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Iiaeii ee n/eoaoue ae?onu aeeauie ?

ssaeythony ee ae?onu aeeauie ?

Niaeanii Eueaiao, «i?aaieci – iaeay iacaaeneiay aaeeieoea
eioaa?e?iaaiiuo e acaeiinaycaiiuo no?oeoo? e ooieoeee». O i?inoaeoeo, oi
anoue o iaeiieeaoi/iuo eiaiii eeaoea yaeyaony iacaaeneiie aaeeieoeae,
eiuie neiaaie, i?aaieciii. E eeaoi/iua i?aaieciu – ieoioiiae?ee,
o?iiiniiu e oei?iieanou – yoi ia i?aaieciu, eai iie ia yaeythony
iacaaeneiuie. Iieo/aaony, /oi anee neaaeiaaoue ii?aaeaeaieth, aeaiiui
Eueaiaui, ae?onu ia yaeythony i?aaieciaie, oae eae ia iaeaaeatho
iacaaeneiinoueth: aeey au?aueaaiey e ?aieeeaoeee aaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea
ioaeia aeeaay eeaoea.

A oi aea a?aiy, o iiiaieeaoi/iuo aeaeia iacaaeneii io oiai, aeeaioiua
eee ?anoaiey, ioaeaeueiua eeiee eeaoie ia iiaoo yaiethoeeiie?iaaoue
iacaaeneii ae?oa io ae?oaa; neaaeiaaoaeueii, eo eeaoee ia yaeythony
i?aaieciaie. Aeey oiai /oiau eciaiaiea auei yaiethoeeiiii cia/eiui, iii
aeieaeii auoue ia?aaeaii iiaiio iieieaieth eiaeeaeaeooiia. A
niioaaonoaee n yoei ?annoaeaeaieai i?aaieci i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
yeaiaioa?ioth aaeeieoeo iaeioi?iai iai?a?uaiiai ?yaea ni naiae
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie yaiethoeeiiiie enoi?eae

Ae?on ia?aoaao ioiineoaeueii iacaaeneioth yaiethoeeiiioth enoi?eth
aeaaiaea?y aai niiniaiinoe e aaeaioaoeee a iai?aaeaiee, aaaeouei e
i?eia?aoaieth ei niiniaiinoe ia?aaeaaaoueny io oicyeia e oicyeio. Ii
iiaeao ia?aaeeoue eeaoeo eee i?aaieci, a eioi?uo ia?aceoe?oao;
oaeoe/anee ae?on /anoi «yenieoaoe?oao» eeaoeo. Iaeei ae?on iiaeao
ano?a/aoueny a ?aciuo aeaeao, ?iaeao e oeiao e oaeaea iaeei e oio aea
ae?on iiaeao ia?aaeaaaoueny io ?anoaiee ianaeiiui e ?aciiiaeaoueny a
eeaoeao oao e ae?oaeo. Ae?on, iaeaaeathuee niioaaonoaothuae
i?eniiniaeyaiinoueth, iiaeao eniieueciaaoue ?aciiia?aciua yaiethoeeiiiua
ieoe. Oaeei ia?acii, ae?on, eiia/ii, iaeaaeaao aieueoae
iacaaeneiinoueth, /ai ethaay eeaoi/iay i?aaiaeea. Oi anoue, a
yaiethoeeiiiii ieaia ae?on a aieueoae noaiaie i?aaieci, /ai o?iiiniia
eee aeaaea eeaoea iiiaieeaoi/iiai aeeaioiiai, oioy ooieoeeiiaeueii ii
cia/eoaeueii iaiaa iacaaenei, /ai ethaay oaeay eeaoea.

E a oi aea a?aiy, iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue aeaiioth i?iaeaio n oi/ee c?aiey
ae?oaiai ii?aaeaeaiey: iaoa?eae yaeyaony aeeaui anee, aoaeo/e
eciee?iaaiiui, ii nio?aiyao naith niaoeeoe/aneoth eiioeao?aoeeth oae,
/oi yoa eiioeao?aoeey iiaeao auoue ?aeioaa?e?iaaia, oi anoue aiiaue
aeeth/aia a oeeee, a eioi?ii o/anoaoao aaiaoe/aneia aauanoai: yoi
ioiaeaeanoaeyao aeeciue n iaee/eai iacaaeneiiai niaoeeoe/aneiai
naii?aieeoee?othuaainy niiniaa i?aaiecaoeee. Niaoeeoe/aneay
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue iniiaaiee ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou oiai eee eiiai aaia
iiaeao eiie?iaaoueny; aai – yoi iaeay /anoue caiania eioi?iaoeee,
eioi?ie ?aniieaaaao aeeaie i?aaieci. A ea/anoaa oanoa ia aeeaia aeaiiia
auoa ii?aaeaeaiea i?aaeeaaaao aini?iecaaaeaiea a ?acee/iuo eeaoi/iuo
eeieyo e a ?yaea iieieae i?aaieciia. Ae?on, niaeanii yoiio oanoo, aeeaie
oi/ii oae aea, eae e ethaie ae?oaie o?aaiaio aaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea,
/oi aai iiaeii ecaea/ue ec eeaoee, aiiaue aaanoe a aeeaoth eeaoeo e
/oi i?e yoii ii aoaeao eiie?iaaoueny a iae e noaiao oioy au ia iaeioi?ia
a?aiy /anoue aa ianeaaenoaaiiiai aiia?aoa. I?e yoii ia?aaea/a ae?oniiai
aaiiia ninoaaeyao iniiaiie niune nouanoaiaaiey yoeo oi?i – ?acoeueoao eo
niaoeeaeecaoeee a i?ioeanna ioai?a. Iiyoiio niaoeeaeece?iaaiiinoue
ae?onia eae ia?aiin/eeia ioeeaeiiauo eeneio aeaao aiciiaeiinoue n/eoaoue
ae?onu «aieaa aeeauie», /ai eaeea eeai o?aaiaiou aaiaoe/aneiai
iaoa?eaea, e «aieaa i?aaieciaie», /ai ethaua eeaoi/iua i?aaiaeeu,
aeeth/ay o?iiiniiu e aaiu.

No?iaea iinooeaou Eioa

Eaeiau aea oa iniiaiua iieiaeaiey, noi?ioee?iaaiiua ?iaa?oii Eioii
(1843-1910), eioi?uo aeieaeai i?eaea?aeeaaoueny iee?iaeieia i?e
eaaeaeii iaia?oaeaiee iaecaanoiiai aicaoaeeoaey ? *oi iiaeao neoaeeoue
aeieacaoaeuenoaii, /oi eiaiii ii yaeyaony i?e/eiie aeaiiiai
eioaeoeeiiiiai caaieaaaiey ? Aio yoe o?e e?eoa?ey:

Iaiaeiie?aoiia iieo/aiea /enoie eoeueoo?u aicaoaeeoaey, acyoiai ec
i?aaiecia aieueiiai.

Aicieeiiaaiea oi/ii oaeiai aea eee noiaeiiai caaieaaaiey (eae ii
oa?aeoa?o oa/aiey, oae e ii aucuaaaiui ei iaoieiae/aneei eciaiaieyi) i?e
eioeoee?iaaiee caei?iaiai i?aaiecia eoeueoo?ie i?aaeiieaaaaiiai
aicaoaeeoaey.

Iiyaeaiea a i?aaiecia /aeiaaea eee aeeaioiiai iinea eo ca?aaeaiey
aeaiiui aicaoaeeoaeai anaaaea iaeieo e oao aea niaoeeoe/aneeo caueoiuo
aauanoa. I?e eiioaeoa eiioiiie nuai?ioee e?iae n aicaoaeeoaeai ec
eoeueoo?u iineaaeiee aeieaeai oa?youe naie iaoiaaiiua naienoaa.

Aeey nia?aiaiiie ae?onieiaee oa?aeoa?ii ao?iia ?acaeoea e oe?ieia
i?eiaiaiea naiuo ?acee/iuo iaoiaeee – eae aeieiae/aneeo (aeeth/ay
aaiaoe/aneea), oae e oeceei-oeie/aneeo.. Iie eniieuecothony i?e
onoaiiaeaiee iiauo, aei neo ii? aua iaecaanoiuo ae?onia, e i?e eco/aiee
aeieiae/aneeo naienoa e no?iaiey oaea iaia?oaeaiiuo aeaeia.

Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua oai?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey aeatho iau/ii aaaeiua
naaaeaiey, eioi?ua eniieuecothony a iaaeeoeeia, a iaeanoe aeeaaiinoeee
eee i?e aeoaieii aiaeeca i?ioeannia ae?oniie eioaeoeee. Aaaaeaiea iiauo
aeaenoaaiiuo iaoiaeia ae?onieiaee naycaii, eae i?aaeei, n auaeathueieny
ioe?uoeyie.

Oae iai?eia?, iaoiae au?aueaaiey ae?onia a ?acaeaathuainy eo?eiii
yia?eiia, aia?aua i?eiaiaiiue A. I. Aoae?ioii e A. Aeae. Aoaeiyn/o?ii a
1931 aiaeo, aue n eneeth/eoaeueiui oniaoii eniieueciaai i?e eco/aiee
ae?ona a?eiia.

I?ia?ann oeceei-oeie/aneeo iaoiaeia, a /anoiinoe iaoiaea
oeaio?eooae?iaaiey, i?eaae a 1935 aiaeo e aiciiaeiinoe e?enoaeioaoeee
ae?ona oaaa/iie iicaeee (AOI) ec niea aieueiuo ?anoaiee, a a
iineaaenoaee e e onoaiiaeaieth aoiaeyueo a aai ninoaa aaeeia. Yoei aue
aeai ia?aue oie/ie e eco/aieth no?iaiey e aeioeiee ae?onia.

A 1939 aiaeo A. A. A?aeai e A. ?onea aia?aua i?eiaieee aeey eco/aiey
ae?onia yeaeo?iiiue iee?ineii. Aaaaeaiea yoiai aiia?aoa a i?aeoeeo
icia/aei enoi?e/aneee ia?aeii a ae?onieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo,
iineieueeo iiyaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue oaeaeaoue – oioy a oa aiaeu aua e
iaaeinoaoi/ii /aoei – ioaeaeueiua /anoeoeu ae?ona, ae?eiiu.

A 1941 aiaeo A.Oa?no onoaiiaee, /oi ae?on a?eiia i?e ecaanoiuo oneiaeyo
aucuaaao aaaethoeiaoeeth (neeaeaaiea e auiaaeaiea a inaaeie) e?aniuo
e?iayiuo oaeaoe (y?eo?ioeeoia). Yoei auea iieiaeaia iniiaa aeey
eco/aiey acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo iiaa?oiinoiuie no?oeoo?aie ae?ona e
y?eo?ioeeoia, a oaeaea aeey ?ac?aaioee iaeiiai ec iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo
iaoiaeia aeeaaiinoeee.

Ei?aiiie ia?aeii e ae?onieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo i?iecioae a 1949 a.,
eiaaea Aeae. Yiaea?no, O. Oyeea?o e O. ?iaaeino oaeaeinue ?aciiiaeeoue
ae?on iieeiieaeeoa a eeaoeao eiaee e iuooe /aeiaa/aneiai ca?iaeuoa. Iie
aeiaeeenue ?ac?anoaiey eoni/eia oeaie ia eneonnoaaiiie ieoaoaeueiie
n?aaea. Eeaoi/iua (oeaiaaua) eoeueoo?u auee eioeoee?iaaiu ae?onii
iieeiieaeeoa, eioi?ue aei yoiai eco/aee eneeth/eoaeueii ia iaacueyiao e
eeoue i/aiue ?aaeei ia iniaii aeaea e?un.

Ae?on a /aeiaa/aneeo eeaoeao, au?auaiiuo aia iaoa?eineiai i?aaiecia,
oi?ioi ?aciiiaeaeny e aucuaae oa?aeoa?iua iaoieiae/aneea eciaiaiey.
Iaoiae eoeueoo?u eeaoie (aeeeoaeueiia nio?aiaiea e au?aueaaiea a
eneonnoaaiiuo ieoaoaeueiuo n?aaeao eeaoie, auaeaeaiiuo ec i?aaiecia
/aeiaaea e aeeaioiuo) aue aiineaaenoaee oniaa?oainoaiaai e oi?iuai
iiiaeie enneaaeiaaoaeyie e noae, iaeiiaoe, iaeiei ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo e
?acoeueoaoeaiuo aeey eoeueoeae?iaaiey ae?onia. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio aieaa
aeinooiiiio e aeaoaaiio iaoiaeo iiyaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aoue
ae?onu a ioiineoaeueii /enoii aeaea, /aai iaeuecy auei aeinoe/ue a
noniaiceyo ec i?aaiia iiaeaoeo aeeaioiuo. Aaaaeaiea iiaiai iaoiaea
icia/aei ianiiiaiiue i?ia?ann ia oieueei a aeeaaiinoeea ae?oniuo
caaieaaaiee, ii e a iieo/aiee i?eaeai/iuo aaeoeei. Ii aeae oaeaea
iaieioea ?acoeueoaou e a aeieiae/aneeo e aeioeie/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo
ae?onia.

A 1956 aiaeo oaeaeinue iieacaoue, /oi iineoaeai eioaeoeeiiiinoe ae?ona
yaeyaony niaea?aeauayny a iai ioeeaeiiaay eeneioa. A a 1957 aiaeo
A.Aecaen e Aeae. Eeiaeaiai ioe?uee eioa?oa?ii, eioi?ue iicaieee
iauynieoue iiiaea aeieiae/aneea yaeaiey, iaaethaeaaiua a ioiioaieyo
iaaeaeo ae?onii e eeaoeie – oicyeiii eee i?aaieciii – oicyeiii.

N. A?aiia? e Ae. Oi?i aaaee a oaoieeo yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee iaoiae
iaaaoeaiiai eiio?anoiiai ie?aoeaaiey, naeaeaaoee aiciiaeiui eco/aiea
oiieiai no?iaiey ae?onia, a /anoiinoe eo no?oeoo?iuo yeaiaioia
(noauaaeeieoe).

A 1964 aiaeo oaea oiiieiaaoeeny iaie ?aiaa aia?eeaineee ae?onieia
Aaeaeocae n nio?oaeieeaie aeieacae eioaeoeeiiiue oa?aeoa? ?yaea
o?iie/aneeo caaieaaaiee oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie nenoaiu /aeiaaea e
aeeaioiuo. Ii eco/ae iaaeaaii iaia?oaeaiiua naiaia?aciua ae?onu, eeoue a
iaeioi?uo /a?oao noiaeea n ?aiaa ecaanoiuie.

A oi aea a?aiy aia?eeaineee aaiaoee Aa?oo Aeaiaa?a iaia?oaeeaaao (a
i?ioeanna aaiaoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee aaeeia e?iae) aioeaai
nuai?ioi/iiai aaiaoeoa (aano?aeeeneee aioeaai), aauanoai,
eaeaioeoeoee?oaiia i?e iiiiue na?ieiae/aneeo oanoia. Yoiio aioeaaio
noaeaeaii auei nua?aoue aieueooth ?ieue a ae?onieiae/aneeo
enneaaeiaaieyo aaiaoeoa.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu iaeiei ec e?oiiaeoeo oniaoia ae?onieiaee iiaeii
n/eoaoue ?ane?uoea iaeioi?uo iieaeoey?ii-aeieiae/aneeo iaoaieciia
i?aa?auaiey ii?iaeueiuo eeaoie a iiooieaaua. Ia iaiueoea oniaoe auee
aeinoeaioou e a iaeanoe eco/aiey no?iaiey ae?onia e eo aaiaoeee.

Eioaeoeeiiiay aaeeieoea

Iaeiaiueoaa eiee/anoai ae?ona, niiniaiia a aeaiiii iiuoa aucaaoue
eioaeoeeth, iacuaaaony eioaeoeeiiiie aaeeieoeae.

Aeey aa ii?aaeaeaiey i?eiaiythony iau/ii aeaa iaoiaea. Ia?aue iniiaai ia
ii?aaeaeaiee 50 %-iie eaoaeueiie aeicu, eioi?ay iaicia/aaony LD 50 (io
eao. Letatis – nia?oaeueiay, dosis – aeica). Aoi?ie iaoiae onoaiaaeeaaao
/enei eioaeoeeiiiuo aaeeieoe ii /eneo aeyoae, ia?aciaaaoeony a eoeueoo?a
eeaoie.

*oi, a nouiinoe, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaee/eia LD 50 e eae iia
ii?aaeaeyaony? Enneaaeoaiue ae?oniue iaoa?eae ?acaiaeeony a niioaaonoaee
ni nieaeathueieny noaiaiyie eiioeaio?aoeee, neaaeai e?aoiuie aeanyoe:
1:10; 1:100; 1:1000 e o.ae. Eaaeaeui ec ?anoai?ia n oeacaiiuie
eiioeaio?aoeeyie ae?ona eioeoee?otho a?oiio aeeaioiuo (aeanyoue
eiaeeaeaeooiia) eee eoeueoo?o eeaoie a i?iae?eao. Iioii iaaethaeatho
aeaaeue aeeaioiuo eee eciaiaiey, i?ienoaaeoea a eoeueoo?a iiae aeeyieai
ae?ona. Noaoenoe/aneei iaoiaeii ii?aaeaeyaony noaiaiue eiioeaio?aoeee,
niiniaiay oia?oaeoue 50 % aeeaioiuo ec /enea ca?aaeaiiuo enoiaeiui
iaoa?eaeii. I?e eniieueciaaiee eoeueoo?u eeaoie neaaeoao iaeoe oaeoth
aeico ae?ona, eioi?ay i?iecaiaeeo aoaeoaeueiia aeaenoaea ia 50 %
eioeoee?iaaiiuo ath eoeueoo?. A yoii neo/aa oiio?aaeyaony nie?auaiea
OeIAe 50 (oeeoiiaoe/aneay aeica). Eia/a aiai?y, ?a/ue eaeao i oaeie
aeica ae?ona, eioi?ay aucuaaao iia?aaeaeaiea eee aeaaeue iieiaeiu
eioeoee?iaaiiuo ath eoeueoo?.

Iaoiaeii aeyoae iaeuecy iieo/eoue noaoenoe/aneea aeaiiua, ii iiaeii
onoaiiaeoue oaeoe/aneia /enei aaeeieoe ae?ona a iaoa?eaea, aeathuai
aeyoee a eoeueoo?a eeaoie. A eaeaaeueiii neo/aa oaeay aaeeieoea
ioaa/aao iaeiie ooieoeeiiaeueii iieiioeaiiie /anoeoea.

Oeo?iaaiea

Eiaeooee?oaiay ae?onii ?aaeoeey iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue ii oeio «ana eee
ie/aai» (oi anoue iaee/ea eee ionoonoaea eioaeoeee), a iiaeao auoue
au?aaeaia eiee/anoaaiii, iai?eia? i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth a?aiaie,
iaiaoiaeeiiai i?iyaeaiey eioaeoeee, eee /eneii ii?aaeaiee a neia
/oanoaeoaeueiuo eeaoie. Eiee/anoaaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea ae?oniie aeoeaiinoe
iacuaaaony oeo?iaaieai. Oeo? enoiaeiie ae?oniie noniaicee au?aaeaaony
/eneii eioaeoeeiiiuo aaeeieoe, i?eoiaeyueony ia aaeeieoeo iauaia.
Eioaeoeeiiiua ioeeaeiiaua eeneiou, iacaaeneii io oiai auaeaeaiu ee iie
ec oaaia eee ec ae?onia aeeaioiuo eee ?anoaiee, eae i?aaeei, iaeaaeatho
cia/eoaeueii iaiueoei eioaeoeeiiiui oeo?ii, /ai enoiaeiue ae?on (oi
anoue ioiioaiea /enea niaea?aeaueony a i?aia?aoa iieaeoe ioeeaeiiaie
eeneiou e /eneo eioaeoeeiiiuo aaeeieoe cia/eoaeueii aieueoa, /ai
niioaaonoaothuea aaee/eiu aeey ae?eiiia, ec eioi?uo yoe ioeeaeiiaua
eeneiou auee auaeaeaiu). Iaeiaei e i?e oeo?iaaiee naiaiaeiie ioeeaeiiaie
eeneiou e i?e oeo?iaaiee ae?eiiia aa?iyoiinoue iaoiaeaeaiey a i?iaa
n?aaeiaai /enea /anoeoe au?aaeaaony iaeiie oi?ioeie. Ionthaea neaaeoao,
/oi ae?onioth eioaeoeeth iiaeao aucaaoue oaeaea e iaeia iieaeoea
ae?oniie ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou. Eae i?aaeei, eioaeoeeiiiuie yaeythony
oieueei eioaeoiua ae?oniua AeIE e ?IE. Eneeth/aiea iaaethaeaaony i?e
iiiaeanoaaiiii ca?aaeaiee eeaoie iieaeoeaie ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou,
niaea?aeaueie iaiieiui aaiii ae?ona.

?acthie?oy neacaiiia, iiaeii i?eeoe e auaiaeo, /oi oeo? ae?oniie
noniaicee, au?aaeaiiue /eneii eioaeoeeiiiuo aaeeieoe, niaea?aeaueony a
aaeeieoea iauaia, eae i?aaeei, niioaaonoaoao /eneo ae?eiiia (eee /eneo
iieaeoe ae?oniie ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou), niiniaiuo i?e oneiaeyo aeaiiiai
iiuoa aucaaoue eioaeoeeth.

Oo?aoa eioaeoeeiiiinoe

Eae i?aaeei, /oanoaeoaeueiinoue ae?eiiia aeaiiiai ae?ona e aeaenoaeth
oao eee eiuo eiaeoeae?othueo aauanoa ii?aaeaeyaony niaoeeoe/aneeie
naienoaaie aai aaeeia, aneaaenoaea /aai iaoiaeu eiaeoeaaoeee
eioaeoeeiiiinoe, ?ac?aaioaiiua aeey aeaiiiai eiie?aoiiai ae?ona,
yooaeoeaiu eeoue a ioiioaiee aeecei?iaenoaaiiuo aio ae?onia. Eneeth/aiea
ninoaaeyao /oanoaeoaeueiinoue ae?onia e ?aioaaiianeei eo/ai, eioi?ay
caaeneo io oeia ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou ae?eiiia e aa eiee/anoaa. A iniiaa
yoie caeiiiia?iinoe eaaeeo oio oaeo, /oi aeaenoaea ?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae
i?eaiaeeo e ?ac?uao iieaeoe ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou, e aeaaea iaeiiai oaeiai
?ac?uaa /anoi auaaao aeinoaoi/ii aeey oo?aou eioaeoeeiiiiai ae?ona.
?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioia iieacuaatho, /oi iaeeea ae?onu eiaeoeae?othony
?aioaaiianeeie eo/aie cia/eoaeueii yooaeoeaiaa, oae eae aeey ieo
oa?aeoa?ia aieueoay aaee/eia ioiioaiey niaea?aeaiey a ae?eiia
ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou e niaea?aeaieth a iai aaeea, /ai aeey e?oiiuo
ae?eiiia, aieaa aiaaouo aaeeii.

Na?ieiae/aneea iaoiaeu

A oeaeyo ii?aaeaeaiey aeaea aeaiiiai ae?ona i?e eco/aiee caueoiuo
i?ioeannia a i?aaiecia aieueiiai /aeiaaea eee ca?aaeaiiiai aeeaioiiai
i?eiaiythony na?ieiae/aneea iaoiaeu. Na?ieiaey (io eao. Serum –
nuai?ioea, aeeaeeay ninoaaiay /anoue e?iae) – yoi ?acaeae eiioiieiaee,
eco/athuee ?aaeoeee aioeaaia niaoeeoe/aneeie caueoiuie aauanoaaie,
aioeoaeaie, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony a nuai?ioea e?iae. Aioeoaea iaeo?aeecotho
aeaenoaea ae?ona. Iie naycuaathony n ii?aaeaeaiiuie aioeaaiiuie
aauanoaaie, iaoiaeyueieny ia iiaa?oiinoe ae?oniuo /anoeoe. A
?acoeueoaoa naycuaaiey iieaeoe aioeoae n iiaa?oiinoiie no?oeoo?ie
ae?ona iineaaeiee oa?yao naie iaoiaaiiua naienoaa. Aeey onoaiiaeaiey
o?iaiy (eiee/anoaa) aioeoae a nuai?ioea eee ii?aaeaeaiey oeia aeaiiiai
ae?ona i?iaiaeeony ?aaeoeey iaeo?aeecaoeee ae?ona . Aa iiaeii
i?iaiaeeoue eae ia aeeaioiuo, oae e ia eoeueoo?a eeaoie.

Ieieiaeueioth eiioeaio?aoeeth nuai?ioee, niaea?aeauae aioeoaea,
aeinoaoi/ioth aeey oiai, /oiau iaeo?aeeciaaoue ae?on, ia aeaoue aio
i?iyaeoue oeeoiiaoe/aneia aeaenoaea, iacuaatho oeo?ii nuai?ioee,
iaeo?aeecothuae ae?on. Yoa eiioeaio?aoeey iiaeao auoue auyaeaia e n
iiiiuueth iaoiaea aeyoae.

Aeey iaia?oaeaiey aioeoae eniieuecoaony iaoiae oi?iiaeaiey
aaiaaaethoeiaoeee (neeaeaaiey y?eo?ioeeoia iiae aicaeaenoaeai ae?ona) e
iaoiae naycuaaiey eiiieaiaioa. Ec iaoiaeia, i?eiaiyaiuo a ae?onieiaee
aeey ?acee/iuo enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo oeaeae, iiaeii aua oiiiyiooue
iaoiaeu, i?e iiiiue eioi?uo ae?onieiae/aneee iaoa?eae iiaeaioaaeeaaaony
aeey oece/aneeo e oeie/aneeo aiaeecia, eioi?ua iaeaa/atho eco/aiea
oiieiai no?iaiey e ninoaaa ae?onia. Yoe aiaeecu o?aaotho aieueoiai
eiee/anoaa niaa?oaiii /enoiai ae?ona. I/enoea ae?ona – i?ioeann, i?e
eioi?ii ec noniaicee n ae?onii ono?aiythony ana iinoi?iiiea,
caa?yciythuea aa /anoeoeu. A iniiaiii yoi eoni/ee e «iaeiiee» eeaoie –
oicyaa. Iaeiia?aiaiii n i/enoeie i?ienoiaeeo iau/ii naouaiea noniaicee,
iiauoaiea eiioeaio?aoeee ae?ona. Oae iieo/aaony enoiaeiue iaoa?eae aeey
iiiaeo enneaaeiaaiee.

Ec ioaeaeueiuo iaoiaeia i/enoee oiiiyiai eeoue iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiue –
iaoiae oeueo?aoeaio?eooae?iaaiey, eioi?ue aeaao i?aia?aou ae?ona i/aiue
aunieie eiioeaio?aoeee.

Iieoai ae?aooea i?ioeaaeo?o iieo/aiey e i/enoee ae?oniie noniaicee.
I?ioeann yoio ia/eiaaony n eneonnoaaiiiai aaaaeaiey ae?ona a iica
iiaeiiuoiiai aeeaioiiai. Ii i?ioanoaee ianeieueeeo aeiae ae?on
?aciiiaeeony a oeaie iicaa. I?e yoii iaia?oaeaony oa?aeoa?iua ia?ooaiey
ooieoeee ia?aiie nenoaiu «oicyeia», e o aeeaioiiai auyayony i?eciaee
caaieaaaiey. Eiaaea neiioiiu aeinoeaioo iaeaieueoaai ?acaeoey, caa?ueea
oia?uaeytho, a aai iica, a oeaiyo eioi?iai niaea?aeaony aieueoea
eiee/anoaa ae?ona, ecaeaeatho a noa?eeueiuo oneiaeyo ec /a?aia
aeeaioiiai. Caoai ec iicaa aioiaeony, neaaeai ,10 %-iay noniaicey. E?iia
ae?eiiia iia niaea?aeeo aua e aieueoia eiee/anoai eoni/eia ia?aiie
oeaie, inoaoee e?iaaiiniuo ninoaeia, e?iayiua oaeueoea e ae?oaea
aeieiae/aneea eiiiiiaiou. Eoni/ee oeaie e ae?oaea e?oiiua /anoeoeu
ono?aiythony ia?aui oeaio?eooae?iaaieai ni nei?inoueth 5000-10000
iai?ioia a ieiooo. Iii i?iaeieaeaaony ieiei iieo/ana. AEeaeeinoue iaae
inaaeeii (noia?eaoaeo) inoi?iaeii neeaatho a niaoeeaeueiua i?iae?ee
aeey oeaio?eooae?iaaiey, naeaeaiiua ec ieanoiannu eee ia?aeaaathuae
noaee, iineieueeo noaeei ia auaea?aeeaaao aeaaeaiea, eioi?ia ?acaeaaaony
i?e aunieinei?inoiii oeaio?eooae?iaaiee. A inaaeie iaaca?aaeeaatho
aeaceioeoee?othueie n?aaenoaaie. Neeoue «noia?iaoaio» ia?aaaouaaaony
caoai oaea a oeueo?aoeaio?eooaa.

Aeey naaeeiaioaoeee iaeue/aeoeo ae?onia iaiaoiaeeii iiiai/aniaia
oeueo?aoeaio?eooae?iaaiea, i?e/ai iieo/aiiue inaaeie /anoi auaaao ia
aieueoa aoeaai/iie aieiaee. Ii e iinea oaeie ia?aaioee iu eiaai ia
nianai /enoue ae?oniue iaoa?eae, a iai aua niaea?aeaony /oaea?iaeiua
i?eiane. Aeey oiieeo aiaeecia yoio inaaeie iaaei ianeieueei ?ac
ia?aaioaoue ?acee/iuie ?aaeoeaaie e iiaoi?eoue
oeueo?aoeaio?eooae?iaaiea. Oieueei oiaaea iiaeii iieo/eoue
eiioeaio?e?iaaiioth noniaiceth ae?ona aunieie /enoiou, eioi?ay o?aaoaony
aeey oi/iuo e aeinoiaa?iuo aeioeie/aneeo, e?enoaeeia?aoe/aneeo aiaeecia
eee aeey iaaethaeaiee a yeaeo?iiii-iioe/aneeo i?eai?ao.

A ?anii?yaeaiee ae?onieiaia aiiaua iiiai ?acee/iuo oaoie/aneeo
i?eniiniaeaiee, eae , iai?eia? , oeaio?eooae?iaaiea ii a?aaeeaioai
eiioeaio?aoeee, eiaaea ae?eiiu ?acaeaeythony ii noaiaiyi eiioeaio?aoeee
eee ii oi?ia. Ae?oaie i?eai?, i?aaenoaaeythuee a iaoa a?aiy
noaiaea?oiia iai?oaeiaaiea ii/oe eaaeaeie iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie
ae?onieiae/aneie eaai?aoi?ee – yeaeo?iiiue iee?ineii. Yoi
aei?iainoiyuee, aieueoie e neiaeiue aiia?ao.

Aeey iieo/aiey ecia?aaeaiey ae?onia nouanoaoao iiiai ?acee/iuo iaoiaeia,
e ana iie i?ioee naie yoaiu ?acaeoey. *oiau iaia?oaeeoue ae?eiiu a
eeaoeao, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iieuecothony iaoiaeii oeueo?aoiieeo n?acia
Oeene?iaaiiue iaoa?eae, caeeoue yiieneaeiie niieie, ?ac?acaaony
oii/aeoei noaeeyiiui eee aeiaciui iiaeii. I?e iiiiue oi/iuo
oeueo?aiee?ioiiia iaeio eeaoeo iiaeii ?ac?acaoue aieaa /ai ia ouny/o
oiieeo n?acia. Iieo/aiiua oaeei ia?acii n?acu ia?aaaouaathony caoai
niaoeeaeueiuie oeieeaeeyie, /oi iaania/eaaao eo/ooth eo aeaeeiinoue.

Aeey iaaethaeaiey oiieiai no?iaiey ioaeaeueiuo ae?eiiia i?eiaiyaony
iaoiae iaaaoeaiiai eiio?anoe?iaaiey (ie?aoeaaiey), aiaae?aiea eioi?iai
cia/eoaeueii iiauneei ea/anoaaiiue o?iaaiue yeaeo?iiiiai
iee?ineiie?iaaiey. Ae?oniua /anoeoeu i?e yoii inoi?iaeii niaoeaathony n
?anoai?ii oinoiaieueo?aiiaie eeneiou, aeathuae inaaeie, ia
i?iioneathuee yeaeo?iiiua eo/e. A ?acoeueoaoa ae?eiiu i?aaenoatho a
aeaea naieo niaa?oaiii oi/iuo ioia/aoeia, ii eioi?ui iiaeii eco/aoue
naiua oiieea aeaoaee eo iiaa?oiinoae. I?e iaoiaea iiceoeaiiai
ie?aoeaaiey (eee «iaoaeeece?iaaiey» i?aia?aoa) i?eiaiythony oaeea
aauanoaa, eioi?ua niiniaiu auai?i/ii i?eeeiaoue e iiaa?oiinoe ae?eiiia
(iai?eia?, niaoeeoe/aneea aioeoaea, ia/aiiua oa??eoeiii, niaea?aeauei a
naiae iieaeoea aeaeaci e iioiio oi?ioi ?acee/eiua a yeaeo?iiiii
iee?ineiia).

