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Заболевания желудочно-кишечного тракта и желчно-выводящих путей

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CAAIEAAAIEss AEAEOAeI*II-EEOA*IIAI O?AEOA

E AEAE*II-AUAIAessUEO IOOAE

O?IIE*ANEEE AAIAOEO

ssaeyaony /anoui caaieaaaieai – 50% anao caaieaaaiee. Ii aue auaeaeai
ec oee??icia ia/aie, eiaaea iiyaeeny iiaue iaoiae enneaaeiaaiey –
eaia?ineiiey e iaoiae i?eaeeciaiiie i?eoeaeueiie aeiinee. Yoi
ainiaeeoaeueii-aeeno?ioe/aneia caaieaaaiea. Oa/aiea aieaa 6 ian.,
i?ia?anne?iaaiea aei ?acee/iie noaiaie. E?eoa?eai aeeaaiica yaeyaony
iaia?ooaiiay aeieueeiaay no?oeoo?a ia/aie.

Yoeieiaey

I. A 50% – ino?ue ae?oniue aaiaoeo. Ia?aoiaeo a o?iie/aneee
niinianoaotho:

1. ianaiaa?aiaiiay aeeaaiinoeea

2. iaaeinoaoi/iia ea/aiea

3. ia?ooaiea ieoaiey, aeeaou

4. i?eai aeeiaiey

5. ?aiiyy auienea

6. ?aiiaa ia/aei oece/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe iinea ia?aianaiiiai
caaieaaaiey

7. ia oiia caaieaaaiee AEEO.

Ii aeaaea i?e eneeth/aiee anao auoaia?a/eneaiiuo oaeoi?ia ae?oniue
aaiaoeo a 5% neo/aaa ia?aoiaeeo a o?iie/aneee.

II. Oiene/aneia aeeyiea ia ia/aiue:

1. aeeiaieue (50-80% aieueiuo – aeeiaieeee)

2. aaicie, /aou?ao oei?enoue oaea?iae, AeAeO

3. eaea?noaaiiua aaiaoeou (i?e i?eaia i?ioeaiooaa?eoeaciuo, naaeaoeaiuo,
aeiioaiceaiuo (aeiiaaeo), oeeoinoaoe/aneeo, ia?eioe/aneeo n?aaenoa,
aioeaeioeeia oao?aoeeeeeiiaiai ?yaea)

4. aieeeiiaua e?aneoaee

5. niee oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia

6. iaiaiiua aaiaoeou, naycaiiua n ia?ooaieyie iaiaia aauanoa, n
aeeeoaeueiui iaiieiioeaiiui ieoaieai.

Iaoiaaiac

1. Aeeeoaeueiia ia?nenoe?iaaiea ae?ona a i?aaiecia. E?iaue n
aano?aeeeneei aioeaaiii ca?acia. Aiciiaeii aioo?eoo?iaiia ca?aaeaiea
ieiaea /a?ac ieaoeaioo. Ae?on aaiaoeoa ioiineony e a?oiia iaaeeaiiuo
ae?onia.

2. Aeeth/aiea a i?ioeann eiioiieiae/aneeo ?aaeoeee. Iniaaiii aieueoia
cia/aiea eiatho ?aaeoeee ii oeio ACO. Ia?ooaaony oeaeinoiinoue iaia?aiu
aaiaoioeeoa, auoiaeeo iaia?aiiue eeiii?ioaei, eioi?ue noeioee?oao
O-eeioioeeou. Aioeaaiu iiaoo /a?ac ?yae o?aaaeoe iiiaaeaoue a e?iaue –
ia/eiaaony au?aaioea aioeoae. Iiyaeyaony aenoei-eeioioeeoa?iay
eioeeueo?aoeey.

3. Aiciiaeia aeoeaaoeey iacaioeiaeueiie oeaie a i?ioeanna ino?iai
aaiaoeoa. I?ieeoa?aoeey eaeao ianoieueei auno?i, /oi iacaioeia ia/eiaao
iae?aaeuaaoue aaiaoioeeou, ioieiaoue o ieo ieoaoaeueiua aauanoaa – oae
iacuaaaiue “oaiiiai iae?aaeuaaiey”. Aaiaoioeeou ia/eiatho ioie?aoue
oeaeuie ino?iaeaie, aicieeaao eo iaaeinoaoi/iinoue.

Ii?oieiaey

Ia/aiue oaaee/eaaaony a ?acia?ao. A ia/aea – yoi aieueoay aaeay
ia/aiue, caoai i?aa?auaaony a aieueooth iano?oth ia/aiue. Ii oiaeo
ii?oaeueiuo iieae – ainiaeeoaeueiay eioeeueo?aoeey. Iiaoo auoue iiey
iae?iaeica. Iiaoo ii?aaeaoueny aioo?eii/a/iua oiaeu, yaeaiey oieainoaca.
Ii?oieiae/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea: o?iie/aneee aaiaoeo – yoi
ainiaeeoaeueii-aeeno?ioe/aneia ii?aaeaiea ia/aie n aenoeieeioioeeoa?iie
eioeeueo?aoeeae ii oiaeo ii?oaeueiiai o?aeoa n aeia?o?ioeae eoioa?ianeeo
eeaoie, ao?ioe/aneeie eciaiaieyie a ia?aioeia e nio?aiaieai aeieueeiaie
no?oeoo?u.

Eeanneoeeaoeey

1. Ii yoeieiaee:

a) ae?oniua

a) oiene/aneea

a) oieneei-aeea?ae/aneea (i?e eieeaaaiicao)

a) aeeiaieueiua.

2. Ii ii?oieiaee:

a) ia?nenoe?othuee – aenoieiae/aneea eciaiaiey ieieiaeueiu: oia?aiiue
oea?ic, eiiaaea aenoeieeioioeeoa?iay eioeeueo?aoeey, iao iiaeaoeo
eeaoie. Iaaeeaiiia aeia?iea/anoaaiiia oa/aiea, iao iiaeaoeo eeaoie. I?e
ono?aiaiee yoeieiae/aneiai oaeoi?a caeai/eaaaony oea?icii, ii ia
oee??ice?iaaieai.

a) aeoeaiue (aa?anneaiue) aaiaoeo – ceiea/anoaaiiay oi?ia n ?acei
au?aaeaiiie eioieneeaoeeae. Eaeao aooia?anney, aeano?oeoeey e iae?ic.
?aceea eciaiaiey ni noi?iiu iacaioeiu. Auno?i i?ia?anne?oao, /a?ac 4-6
eao a 30-60% ia?aoiaeeo a oee??ic. Iaeei ec aa?eaioia – eeiieaeiue
aaiaoeo nianai iaaeaaii n/eoaee naiinoiyoaeueiie iicieiae/aneie oi?iie,
ii yoi e?aeia oyaeaeue neo/ae o?iie/aneiai aa?anneaiiai aaiaoeoa. Auaaao
/aua o iieiaeuo aeaiuei.

a) oieanoaoe/aneee – eae i?aaeei, iaaethaeaaony aioo?aia/aii/iue
oieanoac, aeiieie?otho neiioiiu oieaiee. Yoi iaeei ec i/aiue
ceiea/anoaaiiuo aaiaoeoia. *aua aeaao ia?ae/iue aeeea?iue oee??ic.

Eeeieea

1) Anoaiiaaaaoaoeaiue neiae?ii: naycai n ia?ooaieai
aeaceioieneeaoeeiiiie ooieoeee ia/aie. I?iyaeyaony a iauae neaainoe,
iiauoaiiie ?acae?aaeeiinoe, nieaeaieai iaiyoe, eioa?ana e ie?oaeathuaio.

2) Aeeniaine/aneee neiae?ii: iniaaiii i?e oieanoaoe/aneii aaiaoeoa.
Iiieaeaiea aiiaoeoa, eciaiaiea aeona, i?e o?iie/aneii aeeiaieecia –
nieaeaiea oiea?aioiinoe e aeeiaieth: /oanoai ai?a/e ai ?oo, iniaaiii
oa?aeoa?ai iaoai?eci, ooiay iithuay aieue a i?aaii i?aae?aaa?uea,
/oanoai oyaeanoe: io?uaeea ai?a/ueth, aicaeooii, ?aioa, nooe /aua
aeeaeeee.

3) Oieanoaoe/aneee neiae?ii: oaiiue oeaao ii/e, naaoeue eae, eiaeiue
coae, aeaeoooa.

4) Neiae?ii iaeie ia/aii/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe: a 80% no?aaeaao
o?aiceoiay ooieoeey ia/aie, ?acaeaaaony ia/aii/iay aeaeoooa, e?iia oiai,
ia?ooaaony neioac aaeeia ia/aiueth e eiaeoeaaoeey aeueaeinoa?iia – yoi
i?eaiaeeo e ioaeai, iiaeao auoue aaii??aae/aneee neiae?ii ec-ca
ia?ooaiey neioaca aaeeia e?iae.

Iauaeoeaii

1. Aaiaoiiaaaeey.

2. Eciaiaiey ni noi?iiu eiaee: aeaeoooiinoue a 50%, eiiaaea n
a?yciiaaoui iooaieii ec-ca ecauoi/iiai ioeiaeaiey iaeaieia e aeaeaca,
aoi?e/iue aaiaoio?iiaoic (/aua o aeeiaieeeia), eiaeiue coae – ?an/anu,
oa?e, eiiaaea e?aieaieoea, eiiaaea neiieaiey aee?a – enaioiiaoic neea?;
ninoaeenoua caacaei/ee – i?iyaeaiea aeia?ano?iaaiecia: iiaoo auoue
yaeaiey aaii??aae/aneiai aeeaoaca, ia/aii/iua eaaeiie – y?ei-e?aniua
(auaatho e o caei?iauo).

3. Nieaiiiaaaeey – /aua i?e aeoeaiie oi?ia aaiaoeoa.

E?iia oiai, auaaao eeoi?aaeea, aeea?ae/aneay nuiue, ia?eea?aeeo, iao?eo
(/aua i?e ethiieaeiii aaiaoeoa).

Aeeaaiinoeea

1. Iiauoaiea o?iaiy aeee?oaeia a e?iae, iniaaiii auniei i?e
oieanoaoe/aneii aa?eaioa, i?e ?aceii iaino?aiee o?iie/aneiai i?ioeanna.

2. Oa?iaiou:

a) AEO (AIO) – yoi eiaeeeaoi?iua oa?iaiou, iiauoaiea aeoeaiinoe eioi?uo
nii?iaiaeaeaaony ?ac?ooaieai aaiaoioeeoia e io?aaeaao noaiaiue
iae?iaeioe/aneeo i?ioeannia a ia/aie. Ii ioaeii iiiieoue, /oi iaeioi?ia
iiauoaiea yoeo oa?iaioia i?ienoiaeeo e i?e eioa?eoa ieiea?aea

a) iiei/iay oinoaoaca – aeoeaiinoue aic?anoaao i?e ia?ooaiee iooiea
aeae/e (oieanoaca): a ii?ia 5-7 AAe

a) aeueaeieaca, eaeoaoaeaaeae?iaaiaca.

3. Oieanoa?ei – iiauoaaony aei 1000-1200 ia%.

4. Aaeeiaua o?aeoeee e?iae:

a) aeiiaeueaoieiaiey, iniaaiii i?e aeoeaiie oi?ia (N 56,6-66,8%)

a) aeiiaaiiaaeiaoeeiaiey – io?aaeaao aeoeaiinoue eiioiieiae/aneeo
i?ioeannia a oa/aiee ainiaeaiey (ii?ia 21%)

a) aeiioea?eiiaaiaiey (2-4 a/e)

a) oiaiueoaiea i?io?iiaeia (ia?ooaaony ananuaaiea aeoaieia E).

5. Aeia?aeeeaiey.

6. I?iau aeey ioeaiee aioeoiene/aneeo ooieoeee ia/aie: i?iaa Eaeea –
ii?aaeaeaiea aeio?iaie eeneiou a ii/a iinea aaaaeaiey a i?aaieci
aaicieiieeneiai iao?ey. I ia?ooaiee aiai?yo, anee auaiaeeony iaiueoa 30%
i?eiyoiai aioo?ue aaicieiieeneiai iao?ey.

7. I?iau aeey ioeaiee ia?ooaiey aaeeiaiai niaeo?a: eiaaoeyoeeiiiay eaioa
Aaeooiaia, ?aaeoeey Oieaoa-a?a, (N-), noeaiiaua i?iau, aa?iiae-oeiieiaay
i?iaa (a N – 5 AAe).

8. Eiioiieiae/aneea ?aaeoeee: ii?aaeaeaiea eiioiiaeiaoeeiia e ia/.
aioeoae.

9. I?iau aeey ioeaiee yene?aoi?iie ooieoeee ia/aie: i?iaa n
a?iinoeueoaeaeiii – /a?ac /an aeieaeii auaiaeeoueny 60-80% aauanoaa.

10. ?aaeeiecioiiiia enneaaeiaaiea n *** cieioii, aaiaaeueneie ?icie.

11. Ioieoeeiiaeueiay aeiiney ia/aie.

12. Eaia?ineiiey.

13. Oieaiaeia?aoey.

Iniaaiiinoe eeeieee

1. Ia?nenoe?othuee aaiaoeo: /anoi iaia?oaeeaaaony aano?aeeeneee aioeaai.
Aia iaino?aiey eeeie/aneeo i?iyaeaiee iiaeao e ia auoue, ca eneeth/aieai
oaaee/aiiie ia/aieth. Yoi aeia?iea/anoaaiiay oi?ia, ii aieueiua
yaeythony ae?oniiineoaeyie. Ia/aii/iua i?iau eciaiaiu iacia/eoaeueii,
e?aeia iicaeii eciaiythony aaeeiaua o?aeoeee e?iae.

2. Aeoeaiue aaiaoeo. Aioeaai iacaaeneiue, y?eay eeeieea:

a) eeoi?aaeea, aeaeoooiinoue

a) nieaiiiaaaeey, eiiaaea n i?iyaeaieyie aeia?nieaiecia

a) o?iiaioeeoiiaiey

a) aeia?aaiiiaeiaoeeiaiey

ae) i?aauoaiea aeoeaiinoe oa?iaioia

a) iiauoaiea oeo?a eiioiiaeiaoeeiia

ae) eiiaaea iaia?oaeeaathony aioeioeeaa?iua aioeoaea, eiiaaea anoue
aeanoio?ainoi?iaoeee eeioioeeoia.

3. Ethiieaeiue aa?eaio: aeeeoaeueiinoue oa/aiey ieiei 1 aiaea

a) /aua aieatho iieiaeua aeaiueiu

a) /anoi anoue ao?aeaee

a) aeea?ae/aneea i?iyaeaiey, e?aieaieoea

a) eeioiaaeaiiiaoey (a ?aaeoeeyo o/anoaotho A-eeioioeeou)

ae) eiiaaea oe?aieaeeo

a) eciaiaiey ni noi?iiu na?aeoea.

4. Oieanoaoe/aneee aa?eaio /aua o iaiieiaeuo aeaiuei, aeeaea e
iaiiiaoca; iinoaiaiii ia?anoaao au?aaeaiiue eiaeiue coae, au?aaeaiiay
aeaeoooa n aeia?aeee?oaeiaieae, oaaee/aiea aeoeaiinoe uaei/iie
oinoaoacu, ia?ooaiey ananuaaiey aeoaieia D inoaiii?ic, iaoieiae/aneay
eiieinoue einoae.

5. O?iie/aneee aeeiaieueiue aaiaoeo aeeeoaeueiue aiaiiac, /aua aieatho
ioae/eiu; ?aiueoa auei 10 : 1, nae/an 4 : 1. Aia/aea iiaoo i?ioaeaoue
eae ae?oaea oi?iu, ii caoai auaaao o?aii?, iioa?y eioa?ana e
ie?oaeathuaio, /oanoai oieaeaiiinoe, eiiioaioeey, aeiaeiianoey,
auiaaeaiea aiein, aoi?e/iue aaiao?iiaoic, ?acei au?aaeaiiay aiaiey,
iau/ii aeia?o?iiiay – aeeyiea yoaiiea ia einoiue iica, aeia?eaeeioeeoic,
aeiiaeueaoieiaiey.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic

O?iie/aneee aaiaoeo eiiaaea i?ioaeaao eae ino?ue. ?aniiciaaaoue
iiiiaaao aiaiiac. E?iia oiai, i?e ino?ii aaiaoeoa aeoeaiinoue oa?iaioia
aeinoeaaao i/aiue aunieeo oeeo?, i?e o?iie/aneii aaiaoeoa aeoeaiinoue
oa?iaioia iiauoaaony oia?aiii. I?e ino?ii aaiaoeoa ii aeaiiui
i?ioaeiia?aiiu iao ia?ooaiee aaeeiauo o?aeoeee e?iae.

I?e o?iie/aneii aaiaoeoa, a ioee/ea io oee??ica ia/aie, iao i?eciaeia
ii?oaeueiie aeia?oaicee. Iiiiaaao oaeaea iaoiae aeiinee: i?e o?iie/aneii
aaiaoeoa nio?aiaia aeieueeiaay no?oeoo?a.

Neiae?ii Aeoaeia-Aeaeiina: aeia?iea/anoaaiiay aeia?aeee?oaeiaiey.
Ae?oaia iacaaiea – thiioaneay ia?aiaaeathuayny aeaeoooa. I?e yoii anoue
aeaoaeo oa?iaioa, inouanoaeythuaai o?ainii?o aeee?oaeia. A ioee/ea io
o?iie/aneiai aaiaoeoa iao oaaee/aiey ia/aie, yiceiiiaoey ianeaaeoaony ii
aooiniiii-aeiieiaioiiio oeio. Caaieaaaiea iiyaeyaony aia?aua iinea
ioaa?oaioiiai ia?eiaea. AEaeiau ia oyaeanoue e ooiua aiee a iaeanoe
ia/aie, yieaano?ee, iaiiiyoiua aeeniaine/aneea ?anno?ienoaa.
Nieaiiiaaaeey ionoonoaoao, aeaeoooa oia?aiiay, iauee aeee?oaei iau/ii
2-6 ia% e iinoiyiii eieaaeaony ieiei iaeiie n?aaeiae aaee/eiu. Naycaiiue
aeee?oaei iiauoai e ninoaaeyao 60-80% io iauaai. Iaaethaeaaony
iinoiyiiay aeee?oaeio?ey, o?iaeeeiiaua oaea inoathony a ii?ia. Iaeei ec
oa?aeoa?iuo i?eciaeia – oaaee/aiea ?aoaioeee a?ii***oaeaeia iinea 30
ieioo aai aaaaeaiey. Aeey caaieaaaiey iaoiaiiiiie/ii oaaee/aiea a ii/a
eii?iii?oe?eia -1 aieaa 80%. Ii/oe eaaeaeiai aieueiiai n neiae?iiii
ainieoaeece?otho n iiaeic?aieai ia ino?ue ae?oniue aaiaoeo. Caaieaaaiea
ii/oe ia aeeyao ia o?oaeiniiniaiinoue e niaoeeaeueiiai ea/aiey, e?iia
aeeaou. ia o?aaoao.

Ea/aiea

1. Ono?aieoue iia?aaeaeathuee yoeieiae/aneee oaeoi?.

2. A neo/aa iaino?aiey – ainieoaeecaoeey, iinoaeueiue ?aaeei. Aeeaoa:
aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai aaeeia, oaeaaiaeia, ia?aie/aiea aee?ia,
oia?aiiia eiee/anoai niee.

Iaoiaaiaoe/aneia ea/aiea

a) Ei?oeeinoa?ieaeu – i?aaeiecieii 30-40 ia/noo

a) oeeoinoaoeee: eio?ai 100-200 ia/noo, 6-ia?eaioiio?ei, ieaeaaiee 0,5 –
1 ?ac/noo.

Ec oeeoinoaoeeia i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeatho eio?aio (acioeii?ioaeio).
Aeeeoaeueiinoue oaeie eiiaeie?iaaiiie oa?aiee ianeieueei ianyoeaa, a i?e
ethiieaeiii aa?eaioa – ianeieueei eao. Aeicu i?aia?aoia nieaeatho
iaaeeaiii e ia ?aiueoa, /ai /a?ac 2-3 ianyoea, ia?aoiaeyo ia
iiaeaea?aeeaathuea aeicu – i?aaeiecieii 20 ia/noo, eio?ai 50 ia/noo –
aeatho a oa/aiea aiaea.

Iieacaiey: aeoeaiue oieanoaoe/aneee aaiaoeo, i?anenoe?othuee a oaca
iaino?aiey. I?ioeaiiieacaiey: iaia?oaeaiea aano?aeeeneiai aioeaaia.
Aianoa n i?aaeiecieiiii iiaeii iacia/aoue aeaeaaee 0,25-0,5.

Neiioiiaoe/aneia ea/aiea

a) Aetheica aioo?ue, a i?e oyaeaeii oa/aiee a/a, ec ?an/aoa 50 a/noo –
oiaiueoaao eioieneeaoeeth

a) aeoaieiu a?oiiu A, N e ae?.: N – i?e iaee/ee i?eciaeia
aaii??aae/aneiai aeeaoaca, e – i?e aaii??aae/aneii aeeaoaca e nieaeaiee
i?io?iiaeia, D – i?e oieanoaca, o.e. ia?ooaii eo ananuaaiea. A1, -2, -6,
-12.

Aeae?ieecaou ia/aie: ne?aia? 2,0 a/a ia eo?n 50 eiuaeoeee. I?e
ia?ooaiee aaeeiaiai iaiaia: ?anoai? aeueaoieia 10% 50-100 ie; aaeeiaua
aeae?ieecaou + aiaaieeee (inoi?iaeii) – ?aoaaieee, aeeaaiea ieaciu.
Aethoaieiiaay eeneioa.

I?e aioo?eia/aii/iii oieanoaca:

Oaiiaa?aeoae 0,01 o 3 (oeo/oaao no?iaiea aeae/iie ieoeaeeu),
aeae/aaiiiua (inoi?iaeii) – eo/oa ?anoeoaeueiua: eoeo?ociua ?ueueoea e
ae?oaea. Oieanoe?aiei – eiiii-iaiaiiay niiea, ia?acoao a eeoa/ieea
ia?anoai?eiua eiiieaenu n aeae/iuie eeneioaie, /oi aaaeao e oneeaieth
ananuaaiey a eeoa/ieea oieanoa?eia, oiaiueoathony coae e aeaeoooa.
Aeatho 10-15 a/noo.

OeE??IC IA*AIE

Oee??ic ia/aie – o?iie/aneia caaieaaaiea n aeeno?ioeae e iae?icii
ia/aii/iie ia?aioeiu, n ?acaeoeai oneeaiiie ?aaaia?aoeee n aeeooociui
i?aiaeaaeaieai no?iiu, i?ia?anne?othuei ?acaeoeai niaaeeieoaeueiie
oeaie, iieiie ia?ano?ieeie aeieueeiaie no?oeoo?u, ia?aciaaieai
inaaaeiaeieae, n ia?ooaieai iee?ioee?eoeyoeee e iinoaiaiiui ?acaeoeai
ii?oaeueiie aeia?oaicee.

Oee??ic ia/aie – i/aiue ?ani?ino?aiaiiia caaieaaaiea e a iiaeaaeythuai
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ?acaeaaaony iinea o?iie/aneiai aaiaoeoa.

Yoeieiaey

Ae?oniue aaiaoeo, o?iie/aneay aeeiaieueiay eioieneeaoeey, eaea?noaaiiay
eioieneeaoeey, oieanoac.

Ii?oieiaey

Ii ia?a aeaaee ia/aii/iuo eeaoie ia/eiaaony eo onei?aiiay ?aaaia?aoeey.
Iniaaiiinoue eiaeiuo aeieae a oii, /oi a ieo iao ii?iaeueiuo o?eaae –
iao oeaio?aeueiuo aai. A niaaeeieoaeueii-oeaiiuo oyaeao ?acaeaathony
ninoaeu – ii?oaeueiua ooiou. *anoe/ii naeaaeeaathony e ?ac?ooathony
auiinyuea aaiu, iinoaiaiii ia?ooaaony iee?ioei?eoeyoeey. Ia?ooaaony
e?iaioie e a ia/aii/iie a?oa?ee. I?ienoiaeeo caa?anuaaiea e?iae a
ii?oaeueioth aaio – oneeeaaaony ii?oaeueiay aeia?oaicey. I?ia?anne?oao
aeaaeue ia/aii/iuo eeaoie. A ?acoeueoaoa iienaiiuo i?ioeannia
iiaa?oiinoue ia/aie noaiiaeony oa?ioiaaoie e aoa?enoie.

Eeanneoeeaoeey

Ii ii?oieiaee: iee?iiiaeoey?iue, iee?i-iae?iiiaeoey?iue (niaoaiiue),
iae?iiiaeoey?iue, naioaeueiue (i?e ii?aaeaiee iaaeaeieaauo
ia?aai?iaeie). Ii eeeieea n o/aoii yoeieiaee: ae?oniue aeeiaieueiue,
oiene/aneee (eaea?noaaiiue), oieanoaoe/aneee, oee??ic iaeiieaiey.

Eeeieea

1. Anoaii-aaaaoaoeaiue neiae?ii.

2. Aeeniaine/aneee neiae?ii.

3. Oieanoaoe/aneee neiae?ii.

4. Ii?oaeueiay aeia?oaicey.

5. Ia?ooaiea aioeoiene/aneie ooieoeee ia/aie – aaiaoioeaeethey?iay
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue, ia?ooaaony eiaeoeaaoeey, naycuaaiea, iaacaee?eaaiea,
auaaaeaiea oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee: aeia?yno?iaaieci. I?iyaeyaony
ninoaeenouie caacaei/eaie, e?aniuie “ia/aii/iuie eaaeiiyie” (iaeueia?iay
y?eoaia), aeiaeiianoeae e eiiioaioeeae o ioae/ei, aiaii?aae o aeaiuei,
auiaaeaieai aiein; eciaiaieai aaiiaeeiaieee; aeiioiiey ca n/ao ?aceiai
eciaiaiey ia?eoa?e/aneiai nii?ioeaeaiey, eciaiaiey IOeE,
aeia?aeueaeinoa?iieci; caaea?aeea a i?aaiecia iao?ey, oneeaiiia
auaaaeaiea eaeey n auoaeathueie iineaaenoaeyie; iinoaiaiiia iiauoaiea a
e?iae aiieaea, eiaeiea, neaoiea – iiaeao ?acaeoueny ia/aii/iay eiia;
iiauoaiea aenoaieia aeea?ae/aneea ?aaeoeee; iiauoaiea na?ioiieia;
nieaeaiea neioaca aaeeia ia/aiueth; aeiiaeueaoieiaiey,
aeiii?io?iiaeiaiey, aeiioea?eiiaaiaiey, nieaeaiea o?iaiy aiaeioaiceia;
aeaeaci, eioi?ia a ii?ia naycuaaaony aaeeaie, ieacuaaaony a oeaiyo;
ia?ooaiea iaiaia iaaiey e ae?oaeo yeaeo?ieeoia; caaea?aeea aeee?oaeia
(ia auaeaeyaony naycaiiue aeee?oaei-aethei?iieae), ia?ooaaony naycuaaiea
iai?yiiai aeee?oaeia, iiaeao auoue aeia?aeee?oaeiaiey, ii aeaeoooa
ioia/aaony oieueei a 50% neo/aaa.

Ii?oaeueiay aeia?oaicey: eaeao caionoaiea aai, iiaiia?aciaaiea
ninoaeia, aicieeatho a?oa?ei-aaiiciua ooiou. Ana yoi i?eaiaeeo e
ia?ooaieth e?iaiia?auaiey. A oa/aiea 1 iei 1,5 e e?iae iiae aieueoei
aeaaeaieai ia?aoiaeyo a ai?ioioth aaio, i?ienoiaeeo iiauoaiea aeaaeaiey
a nenoaia ai?ioiie aaiu – ?anoe?ythony ninoaeu (aaii??ieaeaeueiua aaiu,
aaiu ieuaaiaea, aeaeoaeea, eeoa/ieea, naeacaii/iay a?oa?ey e aaia).
?anoe?aiiua aaiu aeaeoaeea e ieaeiae o?aoe ieuaaiaea iiaoo aeaaaoue
aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iua e?iaioa/aiey. Aaii??ieaeaeueiua aaiu i?e
iaeueoeaaii enneaaeiaaiee iaia?oaeeaathony a aeaea oceia, iiaoo
auiaaeaoue e ouaieyoueny, aeaaaoue aaii??ieaeaeueiua e?iaioa/aiey.
?anoe?ythony iiaeeiaeiua ieieiioii/iua aaiu – “aieiaa iaaeocu”.

Iaoaieci ia?aciaaiey anoeeoa:

a) i?iiioaaaiea aeeaeeinoe a a?thoioth iieinoue aneaaenoaea iiauoaiey
aeaaeaiey a ai?ioiie aaia

a) niinianoaoao oaeaea aeiiaeueaoieiaiey, ec-ca eioi?ie ?acei nieaeaaony
iieioe/aneia aeaaeaiea ieaciu e?iae

a) ia?ooaaony eeioiia?aciaaiea – eeioa ia/eiaao i?iiioaaaoue n?aco a
a?thoioth iieinoue.

Ae?oaea i?eciaee ii?oaeueiie aeia?oaicee: ?anno?ienoaa AEEO,
iaoai?eci, iiooaeaiea, caaea?aeea ii/aioaeaeaiey, aaiaoieeaiaeueiue
neiae?ii: nieaiiiaaaeey, /anoi n yaeaieyie aeia?nieaiecia (eaeeiiaiey,
o?iiaioeeoiiaiey, aiaiey).

Iauaeoeaii: iniio? aaii??ieaeaeueiuo aai, ?anoe?aiea aai ieuaaiaea
(?aioaaiineiiey, oea?iaano?ineiiey). Eciaiaiey ni noi?iiu
?aoeeoei-yiaeioaeeaeueiie nenoaiu: aaiaoi- e nieaiiiaaaeey,
iieeeeioiaaeaiiiaoey, eiioiieiae/aneea eciaiaiey e ia?anoaiey oeo?a
aioeoae – i?e iaino?aiee oee??ica; oaaee/aiea ieieiooiuo nethiiuo
aeaeac; o?ioe/aneea ia?ooaiey; eiio?aeoo?a Aethieeo?aia (ia?a?iaeaeaiea
oeaie eaaeiiiiai aiiiaa?ica a oea?icioth, eiio?aeoo?a iaeueoeaa).
Au?aaeaiiua eciaiaiey ni noi?iiu ia?aiie nenoaiu.

Iniaaiiinoe eeeieee:

1. Ae?oniue oee??ic (iinoaaiaoeo).

*aua naycai n ae?oniii aaiaoeoii. Oa?aeoa?ii i/aaiaia ii?aaeaiea ia/aie
n ciiaie iae?ica (noa?ia iacaaiea iinoiae?ioe/aneee oee??ic). Yoi
e?oiiioceiaay oi?ia oee??ica, ii eeeieea iaiiieiathuay aeoeaiue aaiaoeo.
Ia ia?aue ieai aunooiaao aaiaoioeaeethey?iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue, neiioiiu
ia?ooaiey anao ooieoeee ia/aie. Iiyaeyaony ii?oaeueiay aeia?oaicey.
Aeeeoaeueiinoue aeecie 1-2 aiaea. I?e/eia nia?oe – ia/aii/iay eiia.

2. Aeeiaieueiue oee??ic. I?ioaeaao n?aaieoaeueii aeia?iea/anoaaiii.
Oa?aeoa?ia ?aiiyy ii?oaeueiay aeia?oaicey. *anoi nenoaiiinoue ii?aaeaiey
– no?aaeaao ia oieueei ia/aiue, ii e OeIN, ia?eoa?e/aneay ia?aiay
nenoaia, iuoa/iay nenoaia e ae?. Iiyaeythony ia?eoa?e/aneea iaa?eou,
nieaeaaony eioaeeaeo. Iiaeao auoue ieiiaoey (iniaaiii /anoi ao?ioey
iea/aauo iuooe). ?aceia iiooaeaiea, oyaeaeue aeiiaeoaieiic, yaeaiey
ieiea?aeeiiaoee. *anoi no?aaeaao aeaeoaeie, iiaeaeaeoaei/iay aeaeaca
(aano?eo, ycaa aeaeoaeea, iaie?aaoeo). Aiaiey.

I?e/eiu aiaiee:

a) aieueoie iaaeinoaoie aeoaieiia (ia?aaeei aiaiey aeia?o?iiiay,
iae?ioeeoa?iay, iaaeinoaoie aeoaieia A12

a) aeaoeoeeo aeaeaca

a) oiene/aneia aeeyiea yoaiiea ia ia/aiue

ae) e?iaioa/aiea ec aa?eeicii-?anoe?aiiuo aai AEEO. E?iia oiai, /anoi
iaaethaeaaony aeia?eaeeioeeoic, caiaaeeaiiia NIY, ii iiaeao auoue e
onei?aiiia; aeiii?ioaeiaiey.

3. Aeeea?iue oee??ic. Naycai n canoiai aeae/e – oieanoacii. *aua
aicieeaao o aeaiuei a aic?anoa 50-60 eao. Ioiineoaeueii
aeia?iea/anoaaiiia oa/aiea. I?ioaeaao n eiaeiui coaeii, eioi?ue iiaeao
iiyaeoueny caaeieai aei aeaeoooe.

Oieanoac iiaeao auoue ia?ae/iui e aoi?e/iui, eae e oee??ic: ia?ae/iue –
enoiae oieanoaoe/aneiai aaiaoeoa, aoi?e/iue – enoiae iiaeia/aii/iiai
oieanoaca.

E?iia eiaeiiai coaea oa?aeoa?iu e ae?oaea i?eciaee oieaiee:
a?aaeeea?aeey, aeiioiiey, caeaiiaaoay ie?anea eiaee.

I?eciaee aeia?oieanoa?eiaiee: enaioiiaoic, noaaoi?ay. Oieanoac
i?eaiaeeo oaeaea e inoaiii?ico, iiauoaieth eiieinoe einoae. Iiauoaaony
aeoeaiinoue uaei/iie oinoaoacu. Aeee?oaei i?yiie aei 2 ia%. Ia/aiue
oaaee/aiiay, ieioiay. I?e aoi?e/iii aeeea?iii oee??ica –
i?aaeoanoaothuee eee ?aoeeaeeae?othuee aieaaie neiae?ii (/aua eaiaiue a
aeae/iuo iooyo). Oaeaea auaaao iciia, eeoi?aaeea, ae?oaea i?eciaee
ainiaeaiey aeae/iuo oiaeia. Oaaee/aiiay aacaieaciaiiay ia/aiue,
iaeeioceiaay. Naeacaiea ieeiaaea ia oaaee/eaaaony.

4. Eaea?noaaiiue oee??ic. Caaeneo io aeeeoaeueiinoe i?eiaiaiey eaea?noa
e eo iaia?aiineiinoe: ooaaceae, IANE, i?aia?aou AEIE e ae?oaea
i?ioeaiooaa?eoeaciua i?aia?aou; aieiacei (aucuaaao aioo?eia/aii/iue
oieanoac), ei?aceae (eiaeaeoi? IAI – a 5% aucuaaao ii?aaeaiea ia/aie),
aeiiaaeae, ia?aaie e ae?.

I?ioaeaao /aua anaai eae oieanoaoe/aneee. Ii?oaeueiay aeia?oaicey.
Iieacaoaee aeoeaiinoe oee??ica: iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u, aunieay
aeoeaiinoue oa?iaioia, i?ia?anne?othuaa ia?ooaiea iaiaia aauanoa,
iiauoaiea aeueoa-2 e aaiia-aeiaoeeiia, aunieia niaea?aeaiea neaeiauo
eeneio.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiay aeeaaiinoeea

1. Iaaeii/a/iue aeie. Naycai n ia?ooaieai iooiea e?iae a ia/aii/iie aaia
(o?iiaic, a?iaeaeaiiia noaeaiea). ?acaeaaaony ii?oaeueiay aeia?oaicey.
Neiae?ii Aaoeea?e. Eeeie/aneea i?iyaeaiey caaenyo io oiai, ianeieueei
auno?i i?ia?anne?oao ii?oaeueiay aeia?oaicey.

2. Iiaeia/aii/iue aeie. Naycai n ii?aaeaieai ai?ioiie aaiu (o?iiaic,
naeaaeaiea ecaia). Eeeieea – oyaeaeua aiee, eeoi?aaeea, eaeeioeeoic,
auno?ia ia?ooaiea ooieoeee ia/aie.

3. Aioo?eia/aii/iue ii?oaeueiue aeie – oee??ic ia/aie. Anee iao /aoeiai
yoeieiae/aneiai oaeoi?a, oi eniieuecotho nieaiia?aoeth (eiio?anoiia
aauanoai aaiaeeony a naeacaieo e /a?ac 6-7 nae iii auaiaeeony ec
ia/aie). Anee eiaao ianoi aeeea?iue oee??ic, ioaeii onoaiiaeoue o?iaaiue
oieanoaca (ia?ae/iue eee aoi?e/iue). Eniieuecotho oieaiaeia?aoeth.

Oee??ic iaeiieaiey (aaiio?iiaoic) – ieaiaioiue oee??ic, a?iiciaue
aeeaaao, naycai n aeaoeoeeoii oa?iaioa, inouanoaeythuaai naycue aeaeaca
n aaeeii e, oai naiui, ?aaoee?othuaai aai ananuaaiea. I?e yoii aeaoaeoa
aeaeaci oneeaiii ananuaaaony a eeoa/ieea e, iaaeinoaoi/ii naycuaaynue n
aaeeii, ia/eiaao oneeaiii ioeeaaeuaaoueny a ia/aie, eiaea,
iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeaca, ieiea?aea, eiiaaea a iaaeii/a/ieeao. A ia/aie
aeaeaci iaeaieeaaaony a eeaoeao ?YN – iaaethaeaaony aieueoay
iaeeioceiaaoay ia/aiue. *anoi ia?ooaaony eiaeoeaaoeey iieiauo ai?iiiia.
Aeiieie?otho i?eciaee ii?oaeueiie aeia?oaicee. Eiaea eiaao na?i-a?ycioth
ieaiaioaoeeth, oi aea ia – neecenouo, eiaea noaiiaeony iniaaiii oaiiie,
anee aeaeaci ioeeaaeuaaaony a iaaeii/a/ieeao – neiioii iaaeii/a/ieeiaie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe. I?e ii?aaeaiee iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeacu – neiae?ii
naoa?iiai aeeaaaoa. I?e ieiea?aeeiaoeyo oyaeaeua iaia?aoeiua ia?ooaiey
?eoia. Aeey aeeaaiinoeee ii?aaeaeytho o?iaaiue aeaeaca a e?iae, aeaeatho
ioieoeeiiaeueioth aeiineth ia/aie.

4. Aieaciue Aeeueniia-Eiiiaaeiaa – ae?oaie oee??ic iaeiieaiey
(aaiaoieaioeeoey?iay aeaaaia?aoeey). A iniiaa caaieaaaiey eaaeeo
ia?ooaiea iaiaia iaaee, naycaiiia n a?iaeaeaiiui aeaoaeoii. Ii?iaeueiay
eiioeaio?aoeey a ieacia e?iae ninoaaeyao 100-120 iea%, i?e/ai 93% yoiai
eiee/anoaa iaoiaeeony a aeaea oea?oeiieacieia e oieueei 7% naycaii n
nuai?ioi/iuie aeueaoieiaie. Iaaeue a oea?oeiieacieia naycaia i?i/ii.
Yoio i?ioeann inouanoaeyaony a ia/aie. Oea?oeiieaciei yaeyaony aeueoa-2
aeiaoeeiii, e eaaeaeay aai iieaeoea niaea?aeeo 8 aoiiia iaaee.
?aaeeiecioiiiuie iaoiaeaie onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e aaiaoieaioeeoey?iie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe ia?ooaiea naycaii n aaiaoe/aneei aeaoaeoii neioaca
oea?oeiieacieia, ec-ca /aai niaea?aeaiea aai ?acei nieaeaii. I?e yoii
iaaeue ia iiaeao auoue noaaeeueii naycaia e ioeeaaeuaaaony a oeaiyo. A
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo niaea?aeaiea oea?oeiieacieia inoaaony ii?iaeueiui, ii
iaiyaony aai no?oeoo?a (eciaiyaony ioiioaiea o?aeoeee). Iniaaiii o?iiia
iaaeue i?e neiae?iia Aeeueniia-Eiiiaaeiaa e ia/aie, yae?ai iicaa,
ii/eai, yiaeie?eiiui aeaeacai, ?iaiaeoea. I?e yoii iaaeue ia/eiaao
aeaenoaiaaoue eae oiene/aneee aaaio, aucuaay oeie/iua aeaaaia?aoeaiua
eciaiaiey a yoeo i?aaiao.

Eeeieea

I?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue neiae?iiia, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey
ii?aaeaiey ia/aie e yeno?aie?aieaeaeueiie ia?aiie nenoaiu. Ii oa/aieth
?acee/atho ino?oth e o?iie/aneoth oi?iu. Ino?ay oi?ia oa?aeoa?ia aeey
?aiiaai aic?anoa, ?acaeaaaony iieieaiinii e eii/aaony eaoaeueii,
ianiio?y ia ea/aiea. *aua ano?a/aaony o?iie/aneay oi?ia n iaaeeaiiui
oa/aieai e iinoaiaiiui ?acaeoeai neiioiiaoeee. ?aiueoa anaai iiyaeyaony
yeno?a ie?aieaeaeueiay iuoa/iay ?eaeaeiinoue ieaeieo eiia/iinoae
(ia?ooaiea iioiaeee e onoie/eainoe). Iinoaiaiii oi?ie?oaony ea?oeia
ia?eeiniiecia, caoai eciaiyaony ineoeea (ia?aiieaeaeueiua ?aaeoeee,
enoa?ey). Eiiaaea ia ia?aue ieai aunooiaao ia/aii/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue:
oaaee/aiea ia/aie, ea?oeia iaiiieiaao oee??ic eee o?iie/aneee aeoeaiue
aaiaoeo.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiui i?eciaeii yaeyaony aeiieoi?aiey ieaea 10 iea% eee
o?iaaiue iaaee aea?aeeony ia ieaeiae a?aieoea ii?iu, iiiai iaaee
auaeaeyaony n ii/ie – nauoa 100 iea/noo. Iiaeao auoue iieiaeeoaeueiay
oeiieiaay i?iaa. Aaaeiui neiioiiii yaeyaony eieueoei Eaeca?a-Oeaeoa?a
(neiaaaoi-caeaiia eee ei?e/iaaaoi-caeaiia ii ia?eoa?ee ?iaiaeoeu ec-ca
ioeiaeaiey iaaee). Ea/aiea iai?aaeaii ia naycuaaiea iaaee e auaaaeaiea
aa ec i?aaiecia: i?eiaiytho eoi?aiee (Ae-iaieoeeeeeiaiei), a oaeaea
oieoie + aeeaoa n eneeth/aieai iaaee (oieieaae, eaeai, ai?io, ia/aiue,
?aeaiie oeaa).

Ineiaeiaiey oee??ica ia/aie

1. E?iaioa/aiea.

2. I?eniaaeeiaiea eioaeoeee.

3. Aicieeiiaaiea iiooiee.

4. Ia/aii/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue

AIEUeOAss IA*AII*IAss IAAeINOAOI*IINOUe

A iniiaa eaaeeo iinooieaiea a e?iaioie aieueoeo eiee/anoa oiene/aneeo
i?iaeoeoia aaeeiaiai iaiaia, eioi?ua iaaeinoaoi/ii iaaca?aaeeaathony
ia/aiueth (aiieae, oaiie, iaoeiiei, o?eioioai, eiaeie, neaoie).
Auaeaeytho aeaa oeia ia/aii/iie eiiu:

1. Ia/aii/ii-eeaoi/iay eiia (aieaa oyaeaeue aa?eaio).

2. Ii?oa-eaaaeueiay oi?ia.

Ia?aay naycaia n i?ia?anne?othuei iae?icii ia/aii/iuo eeaoie, i?e yoii
ia?acothony aeiiieieoaeueii oiene/aneea i?iaeoeou, ionthaea aieaa
oyaeaeay eeeieea. Ii?oi-eaaaeueiua oi?iu aicieeatho a oneiaeyo ?aceiai
iiauoaiey aeaaeaiey a ai?ioiie aaia – ioe?uaathony ooiou, ia/eiaaony
na?anuaaiea e?iae, ieioy ia/aiue, no?aaeatho ia/aii/iua eeaoee.
Eeeie/aneea i?eciaee naycaiu n iaeiieaieai a e?iae oea?aa?i-oiene/aneeo
i?iaeoeoia. A e?iae ia?ooaaony uaei/ii-eeneioiia ?aaiiaanea, ia?ooaaony
niioiioaiea iiei/iie e ie?iaeiia?aaeiie eeneio. Naeaea a eeneoth noi?iio
i?eaiaeeo e aioo?eeeaoi/iiio aoeeaeico, /oi i?iyaeyaony a ioaea iicaa e
ia/aie.

Aoeeaeic oaeaea niinianoaoao aoiaeo eaeey e aioo?eeeaoi/iie
aeiieaeeaiee. Aicieeaao aoi?e/iue aeia?aeueaeinoa?iieci, eioi?ue aua
aieueoa onoaoaeyao aeiieaeeaieth. Ia?ooaaony iee?ioee?eoeyoeey. N
ii?aaeaieai OeIN naycaii ia?ooaiea ineoe/aneiai noaoona:
iaiioeae?iaaiiua iinooiee, ia?anoaiea aaeeiaiee, aaeethoeeiaoeee e
a?aae, ineoioe/aneia ninoiyiea, o?aii? eiia/iinoae, neaainoue,
iaaeiiiaaiea. Aeaeaa aicieeatho eeeie/aneea noaei?iae, ia?aoiaeyuea ia
ioaeaeueiua a?oiiu iuooe, a oyaeaeuo neo/ayo – iai?iecaieueiia
ii/aenioneaiea, aeaoaeaoeey. Iinoaiaiiue ia?aoiae a eiio. Ia?anoaao
aeaeoooa, oaaee/eaaaony oaiia?aoo?a. I?eniaaeeiyaony aaii??aae/aneee
neiae?ii, ia/aiue ia?aaeei oiaiueoaaony a ?acia?ao (aeaeoay ao?ioey
ia/aie), en/acaao eiaeiue coae (i?ae?auaiea neioaca aeae/iuo eeneio).

Ia/aii/ioth eiio i?iaioee?otho:

1. E?iaioa/aiea ec aa?eeicii ?anoe?aiiuo aai ieuaaiaea (aiaiey,
aeiii?ioaeiaiey).

2. Ananuaaiea ec eeoa/ieea i?iaeoeoia ?aniaaea e?iae – aua aieueoa
ia?anoaao eioieneeaoeey.

3. I?eai eaea?noa, iniaaiii aaiaoioiene/aneeo (aa?aeoo?aou, a?oiia
ii?oey).

4. Eioa?eo?aioiay eioaeoeey.

5. No?ann.

6. Ia?ooaiea aeeaou (ecauoie aaeeia – aiiea/iay eioieneeaoeey).

7. Oyaeaeua iia?aoeaiua aiaoaoaeuenoaa.

8. Oiio?aaeaiea aeeiaiey.

A eiiao iiaeaatho 80% aieueiuo.

Ea/aiea oee??ica

1. Ono?aiaiea, ii aiciiaeiinoe, yoeieiae/aneiai oaeoi?a.

2. Aeeaoa: noie N 5 – ono?aiaiea o?oaeiiia?aaa?eiuo aee?ia, aeinoaoi/iia
eiee/anoai aeoaieiia a?oiiu A, ia?aie/aiea iiaa?aiiie niee. ?acoiiia
ia?aie/aiea aaeea. Aaeie ia?aie/eaatho aei o?iaiy, i?e eioi?ii iao
i?eciaeia yioeaoaeiiaoee, aneaaenoaea aiiea/iie eioieneeaoeee.

Neiioiiaoe/aneay oa?aiey

a) Anee i?aiaeaaeaao ia/aii/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue – aetheica, aeoaieiu
A, N e ae?., ne?aia?.

a) I?e ii?oaeueiie aeia?oaicee e anoeeoa – naeo?aoeee a eiiieaena n
aa?ioia?iiii, ieaciicaiaieoaee, aiaaieeoe/aneea ai?iiiu, aannieaaay
aeeaoa.

a) I?e i?eciaeao oieanoaca – oaiiaa?aeoae, oieanoe?aiei aei 15 ia/noo
aioo?ue, aee?i?anoai?eiua aeoaieiu A e D, aetheiiao eaeueoeey.

a) I?e eioa?eo?aioiuo eioaeoeeyo aioeaeioeee oe?ieiai niaeo?a aeaenoaey.

Iaoiaaiaoe/aneay oa?aiey

I?aaeiecieii 20-30 ia/noo, oeeoinoaoeee; eio?ai 50-100 ia/noo,
iiaeaaiee, aeaeaaee.

Iieacaiey:

a) oaca iaino?aiey, aeoeaiay oaca n i?eciaeaie iiauoaiiie
eiioiieiae/aneie ?aaeoeaiinoe

a) ia?ae/iue aeeea?iue oee??ic.

Ea/aiea ia/aii/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe

1. Aeeaoa n ia?aie/aieai aaeeia aei 55 a/noo.

2. Aaeaaeiaaiia i/euaiea eeoa/ieea neaaeoaeueiuie eee eeeciie.

3. Iiaeaaeaiea eeoa/iie iee?ioei?u: i?aia?aou aaiaeyo ia? i?aeueii eee
/a?ac ciiae: eaiaieoeeia noeueoao 0,5o2, aiieoeeeeei, oao?aoeeeeei
1a/noo,

4. Aeey oeo/oaiey ooieoeee ia/aie: eiea?aieneeaca 100 ia/noo, ?anoai?
ie?eaeieneia 5% 2,0, ?anoai? oeeaiieiaieaieia 0,01% 1.0, ?anoai?
anei?aeiiaie eeneiou 5% 20.0, aetheica, i?aia?aou eaeey.

5. Aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey eeneioii-uaei/iiai ?aaiiaaney – iao?ey aeea?aiiao
4% a/a.

6. Iaiaiaei 30,0, i?aaeiecieii 120-150 ia a/a, eaiaeueii. Iaeuecy
aaiaeeoue ii?oei e ii/aaiiiua.

7. I?e ineoiiioi?iii aicaoaeaeaiee: AAIE 100 ia/ea aana aieueiiai,
aaeiia?eaeie, oei?aeaeae?ao a eeecia 1,0.

8. Aeey iaaca?aaeeaaiey aiieaea: 1-a?aei 25-75 a/noo ia 5% ?anoai?a
aetheicu; aethoaieiiaay eeneioa 30-40 ia.

9. Eaaiaeiia 1-3 a/noo.

10. Eiyicei A 240 ia.

11. A-eeiiaaay eeneioa 65 ia.

O?IIE*ANEEE AANO?EO

Naiay /anoay aieaciue ec aioo?aiieo caaieaaaiee. O?iie/aneee aano?eo –
eeeieei-aiaoiie/aneia iiiyoea.

