaee i?aaenoaaeoaee ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna. A
?acoeueoaoa iaeiouea aeaaea i?e iaee/ee noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey a eo iieueco
oaeoe/anee eeoaeenue aiciiaeiinoe aeiaeoueny eniieiaiey noaeaaiiai
?aoaiey.

2. ?icune

Neaaenoaaiiiio, eee eieaeceoeeiiiiio, i?ioeanno iiaeeaaeaei
?anneaaeiaaiea aeae, iniai iianiuo aeey ainoaea?noaa. Aeaei ia/eiaeinue
eeai ii eieoeeaoeaa naiiai ainoaea?noaa, eeai ii iaiai?o eiai-eeai ni
noi?iiu “aeia?uo” ethaeae. Aiciiaeii auei aicaoaeaeaiea aeaea
aneaaenoaea aeiaiaea, o.a. iaaeiaiey, i?iecaiaeeiiai niaoeeaeueiuie
aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie – aeiaiae/eeaie. Iie iaoiaeeeenue a ooaoa
iaianoieeia e auiieiyee, ii iiaieth N.A. Aanaeianeiai, iaycaiiinoe
noaeaaiuo neaaeiaaoaeae. Aa?iyoii, ai ecaaaeaiea eeoieo iiai?ia,
aucuaaaoeo iaaeiaieuenoai ianaeaiey, aeiaiae/eeai i?aaeienuaaeinue
“acaeeoe a noaio aac ia?iiea (iiiiuieea) e aac i?inoua (o.a. aac eeoiae)
eioaaee… A aaea aeiaiae/ee ii/oao, oooi aio ia iaaaeaoe, a aaea
iaaaeaaoue, oooi aio ia ii/aaaoe. Aeiaiae/eeai ii?o/aeny oaeaea aucia a
noae, a eiiaaea e auiieiaiea noaeaeneeo iaycaiiinoae.

ssaea ioaao/eea a noae caaenaea oaea ia io niaeaoaiey noi?ii, a io
ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ia inouanoaeyei aeinoaaeo iaaeiyaiiai noaeo /a?ac
iniaua “cacuaiua a?aiiou”, a?o/aaiua iaaeaeueueeaie.

I?e aeinoaaea a noae “eeoeo ethaeae” aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaea/e
ioaao/eea ia ii?oee ia?aie/eaaeanue. Aeey yoiai o?aaiaaeinue ?ac?aoaiea
auoanoiyuae einoaioeee. Iaaeaeueueee aeieaeiu auee iaania/eoue aeinoaaeo
ia noae naieo iaaeiyaiuo, aeey /aai iineaaeiea iiaeaa?aaeenue a?anoo
(no. 35).

Caiaia noi?ii a eieaeceoeeiiiii i?ioeanna eee i?aaeinoaaeaiea aianoi
naay iaeieoa ia aeiioneaeenue. I?e eieaeceoeeiiiii i?ioeanna
noaeiaiai?aiea, ninoycaiea noi?ii caiaiyeinue aeii?inii iaaeiyaiiai ni
noi?iiu noaeuee.

“A ?icunea nai noae ecuneeaae aeieacaoaeuenoaa, aeii?aoeaae
iaaeiyaiiai, iuoae, ono?aeaae i/ioth noaaeo. N?aaenoaaie ?icunea
yaeyeenue iiee/iia, iaune, iuoea, eiaaoay oeaeueth auioaeeoue
nianoaaiiia i?eciaiea e oeacaiea ia nio/anoieea”.

Aeey iouneeaaiey “eeoeo” ethaeae e aeaaea ni/oanoaothueo ei
iacia/aeenue iiaaeueiua iaunee. Iiaaeueiue iaune i?eiaiyeny oaeaea n
oeaeueth ii?aaeaeeoue ?aiooaoeeth iiaenoaeeiiai, eioi?ay aeaaaeanue ia
anaie aeeaoeie n iei eee ciaaoeie aai ethaeueie, a eeoue “aeia?uie”, oi
anoue aiieia aeaaiiaae?aeiuie n oi/ee c?aiey ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna.
Iiaaeueiue iaune, eee nune, oi anoue ii?in “aeia?uo” ethaeae,
i?iecaiaeeeny niaoeeaeueiuie aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie a ionoonoaea
iaaeiyaiiai. I?e ?aciiaeaneyo a iieacaieyo aeaei ?aoaeinue ii iieacaieyi
aieueoeinoaa.