Iauea iaoiaeu eco/aiey ae?onia

I i?enoonoaee ae?ona a i?aaiecia eae i?e niiioaiiii caaieaaaiee, oae e
i?e yenia?eiaioaeueiii ca?aaeaiee oicyeia noaeyo ii iiyaeaieth oao eee
eiuo iaoieiae/aneeo neiioiiia. Anyeee ?ac, eiaaea aicieeaao iiaeic?aiea
i i?enoonoaee ae?ona a eco/aaiii iauaeoa, i?eoiaeeony iiaeae?aoue
ii?aaeaeaiiue eiiieaen oneiaee – iiaeoiaeyuee i?aaieci e
niioaaonoaothuee niinia ca?aaeaiey, – i?e eioi?ii ae?on aucuaaao a
ca?aaeaiiii i?aaiecia ?aniiciaaaaiua eciaiaiey. Oae /oi ae?onieiaai
i?eoiaeeony cao?a/eaaoue aieueoea oneeey ia ?ac?aaioeo iaoiaeia
iieo/aiey yenia?eiaioaeueiuo eioaeoeee.

Eae ecaanoii, aeey aeieacaoaeuenoaa oiai ,/oi aeaiiia caaieaaaiea
aeaenoaeoaeueii aucuaaaony ii?aaeaeaiiui iee?ii?aaieciii, iaiaoiaeeii
auiieieoue oae iacuaaaiua iinooeaou Eioa: 1) iieacaoue, /oi aeaiiue
iee?ii?aaieci ?aaoey?ii iaia?oaeeaaaony a aieueiii i?aaiecia; 2)
iieo/eoue eoeueoo?o yoiai iee?ii?aaiecia ia eneonnoaaiiie ieoaoaeueiie
n?aaea; 3) aini?iecaanoe aeaiiia caaieaaaiea ca?aaeaieai
yenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeeaioiiai auaeaeaiiie eoeueoo?ie e, iaeiiaoe, ;4)
iiaoi?ii auaeaeeoue aeaiiue iee?ii?aaieci, ii oaia?ue oaea ec i?aaiecia
eneonnoaaiii ca?aaeaiiiai oicyeia. Oa aea iinooeaou mutatis mutandis
ni?aaaaeeeau e aeey aeeaaiinoeee ae?oniuo caaieaaaiee. A yoii neo/aa,
niaeanii ?eaa?no, iinooeaou oi?ie?othony neaaeothuei ia?acii: 1)
auaeaeaiea ae?ona ec i?aaiecia aieueiiai, 2) eoeueoeae?iaaiea ae?ona a
i?aaiecia eee a eeaoeao yenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeeaioiiai, 3)
aeieacaoaeuenoai oeeueo?oaiinoe eioaeoeeiiiiai aaaioa (/oiau
eneeth/eoue iaoiaaiiua aaaiou aieueoaai ?acia?a, iai?eia? aaeoa?ee), 4)
aini?iecaaaeaiea iiaeiaiiai caaieaaaiey o ae?oaiai i?aaenoaaeoaey
aeaiiiai eee ?iaenoaaiiiai aeaea e, iaeiiaoe, 5) iiaoi?iia auaeaeaiea
oiai aea ae?ona.

Eoeueoeae?iaaiea e eaeaioeoeeaoeey ae?onia – iniiaiua ae?onieiae/aneea
iaoiaeu, eniieuecoaiua a i?aeoe/aneie ae?onieiaee i?e aeeaaiinoeea
ae?oniuo caaieaaaiee. Iaoa?eae, a eioi?ii iiaeic?aaaaony iaee/ea
ae?ona, iai?eia? eecao aaeoa?ee, eoni/ae oeaie eee aeieiae/aneay
aeeaeeinoue, i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe eciaeue/atho eee aiiiaaiace?otho n oai,
/oiau i?e eiio?iee?oaiuo oneiaeyo ia?aaanoe aai a noniaice?iaaiiia
ninoiyiea.

Aieueoea o?aaiaiou eeaoie, a oaeaea aiciiaeiua caa?yciythuea iaoa?eae
iee?ii?aaieciu oaeaeytho i?e iiiiue oeaio?eooae?iaaiey e oeeueo?iaaiey.
Oaeoth i/euaiioth noniaiceth aaiaeyo iiaeoiaeyuaio oicyeio, eeai
aeiaaaeytho e noniaicee eeaoie, eeai iaiinyo ia iiiineie
niioaaonoaothueo eeaoie. A ?acoeueoaoa a neia /oanoaeoaeueiuo eeaoie,
oaeeo, eae aaeoa?ee, ?anoouea a /aoea n aaa?ii, eee eeaoee aeeaioiuo,
?anoouea ia iiaa?oiinoe noaeea, iiaoo iiyaeoueny eieaeueiua ii?aaeaiey,
oae iacuaaaiua aeyoee, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?iu aeey aeaiiiai ae?ona.. Aeyoee
ia?acothony a ?acoeueoaoa ca?aaeaiey ?aniieiaeaiiuo a aeaiiie iaeanoe
eeaoie, ?aciiiaeaiey a ieo ae?ona e eo iieiiai eee /anoe/iiai eecena.
Anee ?aciiiaeaiea ae?ona ia aaaeao e ia?aciaaieth aecoaeueii auyaeyaiuo
aeene?aoiuo aeyoae, ae?on iiaeao auoue iaia?oaeai e ioa?aeoa?eciaai ii
eciaiaieyi, aucuaaaiui ei a eoeueoo?a eeaoie, eee ii iia?aaeaeaieth
neiy eeaoie eeai i?e iiiiue ae?oaeo oanoia.

Anee enneaaeoaiue iaoa?eae ia iaiinyo ia neie eoeueoeae?oaiuo eeaoie, a
aaiaeyo a i?aaieci oicyeia, oi oeaeue yenia?eiaioa – auyaeaiea iaueo
?aaeoeee i?aaiecia, naeaeaoaeuenoaothueo i ?acaeoee eioaeoeee:
iiyaeaiea neiioiiia caaieaaaiey, aeaaeue aeeaioiiai eee eaeea-eeai eiua
niaoeeoe/aneea ?aaeoeee, iai?eia? ia?aciaaiea aioeoae.

Iaeiiaoe, anee ie ca?aaeaiea eoeueoo?u eeaoie, ie aaaaeaiea iaoa?eaea a
i?aaieci oicyeia ia aaaeoo e iiyaeaieth eaeeo-eeai neiioiiia ae?oniie
eioaeoeee, ae?onieiae i?eaaaatho e oae iacuaaaiui «neaiui iannaaeai»,
o.a. e iiaoi?iui ia?aiinai enneaaeoaiiai iaoa?eaea, /oi /anoi i?eaiaeeo
e iiauoaieth ae?oeaioiinoe ae?ona eee e oaaee/aieth aai oeo?a.

Iauee oeie/aneee ninoaa ae?onia

Iai?aiaiiui eiiiiiaioii ae?oniie /anoeoeu yaeyaony eaeay-eeai iaeia ec
aeaoo ioeeaeiiauo eeneio, aaeie e cieueiua yeaiaiou. Yoe o?e eiiiiiaioa
yaeythony iaueie aeey anao aac eneeth/aiey ae?onia, oiaaea eae
inoaeueiua aeaaeeiieaeu e oaeaaiaeu – aoiaeyo a ninoaa aeaeaei ia anao
ae?onia.

Ae?onu, ninoiyuea oieueei ec aaeea ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou e cieueiuo
yeaiaioia, /aua anaai i?eiaaeeaaeao e a?oiia i?inouo, oae iacuaaaiuo
ieieiaeueiuo, ae?onia, eeoaiiuo aeeooa?aioeeaoeee, nianoaaiiuo
oa?iaioia eee eaeeo-eeai niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo no?oeoo?. E oaeiai ?iaea
ae?onai i?eiaaeeaaeao ae?onu ?anoaiee, iaeioi?ua ae?onu aeeaioiuo e
ianaeiiuo. A oi aea a?aiy i?aeoe/anee ana aaeoa?eioaae, eioi?ua ii
oeie/aneiio ninoaao, aaconeiaii i?eiaaeeaaeao e a?oiia ieieiaeueiuo
ae?onia, ia naiii aeaea yaeythony i/aiue neiaeiuie e
aunieiaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuie no?oeoo?aie. Ae?onu, a ninoaa eioi?uo
ia?yaeo n aaeeii e ioeeaeiiaie eeneioie aoiaeyo oaeaea eeiieaeu e
oaeaaiaeu, eae i?aaeei, i?eiaaeeaaeao e a?oiia neiaeii ono?iaiiuo
ae?onia. Aieueoay /anoue ae?onia yoie a?oiiu ia?aceoe?oao ia aeeaioiuo.

Aaeee ae?onia

Aieiieeneioiue ninoaa ae?oniuo aaeeia

Aaeie anao enneaaeiaaiiuo aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie ae?onia iino?iai ec
iau/iuo aieiieeneio, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e anoanoaaiiiio L-?yaeo.
D-aieiieeneio a ninoaaa ae?oniuo /anoeoe ia iaeaeaii. Niioiioaiea
aieiieeneio a ae?oniuo aaeeao aeinoaoi/ii aeecei e oaeiaiio a aaeeao
aeeaioiuo, aaeoa?ee e ?anoaiee.

Ae?oniua aaeee ia niaea?aeao iau/ii aieueoiai eiee/anoaa iniiaiuo
aieiieeneio (a?aeieia, iooeeia), o.a. ia i?eiaaeeaaeao e a?oiia aaeeia
oeia aenoiiia e i?ioaieiia n y?ei au?aaeaiiuie uaei/iuie naienoaaie. Ia
o/eouaay iaeo?aeueiuo aieiieeneio, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi a ae?oniii aaeea
i?aiaeaaeatho eeneua aeeea?aiiiaua eeneiou. Yoi ni?aaaaeeeai eae aeey
ae?onia n ieceei niaea?aeaieai ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou, oae e aeey ae?onia
n aunieei niaea?aeaieai ?IE e AeIE.

Ae?oniay AeIE

Aeaaiie no?oeoo?iie iniaaiiinoueth aieueoeinoaa ae?oniuo iieaeoe AeIE,
eae e AeIE ec ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia, yaeyaony iaee/ea aeaoo nia?aiiuo
aioeia?aeeaeueiuo oeaiae. AeIE-aaiii ae?onia, iaeiaei, iaaaeee e iiyoiio
caeanue aicieeatho aii?inu, eanathueany eiioeia nie?aee e iauae oi?iu
iieaeoeu AeIE, a ia iiiioiiiie, oaeoe/anee ia eiathuae eiioeia
«n?aaeiae» /anoe nie?aee. Iieo/aiiua ioaaou ieacaeenue aanueia
oaeeaeoaeueiuie: iieaeoeu ae?oniuo AeIE iiaoo auoue eeiaeiuie eee
eieueoeaauie, aeaoooeaii/a/iuie eee iaeiioeaii/a/iuie ii anae naiae
aeeeia eee aea iaeii oeaii/a/iuie oieueei ia eiioeao. E?iia oiai,
auynieeinue, /oi aieueoeinoai ioeeaioeaeiuo iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoae a
ae?oniii aaiiia ano?a/aaony eeoue ii iaeiiio ?aco, iaeiaei ia eiioeao
iiaoo iaoiaeeoueny iiaoi?ythueany, eee ecauoi/iua o/anoee.

Ec anao iienaiiuo aei neo ii? ae?oniuo AeIE iaeaieaa neiaeii
i?aaieciaaia AeIE ae?ona aa?iana. Aaiii caeanue, ii-aeaeeiiio, ninoieo
ec aeaoo aieueoeo niaaeeiaiiuo naaiaioia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo eiaao
iiaoi?ythueany eiioeaaua iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe. Aiciiaeiu /aou?a niiniaa
niaaeeiaiey aeaoo oaeeo naaiaioia eiiaoe a eiiaoe, e ana iie eae aoaeoi
au ano?a/athony a eaaeaeii i?aia?aoa ae?eiiia.

Iaeaieueoee ec ecaanoiuo ae?onia – ae?on iniiaaeoeeiu eiaao aaiii
?acia?ii 15-108 aeaeueoii. AeIE, auaeaeaiiay ec naaaeaai i?aia?aoa
ae?eiiia, ii-aeaeeiiio, eiaao iiia?a/iua noeaee, oae eae ia ?acaeaeyaony
ii aeaa oeaie. Iaeia ec aiciiaeiuo iiaeaeae oaeie iieaeoeu – aeaaioneay,
ia iiaeaa?aeaiiay aeaiaoo?aoeee eieueoeaaay no?oeoo?a, ia?acothuayny
i?e caiueaiee eiioeia eeiaeiie aeaieiie nie?aee.

Iiieii i/aiue eioa?aniuo ?acee/ee a oi?ia iieaeoeu e a no?oeoo?a
eiioeaauo o/anoeia ae?oniuo AeIE nouanoaotho oaeaea aieueoea ?acee/ey a
aaee/eia aaiiia. N?aaee iaeiaiueoeo «iieiuo» ae?onia (o.a. ae?onia,
niiniaiuo ?aciiiaeaoueny a eeaoea-oicyeia) iiaeii iacaaoue oaa (X174,
ia?aiae?onu, iaiiae?onu, ae?onu iieeiiu e SV40. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, o
e?oiiuo aaeoa?eioaaia e ae?onia /aeiaaea e aeeaioiuo (iai?eey?, aa?iana
e iniiaaeoeeiu) aaiii cia/eoaeueii aieueoa – io 1 aei 1,5.108
aeaeueoii, oae /oi ii iia au eiaee?iaaoue aieaa 100 aaeeia.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, o aaeoa?eioaaa O4 nae/an eaeaioeoeoee?iaaii aieueoa
noa aaiia.

A 1953 a. Oaeaoo e Eiyi naeaeaee iaiaeeaeaiiia ioe?uoea, aanueia
nouanoaaiiia aeey iineaaeothueo yenia?eiaioia: ieacaeinue, /oi a AeIE
O-/aoiuo aaeoa?eioaaia niaea?aeeony ia oeeoicei, a
5-aeae?ieneiaoeeoeeoicei. Yoi ioee/ea aeaei aiciiaeiinoue eco/aoue
oaaiaua AeIE iacaaeneii io AeIE oicyeia. Auee ioe?uou eiaee?oaiua oaaii
oa?iaiou, eioi?ua eciaiytho iaoaaieeci eioeoee?iaaiiie eeaoee, e iia
ia/eiaao neioace?iaaoue eiiiiiaiou, iaiaoiaeeiua ae?ono. Aua iaeii
aeioeie/aneia ioee/ea AeIE aaeoa?eioaaa ninoieo a oii, /oi e aa
aeae?ieneiaoeeoeeoiceio i?eniaaeeiaiu inoaoee aetheicu: iineaaeiea,
aeaeeii, i?aiyonoaotho i?a?uaaieth oaaiaie AeIE iaeioi?uie oa?iaioaie
oicyeia.

A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yoiio o ae?onia aeeaioiuo AeIE ii/oe ia
iiaeaa?aaaony iiaeeoeeaoeeyi. Iai?eia?, oioy AeIE eeaoie-oicyaa e
niaea?aeeo iiiai iaoeee?iaaiiuo iniiaaiee, o ae?onia eiaaony a eo/oai
neo/aa eeoue ianeieueei iaoeeueiuo a?oii ia aaiii. Aieueoeinoai
ae?oniuo aeacieneioeeaioeaeia ia iiaeeoeoee?iaaiu, e iiyoiio
iaoiaeaeaiea ianiiiaiiuo iiaeeoeeaoeee i?aaenoaaeyei au aieueoie
eioa?an.

Ae?oniay ?IE

Enneaaeiaaiey ae?oniie ?IE ninoaaeee iaeei ec naiuo cia/eoaeueiuo
aeeaaeia ae?onieiaee a iieaeoey?ioth aeieiaeth. Oio oaeo, /oi o ae?onia
?anoaiee ?aieeoee?oaiay aaiaoe/aneay nenoaia ninoieo oieueei ec ?IE,
ynii iieacae, /oi e ?IE niiniaia nio?aiyoue aaiaoe/aneoth eioi?iaoeeth.
Auea onoaiiaeaia eioaeoeeiiiinoue ?IE ae?ona oaaa/iie iicaeee, e
auynieeinue, /oi aeey eioaeoeee iaiaoiaeeia any aa iieaeoea; yoi
icia/aei, /oi eioaeoiinoue no?oeoo?u aunieiiieaeoey?iie ?IE nouanoaaiii
aeey aa aeoeaiinoe. Ia iaiaa aaaeiui ?acoeueoaoii ?aiieo
enneaaeiaaiee ia oii aea ae?ona yaeeanue ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeii auaeaeaiey
aunieiiieaeoey?iie ?IE e eco/aiey aa naienoa. Yoe iaoiaeu iineoaeeee a
aeaeueiaeoai iniiaie aeey eco/aiey ?acee/iuo oeiia ?IE, ano?a/athueony o
ae?oaeo ae?onia.

?acia?u ae?eiiia ?IE – ae?onia neeueii aa?uee?otho – io 7.106 aeaeueoii
o ieei?iaae?onia aei >2.108 aeaeueoii o ?ao?iae?onia; iaeiaei ?acia?u
?IE e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iauai niaea?aeauaeny a iae eioi?iaoeee
?acee/athony a cia/eoaeueii iaiueoae noaiaie.

?IE ieei?iaae?onia – aa?iyoii, iaeiaiueoay ec ecaanoiuo – niaea?aeeo
ieiei 7500 ioeeaioeaeia, a ?IE ia?aieeniae?onia – aaeaa ee ia naiay
e?oiiay – ii/oe 15000 ioeeaioeaeia. Ii-aeaeeiiio, anai iacaaeneii
?aieeoee?othueiny ?IE-ae?onai ioaeai eaeie-oi ieieioi eioi?iaoeee aeey
?aieeeaoeeiiiie nenoaiu e eaineaeiiai aaeea, ii o ieo ionoonoaoao i/aiue
neiaeiay aeiaaai/iay eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ie iiaoo iaeaaeaoue e?oiiua
AeIE-ae?onu.

Ae?oniua aaeee

E?iia eaineaeiuo aaeeia, ia?acothueo «oooey?» aeey ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou,
o ae?onia n iaiei/eaie eiathony e ae?oaea aaeee. Iiaeiaiua i?eia?u
iiaeii iaeoe n?aaee ae?onia aeeaioiuo (a oii /enea ianaeiiuo), ?anoaiee
e aaeoa?ee. E?iia aaeeia, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa ioeeaii?ioaeaeiiai «yae?a»,
ae?eiiu iiaoo niaea?aeaoue aua ae?on – niaoeeoe/aneea aaeee, eioi?ua
auee ano?iaiu a ieaciaoe/aneea iaia?aiu ca?aaeaiiuo eeaoie e iie?uaatho
ae?onioth /anoeoeo, eiaaea iia auoiaeeo ec eeaoee eee «ioii/eiauaaaony»
io aa iiaa?oiinoe. E?iia oiai, o iaeioi?uo ae?onia n iaiei/eie
nouanoaoao noaiaia?aiiue iao?eeniue aaeie iaaeaeo iaiei/eie e
ioeeaieaineaeii. Aoi?oth aieueooth a?oiio ae?on-niaoeeoe/aneeo aaeeia
ninoaaeytho iaeaineaeiua ae?oniua aaeee. Iie a iniiaiii eiatho
ioiioaiea e neioaco ioeeaeiiauo eeneio ae?eiia.

Aieiieeneioiue ninoaa ae?oniuo aaeeia

Aaeie anao enneaaeiaaiiuo aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie ae?onia iino?iai ec
iau/iuo aieiieeneio, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e anoanoaaiiiio L-?yaeo.
Ae-aieiieeneio a ninoaaa ae?oniuo /anoeoe ia iaeaeaii. Niioiioaiea
aieiieeneio a ae?oniuo aaeeao aeinoaoi/ii aeecei e oaeiaiio a aaeeao
aeeaioiuo, aaeoa?ee e ?anoaiee. Ae?oniua aaeee ia niaea?aeao iau/ii
aieueoiai eiee/anoaa iniiaiuo aieiieeneio (a?aeieia, iooeeia), o.a. ia
i?eiaaeeaaeao e a?oiia aaeeia oeia aenoiiia e i?ioaieiia n y?ei
au?aaeaiiuie uaei/iuie naienoaaie. Ia o/eouaay iaeo?aeueiuo
aieiieeneio, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi a ae?oniii aaeea i?aiaeaaeatho eeneua
aeeea?aiiiaua eeneiou. Yoi ni?aaaaeeeai eae aeey ae?onia n ieceei
niaea?aeaieai ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou, oae e aeey ae?onia n aunieei
niaea?aeaieai ?IE e AeIE.

Oeie/aneea noauaaeeieoeu ae?oniuo aaeeia

?acthie?oaony eiathueeny a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaoa?eae i noauaaeeieoeao
ae?oniiai aaeea, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi aaeeiaue eiiiiiaio
ae?onia, eae e ana i?i/ea aaeee, iino?iai ec iaioeaeiuo oeaii/ae.
Aaeeinoaaiiia naiaia?acea iieeiaioeaeiie oeaii/ee ae?oniiai aaeea
naycaii n «ianee?iaeie» iaaeo eee eaeie-eeai iaeiie N- eee N –
eiioeaaie aieiieeneiou, /oi, aeaeeii, yaeyaony yaiethoeeiiiui
i?eniiniaeaieai, cao?oaeiythuei ?ac?ooaiea ae?oniiai aaeea iiae aeeyieai
i?ioaac a eeaoeao oicyeia. A ae?oniuo /anoeoeao iaioeaeiua oeaii/ee
ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii acaeiiaeaenoaotho ae?oa n ae?oaii, i?eia?aoay
aoi?e/ioth e o?aoe/ioth no?oeoo?o. Eiaiii a oaeie oi?ia iaioeaeiua
oeaie yaeythony no?oeoo?iuie noauaaeeieoeaie ae?oniiai aaeea,
iaaethaeaaiua iau/ii a yeaeo?iiiii iee?ineiia.

Iaeioi?ua iauea naienoaa ae?oniuo aaeeia

Iaioeaeiay oeaiue ae?oniiai aaeea, ca eneeth/aieai «ianee?iaee» N- eee
N-eiioeaauo a?oii, ia iaeaaeaao naia ii naaa eaeeie-eeai oieeaeueiuie
naienoaaie. Iia eaaei aeae?ieecoaony i?ioaacaie e iaia?oaeeaaao
iau/ioth, oa?aeoa?ioth aeey iaioeaeia eaaeeueiinoue ii ioiioaieth e
?yaeo oece/aneeo e oeie/aneeo oaeoi?ia. A oi aea a?aiy aaeeiaay
iaiei/ea ae?onia a oeaeii oa?aeoa?ecoaony ?yaeii oieeaeueiuo
iniaaiiinoae. I?aaeaea anaai neaaeoao ioiaoeoue onoie/eainoue oeaeueiuo
/anoeoe e i?ioaieeoe/aneei oa?iaioai, eaaei aeae?ieecothuei oeaiaaua
aaeee. A oi aea a?aiy a iaeioi?uo enneaaeiaaieyo niiauaaony i /anoe/iie
eee iieiie eiaeoeaaoeee eae i/euaiiuo i?aia?aoia ae?onia, oae e
yeno?aeoia, niaea?aeaueo ae?on iinea eieoaaoeee n ?acee/iiai ?iaea
i?ioaieeoe/aneeie oa?iaioaie ethaiiuoii, /oi aeaaea aeecei?iaenoaaiiua
ae?onu iiaoo , ii-aeaeeiiio ,?acee/aoueny ii /oanoaeoaeueiinoe e
i?ioaacai. Oae, ie eioaeoeeiiiinoue, ie aaiaaaethoeie?othuay aeoeaiinoue
ae?onia a?eiia A e N ia eciaieeenue iinea eieoaaoeee n o?eineiii,
oiaaea eae a aiaeiae/iuo oneiaeyo eioaeoeeiiiinoue i?aia?aoa ae?ona
a?eiia A nieaeaeanue ia 87 %, a oeo? aaiaaaethoeieiia i?e yoii ia
eciaiyeny. Ioeaieaay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue oiai eee eiiai oeia ae?onia e
i?ioaieeoe/aneei oa?iaioai, neaaeoao oae aea eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi ae?onu
iaia?oaeeaatho aeeooa?aioeeaeueioth /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e ?acee/iui
i?ioaacai. Ae?on iniiaaeoeeiu, iai?eia?, onoie/eaue e o?eineio e
oeiio?aineio, n?aaieoaeueii auno?i ia?aaa?eaaaony iaiieiii, Iaeiaei eae
au ie aue ?aoai aiineaaenoaee aii?in i aeaenoaee i?ioaac ia iaeioi?ua
ae?onu, neaaeoao ana aea iiiieoue, /oi onoie/eainoue e i?ioaacai
yaeyaony oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiui naienoaii aaeeiaie iaiei/ee
iaiia?aaeaeaiiuo ae?onia. Iiyoiio i?e auaeaeaiee ae?onia /anoi
i?eiaiytho ia?aaioeo ae?oniuo i?aia?aoia i?ioaiiaoe/aneeie oa?iaioaie
aeey oaeaeaiey aaeeiauo caa?yciaiee. Oaeay oieeaeueiay onoie/eainoue
ae?onia e i?ioaacai ia naycaia n eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie iniaaiiinoyie
ae?oniiai aaeea eae oaeiaiai, eai i?e /anoe/iii iia?aaeaeaiee eee
eaaeie aeaiaoo?aoeee ae?oniiai ei?ioneoea, ?aaii eae e i?e auaeaeaiee
ae?oniiai aaeea a /enoii aeaea, iineaaeiee eaaei ia?aaa?eaaaony
i?ioaacaie. Iiyoiio onoie/eainoue ae?oniuo /anoeoe e aeaenoaeth
i?ioaieeoe/aneeo oa?iaioia iaeuecy iauynieoue eaeeie-eeai aiiiaeeyie a
aieiieeneioiii ninoaaa eee iaee/eai iniaiai oeia naycae. Yoi naienoai
ae?onia iaoneiaeaii no?oeoo?iuie iniaaiiinoyie ei?ioneoea a oeaeii, o.a.
o?aoe/iie e /aoaa?oe/iie no?oeoo?ie aaeea, e eiaao aieueoia
aeieiae/aneia cia/aiea, iineieueeo ae?onu ?aciiiaeathony a eeaoeao,
niaea?aeaueo aieueoia eiee/anoai i?ioaieeoe/aneeo oa?iaioia. Aoi?ie
iniaaiiinoueth ae?oniiai aaeea yaeyaony , eae i?aaeei, aunieay
onoie/eainoue e aicaeaenoaeth ?yaea oece/aneeo e oeie/aneeo oaeoi?ia,
oioy eaeeo-eeai iaueo caeiiiia?iinoae a yoii ioiioaiee ioiaoeoue ia
oaeaaony. Iaeioi?ua ae?oniua aeaeu, auaea?aeeaathuea iaiau/aeii aeanoeea
?aaeeiu ia?aaioee, niiniaiu eiaeoeae?iaaoueny iiae aeeyieai oaeiai
iaaeiiiai oaeoi?a, eae iiieaeaiiay eee iiauoaiiay eiioeaio?aoeey nieae,
eeioeeecaoeey e o.i. O /aoiuo O-oaaia ioaeaeaiea AeIE io aaeeiauo
iaiei/ae («oaiae») eaaei aeinoeaaaony auno?ui eciaiaieai iniioe/aneiai
aeaaeaiey, oae iacuaaaiui «iniioe/aneei oieii», oiaaea eae ia/aoiua
O-oaae ia auno?ia oiaiueoaiea nieaaie eiioeaio?aoeee n?aaeu ia
?aaae?otho.

Oae aea ?acei ?acee/athony ae?onu ii naiae onoie/eainoe a nieaauo
?anoai?ao. Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa onoie/eauo a yoii ioiioaiee yaeyaony
ae?on iaieeeiiu e?ieeeia, ianyoeaie ia oa?ythuee aeoeaiinoe a 2 %-iii
?anoai?a oei?enoiai iao?ey e a iieoianuuaiiii ?anoai?a noeueoaoa
aiiiiey e nio?aiythueeny a oa/aiea aeanyoeia eao a 50 %-iii ?anoai?a
aeeoea?eia ia iniiaaiee auoai?eaaaeaiiuo oaeoia iiaeii aeaenoaeoaeueii
i?eeoe e auaiaeo, /oi eiathony i/aiue noaaeeueiua e aanueia eaaeeueiua
aeaeu ae?onia, ii /aua anaai aeey ae?onia oa?aeoa?ia ecae?aoaeueiay
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue e eaeiio-eeai ii?aaeaeaiiiio aeaeo aicaeaenoaee
ia?yaeo n aeinoaoi/iie noaaeeueiinoueth ioeeaii?ioaeaeiie nayce e ?yaeo
ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia aiaoiae n?aaeu. Noaaeeueiinoue oiai eee eiiai ae?ona e
ii?aaeaeaiiui aicaeaenoaeyi iaeuecy n/eoaoue iaeciaiiie, ?ac e
iaanaaaea aeaiiie aeaeiaie oa?aeoa?enoeeie. Iia, ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie
naienoaaie ae?oniie /anoeoeu, iiaeao iiaeaa?aaoueny naiui ?aaeeeaeueiui
eciaiaieyi a ?acoeueoaoa iooaoeee. I?e ioeaiea noaaeeueiinoe ae?oniuo
/anoeoe iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi oece/aneay e
aeieiae/aneay eiaeoeaaoeey ae?onia ia anaaaea niaiaaeaao. *aua anaai yoe
iiiyoey niaiaaeatho a neo/aa i?inouo ae?onia, o eioi?uo ionoonoaotho
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua no?oeoo?u, ioaaonoaaiiua ca ca?aaeaiea eeaoie, a
oece/aneay e oeie/aneay no?oeoo?a ae?oniuo /anoeoe ioee/aaony aunieie
noaiaiueth aiiiaaiiinoe e iaeeiaeiaui o?iaiai /oanoaeoaeueiinoe ii
ioiioaieth e ?acee/iiai ?iaea aicaeaenoaeyi. O aieaa neiaeiuo ae?onia
i/aiue /anoi aeieiae/aneay eiaeoeaaoeey naycaia n iia?aaeaeaieai
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo no?oeoo?, ii?aaeaeythueo aaeni?aoeeth ae?oniie
/anoeoeu eee aaaaeaiea a ca?aaeaiioth eeaoeo ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou, oioy
ae?oniue ei?ioneoe a oeaeii inoaaony iaiia?aaeaeaiiui. Ec ?anniio?aiey
aeaiiuo i noaaeeueiinoe ae?oniuo /anoeoe e eciaiaiee aeaiiie
oa?aeoa?enoeee a i?ioeanna iooaoeee noaiiaeony i/aaeaeiui, /oi
eaeie-eeai oieaa?naeueiie caeiiiia?iinoe a yoii ioiioaiee onoaiiaeoue
iaeuecy. Noaaeeueiinoue ae?ona e oai eee eiui oece/aneei e oeie/aneei
oaeoi?ai ii?aaeaeyaony anae niaieoiiinoueth iniaaiiinoae ia?ae/iie,
aoi?e/iie e o?aoe/iie no?oeoo?u aaeea e ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou, a oaeaea eo
acaeiiaeaenoaeai.

Iao?e/iay ?IE (i ?IE) – i?iiaaeooi/iue iineoaeue

aaiaoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee

Iaoaieci, aeaaiaea?y eioi?iio aaiaoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey AeIE
«o?aine?eae?oaony» a iao?e/ioth ?IE, a caoai o?ainee?oaony a aaeie,
auynieeny /a?ac ianeieueei eao iinea oiai, eae iieaeoey?iua aeieiae
iniciaee, /oi ioeeaioeaeiua iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe a AeIE aaiia i?yii
ioaaonoaaiiu ca aieiieeneioiua iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe aaeea. Oio oaeo, /oi
iaeioi?ua ae?onu ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo niaea?aeao a ea/anoaa
aaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea ?IE e /oi ae?oniay ?IE naia ii naaa
eioaeoeeiiia, oaea aiai?eo i aa?iyoiie i?iiaaeooi/iie ?iee ?IE a
ia?aiina aaiaoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee. Eiaaea AEaeia e Iiii i?aaeneacaee
nouanoaiaaiea ei?ioeiaeeaouaai, ianoieeiai iin?aaeieea iaaeaeo aaiaie e
aiia?aoii aaeeiaiai neioaca, iienee iieaeoeu ?IE n oaeeie naienoaaie
auee oaea ia/aou. Ia?aua oeacaiey ia iaee/ea oaaiaie ?IE, eioi?ay
aiiaue neioace?iaaeanue iinea oaaiaie eioaeoeee e auea annioeee?iaaia n
i?aaenouanoaiaaaoeie aaeoa?eaeueiuie ?eainiiaie. Ieii/aoaeueiia
aeieacaoaeuenoai ?iee i ?IE a neioaca iieeiaioeaeia auei iieo/aii a
iiuoao n aaneeaoi/iie aaeie-neioace?othuae nenoaiie. Yeno?aeou
ii?iaeueiuo eeaoie A coli iiaee auoue cai?ia?aiie?iaaiu aeey neioaca
niaoeeoe/aneeo aaeeia oaaa F 2 aeiaaaeaieai ?IE ec yoiai oaaa.