1. Ii?oieiae/aneea eciaiaiey neecenoie iaiei/ee ianiaoeeoe/iu,
ainiaeeoaeueiue i?ioeann i/aaiaue eee aeeooociue.

2. No?oeoo?iay ia?ano?ieea neecenoie n ia?ooaieai ?aaaia?aoeee e
ao?ioeae.

3. Ianiaoeeoe/aneea eeeie/aneea i?iyaeaiey.

4. Ia?ooaiey nae?aoi?iie, iioi?iie, /anoe/ii eie?aoi?iie ooieoeee.

*anoioa o?iie/aneiai aano?eoa n eaaeaeui aiaeii ?anoao. Ia 1, 4 e 70
aiaeai iiaeao auoue o eaaeaeiai, iieeyoeieiae/aneia caaieaaaiea, ii
enoeiiay i?e/eia iaecaanoia. 2 a?oiiu, oae iacuaaaiuo, yoeieiae/aneeo
oaeoi?ia:

1. Yeciaaiiua.

Aeeeoaeueiia ia?ooaiea ?aaeeia e ?eoia ieoaiey; aeeeoaeueiia
oiio?aaeaiea ieue iniaiai ea/anoaa, ?acae?aaeathuae aeaeoaeie;
aeeeoaeueiia oiio?aaeaiea aeeiaiey; aeeeoaeueiia eo?aiea; aeeeoaeueiia
i?eiaiaiea eaea?noa, oi?ie?othueo aano?eo (noeueoaieeaieaeu, ?aca?iei,
oei?eae eaeey); aeeeoaeueiue eiioaeo n i?ioa?aaeiinoyie (iueue, ia?u
uaei/ae e eeneio) – ino?ue aano?iaaiiue oaeoi?. Nae/an ii iiaeaa?aaaony
niiiaieth.

2. Yiaeiaaiiua.

Aeeeoaeueiia ia?aiia iai?yaeaiea; yiaeie?eiiua (naoa?iue aeeaaao,
oe?aioieneeic, aeiioe?aic); o?iie/aneee aeaoeoeeo aeoaieia A-12,
aeaeaca; o?iie/aneee ecauoie oieneiia i?e o?iie/aneie ii/a/iie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe; o?iie/aneea eioaeoeee, aeea?ae/aneea caaieaaaiey;
aeiieney i?e NI e eaai/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.

Iau/ii eiaao cia/aiea eiiaeiaoeey yiaei- e yecioaeoi?ia.

Iaoiaaiac

Iauea iaoiaaiiua iaoaieciu:

1. Iia?aaeaeaiea, i?i?ua caueoiiai neecenoiai aa?uea?a aeaeoaeea.

2. Oeaio?aeueiia caaii – aeieaaea ?aaaia?aoeee aeaeacenoiai yieoaeey;
aicieeatho iaeiaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiua eeaoee. I?e/eiu aeieaaeu ia
ecaanoiu. A ?acoeueoaoa nieaeaaony ooieoeeiiaeueiay aeoeaiinoue aeaeac,
auno?ia iooi?aeaiea iaiieiioeaiiuo eeaoie. Iiaiia?aciaaiea eeaoie
ionoaao io iooi?aeaiey. A eoiaa yoi aaaeao e ao?ioee aeaaiuo e
iaeeaaei/iuo eeaoie.

3. Ia?ano?ieea aeaeac yieoaeey ii oeio eeoa/iiai – yioa?aeecaoeey.

4. Eiioiieiae/aneea ia?ooaiey – aioeoaea e iaeeaaei/iui eeaoeai,
aioo?aiiaio oaeoi?o Eanoea e aeaaea e aeaaiui eeaoeai.

Oeiu o?iie/aneiai aano?eoa ii No?eeeaiae Iae Eye:

I?eciaeOei AOei A1. Ninoiyiea aio?aeueiie neecenoieIau/ii a ii?iaIau/ii
aano?eo2. Ninoiyiea ooiaeaeueiie neecenoieIau/ii aano?eoIau/ii a ii?ia3.
Aioeoaea e iaeeaaei/iui eeaoeaiAnoueIao4. O?iaaiue aano?eia a
e?iaeAunieeeIeceee5. Naycue n ia?ieoeeiciie aiaieae*anoayIonoonoaoao

*anoiua iaoaieciu. Iniaaiiinoe aano?eoa, iaoneiaeaiiiai yecioaeoi?aie:

1) Eciaiaiey neecenoie aeaeoaeea iinyo ia?ae/ii-ainiaeeoaeueiue
oa?aeoa?, eioeeueo?aoeey, ioae, aeia?aiey.

2) Ii?aaeaiea ia/eiaaony n aio?aeueiiai ioaeaea e ?ani?ino?aiyaony ii
anaio aeaeoaeeo (aio?aeueiay yeniainey).

3) Iaaeeaiiia i?ia?anne?iaaiea.

Naycaiiua n yiaeiaaiiuie oaeoi?aie:

1) Ia?ae/ii aicieeatho eciaiaiey ia ainiaeeoaeueiie i?e?iaeu,
ainiaeeoaeueiue eiiiiiaio aoi?e/ai, au?aaeai neaai.

2) Ia/eiaaony n oaea aeaeoaeea.

3) ?aii ?acaeaaaony ao?ioey e aoeeey.

Iniaaiiinoue aio?aeueiiai (ieei?iaeoiaeaieo, aieaaie aano?eo).

Ii iaoiaaiaco aeecie e ycaaiiie aieacie:

1) Aeia?ieacey ooiaeaeueiuo aeaeac.

2) Iiauoaiea nae?aoi?iie aeoeaiinoe.

3) Aoeeaeioe/aneia iia?aaeaeaiea neecenoie.

A yoeieiaee aano?eoa aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao Helicobacter pilori. Aai
iniaaiiinoe:

1) Aeoeaii ?anuaieyao ii/aaeio, ie?oaeaao naay iaea/eii aiiiiey, oae
caueuaao naay io nieyiie eeneiou.

2) Nio?aiyao aeecianiiniaiinoue i?e pH=2.

3) Aunieay eaoaeaciay aeoeaiinoue e oinoaoaciay aeoeaiinoue caueoa io
oaaioeeoica.

O ian eeanneoeeaoeey N.I. ?unna. Ii yoeieiaee: yeci- e yiaeiaaiiue.

Ii ii?oieiaee:

1. Iiaa?oiinoiue.

2. N ii?aaeaieai aeaeac aac ao?ioee.

3. Ao?ioe/aneee (oia?aiiue, au?aaeaiiue, n yioa?aeecaoeeae).

4. Aeia?o?ioe/aneee.

5. Aio?aeueiue.

6. Y?iceaiue.

Ii ooieoeeiiaeueiiio i?eciaeo:

1. N ii?iaeueiie nae?aoi?iie ooieoeeae.

2. N nae?aoi?iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth.

3. N iiauoaiiie ooieoeeae.

ii eeeie/aneiio oa/aieth:

1. Oaca ?aiennee.

2. Iaino?aiiay.

3. Caoeoathuaai iaino?aiey.

Niaoeeaeueiua aeaeu: ?eaeaeiue, aeaaioneee aeia?o?ioe/aneee – aieaciue
Iaiao?ea. Iieeiiciue.

Eeeieea

Iao niaoeeoe/aneeo eeeie/aneeo neiioiiia, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
aeia?aeeaaiinoeea caaieaaaiey. Iiaeao i?ioaeaoue aac eeeie/aneeo
i?iyaeaiee. Aaeeea ?ieue aano?ineiiee e i?eoeaeueiie aeiinee.

Nouanoaoao 7 iniiaiuo neiae?iiia:

1) Neiae?ii aeaeoaei/iie aeeniainee. I?e aeia? – /aua ecaeiaa, eeneay
io?uaeea; i?e aeii – oioiioa, ai?ueeay oooeay io?uaeea.

2) Aieaaie neiae?ii, 3 aeaea:

a) ?aiiea aiee n?aco iinea aaeu

a) iicaeiea, aieiaeiua /a?ac 2 /ana; oa?aeoa?iu aeey aio?aeueiiai
aeoiaeaieoa.

a) 2-o aieiiaua, aicieeatho i?e i?eniaaeeiaiee aeoiaeaieoa.

3) Neiae?ii eeoa/iie aeeniainee, i?e nae?aoi?iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.

4) Aeaiieiaiiiaeiaiue – iinea aaeu neaainoue, aieiaie?oaeaiea.

5) Iieeaeiiaeoaieiic. AEaeaiea ycuea, ia iai inoathony ioia/aoee coaia.
Caaaeu a oaeao ?oa, oaeooaiea eiaee, auiaaeaiea aiein, eiieinoue iiaoae.

6) Aiaie/aneee: aeaeaci e A12.

7) Anoaiiiaa?ioe/aneee. *anoi auaaao o aeaiuei.

I?e iauaeoeaiii enneaaeiaaiee iaei /aai auyaeyaony, i?e iaeueiaoeee –
iaaieueoay aieaciaiiinoue a iiaeeiaea/iie iaeanoe. Iiaeao iaaethaeaoueny
aeaoeoeeo E+ (aeaeii ia YEA: nieaeaiea ST e io?eoeaoaeueiue O),
aeaoeoeeo eaeueoeey, iiaeao auoue aeeaeic, oa?iaioaoeaiua eciaiaiey,
neiae?ii iieea?aiaeoey?iie yiaeie?eiiie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe (ia?ooaiea
iieiaie ooieoeee, oia?aiiay iaaeii/a/ieeiaay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue).

Ianeaaeiaaiea:

1) Eeeie/aneee aiaeec e?iae.

2) Eae ia ?aaeoeeth A?aaa?naia.

3) Aenoaieiiaue oano.

4) ?aioaai (?aioaaiieiae/aneeo i?eciaeia aano?eoa iao), iaiaoiaeei aeey
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee n ycaaiiie aieaciueth e ?aeii.

5) OAN i?eoeaeueiay iiiaeanoaaiiay, nooiai/aoay aeiiney.

6) Oa?iia?aoey, auyaeyao a 100% neo/aaa.

5 a?oii ineiaeiaiee:

1. Aiaiey – aicieeaao i?e y?iceaiii e ao?ioe/aneii.

2. E?iaioa/aiea – i?e y?iceaiii.

3. Iaie?aaoeo, oieaoeenoeo, yioa?ieieeo.

4. I?aaeuycaaiiia ninoiyiea e ycaa, iniaaiii i?e ieeo?iaeoiaeaieoa.

5. ?ae aeaeoaeea.

Aeieacaii: aieueiua n ia?ae/iui ii?aaeaieai aio?aeueiiai ioaeaea e
aio?iea?aeeaeueiie yeniaineae (ia a?aieoea iaaeaeo caei?iaie e aieueiie
ea?aeeaeueiie yeniaineae (ia a?aieoea iaaeaeo caei?iaie e aieueiie
oeaiueth). Naiaeiue aiaiiac ?aea – a 4 ?aca auoa aa?iyoiinoue
caaieaaaiey. Ionoonoaea eiioiieiae/aneeo ?aaeoeee, II a?oiia e?iae Rh+.
E i?eciaeai ?aiiaai ?aea ioiinyony eciaiaiea oa?aeoa?a ?aiaa
nouanoaiaaaoaai neiioiia, iiyaeaiea neiae?iia iaeuo i?eciaeia,
aani?e/eiiay neaainoue, auno?ay ianuuaaiinoue ieuae, oooaeoaiea
aiiaoeoa.

Ea/aiea

Eae i?aaeei aiaoeaoi?iia, aac aieueie/iiai.

Iieacaiey e ainieoaeecaoeee:

1. Iaee/ea ineiaeiaiee.

2. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiai aeeaaiica, i?aaeaea anaai – n
?aeii aeaeoaeea.

Ea/aiea caaeneo io nae?aoi?iie aeoeaiinoe, oacu caaieaaaiey, i?e yiaei-
io iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey.

I?eioeeiu aeeaou: iaoaie/aneia, oeie/aneia, oaiia?aoo?iia uaaeaiea;
ieoaiea 4-5 ?ac a aeaiue. I?eai ieue a no?iai uaaeyuaai ieoaiey a?aaeii
– eiaaeeae io aeeaou. I?e nae?aoi?iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe noie N 2 eiaao
aeinoaoi/iia nieiaiiiia aeaenoaea. I?e nio?aiaiiie e iiauoaiiie
nae?aoeee – noie N 1. I?e iaino?aiee – 1-A.

9 iniiaiuo a?oii eaea?noa:

1. I?e nae?aoi?iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe: iaoo?aeueiue aeaeoaei/iue nie ii 1
no. Eiaeea ai a?aiy aaeu. ?acaiaeeoue HCl ii 10-15 eaiaeue a 1/4 noaeaia
aiaeu ai a?aiy aaeu. Aoeaaeei-iainei – 1 oaa. ?anoai?eoue a 1/2 noaeaia
aiaeu, oaeaea ai a?aiy aaeu.

2. Oa?iaioaoeaiua i?aia?aou: iaie?aaoei, oanoae, iaiceii?i, oieaicei,
iaenaca e ae?.

3. Niaciieeoeee: oieeiieeoeee (i?e aeia?nae?aoeee): ieaoeoeeei,
iaoaoeei, ao?iiei, ieio?iiiua (aaeeaei?, ii-oia, iaiaaa?ei).

4. Aioaoeeaeu: i?e iiauoaiiie nae?aoeee, i?e iiei?iaeoiaeaieoa:
aeueiaaaeue, nianue Ao?aea (aa ninoaa: Na aeea?aiiao 8.0, Na oinoao 4.0,
Na noeueoao 2.0 – a 0,5 e aiaeu) – ieoue a oa/aiea aeiy. Aeeaeei,
aeeae?, aeueiaaaeue /a?ac 1 e 2,5 /ana iinea i?eaia ieue ii 1-2 noieiaua
eiaeee (i?e 3-o ?aciaii ieoaiee) + 1 eiaeeo ia?aae niii, anaai 7 eiaeae
a nooee.

5. Ai?a/e, eniieuecotho aeey oeo/oaiey aiiaoeoa, /anoi i?e iiieaeaiiie
nae?aoi?iie aeoeaiinoe: aiiaoeoiue /ae, a?aiaoiaue nie, ei?aiue
iaeoaai/eea (ii 1 /aeiie eiaeea ia noaeai eeiyoea, ianoaeaaoue 20 iei.,
ioeaaeeoue, i?ioeaaeeoue e ii 1/4 noaeaia ca 30 iei aei aaeu).

6. I?ioeaiainiaeeoaeueiua. Naiue eo/oee – Aea-Iie.

7. N?aaenoaa, oeo/oathuea ?aaaia?aoeeth: aeoaieiu, iaoaoeee, iaioienee,
iaeaieoiaia ianei ii 1 /aeiie eiaeea a 3 ?aca a aeaiue, ia?aaie,
?aoaaieee.

8. Aetheiei?oeeieaeu, i?eiaiythony a iniiaiii i?e ia?ieoeeiciie aiaiee.

9. Aioeaaeoa?eaeueiay oa?aiey: iaoaieaeacie, aiieneoeeeei, i?aia?aou
iaeeaeeeniaie eeneiou.

Oeceioa?aiey n aieueoie inoi?iaeiinoueth: aaniethoii iaeuecy i?e
iaeaeoai iiaeic?aiee ia iaeeaiecaoeeth.

Yaiethoeey o?iie/aneiai aano?eoa:

1) Iiauoaiea ao?ioee e aoeeee.

2) O?ainoi?iaoeey a ycaaiioth aieaciue.

3) O?ainoi?iaoeey a ?ae.

4) Iiaeii aeiionoeoue e aucaei?iaeaiea.

ssCAAIIAss AIEACIUe

Yoi iauaa o?iie/aneia ?aoeeaeeae?othuaa caaieaaaiea, oa?aeoa?ecothuaany
i?aeiouanoaaiii naciiiuie iaino?aieyie n iiyaeaieai ycau a noaiea
aeaeoaeea eee 12-ia?noiie eeoee. Ii ca iineaaeiea 10 eao naciiiinoue
noaea niacaiiie – iaino?aiey noaee aicieeaoue aeaaea a oaieia a?aiy
aiaea. Ii eieaeecaoeee aeaeyo ia ieei?iaeoiaeaiaeueioth e
iaaeeiaano?aeueioth.

Yoeieiaey

1. Ia?aii-ineoe/aneee no?ann.

2. Ia?ooaiea ieoaiey.

3. Aeieiae/aneea aeaoaeou, ianeaaeoaiua i?e ?iaeaeaiee.

?ieue ianeaaenoaaiiie i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoe ianiiiaiia, iniaaiii i?e
ieei?iaeoiaeaiaeueiie eieaeecaoeee.

Aiaoiea niinianoaothuea oaeoi?u:

1) Aeeiaioa?iua. Io?eoeaoaeueiia y?ice?othuaa aeeyiea ia neecenooth e
ieua, noeioee?othuay aeoeaioth nae?aoeeth aeaeoaei/iiai niea (a ii?ia
o?aaiu neecenoie caaeeaatho ca 5 aeiae). Ino?ua, i?yiua, eii/aiua
i?iaeoeou, naaaeay naeiaa (ie?iae, aeeiu), aieueoie iauai ieue,
oieiaeiay ieua, nei?aa anaai oi aea ia?aaoey?iia ieoaiea, nooiyaeaiea,
?aoeie?iaaiiua i?iaeoeou, eioa.

2) Eo?aiea – aeinoiaa?ii.

I?yiia oeueoee?iaaiiia aeaenoaea aeeiaiey ia aeieacaii, oioy ii
iaeaaeaao iiuiui nieiaiiiui aeaenoaeai e ia eiaao aioaoeeaeiiai.

Aanu Oay: caueoa/aa?anney. Anee caueoa e aa?anney o?aaiaiu, oi ycaaiiie
aieacie ia aoaeao. Iaoieiaey aicieeaao, eae oieueei ia?ooaaony
/oi-ieaoaeue ec ieo.

Oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia iaoiaaiac (aioo?aiiea):

1) Eeneioii-iaioe/aneee – iiauoaiea nae?aoeee HCl, oaaee/aiea 6-eeaoie,
o/anoaothueo a au?aaioea HCl.

2) Nieaeaiea iinooieaiey uaei/iiai aeoiaeaiaeueii-iaie?aioe/aneiai niea.

3) Ia?ooaiea eii?aeeiaoeee iaaeaeo nae?aoeeae aeaeoaei/iiai niea e
nae?aoeeae uaei/iiai aeoiaeaiaeueiiai niaea?aeeiiai.

4) Ia?ooaiiue ninoaa neecenoiai iie?uoey yieoaeey aeaeoaeea
(ioeiaeeeii?ioaeaeu, niinianoaothuea ?aia?aoeee neecenoie. Yoi aauanoai
iacuaatho no?oieoaioii aeaeoaeea, iii iie?uaaao neecenooth neiai e
caueuaao aa io iaeiaa).

5) Nae?aoeey oeueoee?iaaiiie o?aeoeee iaineiiaaiia.

Caueoiua oaeoi?u:

1) Aaeaeaaoiue eaieeey?iue e?iaioie a iiaeneecenoii neia.

2) Au?aaioea i?ioaeoi?iiai IA eeaoeaie aeaeoaeea.

3) Noeioeyoeey nae?aoeee neece eeaoeaie aeaeoaeea e 12-ia?noiie eeoee e
au?aaioea aeea?aiiaoia. Iia inouanoaeyaony ?aoeaeoi?ii (niinianoaoao
iuaea/eaaieth n?aaeu).

4) A 1983 aiaeo Oi??ai e Ia?oaee auaeaeeee ec neecenoie iaiei/ee
Campilobacter pilori – A?ai (-) nie?aeaaeaeioth aaeoa?eth; yoo aaeoa?eth
ia neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue a ea/anoaa i?e/eiu, iia niinianoaoao
o?iiecaoeee i?ioeanna, nieaeaao caueoiua naienoaa iaiei/ee, iaeaaeaao
iooeeiaciie e o?aaciie aeoeaiinoueth:

O?aaciay – ?anuaieyao ii/aaeio e ie?oaeaao naay iaea/eii aiiiiey,
eioi?ue ?ai?iaeooee?oao aaeoa?eth io eeneiai niaea?aeeiiai aeaeoaeea.
Iooeeiaciay i?iyaeyaony a oii, /oi ?anuaieyao iooeei, nieaeay i?e yoii
caueoiua naienoaa neece.

Campilobacter aue iaia?oaeai e o caei?iauo ethaeae. *anoi auyaeyaony
i?e ieei?iaeoiaeaiaeueiuo ycaao, ii ia anaaaea, cia/eo aai i?enoonoaea
ia yaeyaony aeaaiui a ia?aciaaiee ycau. A aeia, noaieao e oaea aeaeoaeea
iee?ia ano?a/aaony ?aaeei, aai iaoiaeyo /aua iaaeaeo eeaoeaie neecenoie
aeaeoaeea. Nae?aoeey aenoaieia oo/iuie eeaoeaie neecenoie aeaeoaeea.
Nae?aoeey aenoaieia oo/iuie eeaoeaie oneeeaaaony, /oi ia?ooaao
iee?ioee?eoeyoeeth nicaeathony oneiaey aeey oeueoea?aoeee.

*aua ycaa aicieeaao ia oiia aano?eoa oeia A, eieaeecoaony ia nouea
iaaeaeo eciaiaiiie e caei?iaie neecenoie iaiei/eie. sscaaiiay aieaciue
?aaeecoaony ia aac o/anoey ae?oaeo i?aaiia e nenoai, iai?eia?, auei
ioia/aii aeeyiea n. vagus, oioy iaaeaaii aai ?ieue i?aoaaee/eaaee. OeIN
– i?e ieei?iaeoiaeaiaeueiie ycaa o?aaiaeiinoue, yaioeaio?eci, iiauoaiea
i?eoycaiey, o?aaiaeii-oiae/aneee, eiioiiae?e/aneee n-i.

Eeanneoeeaoeey

Ii eieaeecaoeee: i?a-, noaea?aeeaeueiue, i?aieei?e/aneee ioaeae,
eoeiaeoea 12-ia?noiie eeoee. Ii noaaeeyi: i?aaeuycaaiiia ninoiyiea
(aeoiaeaieo, aano?eo A) e ycaa.

Ii oaca: iaino?aiea, caoeoathuaa iaino?aiea, ?aienney.

Ii eeneioiinoe: n iiauoaiiie, ii?iaeueiie, iiieaeaiiie, n
aoei?aeae?eae.

Ii aic?anoo caaieaaaiey: thiioaneea, iiaeeeiai aic?anoa.

Ii ineiaeiaieyi: e?iaioa/aiea, ia?oi?aoeey, ia?aenoea?eo, noaiic,
iaeeaiecaoeey, iaiao?aoeey.

I?eciaee i?aaeuycaaiiiai ninoiyiey i?e iaaeeiaano?aeueiie ycaa:

1) O?iie/aneee aano?eo, iniaaiii a aic?anoa aieaa 35-40 eao.

2) Au?aaeaiiinoue e ia?anoaiea aieaaiai neiae?iia.

3) ?aioa eeneui niaea?aeeiui e ecaeiaa, iinea ?aiou aiee noeoatho.

I?e 12-ia?noiie eeoea:

1) sscaaiiue ianeaaenoaaiiue aiaiiac, yoi /anoi iieiaeua (aei 35-40
eao), ooaeiuaaua, n aaaaoaoeaiie eaaeeueiinoueth.

2) Au?aaeaiiue aeeniaine/aneee neiae?ii, ecaeiaa – eiiaaea ca aiae-aeaa
i?aaeoanoaoao. I?iaioee?oaony aee?iie, nieaiie ieuae, nooiyaeaieai.
*a?ac 1-2 /ana iinea aaeu iiyaeythony aiee, iiaeao auoue aieaciaiiinoue
i?e iaeueiaoeee, a niea iiauoai o?iaaiue eeneioiinoe. ?aioaaiieiae/anee
aeey i?aaeuycaaiiiai ninoiyiey: iioi?ii-yaaeoaoeeiiiay aeenooieoeey,
ieei?iniaci, iiaeao auoue aeaoi?iaoeey, eioi?ay en/acaao iinea aaaaeaiey
ao?iieia. A? OAN ia?aaeei y?icee, i?eciaee aano?eoa, ia?ooaiea ooieoeee
i?ea?aoieeiaiai aeiia (niaci eee ceyiea).

Eeeieea

I?e ycaa aeaeoaeea aiee a yieaano?ee neaaa, i?e ycaa 12-ia?noiie eeoee
a yieaano?ee ni?aaa, eiiaaea a i?aaii iiae?aaa?uea. E??aaeeaoeey (iaeay
e?eaecia) -aaa?o e aeaai, eiiaaea eieoe?oy ea?aeeaeaeth, i?e
eieaeecaoeee a oaea aeaeoaeea iau/ii iao e??aaeeaoeee, 12/i a
iiae?aaa?uea, nieio iiae eiiaoeo (e??aaeeaoeey aieaa oa?aeoa?ia aeey
ia?eaenoea?eoa – ia naaaeee i?ioeann). Ino?ioa aiee caaeneo io aeoaeiu
ycau, iniaaiii aeey iaiao?e?othueo yca, caeanue aiee i/aiue eioaineaiua.
Eaeeaciua ycau i?aeoe/anee aacaieaciaiiua.

I?e ycaa aeaeoaeea aiee iiyaeythony /a?ac 2-3 iei, aeeyony 1,5-2 /ana,
ii yoi ia aaniethoii oae. Aeey ycau 12/i oa?aeoa?iu enoeiiua aieiaeiua
ii/iua aiee, iinea aaeu noeoatho.

Eoie?otho aiee o?eaai, niacaai, ii-oia, ao?iiei e ae?oaea niaciieeoeee,
oaeaea a?aeea: neaaeu iinea iaa oeacuaatho ia ycaaiioth aieaciue.
Aeiiieieoaeueiay iiei/iay aeaeaca o ioae/ei – aaiaoe/aneee ia?ea?
ycaaiiie aieacie.

Aeeniaine/aneea yaeaiey:

1) Ecaeiaa. Yeaeaaeaio aieae. N?aco eee /a?ac 2-3 /ana iinea aaeu,
iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?ia aeey 12/i. ?aoethen-ycioaaeo.

2) Io?uaeea, aieaa oa?aeoa?ia aeey ycau aeaeoaeea, /aua aicaeooii, a
oooeui – i?eciae noaiica.

3) Oioiioa – aeey aio?aeueiuo yca.

4) ?aioa – i?e ooieoeeiiaeueiii eee i?aaie/aneii noaiica i?ea?aoieea, a
i?e iaineiaeiaiiuo ycaao ?aaeei.

5) Iau/ii nio?aiai eee iiauoai aiiaoeo, iniaaiii i?e ycaa 12/i eeoee, ii
anoue noaiioiaey – aiyciue aaeu ec-ca iaeeaeaaiuo aieae.

Ooieoeee eeoa/ieea:

Caii?u ii 3-5 aeiae, oa?aeoa?iu aeey eieaeecaoeee ycau a eoeiaeoea 12/i
eeoee, “iaa/ee” nooe, nianoe/aneay aeeneaiacey oienoiai eeoa/ieea.
Eciaiaiey ni noi?iiu OeIN – ieioie nii, ?acae?aaeeoaeueiinoue,
yiioeeiiaeueiay eaaeeueiinoue – i?e ycaa 12/i eeoee.

I?e nai?a aiaiianoe/aneeo aeaiiuo o/eouaaoue: aeeeoaeueiinoue
caaieaaaiey n iiyaeaieai aieae e ecaeiae e anao inoaeueiuo i?eciaeia,
eiaaea auea iaia?oaeaia “ieoa” – RG eee OAN, /anoioo e aeeeoaeueiinoue
iaino?aiee, naciiiinoue. *ai eoie?oaony, ni?ineoue i?i /a?iue nooe e
ae?oaea ineiaeiaiey. *ai e eae ea/eeny, ianeaaenoaaiiinoue, iineaaeiaa
iaino?aiea, n /ai auei naycaii, ?aaoey?iinoue i?eaia ieue, iinauaiea
noieiauo, iiniio?aoue ana ee coau oeaeu. No?anniaua ninoiyiey, niaiiay
?aaioa, eiiaiaee?iaee e i?. Eo?aiea, aeeiaieeci. Ec a?aaeiinoae: NA*,
aea?aoeey, ai?y/ee oeao, neoaeaa a a?iee.

Iauaeoeaii: ooaeiuaaua, anoaie/iua – 12/i. Ii nieaeaiea aana ia anaaaea
oa?aeoa?ii. Anee e?ae ycuea ino?ue, nini/ee aeia?o?ioe?iaaiiu – iiauoaia
nae?aoeey HCl. Anee aeeaio aoyioo e aieaciaiiue – ia?eaenoea?eo,
ia?eaano?eo, ia?eaeoiaeaieo, iaiao?aoeey. Au?aaeaiiue e?aniue
aea?iia?aoeci, aeaaeiua eaaeiie.

Eaai?aoi?iua iaoiaeu aeeaaiinoeee

1. A eeeie/aneii aiaeeca e?iae iiaeii iaeoe aeiio?iiioth aiaieth, ii
iiaeao auoue e iaiai?io, caiaaeeaiiia NIY – eoeiaeoea 12/i. Ii /anoi
auaaao e y?eo?ioeeoic.

2. Eae ia ?aaeoeeth A?aaa?naia. Anee, i?aaeoi?aaeeoue ia?aae OAN eee
aiiaua ia aeaeaoue, o.e. iianii.

3. Eco/aiea eeneioiia?acothuae ooieoeee aeaeoaeea. Ioeaieaaaony iaoiuae
e i?e ?acee/iie iiaeoeyoeee eeneioiia?aciaaoaeueiie ooieoeee.

– aacaeiiiue iaoiae (aoeeaeioano) oaa. Per os – iie acaeiiaeaenoaotho n
HNl, eciaiythony, auaeaeythony n ii/ie. Ii eiioeaio?aoeee i?e auaeaeaiee
iiaeii einaaiii noaeeoue i eiee/anoaa HCl. Iaoiae i/aiue a?oaue,
i?eiaiyaony, eiaaea iaaiciiaeii eniieueciaaoue ciiaee?iaaiea, eee aeey
e?eieiaa ianaeaiey.

– iaoiae Eaii?neiai. Ioeaieaaaony iauai iaoiuae (a ii?ia 20-40 ie).
Ioeaieaaaony ea/anoaaiiue ninoaa oiuaeiaie ii?oeee: 20-30 iiieue/e –
ii?ia iauae eeneioiinoe, aei 15 – naiaiaeiay eeneioiinoue. Anee
naiaiaeiay eeneioiinoue ?aaia ioeth – i?enoonoaea iiei/iie eeneiou,
aiciiaeia iiooieue. Caoai i?iaiaeeony noeioeyoeey: eaionoiue ioaa?,
eioaei, ?anoai? nie?oa (5% ?), iyniie aoeueii. Iauai caao?aea 200 ie,
/a?ac 25 iei eco/aaony iauai aeaeoaei/iiai niaea?aeeiiai (inoaoie) – a
ii?ia 6080 ie, caoai eaaeaeua 15 iei a ioaeaeueioth ii?oeeth. Iauai ca
iineaaeothuee /an – /aniaia iai?yaeaiea. Iauay eeneioiinoue 40-60,
naiaiaeiay 20-40 – ii?ia. Ioeaiea oeia nae?aoeee. Eiaaea iaeneiaeueiay
(aicaoaeeiue eee oi?iiciie oei nae?aoeee).

– ia?aioa?aeueiay noeioeyoeey n aenoaieiii (aoaeao /oanoai aea?a,
aeiioiiey. Inoi?iaeii i?e AA, EAN, a?iioeaeueiie anoia). E?eoa?eai
yaeyaony aeaaeo//an HCl – yoi iauai eeneiou, au?aaaouaaaiie ca /an.
Aeaeaa ioeaieaaaony aacaeueiay nae?aoeey: 1,5-5,5. Aaiaeeony aenoaiei
0,1 ie/10 ea iannu oaea. *a?ac /an iauai aeieaeai auoue 8-14 iiieue//an.
Iaeneiaeueiay nae?aoeey ioeaieaaaony n iaeneiaeueiie aeicie aenoaieia
(aieueoa a 4 ?aca) – /a?ac /an iauai 16-24 iiieue//an.

Eo/oa aianoi aenoaieia eniieueciaaoue iaioaaano?ei.

– pH-iao?ey – eciaiaiea eeneioiinoe iaiin?aaenoaaiii a aeaeoaeea n
iiiiuueth ciiaea n aeao/eeaie: pH ecia?ytho iaoiuae a oaea e aio?aeueiii
ioaeaea (6-7), a ii?ia a aio?aeueiii ioaeaea 4-7 iinea aaaaeaiey
aenoaieia.

?? 2. Ioeaiea i?ioaieeoe/aneie ooieoeee aeaeoaei/iiai niea. Enneaaeotho
n iia?oaeaieai ciiaea aioo?ue aeaeoaeea, a a iai iaoiaeeony noano?ao.
*a?ac nooee ciiae ecaeaeaaony e eco/atho eciaiaiey.

3. ?aioaaiieiae/aneea eciaiaiey:

1) “Ieoa” – aeinooiiinoue aa?eoeeaoeee ia iaiaa 2 ii.

2) Eiiaa?aaioeey.

3) Eieueoeaaeaeiue ainiaeeoaeueiue aaeee aie?oa ieoe.

4) ?oaoeiaua aeaoi?iaoeee.

Einaaiiua i?eciaee:

1) *?acau/aeiay ia?enoaeueoeea aeaeoaeea.

2) Aoyaeaiea ii aieueoie e?eaecia – neiioii “iaeueoea”. Eieaeueiay
aieaciaiiinoue i?e iaeueiaoeee.

?aioaaiieiae/anee eieaeecaoeey ycau 12/i eeoee iaia?oaeeaaaony /aua ia
ia?aaeiae ie caaeiae noaieao eoeiaeoeu.

Iiaeaioiaea ii Ao?ae/o i?iaiaeeony, anee anoue ioae neecenoie iaiei/ee
aeaeoaeee: 1 a aieaeiie?eia ?anoai?ytho a noaeaia aiaeu + 300 ia
aianoaceia o 3 ?aca a aeaiue + 1 ie 0,1 % ?anoai?a aae?aaaeeia 20-
eaiaeue, ?acaaaeoue e auieoue. A oa/aiea 4-5 aeiae. Iaycaoaeueii
aeaeatho OAN. Aaniethoiui iieacaieai yaeythony nieaeaiea nae?aoeee e
aoeeey + iiaeic?aiea ia ycao. Aeaeatho aeiineth.

I?ioeaiiieacaiey: EAN, aa?eeiciua aaiu ieuaaiaea, aeeaa?oeeoeu
ieuaaiaea, a?iioeaeueiay anoia, iaaeaaiaa e?iaioa/aiea.

Iniaaiiinoe ycaaiiie aieacie o noa?eeia: anee ycaa oi?ie?oaony iinea
40-50 eao, iaiaoiaeeii eneeth/eoue aoa?ineea?ic iacaioa?aeueiuo
ninoaeia. Oa/aiea noa?oia, iao aieaauo iuouaiee, aeeniaine/aneeo
?anno?ienoa. *anoi ni/aoaaony ni noaiiea?aeeae aaaeiieiaeueiie
eieaeecaoeee, i?iyaeythuaeny i?e oyaeaeie ?aaioa: o aieueiuo eiaaony
aoa?ineea?ic iacaioa?aeueiuo ninoaeia e ai?ou.

Ineiaeiaiey

1. Ia?eaeoiaeaieou, ia?eaano?eou, ia?aenoea?eo – eciaiaiea oa?aeoa?a
aieaauo iuouaiee, ?eoi aieae en/acaao, noaiiayony iinoiyiiuie,
eioaineaiuie, iniaaiii i?e oece/aneie ?aaioa, iinea aaeu iiaoo
e??aaeee?iaaoue a ?aciua ianoa.

2. A 10-15 % e?iaioa/aiea. Aicieeaao ?aioa n i?eianueth e?iae eee aac
iaa. Aeaaoaia?aciue nooe (iaeaia), /anoi nii?iaiaeaeaaony
aaiiaeeiaie/aneeie ?anno?ienoaaie, eciaiaiea niaea?aeaiey aaiiaeiaeia e
y?eo?ioeeoia, oi?ie?oaony ino?ay aiaiey. ONA aeaeaoue inoi?iaeii.

3. Iaiao?aoeey 6-10% – iiyaeythony ino?ua iiiynuaathuea aiee, iniaaiii
i?e iaiao?aoeee a iiaeaeaeoaei/ioth aeaeaco.

4. Ia?oi?aoeey – eeiaeaeueiay aieue, ?aioa e o.ae. ?acaeaaaony
ia?eoiieo. Ia?oi?aoeey iiaeao auoue iiaeino?iai oa?aeoa?a, anee naeueiee
i?ee?uaaao ia?oi?aoeaiia ioaa?noea. RG – iiaeaeeo?aaiaeueiia neiieaiea
aaca.

5. Ia?a?iaeaeaiea ycau a ?ae. E yoiio neeiiiu eeoea iiaeeeiai e
noa?/aneiai aic?anoa. Aiee noaiiayony iinoiyiiuie, i?iiaaeaao aiiaoeo,
oioiioa, ioa?auaiea e iyno, nieaeaiea iannu oaea, nieaeaiea aeaeoaei/iie
nae?aoeee aieioue aei aoei?aeae?ee, noieeay iieiaeeoaeueiay ?aaeoeey
A?aaa?naia, iiauoaiiia NIY e aiaiecaoeey.

6. ?oaoeiaue noaiic i?ea?aoieea:

noaaeey – yieciaee/aneay ?aioa ec-ca caaea?aeee ieue, /anoioie 1 ?ac a
2-3 aeiy.

noaaeey – iinoiyiiia /oanoai oyaeanoe, aaeaaeiaaiay ?aioa, iannu
niaea?aeao ieuo, nuaaeaiioth iaeaioia.

noaaeey – au?aaeaiiia noaiice?iaaiea, n o?oaeii i?ioiaeeo aiaea, aeaeia
aeaeoaei/iay ia?enoaeueoeea, ooi ieanea. ?aioa aucuaaaony eneonnoaaiii,
?aioiua iannu n aieeinoiui caiaoii.

Ea/aiea

1) 1 Aieueiie aeieaeai anoue, eae ii?iaeueiue /aeiaae; 3-4 ?aca a aeaiue
– 7 i?eaiia aioaoeeaeia a aeaiue (2 o 3 + 1 ia ii/ue). Eiee/anoai
aioaoeeaeia ii ia?aiineiinoe (aethieiee – caii?, iaaiee – iiiin).
Aeueiaaaeue, oinoiethaaeue.

2) 2 I?aia?aou, nieaeathuea i?iaeoeoeee HCl: a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue I 2
aenoaieiiaeieaoi?u: nieaeatho aacaeueioth nae?aoeeth ia 80-90%,
nieaeatho noeioee?iaaiioth eeneioiinoue ia 50%, ia aeeytho ia iioi?eeo
AEEO, nieaeatho i?iaeoeoeeth aeaeoaei/iiai niea.

I?aia?aou:

Oeeiaoeaeei ca nooee 800-1000 ia (1 oaa. 200 ia). I?eieiaoue 3 ?aca
iinea aaeu + 1 ia ii/ue a oa/aiee 6 iaaeaeue, caoai i?iaanoe ONA; anee
?aienney – nieaeaoue aeico ii 200 ia eaaeaeoth iaaeaeth, eeai ca
iaaeaeth aei 400 ia ia ii/ue, eo iaaei aua 2 iaaeaee, caoai 2 iaaeaee ii
1 oaa ia ii/ue e ioiaiyoue. Iiaeii aiiaua i?eiaiyoue aiaeaie 200-400 ia
ii/ue aeey i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey iaino?aiee.

Ae?oaie iaoiae: 800-1000 ia iaeiie?aoii ia ii/ue, ioiaiyoue, eae e i?e
i?aaeuaeouai iaoiaea.

?aieoeaeei (?aienai, caioae) 2 oaa. (ii 150 ia) ia 2 i?eaia, /a?ac 4-6
iaaeaeue nieceoue aei 1 oaa ia ii/ue (ca iaaeaeth), e oae 2 iaaeaee e
ioiaieoue.

Ae?oaie aa?eaio: 300 ia ia ii/ue. Iiea aua ia auei neo/aaa, /oiau ycaa
ia caaeeea, ii 10-15 % aieueiuo ?acenoaioiu e I 2 aenoaieiiaeieaoi?ai.
Iaaei iiiieoue ia yoii! ?acenoaioiinoue, anee /a?ac iaaeaeth ia en/acaao
aieaaie neiae?ii, ii anoue oieueei nieaeaiea aai eioaineaiinoe – cia/eo
i?aia?ao ana-oaee aeaenoaoao.

Oaiioeaeei (aano?inaaeei, oeueo?aoaieae) 80 ia eee 40 ia – nooi/iay
aeica.

Iecaoeaeei (aeneae), iiea aai o ian iao.

1000 ia oeeiaoeaeeia + 300 ia ?aieoeaeeia + 80 ia oaiioeaeeia. Oae eae
yoe i?aia?aou iiaoo aucaaoue neiae?ii ioiaiu, oi iaeuecy eo ?acei
ioiaiyoue; i?e ia/aea caaieaaaiey oaaaeeoueny, /oi o aieueiiai anoue
aeinoaoi/iia eo eiee/anoai aeey eo?na ea/aiey.

Iiai/iua yooaeou:

1) Neiae?ii ioiaiu.

2) Canaeaiea ieo?iciiao?eoiie oei?ie aeaeoaeea, a iia au?aaaouaaao
eaioea?iaaiu.

Oieueei aeey oeeiaoeaeeia oa?aeoa?iu: aieiaie?oaeaiea, neaainoue,
iiaeao aucuaaoue eciaiaiey ineoeee – aieueiui oecio?aieae ieeiaaea ia
iacia/aoue!

Oaeaea o oeeiaoeaeeia aioeaiae?iaaiiue yooaeo – ioae/eia noaiiaeony
noa?eeueiui ia a?aiy i?eiaiaiey.

Anee ?acia?u ycau aei 5 ii, oi iiaeii ea/eoue aiaoeaoi?ii, n y?iceae –
oiaea.

N?aaenoaa, aeiee?othuea i?ioiiioth iiiio: Iiai?acie (eiaeae). 20 ia 1
?ac a aeaiue a eainoea. I/aiue auno?ia e iaaeaaeiia aeaenoaea.
?oaoeaaaiea ycau 100%. Ia eiaao iiai/iuo yooaeoia.

Iiauoaiea oaeoi?ia caueou: Aea-Iie (o?eaeiie). A i?enoonoaee aeaaea
iaaieueoiai eiee/anoaa HCl ia?acoao caueoioth ieaieo iaae y?iceae eee
ycaie. Oie/oiaeaao Campilobacter pilori (aaeoa?eoeeaeiia +
aaeoa?einoaoe/aneia aeaenoaea). Ii/oe ia ananuaaaony e aeaenoaoao a
i?inaaoa AEEO. Ii 120 ia (1 oaa > 4 ?aca a aeaiue ca 40-60 iei aei
aaeu). Nooe ie?aoeaaaony a /a?iue oeaao. Iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey
iiiioa?aiee eee n I 2 aenoaieiiaeieaoi?aie, ii i?e yoii aiciiaeii
ia?aciaaiea ia?anoai?eiuo niaaeeiaiee ai ecaaaeaiea yoiai i?eiaiyoue n
eioa?aaeii 1,5-2 /ana.

Noe?aeueoao (aaioa?, ei?aoao) niaea?aeeo aethieiee, ia?acoao eiiieaen
aethieiee-aaeie, caeeaaao ycao + iaeaaeaao aioaoeeaeiuie naienoaaie. 4 a
a nooee ca 40-60 iei. Aei aaeu + ia ii/ue. Yooaeo i?e iaaeeiaano?aeueiuo
ycaao. Yooaeoeaiinoue iiaeao auoue /ooue ieaea, /ai o Aea-Iiea,
aiciiaeii caaeneo io eiie?aoiuo oi?i. Aano?icaiei.

Nieeina?ee – yoi ianiaoeeoe/aneee i?aia?ao. Noeioee?oao i?ioeannu
iaiaia ai anao oeaiyo, oaaaeeoaeueiuo aeaiiuo i aeaenoaee ia ycao iao.

CAAIEAAAIEss II*AAUAIAessUEO IOOAE

INO?UE AEIIA?OEIIAO?EO

Yoi caaieaaaiea eioaeoeeiiii-aeea?ae/aneie i?e?iaeu n i?aeiouanoaaiiui
ii?aaeaieai eaieeey?ia iaaeo ii/ae. ?ani?ino?aiai iianaianoii. *aua
aieatho a aic?anoa 12-40 eao, ianeieueei /aua ioae/eiu. *aua aicieeaao a
no?aiao n oieiaeiui e aeaaeiui eeeiaoii, naciiiia caaieaaaiea.

Yoeieiaey

Aicaoaeeoaeue aaoa-aaiieeoe/aneee no?aioieiee a?oiiu A, iao?eoiaaiiua
ooaiiu 1, 3, 4, 12, 49. Aeieacaoaeuenoaii no?aioieieeiaie yoeieiaee
yaeyaony:

naycue ni no?aioieieeiaie eioaeoeeae (aiaeia, iaeiioiaaiiay eioaeoeey,
aaeii?eou, neioneou e ae?.), a oaeaea eiaeiua caaieaaaiey – ?iaea,
no?aioiaea?iey;

a). ec caaa /anoi aunaeaaaony aaiieeoe/aneee no?aioieiee;

a). a e?iae aieueiuo ino?ui aeiia?oeiiao?eoii iaia?oaeeaathony
no?aioieieeiaua aioeaaiu: no?aioieecei 0, no?aioieeiaca, aeaeo?iieaeaca;

a). caoai a e?iae iiauoaaony niaea?aeaiea i?ioeaino?aioieieeiauo
aioeoae;

a). aiciiaeai yenia?eiaioaeueiue iao?eo.

Iaoiaaiac

A iaoiaaiaca ea?atho ?ieue ?acee/iua eiioiieiae/aneea ia?ooaiey.

1. Ia?aciaaiea iau/iuo aioeoae. Eiiieaen aioeaai-aioeoaei iiaeao
inaaeaoue ia ii/a/iie iaia?aia, oae eae iia eiaao aiaaooth
aaneoey?ecaoeeth, oi inaaeatho i?aeiouanoaaiii e?oiiua aeaiiceou.
?aaeoeey aioeaai-aioeoaei ?acua?uaaaony ia naiie ii/a/iie iaia?aia, i?e
yoii i?enoonoaoao eiiieaiaio, aeieiae/aneea aeoeaiua aauanoaa: aenoaiei,
aeaeo?iieaeaca, iiaoo oaeaea no?aaeaoue eaieeey?u anaai i?aaiecia.

2. I?e no?aioieieeiaie eioaeoeee no?aioieieeiaue aioeaai iiaeao
iia?aaeaeaoue yiaeioaeee ii/a/iuo eaieeey?ia, aacaeueioth iaia?aio,
yieoaeee ii/a/iuo eaiaeueoeaa – ia?acothony aooiaioeoaea, aicieeaao
?aaeoeey aioeaai-aioeoaei. I?e/ai a ?iee aioeaaia aunooiatho
iia?aaeaeaiiua eeaoee.

3. O aacaeueiie iaia?aiu ii/ae e no?aioieieea anoue iauea aioeaaiiua
no?oeoo?u, iiyoiio ii?iaeueiua aioeoaea a no?aioieieea iiaoo
iia?aaeaeaoue iaeiia?aiaiii e aacaeueioth iaia?aio – ia?ae?anoiay
?aaeoeey.

Aeieacaoaeuenoai oiai, /oi a iniiaa iaoiaaiaca eaaeao eiioiiua
i?ioeannu, yaeyaony oi, /oi iaaeaeo no?aioieieeiaie eioaeoeeae e ia/aeii
ino?iai iao?eoa anaaaea anoue a?aiaiiie eioa?aae, ai a?aiy eioi?iai
i?ienoiaeeo iaeiieaiea aioeaaiia e aioeoae e eioi?ue ninoaaeyao 2-3
iaaeaee.

Ii?oieiaey

Ii?aaeaeyaony i?e iiaeeciaiiie aeiinee n iineaaeothuae yeaeo?iiiie
iee?ineiieae, eiioiioethi?anoeaioeeae: iaoiaeyo ioeiaeaiea eiioiiuo
eiiieaenia a aeaea ai?aia.

a). Eio?aeaieeey?iue aeiia?oeiiao?eo – eciaiaiey eanathony yiaeioaeey,
eaeao aai i?ieeoa?aoeey, ooieuaaony aacaeueiay iaia?aia, iiauoaaony aa
i?iieoeaaiinoue.

a). Yeno?aeaieeey?iue aeiia?oeiiao?eo – eciaiaiey cao?aaeaatho ia
oieueei ninoaeu, ii e eaeao i?ieeoa?aoeey aenoea?aeueiiai eenoea
aioiaiianeie eainoeu, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai eeoai/ae aeaiao. Yoi oyaeaeay
oi?ia iia?aaeaeaiey.

Eeeieea

Caaieaaaiea ia/eiaaony n aieiaiie aiee, iauaai iaaeiiiaaiey, eiiaaea
anoue oioiioa, ionoonoaea aiiaoeoa. Iiaeao auoue ieeao?ey e aeaaea
aio?ey, i?iyaeyaony auno?ie i?eaaaeie a aana . I/aiue /anoi ia yoii oiia
iiyaeyaony iaeuoea, i?enooiu oaeoouey. O iiaeeeuo aiciiaeiu i?iyaeaiey
eaaiaeaeoaei/eiaie na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe. A ia?aua aea aeie
iiyaeythony ioaee, iau/ii ia eeoea, ii iiaoo auoue e ia iiaao, a
oyaeaeuo neo/ayo ia iiynieoea. E?aeia ?aaeei aeae?ioi?aen e anoeeo. A
ia?aua aea aeie caaieaaaiey AAe aei 180/120 ii ?o.no.

Neiae?iiu e eo iaoiaaiac

1. Ii/aaie neiae?ii – ii aiaeeco ii/e:

a). Aaiaoo?ey: eciaiaiiua + iaeciaiaiiua y?eo?ioeeou, o 20%
iae?iaaiaoo?ey, ii/a oeaaoa iyniuo iiiiaa.

a). I?ioaeio?ey, aunieay ?aaeei, /aua oia?aiiay aei 1%. Aunieay
i?ioaeio?ey aiai?eo i cia/eoaeueiii ii?aaeaiee iaia?ai.

a). Oia?aiiay eaeeioeeoo?ey ( i?e ieaeiiao?eoa eaeeioeeoo?ey – aaaeouee
neiae?ii).

a). Oeeeeiae?o?ey – aeaeeiiaua oeeeeiae?u ( neaiee aaeea ), a oyaeaeuo
neo/ayo e?iayiua oeeeeiae?u ec y?eo?ioeeoia.

ae). Oaeaeueiue aan, e?aaoeiei a ii?ia, acioaiey ionoonoaoao.