Nune yaeyeny iaycaoaeueiui aeieacaoaeuenoaii i?e iaaeiaiee /aeiaaea a
oaoueaa n iiee/iui eee i?e iaeeoiaaiee /aeiaaea.

Iiieii iacia/aiey iiaaeueiiai iaunea i?e ?icunea oiio?aaeyeenue
?anni?in e iuoea. Yoio aeae aeieacaoaeuenoaa i?eiaiyeny noaeii ia
noieueei aeey iieo/aiey nianoaaiiiai i?eciaiey ni noi?iiu iaaeiyaiiai a
niaa?o?iiii eee aiaiyaiii aio i?anooieaiee, neieueei aeey oee/aiey aai e
a ae?oaeo i?anooieaieyo, a aeaaiui ia?acii aeey iaiai?a e oee/aiey a
i?anooieaieyo ae?oaeo eeoe.

Iuoaoue “oaoy aanoeo?inoii” ii?o/aeinue iaaeaeueueeai (no. 34).

A neo/ayo iaiai?a n iuoee iacia/aeanue i/iay noaaea iaaeaeo
iaiai?eaoei e iaiai??iiui. Iineaaeiee iacuaaeny “i?e?i/iui /aeiaaeii n
aeiaiaeii”. Anee iaiai?eaoee ioeacuaaeny io iaiai?a a i?enoonoaee
iaiai??iiiai, oi aai iuoaee aoi?e/ii, a ia iaiai??iiiai iacia/aee
iiaaeueiue iaune (no. 14). Anee aea iaiai? n iuoee aeaaaeny ia iaeiei
eeoeii, a aeaoiy eee o?aiy, oi iaiai??iiiai i?eaeaeaee e noaeo e
iiaeaa?aaee a naith i/a?aaeue iuoea, aeaaea aac i?iaa?ee iieacaiee
iaiai?eaoeo /a?ac iiaaeueiue iaune.

Oaeei ia?acii, iuoea auea iaeiei ec iniiaiuo niiniaia auyniaiey
ianoiyoaeuenoa aeaea i?e i?iecaiaenoaa aeae ?icuneii.

A eieaeceoeeiiiii i?ioeanna, ii auaiaeo I. Eaea/?aa, “i?aaeoaeuenoai
i?eiyei ia naay iaycaiiinoue enooea e ia oniiieeinue aaanoe a oaieiaiue
i?ioeann iiaia aeieacaoaeuenoai, iaecaanoiia a a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna,
eiaiii iuoeo, ia eioi?ie e aue iniiaai aanue iiaue ii?yaeie
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa”.

Iiieii iiaaeueiiai iaunea, iuoee, i/iie noaaee i?e ?icunea
i?eiaiyeenue e inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiey e iniio? ianoa i?ienoanoaey.

Caeeth/aiea

Eoae, iu auynieee aaeeeoth ?ieue iaua?onneiai Noaeaaieea 1497 a.,
eioi?ue: ia/ae i?ioeann cae?aiiuaiey e?anoueyinoaa, aaiaey TH?ueaa
aeaiue; onoaiiaee aaeeiiia?acioth noaeaaioth i?aeoeeo; ?ani?ino?aiee
th?enaeeeoeeth aaeeeiai eiycy ia anth oa??eoi?eth ainoaea?noaa, i?e yoii
ia?aie/ea ooieoeee ei?ieaiueeia, e oii?yaei/ee nenoaio noaeia; cae?aiee
iiaua iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey; onoaiiaee /?oeoth ii?io ianeaaeiaaiey;
aa?e iiiyoea ainoaea?noaaiiuo (iieeoe/aneeo) i?anooieaiee; ?anoe?ee e?oa
noauaeoia i?anooieaiey; oaeanoi/ee iaeacaiey; aa?e einoeooo noaeaaiuo
eniieieoaeae e iiiaia ae?oaia.

I?iaiaey aeaiioth ?aaioo, y i?eo?e e auaiaeo, /oi oaia iaua?onneiai
Noaeaaieea 1497 aiaea eco/aia aeiaieueii oi?ioi, anee o/eouaaoue oi
eiee/anoai enneaaeiaaiee ?inneeneeo, niaaoneeo e ca?oaaaeiuo o/?iuo, n
eioi?uie iia i?eoeinue noieeiooueny a oiaea nai?a e eco/aiey iaoa?eaea.
Oae /oi, ii-iiaio, ia noieo Noaeaaiee 1497 a. aeeth/aoue a /enei oai
aeey eo?niauo ?aaio.

*oi aea eanaaony ?acee/iuo aniaeoia

Eniieueciaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a

Aa?aa?ooaei N. Caienee i Iineiaee. – I., 1988.