A aeaeueiaeoai i ?IE auea eaeaioeoeoee?iaaia e eco/aia eae a
aaeoa?eaeueiuo, oae e a aeeaioiuo eeaoeao. Iicaea auei iieacaii, /oi
iiiaea iieaeoeu i ?IE, e ae?oniua e iaae?oniua, niiniaiu
i?ia?aiie?iaaoue neioac niaoeeoe/aneeo aaeeia a naiuo ?aciuo eeaoi/iuo
yeno?aeoao. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaei, /oi niaoeeoe/iinoue neioaca aaeea a
?acee/iuo nenoaiao caaeneo io i ?IE, a ia io nenoaiu, neioace?othuae
aaeie. Ai anao eeaoeao ia?aui yoaiii yeni?annee aaiia ieacaeanue
«o?aine?eioeey» AeIE n ia?aciaaieai niioaaonoaothuae i ?IE.

Oaeaaiaeu

*aoaa?ui eiiiiiaioii, iaia?oaeeaaaiui eiiaaea a i/euaiiuo ae?oniuo
i?aia?aoao, yaeythony oaeaaiaeu (a eiee/anoaa, i?aauoathuai niaea?aeaiea
naoa?a a ioeeaeiiaie eeneioa). Aetheica e aaioeaeica, iaia?oaeeaaaiay a
ninoaaa O-/aoiuo e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo oaaia, – eiiiiiaiou ioeeaeiiaie
eeneiou e ?anniao?eaathony a ?acaeaea, iinayuaiiii ninoaao AeIE e ?IE.
Iiieii yoeo «yeno?a»-oaeaaiaeia, a ninoaaa aaeoa?eioaaia iiaoo auoue e
ae?oaea iieenaoa?eaeu. Aaeeinoaaiiay a?oiia ae?onia, a eioi?ie iaee/ea
oaeaaiaeia oi/ii aeieacaii, – ae?onu aeeaioiuo, oioy ?acee/iua aaoi?u
i?eaiaeyo aanueia i?ioeai?a/eaua aeaiiua eae i eiee/anoaaiiii, oae e i
ea/anoaaiiii ninoaaa eo oaeaaiaeiiai eiiiiiaioa. A ninoaaa yeaiaioa?iuo
oaeaoe ae?ona a?eiia e eeanne/aneie /oiu ioeoe iaoiaeyony aei 17 %
oaeaaiaeia.

Oa?iaiou ae?onia

Aniaeou i?iaeaiu

Oa?iei «oa?iaiou ae?onia» iiaeao oiio?aaeyoueny a oceii e oe?ieii niunea
neiaa. A ia?aii neo/aa eiaaony a aeaeo oa?iaioaoeaiay aeoeaiinoue,
naycaiiay n iieiyueieny ae?oniuie /anoeoeaie, n ae?onii aiaeeaoi/iui.
Oe?ieia oieeiaaiea yoiai oa?ieia iaicia/aao anth niaieoiiinoue
oa?iaioiuo nenoai, i?eieiathueo o/anoea a neioaca ae?ona a ca?aaeaiiie
eeaoea, o.a. oa?iaiou ?aciiiaeathuaainy aioo?eeeaoi/iiai ae?ona.

Auei aeieacaii, /oi i?enoonoaea a ae?oniuo i?aia?aoao iaeiiai oa?iaioa
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeinoaoi/ii ?aaeeee oaiiiai, onoaiiaeaiiue a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy n iieiie aeinoiaa?iinoueth aeey eecioeeiiie e
oinoaoiciie aeoeaiinoae aaeoa?eioaaia e iaeo?aieieaeaciie aeoeaiinoe
ieeniae?onia. Ai anao inoaeueiuo neo/ayo eeai ia auei iieo/aii
oaaaeeoaeueiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa nianoaaiii ae?oniiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey
ii?aaeaeyaiiai oa?iaioa, eeai, iaiai?io, oaa?aei aeieacaii
i?ienoiaeaeaiea aeoeaiinoe oa?iaioa io eeaoi/iuo caa?yciaiee.

Eiiiiiaiou ae?eiiia, ia ioiinyueany

e ioeeaeiiaui eeneioai e aaeeai

Iaeaieaa aaaeiue ec oaeeo eiiiiiaioia iu oaea oiiieiaee yoi aeaieiie
neie eeieaeia, ia?acothuee iniiaioth ianno ia?oaeiie iaiei/ee o oao
ae?onia o eioi?uo iia eiaaony. Iieaaatho, /oi eeieaeu iaiei/ae i?inoi
caeinoaothony ec ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu eeaoee-oicyeia e iiyoiio,
no?iai aiai?y, ia iiaoo n/eoaoueny «ae?on-niaoeeoe/aneeie».
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ia?aieeniae?onu , ?aciiiaeathueany a ?acee/iuo
eeaoeao, iiaoo niaea?aeaoue e niioaaonoaaiii ?aciua eeieaeu. Iiyoiio
niaoeeoeea ae?oniie iaiei/ee caaeneo io ae?oniuo aeeeii?ioaeaeia,
iaoiaeyueony ia aa iiaa?oiinoe. Aunieii/euaiiua i?aia?aou ae?eiiia
niaea?aeao ?yae ieceiiieaeoey?iuo eiiiiiaioia, ooieoeey eioi?uo a
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo iiiyoia. O aaeoa?eioaaia e ae?onia aeeaioiuo e
?anoaiee iaia?oaeaiu iieeaieiu. Aiciiaeii, /oi eo aaeeinoaaiiay
oeceieiae/aneay ooieoeey ninoieo a iaeo?aeecaoeee io?eoeaoaeueiiai
ca?yaea ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou. Iai?eia?, ae?on aa?iana niaea?aeeo
aeinoaoi/ii nia?ieia, /oiau iaeo?aeeciaaoue iieiaeieo ae?oniie AeIE, a
a ae?oniie iaiei/ea, e?iia oiai, i?enoonoaoao nia?ieaeei.

A ninoaa iaeioi?uo ae?onia ?anoaiee ( ii?ueienoinoe oo?iaina,
e?ai/aoinoe oaniee, oaaa/iie iicaeee) aoiaeeo aen (3-aieiii?iiee) aiei.
Iieaaatho, /oi yoio iieeaiei, iiaeiaii iieeaieiai oaaia iaeo?aeecoao
ca?yaeu ae?oniie ?IE; iineieueeo ii ia aue iaia?oaeai a caei?iauo
eenoueyo, aiciiaeii, /oi ii neioace?oaony oieueei a ca?aaeaiiuo eeaoeao.

Oeiu i?aaiecaoeee ae?eiiia

Iniiaiui no?oeoo?iui eiiiiiaioii ae?eiia yaeyaony eaineae, a eioi?ii
caeeth/aia ioeeaeiiaay eeneioa. Eaineaeu iino?iaiu ec aaeeiauo
noauaaeeieoe, nia?aiiuo no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii a niioaaonoaee n
ioiineoaeueii i?inouie aaiiao?e/aneeie i?eioeeiaie. Eiaiii iiyoiio
eaineaeu niaa?oaiii ?acee/iuo ae?onia, iai?eia? oaaia, ae?onia aeeaioiuo
eee ae?onia ?anoaiee, iiaoo auoue iino?iaiu oi/ii ii iaeiiio ieaio e
auoue i?aeoe/anee ia?acee/eiuie ii?oieiae/anee.

E?ee e Oionii, enoiaey ec oiai, /oi niaea?aeauayny a ioeeaeiiaie eeneioa
ae?ona aaiaoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey iaaeinoaoi/ia aeey oiai /oiau ae?on iia
eiaee?iaaoue iiiaeanoai ?acee/iuo aaeeia, i?eoee e auaiaeo, /oi eaineaeu
ae?onia aeieaeiu auoue iino?iaiu ec iiiaeanoaa eaeaioe/iuo noauaaeeieoe.
Nouanoaotho aeaa oeia i?aaiecaoeee, i?e eioi?ie eaeaioe/iua
aneiiao?e/iua noauaaeeieoeu, oaeea, eae iieaeoeu aaeea, iiaoo
niaaeeieoueny ae?oa n ae?oaii n ia?aciaaieai i?aaeeueiiai eaineaea:
nie?aeueiay nai?ea e oi?ie?iaaiea caieioouo aaeeiauo iaiei/ae.
Niioaaonoaaiii nouanoaotho eeoue aeaa oeia eaineaeia : nie?aeueiua e
eciiao?e/aneea (eee eaacenoa?e/aneea); eaineaeu anao ae?onia ioiinyony
e iaeiie ec yoeo aeaoo eaoaai?ee. Eaaeaeue ec yoeo oeiia no?oeoo?
ia?acoaony aaeeaie eaineaeia a ?acoeueoaoa i?ioeanna, iacuaaaiiai
naiinai?iie. Yoio i?ioeann eaeao eeoue a oii neo/aa ,anee ii
yia?aaoe/anee auaiaeai. Yoi icia/aao, /oi ec anao aiciiaeiuo oi?i
eaineaea ?aaeecoaony eiaiii oa, eioi?ay ioaa/aao ieieioio naiaiaeiie
yia?aee niaoeeoe/aneeo aaeeia aeaiiiai ae?ona. ?aaeueiay oi?ia e ?acia?u
eaineaea, oaeei ia?acii, ii?aaeaeythony niaoeeoe/aneie oi?iie iieaeoe
aaeea, yaeythueony noauaaeeieoeaie, ec eioi?uo no?ieony eaineae, e
oa?aeoa?ii naycae, eioi?ua yoe noauaaeeieoeu ia?acotho ae?oa n ae?oaii.
Noaaeeueiinoue no?oeoo?u, aicieeathuae a eiia/iii n/aoa, caaeneo io
/enea e neeu neaauo naycae, ia?acothueony iaaeaeo aaeeaie, aoiaeyueie a
ninoaa aeaiiiai eaineaea. *ai aieueoa naiaiaeiay yia?aey,
auaeaeythuayny a i?ioeanna nai?ee eaineaea, oai i?i/iaa nia?aiiue
eaineae.

Nie?aeueiua eaineaeu. Ae?eiiu iiiaeo ae?onia ?anoaiee e ?yaea oaaia
eiatho «aieue» nie?aeueiue eaineae, aac aiaoiae iaiei/ee. Iaeaieaa
oi?ioi eco/aiiui ae?onii aeaiiie a?oiiu yaeyaony AOI.

Eaineaeu AOI – yoi ioiineoaeueii aeanoeea ii no?oeoo?a iaei/ee. Noieue
aea aeanoee ii no?oeoo?a eaineaeu ii e?aeiae ia?a aua iaeiiai oaaa.
Eaineaeu ae?oaeo ae?onia ?anoaiee , iai?eia? ae?ona aeaeoooe naoa?iie
naaeeu e O-ae?ona ea?oioaey, oiaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nie?aeaia?aciua
iaei/ee, ii iaei/ee yoe aeaeea. Aeaee oaeaea nie?aeueiua eaineaeu ?yaea
iaeaaeathueo aiaoiae iaiei/eie ae?onia aeeaioiuo. Aeaeinoue yoeo
iaei/eiaeaeiuo eaineaeia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi noauaaeeieoeu, ec
eioi?uo iie iino?iaiu, ia?acotho ae?oa n ae?oaii iaiaa i?i/iua e aieaa
iiaeaeaeiua nayce, /ai oa, eioi?ua ia?acothony iaaeaeo noauaaeeieoeaie
iaei/ae oeia ae?eiiia AOI.

Eciiao?e/aneea (eaacenoa?e/aneea) eaineaeu. Eaineaeu iiiaeo ae?onia ii
oi?ia ii/oe eaeaioe/iu noa?a, iaeiaei yeaeo?iiiay iee?ineiiey
iieacuaaao, /oi ia naiii aeaea yoe eaineaeu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ia
noa?u, a i?aaeeueiua iiiaia?aiieee. Oaeea eaineaeu iacuaatho
eciiao?e/aneeie, oae eae eo eeiaeiua ?acia?u aaeieue i?oiaiiaeueiuo
inae eaeaioe/iu.

Neiaeiua eaineaeu. Na?ieiae/aneea e ii?oieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea
eaineaeia iieacaei, /oi iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie neiaeiua no?oeoo?u. I?e
aeaoaeueiii yeaeo?iiii-iee?ineiie/aneii aiaeeca no?iaiey eaineaeia ia eo
iiaa?oiinoe /anoe oaeaaony iaia?oaeeoue aunooiu, eia/a iacuaaaiua
oeiaie, eioi?ua iau/ii ?aniieiaeaiu ia eaaeaeie ec 12 aa?oei
eeinayae?a. Yoe oeiu ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue a eieoeeaoeee eioaeoeee. A
eeoa?aoo?a iienai «aieinaoue» oaa, o eioi?iai io iiaa?oiinoe aieiaee
ae?eiia iooiaeyo iiiai/eneaiiua oea?eeeu.

O naiuo e?oiiuo oaaia eiathony io?inoee, «oainou». Yoe io?inoee
yaeythony i?aaiaie, i?e iiiiue eioi?uo oaae i?ee?aieythony e
iiaa?oiinoe aaeoa?ee-oicyeia. Nouanoaoao iaei aeieiae/aneeo iauaeoia,
eioi?ua auee au aieaa oaeeaeoaeueiu, /ai O-/aoiua oaae.

Ae?eiiu yoeo oaaia nia?aiu aieaa /ai ec 50 aeaeia ?acee/iuo aaeeia e
iaeaaeatho aunieii?aaieciaaiiie, ecoieoaeueii neiaeiie e i?aaeeueiie
no?oeoo?ie. Ai?ioie/ie e aacaeueiay ieanoeiea yoeo oaaia iaeaaeatho
aaenaaiiaeueiie neiiao?eae. Aaeeiaay iaiei/ea eo aieiaee i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie aeaoi?ie?iaaiiue eeinaaeaeueoayae? n aeiiieieoaeueiui ?yaeii
noauaaeeieoe, aneaaenoaea /aai a iaeiii iai?aaeaiee iia aeeeiiaa, /ai a
ae?oaeo. Aaenaaiiaeueiue io?inoie oaeiai oaaa eaeei-oi ia?acii
i?eniaaeeiai e iaeooea aieiaee ii ieaio iaioaaiiaeueiie neiiao?ee. I?e
nai?ea oaaa O4 eiiaaea ia?acothony ae?eiiu n aeaoiy io?inoeaie aianoi
iaeiiai. Iiiaea ae?onu aeeaioiuo, iaeioi?ua ae?onu ?anoaiee e, ii
e?aeiae ia?a ,iaeei eeann aaeoa?eioaaia eiatho aiaoithth iaiei/eo,
ie?oaeathuoth eo eaineaeu. Iaiouaieaiie no?oeoo?ie yoeo iaiei/ae, eae e
anao ae?oaeo aeieiae/aneeo iaia?ai, yaeyaony aeaieiie neie
oinoieeieaeia, a eioi?ue iia?oaeaiu iieaeoeu niaoeeoe/aneeo aaeeia. A
oao neo/ayo, eiaaea aeaieiie neie oinoieeieaeia ?aniieiaeai ia
iiaa?oiinoe ae?eiia e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eaaei aeinooiai aeey yoe?a eee
ae?oaeo ?anoai?eoaeae eeieaeia, ae?eiiu eaaei ?ac?ooathony e
eioaeoeae?othony oaeeie ?anoai?eoaeyie. Oinoieeieaeu aiaoieo iaiei/ae
ae?onia auaatho eaeaioe/iu eeieaeai eeaoee-oicyeia eee noiaeiu n ieie,
/oi, iai?eia?, oa?aeoa?ii aeey aieueoeinoaa iaiei/ae ae?onia aeeaioiuo,
a ae?oaeo neo/ayo iaaethaeathony aeinoaoi/ii au?aaeaiiua ?acee/ey
iaaeaeo oinoieeieaeaie. Iaiei/ee ae?onia aeeaioiuo oi?ie?othony a
ninoaaa ieaciaoe/aneie eee yaea?iie iaia?aiu eeaoee. Yeaeo?iiiua
iee?ioioia?aoee ca?aaeaiiuo ae?onaie eeaoie iieacuaatho, /oi aaeee
ae?ona iiyaeythony ia iaaieueoeo o/anoeao ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu
eeaoee, e eioi?ie a iineaaenoaee iea?e?otho eaineaeu ae?ona, /oi, a
eiia/iii n/aoa, aaaeao e oi?ie?iaaieth ae?eiia e aai ioii/eiaaieth.
Neaaeoao, iaeiaei, iiae/a?eiooue, /oi aeaeaei ia o anao ae?onia
aeeaioiuo ae?eiiu eiatho eaacenoa?e/aneoth oi?io. Iai?eia?, ae?eiiu
?aaaeiae?onia ii oi?ia iaiiieiatho ioeth; eo iaiei/ea, oae aea eae e o
ae?oaeo ae?onia aeeaioiuo, ia?acoaony a ?acoeueoaoa ioii/eiaaiey io
ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu eeaoee. Iaiei/ee ae?oaeo ae?onia, iai?eia?
ae?ona iniu, iino?iaiu cia/eoaeueii neiaeiaa e iieiinoueth oi?ie?othony
a oeeoiieacia eeaoee. Oaeea ae?eiiu ia/oanoaeoaeueiu e aeaenoaeth
yoe?a, ia aeatho ia?ae?anoiuo eiioiieiae/aneeo ?aaeoeee n aaeeaie
eeaoee-oicyeia e, ii-aeaeeiiio, ninoiyo oieueei ec eiiiiiaioia,
niaoeeoe/iuo aeey ae?ona.

I?iaeaiu e iaoiaeieiaey

Ae?oniay /anoeoea, eee ae?eii, – yoi eia?oiay noaoe/aneay oi?ia ae?ona.
Eiaaea ae?eiiu iaoiaeyony aia eeaoee, iie ia ?aciiiaeathony e a ieo ia
i?ienoiaeeo ieeaeeo iaoaaiee/aneeo i?ioeannia. Ana aeeiaie/aneea
niauoey – aeineioac ae?oniuo eiiiiiaioia, iia?aaeaeaiea
i?aaiecia-oicyeia – ia/eiathony eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea ae?on i?iieeaao a
eeaoeo. Aeaaea o iiiaieeaoi/iiai oicyeia ?aoathuea niauoey i?e ae?oniie
eioaeoeee i?ienoiaeyo ia eeaoi/iii o?iaia. ?ani?ino?aiaiea ae?ona
niaa?oaaony a ?acoeueoaoa iiaoi?iuo oeeeeia acaeiiaeaenoaey ae?ona n
eeaoeaie e ?annayiey ae?eiiia ai aiaeeaoi/iie n?aaea. Ana oi, /oi iu
oaea ciaee i ?acee/iuo eiiiiiaioao ae?eiiia, canoaaeyao i?aaeiieaaaoue,
/oi aioo?e eeaoee-oicyeia i?aaiecaoeey yoeo eiiiiiaioia aeieaeia auoue
ia oaeie, eae a naiaiaeiie ae?oniie /anoeoea. E aeaenoaeoaeueii, a
ca?aaeaiiuo ae?onii eeaoeao i?ienoiaeeo aeoaieay ia?ano?ieea ae?oniiai
iaoa?eaea, a /anoi oaeaea e eiiiiiaioia eeaoee-oicyeia. Aicieeaao iiaay
nenoaia – eiiieaen ae?on-eeaoea, ooieoeeiiaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey, eioi?ie
ii?aaeaeyaony acaeiiaeaenoaeai ae?oniuo e eeaoi/iuo ooieoeee. Aeoeaiua
iaoaieciu yoiai eiiieaena nouanoaaiii ioee/athony io iaoaieciia
iaca?aaeaiiie eeaoee.

Oacu ?acaeoey: yeeein, ?aieeeaoeey e nic?aaaiea

N iiiiuueth ?acee/iuo iaoiaeia auei iaia?oaeaii iiiai ?aciiia?aciuo
neooaoeee, eioi?ua, iaeiaei eiatho iaaeaeo niaie ia/oi iauaa, a eiaiii
oi, /oi o eaaeaeiai ae?ona acaeiiaeaenoaea n oicyeiii i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie niaoeeoe/aneoth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue niauoee. Eaaeaeue ae?on –
yoi i?aaieci ni naieie nianoaaiiuie i?ioeannaie iioiaaiaca e
ii?oiaaiaca, a oaeaea ni naiei oeeiaaiaoe/aneei i?ioeui. Iaeiaei oeeeeu
?acaeoey ?aciuo ae?onia, anee eo ?anniao?eaaoue a oe?ieii ieaia, eiatho
?yae iaueo /a?o.

Iinea i?ee?aieaiey ae?ona a eeaoea i?ienoiaeeo ?yae niauoee, aaaeoueo
e inaiaiaeaeaieth ae?oniiai aaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea aioo?e eeaoee. I?e
yoii eioeoee?othuea ae?eiiu ia?anoatho nouanoaiaaoue eae i?aaieciaaiiua
no?oeoo?u. Oae eae eioaeoeeiiiinoue naiaiaeiie ae?oniie ioeeaeiiaie
eeneiou, eae i?aaeei, iaiiiai iaiueoa eioaeoeeiiiinoe oeaeueiiai
ae?eiia, inaiaiaeaeaiea ae?oniiai aaiiia e ia?aoiae aai aioo?ue
eeaoee-oicyeia nii?iaiaeaeathony oiaiueoaieai eee en/aciiaaieai
eioaeoeeiiiinoe. Yoi yaeaiea iieo/eei iacaaiea yeeeina. I?iieeiiaaiea
ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou ae?ona a eeaoeo a i?ioeanna aa ca?aaeaiey iiaeao
i?ienoiaeeoue ?acee/iuie niiniaaie. Iai?eia?, o oaaia, eiaaoee?othueo
naith AeIE, i?eaioe?iaaiiui ia?acii /a?ac iaiei/eo aaeoa?eaeueiie
eeaoee, ioeeaeiiaay eeneioa inaiaiaeaeaaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii o
iiaa?oiinoe eeaoee. Iaeioi?ua oaae i?ee?aieythony e aeaooeeai eee
ai?neieai aaeoa?ee, iinea /aai aaiaeyo /a?ac yoe i?aaiaeeu naie
aaiaoe/aneee iaoa?eae eee aea eniieuecotho eo aeey oiai, /oiau
i?eaeeceoueny e iiaa?oiinoe eeaoee. Ae?onu, iaeaaeathuea ia?oaeiie
iaiei/eie, iiaoo neeaaoueny n eeaoi/iie iaia?aiie, e a oeeoiieacio
eeaoee i?iieeaao aanue aioo?aiiee eaineae ae?ona, iinea /aai i?ienoiaeeo
inaiaiaeaeaiea ae?oniiai aaiiia. Eae oieueei ae?oniue aaiii inaiaiaeeony
io aaeea, ii iiaeao neoaeeoue enoi/ieeii eioi?iaoeee eae aeey
?aieeeaoeee, oae e aeey o?aine?eioeee , aeaenoaoy eae iao?eoea aeey
aeineioaca niioaaonoaothueo i?iaeoeoia. ?aciiiaeaiea ae?oniuo aaiiiia
eaeao iooai ?aieeeaoeee aaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea, o.a. AeIE eee ?IE.
?aieeeaoeey AeIE i?ienoiaeeo a iniiaiii n iiiiuueth oao aea
aeioeie/aneeo iaoaieciia, /oi e ?aieeeaoeey aaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea
eeaoee. ?aieeeaoeey ae?oniiai AeIE-aaiiia a eeaoea oicyeia aiciiaeia,
anee aaiii yaeyaony ?aieeeiiii, eioi?ue ?aniiciaaony ?aieeeaoeeiiiui
aiia?aoii eeaoi/iiai eee ae?oniiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. A i?ioeanna
?aieeeaoeee iiaoo niaianoii o/anoaiaaoue e eeaoi/iua e ae?oniua
oa?iaiou. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo ?aieeeaoeey ia/eiaaony eeoue iinea ?yaea
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo yoaiia e nicaeaiey iniauo oneiaee. I?e ae?oniie
eioaeoeee iaai? eeaoi/iuo oa?iaioia iiaeao iiiieiyoueny – eiiaaea ca
n/ao oa?iaioia, i?eaiineiuo a eeaoeo ae?eiiii (ae?onu iniiaaeoeeiu,
aaceeoey?iiai noiiaoeoa e a?eiia, ?ao?iae?onu), a eiiaaea – ca n/ao
oa?iaioia, aiiaue neioace?oaiuo eae i?iaeoeou ae?oniuo aaiia.
Iineaaeiea, a /anoiinoe, aeieacaii aeey iaeioi?uo oaaia, aeey
?ai?iaeoeoeee eioi?uo ioaeiu iniaua eiiiiiaiou AeIE. Yoe oaae niaea?aeao
eioi?iaoeeth, iaiaoiaeeioth aeey neioaca niioaaonoaothueo oa?iaioia.
Ae?onu iiaoo oaeaea aucuaaoue neioac oa?iaioia, eaoaeece?othueo
?aaeoeee, eioi?ua oaea ?aiaa inouanoaeyeenue n iiiiuueth eeaoi/iuo
oa?iaioia.

Aieueoeinoai ?IE-niaea?aeaueo ae?onia ?aciiiaeathony iooai ia?aciaaiey
eiiee ?IE aac o/anoey i?iiaaeooi/iuo AeIE-iao?eoe, e iiyoiio eo
?aieeeaoeey iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue a eeaoeao n eiaeae?iaaiiui neioacii
AeIE. Yoe ae?onu eiaee?otho nianoaaiioth ?IE-?aieeeaco.

Eeaoee oicyeia oaeiai oa?iaioa ia eiatho. O iaeioi?uo a?oii
?IE-niaea?aeaueo ae?onia ?IE ?aieeoee?oaony ia i?iiaaeooi/iie
eiiieeiaioa?iie AeIE, neioace?oaiie ia ae?oniie ?IE n iiiiuueth ia?aoiie
o?aine?eioacu. Yoio oa?iaio i?eaiineony a eeaoeo oicyeia ae?eiiii
aianoa n ae?oniie ?IE. Aaaaeaiea oaea neioace?iaaiiiai ae?oniiai
oa?iaioa a eeaoeo – yaeaiea ia noieue ?aaeeia.

*enei eiiiiiaioia aeineioaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa, eioi?ia iia au
eiaee?iaaoue ae?on, eeieoe?oaony aaee/eiie ae?oniiai aaiiia. Naiua
iaeua ae?onu niaea?aeao ieiei 106 aeaeueoii AeIE eee ?IE. Oae eae
niioiioaiea iieaeoey?iuo aania eiaee?othuae ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou e
eiaee?oaiiai aaeea ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 9:1 aeey ?IE eee iaeiioeaii/iie
AeIE e 18:1 aeey aeaoooeaii/iie AeIE, yoe ae?onu a ninoiyiee iaania/eoue
neioac eeoue ianeieueeeo aaeeia, e iau/ii yoi eeoue no?oeoo?iua aaeee
ae?eiia. I/aaeaeii, /oi ana ae?onu a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie caaenyo io
oa?iaioiiai aiia?aoa eeaoie – oicyaa. Iaeioi?ua ae?onu ioaeaeathony
aeaaea a iiiiue ae?oaeo ae?onia. Iai?eia?, ?IE ae?ona – naoaeeeoa
iae?ica oaaaea ninoieo anaai ec 1200 ioeeaioeaeia, a aaeeiaay
noauaaeeieoea eaineaea, eioi?oth yoa ?IE eiaee?oao, ninoieo ec 400
aieiieeneioiuo inoaoeia. I/aaeaeii, /oi ie aeey eaeie ae?oaie
eioi?iaoeee a aaiiia yoiai ae?ona ia oaaoeei au ianoa. Iiyoiio ii
niiniaai ?aciiiaeaoueny oieueei a oao eeaoeao, eioi?ua iaeiia?aiaiii
ca?aaeaiu ae?onii iae?ica oaaaea. Iineaaeiee e neoaeeo enoi/ieeii
iaiaoiaeeiie ?aieeeacu. Anoue e ae?oaea i?eia?u ae?onia, nio?aiythueony
a anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo oieueei aeaaiaea?y ae?onai – iiiiuieeii,
eioeoee?othuei oa aea eeaoee.

Ai a?aiy naiae ?aieeeaoeee ae?oniay ioeeaeiiaay eeneioa ia naycaia ni
niaoeeoe/aneeie aaeeaie, eiathueieny a c?aeuo ae?eiiao. I?e
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo ?aieeeaoeey ioeeaeiiiauo eeneio i?ienoiaeeo
oiaaea, eiaaea neioac aaeeia oeie/aneei iooai eiaeae?iaai. A oiaea
eioaeoeee, aaaeouae e ia?aciaaieth e aunaiaiaeaeaieth iiauo ae?oniuo
/anoeoe, neioac ae?eiiiuo aaeeia iau/ii ia/eiaaony iinea oiai, eae
?aieeeaoeey ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou oaea ?acaa?ioeanue. A ?acoeueoaoa
neioaca yoeo aaeeia iaeaieeaaaony oiiae i?aaeoanoaaiieeia, neoaeauee
enoi/ieeii iaoa?eaea, eniieuecoaiiai i?e nai?ea eaineaeia. Nic?aaaiea –
neiaeiue e iaia?aoeiue i?ioeann: ie ioeeaeiiaay eeneioa, ie
no?oeoo?iua aaeee, aeeth/aiiua a iieiue eaineae eee aai /anoue, niiaa
oaea ia inaiaiaeaeathony a oie aea eeaoea. Oaeei ia?acii, i?e nai?ea
eaineaea ae?oniue aaiii eneeth/aaony ec ?aieeoee?othuaeny iiioeyoeee
ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou, a eaineaeiua aaeee – ec oiiaea aaeeiauo
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia. Anee ae?onu eiatho ia?oaeioth iaiei/eo, oi iia
i?eniaaeeiyaony e eaineaeo iicaeiaa, eeai a oeeoiieacia eeaoee, eeai i?e
acaeiiaeaenoaee n eeaoi/iie iaia?aiie. Oaeie i?ioeann nai?ee,
aeeth/athuee yoaiu iaiieiaiey i?aaeoanoaaiieeia iicaieyao iauynieoue
yaeaiea oaiioeie/aneiai niaoaiey, eiaaea a eeaoea, ca?aaeaiiie aeaoiy
?acee/iuie, ii niaianoeiuie ae?onaie, ia?acothony ae?eiiu n eaineaeaie,
iino?iaiiuie ec noauaaeeieoe, eiaee?oaiuo ?aciuie aaiiiaie.

Aiiaue ia?aciaaiiua ae?eiiu inaiaiaeaeathony ai aiaoithth n?aaeo
(ia?aaeei aianoa n iac?aeuie oi?iaie) eeai a ?acoeueoaoa eecena eeaoee
– oicyeia, aucuaaaiiai ae?oniuie oa?iaioaie, eae i?e eioaeoeee aaeoa?ee
oaaaie, eeai iooai auoaeeeaaiey o/anoeia oeeoiieaciu, eeai, iaeiiaoe,
iooai auoiaea ioaeaeueiuo ae?eiiia eee iaaieueoeo eo a?oii. Iaeioi?ua
ae?onu aeeaioiuo n o?oaeii inaiaiaeaeathony ec eeaoie a eoeueoo?ao in
vitro; a aeeaii i?aaiecia auoiaeo oaeeo ae?onia ec eeaoie e eo
?ani?ino?aiaieth niinianoaoao caoaao iia?aaeaeaiiuo ae?onii eeaoie
oaaioeeoaie e eo ia?aaa?eaaiea. Ae?onu ?anoaiee iau/ii ia
inaiaiaeaeathony iooai eecena eeaoie, a ia?aoiaeyo ec eeaoee a eeaoeo
/a?ac iaaeeeaoi/iua niaaeeiaiey.

Acaeiiaeaenoaea oaaa n aaeoa?eyie.

Iniiaiua i?iaeaiu e yaeaiey

Aaeoa?eioaae yaeythony ia?aceoaie i?aaenoaaeoaeae ii/oe anao a?oii
i?iea?eioe/aneeo i?aaieciia io e?ioa/iuo Dellovibrios, eioi?ua naie
ia?aceoe?otho ia ae?oaeo aaeoa?eyo, aei iaeioi?uo e?oiiuo neia-caeaiuo
aiaei?ineae. Iauea naienoaa oaaia iau/ii neoaeao io?aaeaieai naienoa
eeaoee aaeoa?ee-oicyeia. Iaee/ea aeanoeie eeaoi/iie noaiee o
aieueoeinoaa i?iea?eio o?aaoao iniauo iaoaieciia aeey i?iieeiiaaiey eee
auoiaea ae?onia. I?iea?eiou ia aeeooa?aioee?othony a noaieiaua eee
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua eeaoee, a yaeythony iiioeyoeeae aieaa eee iaiaa
noiaeiuo eeaoie, eioi?ua i?iaeieaeatho ?aciiiaeaoueny, iiea eiaaony
niioaaonoaothuay ieoaoaeueiay n?aaea. Iiyoiio acaeiiaeaenoaea oaaia n
aaeoa?eyie i?ienoiaeeo a aaeoa?eaeueiie eoeueoo?a oeeeee/anee, iiea ia
ianooieo iaeia ?aaiiaaniia ninoiyiea, eioi?ia ii?aaeaeyaony /eneii
eeaoie-oicyaa e ae?oniuo yeaiaioia e nei?inoueth eo aini?iecaaaeaiey.
Ae?oaay neooaoeey aicieeaao oiaaea, eiaaea aaeoa?ee niiniaiu e
aeeooa?aioee?iaea, iai?eia? i?e nii?oeyoeee eee niaia ninoiyiee.