Ioaee, eo i?e/eiu:

a). ?aceia nieaeaiea ii/a/iie oeeueo?aoeee – caaea?aeea Na e I20.

a). aoi?e/iue aeia?aeueaeinoa?iieci;

a). iiauoaiea i?iieoeaaiinoe eaieeey?ia anao ninoaeia a ?acoeueoaoa
oaaee/aiey niaea?aeaiey a e?iae aenoaieia e aeaeo?iieaeacu;

a). ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea aeeaeeinoe n i?aeiouanoaaiiie caaea?aeeie a
?uoeie eeao/aoea.

Aeia?oiiey, aa i?e/eiu:

a) oneeaiea na?aea/iiai aua?ina a ?acoeueoaoa aeia?aeae?aoaoeee
(aeia?aieaiey);

a). oneeaiea au?aaioee ?aieia ec-ca eoaiee ii/ae;

a). caaea?aeea iao?ey a ninoaeenoie noaiea – ioae aa e iiauoaiea
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe e eaoaoieaieiai;

a). oiaiueoaiea aua?ina aeai?anni?iuo aoii?aeueiuo oaeoi?ia
(i?inoiaeaiaeeiia e eeieiia).

Aeia?oiiey iiaeao aea?aeaoueny 3-4 ianyoea. Ii oa?aeoa?o eeeieee
auaeaeytho ?aca?aoa?ioth e iiiineioioiiioth.

Eaai?aoi?iay aeeaaiinoeea

1. Ii/aaie neiae?ii.

2. I?iaa ?aaa?aa – ?aceia nieaeaiea oeeueo?aoeee.

3. Ni noi?iiu e?iae ii?ia.

4. Iiaeao auoue onei?aiea NIY.

5. Ia YEA i?eciaee aeia?o?ioee eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea – i?eia?ii /a?ac 2
iaaeaee iinea ia/aea caaieaaaiey.

6. ?aioaaiieiae/anee oaaee/aiea ?acia?ia na?aeoea.

Ineiaeiaiey

Iiaoo ?acaeoueny n ia?auo aeiae caaieaaaiey e yaeythony iniiaiie
i?e/eiie nia?oiinoe i?e ino?ii aeiia?oeiiao?eoa.

1. Ino?ay eaaiaeaeoaei/eiaay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue: /aua a iiaeeeii
aic?anoa, iniaaiii a i?aaeoanoaothuae na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie iaoieiaeae.
Aa i?e/eiu: ?aceay iauaiiay ia?aa?ocea aeaeoaei/eia, aiacaiiia auno?ia
iiauoaiea AAe (na?aeoea ia aioiai); ii?aaeaiea naiiai ieiea?aea
(aeeno?ioey, oiene/aneia ii?aaeaiea). I?iyaeyaony iaeuoeie, eaoeai,
canoieiuie o?eiaie, na?aea/iie anoiie, ioaeii eaaeeo.

2. Ii/a/iay yeeaiiney: iaoneiaeaia ?aceei iiauoaieai aioo?e/a?aiiiai
aeaaeaiey ia oiia aeia?oiiee. Aicieeaao ioae iicaa, ninea c?eoaeueiiai
ia?aa. Eeeie/aneea i?iyaeaiey: neeueiay aieiaiay aieue, oooaeoaiea
c?aiey aieioue aei iieiie neaiiou (ioae ninea ia?aa, ioneieea nao/aoee,
eiiaaea e?iaieceeyiea a iaa); ia?ooaiea ?a/e, eeiie/aneea noaei?iae,
caoai oiie/aneea. Oeie/iu yieeaioeoi?iiua i?eiaaeee (i?eeon ycuea,
?anoe?aiea c?a/eia, aanniciaoaeueiia ninoiyiea a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo
/ania).

3. O?aiey, aicieeaao ia oiia iieiie aio?ee 3 aeiae. Ano?a/aaony
?aaeei.

4. Ino?ay e o?iie/aneay ii/a/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue: oioiioa ia oiia
ieeao?ee, ?aioa, eiaeiue coae; ia?anoaiea aeioeie/aneeo iieacaoaeae.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic

1. Oiene/aneay ii/ea: i?eciaee eioieneeaoeee, oienaiey, iaee/ea
eioaeoeee.

2. Ino?ue ieaeiiao?eo: a aiaiiaca aai?o, ia?aioeaaeaeaiea, naoa?iue
aeeaaao, ?iaeu. Aieaa aunieay oaiia?aoo?a: 30-40i N . /anoi iciiau,
aia/aea iao iiauoaiey AAe. Iao ioaeia. Au?aaeaiiay eaeeioeeoo?ey.
Au?aaeaiiay aieaciaiiinoue a iiynie/iie iaeanoe n iaeiie noi?iiu ( i?e
aeiia?oeiiao?eoa 2-o noi?iiiaa ii?aaeaiea).

3. Aaii??aae/aneee aaneoeeo (ii/a/iay oi?ia): aaaeouee i?eciae
aaiaoo?ey; anoue eiaeiua i?iyaeaiey.

4. Iaino?aiea o?iie/aneiai aeiia?oeiiao?eoa. Oa/aiea caaieaaaiey caaeneo
io:

a). oyaeanoe i?ioeanna;

a). n?ieia iinoaiiaee aeeaaiica e n?ieia ainieoaeecaoeee: aei 10 aeiae –
80% aucaei?iaeaiey, iinea 20 aeiae – 40% aucaei?iaeaiey;

a). aic?anoa: iinea 50 eao i?iaiic aieaa oyaeaeue;

a). i?aaeeueiinoe ea/aiey.

E?eoa?ee ecea/aiiinoe.

1. Iieiia ecea/aiea.

2. Aucaei?iaeaiea n aeaoaeoii.

3. Aucaei?iaeaiea iiaeao caoyiooueny aei 2-3 eao, eiiaaea n ia?aoiaeii a
o?iie/aneoth oi?io. A yoii neo/aa iieacaia aeiiney ii/ee. Noieeay
i?ioaeio?ey – iieacaoaeue o?iiecaoeee (30%).

Ea/aiea

Iai?aaeaii ia yoeieiae/aneee oaeoi? e ia i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea
ineiaeiaiee.

1. Iinoaeueiue ?aaeei: oeo/oaao ii/a/iue e?iaioie, oaaee/eaaao ii/a/ioth
oeeueo?aoeeth, nieaeaao AAe. I?e anoaaaiee oaaee/eaaaony aaiaoo?ey e
i?ioaeio?ey. Iinoaeueiue ?aaeei ia iaiaa 4 iaaeaeue.

2. Aeeaoa: i?e oyaeaei ?acaa?iooie oi?ia – ?aaeei aieiaea e aeaaeaeu
(aeatho oieueei iieineaoue ?io, iaeaiueeei aeaoyi iiaeii aeaaaoue
iaiiiai neaaeeie aiaeu). Iinea i?aaeeiaeaiey oaeie aeeaou ii/oe ia noaea
ano?a/aoueny ino?ay eaaiaeaeoaei/eiaay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue e ii/a/iay
yeeaiiney. Ia oaeie aeeaoa aea?aeao 1-2 aeiy, caoai aeatho naoa? n
aiaeie 100-150 a, o?oeoiaua niee, iaiioth eaoo; iaeuecy ieia?aeueiua
aiaeu e iaiuiua niee ec-ca aeia?eaeeaiee, ?acei ia?aie/eaatho
iiaa?aiioth nieue. Aaeie aei 0,5 a/ea aana oaea, /a?ac iaaeaeth aei 1.0
a/ea. O?oeou oieueei aa?aiua, nu?ua oieueei niee.

3. Aioeaeioeee: iaieoeeeeei 6 ?ac a aeaiue, i?ioeaiiieacaiu ana
iao?ioiene/aneea aioeaeioeee.

4. I?ioeaiainiaeeoaeueiua n?aaenoaa: eiaeiiaoaoeee (iaoeiaeie) 0,025 3
– niinianoaoao oeo/oaieth ia?aoiiai ananuaaiey aaeea a eaiaeueoeao
oiaiueoaaony i?ioaeio?ey.

5. Aeanaineaeeece?othuea n?aaenoaa: oaaaaee 0,001 2; noi?anoei 0,25 3;
ieiieueoai; aeeiaae?ie 0,03 3; aetheiiao eaeueoeey 0,5 3.

6. I?e ieeao?ee: oo?inaieae 40 ia; eaceen 1% 2,0 a/a (a ia?aua aeie
aieacie), aetheica 40% 10,0 a/a n einoeeiii iaiieoie.

7. I?e yeeaiinee: e?iaiioneaiea; aieiacei 2,5% 2,0 a/i; iaaiacey 25%
20,0 a/i (aeaaeae?aoaoeeiiiia e naaeaoeaiia); ?aca?iei 0,1 ia 2-3 ?aca;
aeaeno?ai 10% 100,0.

I?e na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe: e?iaiioneaiea; eaceen; ia?eioeee.

O?IIE*ANEEE AEIIA?OEIIAO?EO

Yoi aeaoonoi?iiiaa ainiaeeoaeueiia caaieaaaiea ii/ae eiioiiiai aaiaca,
eioi?ia oa?aeoa?ecoaony iinoaiaiiie, ii iaoeeiiiie aeaaeueth eeoai/eia,
nii?ueaaieai ii/ee, iinoaiaiiui iiieaeaieai ooieoeee, ?acaeoeai
a?oa?eaeueiie aeia?oaicee e nia?oueth io o?iie/aneie ii/a/iie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.

*anoioa ieiei 4 ia 1000 ane?uoee. Caaieaaaaiinoue ioae/ei e aeaiuei
iaeeiaeiaay. Ano?a/aaony ai anao no?aiao ie?a, ii /aua a oieiaeiuo.

Yoeieiaey

Aei eiioea ia ynia, o /anoe a aiaiiaca ino?ue aeiia?oeiiao?eo, ae?oaea
neo/ae ia yniu. Eiiaaea i?iaioee?othuei oaeoi?ii iiaeao auoue iiaoi?iay
aaeoeeiaoeey, iaaeeeaiaioiciay oa?aiey – iai?eia?, i?ioeaiyieeaioe/aneea
n?aaenoaa.

Iaoiaaiac

A iniiaa eiioiieiae/aneee iaoaieci. Ii?oieiae/anee a iaeanoe aacaeueiie
iaia?aiu iaoiaeyo ioeiaeaiey eiioiiuo eiiieaenia, ninoiyueo ec
eiioiiaeiaoeeia e eiiieaiaioa. Oa?aeoa? eiioiiuo ioeiaeaiee iiaeao auoue
?acee/iui: anee eo iiiai, a?oaua ioeiaeaiey, oyaeaeia ii?aaeaiea.
Eiiaaea iiaeao iaiyoueny aaeeiaue ninoaa naiie iaia?aiu.

Eeanneoeeaoeey

1. Eeeie/aneay:

a). Eaoaioiay oi?ia – iao?eo n eciee?iaaiiui ii/aaui n-iii.

a). O?iie/aneee aeiia?oeiiao?eo n iao?ioe/aneei eiiiiiaioii
(iao?iciiao?eo). Iniiaiia i?iyaeaiea – iao?ioe/aneee n-i.

a). Aeia?oiie/aneay oi?ia, i?ioaeaao n iiauoaieai AAe, iaaeeaiii
i?ia?anne?oao.

a). Niaoaiiay oi?ia.

2. Aenoieiae/aneay (aicieeea n iiyaeaieai i?eaeeciaiiie aeiinee n
iineaaeothuae yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiieae.

a). O?iie/aneee aeiia?oeiiao?eo n ieieiaeueiuie ii?aaeaieyie. I?e ye.
iee?ineiiee auyaeythony eciaiaiey a aacaeueiie iaia?aia, a iniiaiii a
iiaeioeeoao – eeaoeao aenoea?aeueiiai eenoea eainoeu
Ooieyineiai-Aioiaia. Au?inou iiaeioeeoia neeaathony, i?aaenoaaeyy niaie
aaeeioth nenoaio n eiioiiuie ioeiaeaieyie. Eeeieea: /anoi o aeaoae
(65-80%). ?aiueoa iacuaaee eeiieaeiui iao?icii, ii yoi iai?aaeeueii, oae
eae iao?ic – ii?aaeaiea ii/a/iuo eaiaeueoeaa, a caeanue ii?aaeathony
eeoai/ee. Niioaaonoaoao o?iie/aneiio aeiia?oeiiao?eoo n iao?ioe/aneei
neiae?iiii: au?aaeaiiay i?ioaeio?ey (aunieay naeaeoeaiinoue) iiaeao
auoue aei 33%; aeiii?ioaeiaiey (aeiiaeueaoieiaiey); ioaee ec-ca
nieaeaiey ieioe/aneiai aeaaeaiey ieaciu (aeiieney), ca n/ao ioa/iie
aeeaeeinoe aua aieueoa oiaiueoaaony eiee/anoai aaeeia e?iae –
aeiiaieaiey, aoi?e/iue aeia?aeueaeinoa?iieci, oaaee/aiea ioaeia;
aeia?oieenoa?eiaiey, a oaeaea oaaee/aiea o?eaeeoea?eaeia (aei 3-5 oun.
ia). ?aiueoa n/eoaee, /oi aeia?oieenoa?eiaiey eiiiainaoi?ii oaaee/eaaao
iieioe/aneia aeaaeaiea. Oaia?ue onoaiiaeaii, /oi iieioe/aneia aeaaeaiea
ca n/ao eeieaeia oaaee/eaaaony iacia/eoaeueii. I?e/eia aea
aeia?oieanoa?eiaiee a nieaeaiee eeiieeoe/aneie aeoeaiinoe ia/aie. A
oeaeii yoi aeia?iea/anoaaiiay oi?ia. E nia?oaeueiiio enoiaeo ii/oe
ieeiaaea ia i?eaiaeeo, ii iiaeao auoue i?eniaaeeiaiea eioaeoeee,
aeia?oiiee, aaiaoo?ee n enoiaeii a nii?uaiioth ii/eo.

a). Iaia?aiiciue aa?eaio iao?eoa: aacaeueiay iaia?aia ii?aaeaaony aieaa
aeoaiei. I?e iau/iie iee?ineiiee ooieuaaony, ?ac?uau iaia?aiu, aieueoia
ioeiaeaiea eiioiiaeiaoeeiia e eiiieaiaioa. Eeeieea /aua anaai ii oeio
iao?iciiao?eoa. Oa/aiea aieaa ceiea/anoaaiiia. Iaaieueoay aaiaoo?ey,
iinoaiaiiia iiauoaiea, enoiae ai aoi?e/ii-nii?uaiioth ii/eo.

a). Oea?iieanoe/aneee aa?eaio: auno?i eaeoo i?ioeannu ia aacaeueiie
iaia?aia, i?ienoiaeeo aeoeaaoeey iacaiaey, aeaeueiaeoaa ?ac?anoaiea
iaia?aiu, ?ac?anoaiea eeoai/eia eaeao iaaeeaiiaa. Eeeieea: aeia?oiiey,
ii/aaie neiae?ii au?aaeai neaai, eiiaaea anoue oieueei ia?eiaee/aneea
eciaiaiey a ii/a, ioaeia a ia/aea iao; caoai i?iyaeyaony ianoiyuee
aeiia?oeiiao?eo n ioaeaie e aeia?oiieae. Yoa oi?ia aeaaii?eyoia ii
aeeeoaeueiinoe oa/aiey caaieaaaiey, ii ii/oe anaaaea aeaao enoiae ai
aoi?e/ii-nii?uaiioth ii/eo e o?iie/aneoth ii/a/ioth iaaeinoaoi/iinoue.

a). I?ieeoa?aoeaiue aa?eaio: eaeao ianniaay i?ieeoa?aoeey a iniiaiii
ninoaeenoiai yiaeioaeey (yiaeieaieeey?iue oei), ?aaea i?ieeoa?aoeey
iineo yeno?aeaieeey?iue oei – ni noi?iiu Aioiaiianeie eainoeu. *aua
niaoaiiay oi?ia, eeeieea i?iyaeyaony a?oa?eaeueiie aeia?oaiceae.

ae). Iaia?aiicii-i?ieeoa?aoeaiue: a) + a) . Niaoeeaeueii auaeaeyaony
aeia?oiie/aneay oi?ia o?iie/aneiai aeiia?oeiiao?eoa n eeeieeie
eeanne/aneie oi?iu aeia?oiie/aneie aieacie, ii anoue eciaiaiey ni
noi?iiu ii/e. Coaiaiue eciaiaiey aeaciiai aeia iiaeao auoue aieueoay,
/ai i?e AA.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic

1. Ino?ue aeiia?oeiiao?eo: aaaeai aiaiiac, a?aiy io ia/aea caaieaaaiey,
oaeaeueiue aan aunieee ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai caaieaaaiey, a i?e
o?iie/aneii aeiia?oeiiao?eoa iiaeao auoue nieaeaiea oaeaeueiiai aana
ii/e. Iiaeao auoue ?acei au?aaeaia aeia?o?ioey eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea.
Aeia?oiiey. ?aoathuaa cia/aiea eiaao aenoieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea –
iaee/ea aeia?ieanoe/aneeo i?ioeannia.

2. Ceiea/anoaaiiay oi?ia aeia?oiie/aneie aieacie: nae/an ano?a/aaony
e?aeia ?aaeei. Noieeia aunieia AAe 260/130-140 e aieaa. Cia/eoaeueiua
eciaiaiey ia aeaciii aeia. Caoai, iiaeao i?eniaaeeieoueny e ii/aaie
neiae?ii.

3. O?iie/aneee ieaeiiao?eo: a aiaiiaca /anoi aeiaeieiae/aneea
caaieaaaiey, aai?ou, oeenoeo. Anoue neeiiiinoue e noaoaa?eeeoaoo.
Ieo?ey. Aaeoa?eio?ey, ?aiiaa nieaeaiea oaeaeueiiai aana ii/e. Iaee/ea
?aioaaiieiae/aneeo i?eciaeia ieaeiiao?eoa (/aoa/ee ?aii neea?ice?othony,
iaiytho naith oi?io).

4. Iieeeenoic ii/ae: i?iyaeyaony a 30-40 eao. Iaee/ea oaaee/aiiuo n
iaaeo noi?ii ii/ae. ?aioaaiieiae/anee – iaee/ea ia?iaiiai oanoii/aoiai
e?ay ii/ae, eenou. Aeia?oiiey, acioaiey. ?aii aeaao o?iie/aneoth
ii/a/ioth iaaeinoaoi/iinoue.

5. Aieeieaeic ii/ae: iau/ii ea?oeia iao?ioe/aneiai neiae?iia. Aicieeaao
ia oiia aeeeoaeueiiai o?iie/aneiai ainiaeaiey. *anoi ni/aoaaony n
aieeieaeicii ia/aie e naeacaiee, iiaeao auoue aieeieaeic eeoa/ieea
(iiiin, enoiuaiea, nieaeaiea iannu oaea). Iiaeao auoue e ia?ae/iue
aieeieaeic – a aiaiiaca iao iaaiieoaeueiuo caaieaaaiee. Iiaeao
ano?a/aoueny o i/aiue noa?uo ethaeae; ycue noaiiaeoueny i/aiue aieueoei
(ia iiiauaaony ai ?oo), oaaee/aiea na?aeoea. Aeeaaiinoeea iiiiaaao i?iaa
n eiiai-?. Aeiiney neecenoie ?ioiaie iieinoe eee eo/oa i?yiie eeoee n
i?iaie ia aieeieae (n eiaeii).

6. Aeeaaaoe/aneee aeiia?oeineea?ic: aicieeaao i?e ia?aniiciaiiii
aeeaaaoa eee i?e oyaeaeii aai oa/aiee e ieioii ea/aiee. I?ienoiaeeo
aeaeeiic ninoaeia ii/ae, aeaaeue ii/a/iuo eeoai/eia.

Eeeieea: oieueei iaa?ioe/aneee neiae?ii, e oieueei a iicaeieo
noaaeeyo i?eniaaeeiythony aeia?oiiey e ii/a/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue.

7. Ieaeiiiay aieaciue n ieaeiiiie ii/eie: /anoi i?e ii?aaeaiee ii/ae
i?eniaaeeiyaony iao?ioe/aneee neiae?ii. Aeeaaiinoeea iiiiaaao ea?oeia
e?iae e einoiiai iicaa, iiauoaiea aaeeiauo o?aeoeee e?iae, iiyaeaiea a
e?iae ia?ai?ioaeiia – aaeea Aai-Aeaeiina.

I?iaiic

I?e aeiia?oeiiao?eoa n ieieiaeueiuie eciaiaieyie – oi?ioee.
Aucaei?iaeaiea iiaeao auoue n aeaoaeoii – iaaieueoie, ii
i?ia?anne?othuae i?ioaeio?eae. *aua i?ia?anne?othuaa oa/aiea n enoiaeii
a o?iie/aneoth ii/a/ioth iaaeinoaoi/iinoue.

Ineiaeiaiey

1. I?e aeia?oiie/aneie oi?ia – e?iaieceeyiea a iica, ioneieea nao/aoee.

2. I?e iao?ineea?ica – i?eniaaeeiaiea ?acee/iie eioaeoeee.

3. O?iie/aneay ii/a/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue.

Ea/aiea

1. I?e iaino?aiee no?aioieieeiaie eioaeoeee – iaieoeeeei.

2. I?e aeia?oiiee – aeiioaiceaiua, naeo?aoeee – oo?inaieae, eaceen.
Aeicu aeieaeiu auoue oia?aiiuie, o.e. ec-ca ii?aaeaiey ii/ae iiaeao
auoue eoioeyoeey. Aa?ioie?ii.

3. Aicaeaenoaea ia aooiiioiiua i?ioeannu: ei?oeeinoa?ieaeu e
oeeoinoaoeee oeaeaniia?aciu oieueei i?e aeiia?oeiiao?eoa n ieieiaeueiuie
ii?aaeaieyie – yoi aaniethoiia e ii?aaaeaiiia iieacaiea, yooaeo 80-100%:
i?aaeiecieii 40-60 ia/noo. 3 iaaeaee. Anee ea/aiea yooaeoeaii, oi
iieiaeeoaeueiue yooaeo iiyaeony ia 4 iaaeaea, i?e iieiaeeoaeueiii
yooaeoa ia?aoiaeyo ia iiaeaea?aeeaathuea aeicu 5-10 ia/noo. a oa/aiea
aiaea. Oa?aieth eo/oa i?iaiaeeoue eo?naie, oae eae oiaiueoathony
iiai/iua yaeaiey: a/4+3 (4 aeiy i?aaeiecieii, 3 aeiy ioaeuo) 6/7+7,
iiaeii eiiaeie?iaaoue ai?iiiu n oeeoinoaoeeaie – eio?ai 100 ia.
oeeeeioinoai 150-200 ia/noo. I?e oea?iieanoe/aneie oi?ia oeeoinoaoeee
aania?niaeoeaiu.

4. Aeey oiaiueoaiey i?ioaeio?ee: eiaeiiaoaoeei 0,025.

5. Aiaaiee/aneea n?aaenoaa: ?aoaaieee (oaaee/eaaao neioac aaeea).

6. Aioeeiaaoeyiou: aaia?ei – oeo/oaao iee?ioee?eoeyoeeth a eaieeey?ao,
aioeiiiieaiaioa?iia aeaenoaea, ii iiaeao oaaee/eaaoue aaiaoo?eth.

7. Aeoaieiu a aieueoeo aeicao, iniaaiii aeoaiei “N”.

8. Aetheica 40% ?anoai? a/a.

9. Aeeaoioa?aiey: aiaeiinieaaie ?aaeei (o.e. eiee/anoai aiaeu e niee
oiaiueoaaony i?e ioaeao): i?e aeia?oiiee, na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe –
ia?aie/aiea aiaeu: i?e ionoonoaee acioaee eiee/anoai aaeea 1 a/ea aana:
i?e iao?ioe/aneii neiae?iia aaeie ieue o ac?ineuo iiaeieiatho aei 2 a/ea
a noo. Iioa?y aaeea ii?aaeaeyaony a nooi/iii eiee/anoaa ii/e –
i?ioaeio?ey nauoa 5 a/noo n/eoaaony ianneaiie.

10. ?aaeei iau/iue. Iinoaeueiue – a naiuo oyaeaeuo neo/ayo.

11. Eo?i?oioa?aiey.

12. Oeceioa?aiey: aeeaoa?iey, oaiei.

13. Naiaoeey i/aaia o?iie/aneie eioaeoeee.

O?IIE*ANEEE IEAEIIAO?EO

Ianiaoeeoe/aneia eioaeoeeiiii-ainiaeeoaeueiia caaieaaaiea neecenoie
iaiei/ee ii/aauaiaeyueo iooae: eioaiie, /aoa/ae e eioa?noeoeeaeueiie
oeaie ii/ae. Ii nooe eioa?noeoeeaeueiue aaeoa?eaeueiue iao?eo, 60% anao
caaieaaaiee ii/ae.

Yoeieiaey

Anaaaea eioaeoeeiiiay. Aicaoaeeoaee a ii?yaeea oauaaiey /anoiou:
eeoa/iay iaei/ea, aoeueaa?iue i?ioae, noaoeeieiee, no?aioieiee,
yioa?ieiee, iee?iaiua annioeeaoeee, ieeiieaciu e ae?onu, L – oi?iu
aaeoa?ee. Ii a 30% neo/aaa aicaoaeeoaeue ia aunaeaaaony – yoi ia
eneeth/aao eioaeoeeiiiue i?ioeann.

Iaoiaaiac

Iooe:

1. Aaiaoiaaiiue ec i/aaa eioaeoeee

2. O?eiiaaiiue i?e iocu?ii – ii/aoi/ieeiaii ?aoethena, – ainoiaeyuee
iooue.

Iaycaoaeueiua eiiiiiaiou:

1. Iaee/ea eioaeoeee.

2. Ia?ooaiea o?iaeeiaieee, iiauoaiea aioo?eeioaii/iiai aeaaeaiey.

3. Enoiaeiia ii?aaeaiea ii/ae e ii/aauaiaeyueo iooae.

I?aae?aniieaaathuea oaeoi?u:

1. Iie – /aua o aeaiuei, a 2-3 ?aca, 70% aeaiuei caaieaaatho aei 40
eao, a ioae/eiu – iinea. O aeaiuei 3 e?eoe/aneeo ia?eiaea:

a) aeaoneee aica?ano: aeaai/ee a yoio ia?eiae aieatho a 6 ?ac /aua
iaeue/eeia:

a) ia/aei iieiaie aeecie:

a) aa?aiaiiinoue.

2. Ai?iiiaeueiue aeenaaeain: aetheiei?oeeieaeu e ai?iiiaeueiua
eiio?aoeaioeau.

3. Naoa?iue aeeaaao, iiaeaa?a.

4. Aiiiaeee ii/ae e ii/aauaiaeyueo iooae.

5. Eaea?noaaiiua ii?aaeaiey ii oeio aaaeoa?eaeueiiai
eio?anoeoeeaeueiiai iao?eoa (noeueoaieeaieaeu, i?ioeaiooaa?eoeaciua,
aeoaiei Ae a aieueoeo aeicao, oaiaoeaoei, aiaeueaaoeee, iao?ioiene/aneea
aioeaeioeee.

Aaeeiie eeanneoeeaoeee iao. Auaeaeytho:

I a) Ia?ae/iue – aac i?aaeoanoaothueo ia?ooaiee ni noi?iiu ii/ae e
ii/aauaiaeyueo iooae.

I a) Aoi?e/iue – ia iniiaa i?aaie/aneeo eee ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ia?ooaiee
(iano?oeoeaiue), aio i?aaeoanoaotho o?ieiae/aneea caaieaaaiey. Ia?ae/iue
20%, aoi?e/iue 80%.

II. Iaeii e aeaoonoi?iiiea.

III. Ii iooe ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioaeoeee: aaiaoiaaiiua, /aua ia?ae/iua, e
o?eiiaaiiua, /aua aoi?e/iua.

IV. Ii oa/aieth: auno?i i?ia?anne?othuee, ?aoeeaeeae?othuee e
eaoaioiue.

V. Ii eeeie/aneei oi?iai:

V.1. Eaoaioiue.

V.2. ?aoeeaeeae?othuee.

V.3. Aeia?oiie/aneee.

V.4. Aiaie/aneee.

V.5. Aaiaoo?e/aneee (naycai n aaiiciie aeia?oaiceae e ia?ooaieai
oeaeinoiinoe ninoaeia naiaea).

V.6. Ooaoey?iue n iioa?ae Na+ e K+.

V.7. Acioaie/aneee.

Eeeieea

Iiaeao i?ioaeaoue iiae ianeaie.

1. Eaoaioiay oi?ia – 20% aieueiuo. *aua anaai aeaeia iao, a anee anoue,
oi – neaainoue, iiauoaiiay ooiieyaiinoue, ?aaea noaoaa?eeeoao. O aeaiuei
a ia?eiae aa?aiaiiinoe iiaoo auoue oieneeicu. Ooieoeeiiaeueiia
enneaaeiaaiea ie/aai ia auyaeyao, anee oieueei ?aaeei iaiioeae?iaaiiia
iiauoaiea AAe, eaaeoth aieaciaiiinoue i?e iieiea/eaaiee ii iiynieoea.
Aeeaaiic eaai?aoi?ii. ?aoathuaa cia/aiea eiatho iiaoi?iua aiaeecu:
eaeeioeeoo?ey, oia?aiiay ia aieaa 1 – 3 a/e i?ioaeio?ey + i?iaa
Ia/eii?aiei. Eeaoee Ooaiaaeia?a – Iaeueaeia niiieoaeueii, ii anee eo
aieueoa 40%, oi oa?aeoa?ii aeey ieaeiiao?eoa. Aeoeaiua eaeeioeeou
iaia?oaeeaatho ?aaeei. Enoeiiay aaeoa?eo?ey *****> 10 5 aaeoa?ee a 1 ie.

*oiau aeieacaoue aa, 30 a i?aaeiecieiia a/a e ioeaieaatho iieacaoaee
(iiauoaiea eaeeioeeoia a 2 e aieaa ?ac, iiaoo iiyaeoueny aeoeaiua
eaeeioeeou).

2. ?aoeeaeeae?othuay ii/oe 80%. *a?aaeiaaiea iaino?aiee e ?aiennee.
Iniaaiiinoe: eioieneeaoeeiiiue neiae?ii n iiauoaieai oaiia?aoo?u,
iciiau, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue aeaaea i?e ii?iaeueiie oaiia?aoo?a, a
eeeie/aneii aiaeeca e?iae eaeeioeeoic, iiauoaiiia NIY, naeaea aeaai,
N-?aaeoeaiue aaeie. Aiee a iiynie/iie iaeanoe, /aua 2-o noi?iiiea, o
iaeioi?uo ii oeio ii/a/iie eieeee: aieue aneiiao?e/ia! Aeeco?e/aneee e
aaiaoo?e/aneee neiae?iiu. Aaiaoo?e/aneee neiae?ii nae/an auaaao /aua,
iiaeao auoue iee?ie iae?iaaiaoo?ey. Iiauoaiea AAe. Naiia iaaeaaii?eyoiia
ni/aoaiea neiae?iiia: aaiaoo?ey + aeia?oaicey – > /a?ac 2-4 aiaea
o?iie/aneay ii/a/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue.

3. Aeia?oiie/aneay oi?ia: aaaeouee neiae?ii – iiauoaiea AAe, iiaeao
auoue ia?aui e aaeeinoaaiiui, ii/aaie neiae?ii ia au?aaeai e
iaiinoiyiai. I?iaieaoeeth aeaeaoue iianii, oae eae iiaeao auoue
iiauoaiea AAe.

4. Aiaie/aneay ?aaeei. Noieeay aeiio?iiiay aiaiey, iiaeao auoue
aaeeinoaaiiui i?eciaeii. Naycaia n ia?ooaieai i?iaeoeoeee y?eo?iiiyoeia,
ii/aaie neiae?ii ia au?aaeai e iaiinoiyiai.

5. Aaiaoo?e/aneay: ?aoeeaeeau iae?iaaiaoo?ee.

6. Ooaoey?iay: iaeiio?iee?oaiua iioa?e n ii/ie Na + e K + (nieue –
oa?ythuay ii/ea). Aoeeaeic. Aeiiaieaiey, aeiioaicey, nieaeaiea
eeoai/eiaie oeeueo?aoeee, iiaeao auoue III.

7. Acioaie/aneay: i?iyaeyaony aia?aua oaea o?. ii/. iaaeinoao.

Iinoaiiaea aeeaaiica

1. ?aoathuaa cia/aiea eiaao ?aioaaiieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea.
Yene?aoi?iay o?ia?aoey (?ao?ia?aaeioth a oa?aiee ia i?eiaiytho).
Aneiiao?ey ooieoeeiiaeueiay e no?oeoo?iay. Ioeaieaatho: ?acia?u,
eiioo?u, aeaoi?iaoeeth /aoa/ae, ia?ooaiea oiiona, auyaeaiea
ieaei?aiaeueiuo ?aoethenia, oaie eiie?aiaioia. A ii?ia ?acia?u: o
ioae/ei: i?aaay 12,9 * 6,2 ni. eaaay 13,2 * 6,3 ni., o aeaiuei: i?aaay
12,3 * 5,7 ni: eaaay 12,6 * 5,9 ni. I?aaeea ioeaiee: Anee eaaay iaiueoa
i?aaie ia 0,5 ni – yoi ii/oe iaoiaiiiiie/ii aeey aa nii?ueaaiey; anee
?acieoea a aeeeia ii/ae 1,5 ni e aieueoa – yoi nii?ueaaiea i?aaie ii/ee.
N iiiiuueth a/a o?ia?aoee auyaeytho: A ia/aeueiie noaaeee caiaaeeaiea
auaaaeaiey eiio?anoa, aeaoi?iaoeeth /aoa/ae e eioaiie, ?acaeaeaaiea
/aoa/ae ec-ca ioaea e eioeeueo?aoeee, caoai eo naeeaeaiea ec-ca
nii?ueaaiey.

2. ?aaeeiecioiiiua iaoiaeu. Auyaeytho aneiiao?eth e noaiaiue
ooieoeeiiaeueiiai ii?aaeaiey. I?eiaiytho noaoenoe/aneoth e
aeeiaie/aneoth noeeioea?aoeth.

3. Oeueo?acaoeiaay aeeaaiinoeea.

4. Eiiiuethoa?iay oiiia?aoey.

5. Ii/a/iay aiaeia?aoey – ea?oeia “iaai?aeiai aea?aaa” ca n/ao
iaeeoa?aoeee iaeeeo ninoaeia.

6. Aeiiney ii/ae. Iieacaiey: iiaeic?aiea ia niaoaiiua oi?iu aeiia?oeie
ieaeiiao?eoa e ooi/iaiea i?e?iaeu iiauoaiey AAe; io?eoeaoaeueiue
?acoeueoao ia eneeth/aao ieaeiiao?eo, oae eae ii eiaao i/aaiaue oa?aeoa?
+ aeiiney: i/aaiai – eioa?noeoeeaeueiue neea?ic e eioeeueo?aoeeae
eeioieaeii – aenoeioeeoa?iuie yeaiaioaie e iaeo?ioeeaie.

Ea/aiea

?aaeei a caaeneiinoe io oacu. Ai a?aiy iaino?aiey iinoaeueiue 1 – 2
iaaeaee, iiaeii e aeiia. I?eaioe?iaaoueny ia nieaeaiea oaiia?aoo?u.
?anoe?aiea ?aaeeia oieueei i?e ii?iaeecaoeee oaiia?aoo?u. Aia iaino?aiey
oece/aneoth iaa?oceo nouanoaaiii ia ia?aie/eaatho. I?e eioa?eo?aioiuo
eioaeoeeyo iinoaeueiue ?aaeei. Ieoaiea: oaca iaino?aiey – ia?aie/aiea
ino?uo aethae, eiina?aia, nie?oiuo iaieoeia e eioa. Nieue ia?aie/eaatho
aei 5 – 8 a/noo. ia 2 – 3 iaaeaee, i?e aeia?oaicee aei 2 – 4 a.
(eneeth/aiea nieue – oa?ythuay ii/ea i?e ooaoey?iie oi?ia). Ieoueaaie
?aaeei ia ia?aie/eaatho, 2 – 3 e/noo. iaycaoaeueii, iniaaiii iieacai
eetheaaiiue ii?n ec-ca aaeoa?einoaoe/aneiai aeaenoaey. ?aienney: 10 – 12
a/noo., i?e iiauoaiee AAe 6 – 8 a. I?e ii/a/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe ieoaiea
iniaia.

Iaaeeeaiaioiciia ea/aiea. Ai a?aiy iaino?aiey aeoeaiay
aioeaaeoa?eaeueiay oa?aiey: aioeaeioeee, noeueoaieeaieaeu, ieo?ioo?aiu,
i?aia?aou iaeeaeeeniaie eeneiou, IAEEI, eiiaeie?iaaiiua i?aia?aou.

A ia?aua aeaa iaaeaee aioeaeioeee + noeueoaieeaieaeu eee aioeaeioeee +
iaeeaeeeniaay eeneioa. O?aaiaaiey e aioeaeioeeai:

1) yooaeoeaiinoue e aieueoeinoao aicaoaeeoaeae ieaeiiao?eoa:

2) ionoonoaea iao?ioiene/iinoe: eaaiieoeaoei, oeaia?ei, oao?aoeeeeei,
aaioaieoeei. Ec noeueoaieeaieaeia – aeeeoaeueiiai aeaenoaey, oae eae
?aaani?aoeey: noeueoiie?eaeacei e noeueoaaeeiaoienei.

Ieo?ioo?aiu i?e eeoa/iie iaei/ea e A? (+), A? (-): oo?aaeiiei, oo?aaei,
nieaoo? a/a eaiaeueii. Eo ?aeiiaiaeoaony ni/aoaoue n eetheaaiiui
yeno?aeoii. Iaeeaeeeniaoth eeneioo ia ni/aoaoue n ieo?ioo?aiaie.

Iaeei aeaenoaoao ia A?(+) e ia A?(-). Eiaao iniaaiiinoue: aucuaaao
oioinaineaeeece?othuaa aeaenoaea -> iaeuecy caai?aoue.

Eiiaeie?iaaiiua i?aia?aou: 5-IIE (5 – ieo?ieneoeiieei) – ninoiei eo
ieo?ioo?aia e ieneoeiieeia. Aenaioie.

A oaca ?aiennee 2 iiaeoiaea:

1. Iinoiyiiia iai?a?uaiia iiiaiiany/iia ea/aiea aei aiaea e aeieueoa,
ana i?aia?aou a ieieiaeueiuo aeicao, n iinoaiaiiie niaiie eaea?noa.

2. I?a?uaenoia ea/aiea: aaniie e inaiueth + a ia?eiae iaino?aiey.

Noaia ?yaiaa a ia?eiae ?aiennee: Ia?aay iaaeaey: 1 – 2 oaa. aenaioiea ia
ii/ue. Aoi?ay iaaeaey: o?inaioee ?anoeoaeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey:
aa?aciaua ii/ee, a?onie/iue eeno, ?iiaoea. O?aouey iaaeaey: 5-IIE 2 oaa.
ia ii/ue. *aoaa?oay iaaeaey: eaaiieoeaoei 1 oaa. ia ii/ue.

Iinea yoiai oaeay aea iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue, ii i?aia?aou iaiyoue ia
aiaeiae/iua ec oie aea a?oiiu.

I?e aiaiee + i?aia?aou aeaeaca, aeoaiei A12, y?eo?iiiyoei. I?e
iao?ieeoeaca OeENOEIAE. I?e iaeiinoi?iiiai eeoeaca – aai oaeaeaiea. I?e
iiauoaiiii AAe iau/iua aeiioaiceaiua i?aia?aou. ca eneeth/aieai
aaiaeeiaeieaoi?ia. N/eoaaony oai?aoe/anee, /oi oae iiaeii auea/eoue 35%
aieueiuo.

O?IIE*ANEAss II*A*IAss IAAeINOAOI*IINOUe

OII – iaoieiae/aneia ninoiyiea i?aaiecia, oa?aeoa?ecothuaany iinoiyiiui
i?ia?anne?othuei ia?ooaieai ooieoeee ii/ae.

Yoeieiaey

1) O?iie/aneee aeiia?oeiiao?eo.

2) O?iie/aneee ieaeiiao?eo (anoue iiaiea, /oi iniiaiay i?e/eia).

3) Iieeeenoic ii/ae.

4) Ceiea/anoaaiiay aeia?oiie/aneay aieaciue n enoiaeii a iao?ineea?ic.

5) Aieeieaeic ii/ae.

6) ?aciiia?aciay o?ieiae/aneay iaoieiaey (ii/aeaiaiiay aieaciue e
ae?.).

7) Aeeaaaoe/aneee aeiia?oeineea?ic.

8) Aaeaiiia e ?ae i?aaenoaoaeueiie aeaeacu (iineaaenoaea o?inoaca). OII
– /anoay i?e/eia eiaaeeaeecaoeee e nia?oe a iieiaeii aica?anoa.

Iaoiaaiac

1. Iaeiieaiea acioenouo oeaeia:

a) ii/aaeia > 40 ia% (8 iiieue/e), ii acio e?iae iiaeao auoue eae
yiaeiaaiiui, oae e yeciaaiiui – ec ieue, iicoiio eo/oa ooieoeeth ii/ae
ii?aaeaeyoue ii e?aaoeieio.

a) e?aaoeoei 1,0-1,2 ia% – auaiaeeony oeeueo?aoeeae, ia
?aaani?ae?oaony, iiyoiio ii o?iaith e?aaoeoeia noaeyo i oeeueo?aoeee.

a) ii/aaay eeneioa (ii iia iiaeao oaaee/eaaoueny i?e iiaeaa?a).

2. Ia?ooaiea aiaeii – yeaeo?ieeoiiai aaeaina:

a) ecauoi/iue iao?ee – o?ac -> aeiiiao?eaiey:

a) ecauoi/iue eaeee – o?ac -> aeiieaeeaiey (ii a oa?ieiaeueiie noaaeee
OII i?e ?aceie ieeao?ee iiaeao auoue e aeia?eaeeaiey). Ii?ia 3,6 – 5,0
iiieue/e.

a) eciaiaiea auaaaeaiey eaeueoeey e oinoi?a: eaeueoeee auiuaaaony ec
einoae – inoaiii?ic, inoaiiaeyoeey; aeia?oinoaoaiey; iaiyaony
niioiioaiea Na/? e?iae – iiaeao auoue ea?oeia aoi?e/iiai
ia?aoe?aieaeecia.

a) caaea?aeea iaaiey;

ae) eciaiyaony aiaeiue iaiai: nia/aea aeaaeae?aoaoeey aneaaenoaea
iieeo?ee, caoai aeia?aeae?aoaoeey – ioaee, eaaiaeaeoaei/eiaay na?aea/iay
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue.

3. Eciaiaiea eeneioii-uaei/iiai ?aaiiaaney: aoeeaeic: a oa?ieiaeueiie
noaaeee i?eniaaeeiyaony ?aioa, iiiin – iioa?y iao?ey e oei?eaeia ->
aicieeaao aeiioei?aie/aneee aeeaeic.

Eeeieea

Eeeieea i?e OII ?acaa?ouaaaony iinoaiaiii, /anoi ioeaieaaaony
?ao?iniaeoeaii. A ia/aeueiuo noaaeeyo auaaao neoaeiie. Ni noi?iiu
ia?aiie nenoaiu: neaainoue, iiauoaiiay ooiieyaiinoue, iioa?y eioa?ana e
ie?oaeathuaio, iioa?y iaiyoe, aeiai niieeainoue, aa/a?ii aanniiieoea,
iiieaeaiea aiiaoeoa, eiiaaea oii?iay ?aioa, aieiaiua aiee, eiiaaea
eiaeiue coae. Ni noi?iiu na?aea/ii – ninoaeenoie nenoaiu: ieia?oiiey aei
200 – 140/130 – 140 ii ?o. no.

Iauaeoeaii

1) Eiaeiua iie?iau aeaaeiua, aeaeoiaaoue oeaao eiaee (ec-ca iaeiieaiey a
iae o?io?iia). Iaeooeiaaoinoue eeoea. ?an/anu, iniaaiii ia iiaao,
aneaaenoaea eiaeiiai coaea.

2) Ni noi?iiu na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu: aeia?oiiey, iai?yaeaiiue
ioeuen, aeooie ia?aue oii, aeoeaio aoi?iai oiia ia ai?oa, i?e
aeeeoaeueiie aeia?oiiee oneeaiiue aa?oooa/iue oie/ie; ia?aaeei anoue
ninoaeenoua ooiu, eo i?e/eiu: aeia?oiiey, aeeno?ioey ieiea?aea – i?e
yoii aiciiaeii iiyaeaiea ?eoia aaeiia e oaaee/aiea ?acia?ia na?aeoea. A
oa?ieiaeueiie noaaeee ooi o?aiey ia?eea?aea ec-ca oea?iciiai
ia?eea?aeeoa (ioeiaeaiea acioenouo oeaeia ia ia?eea?aea) – iioi?iiiue
caoe o?aieea eee iioi?iiiue caoe A?aeoeaa.

YEA: eiiaaea iaoiaeyo oaeeeiaiea eioa?aaea PQ, ii /aua a?eoiee,
neeiiiinoue e a?aaeeea?aeee, ii eiiaaea oaoeea?aeey. Ii YEA noaeyo ia
o?iaia eaeey a e?iae: ieceee T i?e aeiieaeeaiee, aunieee i?e
aeia?eaeeaiee (a oa?ieiaeueiie noaaeee OII). Na?aea/iay
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue /anoi niioonoaoao OII e cia/eoaeueii oooaeoaao
i?iaiic.

3) Ni noi?iiu aeuoaoaeueiie nenoaiu: eaoaeue (o?aie/aneee iiaaiiieo),
i?enooiu oaeoouey, aieioue aei na?aea/iie anoiu, ioaea eaaeeo (i?e/ai
i?e/eia ioaea eaaeeo ia eaaiaeaeoaei/eiaay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue, a
ia?ooaiea aiaeiiai iaiaia – aeia?aeae?aoaoeey eaaeeo – o?aie/aneee ioae
eaaeeo. Aeia?aeae?aoaoeey ea/eony i?eioaeeoaeueiie aeea?aae). Oa?aeoa?ia
?aiaaeiae/aneay ea?oeia eaaeeo – a aeaea aaai/ee. Neeiiiinoue e
eioaeoeee (a?iioeou, iiaaiiiee).

4) Ni noi?iiu AEEO: iaeiaeaiiue ycue, aii?aeney, iiaeao auoue
iiooaeaiea, ia?aciaaiea e auaeaeaiea aiieaea – iai?eyoiue i?eaeon ai
?oo, aiieae auaeaeyaony /a?ac aa?oiea aeuoaoaeueiua iooe –> oneeeaaaony
ioa?auaiea e ieua. Iiiinu. A oa?ieiaeueiie noaaeee ia?aciaaiea yca.

5) Ni noi?iiu ia?aiie nenoaiu: a oyaeaeuo neo/ay ia?anoaiea aiaoee –
“oeoay o?aiey”. O?aie/aneea yaeu (aiieae, eiaeie, neaoie) oiene/anee
aeaenoaotho ia iica –> aieiaiua aiee, iiaea?aeaaiea ioaeaeueiuo a?oii
iuooe. Yeeaiiney (naycaia n iiauoaieai aioo?e/a?aiiiai aeaaeaiey –
“ooiiay o?aiey”).

6) Ni noi?iiu ii/aauaeaeeoaeueiie nenoaiu: oiaiueoaaony ii/a/iay
oeeueo?aoeey, ii/aaie inaaeie neoaeiue, iaiiiai y?eo?ioeeoia 2-10 a iiea
c?aiey, aeiiecinoaio?ey, iiaeao auoue iieeo?ey, a oa?ieiaeiiie noaaeee –
ieeao?ey. Eee?ain e?aaoeieia iiaeao auoue aei 5 ie/iei. Iiauoaaony
inoaoi/iue acio ii/aaeiu. Oaaee/aiea ii/aaie eeneiou.

7) Ni noi?iiu iii?ii – aeaeaaoaeueiie nenoaiu: ?aioaaiieiae/anee
inoaiii?ic (naycai n iioa?ae eaeueoeey), inoaiiaeyoeey, aoi?e/iue
aeia?ia?aoe?aic.

Eaai?aoi?iua aeaiiua

Aiaeec e?iae: aiaiey, eiiaaea i/aiue oyaeaeay e oii?iay, /aua a
oa?ieiaeueiie noaaeee ii?ii eee aeiio?iiiay. I?e/eiu aiaiee: oiene/aneia
aeiyiea acioenouo oeaeia ia einoiue iica, oiaiueoaiea au?aaioee
y?eo?iiiyoeia, iiauoaiiay e?iaioi/eainoue. Iiaeao auoue iaeo?ioeeueiue
eaeeioeeoic. ?acei onei?aiiia NIY aei 50-60 ii//an. Eciaiaiey
eiaaoeia?aiiu a noi?iio aeiieiaaoeyoeee.

A oa?ieiaeueiie noaaeee i?eniaaeeiyaony ?aioa, iiiin, eaeao iioa?y
iao?ey e oei?eaeia – aicieeaao aeiioei?aie/aneee aeeaeic. Ia?ooaiea
au?aaioee ?yaea ai?iiiaeueii aeoeaiuo aauanoa: oiaiueoaiea y?eo?iiiyoeia
(i?e OII iiaeao auoue i/aiue noieeay aiaiey), o 80% aieueiuo
iaaethaeaaony aeia??aieiaiey – iiauoaiea AAe. O?iieiaca (oea?eiieecei) a
ii?ia iaania/eaaao ii?iaeueioth iee?ioee?eoeyoeeth, i?aiyonoaoy
aioo?eninoaeenoiio naa?ouaaieth e?iae. I?e OII /anoi iaaethaeathony
?acee/iua o?iiaiaaii??aae/aneea ineiaeiaiey aneaaenoaea ia?ooaiey
o?ieeiacu.

Ia?ooaiea ooieoeee ?acee/iuo i?aaiia e nenoai: na?aea/ii – ninoaeenoie,
aeuoaoaeueiie, ia?aiie, eiaeiie – ia?ooaiea au?aaioee aeoaieia D3.

Ii?oieiaey

?acia? ii/ee oiaiueoai ca n/ao aeaaee iao?iiia. Eiiiainaoi?iua iaoaieciu
aaeeee: i?e 50% aeaaee iao?iiia OII aua ia ?acaeaaaony. Caionoaaatho
eeoai/ee, aeaioo eaiaeueoeu, eaeoo oea?iieanoe/aneea i?ioeannu:
aeaeeiic, neea?ic inoaaoeony eeoai/eia.