A?aeia A.Ae. E?anoueyia ia ?one n ae?aaiaeoeo a?ai?i aei XVII a. Ei. 2.
– I., 1974.

Ceiei A.A. ?inney ia ?oaaaea XV-XVI noieaoee. – I., 1982.

Ceiei A.A. Oi?ie?iaaiea aiy?neie a?enoie?aoee a ?innee ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia XV- ia?aie o?aoe XVI a. – I., 1988.

Enaaa E.A. Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ?innee. – I.: TH?enou, 1998.

Enoi?ey ioa/anoaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa. O/aaiia iiniaea., /. II. –
I.: Ecae-ai “TH?eaee/aneee eieeaaeae IAO”, 1996.

Eaooaiia N.I. Nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneay enoi?ey ?innee eiioea XV- ia?aie
iieiaeiu XVI a. – I., 1967.

Iaiyoieee nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie enoi?ee Iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa
XIV-XVII aa./Iiae ?aae. N.A. Aanaeianeiai. – I., 1929.

?acaeoea ?onneiai i?aaa a XV- ia?aie iieiaeia XVII aa. – I., 1986.

?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai X-XX aaeia. O. 2. – I.,

Naoa?ia A.I. Ia?aciaaiea e ?acaeoea ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa a XIV-XVII
aa. – I., 1969.

Oeoiie?ia I.I. ?inneeneia ainoaea?noai XV-XVII aaeia. – I., 1973.

*a?aiiei E.A. Ia?aciaaiea ?onneiai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa a
XIV-XV aaeao. I/a?ee nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie enoi?ee
?one. – I., 1960.

*a?aiiei E.A. ?onneea oaiaeaeueiua a?oeau 14-15 aa., /. II. – I., 1951.

*a?aiiei E.A. Noaeaaieee 15-16 aa. – I.-E., ecae. Aeaaeaiee iaoe NNN?,
1952.

Ooaii N.E. Noaeaaiee 1497 a. – I., 1955.

Aa?aa?ooaei N. Caienee i Iineiaee. N eao. aacaeueneiai ecaeaiey ia?aa?e
E. Aiiieiia. – NIa., 1886, n. 81-83.

I.I. Ea?aicei. Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa ?inneeneiai, o. VI, ecae. 2-a. –
NIa., 1819 a., n. 356.

Aaeyaa E.Ae. Eaeoeee ii enoi?ee ?onneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. – I.,
1879, n. 515.

Ua?aaoia I.I. Enoi?ey ?inneeneay io ae?aaiaeoeo a?ai?i. O. IV, /. 2. –
NIa., 1783, n. 301.

Eaoeei A.I. Eaeoeee ii aiaoiae enoi?ee ?onneiai i?aaa. – NIa., 1890, n.
39-42.

Enoi?e/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea ae?aaia?onneiai oaieiaiiai i?aaa aei XVII
noieaoey // “TH?eaee/aneee aanoiee”. – 1874, yiaa?ue–oaa?aeue. Ei. I –
II. – I., 1873, n. 511.

A?aiiou XIV-XV aa. Iineianeiai a?oeaa Ieienoa?noaa thnoeoeee. – I.,
1883, no?. 31-54.

?a/ue i ia/aea e i i?ienoiaeaeaiee ?inneeneeo caeiiia, aeooa eo e
iinoaiaiiii oniaa?oainoaiaaiee, i?iecian?iiay a oi?aeanoaaiiii nia?aiee
eiia?aoi?neiai Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa 8 ethey 1832 a. y.-i.
i?ioanni?ii, eieeaaeneei niaaoieeii e eaaaea?ii Nai?iii Nie?iiaui – I.,
1832, n. 25.

Eaea/?a I.A. I Noaeaaieea oea?y Eiaiia Aaneeueaae/a. – TH?eaee/aneea
caienee, ecaeaiiua I. ?aaeeeiui, o. I, I., 1841, n. 52, 55.

Aeieo?eaa O. I. Enoi?ey noaeaaiuo einoaioeee e a?aaeaeaineiai
aiaeeyoeeiiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa io Noaeaaieea aei o/?aaeaeaiey i
aoaa?ieyo. – I., 1859, n. 11.

N.A. THoeia. Noaeaaiee 1497 aiaea (E aiaoiae enoi?ee iaiyoieea). O/?iua
caienee Na?aoianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oieaa?neoaoa eiaie I.A.
*a?iuoaaneiai. O. V, auione III. Oaeoeueoao oicyenoaa e i?aaa. –
Na?aoia, 1926.