I?ee?aieaiea e i?iieeiiaaiea

I?ee?aieaiea ae?eiiia oaaa e aaeoa?eaeueiie eeaoea yaeyaony ?aaeoeeae
ia?aiai ii?yaeea e i?ienoiaeeo iau/ii ia eeaoi/iie iiaa?oiinoe.
Iineaaeiyy ?acee/ia ii naiae no?oeoo?a o ?aciuo oeiia aaeoa?ee.
Iaeioi?ua oaae i?ee?aieythony e iniaui au?inoai, oae iacuaaaiui F e
L-ai?neieai, eioi?ua i?eieiatho o/anoea a i?ioeanna eiiuthaaoeee.
Ae?eiiu oaaia a?oiiu o ia?aoeii i?ee?aieythony e aeaooeeai aaeoa?ee e
caoai nineaeuecuaatho aaeieue ieo e iiaa?oiinoe eeaoee, i?e/ai yoiio
i?ioeanno, ii-aeaeeiiio, niinianoaoao aeaeaeaiea naieo aeaooeeia
(iineieueeo iaiiaeaeaeiua aaeoa?eaeueiua iooaiou ia auaatho oicyaaaie
yoeo oaaia). Ia iiaa?oiinoe aaeoa?eaeueiie eeaoee eiathony
niaoeeoe/aneea ?aoeaioi?u aeey oaaia , iaeiaei aeaiiua ia eo i?e?iaea
aanueia ia?aie/aiu. Oio oaeo, /oi oaa ianiiniaai aaeni?ae?iaaoueny ia
aaeoa?eaeueiii iooaioa, ia iaycaoaeueii icia/aao, /oi iooaio oo?aoee
oeie/aneea a?oiiu, auiieiythuea ?ieue ?aoeaioi?ia oaaa, – iineaaeiea
iiaoo auoue i?inoi ne?uou ae?oaeie eiiiiiaioaie eeaoi/iie iaiei/ee.
?aoeaioi?u ia anaaaea iaiaoiaeeiu aeey naiie eeaoee; iai?eia?, i?e ?inoa
aaeoa?ee a ii?aaeaeaiiuo oaiia?aoo?iuo oneiaeyo iie iiaoo
oo?a/eaaoueny.

Ec iaiei/ee aaeoa?ee, /oanoaeoaeueiuo e oaao, oaeaaony yeno?aae?iaaoue
niaoeeoe/aneia aauanoai, niiniaiia eiaeoeae?iaaoue oaa. Aiciiaeii ,yoi
aauanoai yaeyaony naiei ?aoeaioi?ii eee eiiiiiaioii ?aoeaioi?iie
no?oeoo?u ia iiaa?oiinoe aaeoa?ee. Naie ii naaa ?aoeaioi?u,
ii-aeaeeiiio, niinianoaotho eeoue ia?aiio ia?aoeiiio yoaio aaeni?aoeee.
Ia eneeth/aii, /oi iie oaeaea o/anoaotho a ae?oaeo i?ioeannao,
/anoiinoe a o?ainii?oa eiiia aeaeaca. Iinea i?ee?aieaiey oaaa aaeoa?ey a
oa/aiea iaeioi?iai a?aiaie (eaoaioiue ia?eiae) ia i?aoa?iaaaao caiaoiuo
ii?oieiae/aneeo eciaiaiee aeaaea e a oii neo/aa, anee ca?aaeaiea, a
eiioea eiioeia ,i?eaaaeao e eeceno eeaoee, iineieueeo eecen ianooiaao
anaaaea aiacaiii.

I?iieeiiaaiea oaaiaiai aaiiia a eeaoeo nii?iaiaeaeaaony oece/aneei
ioaeaeaieai ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou io aieueoae /anoe eaineaeiuo aaeeia,
eioi?ua inoathony nia?oaee.

E?iia oaaiaie ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou aioo?ue aaeoa?eaeueiie eeaoee
eiuaoee?oaony oaeaea iaaieueoia eiee/anoai aaeea e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea
aauanoaa, a oii /enea ieeaiiaioeaeu e iieeaieiu. ?ieue yoeo aauanoa a
i?ioeanna ?acaeoey oaaa iaecaanoia, iaeioi?ua ec ieo yaeythony
inoaoeaie i?ioaieeca eaineaeiuo aaeeia i?e nai?ea ae?eiiia. Anee
aaeoa?eaeueiua eeaoee niiniaiu iiaeiuaoue naiaiaeioth AeIE ec n?aaeu,
oi e aaiii oaaa iiaeao i?iieeiooue a ieo a aeaea naiaiaeiuo iieaeoe
AeIE. Yoi yaeaiea iacuaatho o?ainoaeoeeae. Niiniaiinoue aaeoa?ee
iiaeiuaoue iieaeoeu AeIE iiaeao aicieeiooue eae ii?iaeueiia yaeaiea ia
iaeioi?uo yoaiao ?inoa, /oi iaaethaeaaony, iai?eia?, o A subtilis.

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo oaeia ninoiyiea aucuaaaony eneonnoaaiii, eae,
iai?eia?, o A coli.

I?ioeann ?acaeoey oaaa iinea o?ainoaeoeee i?eioeeieaeueii ia ioee/aaony
io i?ienoiaeyuaai i?e ii?iaeueiie oaaiaie eioaeoeee, ca eneeth/aieai
oiai, /oi a yoeo neo/ayo ia iaaethaeaaony ?acenoaioiinoe, aucuaaaiie
ionoonoaeai ?aoeaioi?ia eee ae?oaeie naienoaaie iaiei/ee eeaoee.

I?iieeiiaaiea aaiiia oaaa a /oanoaeoaeueioth e iaio aaeoa?eth
i?eaiaeeo eeai e eeciaaiiie, eeai e eeoe/aneie eioaeoeee, a
caaeneiinoe io i?e?iaeu oaaa (a eiiaaea e aaeoa?ee) e io ie?oaeathueo
oneiaee, iai?eia? oaiia?aoo?u. I?e eeciaaiiii oeia acaeiiaeaenoaey
aaiii oaaa a iaeioaeoeeiiiie oi?ia ia?aaeaaony aaeoa?eaeueiuie
eeaoeaie ec iieieaiey a iieieaiea, i?e/ai a?aiy io a?aiaie a iaeioi?ii
eiee/anoaa eeaoie neioace?othony niioaaonoaothuea ae?eiiu, eece?othuea
yoe eeaoee e auoiaeyuea caoai ai aiaoithth n?aaeo. Eeciaaiiua eeaoee,
iiaoi?ii ca?aaeaiiua yoeie ae?eiiaie, ia eece?othony (eai iie eiioiiu e
yoiio oaao), oae /oi eeciaaiiay eoeueoo?a i?iaeieaeaao ii?iaeueii
?anoe. I?enoonoaea naiaiaeiuo ae?eiiia iiaeii auyaeoue iooai
aicaeaenoaey ia eeaoee eaeeo-eeai eiuo, iaeeciaaiiuo ooaiiia aaeoa?ee,
eece?oaiuo aeaiiui oaaii. Oaae, niiniaiua eeciaaiece?iaaoue
ca?aaeaaiua eie aaeoa?ee, iacuaathony oia?aiiuie, a oaae, o eioi?uo
oaeay niiniaiinoue ionoonoaoao, – ae?oeaioiuie. Neaaeoao, iaeiaei,
iiiieoue, /oi aeaaea oia?aiiua oaae i?e ia?aie eioaeoeee
/oanoaeoaeueiuo e iei aaeoa?ee aucuaatho i?iaeoeoeaioth eioaeoeeth o
iiiaeo eee aeaaea o anao eeaoie. Aicieeiiaaiea eeciaaiee e
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea nic?aaaiey ae?eiiia e eecena eeaoie o?aaotho na?ee
ii?aaeaeaiiuo niauoee, eioi?ua aiana ia anaaaea neo/athony ni anyeie
ca?aaeaiiie aaeoa?eae. Aa?iyoiinoue iiyaeaiey eeciaaiee eee
i?iaeoeoeaiie eioaeoeee aa?uee?oao io oaaa e oaao e caaeneo io oneiaee
eoeueoeae?iaaiey.

Naycue iaaeaeo no?iaieai ae?eiia e ia/aeii eioaeoeee

Aeeeiiua ieoe (oea?eeeu) io?inoea neoaeao aeey niaoeeoe/aneiai ociaaaiey
oaaii ii?aaeaeaiiuo o/anoeia ia iiaa?oiinoe eeaoee-oicyeia, e eioi?ui
ii i?ee?aieyaony. Iooaoeee aaiia, eiaee?othueo aaeee ieoae, i?eaiaeyo e
eciaiaieth eee iieiie oo?aoa niiniaiinoe oaaa i?ee?aieyoueny e
eeaoea-oicyeio. Aua iaeiei aeieacaoaeuenoaii aaaeiie ?iee ieoae
io?inoeia neoaeao yenia?eiaiou n aioeoaaiauie aioenuai?ioeaie,
iieacaaoeie /oi i?ee?aieaieth oaaa e eeaoeai i?aiyonoaotho oieueei
aioeoaea e aaeeai aeenoaeueiuo /anoae eiioeia ieoae.

Ieoe iaaeaathony aie?oa io?inoea oaeei ia?acii, /oi eo n?aaeiyy /anoue
iiaeaea?aeeaaaony «oneeaie», i?ee?aieaiiuie e oiio ianoo, aaea aieiaea
niaaeeiyaony n io?inoeii. Neioac aaeea «oneeia», aa?iyoii, eiaee?oaony
aaiii wac. Nii?eeiniiaaiea eiioeia ieoae n ?aoeaioi?ii eeaoee,
aiciiaeii, iaoneiaeeaaao eo ?acai?a/eaaiea e aui?yieaiea.
Ioee/eoaeueiia naienoai oaaa O4, eioi?ia eaaei oo?a/eaaaony aneaaenoaea
iooaoeee e ioai?a, caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi inaiaiaeaeaiea ieoae io?inoea
io «oneeia» caaeneo io L- o?eioioaia eae eioaeoi?a. Caaeneiinoue
aui?yieaiey ieoae e iineaaeothuaai i?ee?aieaiey oaaa e eeaoea io
eiioeaio?aoeee o?eioioaia oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi eiioaeo iaeioi?uo
ieoae n eeaoeie iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue inaiaiaeaeaieth inoaeueiuo
ieoae. Aeey neaaeothuaai yoaia acaeiiaeaenoaey oaaa n aaeoa?eae
iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeeueiia i?ino?ainoaaiiia iieiaeaiea aacaeueiie
ieanoeiee io?inoea, /oi a naith i/a?aaeue, iaania/eaaaony, aa?iyoii,
eiioaeoii anao oanoe ieoae n ?aoeaioi?aie eeaoee. Ii-aeaeeiiio,
i?ee?aieaiea oaaiaie /anoeoeu n iiiiuueth ieoae io?inoea iicaieyao ae
i?iecaiaeeoue ii?aaeaeaiiua neieuecyuea aeaeaeaiey ii iiaa?oiinoe
eeaoee, iiea ia aoaeao iaeaeai o/anoie, /a?ac eioi?ue iiaeii aaanoe
AeIE. A yoii ioiioaiee aanueia aaaeiui ieacaeinue iaaethaeaiea,
niaeanii eioi?iio iaia?aoeiia i?ee?aieaiea oaaa e eeaoea e
i?iieeiiaaiea a iaa aai AeIE i?ienoiaeyo eeoue ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo o/anoeao
iaiei/ee (anaai eo ieiei 300), aaea oeeoiieaciaoe/aneay e aiaoiyy
iaia?aiu ia?acotho i?i/iua eiioaeou, onoie/eaua e iyaeiio iniioe/aneiio
oieo. Yoi ni?aaaaeeeai, aa?iyoii, e aeey ae?oaeo aaeoa?eioaaia. Aanueia
aaaeii auei au auynieoue, eaeiai ioiioaiea yoeo o/anoeia e ianoai
neioaca iaia?aiiuo eiiiiiaioia e oaaiauo ?aoeaioi?ia. Ia neaaeothuai
yoaia acaeiiaeaenoaey oaaa n eeaoeie i?ienoiaeeo nie?auaiea /aoea
io?inoea, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai noa?aeaiue i?iieeaao a eeaoi/ioth
iaiei/eo. Nie?auaiea noeioee?oaony aacaeueiie ieanoeieie, eciaiythuae
naith eiioi?iaoeeth iiae aeeyieai ieoae io?inoea. A i?ioeanna
nie?auaiey i?eieiatho o/anoea ana 144 noauaaeeieoeu /aoea, e eo
niaianoiia ia?aiauaiea i?eaiaeeo e oiaiueoaieth aeeeiu /aoea a aeaa
?aca. Auei auneacaii i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi yia?aey aeey nie?auaiey /aoea
iinoaaeyaony iieaeoeaie AOO, annioeee?iaaiiuie n oaaii, iaeiaei
ieii/aoaeueii yoi aua ia aeieacaii. Aeenoaeueiay /anoue noa?aeiy
iiaeaiaeeony aieioioth e aioo?aiiae oeeoiieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aia, ii ia
iaycaoaeueii i?iieeaao /a?ac iaa. AeIE ec ia?aaioaiiuo ii/aaeiie
oaaia, eiathueo nie?auaiiua /aoeu e yeniiie?iaaiiua noa?aeie, iiaeao
i?iieeaoue a noa?iieanou A coli, o eioi?uo aiaoiea iaia?aiu e aeanoeea
iaiei/ee eeai nianai oaeaeaiu, eeai a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ?ac?ooaiu.
Ca?aaeaiea noa?iieanoia, inouanoaeyaiie a aeia?oiie/aneeo n?aaeao,
i?eaiaeeo e ia?aciaaieth ii?iaeueiiai oaaiaiai iioiinoaa. A
noa?iieanou iiaeii aaiaeeoue oeaeueiua eee o?aaiaioe?iaaiiua iieaeoeu
oaaiaie AeIE, eioi?ua caoai ?aieeoee?othony e o/anoaotho a
?aeiiaeiaoeee.

Anoanoaaiii, /oi a i?ioeanna ca?aaeaiey noa?iieanoia iiaa?oiinoiua
?aoeaioi?u ia o/anoaotho. Iiyoiio ia?aaioaiiua ii/aaeiie oaae O4 iiaoo
ca?aaeaoue onoie/eaua e iei iooaiou A. Coli eee aeaaea onoie/eaua
aaeoa?ee ioaeaeaiiuo aeaeia. I?ee?aieaiea e noa?iieanoai oaaiauo
/anoeoe, ia?aaioaiiuo ii/aaeiie, aeiee?oaony oinoaoeaeeeaeeoea?eiii,
eioi?ue, aa?iyoii, yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth iaia?ai, noeioee?othuae
aaaaeaiea AeIE a eeaoeo.

Anee aaeoa?eth, oaea ca?aaeaiioth O-/aoiui oaaii, nionoy ianeieueei
ieioo aiiaue eioeoee?otho yoei aea oaaii, oi aoi?ie eiioeiaaio oaaa ia
o/anoaoao a ?aciiiaeaiee (oae iacuaaaiia eneeth/aiea i?e noia?eioaeoeee)
e ia ia?aaeaao naiae AeIE iioiinoao. Auei iieacaii, /oi AeIE oaaiauo
/anoeoe, iiiaaoeo a eeaoeo i?e iiaoi?iii ca?aaeaiee, ?ac?ooaaony
(?ac?ooaiea i?e noia?eioaeoeee). Iaa yoeo i?ioeanna iaoiaeyony iiae
eiio?ieai aeoeae?oaiuo a eeaoea-oicyeia oaaiauo aaiia, ooieoeey eioi?uo
iiaeao ia?ooaoueny i?e niioaaonoaothueo iooaoeeyo.

Nai?ea ae?eiiia

A ioee/ea io ?aiieo yoaiia ?acaeoey oaaa oiae nai?ee eaineaeia e iieiuo
ae?eiiia ia i?ia?aiie?oaony iineaaeiaaoaeueiie yeni?anneae oaaiauo
aaiia. Ii-aeaeeiiio, ana aaeee ae?eiia e ae?oaea iicaeiea aaeee, eae,
iai?eia?, eecioeei oaaa, neioace?othony aieaa eee iaiaa iaeiia?aiaiii e,
iaeaieeaaynue, ia?acotho «oiiae i?aaeoanoaaiieeia». Ionthaea iie
ecaeaeathony iooai i?yiiai niaoeeoe/aneiai acaeiiaeaenoaey n ae?oaeie
aaeeiauie iieaeoeaie, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai aicieeatho noano?oeoo?u,
eioi?ua caoai niae?athony oaea a oeaeueiua ae?eiiu. Iauee oiae nai?ee
noae iiiyoai ec ?acoeueoaoia iiuoia in vivo n iooaioiuie oaaaie e i?e
eco/aiee eecaoia; iaeiaei iinea oiai, eae auea ioe?uoa aiciiaeiinoue
nai?ee i?aaeia?aciaaiiuo oaaiauo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia in vitro, n
iiiiuueth yoiai yooaeoeaiiai iaoiaea auei iieo/aii iiiai iiauo aeaiiuo.
Nai?ea ae?eiia ninoieo ec /aou?ao iniiaiuo yoaiia, i?eaiaeyueo e
ia?aciaaieth i?iiaaeooi/iuo no?oeoo?, acaeiiaeaenoaothueo iaaeaeo niaie
eeoue a ii?aaeaeaiiuo e?eoe/aneeo oi/eao.

Aacaeueiay ieanoeiea oaaiaiai io?inoea iino?iaia ec 15 aaeeia, a
neioaca eioi?uo , e?iia iniiaiuo ,o/anoaotho e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea aaiu.
Aanueia eioa?anii, /oi ieanoeiea niaea?aeeo, ii-aeaeeiiio, ianeieueei
iieaeoe aeaoo eiaee?oaiuo oaaii oa?iaioia – aeeaeae?ioieao?aaeoeoacu e
oeieaeeeaoneioaoacu, a oaeaea iaeioi?ia eiee/anoai oieeaaie eeneiou.

Nia?aiiay aacaeueiay ieanoeiea iinea i?eniaaeeiaiey e iae aaeea aaia A4
neoaeeo cao?aaeie aeey nai?ee noa?aeiy io?inoea, ninoiyuaai ec 144
iieaeoe i?iaeoeoa aaia 19. Aie?oa noa?aeiy i?ienoiaeeo nai?ea /aoea,
i?aaenoaaeythuaai niaie iieeia?, iino?iaiiue ec 144 iieaeoe i?iaeoeoa
aaia 18. I?iaeoeou aeaoo ae?oaeo aaiia noaaeeece?otho anth yoo
no?oeoo?o. Iaiiiyoii, eaeei ia?acii aeinoeaaaony iinoiyinoai aeeeiu
noa?aeiy i?e nai?ea. Aiciiaeii, /oi nouanoaotho aua eaeea-oi eeiaeiua
aaeee, ioia?ythuea ioaeiia ?annoiyiea, eee eiioaeo n aacaeueiie
ieanoeieie i?eaeaao noauaaeeieoeai noa?aeiy oaeoth niaoeeoe/aneoth
eiioi?iaoeeth, eioi?ay eiaao ieieioi naiaiaeiie yia?aee oieueei a neo/aa
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?acia?a noa?aeiy. Yoa iineaaeiyy aeiioaca oeacuaaao ia
oi, /oi i?ioeann nai?ee, aiciiaeii, ia yaeyaony /enoi iaoaie/aneei.

Iaiei/ea oaaiaie aieiaee, iino?iaiiay ec aieaa /ai 10 aaeeia, ia?acoaony
a ?acoeueoaoa aeoeaiinoe iiiaeo aaiia. Iniiaiie ec ieo i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie i?iaeoeo aaia 23, aoiaeyuee a ninoaa caeii/aiiie aieiaee eeoue
iinea iouaieaiey io iniiaiiai iieeiaioeaea o?aaiaioa n iie. aanii
10000. I?ioaieec inouanoaeyaony aeaaiui ia?acii i?iaeoeoii aaia 22, a
oaeaea, aiciiaeii, aaia 21, ionoonoaothuei a c?aeii ae?eiia. Iaeiaei
aaeie aaia 22 i?aaenoaaeyao niaie, ii nouanoao, aioo?aiiee aaeie,
i?aa?auathueeny a ,eiioea eiioeia, a ?acoeueoaoa naiiia?aaa?eaaiey a
iaeeea iaioeaeu, i?e/ai iaeioi?ua ec ieo inoathony a aieiaea oaaa.
Caeanue i?enoonoaotho oaeaea e ae?oaea aioo?aiiea aaeee,
iiaeaa?aathueany /anoe/iiio ia?aaa?eaaieth aaeeii aaia 22.

Iinea ieii/aiey ?acaeaeueiie nai?ee aieiaee e io?inoea iie
naiii?iecaieueii iauaaeeiythony eae in vitro, oae e in vivo.

Ieoe io?inoea ninoiyo ec i?iaeoeoia /aou?ao aaiia. Eo nai?ea eaeao
iacaaeneii, ii i?ee?aieythony iie e aacaeueiie ieanoeiea oieueei iinea
niaaeeiaiey aieiaee e io?inoea. Aeey yoie ?aaeoeee ioaeai aaeie aaia 63,
a oaeaea acaeiiaeaenoaea n «oneeaie», eioi?ua i?ee?aieaiu e
ai?ioie/eo, ?aniieiaeaiiiio iaaeaeo aieiaeie e io?inoeii.

Aieiaea oaaa eiaao niaoeeoe/aneoth oi?io, ii?aaeaeyaioth aaeeii aaia
23 e ae?oaeie aaeeaie. Aa no?iaiea eciaiyaony a ?acoeueoaoa iooaoeee
niioaaonoaothueo aaiia. Ii?iaeueiay aieiaea oaaa 74 eiaao oi?io
iai?aaeeueiiai eeinaaeaeueoayae?a, ii aeeeiiie ine eioi?iai ?aniieiaeai
aeiiieieoaeueiue ?yae noauaaeeieoe, ninoiyueo ec 840 eiiee aaeea aaia
23. Noauaaeeieoeu aaeea aaia 20 ?aniieaaathony ia aa?oeiao. Oaeay oi?ia
aieiaee io?aaeaao iaee/ea ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?ino?ainoaaiiuo ia?aie/aiee,
iaeeaaeuaaaiuo aaeie – aaeeiauie acaeiiaeaenoaeyie. I?e ionoonoaee yoeo
ia?aie/aiee no?iaiea oaaa neeueii eciaiyaony.

Aaeoa?eioaa (

Aaeoa?eioaa ( yaeyaony oia?aiiui oaaii, o.a. ii iiaeao eeai
ia?aoiaeeoue ec eeaoee a eeaoeo a i?ioeanna eioaeoeee, eeai
ia?aaeaaaoueny io iaeiiai iieieaiey e ae?oaiio a oiaea ?aciiiaeaiey
aeaiiiai aaeoa?eaeueiiai ooaiia. A iineaaeiai neo/aa eaoaioiue aaiii
oaaa iacuaaaony i?ioaaii, a eeaoee, ianouea oaeie i?ioaa, –
eeciaaiiuie. I?enoonoaea aaiiia oaaa a eeciaaiiie eoeueoo?a iiaeii
iaia?oaeeoue i?e niiioaiiii inaiaiaeaeaiee oaaa ec iaaieueoie /anoe
eeaoi/iie iiioeyoeee, a eioi?ie i?iecioei niiioaiiia ?acaeoea oaaa.

Anoanoaaiiui oicyeiii oaaa ( neoaeeo ooaii A coli K 12, aaiaoeea
eioi?iai oi?ioi eco/aia. Iiyoiio oaa ( aue eca?ai a ea/anoaa iauaeoa
eioaineaiuo enneaaeiaaiee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia auyniaiea i?e?iaeu eeciaaiee.
Enoiaeiue aeeeee ooaii E 12 yaeyaony eeciaaiiui ii oaao , eioi?ue ia
ia?acoao aeyoae ia yoii ooaiia, iaeaaeathuai, iiaeiaii aieueoeinoao
eeciaaiiuo aaeoa?ee, eiioieoaoii ii ioiioaieth e oaao, niaea?aeauaiony
a iai a aeaea i?ioaaa. Iau/ii oaa ( ?aciiiaeaaony ia aa?eaioao ooaiia
E 12, «ecaea/aiiuo» io i?ioaaa. Oaeea ecaea/aiiua aa?eaiou
iaia?oaeeaathony a iaaieueoeo eiee/anoaao n?aaee eeaoie, auaeeaoeo iinea
eioaineaiiai iaeo/aiey. I?e ia?aciaaiee onoie/eaie eeciaaiiie eeaoi/iie
eeiee aeieaeiu auoue auiieiaiu neaaeothuea aeaa oneiaey. Ai-ia?auo,
i?ioaa aeieaeai iaoiaeeoueny a eeaoea a oaeii ninoiyiee, /oiau i?e
eeaoi/iii aeaeaiee eaaeaeay aei/a?iyy eeaoea iieo/aea ii e?aeiae ia?a
iaeio aai eiieth. A neo/aa oaaa ( yoa caaea/a ?aoaaony iooai
aeeth/aiey aai AeIE a aaeoa?eaeueioth o?iiiniio, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
AeIE i?ioaaa ianneaii ?aieeoee?oaony e naa?aae?oaony n iiiiuueth
aiia?aoa eeaoee-oicyeia. Ai-aoi?uo, oa ae?oniua aaiu, i?iaeoeou eioi?uo
iioaioeeaeueii niiniaiu ia?ooeoue oeaeinoiinoue eeaoee, aeieaeiu
?aaoee?iaaoueny oaeei ia?acii, /oiau eeaoee iiaee aeaaiiieo/ii ?anoe e
?aciiiaeaoueny. Yoi aeinoeaaaony iooai ?ai?annee o?aine?eioeee aaiia. A
eeaoeao, eeciaaiiuo ii oaao (, ia o?aine?eae?oaony ie iaeei ec
ae?oniuo aaiia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey i?iaeoeoeaiie eioaeoeee. A eeciaaiiuo
eoeueoo?ao iaia?oaeeaaaony eeoue i/aiue iaaieueoia eiee/anoai ae?oniie i
?IE.

Ae?onu aeeaioiuo

Aaeni?aoeey e i?iieeiiaaiea a eeaoeo

Ia?aua yoaiu ae?oniie eioaeoeee, iacaaeneii io oiai, i eaeii ae?onae
eaeao ?a/ue, o?aaeeoeeiiii i?eiyoi iacuaaoue aaeni?aoeeae,
i?iieeiiaaieai e «?acaeaaaieai» (?ac?ooaieai ae?oniie iaiei/ee). Iiae
aaeni?aoeeae i?eiyoi iiieiaoue ia?ae/iue eiioaeo ae?ona n eeaoeie.
*anoi yoio eiioaeo nia/aea auaaao i/aiue neaaui – ia?aoeiay
aaeni?aoeey. Caoai i?i/iinoue eiioaeoa aic?anoaao – iaia?aoeiay
aaeni?aoeey. Yoe oa?ieiu a ?aaiie noaiaie i?eeiaeeiu aeey iienaiey
ia/aeueiie noaaeee i?iieeiiaaiey a eeaoee ethauo ae?onia. Oa?iei
«i?iieeiiaaiea» ioeai/ai iioiio, /oi ii iiae?aceiaaaao aeoeaiia
aicaeaenoaea ia aoaeoaioth eeaoeo ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoe ae?eiia, /oi ia
auei aeieacaii. Aieaa aa?iyoii, /oi ai iiiaeo neo/ayo ia naiii aeaea
eiaao ianoi nianai ae?oaie i?ioeann – i?ee?aieaiea ae?ona e eeaoea
aneaaenoaea oeceei-oeie/aneie eiiieaiaioa?iinoe iaaeaeo iiaa?oiinoueth
ae?ona e iieaeoeaie ?aoeaioi?ia, iaoiaeyueony ia iiaa?oiinoe eeaoee,
eiaeooee?oao a eeaoea eciaiaiey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey i?iieeiiaaiey a iaa
ae?ona.

Iauay ea?oeia aaeni?aoeee ae?onia aeeaioiuo

?acoeueoaou, iieo/aiiua i?e eco/aiee aaeni?aoeee ia eeaoeao naiuo
?acee/iuo ae?onia aeeaioiuo (eae n iaiei/eie, oae e aac iaa),
nicaeatho neaaeothuoth iauoth ea?oeio i?ioeanna i?ee?aieaiey ae?ona e
eeaoea. I?ioeann ia/eiaaony ni neo/aeiuo noieeiiaaiee ii?iaeanoaa
ae?eiiia n iiaa?oiinoueth eeaoee, ii e ia?aciaaieth nayce iaaeaeo
oece/anee eiiieaiaioa?iuie ae?oa ae?oao o/anoeaie iiaa?oiinoe eeaoee e
ae?eiia aaaeao eeoue iaeii noieeiiaaiea ec eaaeaeuo 10c eee 104.
Aiciiaeii, /oi a ia?aciaaiee oaeeo naycae i?eieiatho o/anoea e eiiu
eoeueoo?aeueiie n?aaeu. Iaiin?aaenoaaiii ?aaeeciaaoue yoe nayce iiaoo
iaoiaeyueany ia iiaa?oiinoe ae?eiiia aunooiu, ninoiyuea ec iniauo
ae?oniuo aaeeia, oaeea, eae «oeiu» o ae?onia n iaiei/eie, iai?eia?
iee?iae?onia, oiaaae?onia e ia?aieeniae?onia, eee aaeeiaua ieoe
(oea?eeeu), iooiaeyuea io aa?oei eeinayae?e/aneeo ae?eiiia (iai?eia?, o
iaeioi?uo aaeaiiae?onia). O/anoie naycuaaiey ia iiaa?oiinoe ae?eiia,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii acaeiiaeaenoaothuee n ?aoeaioi?ii eeaoee, iiaeao
ninoiyoue ec eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai no?oeoo?iiai ae?oniiai aaeea, a iiaeao e
i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie iicaeeo ec ianeieueeeo aaeeia eaineaea
(ii-aeaeeiiio, eiaiii oae ianoieo aeaei o ieei?iaae?onia). ?aoeaioi?ii
ai anao neo/ayo neoaeeo ?aniieiaeaiiue ia iiaa?oiinoe eeaoee aaeie eee
aeeeii?ioaeae. Ia iiaa?oiinoe eeaoee eiathony ?acee/iua ?aoeaioi?u,
eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo niaoeeoe/ai aeey naiaai ae?ona. Niaoeeoe/iinoue
yoeo ?aoeaioi?ia ia aaniethoia, /oi i?eaiaeeo e aiciiaeiinoe
a?oiie?iaee ae?onia ii yoiio naienoao a naiaia?aciua «naiaenoaa».
Ae?onu, ?iaenoaaiiua ae?oa ae?oao ii aeaiiiio i?eciaeo, iiaoo auoue
?iaenoaaiiu e ii ae?oaei i?eciaeai, iaeiaei yoi oneiaea ia yaeyaony
iaycaoaeueiui. Ia iiaa?oiinoe aaeeie/iie eeaoee iiaeao niaea?aeaoueny
io 104 aei 105 eiiee eaaeaeiai aeaea ?aoeaioi?a.

Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi nai oaeo aaeni?aoeee ae?ona ia eeaoea aua
ieeiei ia?acii ia icia/aao eieoeeaoeee ae?oniie eioaeoeee. Nayce,
ia?acothueany i?e aaeni?aoeee iaaeaeo ae?onii e eeaoeie, iiaoo auoue
«neaauie»,, a aaeni?aoeey «ia?aoeiie», o.a. ae?eii iiaeao iieeaeaoue
iiaa?oiinoue eeaoee. Iaeiaei iaeioi?ua ec aaeni?ae?iaaaoeony ia eeaoea
ae?eiiia naycuaathony n iae aieaa i?i/iuie «iaia?aoeiuie» naycyie.

I?iieeiiaaiea ae?onia aeeaioiuo a eeaoeo e «?acaeaaaiea».