Ioiineoaeueii nio?aieaoeony eeoai/eia nouanoaotho 2 oi/ee c?aiey:

1) Iie aa?oo ia naay ooieoeeth oao iao?iiia, eioi?ua iiaeaee (1:4) –
eeaoee oaaee/eaathony a ?acia?ao, aic?anoaao aeeaiao? eaieeey?ia – yoi
eiiiainaoi?iua i?ioeannu.

2) Oai?ey eioaeoiuo iao?iiia: /anoue iao?iiia ia iia?aaeaeaaony e
ii?iaeueiua iao?iiu aa?oo ia naay ooieoeeth inoaaoeony. I?e yoii ieeaeeo
eiiiainaoi?iuo aeia?o?ioee.

Eeanneoeeaoeey

1. Ii o?iaith e?aaoeieia:

1 noaiaiue: 2,1 – 5,0 ia% (0,19 – 0,44 iiieue/e).

2 noaiaiue: 5,1 – 10,0 ia% (0,45 – 0,88 iiieue/e).

3 noaiaiue: 10,1 – 15,0 ia% (0,89 – 1,33 iiieue/e).

4 noaiaiue: aieueoa 15,0 ia% (aieueoa 1,33 iiieue/e).

2. Eeeie/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey (N.E.?yaia)

1 noaiaiue – aeiacioaie/aneay, iao eeeie/aneeo i?iyaeaiee:

“A” – iao ia?ooaiee oeeueo?aoeee e ?aaani?aoeee (i?iaa ?aaa?aa):

“A” – eaoaioiay, anoue ia?ooaiey oeeueo?aoeee e eiioeaio?aoeee.

2 noaiaiue – acioaie/aneay:

“A” – eaoaioiay, acioaiey anoue, ii iao eeeieee (0,19-0,44);

“A” – ia/aeueiuo eeeie/aneeo i?iyaeaiee (0,45-0,71).

3 noaiaiue – o?aie/aneay:

“A” – oia?aiiuo eeeie/aneeo i?iyaeaiee (0,72-1,24);

“A” – au?aaeaiiuo eeeie/aneeo i?iyaeaiee. O?aiey, oeeueo?aoeey iaiueoa
55 io ii?iu, e?aaoeiei > 1,25 iiieue/e.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic

Iaiaoiaeeii aeeooa?aioee?iaaoue n ii/a/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth,
aucaaiiie iioa?ae oei?eaeia. ?acaeaaaony aeiioei?aie/aneee aeeaeic.
Acioaiey iaoneiaeaia ?aniaaeii oeaiaauo aaeeia. Iao iaoieiae/aneeo
eciaiaiee a ii/a. Ieeao?ey, aio?ey. Ea/aiea: aeeaaiea aeeaeeinoae a/a
no?oeii n aeiaaaeaieai oei?eaeia. I?e o?iie/aneii ieaeiiao?eoa OII
?acaeaaaony aieaa aeia?iea/anoaaiii e iaaeeaiiaa, oae eae ioiineoaeueii
iicaeii aicieeaao aeia?oiiey. I/aiue oyaeaei i?ioaeaao OII i?e
ceiea/anoaaiiie aeia?oiie/aneie aieacie, ?aii aiaeaeathony na?aeoea,
ninoaeu.

Ea/aiea

Ea/aiea OII iaoiaaiaoe/aneia, ii ia yoeieiae/aneia. Aeicu eaea?noa
aeieaeiu auoue i?eia?ii aaeaia nieaeaiu, iniaaiii aeey eaea?noa,
auaiaeeiuo ii/eaie. Eneeth/eoue iao?ioiene/aneea i?aia?aou. Iaeuecy ec
aioeaeioeeia – eaiaieoeei, iiiiieoeei, aa?aeoo?aou, i?aia?aou a?oiiu
ii?oey, iiey, naeeoeeeaou, aioeaeeaaaoe/aneea ia?i?aeueiua n?aaenoaa.

1. Aeey ei??aeoeee aoeeaeica: iao?ey aeea?aiiao 3 – 5% 100,0 a/a,
eaeueoeey ea?aiiao 1,0 – 2,0 * 4-8 ?ac a aeaiue (iiaeao aucuaaoue
aoiieth eeoa/ieea).

2. I?e aeeaeica oei?enoue iao?ee.

3. Aeey ei??aeoeee oinoi?ii – eaeueoeeaaiai iaiaia: aeoaiei Ae – 3,
aetheiiao eaeueoeey, aeueiaaaeue (aeaaii?eyoii aeeyao ia iaiai oinoi?a).

4. I?e aiaiee: ia?aaie 0,005 * 3 ?aca a aeaiue, ?aoaaieee 5% ianeyiue
?anoai? 1,0 a/i 1 ?ac a iaaeaeth, i?aia?aou aeaeaca aeey
ia?aioa?aeueiiai aaaaeaiey, aieueoea aeicu aeoaieiia N e A, ia?aeeaaiea
e?iae 1 ?ac a iaaeaeth.

5. Aeeo?aoeee: eeceen 1% – 2,0 a/a, oo?inaieae, o?aaeo.

6. I?e aeia?oiiee iioeiaeueiua i?aia?aou ?aoaieueoee: ?aca?iei 0,0001;
aeiiaaeo 0,25 ii 0,5 oaa. eee ii 1 oaa 3 ?aca a aeaiue.

7. I?e na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe: aeeaienei, oae eae auaiaeeony
ii/eaie – aeicu aeieaeiu auoue iaaieueoeie. No?ioaioei iaeuecy ec – ca
iianiinoe eioieneeaoeee.

8. ?aaoey?iia i/euaiea eeoa/ieea oiaiueoaao eiee/anoai acioenouo oeaeia
a i?aaiecia: ni?aeo 100 – 700 ie. noeueoao iaaiey 100 ie (aei iiiina),
i/enoeoaeueiua eeeciu, i?iiuaaiea aeaeoaeea /a?ac oiieee ciiae.

9. Aeey oaeaeaiey acioenouo oeaeia /a?ac eiaeo – ai?y/ea aaiiu.

10. N?aaenoaa, oneeeaathuea auaeaeeoaeueioth ooieoeeth ii/ae;
eaniaiao?ee (oea?iiei) ii 1-2-4 /aeiuo eiaeee aioo?ue – oeo/oaao ?aaioo
ii/a/iuo eeoai/eia.

11. Aeeaoioa?aiey: aunieieaei?eeiay, iaeiaaeeiaay ieua, i?e 1 noaiaie
OII aaeie ia?aie/eaaoue ia ioaeii. Eneeth/atho iyni, ?uao. sseoea, iaiue
e o?oeou a aieueoii eiee/anoaa. AEeaeeinoue ia?aie/eaaoue iaei ec – ca
eiiiainaoi?iie iieeo?ee. Ia?aie/eoue iiaa?aiioth nieue aei 1 – 1,2
a/noo.

12. A 3 – e noaaeee OII iaiaoiaeeii: i?ia?aiiiue aeeaeec, ?aoaiea
aii?ina i ia?anaaeea ii/ea.

13. Eo?i?oioa?aiey a nooii e aea?eii eeeiaoa.

I?iaiic: anaaaea oyaeaeue. Nia?oue iiaeao ianooieoue aiacaiii. I?e 1-ie
noaiaie o?oaeiniiniaiinoue nio?aiaia.

O?IIE*ANEEA IANIAOeEOE*ANEEA

CAAIEAAAIEss EAAEEO

Ieiei 7% anaai ac?ineiai ianaeaiey aieueiu OICE.

Eeanneoeeaoeey:

O?iie/aneea caaieaaaiey aaiaoe/anee aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua eaai/iua
aeenieacee o?iie/aneea oae aea

I?eia?aoaiiua caaieaaaiey

a) n i?aeiouanoaaiiui ii?aaeaieai a?iioia

a) n i?aeiouanoaaiiui ii?aaeaieai ia?aioeiu.

O?aoaia?iioeaeueiay aeeneeiacey. Ai a?aiy auaeioa i?ienoiaeeo
noaiice?iaaiea a?iioa i?ieaae?iaaiiie iaia?aiiie (yenie?aoi?iia
oaeoouea) ai a?aiy eaoey, oece/aneiai oneeey.

Aieaciue Ioiuea-Eoia. A 8-10 eao o?aoay /a?acia?ii aeeeyoe?iaaia e
i?aeoe/anee eeoaia o?yuaaiai iie?iaa. Yoi e?aeiyy noaiaiue, ano?a/aaony
?aaeei. Cae?uoea o?aoae ia 15-20% – 1 noaiaiue, 20-30% – 2 noaiaiue,
aieaa 30% – 3 noaiaiue o?aoaia?iioeaeueiie aeeneeiacee. Oe?o?ae/aneea
iaoiaeu ea/aiey iaaeinoaoi/ii niaa?oaiiu (ia?anaaeea ?aaa?iiai o?yua eee
neioaoe/aneie ao?aaiaoe/aneie o?oaee, /oi ooaea). O?aoaia?iioeaeueiay
aeeneeiacey auaaao i?e aeeeoaeueiii o?iie/aneii a?iioeoa ai a?aiy
iaino?aiey, ii ?aaeei aieaa, /ai 1 noaiaiue.

Iieeeenoic eaaeeo. Neiiao?e/ii eee ianeiiao?e/ii ?aniieiaeaiiua iieinoe.
Aiaeaie iiaoo ieeae eeeie/anee ia i?iyaeyoueny, eeeie/aneea i?iyaeaiey
i?e eioeoee?iaaiee, oiaaea iaiiieiaao a?iioiyeoaoe/aneoth aieaciuen
iaoio/aouie a?iioiyeoacaie. Oae eae a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa iaoieiaey 2-o
noi?iiiyy, oi iaaeaaii?eyoii aeey oe?o?ae/aneiai ea/aiey.

Neiae?ii Ea?oaaaia. Eiathony iieeeenoiciua eaaeea. Aeey yoiai oa?aeoa?ii
situs wiscerus inwersus + einoiua aeaoaeou – aeiiieieoaeueiua ?aa?a,
spina bifidum. A ianoiyoaa a?aiy ecaanoii ieiei 70 aeenieacee, ii
inoaeueiua ano?a/athony e?aeia ?aaeei.

Aaiaoe/anee aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua:

1) Ioeiaenoeeaeic (7% ec anao a?iaeaeaiiuo). Yoi eciaiaiea ayceinoe
nae?aoa anao aiaoia nae?aoe?othueo aeaeac (nethiu, iioa, a?iioeaeueiuo
aeaeac e ae?.). Nae?ao aieaa ayceee. A ?acei au?aaeaiiii aa?eaioa
nia?oaeueiue enoiae a ia?aua aeie aeecie, oae eae eeoa/iee ia iiaeao
inaiaiaeeoueny io iaeiiey. (Oaeea neo/ae a aiiiceaioiii aa?eaioa). A
aieaa eaaeeo neo/ayo neiioiiu o?iie/aneiai iaino?oeoeaiiai a?iioeoa,
iaaiciiaeiinoue iaania/eoue oi?ne?iaaiiia aeuoaiea i?e oece/aneie
iaa?ocea. 2-e neiioii eaoaeue, i/aiue iai?yaeai, oae eae ?anie/ee ia
?aaioatho ec ca aonoiai nae?aoa, oneeiaaaony i?e oece/aneie iaa?ocea.
3-e neiioii aano?ia ?acaeoea yioecaiu. Auno?i i?eniaaeeiyaony eioaeoeey,
?acaeaaaony oyaeaeue aiieiue iano?oeoeaiue a?iioeo. Iie?ioa eiaao
naiaia?aciue aeae, aa iaeuecy auo?ynoe ec ieaaaoaeueieoeu, oae eae iia
i/aiue eeieay. Iaiaoiaeeii auynieoue aaiaoe/aneee aiaiiac. *anoi
i?eniaaeeiythony aeaoaeou ieuaaa?aiey: nieaeaiea aiiaoeoa, neeiiiinoue e
iiiinai, ieioay ia?aaa?eaaaiinoue ieue, o oaeeo aeaoae ionoatho ?ino e
aan.

Aeeaaiic: a niaoeeaeueiuo oeaio?ao i?iaiaeeony aiaeec iioa e ae?.
niaoeeaeueiua iaoiaeu. Ia?aie/aiey a auai?a i?ioanee: aac iuee, a oaieii
ianoa. Ea/aiea: ioeieeoe/aneea i?aia?aou, a?iioieeoeee, aoeaoeeoeenoaei
a eiaaeyoeeyo. Aac ea/aiey ?aciaueaony eaai/iia na?aeoea. Aeaoeoeeo
aeueoa-1-aioeo?eineia (1%).

CAUEOIUA NENOAIU

I?ioaieeoe/aneay nenoaia eaaeeo ioaeia aeey i?ioaieeca eiaaee?iaaiiiai
/oca?iaeiiai aaeea. Ieneaeaioiay nenoaia. Oaaioeeoic e ioeioeaeethey?iue
eee?ain.

A ea/anoaa aioei?ioaieeoe/aneie nenoaiu aunooiaao aeueoa-1-aioeo?einei.
Ii neioace?oaony a ia/aie. I?e aai iaaeinoaoea i?ienoiaeeo i?ioaieec
nianoaaiiuo niaaeeieoaeueii – oeaiiuo no?oeoo? e ?acaeaaaony i?ane/iay
yioecaia eaaeeo. I?aeoe/anee iiea ea/eoue ia /ai, oieueei ia?anaaeea
eaaeeo.

?acaeaaaony aaia?aeeciaaiiay aeiieney e aeiienaiey. iaeuoea, aia/aea i?e
iaa?ocea, caoai e a iieia. “Aa?aaaiiua iaei/ee” e “/aniaua noaeea”,
aeeooociue oeeaiic. Aaeeinoaaiiia ea/aaiia ia?ii?eyoea: ia?ieaoi? –
iaiaauaao aicaeoo eenei?iaeii aei 40%.

A?iaeaeaiiue aeaoeoeeo eiioieoaoa – aieaciue A?ooiia (0,1%). Aieatho
iaeue/eee, ia?aaeaaony ianeaaenoaaiii. Eeeieea: aiieiua ainiaeeoaeueiua
caaieaaaiey eaaeeo: iiaaiiiee, aiieiua a?iioeou, yiieaiu. Ea/eoue i/aiue
neiaeii.

I?eia?aoaiiua aieacie a aieueoeinoaa eiatho i?aaeiinueee a aaiaoe/aneie
i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoe. 2 a?oiiu i?eia?aoaiiuo caaieaaaiee: ino?ua e
o?iie/aneea.

Ino?ua – n i?eia?aoaiiui ii?aaeaieai a?iioia – ino?ua a?iioeou e ino?ua
o?aoaeou; ino?ua n ii?aaeaieai ia?aioeiu; ino?ay iiaaiiiey, ino?ay
aeano?oeoeey eaaeiai.

O?iie/aneea n i?eia?aoaiiui ii?aaeaieai a?iioia – o?iie/aneee a?iioeo,
a?iioeaeueiay anoia, a?iioiyeoaoe/aneay aieaciue. O?iie/aneea n
ii?aaeaieai ia?aioeiu: yioecaia eaaeeo, o?iie/aneay iiaaiiiey – 1,5% io
anao OICE.

O?iie/aneay iiaaiiiey – yoi o?iie/aneee iiaoi?ii ?aoeeaeeae?othuee
ainiaeeoaeueiue i?ioeann ia ia?aie/aiiii o/anoea eaai/iie ia?aioeiu,
i?eaiaeyuee e oi?ie?iaaieth i/aaiaiai iiaaiineea?ica. Iaeaieaa /anoi 9 –
10 naaiaio ni?aaa, ii auaaao e neaaa, oaeaea n?aaeiyy aeiey i?aaiai
eaaeiai, ycu/eiaua naaiaiou eaaiai eaaeiai. O?iie/aneay iiaaiiiey /aua
aicieeaao ia ianoa, aaea anoue “ieioie a?iio”. Iaiaoiaeeii
aeeooa?aioee?iaaoue io ?aea a?iioa, iaiaoiaeeia a?iioineiiey,
oeeoieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea iie?iou, oiiia?aoey. I?e o?iie/aneie
iiaaiiiee aicieeatho oeeeeiae?e/aneea eee aa?aoaiiia?aciua a?iioiyeoacu.
Oai iaei iie?iou, ii /anou e?iaioa/aiey. Eo iiaeii ?aaeeeaeueii
ecea/eoue oe?o?ae/anee.

O?IIE*ANEEE A?IIOEO

Ii i?ioiaeeiinoe a?iioia: iano?oeoeaiue e iaiano?oeoeaiue. Ii o?iaith
ii?aaeaiey: i?ieneiaeueiue – aei 5 – 6 aaia?aoeee a?iioia. Aiieiue e
eaoa?aeueiue.

Iano?oeoeaiue a?iioeo. Anee aeenoaeueiue, oi iniiaiie neiioii naycai n
aicaeooiie eiaooeie (i?e aaeioa aicaeoo iiiaaeaao a aeueaaieu, ai a?aiy
auaeioa a?iioe oei?a/eaathony, i?eia?aoatho aeae aio?e?iaaiiie o?oaee e
aicaeoo ia?aoii ia i?ioiaeeo, iiauoaaony iauai inoaoi/iiai aicaeooa,
iiauoaaony aeaaeaiea. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo aei oao ii?, iiea aeaaeaiea ia
aoaeao aeinoaoi/iui, /oiau i?aiaeieaoue nii?ioeaeaiea oei?i/aiiuo
a?iioia. ?acaeaaaony eoaiey e aeeno?ioe/aneea eciaiaiey, ?aii
?acaeaaaony yioecaia. Iniiaiie neiioii iaeuoea. Eaoaeue ia oa?aeoa?ai
aeey aeenoaeueiiai a?iioeoa. Yoi 5% io anao OICE.

A ea/anoaa yoeieiae/aneiai oaeoi?a eo?aiea e ay?iiiethoaiou
(i?ioa?aaeiinoe).

Eaoaeue ia iaiaa 3 – o ianyoeaa a aiaeo, ia iaiaa 2 – o eao iiae?yae.
I?e eneeth/aiee ae?oaeo caaieaaaiee, i?e eioi?uo oa?aeoa?ai eaoaeue –
o?iie/aneee a?iioeo.

A?iioe eioeoee?othony, iiaeaea?aeeaathuei oaeoi?ii noaiiaeony
iiaaiieiee, aaiioeeueiay iaei/ea, iiaaiio?iiiue ae?on.

I?ieneiaeueiue a?iioeo. Iniiaiie neiioii eaoaeue. I?e iano?oeoeaiii
a?iioeoa oa?aeoa?ai i?enooiiia?aciue eaoaeue. Iaeuoea. Iiaeao ?acaeoueny
o?aoaia?iioeaeueiay aeeneeiacey. Oaaee/eaaaony /enei aieaeiaeaeiuo
eeaoie. Iooeei i/aiue ayceee, yaaeoaoeey cao?oaeiaia, ia?ooaaony
ioeioeaeethey?iue eee?ain. Iinoaiaiii ia?anoaao iaa?ocea ia i?aaua
eaia?u na?aeoea. AAe a eaai/iie a?oa?ee aic?anoaao aei 35 – 40 ii ?o.
no. Aia/aea aeia?o?ioey, caoai aeeeyoaoeey i?aaiai aeaeoaei/ea.
Yieaano?aeueiay ioeuenaoeey, a oyaeaeuo neo/ayo o?eeonieaeaeueiay
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue e nenoiee/aneee ooi iaae i?aauie eaia?aie, aei yoiai
aeoeaio ll oiia (eee ?anuaieaiea) iaae eaai/iui noaieii. Enoiae
o?iie/aneiai a?iioeoa – aeaeiiiaine?iaaiiia eaai/iia na?aeoea.

Aieue e oyaeanoue a i?aaii iiae?aaa?uea (ia/aiue), ioaee, anoeeo.
Eaai/iia na?aeoea ?acaeaaaony i?e iiauoaiiie iaa?ocea ia i?aaue
aeaeoaei/ae, ec – ca ?aaeoeoeee ninoaeia a nenoaia eaai/iie a?oa?ee a
iae iiauoaaony AAe aei 30-40 ii ?o.no. Yoi oaea aeinoaoi/ii aeey
aicieeiiaaiey aeiienee. *enoi aeenoaeueiue a?iioeo – aieueoay
?aaeeinoue. I?e aoneoeueoaoeee ie/aai ia neuoii, oieueei ineaaeaiea
aeuoaiey.

I?e i?ieneiaeueiii iiiai o?eiia, ia?eooi?ii ei?iai/iue caoe. Nieaeaiea
IOA 1 ?aiueoa anaai aiai?eo ia iano?oeoeee. Oaeaea nieaeaaony IIN aaeioa
e IIN auaeioa, IAE oaeaea. Enneaaeiaaiea: 2 aaeioa aa?ioaea eee
naeaooaiiea, /a?ac 15 iei. aiiaue caienaoue nie?ia?aiio. Anee iiauoaaony
ia 20 – 25%, eiaao ianoi a?iioiniaci.

Iano?oeoeey:

1. Niaci.

2. Ioae neecenoie a?iioia.

3. Neiieaiea nae?aoa a a?iioao. Yoi auaaao i?e ainiaeaiee.

4. Iaiaa nouanoaaiia o?ainoaeaoeey a i?inaao a?iioa, iai?eia?, i?e
ioaea eaaeeo (na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue), iiiai aeaaeiuo o?eiia.

5. Neea?ic noaiee a?iioa. I?eciae – a?oaeiay eeaoea iaiiaeaoeeaa,
ea/eoue iiea ia iiaoo.

I?e o?iie/aneii a?iioeoa ecia/aeueiay yeoieiaey iaeioaeoeeiiiay,
eioaeoeey i?eniaaeeiyaony iioii. A iniiaiii iiaaiieiee, aaiioeeueiay
iaei/ea, iiaoo auoue ae?onu ?anie?aoi?iie a?oiiu – iie ia?nenoe?otho,
neoueaaaony yieoaeee – ioe?uaaaony aei?iaa aeey aaeoa?ee. Oaeaea iiaoo
auoue ae?iaeaee e a?eau. Nae/an yoi ia?aaeeia yaeaiea.

Eeeie/aneea i?eciaee aeoeaiiai eioaeoeeiiiiai ainiaeaiey a a?iioao
(iaino?aiea):

1. Oneeaiea eaoey.

2. Iiyaeaiea eee oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa iie?iou caeaiiai eee aeaeoiai
oeaaoa.

3. ?annayiiua o?eiu, nooea, cao/iua, iiaoo auoue aeaaeiua, iaeeiai e
n?aaeiaai eaeea?a.

4. Aa/a?iee iciia.

5. Ii/iie iio; eieaeecaoeey – nieia, oay, caoueie – neiioii “iie?ie
iiaeooee”.

6. Neiieaiea aaeoa?ee a eaoeaaii iacea.

7. Iinaau: anee iiaaiieiee ?anoao a ?acaaaeaiee 10-6-10-7 –
aeeaaiinoe/aneay oeaiiinoue ianiiiaiia, anee oieueei a 10-2 –
niiieoaeueii. Oeeoieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea iie?iou, iaaei ciaoue
i?ioeaioiia niaea?aeaiea eeaoie nie?iou. ?aioaai ii/oe ie/aai ia aeaao –
oieueei oneeaiea eaai/iiai ?enoiea. Eioa?noeoeeaeueiay iiaaiiiey ii nooe
– ineiaeiaiiue a?iioeo. Iaiaoiaeeii aeeooa?aioee?iaaoue io
aeea?ae/aneiai ainiaeaiey – i?e iai ia auaaao iciiaa, iioa. A
aeea?ae/aneie iie?ioa i?aiaeaaeatho yiceiioeeu (aei 70%), iaeo?ioeeia
iaei.

Anee oneeaiea eaoey e iie?iou aac ae?oaeo i?eciaeia, a iie?ioa iaei
aiieiuo eeaoie – eaoa?aeueiue a?iioeo. Naiue oyaeaeue o?iie/aneee
aiieiue iano?oeoeaiue a?iioeo a oaca iaino?aiey. Naiue eaaeee –
o?iie/aneee eaoa?aeueiue iaiano?oeoeaiue. Iaiano?oeoeaiue eaoa?aeueiue
aeeeony aeanyoeeaoeyie aac iniauo iineaaenoaee. I?e ae?oaeo iiaoo
ia?aciauaaoueny aoi?e/iua a?iioiyeoacu, oeeeeiae?e/aneea e
aa?aoiiia?aciua. Yoi noanaaiaioa?iua a?iioe, iiaoo e iaiueoea. Eeeieea:
noaaeeecaoeey eaoey. Iie?iou iiiai iao, “nooea a?iioiyeoacu”. Ia?aaeei
e?iaioi/ao, /anoi iie?ioa n i?iaeeeeaie e?iae. ?ae a?iioa – o
eo?eeueueeia a 8 ?ac /aua. Yioeaia oiaea enoiae.

Aoi?e/iue o?iie/aneee a?iioeo aicieeaao aoi?e/ii, aaea eiaaony,
iai?eia?, oea?icii – eaaa?iiciue ooaa?eoeac, oi anoue aaea ia?ooai
ae?aiaae. Iienai o eeoe iinea oaeaeaiey o/anoeia eaaeeo, a iieyo
iiaaiineea?ica, iniaaiii a ieaeieo aeieyo. Iiaeao auoue i?e ea?oeeiiia
eaaeeo.

Ea/aiea o?iie/aneiai a?iioeoa

Anee aieueiie eo?eo anth aeeciue, e oaea ianooieee iaia?aoeiua
eciaiaiey, oi cai?auaoue eo?eoue aaniieacii – oaea ia iiiiaeao. Ii anee
eo?eo iaiueoa 20 eao iiae?yae, oi anoue iaia?aoeiuo eciaiaiee aua iao, –
a?ineoue eo?eoue, iaeiicia/ii. Anee i?ioanney a?aaeiay – niaieoue.
Caeaeeaaiea. Ia/eiaoue n iaoe?aiee, iannaae nieiu iao?iaui iieioaioeai
iaaeaeo eiiaoie. A?iioiniaciieeoe/aneea i?aia?aou. Anee iaiano?oeoeaiue
– ai a?aiy iaino?aiey aeinoaoi/ii yooeeeia a oaaeaoeao 2 ?aca a aeaiue.
Anee iano?oeoeaiue – oi aieaa neeueiua i?aia?aou, eo/oa naeaeoeaiua.
Anee anoue aua EAN, neiiaoiieiaoeee eo/oa ia iaaei, eo/oa oieeiieeoeee,
iai?eia?, ao?iaaio, anee anoue niioonoaothuay aeaoeiia – iaiai?io.
Ioeieeoe/aneea i?aia?aou. A?oaeiua nai?u, ae?oaay oeoioa?aiey (oaeoae,
?iiaoea, /a?aaea, eneaiaeneee iio). Anee iie?iou nianai iaei – eo ia
iaaei. Anee eaoaeue iai?iaeoeoeaiue, iauynieoue, /oi noa?aoueny iiiai
eaoeyoue ia iaaei.

Aioeaeioeee (neioaoe/aneea iaieoeeeeeiu), /a?ac 10 aeiae ia?aeoe ia
noeueoaieeaieaeu i?ieiiae?iaaiiiai aeaenoaey (aei 3 – o iaaeaeue).
*aniie eciaeue/aiiue, ioaeaoue nie, ?acaanoe a 3 ?aca, i?eiaiyoue /a?ac
aiaeiue eiaaeyoi?. Ia?aae eiaaeyoeeae 2 aaeioa aa?ioaea. Auaeuoaoue 2 ie
oo?ii e aa/a?ii. Iniaaiii iieacii i?e aaeoa?eaeueiie eioaeoeee, i?e
eaiaeeaeica. (*aniie oo?a/eaaao ea/aaiua naienoaa n na?aaeeiu ia?oa).
Aeiioneaaony ea/aaiay a?iioineiiey. A oaco iaino?aiey anie?ei 250 ia. *
3 ?aca a aeaiue iinea aaeu. Aioeieneaeaiou i?aeoe/anee anai iieacaiu,
i?eiaiyoue ianyoeaie: aeoaiei “N” ii 300 ia a aeaiue, oaeaea ia 3
i?eaia. Ec oeceioa?aiee a oaco iaino?aiey aaiee, iannaae.

A?IIOEAEUeIAss ANOIA

I?e/eia – aaiaoe/anee aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua aioo?aiiea aeaoaeou,
noi?ie?iaaaoeany ai aioo?eoo?iaiii ia?eiaea, ai a?aiy ?iaeia eee a
iineaaeothuae aeecie. Ii iaycaoaeueii eciaiaiiay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue
neecenoie iaiei/ee a?iioia n iaoieiae/aneie ?aaeoeeae ia aoeaoeeoieei,
aeaaea anee aua iao eeeie/aneeo i?iyaeaiee, + eciaiaiey ia
aeieeeie/aneii yoaia e ae?oaeo nenoai, iai?eia?, iiauoaiea IG E, iiaoo
auoue eciaiaiey yiaeie?eiiie nenoaiu – auyaeythony i?e aeanaiaoaciiiaii
oanoa. Oa?aeoa?iua eciaiaiey OeIN. Ana yoi nicaeaao aaoa?iaaiiinoue
iaoiaaiaca i?e iaeiioeiiinoe eeeieee.

Aeaneaaiaoeeiiiue yiceiioeeueiue a?iioeo, ii o 20% a?iioeo ia
yiceiioeeueiue. Aioo?aiiea i?e/eiu ni. auoa. Aiaoiea i?e/eiu – oaeoi?u
aiaoiae n?aaeu, eioi?ua auyaeytho ia?ooaiiua nenoaiu. 1% ac?ineiai
ianaeaiey aieaao a?iioeaeueiie anoiie. Ninoiyiea i?aaeanoiu auaaao o 60%
aieueiuo. TH?eaee/anee noaaeoue aeeaaiic eeeie/anee au?aaeaiiie
a?iioeaeueiie anoiu iiaeii iinea ia?aiai i?enooia.

I?e/eiu nia?oe: EAN, iieieiaey e ae?oaea , a io naiiai i?enooia oaeoouey
oie?atho iaei.

I?aaeanoia – yoi aua ia iicieiae/aneay oi?ia. Aa e?eoa?ee:

1. Ino?ua eee o?iie/aneea caaieaaaiey eaaeeo n iano?oeoeeae a?iioia.
Yoi anoiaoe/aneee e iano?oeoeaiue a?iioeo, ino?ay iiaaiiiey n
iano?oeoeeae, I?C n iano?oeoeeae.

2. Aiaeaai/iua i?iyaeaiey eciaiaiiie ?aaeoeaiinoe.

3. Yiceiioeeey e?iae e (eee) iie?iou.

4. Ianeaaenoaaiiay i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoue.

Anee ana yoi anoue, oi a oa/aiea 3 – o eao aicieeaao eeeie/anee
au?aaeaiiay a?iioeaeueiay anoia o 70%. *ai iaiueoa yoeo i?eciaeia, oai
iaiueoa aa?iyoiinoue aa ?acaeoey.

A iiiaieeaoo?a aieaciae aeeaaiica i?aaeanoiu iao. A?iioeaeueiay anoia
ia/eiaaony n ia?aiai i?enooia oaeoouey.

1. Ao?a anoue o aieueoeinoaa.

2. I?enooi.

3. Ainnoaiiaeaiea.

Ao?a – uaeioaiea a iino, ai?ea, o?aoaa, ca a?oaeeiie, aeeaeeinoue ec
iina, aaniieienoai, iieaoeeaaiea, ia/aei i?iyaeaiee o?eiia ia auaeioa.
Ana yoi – ca 2-3 iei. e aeaaea auno?aa. O iaeioi?uo i?enooi ia/eiaaony n
eaoey e cao?oaeiaiey aaeioa.

Neiae?ii “iaiiai eaaeiai”, eiaaea ia oaaoaao aicaeooa aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
ooiia. Yoi i/aiue oyaeaei. I?e ia?eonnee ei?iai/iue oii. O iaeioi?uo
aieueiuo i?enooi nii?iaiaeaeaao eiaeiue coae, ?aaeei ?eii –
eiiuthieoeaaeueiue neiae?ii (coae a aeacao).

3 noaiaie oyaeanoe:

1. Eaaeia. Ia /aua 1-2 ?aca a aiae, eoie?othony aac eiuaeoeee.

2. N?aaeiae oyaeanoe, iaino?aiey aei 5-6 ?ac a aiae. Iaiaoiaeeiu
eiuaeoeee (yooeeei).

3. Anoue noaoonu.

Oacu: ?aiennee e iaino?aiey – eiaaea aicieeaao na?ey i?enooiia, eaaeaeue
aeaiue, eaoaeue, iaeuoea, eiiaaea auaatho ioaeaeueiua i?enooiu oaeoouey
aia oacu iaino?aiey.

?aiueoa auaeaeyee aoiie/aneoth, eioaeoeeiiii – aeea?ae/aneoth.

Nae/an:

1. Aoiie/aneay a?iioeaeueiay anoia.

a) Aicieeaao oieueei a nacii oeaaoaiey, ceiie iao; aieueiua ooaea
/oanoaotho naay a nieia/ioth aao?aioth iiaiaeo, eo/oa ai a?aiy aeiaeaey,
a oaeaea aeiia i?e cae?uouo ieiao. Iau/ii anoue ?eii –
eiiuthieoeaaeueiue neiae?ii, eiiaaea oaiia?aoo?a aei 37,5 a?aae.N,
?aaeei auoa, eiiaaea oioiioa e iiiin. ?aaeoeey /aua ia ceaeiaua
(ni?iyee), oiiieue, ianeaiiaua, ?aaea ia oaieiua.

a) Iueaaay aoiiey. Ii/iua i?enooiu /a?ac 1 – 1,5 /ana iinea iooiaea ei
nio – ec – ca eia?ia, iieie n iueueiuie eieaaie. Io iiaeooee – ia?iaay
aeea?aey. Ni?ineoue, i?eiaiye ee aeeoeioin, oei?ioin e o.i. Anee
aieueiie, oacaeayec aeiia, a ia?aua nooee /oanoaoao naay eo/oa – i?e/eia
aeiia.

Ninoaa auoiaie iuee: eeaue ec ?iaea aea?iaoioaaieaeia, aeeeiie aei 0,2
ii. Eo oaeaeee iaeaaeatho aunieeie aeea?aece?othueie naienoaaie.
Iniaaiii iiiai eeauae a noa?uo ia?iauo iiaeooeao. Iiaoo aeeoue ia
?anieoeao. Ieuaaua aeea?aaiu – iiyaeaiea aeuoaoaeueiiai aeeneiioi?oa,
aieioue aei i?enooia oaeoouey iinea aaeu (oeeo?oniaua, i?aoe, iaae,
e?aniua o?oeou e iaiue, ?uaa, iniaaiii ii?neay, i?aniia iieiei
(eaeoaeueaoiei, aai aieueoa a iaieao), yeoea, oieieaae, eioa). *anoi o
ieuaauo aeea?aeeia o?iie/aneay e?aieaieoea, yecaia. Eae i?aaeei, anoue
eciaiaiey neecenoie iaiei/ee ?oa: e?iaioi/auea aeaniu – ia?iaeiioic.
Aano?eo, aeoiaeaieo n aeeneeiaceyie, yioa?eo, ?aoeeaeeae?othuee
aaii??ie. Ieuaaay aeea?aey iaanaaaea, iia ia i?ioiaeeo ni a?aiaiai.

Anee aieueiie ia ciaao, ia /oi o iaai ?aaeoeey, oi nia/aea ono?aiythony
ia 2-3 iaaeaee ia?a/eneaiiua iaeeaaoiua aeea?aaiu: anee yoi ia auyniyao
i?e/eio – eneeth/atho iaiue, a oii /enea oeaa e ?anoeoaeueiua i?iaeoeou.
Iinea en/aciiaaiey ?aaeoeee iinoaiaiii aica?auatho i?iaeoeou e
caia/atho, ia /oi eiaiii ?aaeoeey. Anee iao ?acoeueoaoa, oi iaiai?io,
eneeth/atho iyni eee iieiei, oiaea ia 2-3 iaaeaee. Aieueiie aeieaeai
ienaoue ieuaaie aeiaaiee: eaeia iuouaiea iinea eaaeaeie aaeu. Ieeaeeo
iieoiiuo eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee: oai iiiai aeea?aaiia: ieeaeeo
eiina?aia, eieaan.

EAEA?NOAAIIAss IAIA?AIINEIINOUe

Ia?aae iacia/aieai i?aia?aoa anaaaea ni?aoeaaoue, i?eiaiye ee ?aiueoa e
n eaeei ?acoeueoaoii. Aeey iaieoeeeeia, no?aioiieoeeia i?iaeaeaoue
i?iau. Aiiaua, aeey aeeaa?eea ia?aue i?eai ethaiai i?aia?aoa 1/4 iau/iie
aeicu, aia caaeneiinoe io oiai, eae ia?aiinee ?aiueoa. Anee ia aoaeao
ianoiuo e nenoaiiuo i?eciaeia aeea?aee, oi ia neaaeothuee aeaiue
iau/ioth aeico.

I?icaiaenoaaiiay aeea?aey. Eiaaea ia ?aaioaao, i?iyaeaiee iao. *anoi
anoue i?iyaeaiey o ?aaioathueo a noiaeiuo oneiaeyo. *aua ii?aaeaiey
ioe?uouo /anoae. aeeaaiic noaaeo i?ioiaoieia. Aiaiiac + aeeaaiinoeea in
vitro et in vitro (aieioue aei aioo?eeiciiai aaaaeaiey), enneaaeiaaiea
IG E – eioi?iaoeaiinoue ia iaiaa 60-70%.

1 oei: aeea?aai –> iae?ioaae –> Ts, Tx, Ae –> ieaciaoe/aneea eeaoee
–> IG E (IG G 4) –> Tk –> AAA –> oaiioaene/aneea oaeoi?u (ae/oaiei,
iaaeeaiii ?aaae?othuay noanoaioeey, eaeeio?eaiu e ae?.) –> iano?oeoeey
a?iioia.

Aenoaiei – ?aaeoeey iaiaaeeaiiiai oeia, oaiioaene/aneea oaeoi?u – /a?ac
ianeieueei /ania.

3 oei: eiioiieiiieaeniue. ?aoeaioi?u aeey eiioiiuo eiiieaenia eiathony
ii/oe ia anao eeaoeao a?iioia (ianiaoeeoe/aneea).

4 oei: naineaeeece?iaaiiua eeioioeeou, ?aaeoeey /a?ac nooee eee
ianeieueei iicaea.

O oo/iuo eeaoie aeea?aeeia iiauoaiiia n?iaenoai e eiioiiui eiiieaenai.
Iie nae?aoe?otho AAA, eiaaea e ia iaaei. Iiiiaatho
iaia?aii-noaaeeece?othuea aauanoaa (eioae). Aeaenoaea yooeeeia:
?ai?anne?oao oinoiaeeynoa?aco –> ainnoaiiaeaiea oeAIO –> oneeaiea
aeaenoaey neiiaoe/aneie nenoaiu.

Anie?eiiaay anoia: iaia?aiineiinoue anie?eia, a?iioiniaci e iieeiu. Oae
eae aoeaoeenaeeoeeeiaay eeneioa aiaoeaaaony a iaoaaieeci a?aoeaeiiiaie
eeneiou. Anee anoue aeaoaeo oa?iaioa, caioneathuaai oeeeeiieneaaiaciue
iooue, iieaeao eeiiieneaaiaciue iooue – au?aaioea eaeeio?eaiia e
iaaeeaiii ?aaae?othuae noanoaioeee.

Iaia?aiineiinoue iueueoeu aeeeeo ceaeia ia?aaeei ni/aoaaony n
iaia?aiineiinoueth oeii/aoiaoiaaeiuo ecaeaeee. Iaia?aiineiinoue aa?acu +
yaiae, o?oeoia.

Eioaeoeeiiiay caaeneiinoue aieacie: Aeaenoaea eioaeoeee o?aiy iooyie:

1) *anoi, iniaaiii ae?oniua, nii?iaiaeaeathony iaino?aieyie
a?iioeaeueiie anoiu, oae eae i?e yoii iiauoaaony /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e
eioaeoeeiiiiio aaaioo.

2) Ia aaeoa?ee, ae?onu, eaiaeeaeu iiaeao auoue ?aaeoeey naia ii naaa.
Yoiai i?aeoe/anee ia onoaiiaeoue.

3) Eciaiyao yieoaeee aa?oieo aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae e iiauoaao eo
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue e oeie/aneei i?aia?aoai.

Aiaiiac: naycue aeaathoa a?iioeaeueiie anoiu n ainiaeeoaeueiui
caaieaaaieai aa?oieo aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae, naycue iaino?aiee n aeoeaiie
eioaeoeeae. Iee?ineiioiiu: eiioaeo n eioaeoeeiiiuie aieueiuie, i?eciatho
I?AE. Anee aae. eioaeoeey – naie iniaaiiinoe, iai?eia? neiioii “iie?ie
iiaeooee”, eciaiaiey e?iae. A?eaeiaay eioaeoeey (?aaea) – iau/ii anoue
iieoiieeic, iaia?aiineiinoue ae?iaeaeaniaea?aeauueo i?iaeoeoia.

1-2% anao anoiaoeeia – aooieiioiiue aa?eaio: aioeoaea e naiei eeaoeai.
Yoi naiue oyaeaeue aa?eaio a?iioeaeueiie anoiu 3 e 4 iooue. Aeeaaiic: a
eiaeo aieueiiai aaiaeyo aai aea eeioioeeou. Aeia?aiey, ioae, aieioue aei
oi/a/iiai iae?ica.

AeENAI?IIIAEUeIAss A?IIOEAEUeIAss ANOIA

a) N aetheiei?oeeieaeiie iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth. Oi?ie?oaony /aua
yo?iaaiii, oi anoue i?e ai?iiiioa?aiee. Eeoeai noa?oa 50 eao aaciianiae
aia?aua iacia/aoue ai?iiiu. Anee ei?oeciea a e?iae ia 25 – 30% iaiueoa
ii?iu – iaiaoiaeeia caianoeoaeueiay oa?aiey. Anee o?iaaiue ei?oeciea a
ii?ia, ii anoue i?iyaeaiey iaaeinoaoi/iinoe – i?iaa?eoue oeaiaaoth
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue (eieoaaoeey n eeioioeeoaie). Anee oeaiaaay
?acenoaioiinoue – ieioi, i?eaeaony aeaaaoue aeia?aeicu. Anee o?iaaiue e
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue a ii?ia, ii i?e ioiaia i?iyaeythony i?eciaee
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe – iaiaoiaeeia ineoioa?aiey.

a) Aeeciaa?eaeueiay anoia: Ca 2 – 3 aeiy aei iaino?oaoeee aicieeaao
iaino?aiea a?iioeaeueiie anoiu. Anoue aeaoaeo a?iioiaeeeyoe?othuaai
i?iaanoa?iia n ecauoeii yno?iaaiia. ?aeoaeueiay oaiia?aoo?a auoa
oaiia?aoo?u oaea aieaa, /ai ia 1 a?aaeon.

Au?aaeaiiue aae?aia?ae/aneee aeenaaeain: I?aiaeaaeaao aeoeaiinoue aeueoa
– ?aoeaioi?iiai aiia?aoa -> ii?iaeueiue o?iaaiue aae?aiaeeia aucuaaao
iaoieiae/aneoth ?aaeoeeth (?aaeei). *anoi i?e ia?aaeice?iaea
aae?aiiieiaoeeia. Anee ca aeaiue aeaeatho aieaa 5 eiaaeyoeee ii 2 aaeioa
aae?aiiieiaoeeia, yoi iianii ec – ca oaiiiaia ?eeioaoa.

Aua anoue oieeia?ae/aneee aa?eaio (?aaeei). Iiiiaaao ao?iiei.

1 a?oiia neiioiiia: oneiaii-?aoeaeoi?iue iaoaieci aicieeiiaaiey
a?iioeaeueiie anoiu (eeanne/aneee i?eia? – eneonnoaaiiay aoiaaeiay
?ica). Iiaeao auoue e oneiaii – ?aoeaeoi?iia i?ae?auaiea i?enooia. *anoi
iaia?aiineiinoue caiaoia 70% ia aeea?ae/aneee, a oneiaii – ?aoeaeoi?iue
iaoaieci. Oaeaaony ea/eoue aiooaieai.

2 a?oiia: Aeiieiaioiay oai?ey. Iaeeea ?acae?aaeaiey noiie?othony e
nicaeatho i?enooiu. Anee aicieeaao ae?oaay i/aiue neeueiay aeiieiaioa,
oi iia iiaeao ia a?aiy iiaaneoue aeiieiaioo a?iioeaeueiie anoiu. Anee
oaiia?aoo?a auoa 380N, oi i?enooiia ia aoaeao.

Aaaoniue iaoaieci (ai 2-e iieiaeia ii/e). Yoi naycaii n aeaoaoeeoii
iaaae?aia?ae/aneie ia?aiie nenoaiu. A iae iaaeeaoi? AEI, eiathuee iiuiia
a?iioiaeeeyoe?othuaa aeaenoaea.

10-20% aieatho anoiie a ?acoeueoaoa iaaaeaeaaoiie aaeaioaoeee e
iee?inioeeaeueiie n?aaea. ?aaaiie i?eaeaeaao aieiaiea ?anie?aoi?iui
neiae?iiii, ii iieuecoaony yoei. Ai ac?ineii aic?anoa – eioaioeeeci.

Oieeia?ae/aneee aa?eaio 1%. Caeanue iiiai iie?iou 1/2 – 1 noaeai. A
aiaiiaca ycaaiiay aieaciue, anoue a?aaeeea?aeey, aeiioiiey, iie?ua,
iioiua eaaeiie.

Ia?ae/ii-eciaiaiiay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e ?aaeoeaiinoue a?iioia noaaeony
iooai eneeth/aiey inoaeueiiai. Yoi caaieaaaiea iinea 40 eao,
aieueoeinoai aieueiuo – eo?yuea ioae/eiu n i?ioa?aaeiinoyie, n
iano?oeoeaiui a?iioeoii. Nthaea aea aoiaeeo anoia oece/aneiai oneeey.
Oaeaea iaia?aiineiinoue oieiaeiiai aicaeooa, iaia?aiineiinoue ?aceeo
caiaoia (eaeia, e?anie). Iniaia ianoi anie?eiiaay anoia. Caeanue aea.

Aeeaaiic ia/eiaoue n “a?iioeaeueiay anoia”, caoai eeeieei –
iaoiaaiaoe/aneea aa?eaiou, oeacaoue oaco, caoai niioonoaothuay
iaoieiaey, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue i?eiueathuay e a?iioeaeueiie anoia.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic

1) O?aoaia?iioeaeueiay aeeneeiacey. Aicieeaao ia aunioa eaoey,
oece/aneie iaa?ocee e o.ae.

2) Enoa?ee. Caeanue aea naeno ia ec eaaeeo, a ec aieiniauo naycie.

3) Ocaeeiaue ia?ea?oa?eeo (yoi aaneoeeo), eiiaeie?oao iao?eo n
aeia?oaiceae, o?iie/aneay iiaaiiiey. Iiaeao i?eniaaeeiyoueny
yenie?aoi?iay iaeuoea. Aieatho a iniiaiii ioae/eiu: iiauoaiea
oaiia?aoo?u, NIC. Yoi nenoaiiia caaieaaaiea, ano?a/aaony ?aaeei.

4) Ea?oeeiieaeiue neiae?ii (eeoa/iue, eaai/iue, niaoaiiue). Yoi
iiooieue, i?iaeooee?othuay na?ioiiei. Aeia?aiey eeoea, iiauoaiea AAe,
eeoa/iay eieeea. Naycai n oece/aneie iaa?oceie. Yoi oiaea ?aaeeia
caaieaaaiea.

5) Naiay o?oaeiay aeeooa?aioeeaeueiay aeeaaiinoeea n o?iie/aneei
iano?oeoeaiui a?iioeoii.

6) Na?aea/iay anoia. Caeanue oaeoouea einie?aoi?iia, a eaaeeo iiiai
aeaaeiuo o?eiia. Ii o noa?eeia iiaeao + aua eiiiiiaio a?iioeaeueiie
anoiu. Eo/oa aaiaeeoue i?aaeiecieii; yooeeei – iianii.

7) Iiiaaeaiea eii?iaeiuo i?aaeiaoia a aa?oiea aeuoaoaeueiua iooe.

Ea/aiea.

I/aiue aaaeia yeeieiaoeeiiiay oa?aiey. Yoai oaeoe/aneie oa?aiee – ai
a?aiy iaino?aiey aieueiuo ea/ao aieaa – iaiaa iaeeiaeiai. Ai?iiiu 3 – 4
– 5 aeiae, ioiaiytho n?aco. A?oiia iaoeeenaioeia. Aae?aiiieiaoeee:
aa?ioae, naeaooaiie ii 2 aaeioa n eioa?aaeii 10 – 15 nae. Iinea yoiai
eioae ii iaeiiio aaeioo 4 ?aca/noo. Aeeoae (eioae + aa?ioae). I?e EAN,
AA eo/oa oieeiieeoeee: ao?iaaio, aeoiaeaiae. I?e niioonoaothuae
na?aea/iie iaoieiaee aioiaiienou eaeueoeey, aeoaiei “N” ii 300 ia/noo.:
ai a?aiy aaeu 3 ?aca a aeaiue a oa/aiea ianyoeaa.

Aioeeeioioeeoa?iue IG i?e ao?iie/aneie oi?ia. Aa?ioa?aiey n iiieaeaiiui
aeaaeaieai (aei auniou 3500 i) – yoi noeioee?oao iaaeii/a/ieee e o.ae.
Aaeuoaiea iaeeeo e?enoaeeia NaCI (aaeieaia?a). Iao/aiea aieaaiio iaoiaeo
aeuoaiey, e?iia aieueiuo n ia?aii – ineoe/aneeie ?anno?ienoaaie e
aeuoaoaeueiie iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth. Aaeio i/aiue iiaa?oiinoiue.
iaeneiaeueiay caaea?aeea aeuoaiey – auaeio, iinoaiaiii aeiaanoe aei 7 –
8 aeuoaiee a ieiooo. Eaei?aoeaenioa?aiey.

I?e eioaeoeeiiii-caaeneiie a oaco caoooaiey naiaoeey i/aaia eioaeoeee +
niaoeeoe/aneay aeiinaineaeeecaoeey i?ioea aaeoa?eaeueiuo aeea?aaiia.
Oeiaeei (oeiiaai, O – aeoeaei) 5 – 6 ?ac.

Aooieecao iie?iou. A ino?oth oaco iieo/eoue, ia?aaioaoue ea?aieeie, a
oaco ?aiennee aaiaeeoue i?e aieueoii ?acaaaeaiee a/e e caoai i/e.
Aa?ieaia?a, iannaae nieiu. Ea/aaiay a?iioineiiey, /oiau ioiuoue iie?ioo.