Ianiiia A.I. Enoi?ey ?onneiai eaoiienaiey XI – ia/aea XVIII aa. – I.,
1969, n. 380-381, 384-385.

Ceiei A.A. ?inney ia ?oaaaea XV-XVI noieaoee. – I., 1982, n. 122.

A.E. Oaie?i. I “iiaeeeii” Noaeaaieeia 1497 e 1550 aa. Enneaaeiaaiey ii
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie enoi?ee ?innee. – E., 1971, n. 96-109.

N.A. THoeia. Noaeaaiee 1497 a., n. 44-45.

“Caienee i Iineiaee aa?iia Aa?aa?ooaeia”, NIa., 1866, no?. 81.

oeeoaoa ii noaouea N.A. Aanaeianeiai “Aeaaeeie? Aonaa – ninoaaeoaeue
Noaeaaieea 1497 a.”// “Enoi?e/aneea caienee” 1939 a., ?5, no?. 47.

A.A. I?aniyeia. Ia?aciaaiea Aaeeei?onneiai ainoaea?noaa. I., 1918, no?.
427.

E.A. *a?aiiei. Noaeaaieee 15-16 aa. – I.-E., ecae. Aeaaeaiee iaoe NNN?,
1952, no?. 59; E.A. *a?aiiei. ?onneea oaiaeaeueiua a?oeau 14-15 aa.,
/.2. – I., 1951, no?. 329-330.

E.A. *a?aiiei. ?onneea oaiaeaeueiua a?oeau 14-15 aa., /.2. – I., 1951,
no?. 329.

E.A. *a?aiiei. Noaeaaieee 15-16 aa. – I-E., 1952, no?. 61.

A.A. I?aniyeia. Ia?aciaaiea Aaeeei?onneiai ainoaea?noaa. – I., 1918,
no?. 393.

N.A. Aanaeianeee. Aeaaeeie? Aonaa – ninoaaeoaeue Noaeaaieea 1497 a. //
“Enoi?e/aneea caienee”, 1939, ? 5, no?. 46.

I.Ae. Na?aaaaneee. Iaeacaiea a ?onneii i?aaa XVII aaea. – NIa., 1887,
no?. 159.

A.A. I?aniyeia. Ia?aciaaiea Aaeeei?onneiai ainoaea?noaa. – I., 1918,
no?. 390.

E.A. *a?aiiei. ?onneea oaiaeaeueiua a?oeau XIV-XV aa., /.2. – I.-E.,
1951, no?. 322-323.

AE, o. 1, ? 15, no?. 24.

N. Aa?aa?ooaei. Caienee i iineiaeoneeo aeaeao. – NIa., 1908, no?. 85.

Oai aea, no?. 84.

E.A. *a?aiiei. ?onneea oaiaeaeueiua a?oeau XIV-XV aa., /. 2. – I.,
ecae. AI NNN? 1951, no?. 333-334.

E.A. *a?aiiei. ?onneea oaiaeaeueiua a?oeau XIV-XV aa., /. 2. – I.,
1951, no?. 326.

N.A. THoeia. Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa NNN?, /. 1. – I., 1950, no?.
182.

N.A. THoeia. Noaeaaiee 1497 a. E aiaoiae enoi?ee iaiyoieea //”O/?iua
caienee Na?aoianeiai Ainoaea?noaaiiiai oieaa?neoaoa”, oaeoeueoao
oicyenoaa e i?aaa, o. V, auione III. – Na?aoia, 1926, no?. 30.

“Caienee i Iineiaee aa?iia Aa?aa?ooaeia”. – NIa., 1866, no?. 84.

O. Aeieo?eaa. Enoi?ey noaeaaiuo einoaioeee e a?aaeaeaineiai
aiaeeyoeeiiiiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa io Noaeaaieea aei o/?aaeaeaiey i
aoaa?ieyo. – I., 1859, no?. 237.

O. Aeieo?eaa. Enoi?ey noaeaaiuo einoaioeee e a?aaeaeaineiai
aiaeeyoeeiiiiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa io Noaeaaieea aei o/?aaeaeaiey i
aoaa?ieyo. – I., 1859, no?. 252.

N.A. THoeia. Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa NNN?, /. 1. – I, 1950, no?.
100.

I. Eaea/?a. Ia oaieiaiii i?aaa ii Noaeaaieeo oea?y Eiaiia Aaneeueaae/a.
// “TH?eaee/aneea caienee”, ecae. I. ?aaeeeiui. – I., 1842, o. II, no?.
389.

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