Neaaeothuee yoai iinea i?i/iiai i?ee?aieaiey ae?eiia e iiaa?oiinoe
/oanoaeoaeueiie eeaoee – yoi i?iieeiiaaiea aioo?ue eeaoee anaai ae?eiia
eee aai /anoe e ia/aei neioaca ae?on-niaoeeoe/aneiai aaeea eee ae?oniie
i ?IE. A iniiaa ia/aeueiiai naycuaaiey naiuo ?acee/iuo ae?onia n eeaoeie
iiaoo eaaeaoue i?eioeeieaeueii noiaeiua i?ioeannu. Iai?ioea,
i?iieeiiaaiea ae?eiiia a eeaoeo e aeoeaaoeey ae?oniiai aaiiia iiaoo
i?ienoiaeeoue o ?aciuo ae?onia ii-?aciiio. ssnii, /oi ae?onu n
iaiei/eie e «aieua» ae?onu aeieaeiu i?iieeaoue a eeaoeo a ?acoeueoaoa
?aciuo oeceei-oeie/aneeo i?ioeannia. Oaea aeaaii i?aaeiieaaaee, /oi a
iniiaa i?iieeiiaaiey a eeaoeo ae?onia n iaiei/eie, aa?iyoii, eaaeeo
i?ioeann, a eaeie-oi ia?a iiaeiaiue «ieaaeaieth iaia?aiu», eee i?ioeann
«neeyiey». *oi aea eanaaony oaeeo ioiineoaeueii aieueoeo aaeeiauo
no?oeoo?, eae aieua ae?eiiu, oi aeey ieo ecaanoai oieueei iaeei iaoaieci
i?iieeiiaaiey a eeaoeo – yoi oaaioeeoic, e oaea aeaaii i?aaeiieaaaaony,
/oi oaeea ae?onu i?iieeatho a eeaoee a ?acoeueoaoa aa?eaioa
oaaioeeoica, iacaaiiiai «ae?iiaenenii». A iineaaeiea aiaea noaea
ecaanoia aua iaeia aaaeiay iiae?iaiinoue, eanathuayny i?iieeiiaaiey
ae?onia a eeaoee. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a ?yaea neo/aaa aaeeinoaaiiui
eiiiiiaioii ae?eiia, iaiin?aaenoaaiii ioaaonoaaiiui ca neioac iiauo
eiiiiiaioia ae?ona, yaeyaony aai ioeeaeiiaay eeneioa, a a ae?oaeo aua e
aoiaeyuay a ninoaa ae?eiia ?IE- eee AeIE-iieeia?aca.

?aciiiaeaiea ae?onia aeeaioiuo

?IE-niaea?aeauea ae?onu

Iaeii ec ?aceeo ?acee/ee iaaeaeo ae?onaie aaeoa?ee e ae?onaie aeeaioiuo
ninoieo a iaiaeeiaeiaie i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe eo iaeeii/iiai oeeeea
?ai?iaeoeoeee. Oae, iaeeii/iue oeeee ?ai?iaeoeoeee aeaaea o iaeaieaa
auno?i ?aciiiaeathueony ae?onia aeeaioiuo i?iaeieaeaaony 5-6 a, a o
?yaea ae?oaeo ae?onia – ianeieueei aeiae. E?iia oiai, iiiaea ae?onu
aucuaatho eeoue ia?nenoaioiua eioaeoeee, i?e eioi?uo eeaoee-oicyaaa ia
iiaeaatho, oioy ae?on ana a?aiy ia?acoaony e a ieo e a eo iioiieao.
Noieue aeeeoaeueiue oeeee ?ai?iaeoeoeee ae?onia aeeaioiuo ii n?aaiaieth
n aieaa ei?ioeei oeeeeii ?ai?iaeoeoeee aieueoeinoaa oaaia, aa?iyoii,
caaeneo io ioiineoaeueiuo ?acia?ia niioaaonoaothueo eeaoie-oicyaa.

Iiiaea iniaaiiinoe ae?onia aeeaioiuo naycaiu ni niaoeeoe/aneeie
iniaaiiinoyie a?oeoaeoo?u yoea?eioe/aneeo eeaoie. AeIE aieueoeinoaa
AeIE-niaea?aeaueo ae?onia neioace?oaony a yae?a eeaoee. Iai?ioea, aaeee
anao aac eneeth/aiey ae?onia neioace?othony a oeeoiieacia. Ca?aaeaiea
eeaoie ae?onaie a i?eioeeia iiaeao i?eaanoe e aeaoi iineaaenoaeyi.
Ca?aaeaiiay eeaoea iiaeao eeai iiaeaiooue, ia?aciaaa i?e yoii aieueoia
eiee/anoai ae?ona (eeoe/aneee oei acaeiiaeaenoaey ae?onia n eeaoeaie),
eeai i?iaeieaeaoue aeeoue e aeaeeoueny, neioace?oy iaaieueoea
eiee/anoaa ae?ona. Eoeueoo?u ?aciiiaeathueony eeaoie, i?iaeooee?othueo
ae?on, iacuaatho ia?nenoaioii eioeoee?iaaiiuie. Ii/oe ethaie ae?on
aeeaioiuo i?e niioaaonoaothueo oneiaeyo iiaeao aucaaoue ia?nenoaioioth
eioaeoeeth. Aieaa oiai, iiiaea ae?onu eece?otho eeaoee i/aiue ?aaeei, e
iau/ii a ca?aaeaiiuo eeaoeao onoaiaaeeaaaony ninoiyiea onoie/eaiai
?aaiiaaney – ia?acoaony ia?nenoaioii eioeoee?iaaiiay eoeueoo?a eeaoie.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e oniaoiie eeoe/aneie eioaeoeee a ca?aaeaiiuo
eeaoeao i?ienoiaeeo iyoue /aoei ioee/athueony ae?oa io ae?oaa niauoee,
?aaeecoaiuo ooieoeeiiaeueii aeoeaiuie ae?on-niaoeeoe/aneeie aaeeaie. A
oiaea iaeeii/iiai oeeeea ?ai?iaeoeoeee ae?ona yoe niauoey ?acaeaathony
eeai ia?aeeaeueii, eeai iineaaeiaaoaeueii. Eo a?aiaiiay
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony niaoeeoe/aneeie naienoaaie
eaaeaeiai ae?ona. Yoi neaaeothuea niauoey: 1) iiaeaaeaiea ae?onii ?yaea
eeaoi/iuo ooieoeee; 2) neioac ae?oniuo i ?IE; 3) ?aieeeaoeey ae?oniiai
aaiiia; 4) ii?oiaaiac ae?eiiia; 5) inaiaiaeaeaiea ae?eiiia ec eeaoee.

Niaeanii i?aaeeai nia?eaaiey iniiaaiee ii Oioniio e E?eeo, aeey eaaeaeie
aeaiiie iieaeoeu ?IE iiaeii caienaoue eiiieaiaioa?ioth ae
ioeeaioeaeioth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue. Aeey oaeianoaa eeanneoeeaoeee
ae?onia ae?onioth i ?IE oneiaii iaicia/atho eae «iethn»-oeaiue, a
eiiieaiaioa?ioth ae iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue, eae «ieion»-oeaiue. Enoiaey
ec no?oeoo?iie acaeiinayce iaaeaeo ioeeaeiiaie eeneioie ae?eiia e aai i
?IE, ana ae?onu aeeaioiuo iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia oanoue eeannia. Eiia/ii,
yoo eeanneoeeaoeeth iiaeii i?eiaieoue oaeaea e e aaeoa?eioaaai, e e
ae?onai ianaeiiuo, e ?anoaiee, ii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?acoiiaa anaai
ia?aie/eoue aa i?eiaiaiea ae?onaie aeeaioiuo.

E eeanno I ioiinyony ae?onu, niaea?aeauea aeaoooeaii/a/ioth AeIE,
iai?eia? ae?on iniiaaeoeeiu

i ?IE yoeo ae?onia neioace?oaony oaeei aea ia?acii, eae e eeaoi/iua i
?IE, aaiii ae?ona – aeaoooeaii/a/iay AeIE – neoaeeo iao?eoeae aeey
neioaca i ?IE. Eeann II aeeth/aao ae?onu, niaea?aeauea
iaeiioeaii/a/ioth AeIE. Eo i ?IE ii ioeeaioeaeiiio ninoaao, aa?iyoii,
iieiinoueth aiiieiae/ia AeIE ae?eiia. Iiyoiio i ?IE aeieaeiu
o?aine?eae?iaaoueny n «ieion»- oeaie AeIE, aoiaeyuae a ninoaa
?aieeeaoeaiiai i?iiaaeooi/iiai eiiieaena-ae?ona. E inoaeueiui eeannai
ioiinyony ae?onu, o eioi?uo aaiii neoaeeo ?IE. Eeann III aeeth/aao
ae?onu, niaea?aeauea aeaoooeaii/a/ioth ?IE, iai?eia? ?aiae?onu. Yoa ?IE
neoaeeo ia?oeoeae aeey aneiiao?e/iiai neioaca ae?oniuo i ?IE.
Ieacaeinue, /oi o anao aei neo ii? iaia?oaeaiiuo ae?onia eeanna III
aaiii naaiaioe?iaai, o.a. ninoieo ec iiiaeanoaa o?iiinii, eaaeaeay ec
eioi?uo eiaee?oao iaeei iieeiaioeae. Ae?onu, ioiinyueany e eeanno IV,
niaea?aeao «iethn»-oeaie ?IE. Aaiii yoeo ae?onia eiaao oo aea
iiey?iinoue, /oi e eo i ?IE. Ae?onu aeaiiiai eeanna aeaeyony ia aeaa
iiaeeeanna. O ae?onia iiaeeeanna Iva, oeie/iui i?aaenoaaeoaeai eioi?uo
yaeyaony ae?on iieeiieaeeoa, ana aaeee neioace?othony i?e o?aineyoeee
iaeiie-aaeeinoaaiiie iieaeoeu i ?IE. Ia?acothueeny i?e yoii iieei?ioaei
?anuaieaiey caoai i?ioaieeoe/aneeie oa?iaioaie n ia?aciaaieai
ooieoeeiiaeueii aeoeaiuo aaeeia. Ana i ?IE yoeo ae?onia eiatho oo aea
aeeeio, /oi e ?IE-aaiii. Ae?onu iiaeeeanna Iva iacuaatho oaeaea
oiaaae?onaie. Iie neioace?otho a eeaoea ii iaiueoae ia?a aeaa aeaea
ae?oniuo i ?IE: i ?IE iaeiiai aeaea eiaao oo aea aeeeio, /oi e ?IE
ae?eiia, a i ?IE aoi?iai aeaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie o?aaiaio ?IE ae?eiia.

Ae?onu eeanna V iacuaatho oaeaea «ieion» – ?IE-ae?onaie. Ii
ioeeaioeaeiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe i ?IE yoeo ae?onia eiiieaiaioa?ia ?IE
ae?eiiia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ae?eii niaea?aeeo iao?eoeo aeey neioaca i
?IE, ii ia aeey neioaca aaeeia. ?acee/atho aeaa iiaeeeanna ae?onia
eeanna V. Aaiii ae?onia iiaeeeanna Va i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeio
iieaeoeo ?IE, n eioi?ie o?aine?eae?oaony oeaeue ?yae i ?IE, i?e/ai ana
aei neo ii? eco/aiiua i ?IE yoeo ae?onia iiiioeeno?iiiua. Ae?onu
iiaeeeanna Va eiatho naaiaioe?iaaiiue aaiii. Eaaeaeue ec naaiaioia
aaiiia neoaeeo iao?eoeae , n eioi?ie o?aine?eae?oaony eeoue iaeei aeae
iieaeoe i ?IE. Iaeei ec yoeo i ?IE eiaee?otho iiioeeno?iaiiua, a
ae?oaea – iieeoeeno?iaiiua iieei?ioaeiu. Ae?onu, ioiinyueany e eeanno
VI, iacuaatho oaeaea ?ao?iae?onaie. Yoi naiua iaiau/iua ec anao
ecaanoiuo ?IE-niaea?aeaueo ae?onia, eai i?e o?aine?eae?iaaiee eo ?IE
neioace?oaony ia ?IE, eae iau/ii, a AeIE, eioi?ay a naith i/a?aaeue
neoaeeo iao?eoeae aeey neioaca i ?IE. Neaaeiaaoaeueii i ?IE yoeo
ae?onia e ?IE eo ae?eiiia ia ioee/athony ii iiey?iinoe ae?oa io ae?oaa,
a iaeioi?ua ec ieo eaeaioe/iu e ii aeeeia. Ec oaeeaeoaeueiuo naienoa
yoeo aaiaoe/aneeo nenoai auoaeaao ia iaei caia/aoaeueiuo neaaenoaee.

Iethn – ?IE-ae?onu:

ieei?eaae?onu (eeann IV a)

Ae?onu yoiai iiaeeeanna, ec eioi?uo iaeaieaa eioaineaii eco/aeny ae?on
iieeiieaeeoa, ecaanoiu iiae iauei iacaaieai «ieei?eaae?onu». E eo /eneo
ioiinyony oaeaea ae?on iaiai, ae?on yioeaoaeiieiea?aeeoa (ieei?eaae?onu
iuoae), ?eiiae?onu (ae?onu, aucuaathuea o /aeiaaea iaeei ec aeaeia
ino?uo ?anie?aoi?iuo caaieaaaiee, – oae iacuaaaioth i?inooaeo_ e ae?on
yuo?a.

Oiaaae?onu (eeann IV a)

E oiaaae?onai ioiinyony ana iethn – ?IE-ae?onu, a eioi?uo ia?acothony i
?IE aeaoo oeiia, ?acee/athueany ii naiei ?acia?ai. Iacaaiea
«oiaaae?onu» io?aaeaao iniaaiiinoe aiaoiae iaiei/ee eo ae?eiiia. Neioac
yoie iaiei/ee ?anniao?eaaaony a ae?oaii ?acaeaea, a caeanue iu ianoaeei
oieueei iaoaieciu neioaca ?IE e aaeeia, eniieuecoaiua ae?onaie aeaiiiai
eeanna. I?aaeaea /ai ia?aeoe e ?anniio?aieth iieaeoey?iie aeieiaee
oiaaae?onia, eioa?anii aniiiieoue, eae auee iaia?oaeaiu ae?onu yoie
a?oiiu. Yieaeaieieiae onoaiiaeee, /oi iiiaea ae?onu, aucuaathuea
caaieaaaiey iicaiii/iuo aeeaioiuo, ia?aiinyony eeauaie eee eiia?aie.

Oiaaae?onu, iaoiaaiiua aeey /aeiaaea, iau/ii yiaeaie/iu aeey ?acee/iuo
aeaeia aeeaioiuo e ia?aaeathony /aeiaaeo eeoue /a?ac oeon eaeiai-eeai
/eaienoiiiaiai ia?aiin/eea. Ae?onu yoie a?oiiu auee iacaaiu
a?aiae?onaie (icia/aao «ia?aiineiue /eaienoiiiaeie»). Aiineaaenoaee,
iaeiaei, noaei ynii, /oi iiae yoei iacaaieai iauaaeeiaiu ae?onu, ?acei
?acee/athueany ii naiei aeioeie/aneei naienoaai. Iauei o ieo iau/ii
yaeyaony niiniaiinoue ?aciiiaeaoueny eae a eeaoeao
ianaeiiiai-ia?aiin/eea, oae e a eeaoeao oao eee eiuo iicaiii/iuo
aeeaioiuo. Iniiaiay /anoue a?aiae?onia ii naiei aeioeie/aneei naienoaai
ioiineony e oiaaae?onai. Na?ieiae/anee oiaaae?onu aeaeyony ia aeaa
a?oiiu (A e A), eioi?ua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iacuaathony aeueoaae?onaie e
oeaae?onaie niioaaonoaaiii. E /eneo oiaaae?onia ioiinyony ii iaiueoae
ia?a aeaa ae?ona, ia yaeythueany a?aiae?onaie, – ae?on e?aniooe e ae?on,
iiauoathuee a e?iae ca?aaeaiiiai ei aeeaioiiai niaea?aeaiea
eaeoaoaeaaeae?iaaiacu..

Ae?onu, niaea?aeauea ieion – oeaiue ?IE (eeann V):

ae?on aaceeoey?iiai noiiaoeoa

Ieion – ?IE-ae?onu iiae?acaeaeythony ia o?e aeaaiua ii?oieiae/aneea
eaoaai?ee: ?aaaeiae?onu, ia?aieeniae?onu e i?oiieeniae?onu. A ieaia
aeioeie/aneie no?aoaaee ?aaaeiae?onu e ia?aieeniae?onu i/aiue aeecee
ae?oa e ae?oao e ninoaaeytho aieueooth /anoue oi?ioi eco/aiiuo ae?onia
eeanna Va. A aeaiiii ?acaeaea iniiaiia aieiaiea aoaeao oaeaeaii oieueei
iaeiiio ?aaaeiae?ono – ae?ono aaceeoey?iiai noiiaoeoa (AAN), oae eae ii
eco/ai iaeaieaa aeaoaeueii. Oioy AAN e iaoiaaiai aeey e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai
neioa, aucuaaaiua ei caaieaaaiey i?ioaeatho eaaei e ia i?eaiaeyo e
na?ueaciui yeiiiie/aneei oauoeai. A eoeueoo?ao eeaoie AAN ?aciiiaeaaony
auno?i e o?iaeae aai aeinoeaaao aunieeo oeo?ia. Ca?aaeaiiua ei eeaoee
iiaeaatho. I?e ca?aaeaiee /oanoaeoaeueiuo eeaoie ae?oaeie
?aaaeiae?onaie eee ia?aieeneae?onaie iau/i ?acaeaaaony ia?nenoaioiay
eioaeoeey, ia i?eaiaeyuay e aeaaee eeaoie. Iiyoiio oaeea nenoaiu
ae?on-eeaoea iaiiiai o?oaeiaa iiaeaeathony eco/aieth. I?oiieeniae?onu,
ec eioi?uo iaeaieaa ecaanoiuie yaeythony ae?onu a?eiia /aeiaaea, eiatho
naaiaioe?iaaiiui aaiii, ninoiyuee ec ?yaea ioaeaeueiuo ieion-oeaiae
?IE.

Ae?eii AAN, iiaeiaii ae?eiiai anao ae?oaeo oiaaae?onia, iie?uo aiaoiae
iaiei/eie, ii a ioee/ea io ieo eiaao oa?aeoa?ioth oi?io ioee. Naii
iacaaiea «?aaaeiae?onu» i?ienoiaeeo io a?a/aneiai ei?iy, icia/athuaai
«iaei/ea», e iaoneiaeaii aneiiao?e/iinoueth yoeo /anoeoe. Ioeaia?aciay
oi?ia ae?eiia io?aaeaao oi?io aai ioeeaieaineaea, i?aaeinoaaeythuaai
niaie naa?ioooth a oeeeeiae? nie?aeue e niaea?aeauaai iaeio iieaeoeo
?IE n iie. Aanii 4.106. Yoa ?IE ia iaeaaeaao ie iaeiei ec oa?aeoa?iuo
i?eciaeia i ?IE ae?onia yoea?eio: ia aa 3-i eiioea iao
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe poly (A), a ia 5-i eiioea iao «oaii/ee». E?iia
oiai, iia ia iaeaaeaao eioaeoeeiiiinoueth. Aa ooieoeey ninoieo a oii,
/oi iia neoaeeo ia?oeoeae aeey neioaca ae?oniuo i ?IE e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, yaeyaony ieion – oeaiueth ?IE. Ioeeaieaineae AAN
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i/aiue noaaeeueioth no?oeoo?o, e iaoiaeyuayny a iai
?IE iieiinoueth caueuaia io aeaenoaey ?eaiioeeaacu. Ioeeaieaineae yoiai
ae?ona eioaeoeeiiai, ii aai oaeaeueiay eioaeoeeiiiinoue i/aiue iaea.
Ae?eii AAN niaea?aeeo iyoue ?acee/iuo aaeeia, e ae?oaeo ae?oniuo aaeeia
a ca?aaeaiiuo eeaoeao ia iaia?oaeeaaaony. Aaeie, ia aeieth eioi?iai
i?eoiaeeony iniiaiay ianna aaeeia ioeeaieaineaea e ae?eiia a oeaeii,
iacuaaaony aaeeii N. Ioeeaieaineae niaea?aeeo iaaieueoia eiee/anoai aua
aeaoo aaeeia, iacuaaaiuo aaeeaie L e ? 9. Iie i?eieiatho o/anoea a
neioaca ae?oniie ?IE. I?ino?ainoai iaaeaeo ioeeaieaineaeii e
eeiii?ioaeaeiie iaiei/eie ae?eiia caiieiaii iieaeoeaie aua iaeiiai
ae?oniiai aaeea, iacuaaaiiai aaeeii I. Iaeiiaoe , nia?oaee io aeaieiiai
neiy eeieaeia iaiei/ee iaoiaeeony aaeie G, ia?acothuee oii?yaei/aiioth
nenoaio ?aniieiaeaiiuo ia iiaa?oiinoe ae?eiia oeiia.

A ioee/ea io ?aaaeiae?onia ia?aieeniae?onu ia eiatho ioeaia?aciie
oi?iu, a i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iai?aaeeueiua noa?u, /oi io?aaeaao iaiaa
oii?yaei/aiioth oeeaaeeo eo ioeeaieaineaeia.

Aiaoiea iaiei/ee ae?onia

Iauei naienoaii oiaaae?onia, ieion-?IE-ae?onia e ?ao?iae?onia yaeyaony
iaee/ea o ieo eeiii?ioaeaeiie aiaoiae iaiei/ee, ie?oaeathuae
?eaiioeeaii?ioaeaeioth na?aeoeaaeio. Iaoaieci ia?aciaaiey oaeie iaiei/ee
o anao ae?onia iaeei e oio aea: ?eaiioeeaii?ioaeae naycuaaaony n
aioo?aiiae iiaa?oiinoueth eciaiaiiiai o/anoea ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu
eeaoee e i?e auoiaea ec eeaoee ie?oaeaaony yoie eciaiaiiie iaia?aiie.
Oaeie i?ioeann iacuaaaony ii/eiaaieai, a ia?acothuayny ae?oniay /anoeoea
a oio ia?eiae, eiaaea iia aua naycaia n ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiie, iineo
iacaaiea ii/ee. Ia yeaeo?iiiuo iee?ioioia?aoeyo oeueo?aoiieeo n?acia
eeaoie yoe ii/ee i/aiue oi?ioi aeaeiu, eai iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
oa?aeoa?ii eciaiaiiua iaiei/ee ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu.

No?iaiea ae?eiia

A ninoaa ae?eiiia, eiathueo aiaoithth iaiei/eo, aoiaeyo o?e aeaaiuo
eeanna no?oeoo?iuo aaeeia: aeeiii?ioaeaeu, aaeee iao?eena e aaeee
ioeeaieaineaea. Iae?ino?oeoo?a ae?eiia ii?aaeaeyaony naienoaaie
iiaa?oiinoe aeaieiiai neiy eeieaeia, ie?oaeathuaai ioeeaieaineae.
Ia?oaeiay iiaa?oiinoue aeaieiiai eeieaeiiai neiy iie?uoa
aeeeii?ioaeaeii, a aioo?aiiyy eiioaeoe?oao n aaeeaie iao?eena eee
ioeeaieaineaea. Ana eeieaeu, niaea?aeaueany ai aiaoiae iaiei/ea ae?eiia,
eiatho eeaoi/iia i?ienoiaeaeaiea, oae eae ia iaia?oaeaii eaeiai-eeai
ae?on-niaoeeoe/aneiai iaiaia eeieaeia. Ii naiaio ninoaao eeieaeu ae?eiia
i/aiue noiaeiu n eeieaeaie ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu eeaoee-oicyeia: a eo
/enei aoiaeyo oieanoa?ei, aeeeieeieaeu e oinoieeieaeu. Eeaoee ?acee/iuo
aeaeia nouanoaaiii ?acee/athony iaaeaeo niaie ii eeieaeiui eiiiiiaioai
ieaciaoe/aneeo iaia?ai. Iiyoiio eeieaeiue ninoaa ae?ona, oi?ie?othuaainy
a aeaiiie eeaoea, oi/ii niioaaonoaoao eeieaeiiio ninoaao aa
ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu.

Aeeeii?ioaeaeu, niaea?aeaueany a iaiei/eao ?acee/iuo ae?onia, iaeaaeatho
eae niaoeeoe/aneeie naienoaaie, oae e naienoaaie, iaueie aeey anao
ae?oniuo aeeeii?ioaeaeia. Ana iie iaoiaeyony ia aiaoiae iiaa?oiinoe
ae?eiia e iiaoo auoue oaeaeaiu iiae aicaeaenoaeai i?ioaac. Iineieueeo
i?ioaacu iouaieytho io eioaeoiuo ae?eiiia oieueei aeeeii?ioaeaeu, ynii,
/oi ia?oaeo ec aeaieiiai neiy eeieaeia aunooiatho eeoue yoe iieaeoeu
ae?oniuo aaeeia. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi i?ioaacu oaeaeytho eeoue /anoue
iieaeoeu aeeeii?ioaeaea. Ae?oaay aa /anoue – «iiaeea», ninoiyuay ec
aunieiaeae?aoiaiiai iieeiaioeaaea – ii-aeaeeiiio, iia?oaeaia a aeaieiie
eeieaeiue neie e iaaeinooiia aeey i?ioaacu.

Nai?ea ae?eiia

Ia ia?aie noaaeee oi?ie?iaaiey ae?eiia i?ienoiaeeo neioac aai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aaeeia. Aaeee eaaeaeiai ec o?ao eeannia
neioace?othony, ii-aeaeeiiio, iacaaeneii ae?oa io ae?oaa e /anoi ia
ioaeaeueiuo i ?IE.

Aeeeii?ioaeaeu ia?acothony ia naycaiiuo n iaia?aiaie i ?IE e a
naiaiaeiii ninoiyiee a eeaoeao ieeiaaea ia ano?a/athony. Iieaeoeu aaeea
«nic?aaatho» ii ia?a eo ia?aaeaeaeaiey ec oa?ioiaaoiai
yiaeiieaciaoe/aneiai ?aoeeoeoia a aeaaeeee, a caoai, aiciiaeii, a
aiia?ao Aieueaeaee e, iaeiiaoe, a ieaciaoe/aneoth iaia?aio eeaoee.
I?eniaaeeiaiea oaeaaiaeia e aaeeai i?ienoiaeeo i?e ia?aiauaiee
iineaaeieo ii aioo?eeeaoi/iui iaia?aiai. A eiioea eiioeia iie auoiaeyo
ia iiaa?oiinoue eeaoee, aaea, aa?iyoii, naiaiaeii ieaaatho a aeeaeeii
aeaieiii eeieaeiii neia ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu.

Ae?onu, niaea?aeauea aeaoooeaii/a/ioth ?IE (eeann III)

Ae?onu aeaiiiai eeanna auee iaia?oaeaiu o ieanaiae, aunoee ?anoaiee,
ianaeiiuo e iicaiii/iuo aeeaioiuo. Ie iaeei ec yoeo ae?onia ia
niaea?aeeo eeieaeia. Eo eaineaeu ninoiyo ec aeaoo neiaa – aioo?aiiaai
(na?aeoeaaeiu) e ia?oaeiiai, ia?acothuaai iaiei/eo aie?oa
na?aeoeaaeiu. A na?aeoeaaeia iaoiaeeony iiiaeanoai naaiaioia
aeaoooeaii/a/iie ?IE e aa?uee?othuaa /enei iaaieueoeo ieeaiioeeaioeaeia,
ia eiathueo, ii-aeaeeiiio, ieeaeeo aaiaoe/aneeo ooieoeee. Iaeaieaa
ouaoaeueii eco/aiu ?aiae?onu /aeiaaea, eioi?ua, eae i?aaeei, ia
aucuaatho eaeeo-eeai yaiuo iaoieiae/aneeo neiioiiia. Eneeth/aiea
ninoaaeytho, ii-aeaeeiiio, ?aiae?oniiiaeiaiua aaaiou, auaeaeyaiua i?e
aano?iyioa?eoao o aeaoae. Oai ia iaiaa yoe ae?onu /anoi auaeaeytho ec
i?aaiecia /aeiaaea, i?e/ai a eaai?aoi?iuo oneiaeyo iie oi?ioi
?aciiiaeathony. Iaeioi?ua aeaiiua iieo/aiu oaeaea ia ioaeaeueiuo ae?onao
?anoaiee e ianaeiiuo, niaea?aeaueo aeaoooeaii/a/ioth ?IE.

?aciiiaeaiea ae?onia aeeaioiuo.

AeIE-niaea?aeauea ae?onu e ?ao?iae?onu.

Iineieueeo a ii?iaeueiuo eeaoeao iao ieeaeeo yeaeaaeaioia aaiaoe/aneeo
nenoai ?IE-niaea?aeaueo ae?onia, oaeea ae?onu niiniaiu ?aciiiaeaoueny
eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee iie neioace?otho oa?iaiou, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey
o?aine?eioeee e ?aieeeaoeee eo aaiiia. A neo/aa AeIE-niaea?aeaueo
ae?onia, iai?ioea, neioac eo i ?IE i?ienoiaeeo oae aea, eae e i ?IE
ii?iaeueiuo eeaoie. ?aieeeaoeey eo aaiiia e aaiiia eeaoee oi?iaeueii
oaeaea aanueia noiaeiu. Aieaa oiai, o?aine?eioeey e ?aieeeaoeey AeIE
aieueoeinoaa ae?onia, oae aea eae e eeaoi/iie AeIE i?ienoiaeeo a yae?a.
Noiaenoai iniiaiuo i?ioeannia o eeaoie e AeIE-ae?onia iaaiaeeo ia
iuneue, /oi aeey ?aciiiaeaiey iineaaeieo iao ieeaeie iaiaoiaeeiinoe a
eiaeoeoeee eaeeo-oi iniauo oa?iaioia, ionoonoaothueo a iaca?aaeaiiie
eeaoea. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi aeey ?aciiiaeaiey AeIE-ae?ona aeinoaoi/ii
i?enoonoaey aaeeia aai eaineaea, oae /oi aaiii oaeiai ae?ona aiieia
iiaeao ninoiyoue oieueei ec aaiia, eiaee?othueo aai eaineae. Neaaeoao,
iaeiaei, iiae/a?eiooue, /oi, oioy oaeea i?inoua AeIE-ae?onu
aeaenoaeoaeueii nouanoaotho, aeeciaiiue oeeee aieueoeinoaa AeIE-ae?onia
cia/eoaeueii neiaeiaa. ?acee/iua AeIE-ae?onu i/aiue neeueii ioee/athony
ae?oa io ae?oaa eae ii aaee/eia, oae e ii neiaeiinoe eo no?iaiey.
Iieaeoey?iue aan AeIE iaeiaiueoeo ec ieo ninoaaeyao anaai 1,5o106
aeaeueoii, a naiuo e?oiiuo – a 100 ?ac aieueoa. Ii ia?a oaaee/aiey
ae?oniuo aaiiiia iie noaiiayony ana neiaeiaa e neiaeiaa. Aic?anoaao
iauaa /enei aaiia e oneiaeiyaony iaoaieci ?aieeeaoeee AeIE.

Iineieueeo iaeeea AeIE-ae?onu niiniaiu e eioaineaiiio ?aciiiaeaieth,
i?aaenoaaeyaony oaeeaeoaeueiui nai oaeo aicieeiiaaiey e?oiiuo
AeIE-ae?onia. Iaeii ec i?aeiouanoa, eioi?ia iiaeao iieo/eoue ae?on i?e
oaaee/aiee aai aaiiia – yoi oiaiueoaiea caaeneiinoe io eeaoee.

Ia?aiae?onu

Naiuie i?inouie ec anao ecaanoiuo ae?onia, aa?iyoii, yaeythony
ia?aiae?onu. Eo aaiii i?aaenoaaeai iaeiioeaii/a/iie AeIE n iie. Aanii
anaai 1,5o106 aeaeueoii. Iaeiaei aeey aaeeinoaaiiiai eiaee?oaiiai yoei
ae?onii i?iaeoeoa – aaeea aai eaineaea – aeaaea yoa iaeay iieaeoea
neeoeii aaeeea. ?aciiiaeaiea yoiai e?ioa/iiai ia?aceoa, ii-aeaeeiiio,
aeaenoaeoaeueii iieiinoueth caaeneo io niioaaonoaothueo nenoai
eeaoee-oicyeia. Nouanoaoao aeaa iniiaiuo eeanna ia?aiae?onia –
aaoiiiiiua e aeaoaeoiua. Ana aei neo ii? ecaanoiua aaoiiiiiua
ia?aiae?onu – yoi ae?onu a?ucoiia; aeey o?aine?eioeee, ?aieeeaoeee e
ae?oaeo ooieoeee yoe ae?onu eniieuecotho niioaaonoaothuea oa?iaiou
eeaoee-oicyeia. Aeaoaeoiua ia?aiae?onu ?aciiiaeathony eeoue a eeaoeao,
eioi?ua ca?aaeaiu iaeiia?aiaiii aaeaiiae?onii, auiieiythuei iaeioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeiua ooieoeee. Aei neo ii? ia iaeaeaii ii?iaeueiuo eeaoie, a
eioi?uo iiaee au ?aciiiaeaoueny aeaoaeoiua ia?aiae?onu. A eeaoeao,
iaoiaeyueony a noaoeeiia?iie oaca, aaoiiiiiua ia?aiae?onu ia
?aciiiaeathony, iie ?aciiiaeathony eeoue a eeaoeao AeIE eioi?uo oaea
?aieeoee?oaony, o.a. a eeaoeao, iaoiaeyueony a S-oaca eeaoi/iiai
oeeeea.