I?e aooieiioiiie anoia ea/eoue a niaoe.ioaeaeaiee. I?e ia?aaeice?iaea
aa?ioaea e i?. i?eiaiyoue aetheiei?oeeieaeu. I?e aetheiei?oeeieaeiie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe eo ii?aaeaeaiea a ieacia e?iae. Eioa?ieooe?othuay noaia
i?eaia aetheiei?oeeieaeia. N ieie i?aia?aou eaeey, aiaaieeee 1 – 2 ?aca
a ianyoe. Neaaeeoue ca ?aaeoeeae A?aaa?naia.

Aaeeiiaae (aeeaoeae) – eiaaeyoeeiiiue aetheiei?oeeieae. Iaiueoa
?aci?aoeaiia aeaenoaea. 4-5 ?ac a aeaiue ii 2 aaeioa, iinea eiaaeyoeee
a?iioiaeeeyoe?othuaai i?aia?aoa. Aiciiaeai eaiaeeaeic. Anee au?aaeaiiue
ia?aii – ineoe/aneee aa?eaio – ineoioa?aiey, iniaaiii iaoiaaiaoe/aneay.
Naiaeiay ineoioa?aiey. Aaooaeueo – oa?aiey – o?aie?iaea ia
?aoeeiiaeueiia ?aoaiea i?iaeai iee?inioeeaeueiie noa?u.

O?IIE*ANEIA EAAI*IIA NA?AeOeA

Iiae o?iie/aneei eaai/iui na?aeoeai iiieiaaony aeia?o?ioey i?aaiai
aeaeoaei/ea ia oiia caaieaaaiey, ii?aaeathuaai ooieoeeth eee no?oeoo?o
eaaeeo, eee oi e ae?oaia iaeiia?aiaiii, ca eneeth/aieai oao neo/aaa,
eiaaea yoe eaai/iua eciaiaiey yaeythony ?acoeueoaoii ii?aaeaiey eaauo
ioaeaeia na?aeoea eee a?iaeaeaiiuo ii?ieia na?aeoea.

*aua naycaii n o?iie/aneei a?iioeoii, yioecaiie, a?iioeaeueiie anoiie,
eaai/iuie oea?icaie e a?aioeaiaoicaie, ooaa?eoeacii, neeeeicii, n
nioiyieyie, ia?ooathueie iiaeaeaeiinoue a?oaeiie eeaoee – eeoineieeic,
ieinoaiaiea ?aaa?iuo ni/eaiaiee, iaee?aiea.

Caaieaaaiea ia?ae/ii ii?aaeaao eaai/iua ninoaeu: o?iiaic e yiaieee
eaai/iie a?oa?ee, yiaea?oa?eeou.

Nia?oiinoue io o?iie/aneiai eaai/iiai na?aeoea auoea ia 4 – a ianoi. Ia
?aiieo noaaeeyo eeeie/anee ieioi aeeaaiinoe?oaony. A 70 – 80% neo/aaa
i?e/eiie yaeyaony o?iie/aneee a?iioeo, iniaaiii aeano?oeoeaiue.

Iaoiaaiac.

Eaai/iay aeia?oaicey -> aeia?o?ioey i?aaiai aeaeoaei/ea ->
i?aaiaeaeoaei/eiaay aeaeiiiainaoeey. Ii o /anoe aieueiuo iao
cia/eoaeueiiai iiauoaiey AAe a eaai/iie a?oa?ee. A ii?ia aei 30
nenoiee/aneia, 12 – 15 ii ?o.no. aeeanoiee/aneia. O aieueiuo o?iie/aneei
eaai/iui na?aeoeai 40 – 45 aei 50 ii ?o.no. Ii iiiuoee iinoaaeoue ?aiiee
aeeaaiic ii eaai/iie aeia?oaicee ia oaeaeenue. Einaaiiua aeaiiua i
aaee/eia AAe a eaai/iie a?oa?ee iiaeii iieo/eoue i?e ii?aaeaeaiee
nei?inoiie ooieoeee na?aeoea – aeiiiea?ianeay yoiea?aeeia?aoey – yoi
aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi iiaeii ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue.

Aeia?o?ioeth i?aaiai aeaeoaei/ea iiaeii ii?aaeaeyoue n iiiiuueth OCAe.
Niaci eaieeey?ia iaeiai e?oaa aneaaenoaea a?oa?eaeueiie aeiienee e
aeiienaiee (?aoeaeoi?ii), caionoaaaiea ninoaeia, iiauoaiea ieiooiiai
iauaia aneaaenoaea aeiienaiee, iiauoaiea ayceinoe e?iae; /anoi e yoiio
i?eniaaeeiyaony aua e ?aoeaeoi?iue y?eo?ioeeoic. A?iioiioeueiiiaeueiua
aianoiiicu. Ia?ae/ii oneeeaaaony i?e oece/aneeo iaa?oceao e iaino?aieyo
– e?ecu aeia?oiiee iaeiai e?oaa.

Aeeaaiinoeea

Iau/ii aeeaaiinoe?oaony oaea aeaeiiiaine?iaaiiia eaai/iia na?aeoea.
I?eciaee. Aeeeyoaoeey i?aauo ioaeaeia na?aeoea: niauaiea aa?oooa/iiai
oie/ea aac niauaiey a 6-a iaae?aaa?uea, aeoeaio II oiia ia eaai/iie
a?oa?ee, na?aea/iue oie/ie, yieaano?aeueiay ioeuenaoeey, ooi
A?yoaia-Noeeea, oneeaiea I oiia a iaeanoe 3-o noai?/aoiai eeaiaia. Yoe
i?eciaee io/aoeeau i?e iiauoaiee aeaaeaiey aieaa 50 ii ?o.no.
Yioecaiaoiciua eaaeea i/aiue iaoatho aeeaaiinoeea.

Ia/aeueiua i?eciaee aeaeiiiainaoeee i?aaiai ioaeaea na?aeoea:

AEaeiau: iaeuoea yenie?aoi?iiai oa?aeoa?a noaiiaeony aua e
einie?aoi?iiai. Iiyaeyaony noaaeeueiinoue iaeuoee, aic?anoaao aa
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue iinea eaoeaaiai i?enooia, ooiieyaiinoue, oeeaiic,
eciaiaiea eieaaaiee oaeiuo aai, oyaeanoue eee /oanoai aeaaeaiey a i?aaii
iiae?aaa?uea, iieiaeeoaeueiay i?iaa Ieaoa – iaaooaiea oaeiuo aai i?e
iaaeaaeeaaiee (aaiaoithaoey?iue ?aoethen). I?iaa Aio/aea ni
no?ioaioeiii: 1 – 2 aeiy caia?ytho aeeo?ac e naa, caoai 1 – 2 aeiy
eaiaeueii 0,5 ie no?ioaioeia 1 ?ac a noo. Caia?eoue aeeo?ac e aai. I?e
iaoeiaee aeeo?ac oaaee/eaaaony ia 500 ie. ianeieueei iaiaa iieacaoaeueii
nieaeaiea iannu.

3 noaiaie i?aaiaeaeoaei/eiaie aeaeiiiainaoeee:

1. Eaoaioiay, ioeaieaaaony i?e oece/aneie iaa?ocea, a iieia iao.

2. Anoue a iieia, ii ionoonoaotho i?aaiiua eciaiaiey.

3. Aeeno?ioe/aneay. Noieeea au?aaeaiiua eciaiaiey a i?aaiao, i/aiue
o?oaeii iiaeaeaaony oa?aiee.

I?e 2A: oia?aiiia, ii iinoiyiiia oaaee/aiea ia/aie, iiyaeaiea ioaeia e
aa/a?o, en/aciiaaiea oo?ii, aieaa io/aoeeaue aaiaoithaoey?iue ?aoethen.

2A: oaea aieueoay aacaieaciaiiay ia/aiue, noieeea e cia/eoaeueiua ioaee
ia iiaao.

I?e 3-e noaiaie ioaee aieioue aei aiana?ee, canoieiua ii/ee e o.ae. Ii
aieueiua n eaai/iie iaoieiaeae aei 3 – e noaiaie aeiaeeaatho ?aaeei.

Aeey aieaa oi/iie aeeaaiinoeee YEA. Aeeaaiic, anee a V 1 a?aiy
aioo?aiiaai ioeeiiaiey aieaa 0,03, eee a I noaiaea?oiii R ii/oe ?aaai S,
iei a V 5 R/S < 1, eee iaiieiay aeieaaea i?aaie iiaeee io/ea Aenna i?e ORS ia aieaa 0,12". Aeeaaiic: anee anoue 2 e aieaa yoeo i?eciaeia.Aeeoaeeaaiic n ea?aeeineea?icii, eioi?ue i?eaiaeeo e iaaeinoaoi/iinoe eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea, canoith a i?aaii e?oaa e a eoiaa e aeaeiiiainaoeee.I?ECIAEEAAI*IIA NA?AeOeAEA?AeEINEEA?IC1. iaeooeiaaoinoueanoueiaoIaaooaiea e ioeuenaoeey oaeiuo aaianoueiaoOeeaiicaeeooociueianoiueIaeuoeayenie?aoi?iayeinie?aoi?iayEaoa eue n iie?ioie/anoiionoonoaoao"Aa?aaaiiua iaei/ee", "/aniaua noaeea"/anoiiiaeao ia auoueeii/eee iaeueoeaaoaieuaoieiaeiuaI?oiiiiyiaoanoueCanoie a eaaeeoiaoanoueNa?aea/iay anoiaiaoanoueAiee a iaeanoe na?aeoea?aaea, nieiathony eenei?iaeiioeie/iuIa?oeaoaeueiay a?eoiey?aaeei/anoiIaaeinoaoi/iinoue e?iaiia?auaieyi?aaiaeaeoaei/eiaue oeieaaiaeaeoaei/eiaue oeiA?oa?eineea?ic iicaiauo a?oa?ee?aaea/auaNiioonoaothuee a?oa?e- ineea?ic ia?eoa?e/aneeo ninoaeiaiaoanoueY?eo?ioeeoiciiaeao auoueionoonoaoaoIiauoaiea AAeanoue oieueei i?e niioonoao-thuae AA, ii anoue oneiaey aeey aa aieaa auno?iai ?acaeoeyionoonoaoao?aiaaeiae/aneeiaeua ?acia?u na?aeoea, aeeao?aaia iioneaaony, iii auoyaeaaaonyna?aeoea oaaee/aii aaa?oEiioeao?aoeeyi?eaeeaeaia e ieo?aeueiie eee a ii?iai?eaeeaeaia e ai?oaeueiieEiion eaai/iie a?oa?eeiiaeao auoue oaaee/aieae i?aaeei aac eciaiaieeAi?oaoaeeeiaia, oaiue oneeaiaooe?aia ?aaeeiEa/aieaYoeieiae/aneia ea/aiea iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey. Ia iaaei no?aieoueny eciaiyoue aeaaeaiea a eaai/iie a?oa?ee, anee i?aaieci nai ni?aaeyaony, oae eae aeaaeaiea a eaeie - oi noaiaie iineo eiiiainaoi?iue oa?aeoa?.Oi?ioea ?acoeueoaou aeaao i?eiaiaiea aioaaiienoia eaeueoeey (ei?eioa?), ii ia oi?ne?iaaoue. Ia?aeeiei. O?aioae oiaea oi?ioi. I/aiue aaaeii nieaeaiea yia?aicao?ao aieueiiai, ?aiueoa aeaaea i?eiaiyee aiia?ao aeey aniiiiaaoaeueiie aaioeeyoeee eaaeeo, eenei?iaeioa?aiey, ii inoi?iaeii, oae eae o oaeeo aieueiuo eenei?iae, a ia oaeaeeneue aac, yaeyaony ?aaoeyoi?ii aeuoaiey. I?eiaiyoue 30 - 40% eenei?iae, a /enoue - oieueei /a?ac iiniaie eaoaoa?. Ia?aeaeueii aaiaeeoue ei?aeeaiei, Na?aea/iua aeeeiceaeu iieacaiu, ii i?eiaiyoue a iieiaeiiie aeica, oae eae ieiea?ae ec - ca aeiieaeeaiee e iei i/aiue /oanoaeoaeai. No?ioaioei 0.5 ie. ei?aetheii 1,0 ie oieueei eaiaeueii. Iaeioi?ua n/eoatho, /oi na?aea/iua aeeeiceaeu ia ioaeiu. Ii/aaiiiua iieacaiu, ii neaaeeoue, /oiau ia ?acaeeanue aeiieaeeaiey.IIAAIIIEEIno?ay iiaaiiiey - ainiaeeoaeueiue i?ioeann, ioaaouaathuee ana oeaie eaaeiai. *anoioa caaieaaaaiinoe ninoaaeyao 3 - 4 ia 1000 /aeiaae (0,4%). I?ioeann ii?aaeaao a?iioeieu, eio?anoeoeeaeueioth oeaiue, anaaaea aiaeaeathony ninoaeu e ia?au.Io ino?ie iiaaiiiee eae iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey i?e aaeaeaaoiie oa?aiee aieueiua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oie?aoue ia aeieaeiu, ii ino?ay iiaaiiiey iiaeao auoue niioonoaothuae i?e ?yaea oyaeaeuo caaieaaaiee, o ineaaeaiiuo aieueiuo yoi oooaeoaao i?iaiic.Eeanneoeeaoeey1. Ii yoeieiaee:a) aaeoa?eaeueiua: no?aioi, noaoeeieieeiaua, iiaaiieieeiaua:a) ae?oniua;a) ?eeeaoneiciua;a) ieeiieaciaiiua;ae) niaoaiiua i?e annioeeaoeee aicaoaeeoaeae;a) io aicaeaenoaey oece/aneeo oaeoi?ia: ia?aioeaaeaeaiea, aunieay oaiia?aoo?a;ae) io aicaeaenoaey oeie/aneeo oaeoi?ia: aaiceiiaua, iueaaua, ieeneia acioa, aeaoieene na?u, na?iie eeneiou e ae?.c) iiaaiiiee o iineaiia?aoeeiiiuo aieueiuo, io i?iieeiiaaiey eii?iaeiuo oae e o.ae.2. Eeeieei - ii?oieiae/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey (ii E.N.Iie/aiiao)a) i?aeiouanoaaiii ia?aioeiaoiciay: e?oiiciay, i/aaiaay;a) eioa?noeoeeaeueiay;a) niaoaiiay.3. Ii oa/aieth caaieaaaiey:a) n iau/iui oeeeee/aneei oa/aieai: ia/aei - ?acaeoea - ?ac?aoaiea;a) caoyaeiia oa/aiea. A 10% neo/aaa iiaaiiiey i?eieiaao caoyaeiia oa/aiea e iiaeao ia?aoiaeeoue a o?iie/aneoth iiaaiiieth.E?OIICIAss IIAAIIIEssYoi, eae i?aaeei, ia?aioeiaoiciay iiaaiiiey, iee?iaiay, eiaao iau/iia oeeeee/aneia oa/aiea. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ano?a/aaony ?aaeei: ia 10 neo/aaa ino?ie iiaaiiiee i?eoiaeeony 1 e?oiiciay, ii iia nio?aieea naie yieaeaie/aneea iniaaiiinoe. *aua aieatho ac?ineua, io 20 aei 50 eao, ?aaea ano?a/aaony o aeaoae e eeoe i?aeeiiiiai aic?anoa.Yoeieiaey:Yeciaaiiay eioaeoeey; iiaaiieieee ia?auo aeaoo oeiia. Eiioaaeiciinoue ieieiaeueiay, i?aeoe/anee ?aaia ioeth, iiyoiio aioo?eaieueie/iuo eioaeoeee ia auaaao. Iiaaiieiee i/aiue /oanoaeoaeai e aioeaeioeeioa?aiee, a iineaaeothuai aunaeaaaony ?aaeei.Iaoiaaiac:1). ?ani?ino?aiaiea aicaoaeeoaey i?ienoiaeeo i?aeiouanoaaiii a?iioiaaiiui iooai, ii aiciiaeiu aaiaoiaaiiue e eeioiaaiiue iooe.2). Aunaeaaaiinoue iee?iaia /aua i?e e?oiiciie iiaaiiiee, /ai i?e i/aaiaie.3). Anoue ineiaeiaiey, i?enouea oieueei e?oiiciie iiaaiiiee - ino?ue yiaeiea?aeeo ai?oaeueiiai eeaiaia.Iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue ?aaeoeeth i?aaiecia, ino?aeoaa ia/aei, auno?ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ia ?acee/iua oeceieiae/aneea ia?aciaaiey eaaeiai,ii/oe iaycaoaeai caoaao ieaa?u (ionthaea ae?oaia iacaaiea - ieaa?iiiaaiiiey).Ana yoi oeacuaaao ia aeia?a?ae/aneee oa?aeoa? ainiaeaiey, oi anoue eiaao cia/aiea o/anoea eiioiieiiiaoaioiie nenoaiu. Yoi ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyao iniaaiiinoe ii?oieiae/aneie ea?oeiu e eeeieee; ii?aaeaiea oeaeie aeiee - aeieaaay iiaaiiiey, ii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ano?a/aaony ?aaea, /aua naaiaioa?iay iiaaiiiey, oa?aeoa?ii ii?aaeaiea ieaa?u, oea?eiiciia ainiaeaiea, ea?oeia ii?oieiae/anee iaeii?iaeia.Oa/aiea - noaaeeeiia:1. Iee?iaiue ioae.2. Na?ia eee e?aniia iia/aiaiea.3. ?ac?aoaiea. I?e ?aiiai ia/aea ea/aiey i?ioeann iiaeao ieii/eoueny ia ia?aie noaaeee.Eeeieea.A eeeieea auaeaeytho 2 a?oiiu neiioiiia:1. Neiioiiu, oa?aeoa?iua aeey ethaiai ainiaeeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna, eee iauea neiioiiu (aneaaenoaea iee?iaiie eioieneeaoeee):A - ni noi?iiu OeIN: caoi?iiaeaiiinoue, iaaieueoia eiee/anoai aeaeia, ii iiaeao auoue e aicaoaeaeaiea, aieioue aei ineoica;A - ni noi?iiu na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu: /anoioa na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee iia?aaeaao oaiia?aoo?o oaea, ia YEA aeeooociua eciaiaiey ieiea?aea, ia?ooaiey ?eoia: yeno?anenoieey, ia?oeaoaeueiay a?eoiey, i?eciaee aeia?o?ioee i?aaiai aeaeoaei/ea, iaaeaiea AAe, aieioue aei eieeaina. /aua a noaaeee ?ac?aoaiey, oaoeea?aeey.A - ni noi?iiu ia/aie aeeno?ioe/aneea eciaiaiey, ia?aoiaeyuay aeia?aeee?oaeiaiey, iiaeao auoue oia?aiiay aeaeoooa, noaeeoa?e/iinoue neea?.A - ni noi?iiu ii/aauaeaeeoaeueiie nenoaiu: eeoi?aaei/iay i?ioaeio?ey, iiaeao iaaethaeaoueny oeeeeiae?o?ey, oi?iaiiua yeaiaiou e?iae.Neiioiiu ni noi?iiu eaaeeo:Neiae?ii oieioiaiey eaai/iie oeaie: oei?i/aiiea ia?eooi?iiai caoea, oneeaiea aieiniaiai ae?iaeaiey, a?iioioiiee, aeanoeia eee a?iioeaeueiia aeuoaiea, aeaaeiua cao/iua o?eiu; ?aioaaiieiae/aneia caoaiiaiea o/anoea eaaeiai. Iaaei iiiieoue, /oi caaieaaaiea eiaao no?iai oeeeee/aneia oa/aiea, iiyoiio a iiiaio ianeaaeiaaiey neiae?iia oieioiaiey eaai/iie oeaie iiaeao e ia auoue - i?e/eia aeeaaiinoe/aneie ioeaee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, eaai/iay neiioiiaoeea /aua auaaao i?aaenoaaeaia a ?aaeooee?iaaiiie oi?ia, anee ainiaeeoaeueiue i?ioeann ia?uaaaony ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo (ia noaaeee iee?iaiiai ioaea): oei?i/aiea ia?eooi?iiai caoea iaaieueoia eee aiana iao, aeuoaiea ineaaeaii eee ia eciaiaii, o?eiia iiaeao ia auoue. A oaeii neo/aa ?aoathuaa cia/aiea eiaao eeeie/aneay ea?oeia, i?aaenoaaeaiiay i?aeiouanoaaiii iauae neiioiiaoeeie.Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic1. N ae?oaeie caaieaaaieyie eioaeoeeiiiie i?e?iaeu:a) A?thoiie oeo. Enneaaeoaony ia oeoi - ia?aoeoicioth a?oiio, iaoiaiiie/ia a?aaeeea?aeey.a) Nuiiie oeo.2. Eioa?eo ieiea?aea; i?e e?oiiciie iiaaiiiee auaatho neeueiua aiee ca a?oaeeiie ec - ca aiaea/aiey a i?ioeann iaaeeanoeiaeueiie ieaa?u.3. N ino?ui aeeaioii; i?e aiaea/aiee a i?ioeann aeeao?aaiaeueiie ieaa?u aiee a aeeaioa e ?aoeaeoi?iia iai?yaeaiea iuooe ia?aaeiae a?thoiie noaiee (ino?ue aiiaiaeeoeeo, ino?ue oieaoeenoeo).4. Yennoaeaoeaiue ieaa?eo.5. Ooaa?eoeac.Oa/aiea*aua iau/iia, oeeeee/aneia. Eeanne/anee ia ia/aoiue aeaiue (5-7-9-e) iaaeaiea oaiia?aoo?u - ?ac?aoaiea iiaaiiiee.Ineiaeiaiey1. Eiee/anoaaiiia ia?anoaiea iau/iie aeey e?oiiciie iiaaiiiee neiioiiaoeee: aicaoaeaeaiea, aieioue aei ineoica, ano?a/aaony, eae i?aaeei o aeeiaieeeia ii oeio aaeie ai?y/ee. Yoi iiaeao auoue ia?aui i?iyaeaieai o?iie/aneiai aeeiaieecia; iiaoo auoue noeoeeaeiua iiiuoee.2. Aeeno?ioey ieiea?aea: ia?oeaoaeueiay a?eoiey, aia?aua iiaeao auoue o aieueiuo n na?aea/ii - ninoaeenoie iaoieiaeae (ii?iee na?aeoea, ea?aeeineea?ic). Aaaeii i?aaeoi?aaeeoue NI - a ea/aiea aeeth/atho na?aea/iua aeeeiceaeu.3. Eieeain - ?aceia iaaeaiea AAe.4. Eciaiaiea ni noi?iiu ia/aie - ia?aoeiu.5. Eciaiaiey ni noi?iiu ii/ae, a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ia?aoeiua, ii iiaeao aicieeiooue aeeooociue ino?ue aeiia?oeiiao?eo.6. Ineiaeiaiey ni noi?iiu eaaeeo: iiaaiiie/aneee eioeeueo?ao iiaeao ia ?annanuaaoueny, iiaeaa?aiooueny i?aaiecaoeee, ia ianoa ainiaeaiey aicieeaao ?oaaoe - ieioiue, niaaeeieoaeueii - oeaiiue, n ea?ieoeeaoeeae. I?e aieueoeo ?oaoeao iiaeao ?acaeoueny eaai/iia na?aeoea, ino?ue aanoeann eaaeiai - i?ienoiaeeo iaaiiaiea. Oea?eiiciue ieaa?eo - iau/iia i?iyaeaiea e?oiiciie iiaaiiiee; yennoaeaoa iiaeao auoue iiiai, aei 2 - ai ?aa?a nia?aaee, iiaeao auoue aeuoaoaeueiay e na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue, i?e iaaiaeaaiee yennoaeaoa aicieeaao yiieaia ieaa?u.7. Ino?ue aaeoa?eaeueiue yiaeiea?aeeo ai?oaeueiiai eeaiaia: ii/oe ieeiaaea ia aeeaaiinoe?oaony, ia yoii aiciiaeiii ineiaeiaiee /anoi caauaatho. Ano?a/aaony o eeoe iiaeeeiai aic?anoa. Oa?aeoa?ii nio?aiaiea oaiia?aoo?u iinea 11 - ai aeiy caaieaaaiey. Ia?anoatho yaeaiey NI, i?iyaeaiee ai?oaeueiiai ii?iea ia aoaeao, oae eae ii ia oniaaaao noi?ie?iaaoueny.Anoue aua iaeia ?aciiaeaeiinoue iiaaiiiee, iaiiieiathuay e?oiicioth, ii eaoaeueiinoue i?e iae aeinoeaaao 20 - 25%; iia aucuaaaony aeeieiaaoeeeeie O?eiaeea?a. Eiaaony oaeaea ea?oeia oea?eiiciiai ainiaeaiey. I?e iee?ineiie/aneii enneaaeiaaiee eciaiaiey aieaa au?aaeaiu. Ia naeoeee ca iiaeii oyioony ieoe oea?eia. Yoi ia?aioeiaoiciay iiaaiiiey. Aeeieiaaoeeeea O?eiaeea?a eiaao iniaoth o?iiiinoue e ninoaeenoie nenoaia eaaeeo, auaeaeyy oienei. Iiae aeeyieai oieneia i?ienoiaeeo o?iiae?iaaiea ninoaeia eaaeeo, aneaae ca yoei aicieeaao iae?ic eaai/iie oeaie n iineaaeothuei aiieiui ?anieaaeaieai, /oi e ii?aaeaeyao oyaeanoue eeeieee. Iae?ic aeey e?oiiciie iiaaiiiee ia oa?aeoa?ai. E n/anoueth ano?a/aaony i/aiue ?aaeei, ninoaaeyao 1 - 2% anao iiaaiiiee. Iia caieiaao i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo i/aaiaie e e?oiiciie iiaaiiieae.E?iia iiaaiieieea, e?oiiciay iiaaiiiey iiaeao aucuaaoueny no?aioi e noaoeeieieeiaie eioaeoeeae.I*AAIAUA IIAAIIIEE1. Neiae?ii oieioiaiey eaai/iie oeaie.2. Ea?oeia o?iie/aneiai a?iioeoa.Iniaaiiinoe:a) Ia/aei ino?ia, ii ia noieue ao?iia, eae i?e e?oiiciie.a) Iao yaeaiee iauae eioieneeaoeee e aeuoaoaeueiie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe3. Aiaeec e?iae aac aieueoiai eaeeioeeoa, naeaea iaaieueoie.4. Oieioiaiea eaai/iie oeaie eieaeeciaaiiia.5. Ea?oeia niioonoaothuaai a?iioeoa - yoi ioee/aao i/aaiaoth iiaaiiieth io e?oiiciie.YoeieiaeyIa iiaaiieieee i?eoiaeeony aieaa 50%, ii, a ioee/ea io e?oiiciie, yoi iiaaiieieee ia ia?auo aeaoo oeiia, a ae?oaea. Inoaeueiua 50% iaaeatho ia: noaoeeieieee, no?aioieieee. eeoa/ioth iaei/eo, ae?on a?eiia, ia?aa?eiia, ?eeeaonee, ieeiieacio.Ii iaeei aicaoaeeoaeue - oaeo ?aaeeee, yoeieiaey i/aaiauo iiaaiiiee /aua auaaao i?aaenoaaeaia annioeeaoeeae aicaoaeeoaeae. Iiaaiiiey iiaeao oaeaea aicieeaoue io oece/aneeo e oeie/aneeo oaeoi?ia. i?e i/aaiauo iiaaiiieyo eioaeoeey, eae i?aaeei, yiaeiaaiiay - aicaoaeeoaee iaoiaeyony ia neecenouo iaiei/eao o caei?iauo ethaeae e ?aoathuei a caaieaaaiee noaiiaeony aicaeaenoaea iaaeaaii?eyoiuo aiaoieo oaeoi?ia, iai?eia?, ia?aioeaaeaeaiea: i?e yoii i?ienoiaeeo aeoeaaoeey e eioaeoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna. Ionthaea aaaeiue a i?aeoe/aneii ioiioaiee auaiae:: iaiaoiaeeii naiaa?aiaiiia ono?aiaiea i/aaia o?iie/aneie eioaeoeee. Ia?aianaiiay ?aiaa iiaaiiiey inoaaeyao iaeeiiiinoue e iiaoi?iui caaieaaaieyi ino?ie iiaaiiieae, oae eae eciaiyaony ?aaeoeaiinoue eaai/iie oeaie. ?ieue o?iie/aneie eioaeoeee a yoii neo/aa oaeaea i/aiue aaeeea. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai o?iie/aneee oiiceeeeo, ea?ean coaia, o?iie/aneee aaeii?eo e o?iioeo.IaoiaaiacIooue ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioaeoeee a?iioiaaiiue, iiyoiio caaieaaaiea ia noieue ao?iia, eae i?e e?oiiciie iiaaiiiee. I?ioeann eaeao n eaoa?a aa?oieo aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae aei ia?aioeiu eaaeeo - yoi ii?aaeaeyao ae?oaia iacaaiea - a?iioiiiaaiiiey, oi anoue iiaaiiiey aac ii?aaeaiey ieaa?u. Iaaethaeaaony a?iioeaeueiay iai?ioiaeeiinoue, yoi iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue i?e ea/aiee. Yoi ii?aaeaeyao iaoiii?oieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe: oa?aeoa? ainiaeaiey eaoa?aeueiue, n yennoaeaoeaiui eiiiiiaioii, na?iciue, n iaaieueoei eiee/anoaii ieoae oea?eia. Eeeieeo ii?aaeaeytho:1. Iie?ioa ioeaoeeaaaony eaaei, iaei oea?eia.2. Aeaaea a ia/aea caaieaaaiey i?e aoneoeueoaoeee eiathony o?eiu. Aeaaeiua aicieeatho i?e i?ioiaeaeaiee aicaeooa ii a?iioai, a i?inaaoa eioi?uo eiaaony na?iciue yennoaeao.EAOA?AEUeIAss IIAAIIIEssEeeieea: iauea neiioiiu aiai?yo i ia/aea ainiaeeoaeueiiai eioaeoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna a aeaea eioieneeaoeee OeIN, na?aea/ii - ninoaeenoie nenoaiu e o.ae. ?aioaaiieiae/aneea i?eciaee au?aaeaiu iaiaa, /ai i?e e?oiiciie iiaaiiiee. Aiaeec e?iae: iaaieueoie eaeeioeeoic aei 10 oun. n iaaieueoei iaei/ei - yaea?iui naeaeaii, iao oiene/aneie ca?ienoinoe eaeeioeeoia. Ii/a YEA - aac eciaiaiee. Ianoiua neiioiiu aiai?yo i eieaeecaoeee ainiaeeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna (neiioiiu oieioiaiey eaai/iie oeaie). I?e eaoa?aeueiie iiaaiiiee iaycaoaeueii anoue niioonoaothuee a?iioeo: ii ia?aie/ai niioaaonoaothuae ainiaeeoaeueiiio i?ioeanno a eaai/iie ia?aioeia eeai aeeooociue a?iioeo. Eeeieea ii?aaeaeyaony iniaaiiinoyie aicaoaeeoaey;- iiaaiieiee: ino?ia, ii ia ao?iia ia/aei, noaoea?eeueiay oaiia?aoo?a, nieaeaaony iaaeeaiii:- noaoeeieiee e no?aioieiee: eaoaeueiinoue auoa, oae eae a ioee/ea io iiaaiieieea, iie auaeaeytho yiaeioienei, eioi?ue aucuaaao aeoaieoth aeano?oeoeeth eaai/iie oeaie, aieioue aei iae?ica. *anoi i?eniaaeeiyaony ae?oaay aiia?iaeiay oei?a, i?ienoiaeeo iaaiiaiea n iineaaeothuei ?aniaaeii eaai/iie oeaie. Ano?a/aaony ?aaeei. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ea/anoaa aicaoaeeoaey ano?a/athony ?eeeaonee, ae?onu e ieeiieacia.A?EIIICIAss IIAAIIIEss*anoi ano?a/aaony eae ineiaeiaiea a?eiia. N?aaee a?eiiiciuo iiaaiiiee auaeaeytho ?aiiea e iicaeiea:a) ?aiiea - /a?ac 1 - 3 aeiy io ia/aea caaieaaaiey a?eiiii;a) iicaeiea - iinea 3 - ai aeiy io ia/aea a?eiia (ii ae?oaei aaoi?ai - /a?ac iaaeaeth).?aiiea iiaaiiiee aucuaathony ae?onaie a?eiia, e i?e ieo auaeaeyaony ae?on a?eiia. Iicaeiea iiaaiiiee yaeythony eeai niaoaiiuie, eeai aaeoa?eaeueiuie ia oiia ia?aianaiiiai a?eiia. ?aiiea iiaaiiiee eiatho aieueoia cia/aiea, oae eae i?ioaeatho oyaeaei, n aieueoei i?ioeaioii eaoaeueiinoe. Oa?aeoa?ia i/aiue oyaeaeay aeuoaoaeueiay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue, ainiaeeoaeueiue i?ioeann nii?iaiaeaeaaony aaii??aae/aneie yennoaeaoeeae, caoaaouaaao ana aeuoaoaeueiua iooe io o?aoae aei a?iioeie. Au?aaeaia eioieneeaoeey, iaoneiaeaiiay aunieie iaoiaaiiinoueth ae?ona a?eiia.Aaeaiiae?onu aucuaatho iaeaieaa eaaeoth iiaaiiieth, n au?aaeaiiie eeioiaaeaiiiaoeae e oiiceeeeoii.Ia?aa?eiiiciua iiaaiiiee i?ioaeatho eaaei, n eaoa?aeueiuie yaeaieyie (?eieo, eaoaeue).Ieeiieaciaiiua iiaaiiiee. Eioieneeaoeey neaaay. Oa?aeoa?ii aieiiia?aciia oa/aiea n ianeieueeeie oaiia?aoo?iuie ai?aaie. Neiioiiu oieioiaiey eaai/iie oeaie e a?iioeo au?aaeaiu neaai, eeai nianai ionoonoaotho, ii ?aioaaiieiae/aneea eciaiaiey au?aaeaiu: eioeueo?aou, i?aeiouanoaaiii a ia?aioeiaoiciie oeaie.Aoeie/ii iiaoo i?ioaeaoue e ae?oaea iiaaiiiee, ii iie aoaeoo aoi?e/iuie - i?e neea?iaea?iee, ooaa?eoeaca - eaeao ii?aaeaiea eioa?noeoeeaeueiie oeaie.Aeeaaiinoeea1. Eeeie/aneea i?eciaee - i?eciaee ino?iai ainiaeeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna, eciaiaiey a e?iae, eaaeeo.2. ?aioaaiieiae/aneia iiaeoaa?aeaiea iieo/eoue iiaeii ia anaaaea, iai?eia?, a neo/aa yioecaiu ia oiia iiaaiioea?ica. Auaatho oaeaea e iaoiaee/aneea ioeaee - iaei aua naeaeaoue ?aioaaiineiieth, ioaeia ?aioaaiia?aoey eee e?oiiioi?iaoiay oethi?ia?aoey. Iaycaoaeueii oaeaea aeaooinaaia enneaaeiaaiea - a ia?aaeiae e aieiauo i?iaeoeeyo, eee iiiaiinaaia enneaaeiaaiea.3. Iinaa iie?iou - noaaeony aaeoa?eieiae/aneee aeeaaiic. Ii ii eiaao naie o?oaeiinoe; ea/aiea ia/eiatho ?aii, aicaoaeeoaee i/aiue /oanoaeoaeueiu e aioeaeioeeai: aunaeaaaony iiiai iee?ii?aaieciia - ionthaea aaaeiu iiaoi?iua iinaau. Anee aunaeaathony iaeie e oa aea iee?iau, oi iie e yaeythony aicaoaeeoaeyie iiaaiiiee.Iniaaiiinoe oa/aiey i/aaiaie iiaaiiiee nae/an:a) ia i/aiue au?aaeaiiua i?eciaee eioieneeaoeee, a i?e ?aii ia/aoii ea/aiee iiaoo aiiaua ionoonoaiaaoue. Iiyaeythony /aua anaai ?aioaaiieiae/aneea i?eciaee. Eaaeia oa/aiea.a) Ianiio?y ia ioiineoaeueii eaaeia oa/aiea (eciaiaiey a eaeeia?aiia auno?i eeeaeaee?othony), eeeie/aneea eciaiaiey caaea?aeeaathony (ii ?aioaaiieiae/aneei aeaiiui).a) *anoi eaeoo n eciaiaieyie, oeacuaathueie ia aeea?ae/aneea ?aaeoeee (a?iioiiano?oeoeey). *anoi o aeaoae. A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa iiaaiiiey caeai/eaaaony iieiui aucaei?iaeaieai e ainnoaiiaeaieai no?oeoo?u a?iioi - eaai/iiai aea?aaa. Ii ia?aaeei auaaao e caoyaeiia oa/aiea, eiaaea o aieueiiai, ianiio?y ia oa?aieth, nio?aiyaony noaoea?eeueiay oaiia?aoo?a, o?eiu. ?aioaaiieiae/aneea eciaiaiey aea?aeaony aieaa 3-4 iaaeaeue (iau/ii 2 iaaeaee). Yoi auaaao i?eaeeceoaeueii a 30-40% neo/aaa. Yoi iiaeao auoue ia?aoiaeii a o?iie/aneee i?ioeann eaaeeo (o?iie/aneee a?iioeo, iiaaiiiey).I?e/eiu caoyaeiiai oa/aiey iiaaiiiee:1. Ianaiaa?aiaiiia e iaaaeaeaaoiia ea/aiea, iicaeii ia/aoia ec - ca iicaeiae ainieoaeecaoeee. *anoi i?e yoii iicaeiyy ainieoaeecaoeey auaaao naycaia n aoeie/iui oa/aieai. Ii iiaaiiiee iiaoo caoyaeaaoueny e ia?aoiaeeoue a o?iie/aneee i?ioeann aeaaea i?e naiaa?aiaiiie ainieoaeecaoeee, eiaaea aicaoaeeoaeue ia /oanoaeoaeai e i?aia?aoo, e i?e iiieaeaiee ?aaeoeaiinoe i?aaiecia aieueiiai.2. O aieueiuo i?e caoyaeiii oa/aiee eciaiythony aaeeiaua o?aeoeee e?iae; iiauoaaony niaea?aeaiea aaiia - aeiaoeeiia, oi anoue eiatho ianoi eiioiieiae/aneea iaoaieciu.3. *anoi auyaeythony aioeoaea e eaai/iie oeaie, oi anoue aooiaioeoaea. Iaaethaeathony oaeaea eciaiaiey ni noi?iiu eeioioeeoia, ieaciaoe/aneeo eeaoie - eo eiee/anoai a ioieoaoa einoiiai iicaa oaaee/eaaaony.Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic caoyaeiuo iiaaiiiee1. Ooaa?eoeac. Ia iiaeaeaaony aioeaaeoa?eaeueiie oa?aiee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oa/ao /anoi noa?oi, iiiiaaao aaeoa?eieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea iie?iou ia AE iaoiaeii oeioaoeee eee enneaaeiaaiea i?iiuaiuo aiae a?iioia. Iaaei iiiieoue, /oi AE + iiyaeythony oieueei i?e ?aniaaea eaai/iie oeaie, a nai oaeo iaia?oaeaiey AE aua ia aiai?eo ia aeoeaiinoe ooaa?eoeaciiai i?ioeanna, oae eae iie iiaoo iiianoue a i/aa iiaaiiiee ec noa?iai ooaa?eoeaciiai i/aaa. Aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao a?iioineiiey, oae eae ooaa?eoeac /anoi ia/eiaaony eiaiii n a?iioia. Eiioiieiae/aneea e na?ieiae/aneea ?aaeoeee ia ooaa?eoeac.2. ?ae a?iioa: a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo ?ae ia?eoa?e/aneiai a?iioa iiaeao i?ioaeaoue n ea?oeiie iiaaiiiee. I?e yoii naia iiooieue iaaieueoay, i?e iau/iuo iaoiaeao enneaaeiaaiey /anoi ia auyaeyaony, ii, iaoiaeynue a i?inaaoa iaeeeo a?iioia, iia i?eaiaeeo e aeiiaaioeeyoeee niioaaonoaothuaai aenoeiia n iineaaeothuei aoaeaeoacii.A eoiaa ia ?aioaaiieiae/aneie ea?oeia naiie iiooiee ia aeaeii, ii aeaeai iiaaiiie/aneee eioeeueo?ao ia oiia aoaeaeoaca. I ?aea neaaeoao aeoiaoue, anee: ainiaeeoaeueiue i?ioeann eeeaeaee?oaony, a eciaiaiey ia ?aioaaiia?aiia inoathony, aic?ano aieueiiai 40 - 50 eao, anee aicieeatho iiaoi?iua iiaaiiiee ia noa?ii ianoa.Ioaeii iiiieoue, /oi a ia/aea caaieaaaiey aoeie/iua eeaoee a iie?ioa iaoiaeyo ?aaeei. Io iiyaeaiey i?eciaeia aei ia?auaiey e a?a/o i?ioiaeyo iaaeaee e ianyoeu, aei iinoaiiaee aeeaaiica aua ianeieueei ianyoeaa, oi anoue anaai ieiei aiaea - a yoii oaoaeueiue enoiae ?aea a?iioa, a iaoanoacu aicieeatho ?aii. A?iioineiiey /anoi ieacuaaaony aaniieaciie (aei iiooiee ia aeia?aoueny), iiyoiio ioaeii eniieueciaaoue a?iioia?aoeth, aiaeiioeueiiiia?aoeth. Eiiaaea iiooieue aeaoa oa?aeoa?iua eciaiaiey, oae, iai?eia?, eeaoee iecei - aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai ?aea i?iaeooee?otho ai?iiiu - a e?iae iaaethaeaaony aeia?aeiaoeeiaiey, onei?aiiia NIY. Iiaeao ?acaeoueny neiae?ii, iaiiieiathuee neiae?ii Eoeaiei-Eooeiaa: inoaia?o?iiaoe/aneea aiee a nonoaaao, inoaiii?ic, ?aaiaoe/aneee a?o?eo, iaeueoeu a aeaea aa?aaaiiuo iaei/ae. Oeacaiiua eciaiaiey i?e yoii ieioi iiaeaeathony iaaeeeaiaioiciie ei??aeoeee.Ineiaeiaiey1. Eioeeueo?ao ia ?annanuaaaony, a iinoaiaiii i?aaiecoaony n enoiaeii a iiaaiineea?ic. A yoii o/anoea eaaeiai /anoi aicieeaao iiaoi?iue i?ioeann, o?iie/aneay iiaaiiiey.2. Yennoaeaoeaiue ieaa?eo.3. Iea?e?othuay iiaaiiiey - ia iaeiii o/anoea caeai/eaaaony, ia ae?oaii ia/eiaaony.4. Neeaiay iiaaiiiey - i?e neeyiee iiaaiioe/aneeo i/aaia.5. ?aniaae ainiaeeoaeueiiai eioeeueo?aoa ia ianeieueei i/aaia e iaaiiaiea eaai/iie oeaie - aanaeaaee?othuay iiaaiiiey. Aunieee eaeeioeeoic, aiieiay iie?ioa. *aua aicieeaao, eiaaea anoue iniaua iaoaieciu aicieeiiaaiey iiaaiiiee: i?e aoaeaeoaca eaaeiai, aeiinoaoe/aneay iiaaiiiey i?e aeieaii iaoiaeaeaiee ia iinoaeueiii ?aaeeia a iiaeeeii aic?anoa. Iineaiia?aoeeiiiay iiaaiiiey - iinea iia?aoeee ia i?aaiao a?thoiie iieinoe - aicieeaao canoie a eaaeeo. Anie?aoeeiiiay iiaaiiiey - a ?acoeueoaoa anie?aoeee ?aioiuo iann, eii?iaeiuo oae (eiaaony caeoii?ea a?iioa, ia?ooaaony ae?aiao ieaa?aeueiuo iieinoae).6. Aanoeann eaaeiai - i?ioiaeeo a naiai ?acaeoee 2 oacu:a) aei ane?uoey a iieinoue a?iioa;a) i?i?ua a a?iio.Ia?aay oaca i?ioaeaao n eaeeioeeoicii, iiauoaieai oaiia?aoo?u. Ai aoi?ie oaca oaiia?aoo?a iaaeaao, oiaiueoaaony eaeeioeeoic, iooiaeeo aieueoia eiee/anoai aiieiie iie?iou.Ea/aieaA noaoeeiia?a iaycaoaeueii.1. Ea/aiea yoeieiae/aneia - i?eiaiytho aioeaaeoa?eaeueiua i?aia?aou, aioeaeioeee e noeueoaieeaieaeu. I?eioeeiu ea/aiey:a) ?aiia ia/aei aioeaaeoa?eaeueiie oa?aiee.a) Aioeaaeoa?eaeueiay oa?aiey aeieaeia auoue aaeaeaaoiie, oi anoue ieacuaaoue aaeoa?eoeeaeiue yooaeo ia aicaoaeeoaey.a) Ea/aiea aeieaeii i?iaiaeeoueny iiae ouaoaeueiui eeeieei - aaeoa?eieiae/aneei eiio?ieai.Aioeaeioeee: ia neaaeoao ia/eiaoue n naiuo iiauo aioeaeioeeia e aioeaeioeeia oe?ieiai niaeo?a aeaenoaey (o ieo iaeneioi iiai/iuo yooaeoia), oae eae a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa aicaoaeeoaeue /oanoaeoaeai e iaieoeeeeeio. Iaieoeeeeei 1 iei.* 6 ?ac a nooee, no?aioiieoeei. Iaiaoiaeeii iiiieoue i aiciiaeiuo iiai/iuo aeaenoaeyo no?aioiieoeeia: ii?aaeaiea neooiaiai ia?aa, iaeioi?ia ea?aeeioiene/aneia aeaenoaea.Noeueoaieeaieaeu i?ieiiae?iaaiiiai aeaenoaey: Noeueoaaeeiaoienei 2,0 a ia?aue aeaiue ea/aiey, a aeaeueiaeoai ii 1 a. Noeueoaie?eaeacei ii 1 a/noo.Eae i?aaeei, eiiaeiaoeey aioeaeioeeia e noeueoaieeaieaeia aeaao au?aaeaiiue eeeie/aneee yooaeo. Anee aai iao, iaiaoiaeeiu ?acoeueoaou aaeoa?eieiae/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey, ii i?e yoii ia caauaaoue, /oi /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e aioeaeioeeai a i?iae?ea iiaeao auoue eiie, /ai a aeeaii i?aaiecia, iiyoiio a eiia/iii eoiaa iaiaoiaeeii ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny eeeie/aneie ea?oeiie. Io aeeiaieee eeeie/aneie ea?oeiu caaeneo e aeeeoaeueiinoue ea/aiey. Oeaeue ea/aiey - iiaeaaeoue iee?iaiue i?ioeann, i?e yoii o/eouaathony iieacaoaee ainiaeeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna: oaiia?aoo?a, eciaiaiey ni noi?iiu e?iae - eaeeioeeoic, onei?aiiia NIY. Ii aoneoeueoaoeaiui e ?aioaaiieiae/aneei i?eciaeai noaeeoue iaeuecy. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ea/aiey, ianiio?y ia oaiia?aoo?ioth ?aaeoeeth, eaeeioeeoic e o.i., ninoaaeyao 1,5 - 2 iaaeaee, a n?aaeiai 10 aeiae.I?eiaiytho neioaoe/aneea iaiieoeeeeiu, aioeaeioeee ae?oaeo a?oii, anee aicaoaeeoaeue ia /oanoaeoaeai e aioeaeioeeai a?oiiu iaieoeeeeia.I?e noaoeeieieeiauo: neioaoe/aneea iaiieoeeeeiu, eeieiieoeei, aaioaieoeei, aeeieneaeei.Aaiioeeueiay iaei/ea: eaaiieoeaoei, oao?aoeeeeei, aiieoeeeeei. Iaei/ea O?eaeeaiaea?a: no?aioiieoeei, eaiaieoeei, aaioaieoeei + eaaiieoeaoei, eee aaioaieoeei + oao?aoeeeeei.Eeaoi?ai i?aeoe/anee a ethaie oi?ia. A ino?oth oaco 2 i?aia?aoa n?aco. Anee /a?ac 3 aeiy yooaeoa iao - iaiytho oa?aieth, iacia/atho oeaoaeinii?eiu. Ioeaieaaoue aiciiaeiinoue ioiaiu aioeaaeoa?eaeueiuo i?aia?aoia ii ninoiyieth caei?iauey aieueiiai, a ia ii ?aioaaeiae/aneei aeaiiui, ii ia iaiueoa iaaeaee, a n?aaeiai 10-14 aeiae. Aua ia iaaeaeth iiaeii inoaaeoue noeueoaieeaieaeu, iinea iiaeii iacia/eoue oeoiioeeaeu (/aniie). I?e noaoeeieieeiauo oaeaea iiaeii i?eiaiyoue i?ioeainoaoeeieieeiaue aeiaoeei, anee iao oaa?aiiinoe a oi/iii ii?aaeaeaiee aeaea aicaoaeeoaey - iieeaaeaioiue /aeiaa/aneee aeiaoeei.Ii?iaeecaoeey i?ioiaeeiinoe a?iioia: oaioaae?ei, yooeeei e aai aiaeiae; ioeaeoei, oa?iiinen, i?aia?aou eiaea - oi anoue ?acaeeaeathuea iie?ioo.3. Uaei/iua ia?iaua eiaaeyoeee 2-3% ?anoai?a niaeu i?e oaiia?aoo?a 50-600N ii 5-10 ieioo ia?aae niii.Aeanaineaeeece?othuay e i?ioeaiainiaeeoaeueiay oa?aiey: Ani?e?ei iieacai (anee iao a?iioeaeueiie anoiu n iaia?aiineiinoueth eee aano?eoa) ii 0.25*3 ?aca iinea aaeu.Aeoaieiu: aeoaiei "N" ii 300 ia. a aeaiue, oi anoue ii 100 ia. ai a?aiy aaeu. Aeeeoaeueiinoue 1-2 ianyoea.Na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoua n?aaenoaa aeey iiaeeeuo, oae eae iiaeao auoue ino?ay ninoaeenoay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue. Noeueoaeaoieaei. I?e e?oiiciie iiaaiiiee eaeao au?aaeaiiay eioieneeaoeey, /oi iiaeao i?eaanoe e na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe - iacia/aoue ea?aeeioiie/aneea n?aaenoaa, n?aaenoaa, iiaeaea?aeeaathuea oiion ninoaeia: no?ioaioei a/a, ei?aeeaiei.Oeceioa?aiey: aaiee, ai?/e/ieee. Aaiee ia aeaeaoue, anee eiaaony iianiinoue eaai/iiai e?iaioa/aiey eee iaeiieaiey aeeaeeinoe. Ia yoaia ?annanuaaiey - iannaae, oaieiaua i?ioeaaeo?u: eiaeoeoioa?iey, OA*, aeeaaeeiaiee. Iinea en/aciiaaiey eioeeueo?aoeee - ea/aaiay oeceoeueoo?a.Noaoeeiia?iia ea/aiea i?e e?oiiciie iiaaiiiee ia iaiaa 2 iaaeaeue. N aiaoeaoi?iui ea/aieai 3-3.5 iaaeaee. I?e i/aaiaie iiaaiiiee iaiueoa.A 10-40 % neo/aaa iiaaiiiey i?eieiaao caoyaeiia oa/aiea. I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue ia?ooaiea eiioiieiae/aneeo naienoa i?aaiecia. I?aaeiecieii a aeica, ia auoa 30 ia/noo., a oa/aiee 3-4 iaaeaeue iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue i?e iiaaiiieyo n aeea?ae/aneeie ?aaeoeeyie, i?e e?oiiciie iiaaiiiee n auiioii a ieaa?aeueioth iieinoue eee a?iioiniaciii.Oi?ioee?iaea aeeaaiica: E?oiiciay eee i/aaiaay iiaaiiiey, eieaeecaoeey n oeacaieai aeieae, naaiaioia. Oi?ioi au oeacaoue yoeieiaeth. Iniaaiiinoe oa/aiey, ineiaeiaiey. Anoue oiiiaua caaieaaaiey eaaeeo, eo ienaoue iinea aeeaaiica iiaaiiiee. Caoai niioonoaothuea caaieaaaiey.IEAA?EOUIeaa?eo - ainiaeaiea ieaa?aeueiuo eenoeia, nii?iaiaeaeathuaany ia?aciaaieai ia eo iiaa?oiinoe oea?iciuo iaeiaeaiee e (eee) iaeiieaieai aeeaeeinoe a ieaa?aeueiie iaeanoe. Yoi ia naiinoiyoaeueiia caaieaaaiea, a i?iyaeaiea ae?oaeo aieaciae.Yoeieiaey1. Eioaeoeee: /aua ooaa?eoeac, eieeiaay eioaeoeey (iiaaiieieee, noaoeei, no?aioieieee), ?aaea eeoa/iay iaei/ea, aua ?aaea oaeoeueoaoeaiua aiay?iau. A iineaaeiea aiaeu ae?onu Eienaee e ia?aa?eiia. Oaeaea eaiaeeaeu e ania?aeeeu.2. Anaioe/aneea: i?e eieeaaaiicao, ?aea, eaeeicao, aaii??aae/aneeo aeeaoacao.Iaoiaaiac1. Iiauoaiea i?iieoeaaiinoe aenoea?aeueiie ieaa?u a nayce n iiniaeaieai.2. Ia?ooaiea ae?aiaaea /a?ac ia?eaoaeueioth ieaa?o.3. Aeiee?iaaiea iooae iooiea eeiou io eaaeeo iaoanoacaie eee o?iie/aneei ainiaeaieai --> ?ao?ia?aaeiia aeaeaeaiea eeiou a noi?iio aenoea?aeueiie
ieaa?u.