Yoi ia?aie/aiea eanaaony oeia eeaoie, ii?aaeaaiuo aeaiiuie ae?onaie.
Ia?aiae?onu aucuaatho aiiiaeee ?acaeoey o yia?eiiia e aeaoaeou ?anooueo
oeaiae o iiai?iaeaeaiiuo. Iie aucuaatho oaeaea ia?ooaiey ooieoeee
eeoa/ieea, /oi, aa?iyoii, yaeyaony neaaenoaeai eo ?aciiiaeaiey a auno?i
aeaeyueony eeaoeao e?eio.

Aeaoaeoiua ia?aiae?onu ?aciiiaeathony oieueei a eeaoeao, ca?aaeaiiuo
aaeaiiae?onii – iiiiuieeii, e ia caaenyo io oacu eeaoi/iiai oeeeea. Eo
ae?onii- iiiiuieeii iiaoo auoue oieueei aaeaiiae?onu. Aa?ianae?onu
oaeaea niiniaiu auiieiyoue iaeioi?ua ec iaiaoiaeeiuo ooieoeee ae?ona –
iiiiuieea, iaeiaei iieiua eioaeoeeiiiua /anoeoeu ia?aiae?onia a yoii
neo/aa ia ia?acothony. Eiaiii ii yoie i?e/eia aeaoaeoiua ia?aiae?onu
iacuaatho oaeaea «aaeaiiannioeee?iaaiiuie» ae?onaie (AAA).

Iaeii ec oa?aeoa?iuo ?acee/ee iaaeaeo aaoiiiiiuie e aeaoaeoiuie
ia?aiae?onaie ninoieo a oii, /oi aaiii ia?auo i?aaenoaaeai oieeaeueiie
iaeeii/iie oeaiueth AeIE, a aaiii aeaoaeoiuo ia?aiae?onia –
yeaeiiey?iuie eiee/anoaaie iaeiioeaii/a/iuo eiiieaeyioa?iuo ae?oa ae?oao
iieaeoe AeIE. I?e aea?eaeecaoeee iaeiioeaii/a/iua iieaeoeu AeIE,
auaeaeaiiua ec ae?eiiia AAA, eaaei i?aa?auathony a iieaeoeu
aeaoooeaii/a/iuo AeIE. Ae?eiiu ia?aiae?onia aeecee ii aaee/eia e
?eaininiai – eo aeeaiao? 20 ii. Ia niaea?aeauea eeieaeia eaineaeu yoeo
ae?onia ninoiyo ec o?ao iieeiaioeaeia ?acee/iie aeeeiu. Iieaeoey?iue
aan naiiai aieueoiai ec ieo 90000 aeaeueoii. Noaey ii iaioeaeiie ea?oa,
iaeua iieeiaioeaeu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie /anoe aieueoiai; iiyoiio
iieaaatho, /oi ae?oniay i ?IE eiaee?oao oieueei iieeiaioeae n iie. aanii
90000.

Iaiiaaae?onu

Iaiiaaae?onu ecaanoiu eo/oa ae?oaeo aeaaiaea?y i?eiaaeeaaeauei e yoie
a?oiia iiae?iaii enneaaeiaaiiui iieiaaiiui ae?onai – ae?ono iieeiiu e
SV40, eioi?ua ?aciiiaeathony eeoue a i/aiue oceii e?oao eeaoie
ieaeiieoathueo. Iau/ii i?e eco/aiee iieiaaiiuo naienoa yoeo ae?onia,
eiaaony a aeaeo eo niiniaiinoue o?ainoi?ie?iaaoue eeaoee in vitro – eie
ca?aaeatho eeaoee oao aeaeia, eioi?ua iie o?ainoi?ie?otho, ii a eioi?uo
ia ?aciiiaeathony, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e ia aucuaatho eo eecen.

A ninoaa a?oiiu iaiiaaae?onia, e?iia ae?onia iieeiiu e SV40, aoiaeeo
?yae ae?oaeo ae?onia. Naia iaeiaiiaaiea iaiiaaae?onu – a?oiia iieo/eea
io iacaaiee o?ao ae?onia: ae?ona e?iee/ueae iaieeeiiu, ae?ona iieeiiu
(ii) e aaeoieece?othuaai (aa) iaacuyiaueaai ae?ona, oei 40 (SV40). O
/aeiaaea yoe ae?onu ia aucuaatho caaieaaaiee, oioy SV40 eiiaaea
ca?aaeaao eeaoee /aeiaaea. O ethaeae oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu o?e ae?oaeo
iaiiaaae?ona – ae?on JC, AE e ae?on ai?iaeaaie. I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi
ae?on JC yaeyaony yoeieiae/aneei aaaioii i?ia?anne?othuaai
aeaaaia?aoeaiiai caaieaaaiey oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie nenoaiu /aeiaaea.
Ae?on AE /anoi iaia?oaeeaatho a ii/a eeoe, i?eieiaaoeo
eiioiaaeai?annaiou, iaeiaei iiea aai ia naycuaatho n eaeie-eeai
iaoieiaeae o /aeiaaea. Ae?on ai?iaeaaie /aeiaaea, eae e ae?onu iaieeeii
aeeaioiuo, aucuaaao eeoue aeia?iea/anoaaiioth i?ieeoa?aoeeth
yieaea?iena.

Ae?onu iaiieeiiu ieioi ?aciiiaeathony a eeaoi/iuo eoeueoo?ao, iiyoiio
aei neo ii? eco/aiu a iniiaiii, eeoue eo oece/aneea naienoaa.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi eo AeIE ianeieueei e?oiiaa, /ai AeIE ae?onia SV40 e
iieeiiu.

Aaeaiiae?onu

Oioy a ae?eiiao aaeaiiae?onia niaea?aeeony a 608 ?ac aieueoa AeIE, /ai
a iaiiaaae?onao, e aaiii aaeaiiae?onia eiaee?oao niioaaonoaaiii
aieueoaa /enei aaeeia, oeeeeu ?ai?iaeoeoeee yoeo ae?onia a iniiaiii
noiaeiu. Oae, o aaeaiiae?onia, eae e o iaiiaaae?onia, eiaaony iaoaieci,
eiio?iee?othuee ia?aeeth/aiea neioaca ?aiieo iae?iiieaeoe ia neioac
iicaeieo, a eo i ?IE. Oaeaea n/eouaathony n iaaeo oeaiae ae?oniie
AeIE. Iaeiaei AeIE aaeaiiae?onia – eeiaeiay iieaeoea, e iiyoiio
iaoaieci aa ?aieeeaoeee aeieaeai ioee/aoueny io iaoaiecia ?aieeeaoeee
AeIE iaiiaaae?onia. A ioee/ea io AeIE iaiiaaae?onia /anoioa
?aeiiaeiaoeee AeIE aaeaiiae?onia aeinoaoi/ii aaeeea, aeaaiaea?y /aio
iineaaeiea iiaeii eco/aoue e iaoiaeaie oi?iaeueiie aaiaoeee.

?aciiia?acea aaeaiiae?onia

Aaeaiiae?onu auaeaeaiu io naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo aeaeia aeeaioiuo. Aieaa
oiai, io eaaeaeiai ec yoeo aeaeia auaeaeaii iiiai ?acee/iuo
aaeaiiae?onia. Oae, n?aaee aaeaiiae?onia /aeiaaea eaeaioeoeoee?iaai 31
na?ieiae/aneee oei. Iaeiaei a iieaeoey?ii-aeieiae/aneii aniaeoa
aaeaiiae?onu aanueia noiaeiu, iiyoiio i?e aeaeueiaeoai ianoaeaeaiee iu
ia aoaeai i?iaiaeeoue iaaeaeo ieie ?acee/ee. Aaeaiiae?onu a iniiaiii
aucuaatho ino?ua ?anie?aoi?iua caaieaaaiey; iaeioi?ua na?ioeiu
aaeaiiae?onia /aeiaaea i?e aaaaeaiee oiiy/eai aucuaatho o ieo iiooiee.
Ii/oe ana ooaiiu aaeaiiae?onia niiniaiu aucuaaoue o?ainoi?iaoeeth
oea?iaeanoia e?unu a eoeueoo?a, ii ie iaeei ec yoeo ae?onia ia eiaao
ioiioaiey e ceiea/anoaaiiui iiooieyi o /aeiaaea. Ec neacaiiiai ynii,
/oi aaeaiiae?onu i?aaenoaaeytho eioa?an e eae eioaeoeeiiiua aaaiou,
aucuaathuea ?anie?aoi?iua caaieaaaiey o /aeiaaea, e eae ae?onu,
niiniaiua aucuaaoue iiooiee, e eae iauaeou iieaeoey?ii-aeieiae/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee.

Ae?eiiu aaeaiiae?onia ioee/athony ecyuanoaii no?oeoo?u. A neioaca
ae?oniuo /anoeoe o/anoaotho 14 aeaeia aaeeia, a auoue iiaeao, e aieueoa.
A yoi /enei aoiaeyo e aaeee, ec eioi?uo iino?iaiu eiiiiiaiou iiaa?oiinoe
ae?eiia – aaeniiu, iaioiiu e oea?eeeu.

Aa?ianae?onu

Aa?ianeae?onu, noieue ?acee/iua ii oa?aeoa?o ?ai?iaeoeoeee, ii aanueia
noiaeiua ii?oieiae/anee e ii niaea?aeaieth AeIE, ninoaaeytho /anoue
aeioeie/anee aiiiaaiiie a?oiiu. Iaeaieaa aeaoaeueii eco/aiu
aa?ianae?onu, aucuaathuea eecen ca?aaeaiiuo eeaoie . E eo /eneo
ioiinyony ae?onu i?inoiai aa?iana, oeiu 1 e 2 e ?yae auno?i
?aciiiaeathueony aa?ianae?onia aeeaioiuo. Ec ae?onia yoie a?oiiu, ia
aucuaathueo eecena, iaeaieaa eco/ai ae?on Yiooaeia-Aa??, aucuaathuee
eioaeoeeiiiue iiiiioeeaic – yoio ae?on iinoiyiii auaeaeytho ec eeaoie
aeaoo aeaeia iiooieae /aeiaaea – eeioiiu Aa?eeooa e ea?oeeiiiu
iiniaeioee. A ioee/ea io ae?onia i?inoiai aa?iana oeiia 1 e 2,
?aciiiaeathueony a eoeueoo?ao iiiaeo eeaoie e aucuaathueo eecen, ae?on
Yiooaeia-Aa?? ca?aaeaao oieueei A-eeioioeeou i?eiaoia e ?aciiiaeaaony ia
ai anao ec ieo.

AeIE aa?ianae?onia eiaee?oao ia iaiaa 49 ?acee/iuo aaeeia, aeey neioaca
eioi?uo eniieuecoaony ii/oe any eiaee?othuay niiniaiinoue ae?oniiai
aaiiia. Eco/aiea oeceieiaee noieue neiaeiie nenoaiu – caaea/a aeaeaei
ia eaaeay.

Iienae?onu

O anao AeIE-niaea?aeaueo ae?onia, i eioi?uo ?a/ue oea auoa, AeIE
neioace?oaony a yae?a ca?aaeaiiie eeaoee, oai aea e nic?aaatho eo
ae?eiiu. Ana noaaeee ?aciiiaeaiey iienae?onia i?ienoiaeyo oieueei a
oeeoiieacia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?ai?iaeoeoeey iienae?onia i?ienoiaeeo a
niaa?oaiii eiuo oneiaeyo ii n?aaiaieth n «yaea?iuie» AeIE-niaea?aeaueie
ae?onaie. Ecaanoii aieueoia ?aciiia?acea iienae?onia. Iaeaieaa aaaeiui
ec ieo aeey /aeiaaea yaeyaony ae?on iaoo?aeueiie iniu. Iaeiaei iaeaieaa
aeaoaeueii eco/ai ae?on iniiaaeoeeiu e ?iaenoaaiiua aio ae?onu
e?iee/ueae iniu e ei?iaueae iniu. Ana iienae?onu eiatho iauee aioeaai.

Aaoiiiiiinoue ?aciiiaeaiey iienae?onia

Yeaeo?iiiay iee?ineiiey ca?aaeaiiuo eeaoie iieacuaaao, /oi i?ioeann
?aciiiaeaiey iienae?onia ia?aie/ai oeeoiieaciie. Iaeaieaa oaaaeeoaeueii
ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao oio oaeo, /oi ii/oe aanue oeeee ?aciiiaeaiey
ae?onia yoie a?oiiu iiaeao ?aaeeciaaoueny a eeaoeao, eioi?ua a
?acoeueoaoa aicaeaenoaey ia ieo oeeoioaeaceia A eeoaiu yae?a. Ca?aaeaiea
oaeeo o?aaiaioia i?eaiaeeo e neioaco a ieo ae?oniie AeIE e iiiaeo
ae?oniuo aaeeia: ae?eiiu aea a aacuyaea?iuo eeaoeao ia neioace?othony.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iienae?onu ia?aiinyo oeaio? ooieoeeiiaeueiie
aeoeaiinoe eeaoee ec yae?a a oeeoiieacio. Iiaeii iaeeaeaoue, /oi aeey
yoiai ae?on aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue iaoe?iie niaoeeoe/aneie eioi?iaoeeae, e
iienae?onu aeaenoaeoaeueii oaeie eioi?iaoeeae iaeaaeatho, /oi
au?aaeaaony a /enea eiaee?oaiuo e neioace?oaiuo eie aaeeia. A iieiii
niioaaonoaee n yoei yaeyaony oi, /oi iieaeoey?iue aan AeIE oaeeo ae?onia
aieueoa, /ai o ethaiai ae?oaiai ae?ona aeeaioiuo, e /oi ?ai?iaeoeoeey
aeaiiiai ae?ona naycaia n eieoeeaoeeae aeoeaiinoe naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo
oa?iaioia. ?aciiiaeaynue a oeeoiieacia, iienae?onu ai iiiaii aeeaea e
?IE-ae?onai, /ai e «yaea?iui» AeIE-ae?onai. E aeaenoaeoaeueii,
iiaeiaii iaeioi?ui ?IE-ae?onai, ?aciiiaeaiea iienae?onia eae oaeiaia
ia/eiaaony n o?aine?eioeee AeIE ae?eiia ?IE-iieeia?acie, niaea?aeauaeny
a naiii ae?eiia, ae?eii niaea?aeeo ana oa?iaiou, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey
i?aa?auaiey ?IE-i?aaeoanoaaiieea a ooieoeeiiaeueii aeoeaiua i ?IE.

?ao?iae?onu

?ao?iae?onu iaeaaeatho naienoaaie eae ?IE, oae e AeIE-niaea?aeaueo
ae?onia. A ae?eiia ?ao?iae?onia niaea?aeeony ?IE, iaeiaei aioo?e eeaoee
iie nouanoaotho a aeaea AeIE, eioaa?e?iaaiiie n aaiiiii eeaoee-oicyeia.
Ii nouanoao, ?IE yoeo ae?onia, i?iieeay a eeaoeo, i?aa?auaaony a aa
aaiu, eioi?ua iiaoo ia?aaeaaaoueny iioiieai a aeaea noaaeeueiuo
eioaa?e?iaaiiuo iieaeoe AeIE. AeIE-ae?onia, eioi?ua ianeaaeiaaeenue au
iiaeiaiui ia?acii, ia iaia?oaeaii, oae eae ana AeIE- niaea?aeauea
ae?onu aucuaatho i?iaeoeoeaioth eioaeoeeth e oaeaatho eeaoee, a eioi?uo
iie ?aciiiaeathony. Aeeth/aoueny a aaiii eeaoee-oicyeia
AeIE-niaea?aeauea ae?onu iiaoo oieueei a neo/ayo «iai?iaeoeoeaiuo»
ae?oniuo eioaeoeee. ?ao?iae?onu, iai?ioea, ?aciiiaeaynue iooai
ii/eiaaiey, iiaeiaii iiiaei ae?oaei ?IE- ae?onai, iiaeaea?aeeaatho
i?iaeoeoeaioth eioaeoeeth, ia aucuaay aeaaee eeaoee-oicyeia. Ec
neacaiiiai ynii, /oi oeaio?aeueiay i?iaeaia, aac ?aoaiey eioi?ie iaeuecy
iiiyoue iaoaieci ?ai?iaeoeoeee yoeo ae?onia, ninoieo a oii, eaeei
ia?acii iie i?aa?auathony ec ?IE-ae?onia a AeIE-aaiu; yoio i?ioeann aue
iacaai ia?aoiie o?aine?eioeeae, eai caeanue iai?aaeaiea iioiea
aeieiae/aneie eioi?iaoeee eciaiaii ia ia?aoiia.

Iaia?oaeaii iiiai naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo ?ao?iae?onia. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo
niiniaiu aucuaaoue ceiea/anoaaiiua iiooiee. Eo/oa ae?oaeo eco/aiu ae?on
na?eiiu ?aona e ae?onu, aucuaathuea eaeeicu o eo? e iuoae. Ec anao
ecaanoiuo ?IE-niaea?aeaueo ae?onia ceiea/anoaaiiua iiooiee iiaoo
aucaaoue oieueei ?ao?iae?onu. Eiaiii iiyoiio eo i?eiyoi iacuaaoue iauei
oa?ieiii «iiooiea?iaeiua ?IE-ae?onu», oioy iiiaea ?ao?iae?onu ia
aucuaatho ie ceiea/anoaaiiuo, ie eaeeo-eeai eiuo eeeie/anee au?aaeaiiuo
caaieaaaiee. Iiyoiio a aaeeioth eeanneoeeaoeeiiioth a?oiio eo
iauaaeeiyao eeoue niinia ?ai?iaeoeoeee. Iiaeiaii ae?oaei a?oiia ae?onia,
?acee/iua aeaeu ?ao?iae?onia oaeaea ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa ii
?acia?o e ii?oieiae/aneei iniaaiiinoyi ae?eiiia, /eneo aaeeia, a oaeaea
ii e?oao /oanoaeoaeueiuo oicyaa.

Aeeyiea ae?oniie eioaeoeee ia eeaoi/iii o?iaia

?acee/atho o?e aeaea aicaeaenoaee, ieacuaaaiuo ae?onaie aeeaioiuo ia
eeaoee. Eaa/a anaai auyaeyaony aeano?oeoeaiue, eee oeeoieeoe/aneee,
yooaeo, aeey eioi?iai oa?aeoa?ii iaoe?iia iia?aaeaeaiea iiiaeanoaa
?acee/iuo eeaoi/iuo i?aaiaee. Aa?iyoii, ae?on – niaoeeoe/aneea
iae?iiieaeoeu aucuaatho ia?ae/iia iia?aaeaeaiea, aeaeouaa ca niaie
oeaiue aoi?e/iuo aeano?oeoeaiuo i?ioeannia, a eioi?uo o/anoaotho oaea
i?iaeoeou iaoaaieecia naiie eeaoee. Ia ae?oaii eiioea niaeo?a
aiciiaeiuo iineaaenoaee iaoiaeeony yaeaiea o?ainoi?iaoeee, eiaaea
ca?aaeaiiay ae?onii eeaoea i?eia?aoaao niiniaiinoue e iaia?aie/aiiiio
aeaeaieth. Ii-aeaeeiiio, yoi ?acoeueoao onoie/eaie eioaa?aoeee ae?oniiai
aaiiia eee aai /anoe n aaiiiii eeaoee, eioi?ay ia i?eaiaeeo e aa
aeaaee. O?ainoi?ie?iaaiiay eeaoea /anoi auoiaeeo ec-iiae eiio?iey
iaoaieciia, ?aaoee?othueo eeaoi/iia aeaeaiea. Aeaenoaea iaeioi?uo
ae?onia, aaiii eioi?uo ia aeeth/aaony a o?iiiniiu eeaoie, caieiaao
i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo ?acei au?aaeaiiui aeano?oeoeaiui
yooaeoii e o?ainoi?ie?othuei aeaenoaeai. A yoeo neo/ayo ca?aaeaiiua
eeaoee aua iaeioi?ia a?aiy ooieoeeiie?otho e ii iaiueoae ia?a a iaeiii
neo/aa – i?e ca?aaeaiee ia?aieeniae?onaie – i?iaeieaeatho ?anoe e
aeaeeoueny, iaeiia?aiaiii i?iaeooee?oy ae?on («ia?nenoaioiay
eioaeoeey»). Aiciiaeia aua iaeia eaoaai?ey ?aaeoeee eeaoie, i?e eioi?ie
iiaeii aiai?eoue ia eiaeoeoeaiii aeaenoaee ae?ona. Iiiaea ae?onu
niiniaiu eiaeooee?iaaoue ia?aciaaiea a ca?aaeaiiie eeaoea aaeeia,
eiaee?oaiuo ia ae?oniui, a eeaoi/iui aaiiiii, ii, ii-aeaeeiiio,
neioace?oaiuo eeaoeaie a ioaao ia ae?onioth eioaeoeeth. Yoio oei
?aaeoeee ia iaycaoaeueii naycai n oai eee eiui eiia/iui ?acoeueoaoii
acaeiiaeaenoaey ae?ona n eeaoeie.

Oeeoiee/aneia aeaenoaea ae?onia: aeioeie/aneea aeaiiua.

Ciay, /oi iiiaea ae?onu aucuaatho ?aceea aeano?oeoeaiua eciaiaiey
eeaoie-oicyaa, aeioeieee caeioa?aniaaeenue aii?inii, i?ae?auaaony ee
i?e yoii neioac anao eeaoi/iuo aaeeia ?IE e AeIE, e anee aea, oi a
eaeie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe. Ioaaou naiaeyony e neaaeothuaio:

Aa?iyoii, ?acee/iua ae?onu iiaeaaeytho neioac eeaoi/iuo aaeeia,
eniieuecoy ?aciua iaoaieciu. Noaiaiue e a?aiy yoiai iiaeaaeaiey oiaea
iaiaeeiaeiau.

Ia?aaeei ae?on aeiee?oao iaeiieaiea eeaoi/iie ?IE, i?einoaiaaeeaay
i?ioeanneia i?a-? ?IE, ii ieeae ia aeeyy ia aa neioac. Ia?aciaaiea
eeaoi/iie o ?IE /anoi ia nieaeaaony. Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo auaaao ia?ooai
neioac eeaoi/iuo i ?IE, ii iaoaieci yoiai ia?ooaiey niaa?oaiii iaynai.

Ia?aaeei auaaao iiaeaaeaia eieoeeaoeey neioaca eeaoi/iie AeIE, iaeiaei
i?e iaeioi?uo ae?oniuo eioaeoeeyo eeaoee, oaea aioaaeoea a oaco S,
iiaoo caaa?oeoue oeeee neioaca AeIE, a eeaoee, i?ioaaeoea /a?ac oaco S,
iiaoo i?ieoe e /a?ac ieoic. Eiaeae?iaaiea neioaca eeaoi/iie AeIE- yoi
aa?iyoii, aoi?e/iia neaaenoaea i?ae?auaiea neioaca aaeea, oae eae
neioac AeIE eaeao eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee iaeiia?aiaiii i?iaeieaeaaony
neioac aaeea.

Eioa?oa?ii

?anniao?eaay caeanue eioa?oa?ii oieueei eae aaeie, neioace?oaiue eeaoeie
a ioaao ia ae?onioth eioaeoeeth e i?eaeathuee onoie/eainoue e eioaeoeee
ae?oaei eeaoeai, yoi cia/eei au eaii?e?iaaoue enoi?eth ioe?uoey
eioa?oa?iia e naycue aai n aeaaii ecaanoiui yaeaieai eioa?oa?aioeee
ae?onia.

Oaea aeaaii auei ecaanoii, /oi aeeaioiia /anoi i?eia?aoaao caueoo io
ae?oeaioiiai aeaenoaey iaeiiai ae?ona a ?acoeueoaoa iaeiia?aiaiiiai
eee i?aaeoanoaothuaai ca?aaeaiey iaiaa ae?oeaioiui ooaiiii oiai aea
ae?ona eee eaeei-eeai ae?oaei, ia?iaenoaaiiui ae?onii. Aia?aua yoi
yaeaiea auei iiaeaa?aiooi eiee/anoaaiiiio aiaeeco i?e eco/aiee
oi?iicyuaai aeaenoaey iaiae?io?iiiuo ooaiiia ae?ona a?eiia ia
?aciiiaeaiea iae?ao?iiiiai ooaiia. Oaeia aeaenoaea ieacuaaao ia oieueei
aeeaie ae?on: ia?aciaaiea eioaeoeeiiiiai ae?ona a?eiia a eo?eiuo
yia?eiiao ae?onii a?eiia, iaeo/aiiui oeueo?aoeieaoii.

Aecaen e Eeiaeaiai iaia?oaeeee, /oi aeeaioieniay aeeaeeinoue eo?eiuo
yia?eiiia, a eioi?ua aue aaaaeai iaeo/aiiue ae?on, oiaea iaeaaeaao
eioa?oa?e?othuae aeoeaiinoueth. Aauanoai, ioaaonoaaiiia ca yoo
aeoeaiinoue, auei iacaaii eioa?oa?iiii. Iii aeiee?oao ?ai?iaeoeoeeth
naiuo ?acee/iuo ?IE- e AeIE- ae?onia eae a eo?eiuo yia?eiiao, oae e a
eoeueoo?ao eeaoie. Eioa?oa?ii ia?acoaony e a i?aaiecia iiiaeo aeeaioiuo.
Yoi oaeaea neioace?oao in vitro eeaoee naiuo ?acee/iuo oeiia, eae
ii?iaeueiua, oae e ceiea/anoaaiiua, oioy e a aanueia ?aciuo eiee/anoaao.
Iniaaiii oi?ioeie i?iaeooeaioaie eioa?oa?iia iiaoo neoaeeoue eeaoee
Liuoe e niaoeeaeueii auaaaeaiiay eeiey oea?iaeanoia /aeiaaea. Aieueoea
eiee/anoaa eioa?oa?iia au?aaaouaatho oaeaea oee?eoee?othuaa a e?iae
eaeeioeeou. Iaeiiaoe, iaeioi?ua oeaie, ii-aeaeeiiio, iaeaieeaatho
eioa?oa?ii, oae eae aaaaeaiea a i?aaieci ?acee/iuo ianiaoeeoe/aneeo
oiene/iuo aauanoa, iai?eia? aaeoa?eaeueiiai yiaeioieneia, auno?i
i?eaiaeeo e iiyaeaieth a nuai?ioea e?iae aieueoeo eiee/anoa aauanoaa,
oi?iicyuaai ?aciiiaeaiea ae?onia – nei?aa anaai eioa?oa?iia.

Iaeii a?aiy iieaaaee, /oi eioa?oa?iiu no?iai aiaeiniaoeeoe/iu, iaeiaei
yoi iaaa?ii. Iai?eia?, eioa?oa?iiu /aeiaaea e iaacueyiu caueuatho io
ae?onia eae eeaoee /aeiaaea, oae e eeaoee iaacueyi, iicaeiaa auei
iaia?oaeaii, /oi yoi ioiineony e e eioa?oa?iiai aieaa aeaeaeeo ae?oa io
ae?oaa aeaeia, iai?eia? /aeiaaea e ?acee/iuo a?ucoiia. Iaeiaei
yooaeoeaiinoue aaoa?ieiae/iuo eioa?oa?iiia neeueii aa?uee?oao.

Noaiaiue caueou oiai eee eiiai ae?ona ii?aaeaeyaony oeiii eeaoie, a ia
eioa?oa?iia. Eioa?oa?ii /aeiaaea caueuaao eeaoee /aeiaaea io ae?ona
aaceeoey?iiai noiiaoeoa eo/oa, /ai io ae?ona eana Naieeee, e oaeia aea
niioiioaiea iaaethaeaaony i?e caueoa eeaoie /aeiaaea eioa?oa?iiii
iaacueyiu. Iai?ioea, eeaoee iaacueyiu iieo/atho aieueooth caueoo io
aoi?iai ec yoeo ae?onia, /ai io ia?aiai, iacaaeneii io oiai, eaeie ec
aeaoo eioa?oa?iiia e iei aeiaaaeytho.

Eioa?oa?ii – i/aiue aeoeaiue aaeie. *aeiaa/aneee eioa?oa?ii oaea a
eiioeaio?aoeee 10-11 I i?aiyonoaoao ?aciiiaeaieth ae?ona aaceeoey?iiai
noiiaoeoa a oea?iaeanoao /aeiaaea. Aeey n?aaiaiey iaiiiiei, /oi
iieeiaioeaeiua ai?iiiu, iai?eia? einoeei, aetheaaii e ae?oaea,
oeceieiae/anee aeoeaiu a eiioeaio?aoeeyo io 5o10-10 aei 1o10-8 I.

Aeaaea aac iieiie i/enoee eioa?oa?iia iiaeii i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue aai
aaoa?iaaiiinoue. Eioa?oa?iiu, i?iaeooee?oaiua eeaoeaie iaeiiai aeaea,
iai?eia? /aeiaaea, iiaoo caueuaoue io ae?onia eeaoee ae?oaeo, aanueia
ioaeaeaiiuo aeaeia, iai?eia? e?ieeea. Notha?o e Aeaniaeoa? ii?aaeaeeee
iieaeoey?iue aan eioa?oa?iia /aeiaa/aneeo eaeeioeeoia, caueuaaoaai io
ae?onia eeaoee eae /aeiaaea, oae e e?ieeea. A iai/euaiiuo i?aia?aoao iie
iaia?oaeeee aeaa aeaea aeoeaiuo iieaeoe n iie. Aanaie ieiei 21000 e
15000 niioaaonoaaiii. Aeoeaiinoue iaiueoa iieaeoe a ioiioaiee eeaoie
/aeiaaea ieacaeanue a 20 ?ac aieueoae, /ai a ioiioaiee eeaoie e?ieeea,
oiaaea eae aieaa e?oiiua iieaeoeu auee a iaieo neo/ayo iaeeiaeiai
aeoeaiu. E?iia oiai, eioa?oa?ii n iie. Aanii 15000 iieiinoueth
eiaeoeae?iaaeny iiae aeaenoaeai A-ia?eaioiyoaiiea, eioi?ue ?ac?uaaao
aeenoeueoeaeiua iinoeee, a aeoeaiinoue eioa?oa?iia n iie. Aanii 21000
ia eciaiyeanue. Oaeei ia?acii iiiaea eeaoee (anee ia aieueoeinoai eo)
i?iaeooee?otho aeaa aeaea iieeiaioeaeia, iaeaaeathueo aeoeaiinoueth
eioa?oa?iia. Eiaeoeoeey neioaca eioa?oa?iia e eiaeoeoeey eioa?oa?iiii
«i?ioeaiae?oniiai» ninoiyiey eeaoee – aeaa oanii naycaiiuo iaaeaeo
niaie, ii, aa?iyoii ?acee/iuo yaeaiey. Eeaoee, i?eia?aoathuea
onoie/eainoue e ae?onai, iiaoo i?iaeooee?iaaoue eioa?oa?ii. Iaeiaei ca
onoie/eainoue eeaoie ii/oe iaaa?iyea ioaaonoaai ia nai eioa?oa?ii, a
eaeie-oi ae?oaie aaeie, eai io iiiaioa aeiaaaeaiey eioa?oa?iia aei
iieiiai ?acaeoey o ieo onoie/eainoe e ae?onai i?ioiaeeo iiiai /ania, e
iinea yoiai eeaoee iiaoo e ia i?iaeooee?iaaoue iaia?oaeeiuo eiee/anoa
eioa?oa?iia. Oai ia iaiaa aeiaaaeaiea ae?ona e eeaoeai, caueuaiiui n
iiiiuueth eioa?oa?iia, iiaeao i?eaanoe e aeiiieieoaeueiie au?aaioea
eioa?oa?iia yoeie eeaoeaie.

Eiaeoeoeey eioa?oa?iiii onoie/eainoe eeaoie e ae?onai

Eeaoee a eoeueoo?a in vitro , a eioi?uo neioac eioa?oa?iia
eiaeooee?iaai oaeoui ae?onii eee iieeioeeaioeaeaie, oaeaea noaiiayony
onoie/eauie e ae?onai. E?iia oiai, iiiaea eeaoee, iiaeaa?aoeany
aicaeaenoaeth eioa?oa?iia, i?e ca?aaeaiee eo ae?onii au?aaaouaatho
i/aiue aieueoea aeiaaai/iua eiee/anoaa yoiai aauanoaa. Iaeiaei iaeioi?ua
eeaoee iaacueyi oioy e noaiiayony onoie/eauie e ae?onai iinea
aicaeaenoaey eioa?oa?iia iaacueyiu, ia iiaoo au?aaaouaaoue iaia?oaeeiuo
eiee/anoa eioa?oa?iia e ia i?eia?aoatho onoie/eainoe e ae?onai iinea
aicaeaenoaey poly (a) poly (n) e ae?oaeo aeaoooeaii/a/iuo ?IE. E?iia
oiai, eeaoee yoie eeiee a ioee/ea io aieueoeinoaa ae?oaeo ii/a/iuo
eeaoie iaacueyi iinea ca?aaeaiey eo ae?onii e?aniooe ia noaiiayony
onoie/eauie ii iiiaei ae?oaei ae?onai. Iieacaii oaeaea , /oi a oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea eiaeoeoeey eioa?oa?iia i?e iiiiue poly(a) poly (n)
ni/aoaaony n aeiaaaeaieai e eoeueoo?a aioe-eioa?oa?iiiauo aioeoae,
eeaoee ia noaiiayony onoie/eauie e ae?oniie eioaeoeee.