4. ?ieue eiioiieiae/aneeo ?aaeoeee i?aeiouanoaaiii 3 e 4 oeia a ciia
ieaa?aeueiuo eenoeia n inaiaiaeaeaieai aeieaoeaiuo aauanoa e ia?ooaieai
iee?ioee?eoeyoeee.

Iaeiieaieth aeeaeeinoe niinianoaotho:

1. Caaea?aeea Na+ e nieaeaiea aaeea, iai?eia? i?e iao?ioe/aneii
neiae?iia, na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.

2. Iiauoaiea AAe a eaai/iuo a?oa?eyo, yoi i?e iaaeinoaoi/iinoe eaaiai
aeaeoaei/ea, o?iiaica eaai/iuo aai, iiauoaiee aeaaeaiey a eaai/iuo
eaieeey?ao.

Iaoiaaiac nooiai ieaa?eoa aaeeinoaaiii ioee/aaony ia?aciaaieai niaae,
oae eae auiaaeaao oea?ei. Iaoiaaiac aiee: ainiaeeoaeueiue ioae
ia?eaoaeueiie ieaa?u, eioi?ay /?acau/aeii /oanoaeoaeueia e aiee, a
aenoea?aeueiay ieaa?a ia iaeaaeaao aieaaie /oanoaeoaeueiinoueth ->
iaaeaeieaaie ieaa?eo aac aiee.

I?e/eia aeae?ioi?aena:

1. I?aaiaeaeoaei/eiaay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue, aicieeathuay o aieueiuo n
o?eeonieaeaeecaoeeae ieo?aeueiiai ii?iea. Aia/aea ioaee ia eiia/iinoyo,
caoai ia/aiue, caoai aeeaeeinoue a i?aaie ieaa?aeueiie iieinoe, caoai a
eaaie.

2. Aeiii?ioaeiaiey n ooiaeii aeeaeeinoe a iieinoe. Auaaao i?e
aeeiaioa?iie aeeno?ioee, iao?ioe/aneii neiae?iia.

3. Neei/eaue ia?eea?aeeo n ia?ooaieai iooiea e?iae iieuo aai.

4. Ieeneaeaia.

5. Neiae?ii Iaeana – ninoiyiea, i?e eioi?ii aeia?iea/anoaaiiay iiooieue
ye/ieeia, iaoee nii?iaiaeaeaaony i?aainoi?iiiei o?ainnoaeaoii, /anoi
anoue anoeeo. Inaaaeineiae?ii Iaeana – i?e ceiea/anoaaiiie iiooiee.

Ioee/ey o?ainnoaeaoa io yennoaeaoa:

1. Oaeaeueiay ieioiinoue: o?ainnoaeao < 1015 - 1020 < yennoaeao.2. Aaeie: o?annoaeao < 2,5 - 3,0% < yennoaeao.3. I?iaa ?eaaeueoa: eaiaaony 25 oenon. Anee ia?acoaony inaaeie - yennoaeao. Yennoaeao aieaa aiaao eeaoeaie, a o?annoaeaoa eeaoie i/aiue iaei.Eeanneoeeaoeey ieaa?eoia:1. Eioaeoeeiiiua e iaeioaeoeeiiiua.2. Nooie e auiioiie.3. Ii oa?aeoa?o auiioa:- na?iciue - i?aiaeaaeatho eeioioeeou,- aiieiue - iaeo?ioeeu,- aaii??aae/aneee - y?eo?ioeeou, yiceiioeeueiue,- i/aiue ?aaeei oeeaciue,- aua ?aaea oieanoa?eiiaue.4. Ino?ue, iiaeino?ue, o?iie/aneee.Eeeieea.Nooie oea?eiiciue ieaa?eo. Iaieoanoiue neiae?ii aieue. Oneeeaaaony i?e aeuoaiee, eaoea, nieaeaaony i?e eiiiaeeecaoeee a?oaeiie eeaoee. Noaoaa?eeeoao, iauea neiioiiu, ii ninoiyiea iau/ii oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia. I?e aiaoiai iniio?a ionoaaaiea a?oaeiie eeaoee i?e aeuoaiee (aaea anoue aaiiciue ?enoiie - iau/ii noa?ua ieaa?aeueiua niaeee e ooi o?aiey ieaa?u. Aai ioee/ea io o?eiia: anee neeueiaa i?eaeaoue oiiaiaeineii, oi ooi o?aiey ieaa?u en/aciao. Iinea eaoey aeaaeiua o?eiu oiaiueoathony, a ooi o?aiey ieaa?u inoaaony). Eae i?aaeei, anoue aieaciaiiinoue i?e iaeueiaoeee iaae?aaa?iuo i?iiaaeooeia. ?aioaaiieiae/anee nieaeaiea i?ic?a/iinoe, niaeee.Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiicN iaae?aaa?iie iaa?aeaeae, ieiceoii iaae?aaa?iuo iuooe, iiiynuaathuei eeoaai.AUIIOIIE IEAA?EOIiaeao ?acaeoueny:1. Iinea nooiai ieaa?eoa, iai?eia?, i?e ooaa?eoeaciie eioaeoeee.2. Ooaa?eoeaciay eioieneeaoeey, ii aieae iao, anoue iauea neiioiiu + iaeuoea, ooiua iaau?aceoaeueiua aiee a a?oaeiie eeaoea.3. Ino?ia ?acaeoea auiioiiai ieaa?eoa, ooiinoue ia?eooi?iiai caoea, aieiniaia ae?iaeaiea, o?eiia iao - auiioiie ieaa?eo.Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey auiioa:1. I?iaanoe ?oeie ii nieia e ioeaieoue oaiia?aoo?o eiaee (iiauoaiea).2. ?aaiiia?ii i?iaeaoue a?oaeioth eeaoeo - iiaeieoe ncaaee, eaaeiie ia aeneeey?iuo eeieyo, aei 300 - 400 ie ii?aaeaeyaony oieueei oae, caoai ia?eooi?ii. Anee ii aa?oiae a?aieoea 4 ?aa?a nia?aaee - oi 1 eeo? aeeaeeinoe, i?e iiaeuaia ia iaeii ?aa?i + aua 500 ie. ?aioaaiieiae/anee ii?aaeaeyaony i?e iaee/ee 200 ie.A eeeie/aneii aiaeeca e?iae i?eciaee ainiaeaiey. Oeeoieiaey: iiaoo auoue eeaoee iacioaeey ieaa?u a ninoiyiee aeanoiie o?ainoi?iaoeee, i/aiue iaiiieiatho ?aeiaua, oae eae iaoaieacey, ii iie ia ?aeiaua. Oi?aeineiieth i?aeoe/anee ia aeaeatho.OOAA?EOEACIUE IEAA?EOIeaa?eoii iiaeao ineiaeieoueny ethaay eeeie/aneay oi?ia ooaa?eoeaca. ?ani?ino?aiaiea /aua anaai eeioiaaiii ec n?aaeinoaiiuo oceia, iaaeeaiiia, iinoaiaiiia ?acaeoea. Ao?iia ?acaeoea eae aeea?ae/aneay ?aaeoeey ia ia?aioeaaeaeaiea, ia?aooiieaiea, oiaaea a ieaa?aeueiie iieinoe ooaa?eoeaciuo aoai?eia iao. Ooaa?eoeaciue ieaa?eo /aua o iieiaeuo, n neiioiiaie eioieneeaoee, eiaaoeo eiioaeo n ooaa?eoeaciuie aieueiuie. Ia ?aioaaiia?aiia iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue iaucaanoaeaiea. AE + i/aiue ?aaeei. ?aaeoeey Iaioo ?acei iieiaeeoaeueia, iniaaiii i?e aeea?ae/aneie ?aaeoeee, ?NE, ?OAA n ooaa?eoeaciui aioeaaiii /anoi eiaeii io?eoeaoaeueiu. Aeiiieieoaeueii eneaoue ae?oaea i?iyaeaiey ooaa?eoeaca.IEAA?EO I?E INO?IE IIAAIIIEEIa?aiiaaiiie/aneea, iinoiiaaiiie/aneea. A ea/anoaa yoeieiaee - ethaua eieee. I?aae?aniieaaaao o?iie/aneee aeeiaieeci - a 5 - 6 ?ac /aua, ineaaeaiea eiioieoaoa. Iaoaiiaaiiie/aneea i?iyaeythony /a?ac 7 - 10 aeiae ?aoeeaeeaii eeoi?aaeee. Yiieaia ieaa?u naycaia n aeano?oeoeeae. Aanoeann naeaano?e?oao a ieaa?aeueioth iieinoue. Neiioiiu oyaeaeie aiieiie eioieneeaoeee: aaeoe/aneay oaiia?aoo?a, iciiau, ii/iua auiiou, iiooaeaiea, aiaiey, ?aceee naeaea aeaai, iiauoaiea NIY, oaoeea?aeey, iiaeao auoue ninoaeenoay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue ai a?aiy iciiaa aa/a?ii. Anee i?e iinaaa ?inoa iao - caiiaeic?eoue aiay?iau, iai?eia?, eeino?eaeee. A ieaa?aeueiie iieinoe iiaeao ieacaoueny aac; aicaoaeeoaeue - aaciia?acothuay oei?a, a /anoiinoe, oaeoeueoaoeaiua aiay?iau.AUIIOIUE IEAA?EO I?E EIOA?EOA EAAEIAI50% o?iiaiyiaieee eaai/iie a?oa?ee nii?iaiaeaeathony auiioii a ieaa?aeueioth iieinoue, i?e/eiu o?iiaiyiaieee: aa?eeiciia ?anoe?aiea aai ieaeieo eiia/iinoae, o iiiai ?iaeaaoeo - aai iaeiai oaca, oaeaea i?e neaey/ae ?aaioa.Eeeieea: iaeuoea, aieue, e?iaioa?eaiuea. AEeaeeinoue; iau/ii aa iaiiiai, - iia aaii??aae/aneay. Iinoeioa?eoiue neiae?ii Ae?annea?a: ieaa?eo, ia?eea?aeeo, iiaaiiieo, a?o?aeaee. Naycai n eiioiiie ia?ano?ieeie. Ieaa?eo iaaieueoie, en/acaao nai.I?e nenoaiiie e?aniie aie/aiea. O 1/3 aiueiuo yaeyaony iaieoanoiui neiae?iiii. Aei 90% eeaoie - eeioioeeou. Ieaa?eo iaaieueoie enacaao nai.?aaiaoe/aneee ieaa?eo. Ana inoaeueiua nenoaiiua ieaa?eou i/aiue ?aaeee.?AEIAUA IEAA?EOUIiaeao auoue ia?ae/iia ii?aaeaiea - iacioaeeiia ieaa?u (?aaeei). Iiaeao auoue aeeooociie e oceiaie. Ii?aaeathony 2 eenoea. Aunieay ceiea/anoaaiiinoue, auno?ue ?ino. Aieueoie iauai auiioa, aieaa 2-o e. Oaeia eiee/anoai auaiaeeoue n?aco iianii. Auaiae aeeaeeinoe eiiiaine?oaony a n/eoaiiua aeie. I?e iau/iii ieaa?eoa aieue a naiii ia/aea, i?e iaeiieaiee aeeaeeinoe neeueiua aiee, naycaiiua n aeuoaieai, en/acatho, ooiua inoathony. I?e iacioaeeaiia aiee neeueiua e ia oiaiueoathony.Aoi?e/iua ?aeiaua ii?aaeaiey iiaoo auoue n i?eiueathueo e ieaa?a i?aaiia e oeaiae- o?aoaia?iioeaeueiue ?ae, ?ae n?aaeinoaiey, ii /aua iaoanoacu ec ?aea iiei/iie aeaeacu, aeaeoaeea, iaoee. I/aiue o?oaeii aeeaaiinoe?iaaoue ia?eoa?e/aneee ?ae a?iioa, ?ae e?oiiuo a?iioia eaa/a: i?enooiiia?aciue eaoaeue, iaeuoea, aoaeaeoac. Ia?auaoue aieiaiea ia e/o, aoaeaeoac, aeaoi?iaoeeth i?inaaoa a?iioia i?e oiiia?aoee, niauaiea o?aoae (ii anee anoue auiio - niauaiey iiaeao e ia auoue). Eo/oa niauaaony a aieueioth noi?iio.?ae pen costa: /aua anaai 3-e naaiaio i?aaiai eaaeiai n i?i?anoaieai ieaa?o, iiaeao auoue a ?aa?a. I?e iau/iie oethi?ia?aoee ia aeaeii, oae eae cae?uaaao eeth/eoea. Au?aaeaiiay aieue a ciia aa?oooee.Aaieoaeueiue ?ae: ii iiaeao auoue i/aiue iaeaiueeei, a iaoanoacu i/aiue aieueoeie.Oeeioi?aen auaaao i?e o?aaia a?oaeiie eeaoee n iia?aaeaeaieai a?oaeiiai i?ioiea, i?e iia?aoeeyo, ?aea a iaeanoe a?oaeiiai i?ioiea. I?e ioieoeee eeioa (iioiaea ia iieiei).Ea/aieaEa/eoue iniiaiia caaieaaaiea. 2 i?aaeea auionea aeeaeeinoe:1. Neeoeii auno?ue auione e neeoeii aieueoea iauaiu iiaoo i?eaiaeeoue e ino?ie ninoaeenoie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe i?e auno?ii niauaiee no?aaeinoaiey. Auioneatho 15 - 20 iei. ia aieaa 1,5 e, iaaeeaiii, oi?eoeai, i?e i?ieaeuaaiee ieaa?u eaeie - iuouaiea i?ioiaeaeaiey eaeu /a?ac ieioioth oeaiue.2. Ia iia?aaeeoue a?oa?ee. Ioieoe?iaaoue ii aa?oiaio e?ath ieaeaeaaeauaai ?aa?a.AAIAOIEIAEssIauaa eiee/anoai aaiaoieiae/aneeo aieueiuo iaaaeeei, ii i?iaeaia i/aiue aeooaeueia. Nenoaia e?iae - naiay aeeiaie/aneay nenoaia.Aaiaoieiaey eiaao naith enoi?eth. Oae a 50-o aiaeao iniiaiui iaoiaeii eco/aiey auea aenoioeiy. A 60-o noaee eniieueciaaoue ecioiiiua iaoiaeu, ia/aeinue eco/aiea eeiaoeee eeaoee. A 70-o aiaeao auea iiaeiyoa i?iaeaia ?iaeiia/aeueiuo noaieiauo eeaoie. Aua a ia/aea 20-ai aaea Iaeneiia auaeaeioe oieoa?ioth oai?eth e?iaaoai?aiey, ii iiaiaeo eioi?ie auei iiiai aic?aaeaiee, aeeneonnee. Eeoue a eiioea 60-o o oai?aoeeia - aaiaoieiaia ieacaeanue yenia?eiaioaeueiay iiaeaeue. Anee iuoue iaeo/eoue ?aioaaiianeeie eo/aie, oaeoue e?iaaoai?aiea e iiaenaaeeoue io iuoe - aeiii?a oeaiue einoiiai iicaa a naeacaieo, oi i?iecieaeao ?ino eeaoie. Anee ec naeacaiee au?acaoue eieiieth, iai?eia? y?eo?ieaeiiai ?yaea e ia?anaaeeoue iaeo/aiiie iuoe, i?iecieaeao ?ino eeaoie anao ?inoeia.E?iaaoai?aiea ?acaeaaaony ec iieeiioaioiuo noaieiauo eeaoie, iieeiioaioiua noaieiaua eeaoee - iiioeyoeey aeiaieueii eia?oiuo a ieoioe/aneii ioiioaiee eeaoie (iaiaa 10%), oi anoue i?ieeoa?aoeaiay aeoeaiinoue ieceay. A ?acoeueoaoa aeaeaiey noaieiauo eeaoie aicieeatho ooieoeeiiaeueii ?acee/iua iaoa?eineea eeaoee.Anoue aua iaeia oi?ia aeaeaiey - iiyaeyaony a ?acoeueoaoa aeaeaiey aoi?ie eeaoee, i?e yoii iieiinoueth eiie?oaony iaoa?eineay eeaoea - yoi i?ioeann naiiiiaeaea?aeaiey. Yoe i?ioeannu ?aaoee?othony:1. Aeeyiea iee?iie?oaeaiey (no?iiu einoiiai iicaa): anee acaanue einoii - iicaiauo yeaiaioia eoeueoeae?iaaoue ia no?iia einoiiai iicaa, oi au?anooo a iniiaiii eeaoee einoiiai iicaa, a anee ia no?iia naeacaiee - eeaoee naeacaii/iiai oeia. Eae ia?aaeaaony i?e yoii eioi?iaoeey, iiea ia ynii, ii n/eoaaony, /oi iaiaoiaeei oaniue eiioaeo iieiioaioiuo noaieiauo eeaoie ni no?iiie. Ei?ioei - aeenoaioiay ?aaoeyoeey a i?aaeaeao einoiiai iicaa.2. Aeeyao eiee/anoai eeaoi/iuo yeaiaioia ia aieaa aunieeo nooiaiyo aeeooa?aioee?iaee. Anee oiaiueoeoue eiee/anoai aieaa aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo eeaoie, oi i?iecieaeao onei?aiea i?ieeoa?aoeee e aeeooa?aioee?iaee iieeiioaioiuo noaieiauo eeaoie.3. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aaeiieaaatho aiciiaeiinoue e aeeeiiiaeenoaioiie ?aaoeyoeee (oeia y?eo?iiiaeoeia), ii ieii/aoaeueii ia aeieacaii. Anoue eeoue einaaiiua aeaiiua i aeeyiee aiae?iaaiia.I?e ia?aciaaiee eiiieoe?iaaiiuo (aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo) eeaoie-i?aaeoanoaaiieeia;a) oo?a/eaaaony niiniaiinoue e naiiiiaeaea?aeaieth, a ?acoeueoaoa aeaeaiey aicieeatho aieaa c?aeua eeaoee.a) a ioee/ea io iieiioaioiuo noaieiauo eeaoie, eeaoee-i?aaeoanoaaiieee /?acau/aeii /oanoaeoaeueiu e ?acee/iiai ?iaea aoii?aeueiui aauanoaai oeia y?eo?iiiyoeia, o?iiaioeeoiiiyoeia, eaeeiiiyoeia e ae?.ENI - eieiieenoeioee?othuee oaeoi?, ii auaeaeyaony iiiioeeoaie e noeioee?oao ?ino a?aioeioeeoia.Ooieoeee eaeeioeeoia:1. Caueoa io aaeoa?eaeueiie eioaeoeee.2. O/anoea a ?acee/iiai ?iaea eiioiieiae/aneeo ?aaeoeeyo; iaeo?ioeeu, iiiioeeou (a iaeioi?ie ia?a), eeioioeeou. "A" - neioace?otho eiioiiaeiaoeei (aioeoaea), e iei ioiinyony e ieaciaoe/aneea eeaoee. "O" - ioaa/atho ca ?aaeoeeth aeia?/oanoaeoaeueiinoe caiaaeeaiiiai oeia (?aaeoeeth iooi?aeaiey o?ainieaioaioa), ieacuaatho iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aeeyiea ia eeaoee e oeaie.EAEEICUEaeeicu - iiooieaaeaeiua caaieaaaiey nenoaiu e?iae, i?e eioi?uo iaoieiae/aneee i?ioeann ia/eiaaony ia o?iaia noaieiauo eee /anoe/ii aeaoa?ie?iaaiiuo eeaoie - i?aaeoanoaaiieeia. ?acei no?aaeaao ooieoeey einoiiai iicaa. Caaieaaaiea ano?a/aaony a ethaii aic?anoa. 3 - 5 neo/aaa ia 100 oun. ianaeaiey aaeaaiaeii. Ca iineaaeiea 15 - 20 eao ?inoa caaieaaaaiinoe iao, inoaaony ia i?aaeiai o?iaia. Anoue 2 aic?anoiuo ieea:1. a 3-4 aiaea:2. a 60-69 eao*aua caaieaaatho ioae/eiu. Anoue aaiaoe/aneay i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoue.Yoeieiaey1. Iaeo/aiea - eo/aaua eaeeicu, iai?eia? o ?aioaaiieiaia iaaethaeathony a 10 ?ac /aua, /ai o eeoe ae?oaeo niaoeeaeueiinoae.2. Iiae aeeyieai iaaeeeaiaioiciuo i?aia?aoia: oeeoinoaoeee: /anoioa caaieaaaaiinoe iinea eo i?eiaiaiey oaaee/eaaaony a 100 ?ac. Eiio?anoiua n?aaenoaa (i?eiaiyaiua i?e ei?iia?ia?aoee e ae?.).3. Ae?oniay yoeieiaey - aeieacaia a ioiioaiee eaeeicia ioeoe, a?ucoiia, ii iao oaaaeeoaeueiuo aeaiiuo i cia/aiee ae?onia i?e eaeeicao o /aeiaaea.I?e caaieaaaiee: I?ienoiaeeo eiieo?aioiia acaeiiioiioaiea eaeeiciuo e ii?iaeueiuo eeaoie. Eaeeiciua eeaoee au?aaaouaatho eieiieanoeioee?othuee oaeoi?, a ii neeueiaa aeaenoaoao ia eaeeiciua eeaoee, /ai ia ii?iaeueiua. Eaeeiciua eeaoee n iiiiuueth naieo aoii?aeueiuo oaeoi?ia oaiaoatho ii?iaeueiua eeaoee.Eaeeicu ?aaeee, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi eiee/anoai iooaoeee aaeeei, o.e. eaeeic iiyaeony, anee:a) i?iecieaeao iooaoeey a aaiao, eiio?iee?othueo e?iaaoai?aiea:a) /aua anaai iooe?iaaaoay eeaoea iiaeaaao; anee aea aa aeayoaeueiinoue nio?aiyaony - ?acaeaaaony eaeeic;a) iooe?iaaaoay eeaoea aeieaeia aeaoue aieueoia iioiinoai. E?iia oiai, iaiaoiaeeiu ia?ooaiey ni noi?iiu eiioiieiae/aneie nenoaiu, eioi?ay a ii?ia aaaeao no?iaee eiio?ieue, iaeeaiece?iaaiiay eeaoea noaiiaeony iacaaeneiie io ?aaoey?iuo nenoai (aaoiiiiiie).Eeanneoeeaoeey (ino?uo eaeeicia)A iniiao iieiaeaia oeeoioeie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea aeanoiuo eeaoie. FAB eeanneoeeaoeey 3 iniiaiuo a?oii:1. Iaeeioiaeanoiua (6 oeiia).2. Eeioiaeanoiua (3 oeia).3. Ieaeiiiyoe/aneea aeenieacee (4 oeia).Iaeeioiaeanoiua:I1 - ino?ue ieaeiaaenoiue eaeeic aac i?eciaeia auc?aaaiey eeaoie (20%).I2 - ino?ue ieaeiaaenoiue eaeeic n i?eciaeie auc?aaaiey eeaoie (30%).I3 - ino?ue i?iieaeioeeoa?iue eaeeic (8%).Nthaea aea I 3i - ino?ue i?iieaeioeeoa?iue eaeeic n iee?ia?aioeyoeeae (auaeaeai ii aeaiiui yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee).I4 - ino?ue ieaeiiiiiaeanoiue eaeeic (28%).I5 - ino?ue iiiiaeanoiue eaeeic.I5a - aac nic?aaaiey.I5a - n /anoe/iui nic?aaaieai eeaoie.I6 - ino?ue y?eo?iieaeic (neiae?ii Ee Aoaaeueia) 4%. Nthaea aea ioiinyo e iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue eaeeic: I I.Eeioieaeeicu - eiioiieiae/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey aieaa oaeiaia, /ai FAB.1. Ino?ue iauee eaeeic (I- IEE) 70% o aeaoae e 60% o ac?ineuo.2. O-eeaoi/iue (O-IIE) 15 - 25%. I : AE = 4 : 1.3. Iieue - eeioiaeanoiue 10%.4. A - IIE, I : AE = 5 : 1Iniiaiua ?aaeoeee:1. Ia aeeeiaai (OEE) = IANE. Ino?ue eeioieaeeic.2. Ia ieaeiia?ieneaeaco e eeieaeu. Ino?ue ieaeieaeeic.3. Ia ianiaoeeoe/aneoth ynoa?aco n aeueoa - iaooeeaoeaoaoii. Ino?ue iiiiaeanoiue.Noaaeee:1. Ia/aeueiay.2. ?acaa?iooay:a) ia?aay aoaea,a) ?aienney: iieiay < 5% aeanoia a ioieoaoa einoiiai iicaa, a iauaa eiee/anoai aeanoiuo e eeioieaeiuo eeaoie iaiaa 40%, a ia?eoa?e/aneie e?iae aeanoia iao, e?iaue a ii?ia e iao i?eciaeia eeioieaeiie eioeeueo?aoeee, a o aeaoae + aua ii?iaeueiay nieiii - iicaiaay aeeaeeinoue. *anoe/iay ?aienney - aaiaoieiae/aneia oeo/oaiea, ii ia iieiay ii?iaeecaoeey,a) ?aoeeaeea, iiaeao auoue einoii - iicaiaui (> 5% aeanoia a ioieoaoa
einoiiai iicaa) eee ianoiui n ethaie eieaeecaoeeae eaeeaie/aneeo
eioeeueo?aoia.

Auaeaeytho eaeeaie/aneoth eee aeaeeaie/aneoth oacu ino?iai eaeeica.

Enoiaeu:

1. Aucaei?iaeaiea : iieiay ?aienney 5 eao e aieaa.

2. Oa?ieiaeueiay noaaeey. Oa?aiey ia yooaeoeaia. Iae?icu, e?iaioa/aiey,
i/aae na?eiiiiai ?inoa. Iniiaioth ?ieue ea?aao oaiaoaiea ii?iaeueiuo
?inoeia e?iaaoai?aiey.

Eeeieea (ino?iai eaeeica)

I?e eiee/anoaa aeanoia 1 o?eeeeii ia/eiathony eeeie/aneea i?iyaeaiey. 4
iniiaiuo neiae?iia:

1. Aeia?ieanoe/aneee;

2. Aaii??aae/aneee;

3. Aiaie/aneee;

4. Eiioeneeaoeeiiiue.

1. Aeia?ieanoe/aneee: oia?aiiia e aacaieaciaiiia oaaee/aiea eeioioceia,
ia/aie e naeacaiee, ii /anoioa ano?a/aaiinoe 50%, 49%, 39%, o 25%
aieueiuo oaaee/eaathony ieiaeaeeiu, eo oeaiue ?uoeay, eiiaaea aeaeiu
e?iaieceeyiey, eiiaaea oaaee/aiea ieiaeaeei cao?oaeiyao aeuoaiea. O 8%
oaaee/eiu eeioioceu n?aaeinoaiey –> iaeuoea, ioa/iinoue oae,
neithoiinoue, ioeuenaoeey oaeiuo aai. O /anoe aeia?ieacey e ?uoeinoue
aeanai – ieioie i?iaiic. Eiiaaea eiaeiua e?aniiaaoi – neiaaaoua
eaeeaiieaeu, ?aniieiaeaiiua a oieua aea?iu.

2. Aeoaieay o?iiaioeeoiiaiey < 5 * 10 ** 4 a iee o 35% aieueiuo, e?iaieceeyiey io iaeeioi/a/iuo aei iaoe?iuo (a 15 - 20% neo/aaa nia?oaeueiue enoiae io ieo).3. Aaiiaeiaei < 60 a/e, y?eo?ioeeou 10 ** 6 a iee o 25% aieueiuo.4. Ineoiiaa?ieiae/aneea ia?ooaiey: ia?ooaiey nia, iuouaiea oyaeanoe a aieiaa, caoi?iiaeaiiinoue eee aicaoaeaeaiea, nieaeaiea aiiaoeoa, aaeeiaiey, oaoeea?aeey. Eeoi?aaeea 38 39 a?aae. N.Ea?oeia e?iae: eaeeioeeou io nioai aei nioai ouny/ a 1 iee, ii /aua ii?iaeueiua /enea eee noaeaeeaie/aneea. O 18% > 50 ** 4, a iniiaiii
aeanou. Ia?aaeei iaaeaeo ieie e c?aeuie eaeeaie/aneee i?iaae (i?e
ieaeieaeeica ii ia i/aiue oa?aeoa?ai). O 20% aieueiuo iao aeanoia a
e?iae. Iniiaiia cia/aiea eiaao ioieoeey a?oaeeiu eee o?aiaiaeiiney
(aeanou > 30%).

Ino?ia ia/aei ii oeio I?AE, iae?ioe/aneie aiaeiu, aiee a nonoaaao,
eiiaaea a aeeaioa e aeeniainey. O 10% aieueiuo ia/eiaaony n i?ioociuo
e?iaioa/aiee. O ?yaea aieueiuo n oaaee/aiey e/o, a oii /enea e/o
n?aaeinoaiey.

Iinoaiaiiia ia/aei: iauay neaainoue, aiee a einoyo e iuooeao,
iacia/eoaeueiia oaaee/aiea e/o, aani?e/eiiua e?iaiiiaeoaee, iiaeao
iaaethaeaoueny AeAN neiae?ii, ia?acothony naonoee e?iae ai anao iaeeeo
ninoaeao.

I?e/eiu aiaiee i?e ino?uo eaeeicao:

a) oiaiueoaiea ieaoeaea?ia aaiiiiyca – einoiue iica ia au?aaaouaaao
aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa y?eo?ioeeoia;

a) oneeaiiia ?ac?ooaiea y?eo?ioeeoia a naeacaiea:

a) oei?i/aiea aeeeoaeueiinoe aeecie y?eo?ioeeoia;

a) aneaaenoaea aaii??aae/aneiai aeeaoaca.

INO?UE IEAEIAEANOIUE EAEEIC

(aac i?eciaeia auc?aaaiey eeaoie)

50%. N?aaeiee aic?ano aieueiuo 40 eao. ?aiennee 50%. Oyaeaeia ia/aei n
au?aaeaiiie eioieneeaoeeae, aunieay oaiia?aoo?a, iae?ioe/aneea
ii?aaeaiey, aiaiey e o?iiaioeeoiiaiey, ia?aaeei a?aioeioeeoiiaiey, a 50%
neo/aaa oaaee/aiea ia/aie, naeacaiee, eeioioceia.

Aeaeeaie/aneea oi?iu a 16% neo/aaa. Ieaeiia?ieneaeaca +. ?aaeoeey n
noaeaiia /a?iui. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie 6 – 12 ianyoeaa, aei 1,5 –
2 eao.

INO?UE IEAEIAAENOIUE EAEEIC

(n i?eciaeaie auc?aaaiey eeaoie)

Iioiae, ii aua aieueoa au?aaeaia eioieneeaoeey e aeoaieay
aeaeiiiainaoeey. Aiaiey, iae?ioe/aneea ii?aaeaiey. Aeaniu, ieiaeaeeiu. A
oa?ieiaeueiie noaaeee iocu?e aei 5 ni n na?icii – e?iayienoui
niaea?aeeiui, niaea?aeao aeanoiua eeaoee. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie
ieiei 4,5 ianyoeaa. Nia?oue io e?iaioa/aiee e eioaeoeeiiiuo ineiaeiaiee.

I?IIEAEIOeEOA?IUE EAEEIC

*a?acau/aeii ceiea/anoaaiiue. Aeoaieay aiaiey, iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u,
e?iaioa/aiey. A ieaeia?aiia 50-60 aei 85% aeanoia. Ia/aiue e naeacaiea
iiaoo auoue oaaee/aiu, a e/o ii/oe ia oaaee/eaathony. IACK+. ?aiueoa
iiaeaaee /a?ac 1,5 – 2 ianyoea, nae/an aeeaoo 2 – 6 ianyoeaa.

IIIIAEANOIUE EAEEIC

Iioiae ia ieaeiaeanoiue, ianeieueei /aua iaaethaeathony iae?ioe/aneea
ii?aaeaiey. Oaaee/aiea ia/aie e e/o a 100% neo/aaa. Ia?aaeee ii?aaeaiey
eiaee a aeaea iaioeaciuo eioeeueo?aoia neithoiiai iooaiea. A einoiii
iicaa aeanoia aei 80%, ia ia?eoa?ee aeanoia iaei, ?aiennee ?aaeee.
AEeaoo ieiei 8 ianyoeaa.

INO?UE EEIOIAEANOIUE EAEEIC

O ac?ineuo auaaao ?aaea. Aieaa aeia?iea/anoaaiiia oa/aiea. O 50%
oaaee/aiu e/o, ia/aiue e naeacaiea, ia?aaeei oaaee/aiea aioo?ea?oaeiuo
e/o. Aaii??a/aneea i?iyaeaiey (nuiue ia eiaea), ianneaiua e?iaioa/aiey
i/aiue ?aaeee. Iae?icu oaeaea ?aaeee. Aiaiey e o?iiaioeeoiiaiey ia oaeea
aeoaieea. OEE +. A einoiii iicaa aei 80 – 90% aeanoia. Aunieay
yiceiioeeey. Eaeeaiece?othuea oi?iu aaiina?eii. Aunieay ieioiinoue
niaea?aeaiey ia iiaa?oiinoe IG M.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic

I?iaiaeyo n caaieaaaieyie, eioi?ua iiaoo aeaaaoue iae?ioe/aneoth aiaeio,
eaeeioeeoic, o?iiaioeeoiiaieth, iaeo?iiaieth e o.i.

1. Eioaeoeeiiiue iiiiioeeaic. Aucuaaaony ae?onii Yiooaeia – Aa??a. *aua
aieatho aeaoe. Iiaeao auoue oaaee/aiea eeioioceia, oia?aiiay
nieaiiiaaiaeey. Iauaa ninoiyiea no?aaeaao iaei, iao i?ia?anne?othuaai
oa/aiey, iiaeao i?ioiaeeoue naiinoiyoaeueii. Oyaeaeay a?aioeioeeoiiaiey
ia oa?aeoa?ia. iao aaii??aae/aneiai aeeaoaca. Na?ieiae/aneay
aeeaaiinoeea: ?aaeoeey Iaoeue – Aoiaey – aioeoaea aieueiiai aucuaatho
aaaethoeiaoeeth y?eo?ioeeoia aa?aia. I?e eaeeica yoa ?aaeoeey
iieiaeeoaeueiie ia auaaao. A e?iae oe?ieiieaciaiiua eaeeioeeou
(aeaoi?ie?iaaiiua). A einoiii iicaa iaei aeanoia, naycaiiuo n
o?ainoi?iaoeeae ae?ona.

2. Aa?aioeioeeoic. Iauaa: iae?ioe/aneay aiaeia, aaii??aae/aneee aeeaoac,
eioaeoeee e aiaiey. Iao oaaee/aiey eiee/anoaa aeanoiuo eeaoie, ia
oa?aeoa?ii oaaee/aiea eeioioceia e naeacaiee. Ioieoao einoiiai iicaa
aaaeiue, iao aeanoia.

3. Eaeeaiieaeiua ?aaeoeee. Aicieeatho i?e oyaeaeuo eioaeoeeyo, iiooieyo
n iaoanoacaie a einoiue iica. Iao aeaoaeoa aeeooa?aioeeaoeee eeaoie.

4. Aeiiieanoe/aneay aiaiey.

5. Iiooiee ?acee/iie eieaeecaoeee.

Ineiaeiaiey

1. E?iaioa/aiey (iiniaua, ec neecenouo, ec aeac, iiaeao auoue
e?iaioa/aiea a aieiaiie iica).

2. Naioe/aneea ninoiyiey (iae?ioe/aneay aiaeia, oo?oieoeac, nainen).

3. Aeia?o?eeaiey – oaaee/aiea ii/aaie eeneiou, iaaethaeaaony i?e iiiaeo
iiooieyo e eaeeicao, iniaaiii /anoi i?e ino?ii eaeeica. A ii/aaoth
eeneioo ia?aoiaeyo io?eiiaua iniiaaiey. Ii/aaay eeneioa aeiee?oao
ii/a/iua eaiaeueoeu e iiaeao i?eaanoe e aio?ee. Aeey i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey
yoiai aeatho i?aia?ao aeeiio?eiie, eioi?ue nieaeaao o?iaaiue ii/aaie
eeneiou + iaeeueiia ieouea.

4. Iae?ieaeeiiey – ?aciiiaeaiea eeaoie a einoiii iicaa. *aua
ano?a/aaony i?e eeioiaeanoiii aa?eaioa ino?iai eaeeica. I?iyaeyaony
oii?iuie aieiaiuie aieyie, iaa?ieiae/aneie neiioiiaoeeie. Aeey ea/aiey a
yoii neo/aa i?aia?aou aaiaeyo yiaeiethiaaeueii, oi anoue ieioy
aaiaoiyioeaoaee/aneee aa?uea?.

5. Aiaiey.

6. Aaii??aae/aneee aeeaoac.

Ea/aiea

Caaea/e oa?aiee – naanoe aei ieieioia eeii iaoieiae/aneeo eeaoie,
ii?iaeeciaaoue aaiiiiyc e oai naiui eiaeooee?iaaoue ?aienneth e eae
iiaeii aeieueoa oaea?aeaoue aa.

1. Aioeiaoaaieeou: 6 – ia?eaioiio?ei: oeeoiceia?aaeiiceae; oeiaoaiei;
iaoao?aenao e aiaoiioa?ei.

2. I?ioeaiiiooieaaua aioeaeioeee: aeeaii?oaiieoeei (?oaiieoeei);
aeaiieoeei, aae?eiieoeei.

3. Aeieaoi?u ieoicia; aeie?enoei: aeiaeanoei (iaaeaeoia?iaeiia iacaaiea
– iieaaei).

4. Aetheiei?oeeieaeu: i?aaeiecieii; o?eaioeeiieii..

5. Aioeoa?iaioiua i?aia?aou: ania?aeiaca.

Ana ia?a/eneaiiua i?aia?aou, ca eneth/aieai aeaiieoeeia, aeiaeanoeia e
i?aaeiecieiia, aeaenoaotho ia ana eeaoee e ia eaeeiciua e ia
ii?iaeueioth oeaiue. Iiiaea i?aia?aou aucuaatho ianno iiai/iuo yooaeoia,
iai?eia?: iaoio?aenao iiaeao aucuaaoue ycau ii oiaeo AEEO, oiene/aneee
aaiaoeo. Aeie?enoei – ia?ac eeoa/ieea, iaa?ieiae/aneea ?anno?ienoaa.
Oeeeeioinoai – oyaeaeue aaii??aae/aneee oeenoeo. ?oaiieoeei iaeaaeaao
ea?aeeioiene/aneei aeaenoaeai.

I?aia?aou aeaenoaotho ia eeaoeo a ?acee/iua ia?eiaeu aa aeecie. Oae
i?aaeiecieii oi?iiceo ia?aoiae eeaoee ec oacu D 1 a oaco S.

Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua noaiu i?eiaiaiey i?aia?aoia: BAMI (aeie?enoei +
aiaoiioa?ei 1 ia?eaioiio?ei + i?aaeiecieii) ABAMI, OeBAMI e ae?.

Niune oaeeo eiiaeiaoeee – iiaeaenoaiaaoue ia ana oacu aeeciaiiiai oeeeea
eeaoee e oai naiui aucuaaoue ?aienneth, naanoe aei ieieioia eeii
iaoieiae/aneeo eeaoie e oaea?aeaoue ?aienneth. Ae?oaie caaea/ae ea/aiey
yaeyaony i?aaeioa?auaiea aiciiaeiuo ineiaeiaiee. ?aienney – yoi oaeia
ninoiyiea, eiaaea a einoiii iicaa niaea?aeeony ia aieaa 5% aeanoia, a
ninoiyiea aaiiiiyca i?eaeeaeaaony e ii?ia.

I?e ino?ii eeioiaaenoiii eaeeica i?eiaiytho noaio BAMI a oa/aiea 7 aeiae
n iineaaeothuei 2 – o iaaeaeueiui ia?a?uaii. Niio?yo ia ea?oeio e?iae.
Anee oaeaeinue aeiaeoueny ?aiennee, oi i?iaiaeyo aua eo?n
eiinieeaee?othuae oa?aiee. Ia?aeaeueii iniiaiie oa?aiee i?iaiaeyo
i?ioeeaeoeeo ineiaeiaiee;

a) Aieueiuo aeaeaoaeueii iiiauaoue a eciee?iaaiiua iaeaou.

a) Iiuiay aioeaaeoa?eaeueiay oa?aiey i?aia?aoaie oe?ieiai niaeo?a
aeaenoaey.

a) I?e yiaeioiene/aneie yioa?iiaoee – eaiaieoeei, ?enoaieoeei.

a) I?e iae?ieaeeaiee oeeoinoaoeee aaiaeyo yiaeiethiaaeueii.

ae) I?e aaii??aae/aneii aeeaoaca – aeeoeeiii 0,25 eee 12,5% 2,0 a/i.

O?IIE*ANEEE IEAEIEAEEIC

Ii?aaeathony /anoe/ii aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua eeaoee aaiiiiyca, eiee/anoai eo
a einoiii iicaa oaaee/eaaaony. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii 5 – 8 – 10 eao.
?yae eeaoie iiaeao “ae?aiaoue”, auoiaeeoue ec ieioe/aneiai oeeeea.
Iaiaoiaeeii ia?iiiia eiee/anoai eaeeaie/aneeo eeaoie – ieiei 10 ** 12,
anee aea eiee/anoai eaeeiciuo eeaoie ia i?aauoaao 10 ** 9, oi auyaeoue
yoi iaaiciiaeii.

Eeeieea

I?ioeann i?ioiaeeo 3 noaaeee:

1. Ia/aeueiay noaaeey.

2. Noaaeey ?acaa?ioouo eeeieei – aaiaoieiae/aneeo i?iyaeaiee.

3. Oa?ieiaeueiay noaaeey.

A iiiaio aeeaaiinoeee i?ioeann caoae oaea aeaeaei.

Ia/aeueiay noaaeey – a ia/aea i?aeoe/anee ie/ai ia i?iyaeyaony e
aeeaaiinoe?oaony /aua anaai neo/aeii, a iiiaio i?ioiniio?ia:
aeia?inoacey iaae ieineeie einoyie; oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa eaeeioeeoia;
naeaea eaeeia?aii aeaai, ?aciie noaiaie au?aaeaiiinoe; aacioeeueii –
yiceiioeeueiay annioeeaoeey; aiaiee iao; /anoi o?iiaioeeoic; aeia?ieacey
a?aioeioeeoa?iiai ?inoea e?iaaoai?aiey.

A aeaeueiaeoai caaieaaaiea i?ia?anne?oao, iiyaeythony eaeeaie/aneea
eioeeueo?aou, i?aaeaea anaai a ia/aie e naeacaiea – eaeao
“iaoanoace?iaaiea”.

Caoai ianooiaao 2 noaaeey – noaaeey ?acaa?ioouo eeeieei –
aaiaoieiae/aneeo i?iyaeaiee. Oaaee/eaaaony naeacaiea, iiyaeythony iauea
neiioiiu: neaainoue, iaaeiiiaaiea, nieaeaiea ?aaioiniiniaiinoe.
Iiyaeythony aiee a einoyo, o.e iiyaeaiea ia?iiiiai eiee/anoaa eaeeiciuo
eeaoie nii?iaiaeaeaaony iiauoaieai aioo?eeinoiiai aeaaeaiey,
?acae?aaeaieai aa?i?aoeaioi?ia. *anoi aicieeatho neeueiua aiee
eioa?eoiiiaeiaiiai oa?aeoa?a a eaaii iia?aaa?uea, iaoneiaeaiiua
eioa?eoii naeacaiee. Iiyaeyaony aiaiey, neiioiiu aaii??aae/aneiai
aeeaoaca. Iiauoaaony /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e eioaeoeee. Oaaee/aiea ?acia?ia
naeacaiee ii?aaeaeyaony oieueei ia?eooi?ii, a caoai e iaeueiaoi?ii –
nieaiiiaaaeey. Aicieeaao oaeaea aaiaoiiaaaeey aneaaenoaea eaeeaie/aneie
eioeeueo?aoeee ia/aie. ?aaea iiaeiaiua i?ioeannu iaaethaeathony a eaaeeo
e a ae?oaeo i?aaiao.

OEIE*IUA I?ECIAEE A AIAEECA E?IAE

Eaeeioeeoic aei 60-100 oun. a 1 iee; a iaceao i?aaenoaaeaiu ana
a?aioeioeeoa?iua yeaiaiou; aieueoie i?ioeaio aacioeeia – i?iaiic i?e
yoii iaaeaaii?eyoiue, o.e. ia?aaeei aacioeeey – i?aaeaanoiee aeanoiiai
e?eca: a einoiii iicaa a iniiaiii yeaiaiou a?aioeioeeoa?iiai ?inoea,
aeanoiuo eeaoie ia aieaa 1,5 – 2%; nieaeaaony i?ioeaio yeaiaioia
y?eo?ieaeiiai ?inoea, a oaeaea i?ioeaio iaaaea?eioeeoia.

Caoai i?ioeann ia?aoiaeeo a oa?ieiaeueioth noaaeeth. *aua anaai oeiaeii
caaieaaaiey yaeyaony AEANOIUE E?EC. I?ienoiaeeo iceiea/anoaeaiea
i?ioeanna. Ii ia?a ea/aiey iaeaieeaathony eeaoee, ia eioi?ua
oeeoinoaoeee ia aeaenoaotho. Aua a i?aaee?eca ioia/athony aieaa
au?aaeaiiua eciaiaiey eeaoi/iie iiioeyoeee, iai?eia?: a iaoaoaca
iiyaeyaony aoi?ay oeeaaeaeueoeeneay o?iiiniia. O yoeo aieueiuo
ioia/aaony cia/eoaeueiay nieaiiiaaaeey (i?e ino?uo eaeeicao – ?aaea).

Nouanoaoao 2 ai?eaioa aeanoiiai e?eca:

1) eeioieaeiue – i?e ino?ii eeioieaeeica;

2) ieaeieaeiue – aeanoiua eeaoee aeecee e eeaoeai i?e ino?ii
ieaeieaeiii eaeeica.

I?IAIIC caaeneo io aeaea e?eca.

1. I?e eeioieaeiii aa?eaioa /anoi iaaethaeathony ?aiennee,
aeeeoaeueiinoueth aeecie – aiae (?).

2. I?e ieaeieaeiii aa?eaioa ?aiennee iaaethaeathony ?aaea,
aeeeoaeueiinoue aeecie ninoaaeyao ianeieueei ianyoeaa.

?ACAEOEA EAEEICA

Aaii??aae/aneee aeeaoac: /?acau/aeiia oaaee/aiea ia/aie e naeacaiee;
?ac/aeoay eaoaeney; eioieneeaoeey aneaaenoaea ?aniaaea eeaoie e
ainiaeaiey; iiauoaiiay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e eioaeoeee, eeoi?aaeea,
nainen.

Aeeaaiinoeea ia neiaeia. A niiieoaeueiuo neo/ayo i?iaiaeeony ioieoeey
einoiiai iicaa. I?e oeeoiaaiaoe/aneii enneaaeiaaiee o aieueoeinoaa
aieueiuo auyaeyaony oeeaaeaeueoeeneay o?iiiniia. I?e oeeoioeie/aneii
enneaaeiaaiee ?aceia nieaeaiea aeoeaiinoe uaei/iie oinoioacu
eaeeioeeoia.

Ineiaeiaiey

1. Aiaiey. Iiyaeyaony anaaaea. A einoiii iicaa oiaiueoaaony ieaoeaea?i
ii?iaeueiiai e?iaaoai?aiey, iiaeao aeaaea en/aciooue nianai. Y?eo?ioeeou
aicieeatho ec eaeeaie/aneeo ii?iiaeanoia, ia?ooathony i?ioeannu
ii?iaeueiiai nic?aaaiey y?eo?ieaeiuo eeaoie – i?aaeoanoaaiieeia. Eaeao
iayooaeoeaiue aaiiiiyc. Y?eo?ioeeou oee?eoee?otho a e?iae aieaa ei?ioeee
n?ie.

2. O?iiaioeeoiiaiey – i?e/eiu oa aea + cia/eoaeueiia nieaeaiea
ooieoeeiiaeueiie aeoeaiinoe o?iiaioeeoia. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e aaii??aaeyi.

3. Iiauoaiiay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e aaeoa?eaeueiui eioaeoeeyi, oae eae
cia/eoaeueii nieaeaiu ooieoeeiiaeueiua caueoiua naienoaa eaeeioeeoia.
Eaeeioeeou iaiieiioeaiiua, nieaeaaony oeo? eiioiiaeiaoeeiia, iiieaeaaony
niiniaiinoue i?aaiecia neioace?iaaoue aioeoaea.

4. Eioa?eo naeacaiee.

5. Iiyaeaiea niaoeeoe/aneeo eioeeueo?aoeee a ?acee/iuo i?aaiao: a
nieiiii iicaa – aaaeao e ia?aia?acai; a aeacieoea e o.ae.

6. Aeia?io?eiaiey, aaaeouay e iao?iiaoee – eiaeiay iiaeaa?a. Enoiae –
aeanoiue e?ec.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic

1. Eaeeaie/aneay ?aaeoeey: aicieeaao i?e oyaeaeuo eioaeoeeyo (iiaaiiiee,
nainena, aiieiuo i?ioeannao oeia aanoeanna ia/aie e o.ae.).
Iaaethaeaaony eaeeioeeoic ni naeaeaii aeaai, eiiaaea aei ieaeiaeanoia.
Ii yoi ?aaeoeey aoi?e/iay (ia /oi eeai). Iaaei eneaoue i?e/eio. Ia
auaaao aacioeeee e yiceiioeeee, aeoeaiinoue uaei/iie oinoioacu aunieay.
Iao oeeaaeaeueoeeneie o?iiiniiu.

2. Iaoanoacu iiooiee a einoe: aeano?oeoeaiua eciaiaiey a iicaiii/ieea;
iiyaeythony ii?iiaeanou; aunieay aeoeaiinoue uaei/iie oinoioacu; iao
oeeaaeaeueoeeneie o?iiiniiu.

3. Ieaeioea?ic: ii eeeieea e ea?oeia e?iae i/aiue iaiiieiaao
ieaeieaeeic. I?e yoii caaieaaaiee a einoiii iicaa ?acaeaaaony
niaaeeieoaeueiay oeaiue, ia?aeaeueii iaaethaeaaony iiyaeaiea
iaoieiae/aneeo i/aaia e?iaaoai?aiey a ia/aie, naeacaiea e ae?oaeo
i?aaiao, oi anoue aeeth/athony i?ioeannu eiiiainaoeee. Oaaee/aiea
naeacaiee iaaethaeaaony ia naiuo ?aiieo noaaeeyo ieaeioea?ica, a oi
a?aiy eae eciaiaiey ni noi?iiu e?iae ieieiaeueiu (iiaeieoeu). A e?iae
oia?aiiue eaeeioeeoic, aei 20 oun.; 60 – 100 oun., eae i?e ieaeieaeeica,
ano?a/aaony eae eneeth/aiea. Iiaeao auoue iaaieueoie eee oia?aiiue
naeaea aeaai. A e?iae iiyaeythony y?eo?iii?iiaeanou. Aeoeaiinoue
uaei/iie oinoaoacu inoaaony aunieie. Iao oeeaaeaeueoeeneie o?iiiniiu.
Aeeaaiinoeea iiiiaaao o?aiaiaeiiney, i?e eioi?ie iaoiaeyo caionoaaaiea
einoiiai iicaa.

4. Eaeeioeeoicu i?e iiooieaauo i?ioeannao naycaiu n au?aaioeie eeaoeaie
iiooieae ENO (eieiieenoeioee?othuaai oaeoi?a).

I?aia?ao auai?a i?e o?iie/aneie ieaeieaeeica – IEAEINAI – aeeeee?othuaa
n?aaenoai ec a?oiiu oeeoinoaoeeia, aeaenoaoao aeaaiui ia?acii ia
noaieiaua eeaoee. Oaa. ii 0,002. Eae oieueei iinoaaeai aeeaaiic
ieaeieaeeica, n?aco aea ia/eiatho naea?aeeaathuoth oa?aieth iiae
eiio?ieai eiee/anoaa eaeeioeeoia. Nooi/iay aeica i?aia?aoa caaeneo io
noaaeee caaieaaaiey:

– a ia/aeueiie noaaeee ii 1 – 2 oaa. a iaaeaeth – yoi ia?ae/ii –
naea?aeeaathuay aeica;

– a ?acaa?iooie eeeieei – aaiaoieiae/aneie noaaeee aieueiie iieo/aao ii
1 oaa. 4 ?aca a nooee. Yoei oaeaaony aeinoe/ue ii/oe iieiie
ii?iaeecaoeee ea?oeiu e?iae e einoiiai iicaa. Ii oeeaaeaeueoeeneay
o?iiiniia i?iaeieaeaao nouanoaiaaoue.

A aeaeueiaeoai aieueiie ia?aaiaeeony ia iiaeaea?aeeaathuoth oa?aieth.
Aeica i?e yoii i/aiue aa?eaaaeueia (io 1 oaa. a aeaiue aei 1 oaa. a
iaaeaeth). Ia iiaeaea?aeeaathuae aeica aieueiie iaoiaeeony aeeeoaeueiia
a?aiy, 4-5 eao, ii caoai iiaeao ?acaeoueny ?acenoaioiinoue e i?aia?aoo –
oi?ie?oaony eeii ?acenoaioiuo eeaoie. A oaeii neo/aa ia?aoiaeyo ia
iacia/aiea i?aia?aoa ec a?oiiu oeiii/aaeiu – AEEIIO?EIIE – naycuaaao
ii/aaoth eeneioo. Iaaei eniieueciaaoue oaeaea eaeeioi?ac. E?iaue aeey
yoiai oeaio?eooae?otho, i?e yoii eaeeioeeou ioaeaeythony io ieaciu;
i/euaiioth oaeei ia?acii ieacio aaiaeyo ia?aoii aieueiiio. Eiiaaea
i?eiaiytho nieaiyeoiieth.

O 8% aieueiuo oeeaaeaeueoeeneoth o?iiiniio ia iaoiaeyo aiiaua.

IIEEOeAOAIEss (Y?EOAIEss, AIEACIUe AAEACA)

A ?acoeueoaoa eciaiaiey eeaoie – i?aaeoanoaaiieeia aaiiiiyca
oaaee/eaaaony eiee/anoai eeaoie y?eo?ieaeiiai ?yaea. ?acei oaaee/eaaaony
eiee/anoai y?eo?ioeeoia aneaaenoaea oaee/aiey ieaoeaea?ia y?eo?iiiyca –
eaeeaie/aneay iiioeyoeey y?eo?ioeeoia.

Eeeieea

Oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa y?eo?ioeeoia e aaiiaeiaeia. Eciaiyaony ie?anea
eiaeiuo iie?iaia, oae eae ia ana y?eo?ioeeou oniaaatho ianuuaoueny
eenei?iaeii – neecenoua y?ei e?aniua eee aaa?iaua eaaeiie, eiiuthieoeau
aae. ?acei iiauoaaony ayceinoue e?iae, aneaaenoaee /aai caiaaeeyaony
e?iaioie, oaaee/eaaaony ia?eoa?e/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea. Oaaee/eaaaony
ianna oee?eoee?othuae e?iae, aic?anoaao aaiaoie?eo, oaaee/eaathony
na?aea/iue eiaeaen e oaea?iue iauai na?aeoea, iiyaeyaony aoi?e/iay
a?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oaicey. Aeaeaa iiyaeyaony aeia?o?ioey eaaiai
aeaeoaei/ea n niioaaonoaothuae eeeie/aneie ea?oeiie. *anoi
nii?iaiaeaeaaony o?iiaioeeoii e aeaaea iaeeiiiinueth e eaeeioeeoico. I?e
aeeeoaeueiii ea/aiee caaieaaaiey, aiciiaeiu ana ineiaeiaiey,
naienoaaiiua aeia?oiiee (ia?ooaiey iicaiaiai e?iaiia?auaiey e o.ae.).
Eiaaony iiauoaiiay neeiiiinoue e o?iiaicai:

a) aieueoay ayceinoue e?iae;

a) aieueoia eiee/anoai y?eo?ioeeoia;

a) a?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oaiacey.

O?iiaiyiaiee/aneea ia?ooaiey i?iyaeythony eioa?eoii ieiea?aea,
ia?ooaieyie iicaiaiai e?iaaia?auaiey, o?iiaicaie a nenoaia
iacaio?eaeueiuo a?oa?ee e o.ae. Ii iiaoo iaaethaeaoueny e e?iaioa/aiey
ec-ca ?aceiai oaaee/aiey y?eo?ioeeoia ia?eoa?e/aneie e?iae, eioi?ua
i?aiyonoaotho ia?aciaaieth oea?eiiaie ieaiee, ?ao?aeoeey e?iayiiai
naonoea ieioay.

Iauaeoeaii: iaaieueoay nieaiiiaaaeey, oae eae i?aaie/aiiua eiee/anoaa
y?eo?ioeeoia iaaeeaiii i?ioiaeyo e aeaiiie?othony a naeacaiea. A
niiieoaeueiuo neo/ayo i?eaaaatho e ii?aaeaeaieth o?iaiy y?eo?iiiyoeia,
eioi?ue i?e aieacie Aaeaca iiieaeai. A ioieoaoa einoiiai iicaa iiiai
iaaaea?eioeeoia.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic

1. Aoi?e/iue y?eo?ioeeoic iaiaoiaeeii eneeth/eoue aeia?iao?iio, e
ia?ae/iue ?ae ia/aie (?aaeoeey Aaaeaaa-Oaoa?eiiaa).

2. N caaieaaaieyie, aeathueie aeiieneth: caaieaaaiey eaaeeo; ii?iee
na?aeoea.

3. Iiooiee iicaa.

4. Iaaaeaeaaoiia ea/aiea aeoaieiii A12.

Ea/aiea

1. Aeeeoaeueiinoue aeecie aieueiiai i?aauoaao 10 eao. Anee
iaoieiae/aneee i?ioeann oa/ao iaaeeaiii, iao aeaeia e ineiaeiaiee,
aaiiaeiaei ia i?aauoaao 100 AAe, a eiee/anoai y?eo?ioeeoia ia aieaa 10
iei.a 1 iee. oi n iaaeeeaiaioiciie oa?aieae niaoeoue ia ioaeii.

2. I?aia?aoaie auai?a yaeythony aeeeee?othuea niaaeeiaiey: eieoin
(?inney) – 40-50 ia a/a, eo?niaay aeica 400-500 ia ieaeinai ieaeia?iiie.
Oeeoinoaoeee oeaeaniia?acii i?eiaiyoue, anee anoue oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa
eaeeioeeoia e o?iiaioeeoia – Anee yoiai iao. iiaeii ia?aie/eoueny:

C. E?iaiioneaieai 2 ?aca a iaaeaeth ii 500-600 ie.

4. ?aiueoa oe?iei i?eiaiyeny ?aaeeiaeoeaiue ?C2, ii ii iaeaaeaao
eaioea?iaaiiui e eaeeiciaaiiii aeaenoaeai, iiyoiio eniieueciaaoue aai
iiaeii iinea 50-60 eao. Aeica eiaeeaeaeoaeueia.

5. Aeey oiaiueoaiey o?iiaiia?aciaaiey: anie?ei I.5*3 ?, oaieeei.
I?iaiic: aeeeoaeueiinoue aeecie /anoi i?aauoaao 10 eao. Enoiae: /anoi
enoiaeii yaeyaony ieaeioea?ic.

AeIA?IEA*ANOAAIIUE NOAEAEEAIE*ANEEE IEAEIC (IEAEIOEA?IC)

Caaieaaaiea i?ioaeaao 10-15 eao. Aaniieiyo neaainoue, oyaeanoue a eaaii
iiae?aaa?uea (ec-ca nieaiiiaaaeee). A e?iae 30-40 oun. eaeeioeeoia n
?aaeoeeae iiieiaeaiey. Ia ia?aii yoaia caaieaaaiey ioia/aaony y?eo?aiey,
iiaeao auoue ?acei iiauoaiiui eiee/anoai eaeeioeeoia. Ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo
aiaeaeathony oea?iaeanou. ?ac?anoaaony niaaeeieoaeueiay oeaiue a
naeacaiea. Iiaeao iiyaeoueny aiaiey, o?iiaioeeoiiaiey. *anoi eioa?eo
naeacaiee.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic

O?iie/aneee ieaeieaeeic: ieaeioea?io oa/ao aieaa aeia?iea/anoaaiii:
naeacaiea ia?iiiuo ?acia?ia: iiauoaia aeoeaiinoue uaei/iie oinoaoacu.

Aeeooa?aioee?iaaoue ioaeii e n caaieaaaieyie, nii?iaiaeaeathueieny
oaaee/aieai eeioioceia:

1. Eeioia?aioeiiaoic. iau/ii ia/eiaaony n oaaee/aiey iaeiie a?oiiu
eeioioceia – iie i?e yoii ?acee/iie noaiaie ieioiinoe, a i?e
eeioieaeeica – iyaeea: a e?iae – iaeo?ioeeueiue eaeeioeeoic, eeioiiaiey:
a ioieoaoa einoiiai iicaa – ieaeieaeiia ?ac?anoaiea, eeaoee
Aaaacianeiai-Ooa?iaa?aa; oa?aeoa?ia iiaeoee?othuay oaiia?aoo?a oaea.

2. Eeioiia. oa/aiea iaiaa aeia?iea/anoaaiiia, aieaa auno?ia; eciaiaiey a
e?iae auyaeythony iicaeiaa, /ai a eeioioceao: aenoieiae/anee:
iaeiaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiua eeioieaeiua yeaiaiou.

3. Aeia?iea/anoaaiiay iaeo?iiaiey. iiaeao auoue nieaeaiea eaeeioeeoia
aei 3 oun. a 1 iee ca n/ao iaeo?ioeeia: iao eeioioeeoica; ia cao?iioo
einoiue iica.

Ineiaeiaiey

1. Oyaeaeay aaiieeoe/aneay aiaiey, eiiaaea n aaiieeoe/aneeie e?ecaie.

2. ?acee/iua eioaeoeee.

3. Ec-ca aeaoaeoa a eiioiiie nenoaia /anoi ?acaeaathony ceiea/anoaaiiua
ia?aciaaiey ?acee/iie eieaeecaoeee – eaaeiai, aeaeoaeea e ae?.

Ea/aiea

?aiueoa n/eoaeinue oeaeaniia?aciui i?eiaiyoue cia/eoaeueii iicaeithth
oa?aieth. Iieacaieai e oeeoinoaoe/aneie oa?aiee yaeyaony 2 noaaeey e
aeaeaa:

a) ?acei no?aaeaao iauaa ninoiyiea aieueiiai – anoue au?aaeaiiua
eeoi?aaeea, neaainoue, iioeeainoue, aiaiey;

a) ?acei oaaee/aiu eeioioceu eee naeacaiea;

a) ?acei ia?anoaao eeioioeeoic.

A ia/aeueiuo noaaeeyo ioaeii ea/eoue eioaeoeeth, aaiaey eiioiiaeiaoeei,
iieeaeiaoeei. Anee o?aaoaony oeeoinoaoe/aneayoa?aiey, oi i?aia?aoii
auai?a yaeyaony oei?aooei 0,002. Ii ii ia yooaeoeaai i?e oaaee/aiee
eeioioceia a a?oaeiie e a?thoiie iieinoyo. Aeice?iaea i?aia?aoa caaeneo
io eiee/anoaa eaeeioeeioa a ia?eoa?e/aneie e?iae: aieaa 100 oun. – 5-6
oaa; 50-100 oun. – 3-4 oaa.; 20-50 oun. – 1-2 oaa.

Ieaeioea?ic ia o?aaoao niaoeeaeueiie oa?aiee a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai
a?aiaie. Ea/aiea iieacaii i?e iaee/ee ineiaeiaiee:

a) noacu;

a) ia?ooaiey iicaiaiai e?iaiia?auaiey;

Eniieuecotho oeeoinoaoeee e iaeo/aiea naeacaiee.

O?IIE*ANEEE EEIOIEAEEIC

*aua aieatho eeoea iiaeeeiai aic?anoa. Eeeieea ?aciiia?aciay, caaeneo io
noaaeee caaieaaaiey, aeeeoaeueiinoe oa/aiey i?ioeanna.

Ii noa?ie eeanneoeeaoeee auaeaeyee:

1) Ia/aeueiay noaaeey.

2) ?acaa?iooay noaaeey.

3) Oa?ieiaeueiay noaaeey.

Nae/an i?eaea?aeeaathony ae?oaie eeanneoeeaoeee (ii ?ath):

0 noaaeey. Naiua ia/aeueiua i?iyaeaiey caaieaaaiey ii eeeieea, ii a
aiaeeca e?iae iaoiaeyo eciaiaiey: aaniethoiue eeioioeeoic aieaa 15 oun.
a 1 iee – oaaee/aiea eeioioeeoia a einoiii iicaa aieaa 40% (a ii?ia –
10-15%).

1 noaaeey. Cia/eoaeueiue eeioioeeoic, oaaee/aiea eeioioceia.

2 noaaeey. Eae e 1 noaaeey + nieaiiiaaaeey (eiiaaea aeia?iaaaeey).

3 noaaeey. Eae e 2 noaaeey + aiaiey.

4 noaaeey. Eae e 3 noaaeey + o?iiaioeeoiiaiey.

Eeeieea e?aeia iieeii?oia – ?acee/atho aieaa 25 aa?eaioia oa/aiey
o?iie/aneiai eeioieaeeica.Yoi aieaciue iiaeeeuo ethaeae, naycaiiay n
ii?aaeaieai eiioiieiiiaoaioiie nenoaiu. ?aaeeaoeey, ii-aeaeeiiio
aieueoiai cia/aiey a yoeieiaee ia eiaao (A ssiiiee iinea yaea?iuo
ac?uaia /anoioa caaieaaaiey yoei aeaeii eaeeica ia oaaee/eeanue).

Iaoieiae/aneee i?ioeann ia/eiaaony ia o?iaia O e A eeioioeeoia e iineo
eeiiiaue oa?aeoa?. ?ani?ino?aiyaony i?ioeann e?aeia iaaeeaiii,
iieeoa?aoeey iaaieueoay. Iau/ii i?ioeann ia/eiaaony a einoiii iicaa,
eeioaoe/aneeo oceao, naeacaiea, ai?ioiie aaia ia/aie, a caoai iiyaeyaony
e a e?iae: 5-7% ninoaaeyao O-oei eeioieaeeica, inoaeueiia ninoaaeyao
A-oei.

Ea/anoaaiiay ?acieoea iaaeaeo yoeie oeiaie ia ii?aaeaeyaony.
Ii?oieiae/aneei noano?aoii yaeythony c?aeua eeioioeeou, iiyaeythony oaie
Aoia?aooa – eeioioeeou n ?ac?ooaiiuie yae?aie. Iniiaiie aeaoaeo eeaoie –
eiioiieiae/aneee, au?aaaouaathony iaiieiioeaiiua eiioiiaeiaoeeiu,
eioi?ua ?aaae?otho. Ia iiaa?oiinoe A-eeioioeeoia a ii?ia niaea?aeeony
iiiaeanoai eiioiiaeiaoeeiia, i?e eeioieaeeica eo eiee/anoai
oiaiueoaaony. Eeioioeeou ieioi i?aa?auathony a ieaciaoe/aneea eeaoee.
Iaaethaeaaony eee iauaa nieaeaiea eiioiiaeiaoeeiia eee oiaiueoaiea
ioaeaeueiuo eo o?aeoeee. Aieaa oiai, eeioioeeou noaiiayony niiniaiu
auaeaaaoue aioeoaea e nianoaaiiui eeaoeai i?aaiecia – y?eo?ioeeoai e
o?iiaioeeoai. I?e neo/aeiii enneaaeiaaiee e?iae iaia?oaeeaatho
oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa eaeeioeeoia n aaniethoiui eeioioeeoicii e iaee/ea
oaiae Aoia?aooa. Ia?aua neiioiiu iiyaeythony ia o anao aieueiui:
neaainoue, iioeeainoue, iiauoaiiay iauay ooiieyaiinoue. Iacia/eoaeueiia
oaaee/aiea eeioioceia. A einoiii iicaa – eeioioeeoic. A aieaa iicaeieo
noaaeeyo eeeieea noaiiaeony y?/a: iiaoo iiyaeoueny oaaee/aiiua eeioioceu
a a?thoiie iieinoe, oaaee/eaathony eeioioceu n?aaeinoaiey (i?e
?aioaaiieiae/aneii enneaaeiaaiee), nieaiiiaaaeey n ?acaeoeai yaeaiee
aeia?nieaiecia.

Aeeaaiic iau/ii iinoaaeoue iao?oaeii: a e?iae eaeeioeeoia ii?yaeea 200
oun. a 1 iee, 98% – eeioioeeou: a einoiii iicaa – oioaeueiay eeioieaeiay
eioeeueo?aoeey. Ieaoeaea?i ii?iaeueiiai e?iaaoai?aiey ia?aiauaaony a
aee?iaie iica. *anoi a ?acaa?iooie noaaeee iiyaeyaony aiaiey
aaiieeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a: oaaee/aiea naeacaiee, iiyaeaiea: aioeoae e
nianoaaiiui y?eo?ioeeoai. Iiaeao auoue ?aoeeoeioeeoic. Aeeeoaeueiinoue
aeecie y?eo?ioeeoia nieaeaia, iieiaeeoaeueia i?iaa Eoiana; iiauoaiiay
iio?aaiinoue a o?iiaioeeoao a nayce n ia?ooaieyie aaiinoaca.

Eeioioceu i?e o?iie/aneii eeioieaeeica iyaeea, yeanoe/iua, iiaeaeaeiua,
aacaieaciaiiua. Eiiaaea auyaeyaony aaiaoiiaaaeey aneaaenoaea
eeioioeeoa?iie eioeeueo?aoeee. Ia?ooaiea au?aaioee aioeoae i?eaiaeeo e
?aceiio iiauoaiee /oanoaeoaeueiinoe i?aaiecia e ?acee/iui eioaeoeeyi.
Aiciiaeiu ainiaeeoaeueiua caaieaaaiey – iiaaiiiey, ieiaea?iey, nainen –
o.a. a iniiaiii eieeiaie yoeieiaee. Aieueiua iiaeaa?aeaiu ae?oniie
eioaeoeee – /anoi iaaethaeaaony aa?ian. A e?iae – aeiieaiiaaeiaoeeiaiy.
A naeacaiea eaeao ne?uoue aaiiee aneaaenoaea caiaaeeaiey e?iaioiea ii
iae, y?eo?ioeeou auno?i oaaioeeoe?othony iae?ioaaaie. Ionthaea
iaaieueoay aeaeoooiinoue eiaeiuo iie?iaia, aeia?aeee?oaeiaiy. A
oa?ieiaeueiie noaaeee iiyaeyaony aaii??aae/aneee neiae?ii aneaaenoaea
o?iiaioeeoiiaiee. Oeiae caaieaaaiey – ?aaeei aeanoiue e?ec (1-2%).
?aaeei – i?aa?auaiea a na?eiio.

Ea/aiea

I?e au?aaeaiiii ii?aaeaiee eeioioceia eiiaeie?otho oei?aooei n
i?aaeiecieiiii, eioi?ue auiuaaao eeioioeeoia ec eeioioceia a e?iaue (yoi
iiaeao aeaaaoue ?aceia oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa eeioioeeoia a
ia?eoaie/aneie e?iae) . I?e aaiieeoe/aneie aiaiee oaeaea i?eiaiytho
i?aaeiecieii, i?ee?uoea oeeoinoaoeeaie iiaeii i?iecaanoe oieueei a
eiioea eo?na ea/aiey i?aaeiecieiiii (n oeaeueth i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey
aaiieeoe/aneiai e?eca iinea ioiaiu i?aaeiecieiia). Anee e oei?aooeio
au?aaaouaaaony ?acenoaioiinoue, i?eiaiytho: oeeeeioinoai 400 ia /a?ac
aeaiue; aeie?enoei: aeiaeanoei; aeaa?aiie 50 ia a/a.

A oa?ieiaeueiie noaaeee eiiaeie?otho aianoa aei 4-o i?aia?aoia.

Anee i?e aaiieeoe/aneie aiaiee i?aaeiecieii ieacuaaaony iayooaeoeaiui,
i?eaaaatho e nieaiyeoiiee. Eiiaaea i?eiaiytho eaeeioi?ac: n iiiiuueth
niaoeeaeueiuo naia?aoi?ia e?iaue ioaeaeytho io eeioioeeoia e aaiaeyo
ia?aoii aieueiiio, ii yoi anaai eeoue neiioiiaoe/aneay ia?a. I?e
oaaee/aiey eeioioceia a ioaeaeueiuo iaeanoyo i?eiaiytho eo/aaoth
oa?aieth, a /anoiinoe – ?aioaaiioa?aieth.

I?e i?eniaaeeiaiee eioaeoeee i?iaiaeyo ianneaioth aioeaeioeeioa?aieth.
I?iaiic: n?aaee ae?oaeo o?iie/aneeo eaeeicia yoio – naiue aeaaii?eyoiue.
O iiaeeeuo ethaeae o?iie/aneee eeioieaeeic i?ioaeaao iaaeeaiii,
niieieii. O eeoe n?aaieoaeueii iieiaeiai aic?anoa caaieaaaiea i?ioaeaao
aieaa ceiea/anoaaiii.

AIAIEE

AEAEACIAeAOEOeEOIAss AIAIEss

A ii?ia niaea?aeaiea aaiiaeiaeia e y?eo?ioeeoia ninoaaeyao:

– o ioae/ei: y?eo?ioeeoia 4,5 iei. aaiiaeiaei 140 a/e;

– o aeaiuei: y?eo?ioeeoia 4,2 iei. aaiiaeiaei 120 a/e.

Caianu aeaeaca a i?aaiecia ninoaaeytho 6-8 a, ec ieo 3 a. aoiaeyo a
ninoaa aaiiaeiaeia, 2 a. a ninoaa ieiaeiaeia e oeeoio?iiia, 0,8 a. (0,4
a. o aeaiuei) – a aeaii a aeaea oa??eoeia e aaiineaea?eia.

AEaeaciaeaoeoeeoiay aiaiey – nieaeaiea niaea?aeaiey aeaeaca a nuai?ioea
e?iae, einoiii iicaa e aeaii. Aei ?acaeoey aiaiee o aieueoeinoaa
aieueiuo eiaaony eaoaioiue ia?eiae aeaoeoeeoa aeaeaca.

Eeanneoeeaoeey

1. O?iie/aneay iinoaaii??aae/aeay aeaeaciaeaoeoeeoiay aiaiey.

2. AEaeaciaeaoeoeeoiay aiaiey, naycaiiay n iaaeinoaoi/iui enoiaeiui
o?iaiai aeaeaca o iiai?iaeaeaiiuo (e a ?aiiai aeaoneii aic?anoa).

3. Naycaiiay n iiauoaiiui iio?aaeaieai aeaeaca. *aua a ia?eiae iieiaiai
nic?aaaiey. A yoii neo/aa aac e?iaiiioa?e.

4. Naycaiiay n ia?ooaieai ananuaaiey aeaeaca e iinooieaiey aai n ieuae.

5. Naycaiiay n ia?ooaieai o?ainii?oa aeaeaca (aeaoeoeeo o?ainoa?eia).

Iaeaieaa /anoay i?e/eia – e?iaiiioa?y aeeeoaeueiay e iinoiyiiay.

A ii?ia ananuaaiea aeaeaca ia?aie/aii 1-1,3 ia/noo.- o aeaiuei e 1-1,5
ia/noo. o ioae/ei. eiiaaea i?e iiauoaiiii iio?aaeaiee, aei 2 ia. Anee a
nooee oa?yaony aieaa 2 ia – aeaoeoeeo. Oeceieiae/aneea iioa?e aeaeaca o
ioae/ei aei 1 ia., o aeaiuei – aieueoa. Io 10 aei 25% aeaiuei ca a?aiy
iaino?oaoeee oa?ytho 40 ia. Nooi/iay iio?aaiinoue o aeaiuei 1,5 – 1,7 ia
i?e iany/iuo a 30 ie. I?e aieaa iaeeueiuo 2,5-3,5 ia. A yoii neo/aa ia
iiaeao aninaoueny aeinoaoi/iia aeey eiiiainaoeee eiee/anoai aeaeaca; ca
ianyoe iioa?y 15-20 ia, ca 10 eao 1,8-2,4 a. Eaaeaeay aa?aiaiiinoue,
?iaeu e eaeoaoeey – iioa?y 700 – 800 ia. A 3-4 ?iaeao oaea iiyaeyaony
ne?uoue aeaoeoeeo aeaeaca, iiaeao ia?aeoe a yaiue.

O ioae/ei iniiaiay i?e/eia – e?iaiiioa?y ec AEEO i?e ycaaiiie aieacie,
y?icee, iiooiee aeaeoaeea, aeeaa?oeeoea, a?uaea ieuaaiaeiiai ioaa?noey
aeeao?aaiu, aeenoiie eiaacee, iiooiee oienoiai eeoa/ieea. Oaeaea i?e
e?iaiiioa?a a caieiooia i?ino?ainoai: eaai/iue aaiineaea?ic,
yiaeiiao?eic. O?iie/aneee aano?eo: ananuaaiea aeaeaca i?aeoe/anee ia
ia?ooaaony, ?ieue iaaaeeea. Iiaeao auoue aoi?e/iui. Ia?ooaiea ananuaaiey
iiaeao auoue i?e yioa?eoao e iaoe?iuo ?acaeoeeyo oiieie eeoee.

Ne?uoue aeaoeoeeo aeaeaca – o?iaaiue aeaeaca a aeaii iiieaeai, ii
niaea?aeaiea aeaeaca a aaiiaeiaeia inoaaony ii?iaeueiui. Yoi ninoiyiea
aaaeii naiaa?aiaiii auyaeoue:

a) ii niaea?aeaieth neaea?ioeeeia (a ii?ia 15), a aeaeaca aoaeao iaiueoa
ii?iu (ii?ia 80 150), oi yoi ne?uoue aeaoeoeeo aeaeaca;

a) iiaeii aaanoe aieueiiio aeanoa?ae – o?iaaiue iiyaeaoaainy a ii/a
aeaeaca aoaeao iae.

Iaeioi?ua n/eoatho, /oi ne?uoue aeaoeoeeo aeaeaca eeeieee ia aeaao,
ae?oaea iienuaatho neiioiiu: neaainoue, niieeainoue,
?acae?aaeeoaeueiinoue. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi aeaeaca iaei a
oeeoio?iiao, e OeIN iieo/aao iaei eenei?iaea.

I?e yaiii aeaoeoeeoa aeaeaca e aeaeaciaeaoeoeeoiie aiaiee:
i?ieeoa?aoeaiua i?ioeannu a einoiii aaia ia?ooaiu, ii eeaoee iieo/atho
iaiueoa aaiiaeiaeia. Aiaiey ?acaeaaaony, anee o?iaaiue neaea?ioeeeia
ieaciu ianuuai aeaeacii iaiueoa, /ai ia 15% io ii?iu. Nieaeai oaeaea
oeaaoiaie iieacaoaeue (aeiio?iiiay aiaiey), iiaeao auoue e
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue y?eo?iiiyca – aicieeaao y?eo?ioeeoiiaiey.

Eeeieea

Iaaeinoaoie eenei?iaea, io yoiai i?aaeaea anaai no?aaeaao aieiaiie iica:
iauay neaainoue, iaaeiiiaaiea, aieiaie?oaeaiea, na?aeoeaaeaiea, iaeuoea,
iaii?iee, iniaaiii a aeooiuo iiiauaieyo.

Neaea?iiaie/aneee neiae?ii: eiaea noaiiaeony nooie, ooneeie, iiaoe a
aeaea /aniauo noaeie. Aieinu ooneeua, naeoony. Iiaeao auoue iuoa/iay
neaainoue, ia niioaaonoaothuay noaiaie aiaiee. Iiaeao auoue aiaoey?iue
noiiaoeo. Ni noi?iiu ycuea aeinneo: iie?aniaiea, aiee a iai, ao?ioey
nini/eia, neiioiiu aeenoaaee. Iiaeao auoue o/auaiiia ii/aenioneaiea,
eiaeiua iicuau ia iaai. Eca?auaiea aeona: iae, ecaanoue, caiey, coaiie
ii?ioie, oaieue, ianie, aeeia, nu?ay e?oia, oanoi, nu?ie iyniie oa?o.
Ia?aaeei i?eno?anoea e caiaoai aaiceia, ea?ineia, iacooa, eiiaaea aeaaea
ii/e.

Eaai?aoi?iay aeeaaiinoeea

Aeiio?iiiay aiaiey: nieaeaiea aaiiaeiaeia ieaea 110 a/e, aieioue aei
20-30. niaea?aeaiea y?eo?ioeeoia eiiaaea a ii?ia, ii /aua nieaeaii
aieioue aei 1,5 iei. Oeaaoiie iieacaoaeue < 0,8. Aiecioeeoic ni neeiiiinoueth e iee?ioeeoico. Iieeeeioeeoic. Eiee/anoai ?aoeeoeioeeoia a ii?ia eee neaaea iiauoaii. I?e noa?iaeueiie ioieoeee nieaeaii niaea?aeaiea neaea?iaeanoia (eo a ii?ia 20-40%), o aieueiuo < 15%. Niaea?aeaiea aeaeaca a nuai?ioea e?iae a oyaeaeuo neo/ayo 2-5 ieiieue/e (ii?ia 12,5-30). Iauay aeaeacinaycuaathuay niiniaiinoue nuai?ioee e?iae iiauoaaony (a ii?ia 30-80).Aeanoa?aeiaue oano - ii?aaeaeaiea caiania aeaeaca a i?aaiecia: aaiaeyo 500 ia aeanoa?aea e ii?aaeaeytho niaea?aeaiea aeaeaca a nooi/iie ii/a (a ii?ia 0,8-1,3 ia). O aieueiuo niaea?aeaiea aeaeaca a ii/a cia/eoaeueii ieaea, eiiaaea aei 0,2 ia.Ea/aieaIniiaiua i?eioeeiu: Aeeaoa. Ath iaaiciiaeii ono?aieoue aeaoeoeeo aeaeaca.Aaiio?ainoocee oieueei ii aeeciaiiui iieacaieyi! Ea/aiea i?aia?aoaie aeaeaca, ana aeoaieiu ea?atho aniiiiaaoaeueioth ?ieue. Eo/oa anaai i?aia?aou aeaeaca aioo?ue. Oi?ioi ananuaathony eaeoao, noeueoao e ea?aiiao aeaeaca. Ec a?oiiu eaeoaoia: aaiinoeioeei, ii oai anoue inoaoee e?iae e MgSO-4 - ieioi ia?aiineony. Oa??ioea?ii - ?acae?aaeaao neecenooth iaiei/eo ii/aauaiaeyueo iooae. Noeueoaou: oa??ieaeue 2 e *3 ?aca a aeaiue, oa??aieae, oa??iieaen.I?ieiiae?iaaiiua oi?iu: oainiai, oa?oia?aaeoiao. Ea/aiea aei ii?iaeecaoeee iieacaoaeae e?iae. Caoai iiaeaea?aeeaathuay oa?aiey aoa 2-3 ianyoea, /oiau nicaeaoue aeaii aeaeaca.Ia?aio?aeueii aaiaeeoue i?e au?aaeaiii aeaoeoeeoa e aeaeaiee iieo/eoue yoaeo auno?aa, a oaeaea i?e ieioie ia?aiineiinoe ia?i?aeueiuo i?aia?aoia aeaeaca: oa??oieae a/a, a/i, aeaeoioa?, oa?aeoie a/i - i?e aaaaeaiee aeieai ia ?annanuaaaony.I?ioeeaeoeea: Anai aeaiueiai, o eioi?uo iany/iua i?iaeieaeathony aieaa 5 aeiae, a oa/aiee 7-10 aeiae i?aia?aou aeaeaca. Oaeaea iinoiyiiui aeiii?ai. Eeoeai n iaeuie, ii iinoiyiiuie e?iaiiioa?yie.A12 - OIEEAAIAeAOEOeEOIAss AIAIEssIienaia aia?aua a na?aaeeia 19 aaea. A 1929 a. Eanoe iieacae, /oi iyni, ia?aaioaiiia aeaeoaei/iui nieii, ieacuaaao ea/aaiia aeaenoaea. Auneacae i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi a iyna aiaoiee oaeoi?, a niea - aioo?aiiee. a 1948 a. ioe?uo aeoaiei A12.A12 ioaeai aeey ii?iaeueiiai neioaca AeIE e?iaaoai?iuo eeaoie e eeaoie, aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai o?aeoa; oaeaea o/anoaoao a ?aniaaea e neioaca iaeioi?uo aee?iuo eeneio. I?e ia?ooaiee neioaca aee?iuo eeneio i?ienoiaeeo ia?ooaiea neioaca ieaeeia, i?e ia?ooaiee ?aniaaea - iaeiieaiea a ia?aiuo eeaoeao oiene/aneie iaoeeiaeiiiaie eeneiou. A12 aeoeae?oao oieeaaoth eeneioo - iia ea?aao ?ieue a neioaca oeiaaeeia. Oieeaaay eeneioa niinianoaoao iiaeeecaoeee A12 ec aeaii, caoai i?ienoiaeeo aai enoiuaiea e ooieeoey?iue ieaeic. Aioo?aiiee oaeoi? iaiaoiaeei aeey ananuaaiey A12, ii a aeaeoaeea ii naycuaaaony ia n aioo?aiiei oaeoi?ii Eanoea, a n R-i?ioaeiii, e iinooiaao a aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noioth eeoeo, aaea e ?anuaieyaony; A12 inaiaiaeeaoenue io i?ioaeia, niaaeeiyaony n aioo?aiiei oaeoi?ii Eanoea. A oiieie eeoea ii niaaeeiyaony ni niaoeeaeueiuie ?aoeaioi?aie aeey aioo?aiiaai oaeoi?a Eanoea. Iinea ananuaaiey A12 naycuaaaony n aaeeii o?aineiaieaieiii II, ia?aiineony a ia/aiue e einoiue iica; nooi/iay iio?aaiinoue a A12 ieiei 3-5 iea. Aeey enoiuaiey caiana iaiaoiaeeii 3-4 aiaea.I?e/eiu caaieaaaiey1. Ia?ooaiea nae?aoeee aioo?aiiaai oaeoi?a a ?acoeueoaoa ao?ioee neecenoie iaiei/ee aeaeoaeea ec-ca:a) ianeaaenoaaiiie i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoe;a) oiene/aneiai ii?aaeaiey aeaeoaeea;a) ia?aciaaiey aooiaioeoae e ia?eaoaeueiui eeaoeai aeaeoaeea;a) aneaaenoaea aano?iyeoiiee.2. Ii?aaeaiea oiieie eeoee: ionoonoaea ?aoeaiio?ia aeey i?eniaaeeiaiey oaeoi?a Eanoea, i?e oyaeaeii o?iie/aneii yia?eoa, oaeaeaiee /anoe oiieie eeoee.3. Eiieo?aioiia iiaeiuaiea aeoaieia A12 a eeoa/ieea oe?ieei eaiooeii, iee?iaaie, i?e neiae?iia neaiie iaoee i?e iia?aoeee ia oiieie eeoea.4. Iieiia eneeth/aiea i?iaeoeoia aeeaioiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey.5. Ia?ooaiea nae?aeoi?iie ooieoeee iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeacu i?e iaaeinoaoea oa?iaioia, ia?ooaiea iouaieaiey R-i?ioaeia.6. A?iaeaeaiiue aeaoaeo o?aineiaieaieiy II. Yoi e?aeia ?aaeei.Eeeieea?acaeaaaony iinoaiaiii iauay neaainoue, iaaeiiiaaiea. Eaaeay enoa?e/iinoue. Iaeooeiaaoinoue eeoea. Nieaeaiea aiiaoeoa e iiiinu aneaaenoaea aoeeee. Aiee a ycuea, Aiioa?ianeee "eaee?iaaiiue" ycue aac nini/eia, iiaiaiea eiia/iinoae. nieaeaiea eee iiauoaiea /oanoaeoaeueiinoe, ia?anoacee, neiae?ii "oiaeaeaiey ii iyaeiio eia?o", Eiiaaea ieaeiee ia?aia?ac. Ia?ooaiey ineoeee, iaiyoe.A e?iae aiaiey, o?iiaioeeoiiaiey, iaeo?iiaiey. Oeaaoiie iieacaoaeue > 1
(1, 1-1,2). Aiecioeeoic. Iieeeeioeeoic. Neeiiiinoue e iae?ioeeoico.

Oaeueoea AEiee e eieueoea Eaaioa (inoaoee yae?a). Iieenaaiaioa?iinoue
iaeo?ioeeia (a 60% iaeo?ioeeia, a a ii?ia iieenaaiaioa?iinoue < 2I%).Aeioeie/anee: iiauoaiea aeee?oaeia, a iniiaiii iai?yiiai, oae eae y?eo?ioeeou iaonoie/eau, eaaei aaiieece?othony, eiiaaea oaaee/aiea naeacaiee, oaoeea?aeey.Ia?aae ea/aieai aeoaieiii A12 iaycaoaeueii i?iaiaeeoue noa?iaeueioth ioieoeeth: auyaeytho ieaeiaeanou. nieaeaiea niaea?aeaiey ?aoeeoeioeeoia.A12 - oieeaaiaeaoeoeeoiay aiaiey - aieaciue iiaeeeiai e noa?/aneiai aic?anoa. A 60-70 eao I.5-1% ianaeaiey, a aic?anoa 30-40 eao 1 /aeiaae ia 5 oun. Auyaeaiea iaoeeiaeiiiaie eeneiou a ii/a: iia ia iaiyaony i?e aeaoeoeeoa oieeaaie eeneiou e oaaee/eaaaony i?e aeaoeoeeoa A12.Ea/aiea500 iea (aeiionoeii aei 1000 iea) A12 aaeaaeiaaii, eee 500 iea ieneeiaieaieia /a?ac aeaiue iiae eiio?ieai ?aoeeoeioeeoia. iinea ii?iaeecaoeee e?iae 500 iea 1 ?ac a iaaeaeth a oa/aiea 3 iaaeaeue, caoai iiaeeciaiii ii 20 eiuaeoeee ii 500 iea a aiae (1 ?ac a 2 iaaeaee n 2-o iany/iui ia?a?uaii). Aieueiie iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai noiyoue ia o/aoa o aaiaoieiaa.AEIIIEANOE*ANEAss AIAIEssYoeieiaey:1. ?aaeeaoeey.2. Oeeoinoaoe/aneay oa?aiey.3. Iaaeeeaiaiou: aioeoe?aieaeiua i?aia?aou (ia?eacieee), iaoeeoeio?aoeee, aieaeiie?ei, i?ioeaiooaa?eoeaciua i?aia?aou, eaaiieoeaoei.4. Aiaiey Oaieiie - a?iaeaeaiiay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue ?acaeoey einoiiai iicaa.5. Ieeneaeaia.a. Oeiiia.Iaoiaaiac1. No?aaeaao noaieiaay eeaoea einoiiai iicaa - oeeoinoaoe/aneay ieaeioiene/aneay aeiiieacey.2. Iiyaeaiea aioeoae - aooieiioiiue iaoaieci.3. O-eeioioeeou iiaoo oie/oiaeaoue nianoaaiiua eeaoee einoiiai iicaa.4. Aeaoaeou no?iiu einoiiai iicaa.No?aaeatho neaaeothuea ?inoee: a?aioeioeeoa?iue, y?eo?ioeeoa?iue, o?iiaioeeoa?iue.Eeeieea1. Aiaiey iiaeao auoue i/aiue oyaeaeie. Aaiiaeiaei iiaeao iaaeaoue aei 15 AAe, aeaaeiinoue, neaainoue, iaeuoea, ooiieyaiinoue, oaoeea?aeey. Iiaeao iiyaeoueny ooieoeeiiaeueiue nenoiee/aneee ooi (aiaie/aneee). Aiaiey /aua aeiio?iiiay.2. Aaii??aae/aneee aeeaoac: aneaaenoaea o?iiaioeeoiiaiee i?iyaeyaony e?iaioa/aieyie (iiniauie, iieinoiuie, a ianoao eiuaeoeee).3. I?eniaaeeiaiea eioaeoeee: iae?ioe/aneay aiaeia, ia?aaeei eiaiii n iaa ia/eiaaony caaieaaaiea. Noiiaoeo.Caaieaaaiea iaoeeiiii i?ia?anne?oao, i?iaiic e?aeia iaaeaaii?eyoiue.Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiicI?iaiaeeony n caaieaaaieyie, i?ioaeathueie n iaioeeoiiaieae:Ino?ue eaeeic, a e?iae anoue aeanoiua eeaoee: iiiai aeanoiuo oi?i a einoiii iicaa: oaaee/aiea ia/aie, naeacaiee, eeioioceia; i?e aiaiee einoiue iica, iaiai?io, aaaeiue eeaoi/iuie yeaiaioaie, ionoie. A n?acao einoiiai iicaa oaaee/aii niaea?aeaiea aee?iaie oeaie. A ii?ia - 50% aee?iauo eeaoie.Ea/aieaAinieoaeecaoeey a niaoeeaeece?iaaiiia o/?aaeaeaiea. Aieueiiai iiiauatho a iaeaoo n iiauoaiiui aeaaeaieai aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa n oeaeueth ecieyoeee aai io eioaeoeee. Aeoeaiaeoay aioeaaeoa?eaeueiay oa?aiey, eiaaea eiee/anoai eaeeioeeoia ia?eoa?e/aneie e?iae nieaeaaony aei 1000 a iee. A yoii neo/aa iiania aeaaea nu?ay ieua, iaiaoiaeeii aeaaaoue aa?aioth.Oeaii?ei e ae?.aioeaeioeee.Niaoeeoe/aneay oa?aiey: ia?anaaeea einoiiai iicaa, ii yoi /?aaaoi aieueoeie eiioiieiae/aneeie eiioeeeoaie, n ?aaeoeeyie ii oeio:a) o?ainieaioao i?ioea oicyeia,a) oicyei i?ioea o?ainieaioaoa.Iiyoiio ia?aae ia?anaaeeie einoiiai iicaa aieueiua iieo/atho aioe-O-eeioioeeoa?iue aeiaoeei, a oaeaea oeeeeioinoai e aetheiei?ioeeieaeu.Oeeoinoaoeee aeatho oieueei a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea oaa?aiu, /oi aeiiieacey naycaia n aeaenoaeai O-eeioioeeoia: oeeeeioinoai, eio?ai, 6 ia?eaioiio?ei.5. aiaaiee/aneea noa?ieaeu: ?aoaaieee 1,0 a/i 1 ?ac a iaaeaeth, eo?n aei 6 ianyoeaa, oae eae yooaeo ?acaeaaaony iaaeeaiii. Iaoaieci aeaenoaey:a) noeioee?oao aaiiiiyc,a) aeaenoaoao ia iae?ioaaia /a?ac iiauoaiea au?aaioee eieiieenoeioee?othuaai oaeoi?a.6) niee eeoey oaeaea oneeeaatho au?aaioeo iae?ioaaaie ENO - ea?aiiao eeoey 0,3 * 3 ?aca.7) Aeoaieiu A6, A12.8) Ia?aeeaaiea e?iae, eaeeioeeoa?iie acaane.9) Eiiaaea i?eaaaatho e nieaiyeoiiee.AA?AIOEIOeEOICEciee?iaaiiia ii?aaeaiea a?aioeioeeoiiiyca, ?aceia nieaeaiea eee iieiia ionoonoaea a ia?eoa?e/aneie e?iae iaeo?ioeeueiuo eaeeioeeoia. Neo/ae caaieaaaiey oaaee/eaathony n eaaeaeui aiaeii.Yoeieiaey1. Iaaeeeaiaiou: oeeoinoaoeee, aieaeiie?ei, oaiaoeaoei, aioeoe?aieaeiua i?aia?aou, noeueoaieeaieaeiua i?aia?aou, i?ioeaiaeeaaaoe/aneea ia?i?aeueiua n?aaenoaa, i?ioeai?aaiaoe/aneea n?aaenoaa, ?acioei, aeaeaaee, oei?aoei.2. Eo/aaay yia?aey, a oii /enea e i?e eo/aaie aieacie.3. I?aaie/aneea ?anoai?eoaee (aaicie e ae?.).4. Eae eacoenoeea: aeeiaioa?iue oaeoi? - ianaaaeaa i?i?inoaa ca?ii.5. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo i?ineaaeeaaaony naycue n ae?oniuie caaieaaaieyie, oyaeaeuie no?aioieieeiauie eioaeoeeyie.6. Eiiaaea anoue naycue n ianeaaenoaaiiinoueth.Ii iaoiaaiaco aa?aioeioeeoic auaaao aooieiioiue e ieaeioiene/aneee.Aooieiioiue aa?aioeioeeoic. Aeaaiaea?y aooieiioiui ?aaeoeeyi iiauoaaony /oanoaeoaeueiinoue iaeo?ioeeia e iaeioi?ui i?aia?aoai, iia?aaeaeathony eeaoee, a ieo ia?acothony aioeaaiu eee aaioaiu - aeoeae?oaony eiioiiay nenoaia, ia/eiatho au?aaaouaaoueny aioeoaea. Ia?acothony eiiieaenu AA+AO+eiiieaiaio --> eecen eeaoee, eeaoee aaaethoeie?othony iaaeaeo
niaie, naeaano?e?othony a naeacaiea e inoathony oai. Noaieiaua eeaoee
no?aaeatho iaiueoa, /ai ia?eoa?e/aneea. I?ioeann ?acaeaaaony ao?ii, ii
oa?aeoa?ii e auno?ia ia?aoiia ?acaeoea. Ieaeioiene/aneee aa?aioeioeeoic.
Oaeoi? aeaenoaoao ia noaieiaua eeaoee-i?aaeoanoaaiieee
a?aioeioeeoiiiyca. I?aaeaea anaai ionoaao einoiue iica, en/acatho
a?aioeioeeou, caoai i?ioeann ia?aoiaeeo e ia ia?eoa?e/aneoth e?iaue.
?acaeaaaony aieaa iaaeeaiii, ii auoiae aieueiuo ec yoiai ninoiyiey
cao?oaeiai.

Eeeieea

Ino?ia ia/aei, iiaeuai oaiia?aoo?u. Iiyaeythony ycaaiii-iae?ioe/aneea
eciaiaiey, naycaiiua n aeaoaeoii iaeo?ioeeia. sscaaiii-iae?ioe/aneay
aiaeia, iiaoo auoue ycau ia ycuea, aoaao e ae?oaeo ioaeaeao ?ioiaie
iieinoe. I?e oeoiciie oi?ia ii?aaeaiea iaea?iauo aeyoae eeoa/ieea.
Iiaeao auoue iae?ic neecenoie ieuaaiaea e aeaaea eiaee, iniaaiii ia oiia
i?eaia eaea?noa. Oyaeaeue nainen, /aua eieeiaue, n aunieie eeoi?aaeeie e
neeueiie eioieneeaoeeae. A aiaeeca e?iae ?aceay aa?aioeioeeoiiaiey
(iaeo?iiaiey), a ioieoaoa einoiiai iicaa aeaaeiinoue a?aioeioeeoa?iiai
?inoea, i?e aooieiioiie oi?ia iiauoaii eiee/anoai aioeoae e
a?aioeioeeoai. Eieiieeia?acothuay niiniaiinoue eeaoie ia eciaiaia eee
iiauoaia i?e aooieiioiie oi?ia e nieaeaia i?e ieaeioiene/aneie.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic

1. Ino?ue eaeeic. Oa?aeoa?ii iaee/ea aeanoiuo eeaoie a e?iae e einoiii
iicaa, iiaeao auoue aiaiey e o?iiaioeeoiiaiey, oaaee/aiea eeioioceia,
naeacaiee, ia/aie.