Ana yoei aeaiiua iicaieytho i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi aeey nicaeaiey
onoie/eainoe e ae?onai ioaeii, /oiau ia iiaa?oiinoe eeaoee ieacaeenue
iaaieueoea eiee/anoaa eioa?oa?iia. Aiciiaeii, /oi i?e eiaeoeoeee
onoie/eainoe n iiiiuueth poly (a) poly (n) aia/aea ia?acoaony
eioa?oa?ii, a caoai oaea yoio eioa?oa?ii eiaeooee?oao ninoiyiea
onoie/eainoe. Iaeiaei iinea oiai eae yoi ninoiyiea iieiinoueth
noi?ie?iaaeinue, ia?aciaaiey eeaoeaie eioa?oa?iia iaia?oaeeoue ia
oaeaaony e anee ia i?eaaaeytho niiaa eioa?oa?ii, onoie/eainoue
en/acaao. ?acoeueoaou ?yaea ae?oaeo yenia?eiaioia oaeaea iiaee?aieytho
aeiioaco i oii, /oi eioa?oa?ii eiaeooee?oao onoie/eainoue eeaoie e
ae?onai, acaeiiaeaenoaoy n eeaoi/iie iaia?aiie.

Iieaeoey?iay iniiaa onoie/eainoe eeaoie e ae?onai.

Oioy onoie/eainoue, eiaeooeei?iaaiiay eioa?oa?iiii, caueuaao eeaoee io
naiuo ?acee/iuo AeIE ?IE-ae?onia, noaiaiue caueou io ?aciuo ae?onia
iaiaeeiaeiaa. E?iia oiai, aeey aeinoeaeaiey noiaeiie noaiaie caueou
eeaoie iaeiie e oie aea eoeueoo?u io ?acee/iuo ae?onia ioaeiu
?acee/iua eiee/anoaa eioa?oa?iia. Ieeniae?onu, oiaaae?onu e ae?on
iniiaaeoeeiu, o eioi?uo eiaaony iaiei/ea, niaea?aeauay eeieaeu, aieaa
/oanoaeoaeueiu e aeaenoaeth eioa?oa?iia, /ai aaeaiiae?onu e
yioa?iae?onu. Iaeiaei ?yae ae?onia, iaeaaeathueo iaiei/eie, a oii /enea
ae?onu aa?iana e iuetheaneneie aieacie, aieaa onoie/eau e eioa?oa?iio.
Iaeaieaa onoie/eau iaeeea ?IE-niaea?aeaiea eeinayae?e/aneea ae?onu.
Eioa?oa?ii aeiee?oao ae?onioth eioaeoeeth iinea aaeni?aoeee ae?ona e
i?iieeiiaaiey aai a eeaoeo. Iineieueeo eioa?oa?ii iiaeao iiaeaaeyoue
?aieeeaoeeth eae ?IE-, oae e AeIE-niaea?aeaueo ae?onia, eiae/ii
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi ii eiaeae?oao o?aineyoeeth ae?oniuo i ?IE ia
?eainiiao eeaoee – i?ioeann, iauee aeey anao ae?onia. Oaeiai ?iaea
yooaeo iia au ?aaeeciaaoueny i?e o/anoee i?ioeaiae?oniiai aaeea,
niiniaiiai ioee/aoue eeaoi/iua i ?IE io ae?oniuo. Iaeiaei i?e eco/aiee
neioaca aaeea a yeno?aeoao eeaoie, ia?aaioaiiuo eioa?oa?iiii, ia auei
iieo/aii oaaaeeoaeueiuo aeaiiuo i oii, /oi oaeea nenoaiu ii?iaeueii
o?ainee?otho eeaoi/iua i ?IE, ii ia o?ainee?otho ae?oniuo i ?IE. Oaeei
ia?acii, ianiio?y ia i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue i?inoaeoae aeiioacu,
iauyniythuae aeaenoaea eioa?oa?iia ecae?aoaeueiui iiaeaaeaieai
o?aineyoeee ae?oniuo i ?IE, ioaeii i?eciaoue, /oi ie iaeei i?inoie
iaoaieci ia niaeanoaony ni anaie ecaanoiuie aeaiiuie ia onoie/eainoe
eeaoie e ae?oniie eioaeoeee.

A eeaoeao, iiaeaa?aoeony aeaenoaeth eioa?oa?iia, a caoai ca?aaeaiiuo
ae?onii iniiaaeoeeiu, neioac «?aiieo» i ?IE ae?eiiiie AeIE-caaeneiie
?IE-iieeia?acie ia iiaeaaeyaony, ii yoe i ?IE ia o?ainee?othony e
neioaca ?aiieo ae?oniuo aaeeia ia i?ienoiaeeo. I?e ca?aaeaiee eeaoie
?aiae?onaie aieueoea eiee/anoaa eioa?oa?iia oiaea eeoue i/aiue
iacia/eoaeueii iiaeaaeytho neioac ae?oniuo i ?IE e iaiiiai neeueiaa
eiaeae?otho eo o?aineyoeeth Iaeiaei ie a oii, ie a ae?oaii neo/aa ia
auei iieacaii, /oi ae?oniua i ?IE iiaeaa?aaeenue iaaeeaaeauae
iiaeeoeeaoeee – /oi e 3-eiioeo i?eniaaeeiyeanue iaoeee?iaaiiay «oaii/ea»
eee (a neo/aa ae?ona iniiaaeoeeiu) e 3-eiioeo aeiaaaeyeanue oeaii/ea
poly (A). Iiyoiio aiciiaeiinoue, /oi eiaeooee?iaaiiay onoie/eainoue e
ae?onai naycaia ia n eciaiaieai aiia?aoa o?aineyoeee, a n ia?aciaaieai
iaiieiioeaiiuo ae?oniuo i ?IE.

Eioa?oa?aioeey ae?onia aac o/anoey eioa?oa?iia

Iaeioi?ua ae?oniua eioaeoeee eneeth/atho aiciiaeiinoue iineaaeothuaai
?aciiiaeaiey a oao aea eeaoeao ae?oaeo ia?iaenoaaiiuo, a a iaeioi?uo
neo/ayo e ?iaenoaaiiuo ae?onia. Yoi yaeaiea auei iacaaii
eioa?oa?aioeeae. A ioee/ea io aeaenoaey eioa?oa?iia iii naycaii ia n
?aaeoeeae aaiiia eeaoee ia ae?onioth eioaeoeeth, a n oai, /oi ia?aue
ae?on ia?acoao a eeaoea niaoeeoe/aneea i?iaeoeou, i?aiyonoaothuea
?aciiiaeaieth a oie aea eeaoea ae?oaiai ae?ona. Auei enneaaeiaaii
iiiaeanoai ia?iuo ni/aoaiee ?acee/iuo ae?onia: aa?iyoii, a aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa eioa?oa?aioeey iaoneiaeaia aeieaaeie o?aineyoeee i ?IE aoi?iai
ae?ona. Iaeiaei a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo ia?aue ae?on aeiee?oao niiniaiinoue
aoi?iai iaaeeaaeauei ia?acii i?iieeaoue /a?ac ieaciaoe/aneoth iaia?aio
eeaoee.

?aciiia?acea aicaoaeeoaeae e aucuaaaiuo eie caaieaaaiee

Ie iaeia ec iiiuoie iino?ieoue i?inooth nenoaio eeanneoeeaoeee
iaoiaaiiuo ae?onia iiea ia oaai/aeanue oniaoii. Iao oaeiai
eeeie/aneiai neiae?iia, eioi?ue iia au auoue aucaai ae?onii oieueei
iaeiiai oeia, e iao oaeie a?oiiu ae?onia, eioi?ay ii?aaeaea au oieueei
iaeio ii?aaeaeaiioth oeaiue. Iai?eia?, eaaei i?ioaeathuea caaieaaaiey
aa?oieo aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae iiaoo auoue aucaaiu ieei?iaae?onaie
(?eiiae?onaie, aucuaathueie oae iacuaaaiua i?inooaeiua caaieaaaiey),
aaeaiiae?onaie, ieeniae?onaie (ae?onii a?eiia) ia?aieeniae?onaie
(?anie?aoi?ii-neioeeoeaeueiui ae?onii) e, aa?iyoii, ae?oaeie, iai?eia?
?aiae?onaie, iaeaaeathueie iaiei/eie, – ei?iiiae?onaie. Ia/aiue iiaoo
ii?aaeaoue oiaaae?onu (iai?eia?, ae?on aeaeoie eeoi?aaeee) e ae?on
aaiaoeoa (ii, aa?iyoii, niaea?aeeo AeIE e eeieaeu). Caaieaaaiey ia?aiie
nenoaiu, i?eaiaeyuea e ia?aee/ai e nia?oe, iiaoo aucaaoue oiaaae?onu
)e yoie a?oiia ioiinyony aeanyoee ?acee/iuo aicaoaeeoaeae yioeaoaeeoa),
?aaaeiae?onu (iai?eia?, ae?on aaoainoaa), ieei?iaae?onu (ae?on
iieeiieaeeoa) e ?yaea ae?oaeo. E nenoaiiui ae?oniui aieaciyi,
nii?iaiaeaeathueiny iaeeueiuie eiaeiuie aunuiaieyie, ioiinyony inia –
aaeaa ee ia naiay a?iciay ec ae?oniuo eioaeoeee e oaeea ?ani?ino?aiaiiua
e eaaeea aieacie, eae ei?ue, aao?yiay inia, e?aniooa. Ae?on iniu,
eioi?ue aua iaaeaaii aoaee iiiaeanoai ethaeae a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao,
yaeyaony oeie/iui i?aaenoaaeoaeai a?oiiu iienae?onia.

Ae?on ei?e – aicaoaeeoaeue auno?i i?ioiaeyuaai caaieaaaiey, i?e eioi?ii,
iaeiaei eiiaaea ii?aaeaaony e oeaio?aeueiay ia?aiay nenoaia – ioiineony
e ia?aieeniae?onai, a ae?on e?aniooe, iau/ii eaaeiai caaieaaaiey,
i?iyaeythuaainy a iniiaiii nuiueth, – e oiaaae?onai. Aieaciue,
iacuaaaiay «aao?yiie iniie» ia naiii aeaea aucuaaaony aa?ianae?onii,
nianai ia ?iaenoaaiiui ae?ono iniu. Yoie a aunoae noaiaie eiioaaeiciue
ae?on, ii/oe iaeciaiii aucuaathuee eeeie/anee yaii au?aaeaiiia
caaieaaaiea.

Ia?nenoaioiua eioaeoeee

Aieueoeinoai oiiiyioouo auoa ae?oniuo eioaeoeee i?eaiaeeo e ?acaeoeth
niioaaonoaothueo neiioiiia a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo aeiae eee iaeneioi
aeaoo-o?ao iaaeaeue. Caaieaaaiey yoe ino?ua, o.a. ia/eiathony iie aieaa
eee iaiaa aiacaiii e aeeyony ii?aaeaeaiiia, aeinoaoi/ii ei?ioeia a?aiy.
Iaeiaei ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo neo/ayo ae?onu aanueia aeieai
acaeiiaeaenoaotho n i?aaieciii aeeaioiiai eee /aeiaaea. ?acee/atho
neaaeothuea oi?iu oaeeo eioaeoeee:

eaoaioiua eioaeoeee, i?e eioi?uo niaea?aeaueeny a i?aaiecia ae?on eeoue
a?aiy io a?aiaie aucuaaao oa?aeoa?iua ii?aaeaiey, anei?a en/acathuea
naie niaie. Ec ii?aaeaiiuo o/anoeia iiaeii auaeaeeoue ae?on, ii iioii ii
noaiiaeony «eaoaioiui», o.a. aai oaea auaeaeeoue ia oaeaaony.

o?iie/aneea eioaeoeee – aeeeoaeueii i?ioaeathuea caaieaaaiey, i?e
eioi?uo ae?on i?enoonoaoao iinoiyiii. Neiioiiu iiaoo iieiinoueth
ionoonoaiaaoue eee aea iiaoo aucuaaoueny eiiieaenaie ae?on-aioeoaei
eeai acaeiiaeaenoaeai i?ioeaiae?oniuo aioeoae n ca?aaeaiiuie eeaoeaie,
aa?iyoiaa anaai n eo iaia?aiaie.

iaaeeaiiua eioaeoeee – iaaeeaiii i?ia?anne?othuea ca?aciua caaieaaaiey n
eneeth/eoaeueii aeeeiiui eaoaioiui ia?eiaeii.

Eiioiiua ?aaeoeee

Iaeaieaa niaoeeoe/aneay ?aaeoeey ia ae?onioth eioaeoeeth – yoi, eiia/ii,
au?aaioea aioeoae. Oee?eoee?othuea aioeoaea, ii-aeaeeiiio, ea?atho
aaaeioth ?ieue a i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiee iaeioi?uo ae?oniuo eioaeoeee.
Iai?eia?, eae iinea caaieaaaiee, aucuaaaiuo iiiaeie ae?onaie, oae e
iinea aaeoeeiaoeee iaaethaeaaony aeeeoaeueiue eiioieoao e a nuai?ioea
e?iae auyaeythony niaoeeoe/aneea aioeoaea. Oee?eoee?othuea aioeoaea i?e
?yaea ae?oniuo eioaeoeee, aa?iyoii, neoaeao aa?uea?ii, i?aiyonoaothuei
?ani?ino?aiaieth ae?ona ii anaio i?aaiecio. Ia yoi oeacuaaao oio oaeo,
/oi i?e ei?e e naeiea ?aiiaa aaaaeaiea aeiaoeeia aeiee?oao
aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea aieacie. Aa?iyoii, i?e anoanoaaiii i?ioaeathueo
caaieaaaieyo auno?ia iiyaeaiea aioeoae a e?iae iiaeao i?aiyonoaiaaoue
?ani?ino?aiaieth ae?ona ec ia?ae/iiai i/aaa eioaeoeee. Iinea eiuaeoeee
e?ieeeai ae?ona iieeiieaeeoa oaea /a?ac 24 /ana n iiiiuueth aeinoaoi/ii
/oanoaeoaeueiiai iaoiaea a nuai?ioea iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue aioeoaea e
yoiio ae?ono. Iiyoiio aiieia aiciiaeii, /oi eiaiii oaeea ?aiiea aioeoaea
ioaaonoaaiiu ca oio oaeo, /oi o /aeiaaea ?aciiiaeaiea yoiai ae?ona a
aeioea e eeoa/ieea a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ia aaaeao e aai
?ani?ino?aiaieth ii anaio i?aaiecio. Eae iieaaatho ii oie aea i?e/eia
iaiaaeeaiiay aaeoeeiaoeey oeooaiiiai aieueiui aeeaioiui /aeiaaea
caueuaao aai oeaio?aeueioth ia?aioth nenoaio io ii?aaeaiey ae?onii
aaoainoaa.

Iiooiea?iaeiua ae?onu

Ca aiaeu, i?ioaaeoea n oao ii?, eae aia?aua aue onoaiiaeai oaeo
aicieeiiaaiey ae?oniuo na?eii o eo?, iiiai/eneaiiuie enneaaeiaaoaeyie o
?aciuo aeaeia iicaiii/iuo auee iaia?oaeaiu iieiaaiiua ae?onu,
i?eiaaeeaaeauea e aeaoi a?oiiai : AeIE – niaea?aeauea e ?ao?iae?onu.
N?aaee iieiaaiiuo AeIE-ae?onia anoue iaeiaaae?onu, aaeaeiae?onu e
aa?ianae?onu. Ec ?IE-niaea?aeaueo ae?onia iiooiee aucuaatho oieueei
?ao?iae?onu.

Aeeaiacii iiooieae, aucuaaaiuo iieiaaiiuie ae?onaie, iaiau/aeii oe?ie.
Oioy ae?on iieeiiu aucuaaao aeaaiui ia?acii iiooiee nethiiuo aeaeac,
oaea naii aai iacaaiea iieacuaaao, /oi ii niiniaai aucuaaoue e iiiaea
ae?oaea iiooiee. ?ao?iae?onu aucuaatho aeaaiui ia?acii eaeeicu e
na?eiiu, eioi?ua ia?aaeei auaatho i?e/eiie iiooieae iiei/iie aeaeacu e
?yaea ae?oaeo i?aaiia. Oioy ?ae – yoi caaieaaaiea oeaeiai i?aaiecia,
aiaeiae/iia ii nooe yaeaiea, iacuaaaiia o?ainoi?iaoeeae, iaaethaeaaony e
a eoeueoo?ao eeaoie. Oaeea nenoaiu eniieuecothony a ea/anoaa iiaeaeae
aeey eco/aiey iieiaaiiuo ae?onia. Niiniaiinoue o?ainoi?ie?iaaoue eeaoee
in vitro eaaeeo a iniiaa iaoiaeia eiee/anoaaiiiai ii?aaeaeaiey iiiaeo
iieiaaiiuo ae?onia. Yoe aea nenoaiu eniieuecothony e aeey
n?aaieoaeueiiai eco/aiey oeceieiaee ii?iaeueiuo e iiooieaauo eeaoie.

*oi oaeia o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiay eeaoea
?

Iaeei ec niiniaia iieo/aiey iiioeyoeee o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo eeaoie ninoieo
a ca?aaeaiee ii?iaeueiuo eeaoie iieiaaiiui ae?onii, iai?eia? ae?onii
na?eiiu ?aona eee ae?onii iieeiiu, e iineaaeothuai auaeaeaiee eieiiee
eciaiaiiuo eeaoie. Eciaiaiey iiaoo eanaoueny ii?oieiaee eeaoie
(iai?eia?, eo ie?oaeaiea) e oa?aeoa?a ?inoa (“iaiiecaiea” eeaoie ae?oa
ia ae?oaa a ioee/ea io ii?iaeueiiai ?inoa a aeaea iaeiineieiie eoeueoo?u
eee i?eia?aoaiea niiniaiinoe ?aciiiaeaoueny a iieoaeeaeeie n?aaea, a
eioi?ie ii?iaeueiua eeaoee ia ?aciiiaeathony).

Nouanoaotho e eiua e?eoa?ee ioai?a o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo eeaoie.
Eae i?aaeei, eeaoee ioia?aiiua ii iaeiiio ec e?eoa?eaa, oaeiaeaoai?ytho
e aieueoeinoao ae?oaeo. Niiniaiinoueth o?ainoi?ie?iaaoue eeaoee in vitro
iaeaaeaao aieueoeinoai iieiaaiiuo AeIE-ae?onia e aucuaathueo na?eiiu
?ao?iae?onia. ?ao?iae?onu, aucuaathuea eaeeicu, iai?ioea, ?aciiiaeathony
a eeaoeao, ia aucuaay eo o?ainoi?iaoeee. Iieo/ea eoeueoo?o eeaoie,
i?eciaiiuo o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuie ii iaeiiio ec oiiiyioouo e?eoa?eaa,
neaaeoao niiinoaaeoue eo n ii?iaeueiuie eeaoeaie ii ?yaeo ae?oaeo
ia?aiao?ia. Ai iiiaeo eieaao oaeiai ?iaea ia?a/eneaiu oa eciaiaiey
naienoa eeaoie, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo a i?ioeanna o?ainoi?iaoeee. Ecaanoiu
aeaa aieueoea a?oiiu eciaiaiee :

1) eciaiaiey ?aaoeyoeee ?inoa e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aeecie, e

2) eciaiaiey eeaoi/iie iiaa?oiinoe (ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu).

Eciaiaiey naienoa eeaoie, ii?aaeaeythuea ?ino e
?aciiiaeaiea.

Aieueoeinoai ii?iaeueiuo eeaoie, ?aciiiaeaynue, i?ee?aieythony e
noano?aoo (e noaeeyiiie eee ieanoianniaie noaiea ninoaea). Ii?iaeueiua
eeaoee ia?anoatho aeaeeoueny aua aei enoiuaiey ieoaoaeueiie N?aaeu. Iie
inoathony i?ee?aieaiiuie e noano?aoo aeecianiiniaiuie iieiyueieny
eeaoeaie. Anee oaeea eeaoee niyoue n noano?aoa e iiianoeoue a oneiaey
iiieaeaiiie ieioiinoe iiioeyoeee, iie ia/ioo niiaa aeaeeoueny. Ia ia?aue
acaeyae eaaeaony, /oi eeaoee ii?iaeueiie eoeueoo?u, ?ino eioi?ie
i?ae?aoeeny, ?aniieaaathony a aeaea iiiineiy. Iaeiaei ia naiii aeaea a
oaeeo eoeueoo?ao ia ia?ae?uaathony eeoue iaeaieaa caiaoiua /anoe eeaoie
– eo yae?i, oiaaea eae oeeoiieacia, iai?ioea, ia?ae?uaaaony ia aanueia
cia/eoaeueiie ieiuaaee ; oai ia iaiaa oaeea eoeueoo?u i?eiyoi iacuaaoue
iaeiineieiuie.

A ioee/ea io ii?iaeueiuo aieueoeinoai o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo eeaoie ia
ia?aoiaeyo a noaaeeth iieiy, a i?iaeieaeatho iai?a?uaii aeaeeoueny. Yoi,
ii-aeaeeiiio, iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iay iniaaiiinoue o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo
eeaoie. Iai?a?uaii aeaeyueany eeaoee ia ?aaae?otho ia eiioaeo n
ninaaeieie eeaoeaie : iaoieeioaoenue ia naiai iooe ia ae?oaoth eeaoeo,
iie ia i?ae?auatho naia aeaeaiey : ?anooo iie oaioe/anee, iiaeiiecay
iiae ae?oaea eeaoee eee iaiiecay ia ieo, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai e
ia?acothony iiiaineieiua aanoi?iaiiua iannu.

O?ainoi?ie?iaaiiua eeaoee aeaenoaeoaeueii auaeyaeyo ceiea/anoaaiiuie ii
n?aaiaieth n ii?iaeueiuie. Ec niiinoaaeaiey aanii?yaei/iie i?aaiecaoeee
o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo eeaoie ni no?iai oii?yaei/aiiie i?aaiecaoeeae
ii?iaeueiuo nicaeaaony aia/aoeaiea, /oi ii?iaeueiay eeaoea “iuouaao”
iiiaio eiioaeoa n ninaaeiae, /oi e i?eaiaeeo e inoaiiaea aeaeaiey ;
o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiua aea eeaoee ia iaeaaeatho oaeei “nani?iui” iaoaieciii
e iiyoiio ?anooo, iaiiecay ae?oa ia ae?oaa. Iaoiaeii caiaaeeaiiie
eeiinuaiee auei iieacaii, /oi a “?ac?aaeaiiie” ii?iaeueiie eoeueoo?a i?e
ano?a/a aeaoo eeaoie i?ienoiaeeo inoaiiaea iaeiie ec ieo eee iaaeo, a
caoai eo aeaeaeaiea i?iaeieaeaaony, ii a ae?oaii iai?aaeaiee. Yoio
oi?ioi eco/aiiue oaiiiai ecaanoai eae eiioaeoiia oi?iiaeaiea. A
eoeueoo?a o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo eeaoie yoiai ia iaaethaeaaony. Eiaiii
aeaaiaea?y eiioaeoiiio oi?iiaeaieth eoeueoo?u ii?iaeueiuo eeaoie
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oii?yaei/aiiua iaeiineieiua nenoaiu.

Aieaa aa?iyoii, /oi e?eoe/aneei oaeoi?ii yaeyaony ia eiioaeo n
ninaaeieie eeaoeaie, a iaoaaoea eaeeo-oi eeieoe?othueo oaoi?ia,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ?aciiiaeaiey. Iieaaatho: /oi ?ieue oaeeo oaeoi?ia
ea?atho aauanoaa, niaea?aeaueany a nuai?ioea e?iae, i?eaaaeaiea eioi?ie
e eoeueoo?a iiaeaea?aeeaaao eeaoi/iia aeaeaiea. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi
iioeiaeueiay eiioeaio?aoeey nuai?ioee aeey ?aciiiaeaiey
o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo eeaoie cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa, /ai aeey ?aciiiaeaiey
ii?iaeueiuo eeaoie. Aeey iiieiaiey nouiinoe o?ainoi?iaoeee i/aiue aaaeai
neaaeothuee oaeo. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ii?iaeueiuo eeaoie
?aciiiaeaaony eeoue i?e oneiaee i?ee?aieaiey e ieioiiio noano?aoo.
O?ainoi?ie?iaaiiua eeaoee, iai?ioea, ?aciiiaeathony e ia?acotho eieiiee
e a ionoonoaea oaeie iii?u, iai?eia? aoaeo/e noniaiaee?iaaiu a
aaea-aaa?iaii iaoeeoeaeetheiciii. Yoei naienoaii iieuecothony aeey
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai ioai?a o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo eeaoie. Niaeanii aeaiiiio
iaoiaeo, ec iiioeyoeee ii?iaeueiuo eeaoie, ca?aaeaiiuo
o?ainoi?ie?othuei ae?onii, ioae?atho ioaeaeueiua eeaoee e aunaaaatho a
n?aaeo n aaa?ii. au?inoea a aeaiiie n?aaea eieiiee ninoiyo ec
o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo eeaoie.

Eciaiaiey naienoa iiaa?oiinoe.

Ca?aaeaiea eeaoie o?ainoi?ie?othueie ae?onaie i?eaiaeeo ia oieueei e
oiiiyiooui auoa eciaiaieyi eo ii?oieiaee e niiniaiinoe e ?aciiiaeaieth,
ii e e ?acei au?aaeaiiui aeioeie/aneei e aeioece/aneei eciaiaieyi eo
no?iaiey e ooieoeee. Aei neo ii? iauaeoii aieueoeinoaa oaeeo
enneaaeiaaiee auea ieaciaoe/aneay iaia?aia, eai ia eneeth/aia
aiciiaeiinoue, /oi a iniiaa o?ainoi?iaoeee eeaoie eaaeao eciaiaiey
no?iaiey e naienoa eiaiii eo ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu, oioy ia iaiaa
nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey i?ienoiaeyo e a ae?oaeo nenoaiao. E /eneo ia?auo
eciaiaiee, iaaethaeaaiuo a oaeeo eeaoeao, ioiinyony eciaiaiey eo
ooieoeee, e a /anoiinoe oneeaiea o?ainii?oa naoa?a.

Ae?oaia eciaiaiea – iiauoaiea aaethoeiaaaeueiinoe eeaoie iiae aeaenoaeai
eaeoeeia, iai?eia? eiieaiaaaeeea A. Eaeoeiu – yoi i?e?iaeiua aauanoaa
?anoeoaeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, iieeaaeaioiua iae?iiieaeoeu eioi?uo
niaoeeoe/anee naycuaatho ii?aaeaeaiiua oaeaaiaeu. Ia?acoy iiia?a/iua
nayce iaaeaeo iieaeoeaie aeeeii?ioaeaeia eeaoi/iie iiaa?oiinoe, iie
aucuaatho aaaethoeiaoeeth eeaoie. Ii/oe ana iiooieaaua eeaoee
cia/eoaeueii eaa/a aaaethoeie?othony iiae aeaenoaeai eaeoeiia, /ai eo
ii?iaeueiua i?aaeoanoaaiieee. Ieaciaoe/aneea iaia?aiu ii?iaeueiuo e
o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo eeaoie ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa ii oeaeiio ?yaeo
naienoa. Oae, a ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aia o?anoi?ie?iaaiiuo eeaoie
iiauoaii niaea?aeaiea aeaeo?iiiaie eeneiou e naycaiiie n aaeeaie
neaeiaie eeneiou, a niaea?aeaiea aaiaeeiceaeia, iai?ioea, iiieaeaii. Oae
iacuaaaiue LETS-aaeie (n iie.aanii 250 000), a ii?ia iaeei ec aeaaiuo
aaeeia ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu, a o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo eeaoeao
ionoonoaoao. Iiaa?oiinoue o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo eeaoie oaeaea aieaa
aio?e?iaaia, /ai o ii?iaeueiuo eeaoie.

Aua iaeiei ?acoeueoaoii o?ainoi?iaoeee eeaoee yaeyaony iiauoaiea
iiaeaeaeiinoe iiaa?oiinoiuo aaeeia, naycuaathueo eiieaaaeei A.

Noeaaiea aaeeia ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu iiae aeaenoaeai yoiai eaeoeea
i?eaiaeeo e eo neeyieth n ia?aciaaieai aa?aaaoia – “iyoai”. I?e iaeiie
e oie aea eiioeaio?aoeee eiieaaaeeia ia?aciaaiea iyoai o
o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo eeaoie cia/eoaeueii oneeaii ii n?aaiaieth n
ii?iaeueiuie. Iiauoaiiay iiaeaeaeiinoue iiaa?oiinoiuo aaeeia, ii anae
aa?iyoiinoe, iaoneiaeaia ?ac?ooaieai oeeoineaeaoa, a ia eciaiaieai
iee?iayceinoe eeieaeia. Iiauoaiiie iiaeaeaeiinoueth iiaa?oiinoiuo
aaeeia, aiciiaeii, iauyniyaony aieueoay neeiiiinoue iiooieaauo eeaoie
(ii n?aaiaieth n ii?iaeueiuie) e aaethoeiaoeee iiae aeaenoaeai eaeoeiia.
Aa?aaaou eaeoei – ?aoeaioi? ia iiaa?oiinoe o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo eeaoie
neoaeao ianoaie oi?ie?iaaiey i?i/iuo naycae iaaeaeo eeaoeaie ; ia
iiaa?oiinoe ii?iaeueiuo eeaoie eaeoeiu ?aaae?otho n ?aoeaioi?aie ia
noieue yooaeoeaii, e iioiio iaaeeeaoi/iua nayce ia noieue i?i/iu.

Iaeii ec aaaeiuo naienoa iiooieaauo eeaoie – eo eiaaceaiinoue.
O?ainoi?ie?iaaiiui eeaoeai oaeaea i?enoua eiaaceaiinoue, i /ai
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao niiniaiinoue eo i?iieeaoue neaicue oi?eieeaioienioth
iaia?aio eo?eiiai yia?eiia. Ie eeaoee ia?ae/iuo eoeueoo?, ie eeaoee
noaaeeueiuo eeiee ia iaeaaeatho oaeie niiniaiinoueth. Aiciiaeii, /oi
niiniaiinoue e eiaacee yaeyaony neaaenoaeai aucaaiiuo ae?onii eciaiaiee
ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu e (eee) niiniaiinoe eeaoie auaeaeyoue i?ioaacu
ai aiaeeaoi/ioth n?aaeo. ?acee/ey iaaeaeo ii?iaeueiuie e
o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuie eeaoeaie aeaeaei ia en/a?iuaathony ?acee/eyie a
naienoaao eo ieaciaoe/aneeo iaia?ai. Oae, ca?aaeaiea eo?eiiai yia?eiia
ae?onii na?eiiu ?aona aaaeao e o?aine?eioeee aaiia, eiaee?othueo neioac
oaoaeueiiai aaiiaeiaeia, – oaeo i?yiiai aeeyiey o?ainoi?iaoeee ia
ooieoeeth aaiia. Iiaeaeoe, i?aaeeueiaa anaai aoaeao i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi
o?ainoi?iaoeeth eeaoee aucuaatho i?iaeoeou ae?oniuo aaiia, eioi?ua
aeaenoaotho eae iauea aeai?anni?u, aeeth/athuea o?aine?eioeeth iaoe?iuo
iaeanoae eeaoee. Eiaiii yoe aeai?enne?iaaiiua aaeee a eiia/iii n/aoa e
ioaaonoaaiiu ca niiniaiinoue o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo eeaoie iai?a?uaii
?aciiiaeaoueny a oao oneiaeyo, a eioi?uo aeaeaiea ii?iaeueiuo eeaoie
i?ae?auaaony.

Ae?oniay aaiaoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey a o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo eeaoeao.

Ana o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiua ae?onii eeaoee niaea?aeao aai aaiaoe/aneee
iaoa?eae. Ca eneeth/aieai AeIE ae?ona YA, eioi?ue iiaeaea?aeeaaaony a
o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo ei eeioioeeoao a aeaea ieacieaeu, ae?oniay AeIE
eiaaeaioii eioaa?e?iaaia n AeIE eeaoee – oicyeia. *oi eanaaony
?ao?iae?onia, oi eioaa?aoeey i?iae?ona n aaiiiii eeaoee aiiaua yaeyaony
anoanoaaiiie noaaeeae eo ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai oeeeea. A ioiioaiee AeIE
iiooieaauo ae?onia, iai?ioea, iao aeaiiuo ia iaycaoaeueiii o/anoee
eioaa?aoeee a eo eeoe/aneii oeeeea, oioy i?e i?iaeoeoeaiie eioaeoeee a
oaeeo ca?aaeaiiuo eeaoeao iaia?oaeaiu ioeeaioeaeiua
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, ninoiyuea ec o?aaiaioia ae?oniie e eeaoi/iie AeIE.