2. Aeiiieanoe/aneay aiaiey, ii?aaeaiea e ae?oaeo ?inoeia, a ia oieueei
a?aioeioeeoa?iiai.

3. Eioaeoeeiiiue iiiiioeeaic. Oaeaea /anoi ia/eiaaony n
ycaaiii-iae?ioe/aneie aiaeiu, oa?aeoa?ii iaee/ea a e?iae iiiiioeeaa?ia.
Iaycaoaeueii oaaee/aiea eeioioceia, ?aaea naeacaiee. ?aaeoeey
Iaoey-Ao/aey – auyaeyao aioeoaea e y?eo?ioeeoai aa?aia.

Ea/aiea

Aieueiua iiiauathony a niaoeeaeueiua ioaeaeaiey n aiene?iaaiiuie
iaeaoaie n oeaeueth iaeneiaeueii nieceoue aiciiaeiinoue eioaeoeee. A
iaeaoa aeaeaoaeueiu aaeoa?eoeeaeiua eaiiu, aaioeeyoeey. Ieieiaeueiue
eiioaeo n iinaoeoaeyie.

1) Ianneaiay aioeaaeoa?eaeueiay oa?aiey: aioeaeioeee, eo/oa a/a a
aieueoeo aeicao e oe?ieiai niaeo?a aeaenoaey – oeaoaeinii?eiu,
iaieoeeeeeiu e ae?. Oae eae eioaeoeey iiaeao i?iieeaoue e ec eeoa/ieea,
n oeaeueth i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey aeatho aioeaeioeee aioo?ue, ec oao, eioi?ua
ieioi ananuaathony a eeoa/ieea – iiiiieoeei.

2) Aioea?eaeiaua i?aia?aou: eaai?ei.

3) Aeaceioieneeaoeeiiiay oa?aiey.

4) Aeoaieiu: N, oieeaaay eeneioa, aeoaieiu a?oiiu A.

5) Caianoeoaeueiay oa?aiey: ia?aeeaaiea aieueoeo eiee/anoa eaeeioeeoia,
ia?aeeaaiea naaaeae e?iae, eioi?ay ieacuaaao aeaaii?eyoiia aeaenoaea ia
a?aioeioeeoiiiyc.

6) Noeioeyoi?u e?iaaoai?aiey: oei?enoue eeoee, aa?iieeneue eeoee,
oaeaeeneue eeoee – eo ii 0,3 * 3 ?aca a aeaiue.

7) ?aoaaieee 1,0 * 1 ?ac a iaaeaeth a/i, aeaenoaoao ia noaieiaua eeaoee,
oneeeaaao auaeaeaiea ENO.

8) I?aia?aou, aeaenoaothuea ia eiioiieiae/aneea iaoaieciu: i?aaeiecieii
40-50 ia./noo a/a, ii ioaeia aieueoay inoi?iaeiinoue.

9) Eiioiiiiaeoeyoi?u: aeaea?en – noeioee?oao oi, /oi oaiaoaii e oaiaoaao
oi, /oi oaaee/aii. I?eiaiyoue ii 150 ia/noo.

10) Eaeeiaai, iaioienee – ii yooaeo neaaue.

11) Ia?aaiae ia ia?aio?aeueiia ieoaiea.

AAIIEEOE*ANEAss AIAIEss

I?e/eiu: eciaiaiey iaia?ai y?eo?ioeeoia; aeaoaeo oa?iaioaoeaiuo nenoai
(aetheici-6-oinoaoaeaaeae?iaaiacu); iiauoaiea /oanoaeoaeueiinoe
y?eo?ioeeoia e iaeioi?ui oaeoi?ai e?iae (eiiieaiaioo).

Aeaeu aaiieeca:

1) Aioo?eninoaeenoue: eeoi?aaeea, aaiiaeiaeiaiey, aaiiaeiaeio?ey.

2) Aianinoaeenoue: oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa iai?yiiai aeeee?oaeia,
oaaee/aiea i?iaeoeoeee aeae/iuo ieaiaioia, nieaiiiaaaeey.

Aeey iaieo aeaeia aaiieeca oa?aeoa?iu iauea /a?ou: iiauoaiea aeoeaiinoe
einoiiai iicaa, iniaaiii y?eo?ieaeiiai io?inoea, nieaeaiea o?iaiy
aaioiaeiaeia a e?iae (aaioiaeiaei – aaeie, naycuaathuee a e?iae
naiaiaeiue aaiiaeiaei).

Eeanneoeeaoeey

1. A?iaeaeaiiua aaiieeoe/aneea aiaiee:

a) aeaoaeo iaia?ai y?eo?ioeeoia;

a) aeaoaeo aetheici-6-oinoaoaeaaeae?iaaiacu;

a) aeaoaeo neioaca aaiiaeiaeia: aaiiaeiaeiiiaoee, oaeanaiey.

2. I?eia?aoaiiua aaiieeoe/aneea aiaiee:

a) o?iie/aneay aooieiioiiay aaiieeoe/aneay aiaiey;

a) naycaiiua n aeaenoaeai oece/aneeo e oeie/aneeo oaeoi?ia;

a) naycaiiua n eciaiaieai no?oeoo?u iaia?ai y?eo?ioeeoia.

IEE?INOA?IOeEOA?IAss AIAIEss

Caaieaaaiea a?iaeaeaiiia, ia?aaeaaony ii aooiniiii-aeiieiaioiiio oeio.
*anoioa caaieaaaaiinoe n?aaee ioae/ei e aeaiuei iaeeiaeiaay. Ae?oaia
iacaaiea – aieaciue Ieieianeiai-Oiooa?a eee ianeaaenoaaiiue noa?ioeeoic.

Y?eo?ioeeou eiatho oi?io iee?inoa?ioeeoa, aianoi aeaiyeiaiaiooie a
ii?ia. A iniiaa eaaeeo aeaoaeo no?iaiey iaiei/ee y?eo?ioeeoa. Aeaaiue
eiiiiiaio no?iiu y?eo?ioeeoa aeoi-ieiceiiaue eiiieaen. I?e aeaiiii
aeaoaeoa oo?a/eaaaony AOO-aciay aeoeaiinoue ieiceia – aeoei ia
naycuaaaony n ieiceiii, e y?eo?ioeeou i?eia?aoatho noa?e/aneoth oi?io.
I?e iee?inoa?ioeeoa?iie aiaiee a y?eo?ioeeoao oiaiueoaaony eiee/anoai
eeieaeia, iie noaiiayony aieaa i?iieoeaaiuie aeey eiiia iao?ey.
I?ienoiaeeo aeoeaaoeey aeeeieeca – aetheicu o?aaoaony aieueoa,
eiee/anoai eeieaeia noaiiaeony aua iaiueoa, aneaaenoaea yoiai iaia?aia
noaiiaeony iaiaa ieanoe/iie, eaaei aeaoi?ie?oaony. I?e aeaeaeaiee ii
oceei eaieey?ai, iniaaiii ii neionieaeai naeacaiee, noa?e/aneea
y?eo?ioeeou ia iiaoo iaiyoue naith oi?io, caaea?aeeaathony a naeacaiea,
oa?ytho /anoue iaiei/ee e aaiieece?othony. Aicieeaao nieaiiiaaaeey.
E?iia oiai, nieaeaaony aeeeoaeueiinoue aeecie y?eo?ioeeoia aneaaenoaea
eo neeueiiai eciaoeaaiey, oae eae o?aaoaony aieueoa yia?aee aeey
oaeaeaiey ec eeaoee eiiia iao?ey, eioi?ua a ecauoea iinooiatho aioo?ue
eeaoee. Aneaaenoaea aaiieeca a e?iae oaaee/eaaaony eiee/anoai iai?yiiai
aeee?oaeia, ii ?aceiai aai ia?anoaiey ia i?ienoiaeeo, oae eae ia/aiue
cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eaaao naith ooieoeeiiaeueioth aeoeaiinoue, oneeeaaao
ia?aciaaiea i?yiiai aeee?oaeia, oaaee/eaaaony aai niaea?aeaiea a
aeae/iuo eiaeao e eiioeaio?aoeey a aeae/e. I?e yoii /anoi ia?acothony
aeee?oaeiiaua eaiie a aeae/iii iocu?a e i?ioieao e i?eniaaeeiythony
aeae/ii-eaiaiiay aieaciue e iaoaie/aneay aeaeoooa: oaaee/eaaaony
eiee/anoai noa?eiaeeeiiaaia e niaea?aeaiea o?iaeeeia, eiiiainaoi?ii
oaaee/eaaaony y?eo?iiiyc. Eeeie/aneeo-i?iyaeaiee iiaeao e ia auoue, eee:
einoiua eciaiaiey a aeaea aaoaiiiai /a?aia, aunieiai eaa, naaeeiaeaeiiai
iina, aunieiai iaaa; eiiaaea e ae?oaea ii?iee ?acaeoey – cay/uey aoaa.
Oeacaiiua auoa eciaiaiey iaoneiaeaiu iaaei?acaeoeai einoiuo oaia. Iiaoo
auoue ii?iee na?aeoea. *anoi ano?a/athony oyaeaeua ycau aieaie, ia
iiaeaeathueany oa?aiee, ii a yoeo neo/ayo iiiiaaao nieaiyeoiiey. sscau
aicieeatho ec-ca ?ac?ooaiey y?eo?ioeeoia, i?ienoiaeeo o?iiaiie?iaaiea
ninoaeia, eoaiey. no?aaeaao o?ioeea.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue iiyaeaiey neiioiiia: aeaeoooa, nieaiiiaaaeey,
aiaiey. Aeee?oaei i?e aeaeoooa iiaeao auoue aei 3-4 ia% ca n/ao
iai?yiiai aeee?oaeia, eaaeay oi?ia. Iiaeao auoue oaaee/aia ia/aiue,
neiioiiu aeae/ii-eaiaiiie aieacie, iiauoaiea o?iaiy noa?eiaeeeia e
o?iaeeeia. Naeacaiea oaaee/aaany ?aii, ii aieueoeo ?acia?ia ia
aeinoeaaao. Aiaiey ii?iio?iiiiai oeia, i?iyaeyaony neaainoueth,
aaeeiaieae e ae?.

Aeeaaiic: I?eciaee eaaeie aeaeoooe + aiaiey, iee?inoa?ioeeoic,
?aoeeoeioeeoic aei 20-25%. Ii?aaeaeaiea iniioe/aneie noieeinoee
y?eo?ioeeoia – iie auno?i ?ac?ooathony a nieaauo ?anoai?ao, oiaiueoaaony
aeeeoaeueiinoue eo aeecie. Y?eo?ioeeou aieueiiai iaoyo o?iiii-51 e
aaiaeyo ia?aoii, iiaen/eouaatho ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue ii n/ao/eeo. Einoiue
iica aiaao y?eo?ieaeiuie eeaoeaie, oiaiueoaii eiee/anoai aaiiaeiaeia.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic

1. Aaiaoeou, oee??icu: iao iee?inoa?ioeeoica, iaee/ea i?yiiai
aeee?oaeia, a i?e aiaiee iai?yiie. I?e aiaiee aeaeoooa nouanoaoao
aeeeoaeueii, eiiaaea n aeaoneeo eao.

2. Aeia?iea/anoaaiiay aeia?aeee?oaeiaiey: Ae?oaia iacaaiea
aeia?aeee?oaeiaiey Eeeueaa?a, a?iaeaeaiiay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue
aaiaoioeeoia. Iao iee?inoa?ioeeoica, iao ?aoeeoeioeeoica, iao oei?i/aiey
aeecie y?eo?ioeeoia, einoiue iica a ii?ia, aac i?eciaeia ?acae?aaeaiey
y?eo?ieaeiiai ?inoea.

Ea/aiea

Nieaiyeoiiey – oae?aaony “iiaeea y?eo?ioeeoia” – i?ae?auaaony aaiieec.
Neiioiiaoe/aneay oa?aiey: i?ioeeaeoeea aeae/ii – eaiaiiie aieacie e
i?ia?anne?othuae aiaiee.

AETHEICI-6-OINOAOAeAAEAe?IAAIACIAss AIAIEss

Oa?iaio a-6-o-ae eaoeeece?oao ieeneaiea aetheici-6-oinoaoa. A oiaea
?aaeoeee ainnoaiaaeeaaaony eioa?iaio IAAeO e ia?acoaony aeoeaiue
aiaei?iae, eaeouee ia ainnoaiiaeaiea aethoaoeiia. Aethoaoeii iinoiyiii
oa?yao naie aiaei?iae, eiioaeoe?oy n ieeneeoaeyie. Eiaiii aethoaoeii,
ieeneyynue nai, caueuaao io ieeneeoaeae aaiiaeiaei e iaia?aiu
y?eo?ioeeoia. Anee oa?iaio ionoonoaoao, oi eaea?noaa, aaaaeaiiua a
i?aaieci ecaia, ia/eiatho ieeneyoue aaiiaeiaei, i?ienoiaeeo aai
i?aoeeieoaoeey e auiaaeaiea a aeaea oaeaoe. Aieaciue /aua anaai
ano?a/aaony a N?aaeiae Acee. Ino?ue aaiieec ianooiaao iinea i?eaia
eaea?noa: i?ioeaiiaey?eeiuo n?aaenoa, aiaeueaaoeeia (anie?ei,
oaiaoeaoei), i?ioeaiia?aceoiuo n?aaenoa, noeueoaieeaieaeia,
i?ioeaiooaa?eoeaciuo i?aia?aoia e ae?. Eiiaaea i?iaioee?othuei oaeoi?ii
yaeyaony e eioaeoeey.

Eeeieea

?ac/aeoay eeoi?aaeea ec-ca auoiaea aaiiaeiaeia a e?iaue, oaiiay ii/a
aneaaenoaea aaiiaeiaeio?ee, aeaeoooiia ie?aoeaaiea neea? e eiaee. Aiaiey
n ?aoeeoeioeeoicii e oaeueoeaie Aaeioea a y?eo?ioeeoao, ?aioa aeae/ueth,
eiiaaea eieeaioieaeiia ninoiyiea. I?e ianneaiie aaiieeca – ino?ay
ii/a/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue. Ano?a/aaony e o?iie/aneia oa/aiea aiaiee n
iinoiyiiie eeoa?e/iinoueth neea?, aeaeoooiinoueth eiaeiuo iie?iaia,
oaaee/aieai naeacaiee, yoe yaeaiey ioia/athony n aeaoneeo eao.

Ea/aiea

1. Caianoeoaeueiay oa?aiey – eo/oa anaai ia?aeeaaoue ioiuoua
y?eo?ioeeou.

2. Ai?ueaa n eieeainii, oieii.

3. Aaiiaeeaeec, eiooceiiiay oa?aiey.

4. Y?aaeo, a/i ii 2 ie n oeaeueth oiaiueoaiey ieeneythuaai aeeyiey
eaea?noa.

AIEACIUe IA?EEAOAAA – IEEAEE

Ia?ieneciaeueiay ii/iay aaiiaeiaeio?ey, naycaiiay n a?iaeaeaiiui
aeaoaeoii iaia?aiu y?eo?ioeeoia. I?e neaie?othuae iee?ineiiee iaia?aia
eiaao iiiaeanoai aeu?i/ae. Oaeea y?eo?ioeeou i?e iiaeeeneaiee n?aaeu
aaiieece?othony i?e eiioaeoa n eiiieaiaioii. Ii/ueth i?e pH = 6-7-8
nicaeathony oneiaey aeey aaiieeca. Aicieeaao aaiieeoe/aneee e?ec –
ii/iay aaiiaeiaeio?ey. Eiiaaea aaiieec eaeao e aeiai.

Eeeieea

Iauea neiioiiu aiaiee, aiee a aeeaioa, iciia, ia?eiaee/anee ioia/aaony
ii/a oaiiiai oeaaoa. *anoi o?iiaiie?othony ninoaeu ia/aie, naeacaiee.
Aaiieec iiaoo i?iaioee?iaaoue: i?eai eaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa, oece/aneay
iaa?ocea, iaeeueiue i?eai ieue e o.ae.

Ea/aiea

1. Ia?aeeaaiea e?iae e y?eo?ioeeoia, i/euaiiuo io aaeeiauo aauanoa.

2. Eiiaaea iiiiaatho aetheiei?ioeeieaeu.

I?EIA?AOAIIUA AIAIEE

AOOIEIIOIIAss AAIIEEOE*ANEAss AIAIEss

A aa iniiaa eaaeeo naineaeeecaoeey i?aaiecia eeaoi/iui aioeaaiii – /anoi
yoi eaea?noaaiiue i?aia?ao, iiaeao auoue e ae?on. Aioeoaea e nianoaaiiui
y?eo?ioeeoai iiaoo iiyaeyoueny e i?e iiaoi?iuo aa?aiaiiinoyo. Iaoaieci
eiioiecaoeee caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai: eaea?noaaiiue i?aia?ao eee
ae?on aunooiatho a ?iee aaioaaaia (iaiieiiai aioeaaia), eioi?ue,
naycuaaynue n aaeeaie a i?aaiecia, noaiiaeony iieiioeaiiui aioeaaiii:
ia?acoaony eiiieaen aaioai-aaeie. Yoe eiiieaenu, oee?eoee?oy a e?iae,
iiaoo inaaeaoue ia y?eo?ioeeoao n iineaaeothuae eo aaaethoeiaoeeae.
Aaiieec iiaeao ?acaeoueny ino?i ii oeio aaiieeoe/aneiai e?eca: ?acei
ia?anoaao /enei ?ac?ooaiiuo y?eo?ioeeoia, a e?iae iaeaieeaathony
naiaiaeiue aaiiaeiaei e i?iaeoeou aai ?aniaaea, eioi?ua iiaoo
“caaeaaoue” ii/ee – ?acaeaaaony ii/a/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue. Iiyaeythony
aeaaeiinoue, aeaeoooiinoue eiaee e neecenouo, oaaee/eaaaony naeacaiea e
?anoao eiee/anoai iae?ioaaia. Ioia/athony na?aeoeaaeaiea e iaeuoea.

A oeie/iuo neo/ayo eeeieea ?acaeaaaony ino?i: aunieay eeoi?aaeea, ?aceia
iaaeaiea aaiiaeiaeia, iaaeaiea eiee/anoaa y?eo?ioeeoia, iiaeao auoue
eieeain e aeaaea oie, aeieaaea ii/a/iuo eaiaeueoeaa – aio?ey e ino?ay
ii/a/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue.

Iiaeao auoue e iinoaiaiiia ?acaeoea caaieaaaiey: iaaieueoay eeoi?aaeea,
iacia/eoaeueii au?aaeaiiay aiaiey e aeaeoooa. Aicieeiiaaiea ia oiia
ia?aianaiiie eioaeoeee. Iaiaoiaeeii auyaeoue aioeoaea n iiiiuueth
?aaeoeee Eoiana: aeiaoeei + aioeaeiaoeeiiaay nuai?ioea aucuaatho
i?aoeeieoaoeeth – i?yiay ?aaeoeey Eoiana. Anee aioeoae iao, iie
oee?eoee?otho a e?iae: eo oeene?otho e i?iaiaeyo iai?yioth ?aaeoeeth
Eoiana. Iiaeai? e?iae i?iecaiaeyo ii iai?yiie ?aaeoeee: anee anoue
aioeoaea, e?iaue ia?aeeaaoue iaeuecy.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic

Iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue n iee?inoa?ioeeoa?iie aiaieae, oae eae aioeoaea
ia anaaaea auyaeythony eee eo oeo? iiaeao auoue ia aunieei.

Ineiaeiaiey

1. Aaiieeoe/aneee e?ec.

2. ?acaeoea AEAA.

3. Eioa?eo naeacaiee.

4. Eiiaaea aooieiioiiay aiaiey iiaeao auoue ianeie ae?oaiai caaieaaaiey
(nenoaiiie e?aniie aie/aiee, eeioiiu)

Ea/aiea

1. Aetheiei?ioeeieaeu: i?aaeiecieii 40 ia/noo, anee iao e?eca, n
iinoaiaiiui nieaeaieai nooi/iie aeicu. I?e aaiieeoe/aneii e?eca
aetheiei?ioeeieaeu aaiaeyo a/a aei 600 ia, caoai ia?aoiaeyo ia i?eai
aioo?ue. 2. Nieaiyeoiiey iieacaia, anee i?e nieaeaiee aeicu
aetheiei?ioeeieaeia ianooiaao ?aoeeaeea. I?e yoii oaeaeyaony iniiaiie
i?aai, niaea?aeauee B – eeioioeeou, au?aaaouaathuea aioeoaea, e ianoi
aeaaee y?eo?ioeeoia. 3. Aaiio?ainoocee oieueei ii iieacaieyi:
aaiieeoe/aneee e?ec. E?eoa?ee yooaeoeaiinoe oa?aiee: en/aciiaaiea
aaiieeca, ii?iaeecaoeey ?aaeoeee Eoiana.

AAII??AAE*ANEEA AeEAOACU

4 iaoaiecia aaiinoaca:

1. Ninoaeenoi-o?iiaioeeoa?iue aaiinoac. Naycai n o?iiaioeeoaie. Eo
ooieoeey i?aaeaea anaai aiaeio?ioe/aneay, ei i?eiaaeeaaeeo aaaeouay
?ieue a iiaeaea?aeaiee ii?iaeueiie ?acenoaioiinoe e ooieoeee
iee?ininoaeia. Iie yaeythony anoanoaaiiuie ei?ieeueoeaie ninoaeenoie
noaiee; anee yiaeioaeeaeueiua eeaoee ia iieo/atho o?iiaioeeoa?iie
iiaeei?iee, oi ianooiaao aeeno?ioey, ninoaeenoay noaiea ia/eiaao
i?iioneaoue y?eo?ioeeou –> aaii??aaee.

Aaeaaceaii – aa?aaaoeeiiiay ooieoeey ii?aaeaeyaony ii niiniaiinoe
neeaeaaoueny e ia?aciauaaoue i?iaeo, aa?aaaoeey noeioee?oaony AAeO, aai
enoi/ieeii yaeyaony oaeaea iia?aaeaeaiiay ninoaeenoay noaiea +
y?eo?ioeeou + o?iiaioeeou (?aaeoeey aunaiaiaeaeaiey). Niiniaiinoue
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue niaci ninoaeia ca n/ao eaeeio?eaiia e i?inoaaeaiaeeiia.

O/anoea a naa?ouaaiee e?iae, eiaeae?othuaa aeeyiea ia oea?eiieec.

2. Nenoaia naa?ouaaiey e?iae.

3. I?ioeainaa?ouaathuay nenoaia, aioeo?iiaei III, I, aaia?ei.

4. Nenoaia oea?eiieeca. Iniiaiui eiiiiiaioii yaeyaony oea?eiieecei eee
ieaciei. Anoue e nenoaia iaoa?iaioiiai oea?eiieeca. Iaeaieaa aeoeaia
nenoaia aaia?ei – aae?aiaeei.

Nouanoaoao 5 iniiaiuo oeiia aaii??aae/aneeo neiae?iiia:

1) Aaiaoiaaiiue oei e?iaioi/eainoe – ianneaiua, aeoaieea, iai?yaeaiiua e
i/aiue aieaciaiiua e?iaieceeyiey a e?oiiua nonoaau, iuooeu, iiaeeiaeioth
e caa?thoeiioth eeao/aoeo e a iieua i?aaiu, i?ioociua niiioaiiua,
iinoo?aaiaoe/aneea e iineaiia?aoeeiiiua e?iaioa/aiey.

2) Iee?ioee?eoeyoi?iue oei – aacaieaciaiiua, ia iai?yaeaiiua, ia
naeaaeeaathuea ie?oaeathuea oeaie iiaa?oiinoiua e?iaieceeyiey a eiaeo,
neecenoua iaiei/ee, i?iyaeythony iaoeoeyie e neiyeaie, aeaniaauie,
iiniauie e iaoi/iuie e?iaioa/aieyie. Iaeaieaa iianiu e?iaieceeyiey a
aieiaiie iica.

3) Iee?ioee?eoeyoi?ii – aaiaoiiiue oei – i?aiaeaaeaao
iee?ioee?eoeyoi?iay e?iaioi/eainoue, aaiaoiiu iau/ii iaianneaiua, ?aaeei
auaatho iianoiuie, iiaoo neioee?iaaoue ea?oeiu ino?iai aeeaioa.
E?iaieceeyiey a nonoaau ?aaeee.

4) Aaneoeeoi – io?io?iue. Iaoneiaeai ainiaeaieai a ninoaeao.

Aaiii?aae/aneea aunuiaiey neiiao?e/iu ia eiia/iinoyo e ooeiaeua, nuiue
/aoei ioa?aie/aia io ie?oaeathuae oeaie, nuiue neaaea i?eiiaeiyoa ii
e?ayi.

5) Aiaeiiaoiciue oei. Oa?aeoa?ai aeey oaeaaiaeyeoacee e
iee?iaiaeiiaoicia. Oii?iua e?iaioa/aiey, iinoiyiiu eieaeecaoeee.

Eeanneoeeaoeey

1. O?iiaioeeoiiaoee.

2. O?iiaioeeoiiaiee.

3. Ia?ooaiey eiaaoeyoeeiiiiai aaiinoaca.

4. Ia?ooaiey aaiinoaca ninoaeenoiai aaiaca.

O?IIAIOeEOIIAOEE

Yoi ana – ia?ooaiey aaiinoaca, iaoneiaeaiiua ea/anoaaiiie
iaiieiioeaiiinoueth eee aeenooieoeeae e?iayiuo ieanoeiie. Auaatho
a?iaeaeaiiua e i?eia?eoaiiua. A iaia?aia o?iiaioeeoia ionoonoaoao ?yae
aeeeii?ioaeiia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ii?iaeueiie aa?aaaoeee e aaeaacee.
Aaiaoe/anee iaoneiaeaiiue aeaoeoeeo oeeeeiieneaaiacu aaaeao e ia?ooaieyi
IA F 2 e IA F E. Anoue ii?aaeaeaiiay naycue n ecauoeii a o?iiaioeeoao
aaeaieeaooeeeeacu e ecauoi/iiai iaeiieaiey oeAIO. Eeeie/anee i?iyaeyaony
iee?ioee?eoeyoi?iui oeiii e?iaioi/eainoe, ia?aciaaiea iaoaoee e
yeoeiicia ia eiaea, iieiaeeoaeueiie i?iaie n iaiaeaoeie, ueiea, aaii/iie
i?iaie (eo eo/oa i?iaiaeeoue iaae einoueth). Iiaoi?iua iiniaua e
aeaniaaua e?iaioa/aiey, iaii?aaee, i/aiue iianiu aeeeoaeueiua iaoi/iua
e?iaioe/aiey e e?iaioa/aiey a iaiei/eo iicaa e a nao/aoeo aeac.

Aeeaaiinoeea:

I?iau ia ?acenoaioiinoue eaieey?ia. Ii?aaeaeaiea a?aiaie e?iaioa/aiey.
Iee?ineiie/aneia enneaaeiaaiea o?iiaioeeoia. Ii?aaeaeaiea aaeaacee
o?iiaioeeoia ia noaeea. Ii?aaeaeaiea aa?aaaoeee o?iiaioeeoia iiae
aicaeaenoaeai AAeO. Eco/aiea ?aaeoeee aunaiaiaeaeaiey (n aae?aiaeeiii,
AAeO). Oaeei ia?acii aeeaaiic ooi/iyaony.

INIIAIUA CAAIEAAAIEss

O?iiainoaiey Aeainiaia. Aieueoea ?acia?u o?iiaioeeoia, ii iie
ooieoeeiiaeueii iaiieiioeaiiu. Aiiiaeey Iyy-Oaaaeeia. Aaeaacey ia?ooaia
a aieueoe noaiaie, /ai aa?aaaoeey.

I?eia?aoaiiua o?iiaioeeoiiaoee. Iniiaiua i?e/eiu: ino?ua eaeeicu,
ieaeii?ieeoa?aoeaiua caaieaaaiey, ieaeiiiay aieaciue e iae?iaeiaoeeiaiey
Aaeueaeaino?aia – i?e iineaaeieo aeaoo eiathony iaoieiae/aneea
aaiia-aeiaoeeiu (i?ioaeiu); iie ieoouaatho o?iiaioeeou eae ioooie e
ia?ooatho eo ooieoeeth. Oaeaea i?e

A12 aiaiee, o?iie/aneie ii/a/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe, iniaaiii i?e o?aiee;
i?e caaieaaaieyo ia/aie, ni/aoathueony n neiae?iiii ii?oaeueiie
aeia?oaicee, AeAN-neiae?iiii. Ianneaiua o?ainoocee e?iae e ieaciu.
Aeiioe?aic. Eaea?noaaiiua e oiene/aneea aicaeaenoaey, iniaaiii
ianoa?ieaeiua i?ioeaiainiaeeoaeueiua i?aia?aou, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
aoeaoeenaeeoeeeiaay eeneioa, oaeaea iaiaaa?ei, eo?aioee, yooeeeei,
aieueoea aeicu oo?inaieaea, aieiacei. Iiuiue, ii e?aoeia?aiaiiue
oaiaoaoaeue aa?aaaoeee – aeeiaieue.

IA?OOAIEss AAIINOACA NINOAeENOIAI AAIACA

Ianeaaenoaaiiua:

1. Aaiaiaeiiu – ninoaeenoua iiooiee, n?aaee eioi?uoano?a/athony oi?iu,
eiiaaea aeathuea eieaeueiua e?iaioa/aiey aneaaenoaea enoii/aiey eee
ainiaeaiey ninoaeenoie noaiee. Eieaeecaoeey – eiaea, neecenoua iaiei/ee,
eiiaaea ai aioo?aiieo i?aaiao. Ea/aiea iia?aoeaiia, eeai –
?aioaaiioa?aiey.

2. Nieeoa?iua aaiaoiiu n o?iiaioeeoiiaieae e iaueie eiaaoeyoeeiiiuie
ia?ooaieyie: aieaciue Eacaaaoa – Iy??eia. A iniiaiii i?iyaeyaony o
aeaoae iee?ioee?eoeyoi?iie e?iaioi/eainoueth. *aua ia eiaea, ?aaeei ai
aioo?aiieo i?aaiao. O?iiaioeeoiiaiey ec-ca nieaeaiey n?iea aeecie
o?iiaioeeoia. Aiciiaeai eiioiiue iaoaieci. Ea/aiea oaeia aea.
Aeeaaiinoeea yoeo aaiaoii i?inoa i?e ia?oaeiuo eieaeecaoeeyo,
cao?oaeiaia i?e eieaeecaoeee a i?aaiao, ia?aaeei a ninoaeao ia/aie. A
yoeo neo/ayo OCAe, yiaeineiiey, aiaeia?aoey. ?aaeeiecioiiiia
enneaaeiaaiea.

3. Aaii??aae/aneea oaeaaiaeyeoacee: aieaciue ?yiaeth – Inea?a – Aaaa?a.
Yoi iaeaieaa /anoay aaciiaoey ianeaaenoaaiiiai aaiaca. Enoii/aiea noaiee
e ?anoe?aiea i?inaaoa ninoaeia. Iaaeinoaoie eieeaaaia a
noayiaeioaeeaeueiii neia. A ?aiiai aeaoneii aic?anoa oaeaaiaeyeoacee
iau/ii ia aeaeiu, i?iyaeythony e 6-10 aiaeai. *aua ia ia?aoiaeiuo /anoyo
aoa e e?ueueyo iina. aoaao, iaae a?iayie, ia aioo?aiiae iiaa?oiinoe uae,
ycuea. neecenoie iina, caoai iiaoo auoue aacaea.

3 oeia oaeaaiaeyeoacee:

1) ?aiiee – iaaieueoea, iai?aaeeueiie oi?iu iyoiuoee.

2) I?iiaaeooi/iue – iaaieueoea ninoaeenoua “iao/ee”.

C) Oceiaaoue oei a aeaea y?ei-e?aniuo, e?oaeuo e iaaeueiuo ocaeeia 1-3
ii, eioi?ua aunooiatho ia 1-3 ii.

O eeoe noa?oa 25 eao iiaoo auoue ana o?e oeia. I?e iaaeaaeeaaiee
aeaaeiatho.

Iaeaieaa /anoua eeeie/aneea i?iyaeaiey – iiniaua e?iaioa/aiey ?acee/iie
eioaineaiinoe. Ai aioo?aiieo i?aaiao a?oa?ei-aaiiciua aiaa?eciu, /aua a
eaaeeo, i?iyaeythony iaeuoeie, ?aaea a ia/aie, naeacaiea, ii/eao.

Ea/aiea

Aeeaoa – iaeuecy aeeiaieue, ino?ua aethaea, iniaaiii niaea?aeauea oenon.
Iaeuecy aeacaa?aaaiou, a oii /enea anieiei, eo?aioee e o.ae.
?aoeeiiaeueiia o?oaeiono?ienoai – aac aieueoeo oece/aneeo ia?aocie. Ia
?aeiiaiaeoaony oaiiiiaaea iina, aieaa oeaeaniia?acii naeaaeeaaiea aai
iaaeoouie iaeueoeaie ?aceiiauo ia?/aoie. Ianoiia i?ioaiea 5-8%
yineeii-aieiieai?iiiaie eeneioie. Ii aeeciaiiui iieacaieyi – ioneieea
neecenoie. A eaeie – oi noaiaie yiae?ienii a/i 2 ie ii 2 ?aca a aeaiue.
Iauaoa?aiaaoe/aneea ia?ii?eyoey iaeiyooaeoeaiu. Eiiaaea iiiiaatho
iieiaua ai?iiiu, ii ?aaeeeaeueiiai ea/aiey iao.

I?eia?aoaiiua

Aaii??aae/aneee aaneoeeo (aieaciue Oaeieyei-Aaiioa). A iniiaa ?acaeoea
iiiaeanoaaiiiai iee?ii/aaiaiai ie?io?iiaiaaneoeeoa ec – ca iia?aaeaeaiey
noaiie eiiieaenaie aioeaai – aioeoaei – eiiieaiaio. Ia?ooaiey
i?aeiouanoaaiii ii oeio aeia?eiaaoeyoeee. A eeeieea 5 iniiaiuo
neiae?iiia:

1. Eiaeiue.

2. Nonoaaiue.

3. Aaaeiieiaeueiue.

4. Ii/a/iue.

5. Ceiea/anoaaiiue.

Eiaeiue – iaeaieaa /anoue. I?iyaeyaony ia eiia/iinoyo, yaiaeeoeao, ?aaea
ia ooeiaeua naaiaioa?iie iaioeacii – aaii??aae/aneie nuiueth. Nuiue
iiiiii?oia, iie?uaaaony ei?i/eaie, inoaaeyao iinea naay ieaiaioaoeeth,
eiaao ainiaeeoaeueioth iniiao, a oyaeaeuo neo/ayo ineiaeiyaony
oeaio?aeueiuie iae?icaie. Nuiue i?e iaaeaaeeaaiee ia en/acaao.

Nonoaaiue neiae?ii /anoi ano?a/aaony aianoa n eiaeiui. Aiee a e?oiiuo
nonoaaao ?aciie eioaineaiinoe, /a?ac ianeieueei aeiae iiaoo en/aciooue,
ii i?e iiaie aieia aunuiaiee aiiaue aicieeatho.

Aaaeiieiaeueiue /aua auaaao o aeaoae, o 1/3 yaeyaony aaaeouei a eeeieea.
Neeueiua aiee a aeeaioa, iinoiyiiua eee noaaoeiia?aciua, iaoneiaeaiu
e?iaieceeyieyie; iiaoo i?iyaeoueny e?iaaaie ?aioie, iaeaiie, naaaeae
e?iaueth a eaea. Aeeeony neiae?ii 2 – 5 aeiae, iiaeao auoue iiauoaiea
oaiia?aoo?u, eaeeioeeoic, iiauoaiea NIY, iiaeao auoue
iinoaaii??aae/aneay aiaiey.

Ii/a/iue neiae?ii o 1/2 – 1/3 aieueiuo. *aua ii oeio ino?iai eee
o?iie/aneiai aeiia?oeiiao?eoa, i?iyaeyaony aaiaoo?eae, i?ioaeio?eae,
oeeeeiae?o?eae, a?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oaicey ia oa?aeoa?ia, iiaeao auoue
iao?ioe/aneee neiae?ii. O iaeioi?uo aicieeaao o?aiey a oa/aiee 2 – o
eao. *anoi iiauoaii NIY, oaiia?aoo?a, aeia?oea?eiiaaiaiey.

Ceiea/anoaaiiay oi?ia eneeth/eoaeueii o aeaoae n xe. IetaIis.
Cia/eoaeueii ?aaea oea?aa?aeueiay e eaai/iay oi?ia aieacie Oaeieyei –
Aaiioa. I?e oea?aa?aeueiie aieiaiua aiee, iaieiaeci, yieeaioeoi?iiua
i?eiaaeee. I?e eaai/iie iaeuoea, oneeaiea eaai/iiai ?enoiea,
e?iaioa?eaiuea.

Aeeaaiic

A e?iae a 1,5 – 3 ?aca iiauoai oaeoi? Aeeeea?aiaea, oae eae
noeioee?oaony aeoeaiinoue yiaeioaeey. Aeia?oea?eiiaaiaiey, iiauoaiea
aeueoa – 2 e aaiia – aeiaoeeiia – ii iei ioeaieaaaony oyaeanoue.
Ii?aaeaeaiea a e?iae e?eiaeiaoeeiia (ioeaaeaeaiea nuai?ioee n 37 a?aae.N
aei ia?aciaaiey aaeeiaiai inaaeea: iiiai 32 – 34 a?aae., n?aaeia 20 – 22
a?aae., iaei 4 a?aae.). Iniiaiui yaeyaony eiioiiaeiaoeei I. Ii?aaeaeaiea
aioeo?iiaeia – 3 e aaia?eii?acenoaioiinoe ieaciu.

Aa?eaiou oa/aiey: iieieaiiniia, ino?ia, caoyaeiia, ?aoeeaeeae?othuaa e
o?iie/aneia.

Ineiaeiaiey:

Eeoa/iay iai?ioiaeeiinoue, ia?oi?aoeey, ia?eoiieo, iaie?aaoeo,
iinoaaii??aae/aneay aiaiey, o?iiaicu e eioa?eou i?aaiia, AeAN –
neiae?ii.

Ea/aiea

Ainieoaeecaoeey. Iinoaeueiue ?aaeei ia iaiaa 3 iaaeaeue. Eneeth/eoue ec
ieue iaeeaaoiua aeea?aaiu, eiiaaea ia?aua 2 aeiy iieiia aieiaeaiea e
i/enoeoaeueiua eeeciu. Inoi?iaeii n eaea?noaaie, iniaaiii n aeoaieiaie
a?oiiu A, aioeaeioeeaie e noeueoaieeaieaeaie, aioeaenoaieiiua ia
iiiiaatho. Iaeiyooaeoeaiu anei?ooei e i?aia?aou eaeueoeey aeey
aniiiiaaoaeueiiai ea/aiey. Aetheiei?oeeieaeu iiaeii, ii a eiiaeiaoeee n
ae?oaeie i?aia?aoaie. Iniiaiie i?aia?ao aaia?ei. I?eiaiyoue iiae
eiio?ieai naa?ouaaaiinoe. Ia/aeueiay aeica 300 – 400 AAe/ea, oi anoue
ieiei 20 oun. – 30 oun. a/a eaiaeueii, eeai i/e – oae eae aeaaea eo/oa,
a ia?aaeithth a?thoioth noaieo /a?ac eaaeaeua 4 /ana. Anee iao yooaeoa –
aeico iiaeii oaaee/eoue ia 100 AAe/ea a aeaiue. Oyaeaeua oi?iu i?e
ieceii niaea?aeaiee aioeo?iiaeia – 3; aaia?ei 500 AAe/ea + i?aia?aou
e?iae (200 – 300 ie naaaeae eee caii?iaeaiiie ieaciu, eeai
aaiieiioeaio?ao aioeo?iaeia – 3). Aeeanie aaniieacai. Yineeii –
aieiieai?iiiaoth eeneioo iaeuecy. I?e ?acaeoee aeiia?oeiiao?eoa +
eiioiiaeai?annaiou. Ec aniiiiaaoaeueiuo iaoiaeia ieaciioi?ac 7 – 11 e
ieaciu; ca 1 naain – 1 e. I?ioeaiiieacaiu i?eaeaee e aeea?ae/aneea
i?iau.

AeAN – NEIAe?II

Yoi ianiaoeeoe/aneee iauaiaoieiae/aneee i?ioeann, naycaiiue n
iinooieaieai a e?iaioie aeoeaaoi?ia naa?ouaaiey e?iae e aeoeaaoi?ia
o?iiaioeeoia n ia?aciaaieai I – o?iiaeia n aeoeaaoeeae e enoiuaieai
nenoai, i?e yoii a e?iae ia?acoaony iiiaeanoai iee?inaonoeia e aa?aaaoia
eeaoie, aeiee?oaony iee?ioee?eoeyoeey a i?aaiao, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
aeiienee, aoeeaeico, aeoaieie aeenooieoeee i?aaiia, eioieneeaoeee
i?aaiecia i?iaeoeoaie aaeeiaiai ?aniaaea e ia?aaeei iiyaeaieth aoi?e/iuo
e?iaieceeyiee.

I?e/eiu

1. Eioaeoeee, iniaaiii aaia?aeeciaaiiua (nainen).

2. Ana aeaeu oieia.

3. O?aaiaoe/aneea e oe?o?ae/aneea aiaoaoaeuenoaa, ianneaiua
aaiio?anoocee.

4. Ana oa?ieiaeueiua ninoiyiey.

5. Ino?ue aioo?eninoaeenoue aaiieec.

6. Aeooa?neay iaoieiaey (ioneieea ieaoeaiou, aa ?o/iia ioaeaeaiea,
yiaieey ieiei?iaeiuie aiaeaie e ae?.).

7. Iiooiee, iniaaiii aaiiaeanoicu.

8. Aeano?oeoeaiua i?ioeannu a ia/aie, ii/eao, iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeaca.

9. Oa?ie/aneea e oeie/aneea iaeiae.

10. Nenoaiiua eiioiieiiieaeniua caaieaaaiey.

11. Aeea?ae/aneea ?aaeoeee.

12. O?iiaioeeoiiaie/aneay io?io?a: aieaciue Iaoeiaeoea.

13. Iaeeueiua e?iaioa/aiey.

14. Ianneaiua ia?aeeaaiey e?iae.

15. Io?aaeaiea aaiieiaaoee?othueie yaeaie, ciaeiui yaeii.

16. Aeeeoaeueiay aeiieey.

17. Iai?aaeeueiia i?eiaiaiea oea?eiieeoeeia.

Oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a iaoiaaiaca caieiaao ia?aciaaiea a ninoaeenoii
?onea o?iiaeia e enoiuaiea aaiieiaaoee?othuae nenoaiu. Oeaiaaie
o?iiaiieanoei iinooiaao ec iia?aaeaeaiiuo eeaoie e oeaiae. Ec eeaoie
e?iae iaeaieaa aeoeaiua i?iaeooeaiou iiiioeeou. Oaeaea oeaiaaua i?ioaacu
e eiaaoeacu aaeoa?ee e ciaeiiai yaea. Iiauoaiea aa?aaaoeee o?iiaioeeoia.
O?aaiaoecaoeey y?eo?ioeeoia e eo aioo?eninoaeenoue aaiieec. Aeoeaaoeey
eiiieaiaioa, oea?eiieeoe/aneie, eaeeae?aei – eeieiiaie nenoai.
“Aoii?aeueiue i?ioacee ac?ua” – a e?iae aieueoia eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoia
aaeeiaiai ?aniaaea, a iie oiene/iu. Nia/aea ia?acothony eiiieaenu
oea?eiiaaia n oea?ei – iiiiia?ii, caoai i?iaeoeou aeaa?aaeaoeee oea?eia.
Oyaeanoue caaeneo io noaiaie ia?ooaiey iee?ioee?eoeyoeee. N?ua
eaieeey?iie aaiiaeeethoeee. Aaiaoie?eo a iee?ioee?eoeyoi?iii ?onea
iiauoaaony aei 45 – 50%, aai iiauoaiea ia 10% iiauoaao a 10 ?ac
caeoii?eo ninoaeia.

Oa/aiea iiaeao auoue ino?ui, caoyaeiui, o?iie/aneei, ?aoeeaeeae?othuei e
eaoaioiui. 4 noaaeee:

1) Aeia?eiaaoeyoeey e aa?aaaoeey o?iiaioeeoia.

2) Ia?aoiaeiay n ia?anoathuae eiaaoeiiaoeae e o?iiaioeeoiiaieae.

3) Aeoaieay eiaaoeyoeey.

4) Ainnoaiiaeoaeueiay (ineiaeiaiee eee enoiaeia).

Iiieii iniiaiuo neiae?iiia + aua aaiieiaaoeyoeeiiiue oie. A ia/aeueiie
noaaeee aeia?eeiaoe/aneee oei ?aaeoeee ninoaeia –> iiaeao nio?aiyoueny
AAe, oeeaiioe/aneay ie?anea eiaee, aeaaeiinoue, i?aii?iinoue,
iioieiaeaiea. Caoai aeaoeaio?aeecaoeey e?iaiia?auaiey, ia?ac ninoaeia,
neaeaeae – neiae?ii. O?iiaioeeoiiaiey iio?aaeaiey. ?ac?ooaiea
y?eo?ioeeoia. Aaii??aae/aneee neiae?ii. ?acaeoea iinoaaii??aae/aneie
ino?ie aiaiee, a oyaeaeuo neo/ayo aaii??aae/aneiai oiea. Aeieaaea
iee?ioee?eoeyoeee a i?aaiao e eo aeeno?ioey (/anoi a eaaeeo). Neiae?ii
ino?ie ii/a/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe. Iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaiea iaaeii/a/ieeia
e aeiioeca.

Eaai?aoi?iay aeeaaiinoeea

IAeO 100%. Nieaeaiea aioeo?iiaeia – 3 – 89%, nieaeaiea o?iiaioeeoia 89%,
i?ioaiei – noeueoaoiue oano iieiaeeoaeai a 89%, i?io?iiaei nieaeaaony a
82%. Oaeeeiaiea o?iiaeiiaiai a?aiaie 76%, nieaeaiea oea?eiiaaia 71%.
Eiiaaea ?aaeeiioeeaeaeiia enneaaeiaaiea n ia/aiiui oea?eiiaaiii –
ioeaiea noaiaie ia?ooaiey iee?ioee?eoeyoeee. I?e aeeeoaeueiii oa/aiee
oeaaio?iiaicu e eoaie/aneea eciaiaiey a i?aaiao. Nia?oiinoue 30 – 50% e
aieueoa i?e ino?ii ?acaeoee.

Ea/aiea

Ai?ueaa n oieii: ?anoai?u aaia?eia, aeae?iei?oeciia, i?e nieaeaiee AAe –
IAEIENAI eee aetheiei?oeeieaeu. I?e nainena a/a aioeaeioeee. Ianneaiay
o?ainoocey naaaeacaii?iaeaiiie ieaciu 600-700 ie/noo. (oaiia?aoo?a
ieaciu 370N). I?e aiaiecaoeee y?eo?ioeeoiay acaanue eee naaaeaoeeo?aoiay
e?iaue. Aaiaoie?eo aeieaeai auoue aieaa 22%, a y?eo?ioeeou aieaa
2,5*1012 e (e?eoe/aneea /enea). A iicaeieo noaaeeyo aieueoea aeicu
eiio?eeaea, aei 5*105 a noo. Aaia?ei aaniethoii iieacai a ia?aie noaaeee
e a ia?aoiaeiie. Aeacaa?aaaiou – eo/oa o?aioae. I?e iiaeino?ii e
o?iie/aneii oa/aiee – ieaciioi?ac.

IAEAAEAIEA

Caaieaaaiey aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai o?aeoa e aeae/ii-auaiaeyueo iooae

– o?iie/aneee aaiaoeo

– oee??ic ia/aie

– aieueoay ia/aii/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue

– o?iie/aneee aano?eo

– ycaaiiay aieaciue

Caaieaaaiey ii/aauaiaeyueo iooae

– ino?ue aeiia?oeiiao?eo

– o?iie/aneee aeiia?oeiiao?eo

– o?iie/aneee ieaeiiao?eo

– o?iie/aneay ii/a/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue

O?iie/aneea ianiaoeeoe/aneea caaieaaaiey eaaeeo

– o?iie/aneee a?iioeo

– a?iioeaeueiay anoia

– o?iie/aneia eaai/iia na?aeoea

– iiaaiiiee

· e?oiiciay iiaaiiiey

· i/aaiaua iiaaiiiee

· eaoa?aeueiay iiaaiiiey

· a?eiiiciay iiaaiiiey

– ieaa?eou

· ooaa?eoeaciue ieaa?eo

· ieaa?eo i?e ino?ie iiaaiiiee

· auiioiie ieaa?eo i?e eioa?eoa eaaeiai

· ?aeiaua ieaa?eou

Aaiaoieiaey

– eaeeicu

· ino?ue ieaeiaeanoiue eaeeic (aac i?eciaeia auc?aaaiey eeaoie)

· ino?ue ieaeiaeanoiue eaeeic (n i?eciaeaie auc?aaaiey eeaoie)

· i?iieaeioeeoa?iue eaeeic

· iiiiaeanoiue eaeeic

· ino?ue eeioiaeanoiue eaeeic

· o?iie/aneee ieaeieaeeic

· iieeoeeoaiey (y?eoyiey, aieaciue Aaeaca)

· aeia?iea/anoaaiiue noaeaeeaie/aneee eaeeic (ieaeioea?ic)

· o?iie/aneee eeioieaeeic

– aiaiee

· aeaeaciaeaoeoeeoiay aiaiey

· A12-oieeaaiaeaoeoeeoiay aiaiey

· aeiiieanoe/aneay aiaiey

· aa?aioeioeeoic

· aaiieeoe/aneay aiaiey

· iee?inoa?ioeeoa?iay aiaiey

· aetheici-6-oinoaoaeaaeae?iaaiaciay aiaiey

· aieaciue Ia?eeaoaaa-Ieeaee

– i?eia?aoaiiua aiaiee

· aooieiioiiay aaiieeoe/aneay aiaiey

· aaii??aae/aneea aeeaoacu

– o?iiaioeeoiiaoee

· ia?ooaiey aaiinoaca ninoaeenoiai aaiaca

· AeAN-neiae?ii

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