Iaeaieaa oaaaeeoaeueiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa eeiaeiie eioaa?aoeee ae?oniie e
eeaoi/iie AeIE i?aaenoaaeee Aioaai e ae?. Yoe enneaaeiaaoaee ?anuaieyee
?ano?eeoeeiiiuie ieaeiioeeaacaie AeIE eeaoie, o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo ae?onii
SV 40, e iieo/aee o?aaiaiou, eioi?ua niaea?aeaee n?aaee eeaoi/iuo
ioeeaioeaeiuo iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoae iieiua eioaa?e?iaaiiua n ieie aaiiiu
ae?ona. Yoe aaoi?u onoaiiaeee oaeaea iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?aniieiaeaiey
a aaiiia ae?ona auaeaeaiiuo o?aaiaioia AeIE. A ?acoeueoaoa auei
iaia?oaeaii, /oi a eaaeaeie ec enneaaeiaaiiuo eeaoi/iuo eeiee
eieueoeaaay AeIE ae?ona ?anuaieyeanue a ?aciuo oi/eao e ano?aeaaeanue a
?aciua iaeanoe eeaoi/iie AeIE. Oaeei ia?acii, a ioee/ea io no?iai
eieaeeciaaiiie eioaa?aoeee aaiiia oaaa E n aaeoa?eaeueiui
aaiiiiieioaa?aoeey aaiiia SV 40 n aaiiiii eeaoee – oicyeia nei?aa anaai
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ioeann ianiaoeeoe/aneee. a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa a
o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo eeaoeao iaia?oaeeaathony eeoue o?aaiaiou ae?oniie
AeIE.

A eeaoeao, o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo AeIE ae?onaie, niaea?aeeony ae?on
niaoeeoe/aneay ?IE. Eniieuecoy nuai?ioee aeeaioiuo n iiooieyie,
eiaeooee?iaaiiuie niioaaonoaothueie ae?onaie, iaoiaeii oeoi?anoee?othueo
aioeoae onoaiiaeee, /oi a o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo eeaoeao niaea?aeaony
ae?oniua aioeaaiu. Oae, a eeaoeao, o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo iaiiaaae?onaie,
anaaaea niaea?aeeony O-aioeaai-aaeie, neioace?oaiue ia ?aiiae noaaeee
eeoe/aneiai oeeeea ae?ona. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo
ae?onaie eeaoeao niaea?aeaony ae?oniua AeIE, ?IE e aaeee ; yoi iaaiaeeo
ia iuneue, /oi ca o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiia ninoiyiea ioaaonoaaiiu iieaeoeu,
eiaee?oaiua aaiiiii ae?ona.

?ieue o?ainoi?iaoeee i?e eeoe/aneie eioaeoeee.

Niaeanii iauai?eiyoui acaeyaeai, niiniaiinoue ae?ona aucuaaoue
caaieaaaiea – yoi anaai eeoue iiai/iue yooaeo ?aaiou iaoaieciia,
eaaeaueo a iniiaa ?aciiiaeaiey ae?ona. Aeey naiiai ae?ona iao i/aaeaeiie
“iaiaoiaeeiinoe” a oii, /oiau aucuaaoue neiioiiu oiai eee eiiai
niaoeeoe/aneiai caaieaaaiey o i?aaiecia – oicyeia. Auoue iiaeao, a
iniiaa ?acaeoey o ae?onia niiniaiinoe aucuaaoue iiooiee eaaeeo oio oaeo,
/oi a aeaeyueony eeaoeao ae?onu ?aciiiaeathony eo/oa, /ai a
iaaeaeyueony. Ii-aeaeeiiio, eiaiii ia yoie iniiaa ?acaeeanue oa?aeoa?iay
aeey iieiaaiiuo ae?onia niiniaiinoue iiaoaeaeaoue eeaoee e ?inoo e
aeaeaieth. Ii e?aeiae ia?a a ioiioaiee iaiiaaae?onia e aaeaiiae?onia
oaeia iauyniaiea cao/eo aanueia oaaaeeoaeueii : yoe ae?onu, i?iieeay a
eeaoee, anei?a eiaeooee?otho neioac AeIE, eai neioac AeIE yaeyaony
iaeiie ec noaaeee eo eeoe/aneiai oeeeea. Aa?iyoii, aaiu ae?ona,
i?iaeoeou eioi?uo ioaaonoaaiiu ca eiaeoeoeeth neioaca AeIE, – yoi oa aea
naiua aaiu, eioi?ua ioaaonoaaiiu ca o?ainoi?iaoeeth eeaoee. Oaeei
ia?acii, iieiaaiiua naienoaa yoeo ae?onia iiaoo auoue i?yiui neaaenoaeai
?aaiou iaoaiecia eo ?aieeeaoeee. Iineieueeo AeIE – niaea?aeauea ae?onu
o?ainoi?ie?otho eeaoee oieueei i?e oao oneiaeyo, i?e eioi?uo naie
?aciiiaeaoueny ia iiaoo, eo niiniaiinoue i?aa?auaoue ii?iaeueiua eeaoee
a o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiua, o.a. a eeaoee niiniaiua e aani?a?uaiiio aeaeaieth,
iiaeao e ia ea?aoue ?iee a eo nianoaaiiii ?aciiiaeaiee. Aieaa oiai,
aa?eaaaeueiinoue oi/ae eioaa?aoeee ae?oniie e eeaoi/iie AeIE iaaiaeeo ia
iuneue, /oi eioaa?aoeey eo aaiiiia ?acaeeanue a i?ioeanna yaiethoeee
neo/aeii, a ia eae iaiaoiaeeiay noaaeey. E aeaenoaeoaeueii, a
anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo ia iienaii neo/aaa ceiea/anoaaiiie iiooiee,
aucuaaaiie iaiiae?onaie, oioy aeia?iea/anoaaiiua iiooiee, iai?eia?
ai?iaeaaee o /aeiaaea e iaieeeiiu o e?ieeeia, yoe ae?onu aucuaatho.

Eiaeoeoeey iiooieae.

?aaeecaoeey niiniaiinoe ae?ona aucuaaoue ia?aciaaiea iiooieae caaeneo io
iiiaeo oaeoi?ia. Iaeiei ec e?eoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia iiaoo auoue naienoaa
naiiai ae?ona : iai?eia?, ecae?aoaeueiie niiniaiinoueth aucuaaoue
iiooiee iiei/iuo aeaeac iaeaaeaao eeoue iaeei eeann ?ao?iae?onia.
Ii?aaeaeythuei oaeoi?ii iiaoo auoue e naienoaa eeaoie – ieoaiae,
iai?eia? iaee/ea ia eo iiaa?oiinoe niioaaonoaothueo iaaeiee?iaaiiuo
?aoeaioi?ia eee i?enoonoaea aioo?eeeaoi/iuo ia?aie/eaathueo oaeoi?ia.
Eiia/iue ?acoeueoao iiaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny e naienoaaie oeaiae, ia
niaea?aeaueo eeaoie – ieoaiae aeey aeaiiiai ae?ona. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a
iiaeii oeacaoue ia niiniaiinoue i?aaiecia – oicyeia e eiioiiie ?aaeoeee
ia aeaiiue ae?on eee ca?aaeaiiua ei eeaoee. *oiau ca?aaeaiea i?aaiecia
ae?onii i?eaaei e aicieeiiaaieth iiooiee, ana oaeoi?u, eiathuea
ioiioaiea e yoiio i?ioeanno, a oii /enea oeceieiae/aneea e aaiaoe/aneea,
niiniaiua aeiee?iaaoue eiaeoeoeeth iiooiee eee aa ?acaeoea, aeieaeiu
auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu a ia?ienneaiii aa?eaioa. Ia?aui oneiaeai ?aaeecaoeee
ae?oniiai iieiaaia yaeyaony iaee/ea a i?aaiecia oicyeia /oanoaeoaeueiuo
e aeaiiiio ae?ono eeaoie. Eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i ae?onao n oceei e?oaii
/oanoaeoaeueiuo eeaoie – ieoaiae (e /eneo oaeeo ioiineony, iai?eia?,
ae?on eaeeica O?aiae, eioi?ue niaoeeoe/anee ii?aaeaao oieueei iac?aeua
eeaoee iuoae), neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi iaee/ea a i?aaiecia
/oanoaeoaeueiuo eeaoie iiaeao caaenaoue e io aic?anoa eee
oeceieiae/aneiai ninoiyiey.

Aiciiaeai e aa?eaio, i?e eioi?ii a i?aaiecia aeeaioiiai eiathony
eeaoee-ieoaie, iaeiaei ?aoeaioi?u ae?onia aeiee?iaaiu. Neooaoeey oaeiai
?iaea aicieeaao, iai?eia?, eiaaea ?aoeaioi?u, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
naycuaaiey n aeaiiui ae?onii, aeiee?iaaiu ae?oniuie aeeei-i?ioaeaeaie
?iaenoaaiiiai aio yiaeiaaiiiai ?ao?iae?ona, iaoiaeyuaainy a eeaoea –
ieoaie. Iieiaai iiae aeeyieai oianeaaeiaaiiiai ae?ona ia yaeyaony
i?inoui ?acoeueoaoii eiaeoeoeee eaoaioiiai aaiiia eeaoee – ieoaie. Aieaa
aa?iyoii, /oi aeey yoiai niioaaonoaothuee ae?on aeieaeai iiianoue a
eeaoeo – ieoaiue, ?ani?ino?aiyynue ii i?aaiecio ec eaeiai-oi enoiaeiiai
ioieoa, aaea i?ienoiaeeo eiaeoeoeey. I?yiui naeaeaoaeuenoaii yeciaaiiie
eioaeoeee eeaoie i?e ianeaaenoaaiiii eaeeica yaeyaony oaeo oaaee/aiiiai
/enea ae?oniuo aaiia a iiooieaauo oeaiyo. Eiioiiay nenoaia i?aaiecia
?aaae?oao ia iiooieaaua eeaoee eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee iie eiatho iiaua
iiaa?oiinoiua aioeaaiu. Anee aeeaioiia i?aaeaa?eoaeueii eiioiece?iaaoue
eeaoeaie iiooiee, eiaeooee?iaaiiie iaiiae?onii, oi ae?oaay iiooieue,
eiaeooee?iaaiiay oai aea ae?onii, o iaai i?e eiieaioaoeee iooi?aaaony –
naeaeaoaeuenoai oiai, /oi aeaiiua ae?onu aucuaatho ia iiaa?oiinoe
o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiuo eie eeaoie ia?aciaaiea niaoeeoe/aneiai iiooieaaiai
o?ainieaioaoeeiiiiai aioeaaia. Yoio aioeaai yaeyaony ae?on –
niaoeeoe/aneei. Oae, ae?on iieeiiu e SV 40 eiaeooee?otho ?acee/iua
o?ainieaioaoeeiiiua aioeaaiu.

Ae?onu e ceiea/anoaaiiua iiooiee o
/aeiaaea.

Iaeiei ec a?aoiaioia i?ioea ?iee ae?onia a aicieeiiaaiee aieueoeinoaa
ceiea/anoaaiiuo iiooieae o /aeiaaea n/eoaaony oio oaeo, /oi a
iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ceiea/anoaaiiua iiooiee ia ca?aciu,
oiaaea eae i?e ae?oniie yoeieiaee iiaeii iaeeaeaoue ia?aaea/e io
/aeiaaea e /aeiaaeo. Anee, iaeiaei, aeiionoei, /oi a aicieeiiaaiee
iiooieae ea?aao ?ieue aeoeaaoeey ianeaaeoaiuo ae?onia yeciaaiiuie
oaeoi?aie, oi neaaeoao iaeeaeaoue, /oi aoaeoo auyaeaiu oaeou
ianeaaenoaaiiiai i?aae?aniieiaeaiey e ceiea/anoaaiiui iiooieyi. Oaeia
i?aae?aniieiaeaiea e ?acaeoeth iaeioi?uo iiooieae aeaenoaeoaeueii
iaia?oaeaii, ii yoiio iiaeii iaeoe ?acee/iua iauyniaiey. Ianiio?y ia 10
eao eioaineaiie ?aaiou, iai?aaeyaiie niaoeeaeueiuie i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie
i?ia?aiiaie, naycue iaaeaeo ceiea/anoaaiiuie iiooieyie o /aeiaaea e
ae?onaie ana aua inoaaony i?iaeaiaoe/iie. I?aaenoaaeyaony a aunoae
noaiaie no?aiiui, /oi iieiaaiiua ae?onu, eioi?ua ea?atho noieue
i/aaeaeioth ?ieue a aicieeiiaaiee iiooieae o naiuo ?aciuo aeeaioiuo,
aeieaeiu ii/aio-oi “iaoiaeeoue” /aeiaae

Acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo ae?onaie ?anoaiee e eo oicyaaaie.

Yenia?eiaioaeueiua nenoaiu.

Aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie aieueoay /anoue enneaaeiaaiee,
eanathueony ?aciiiaeaiey ae?onia ?anoaiee e ae?oaeo aniaeoia
acaeiiaeaenoaey yoeo ae?onia n eo oicyaaaie, i?iaiaeeeanue n i?eiaiaieai
?acee/iuo eiiaeiaoeee einaaiiuo iaoiaeia, eai ionoonoaiaaee eoeueoo?u
eeaoie ?anoaiee, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey eiee/anoaaiiiai eco/aiey ae?oniie
eioaeoeee a nenoaia in vitro. Iaeiaei ca i?ioaaeoea aeanyoue eao a yoii
ioiioaiee oaeaeinue aeiaeoueny nouanoaaiiuo oniaoia. Ai-ia?auo, aue
?ac?aaioai iaoiae iieo/aiey i?ioiieanoia eeaoie ?anoaiee, i?e/ai
ieacaeinue, /oi yoe eoeueoeae?oaiua in vitro no?oeoo?u iiaeii ca?aaeaoue
ae?onaie. Ai-aoi?uo, auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi ec i?aaieciia ianaeiiuo –
ia?aiin/eeia ae?onia, aucuaathueo caaieaaaiey ?anoaiee, – iiaeii
iieo/aoue iaeiineieiua eoeueoo?u eeaoie, /oanoaeoaeueiuo e
niioaaonoaothuei ae?onai. Iaa yoeo iiaeoiaea ioe?uaatho oe?ieea
aiciiaeiinoe ?ac?aaioee oi/iuo iaoiaeia oeo?iaaiey ae?onia ?anoaiee e
eco/aiey eo aeineioaca. Oaea nae/an noaei ynii, /oi o ae?onia ?anoaiee
iauay no?aoaaey eo acaeiiaeaenoaey n oicyaaaie, ?aaeecothuayny ia o?iaia
iaeiie eeaoee, oa aea, /oi e o noiaeiuo n ieie ae?onia aeeaioiuo.
I?ioiieanou, auaeaeaiiua ec iacioeeueiuo eeaoie oaaaea, iiaeii ca?aceoue
AOI e oaeei ia?acii, eco/eoue iaeeii/iue oeeee ?aciiiaeaiey yoiai
ae?ona. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iinea i?iieeiiaaiey ae?eiiia a eeaoeo
i?ienoiaeeo auno?ia inaiaiaeaeaiea eo ?IE io aaeeiaie iaiei/ee
(aeaeaineaee?iaaiea), aneaaenoaea /aai eioaeoeeiiiinoue yeno?aeoia
eeaoie, iaoiaeyueony ia noaaeee yeeeina, nieaeaaony. Aeaeaineaee?iaaiea
AOI inouanoaeyaony iooai oaeaeaiey ec niaoeeaeueiiai eaineaea
ninoaaeythueo aai noauaaeeieoe. Iai?ioea, o AAEIO, eiathuaai
eeinayae?e/aneoth oi?io, ?IE inaiaiaeaeaaony ec ae?eiia, ii-aeaeeiiio,
aac ?ac?ooaiey aai aaeeiaie iaiei/ee. Inaiaiaeaeaiiay ?IE i?aa?auaaony a
?aieeeaoeaioth e i?iiaaeooi/ioth ?aieeeaoeaioth oi?iu n iiiiuueth
iaoaieciia, aa?iyoii noiaeiuo n oaie, eioi?ua nouanoaotho o ?IE –
niaea?aeaueo oaaia e ieei?iaae?onia. Aia/aea iauaa niaea?aeaiea ae?oniie
?IE aic?anoaao yeniiiaioeeaeueii, ii ia aieaa iicaeiae noaaeee, eiaaea
i?ienoiaeeo ia?aciaaiea aeaaiui ia?acii iethn – oeaiae ?IE, nei?inoue
neioaca noaiiaeony eeiaeeie. Nic?aaaiea ae?ona ia/eiaaony /a?ac 4-5 /.
iinea ca?aaeaiey. Iieaeoeu ae?oniie ?IE, neioace?othueany ia aeaiiie e
iineaaeothueo noaaeeyo eioaeoeee, auno?i caeeth/athony a eaineaeu.
Iaeiaei ec eeaoie auaeaeyaony eeoue i/aiue iaaieueoia /enei aa?eiiia.
Aeey aieueoeinoaa caaieaaaiee, aucuaaaiuo ae?onaie ?anoaiee, oa?aeoa?ii,
/oi ca?aaeaiiua eeaoee i?iaeieaeatho i?iaeooee?iaaoue ae?on, ia
iiaeaa?aaynue eeceno e inoaaaynue aeecianiiniaiuie. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio a
eeaoeao ?anoaiee, ca?aaeaiiuo oaeeie ae?onaie, eae AOI, eiioeaio?aoeey
ae?ona iiaeao aeinoeaaoue ia?iiiuo cia/aiee. Eioaeoeey ia?aaeaaony io
eeaoee e eeaoea aeaaiui ia?acii iooai i?yiiai ia?aiina ae?eiiia ii
iaaeeeaoi/iui iinoeeai (ieaciiaeaniai).

Eiee/anoaaiiia eco/aiea oeeeeia ?ai?iaeoeoeee ae?onia ?anoaiee
iiaeii i?iaiaeeoue ia ae?onao, ?aciiiaeathueony a iaeiineieiuo
eoeueoo?ao eeaoie ianaeiiuo. Oae, iai?eia?, aeey AAEEE, ioiinyuaainy e
a?oiia ?aaaeiae?onia, auea iieo/aia e?eaay aai ?aciiiaeaiey a eoeueoo?a
eeaoie oeeeaaeee, ec eioi?ie aeaeii, /oi noaaeey yeeeina i?iaeieaeaaony
9 /., a ia?eiae ?aciiiaeaiey 20 /. ; i?e yoii auoiae ae?ona i?aauoaao 10
000 ae?eiiia ia eeaoeo. I?iaanoe oaeie oi/iue aiaeec yoie e?eaie
ieacaeinue aiciiaeiui, iioiio /oi, eae auei onoaiiaeaii i?e iiiiue
iaoiaea oeoi?anoee?othueo aioeoae, aeaiiui ae?onii oaeaaony neio?iiii
ca?aceoue ana 100 % eeaoie eoeueoo?u, a iiaineioace?iaaiiue ae?on iiaeii
yooaeoeaii iooeo?iaaoue, eniieuecoy aeey yoiai iaeiineieiua eoeueoo?u
eeaoie ianaeiiuo. I?e ca?aaeaiee eioaeoiuo ?anoaiee ia?aue oeeee
?ai?iaeoeoeee ae?ona o?oaeii enneaaeiaaoue ec-ca oiai, /oi aia/aea ae?on
ca?aaeaao eeoue i/aiue iaaieueoia /enei eeaoie ?anoaiee, a ia aieaa
iicaeieo noaaeeyo eioaeoeee, eiaaea eiee/anoai ae?ona eee ae?oniuo
i?iaeoeoia noaiiaeony aeinoaoi/iui aeey i?iaaaeaiey oi/iiai aiaeeca,
oeeeeu ?ai?iaeoeoeee ae?ona ia/eiatho ia?ae?uaaoue ae?oa ae?oaa. Anee
AAEEE iaeaieeaaaony a eoeueoeae?oaiuo eeaoeao ianaeiiuo a i/aiue
aieueoeo eiee/anoaao, oi ii aucuaaao neeyiea yoeo eeaoie n iiiiuueth
iaoaiecia, eioi?ue, aa?iyoii, noiaeai n iaoaieciii neeyiey eeaoie iiae
aicaeaenoaeai ia?aeeiniae?onia.

?aieeeaoeey ?IE ae?onia ?anoaiee, ii-aeaeeiiio,
eaoaeece?oaony niaoeeoe/aneeie ?IE – ?aieeeacaie. Ec eenoueaa,
ca?aaeaiiuo AOI, auee auaeaeaiu aeaa oi?iu ?IE – ?aieeeacu. Iaeia ec ieo
– ia?anoai?eiay oi?ia, naycaiiay n ?IE AOI e niiniaiay eaoaeece?iaaoue
neioac niaoeeoe/aneie ?IE n eniieueciaaieai ?eaiioeeaiceaeo?eoinoaoia.
Aoi?ay – ?anoai?eiay oi?ia n iieaeoey?iui aanii ieiei 150 000, niiniaiay
eniieueciaaoue a ea/anoaa iao?eoeu aeey ianiaoeeoe/aneiai neioaca ?IE
ethaoth ec ianeieueeeo enneaaeiaaiiuo a yoii ioiioaiee ?IE. Naycaiiay
oi?ia ?aieeeacu, eioi?oth iiaeii yeno?aae?iaaoue ec eeaoie ia iicaeieo
noaaeeyo ae?oniie eioaeoeee, eaoaeece?oao aeaaiui ia?acii neioac iethn –
oeaiae ae?oniie ?IE.

?IE AOI i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeeii/ioth oeaiue n
iieaeoey?iui aanii 2,3 10 , niiniaioth eiaee?iaaoue iieeiaioeae n
iieaeoey?iui aanii ieiei 2,4 o 10 . A nenoaia in vivo yoa ?IE eiaee?oao
neioac ianeieueeeo aaeeia, a oii /enea aaeea iaiei/ee (iieaeoey?iue aan
17 500) e aeaoo aieueoeo iieeiaioeaeia (iieaeoey?iue aan 160 000 e 140
000). Niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi aaiaoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee, niaea?aeauaeny
a iethn – oeaie ?IE AOI, auei au iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey eiaee?iaaiey anao
yoeo aaeeia, anee au iie neioace?iaaeenue iacaaeneii ae?oa io ae?oaa.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eeai ioeeaioeaeiua iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, eiaee?othuea
neioac yoeo aaeeia, ia?ae?uaatho ae?oa ae?oaa, eeai nia/aea
neioace?oaony aeeeiiue iieeiaioeae, eioi?ue caoai ?anuaieyaony ia aieaa
iaeeea iieeiaioeaeu, eeai eaeie-oi ec yoeo iieeiaioeaeia neioace?oaony
ia ieion – oeaie ?IE.

Oeeoieiae/aneea aeaiiua, iieo/aiiua i?e eco/aiee ae?oniuo eioaeoeee.

A oa/aiea aeieaiai a?aiaie n/eoaee, /oi ?aieeeaoeey AOI i?ienoiaeeo
oieueei a oeeoiieacia. Iaeiaei iaeioi?ua aeaiiua, iieo/aiiua i?e
oeeoieiae/aneeo e oeeoioeie/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo, iicaieytho
i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi ia?ae/iui ianoii ?aieeeaoeee ?IE yoiai ae?ona
yaeyaony, aa?iyoii yae?i. Yenia?eiaiou n eniieueciaaieai
eiiuthae?iaaiiuo n oa??eoeiii aeoe – AOI – aioeoae iieacuaatho, /oi
aaeie AOI iiyaeyaony a eeaoeao eenoueaa /a?ac ianeieueei aeiae iinea eo
ca?aaeaiey e nia/aea ianeoaeeaaaony a oeeoiieacia aeaaiui ia?acii aie?oa
yaea?iie iaia?aiu. Aaeie AOI auyaeyaony oaeaea e a yae?a eeaoee,
iaeiaei, noaey ii ?acoeueoaoai yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee, caaa?oaiiua
ae?eiiu niaea?aeaoueny oieueei a oeeoiieacia, ii ia a yae?a. Iai?ioea,
ae?eiiu iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo ae?onia ?anoaiee, iai?eia? ae?ona
oo?eoiaaoinoe y/iaiy, iaia?oaeeaathony a ioeeaiieacia. Ia n?acao eeaoie,
ca?aaeaiiuo ae?onii aeaeoie ea?eeeiainoe ea?oioaey, aeey eioi?iai
oa?aeoa?ii iaee/ea aiaoiae iaiei/ee e eioi?ue ii?oieiae/anee aanueia
iaiiieiaao ?aaaeiae?onu, aeaeii, /oi ae?eiiu yoiai ae?ona oanii
annioeee?iaaiu n yaea?iie iaiei/eie. Aiciiaeii, /oi yaea?iay iaiei/ea
neoaeeo enoi/ieeii iaeioi?uo eiiiiiaioia aoiaeyueo a ninoaa aiaoiae
iaiei/ee yoiai ae?ona. A yae?a ae?eiiu yoiai ae?ona ia iaia?oaeeaathony.

Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa /anouo e oa?aeoa?iuo aicaeaenoaee,
ieacuaaaiuo ae?onaie ?anoaiee ia eeaoee, yaeyaony ia?aciaaiea
aioo?eeeaoi/iuo aeeth/aiee. A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa yoe aeeth/aiey
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aaeiia?aou ae?oniuo /anoeoe, eeai naiaiaeiuo, eeai
naycaiiuo n ninoaaiuie /anoyie eeaoee. Ii?oieiaey e eieaeecaoeey
aeeth/aiee aa?uee?otho a caaeneiinoe io ae?ona, aucaaaoaai caaieaaaiea.
Aieueoeinoai ae?onia ?anoaiee ia?acoao oieueei oeeoiieaciaoe/aneea
aeeth/aiey, ii ae?on a?aae?iaee oaaaea, a oaeaea iaeioi?ua ae?oaea
ae?onu ia?acotho e?enoaeee/aneea aeeth/aiey a yae?a eeaoee. Aeeth/aiey,
oi?ie?othueany a eeaoeao, ca?aaeaiiuo ae?oaeie ae?onaie ?anoaiee, oaeaea
iiaoo auoue e?enoaeee/aneeie eee aiaaieaeiuie. a eeaoeao iiooieae,
aucuaaaiuo ae?onii ?aiaauo iiooieae, iaia?oaeeaathony
oeeoiieaciaoe/aneea oa?eee, eee ae?iieaciu, ninoiyuea ec iee?ie?enoaeeia
yoiai ae?ona.

?ani?ino?aiaiea ae?onia ii
?anoaieth.

Ae?onu, aaaaeaiiua a ?anoaiea iooai iaoaie/aneie
eiieoeyoeee, iaaeeaiii ?ani?ino?aiythony ii iai?iaiaeyuae oeaie io
ia?ae/ii ca?aaeaiiuo eeaoie e ninaaeiei. Nei?inoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey AOI
ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 1 ii a aeaiue, a eiiaaea e iaiueoa. Ii-aeaeeiiio,
ae?on, iiiaaoee a eeaoeo, nia/aea a iae ?aciiiaeaaony, a caoai oaea
i?iieeaao a ninaaeiea eeaoee ii iaaeeeaoi/iui eaiaeueoeai, eee
ieaciiaeaniai. I?aaeaea /ai AOI ia/eiaao aeaeaaoueny ec ia?ae/ii
ca?aaeaiiie eeaoee a ninaaeithth, i?ioiaeeo ianeieueei /ania. Ec iaeiie
eeaoee a ae?oaoth iiaoo iea?e?iaaoue eae eioaeoiua ae?eiiu, oae e
ae?oniay ?IE ; n iiiiuueth yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee ae?eiiu auee
iaia?oaeaiu a ieaciaaeaniao. Ii oeaiyi ?anoaiey iiaoo ?ani?ino?aiyoueny
oaeaea e ae?eiiu, ianiiniaiua e nic?aaaieth.

Eiaaea ae?on iiiaaeaao a i?iaiaeyuoth oeaiue eeai ec
ninaaeieo ia?aioeiiuo eeaoie, eeai iaiin?aaenoaaiii aaiaeeony ooaea
ianaeiiui – ia?aiin/eeii, ii auno?i aeaeaeaony nia/aea ii aeeeeai, caoai
ii /a?aoeo eenoa e, iaeiiaoe, iiiaaeaao a noaaaeue. A i?eioeeia ae?on
iiaeao ?ani?ino?aieoueny ii anaio ?anoaieth, i?e/ai noaiaiue
aaia?aeecaoeee i?ioeanna caaeneo eae io naienoa ae?ona – oicyeia.
Aieueoeinoai ae?onia, ia?aiineiuo iaoaie/anee, ioiineony e /eneo
aenoieiae/anee “iaia?aie/aiiuo” ae?onia, a yoi icia/aao, /oi iie iiaoo
i?iieeaoue ii/oe ai ana oeaie ca?aaeaiiiai ?anoaiey. Eae i?aaeei,
ia?auie aoaeothony ae?onii aeoeaii ?anoouea oeaie e ei?ie. Ia?aiin
ae?ona ia cia/eoaeueiua ?annoiyiey i?ienoiaeeo aeaaiui ia?acii ii oeiyia
aianoa n oieii ieanoe/aneeo aauanoa, oioy ae?onu iiaoo iea?e?iaaoue e ii
aiaeii?iaiaeyuae oeaie ?anoaiey – eneeaey. Ae?onu iiaoo ia?aiauaoueny
aianoa n aiaeiui ?anoai?ii i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa ii /eaieeai neoiaeaeiuo
o?oaie oeiyiu, ii yoi ia iaycaoaeueii i?eaiaeeo e ca?aaeaieth ae?onii
yoeo eeaoie. Iaeiaei iae?ic oeiyiu i?e ae?oniuo aieaciyo ?anoaiee –
ioithaeue ia ?aaeeia yaeaiea, aeieacaoaeuenoaii /aai iiaeao neoaeeoue
iae?ic yoie oeaie, aucuaaaiue ae?onii ne?o/eaaiey eenoueaa ea?oioaey.
Ia?aiin ae?onia naiaiaie iaaethaeaaony ?aaeei, a ia?aiin iueueoeie – aua
?aaea. Iniaaiiinoe i?ioeanna ii?oiaaiaca oeaaoea, i/aaeaeii, oaeiau, /oi
iie i?aiyonoaotho i?iieeiiaaieth ae?ona a aaiaou. Aiiaua aea eeaoee
aieeaeueiuo ia?enoai, ca?aaeaiiuo ae?onii ?anoaiee, eae i?aaeei,
niaea?aeao iaei ae?ona, a eiiaaea e aiana naiaiaeiu io ae?oniuo
/anoeoe.

Noaiaiue ?ani?ino?aiaiey ae?ona ii ca?aaeaiiiio
?anoaieth ii?aaeaeyaony ioaaoiie ?aaeoeeae ca?aaeaiiuo eeaoie ia
eioaeoeeth, a naia yoa ?aaeoeey iiaeao auoue aanueia ?acee/iie. E
iaeaieaa au?aaeaiiui aa i?iyaeaieyi ioiinyony iae?ioe/aneea ii?aaeaiey.
A yoii neo/aa eeaoee iiaeaatho oae auno?i, /oi /anoi aeaaea ia
oniaaatho ia?aaeaoue ae?on ninaaeiei eeaoeai. Iaia?oaeaii, /oi i?e
iae?ioe/aneie ae?oniie eioaeoeee a eeaoeao iiauoaaony o?iaaiue
iieeoaiieieneaeacu.

E iaeaieaa au?aaeaiiui i?iyaeaieyi ?aaeoeee ?anoaiee
ia ca?aaeaiea ae?onii ioiinyony ii/oe aanneiioiiiua eioaeoeee,
iaia?oaeeaaaiua eeoue ii i/aiue neaaui neiioiiai eee aeaaiaea?y oiio,
/oi ae?on, ia i?e/eiythuee yaiiai a?aaea iaeiei ?anoaieyi, aucuaaao
caaieaaaiey ae?oaeo. A yoeo neo/ayo ca?aaeaiiua eeaoee iia?aaeaeathony
iacia/eoaeueii e, eae i?aaeei, nio?aiytho niiniaiinoue e aeaeaieth.
Oeie/iie ?aaeoeeae eeaoie ?anoaiee ia ca?aaeaiea iaeioi?uie ae?onaie
yaeyaony eioaineaiia eo aeaeaiea e aeaaea iiooieaaay o?ainoi?iaoeey.
Iaoaieci iiooiea?iaeiiai aeaenoaey ae?ona ?aiaauo iiooieae iiea inoaaony
iaecaanoiui. Iaynii oaeaea, eaeoth ?ieue a yoii i?ioeanna ea?aao
ioaiaiea ?anoaiee. Neaaeoao o/eouaaoue aiciiaeiinoue niaianoiiai
aeaenoaey ai?iiiia ?anoaiee n ae?onaie (neia?aeci) a i?ioeanna
eiaeoeoeee e noeioeyoeee ?inoa iiooiee. Aieueoay /anoue eciaiaiee
iaiaiiuo i?ioeannia iaaethaeaaiuo i?e ae?oniuo aieaciyo ?anoaiee,
aa?iyoii aicieeaao a ?acoeueoaoa iiai/iuo aicaeaenoaee, ieacuaaaiuo
ae?oniie eioaeoeeae ia i?ioeannu oioineioaca, aeuoaiey, ?aaoeyoeee
?inoa, a oaeaea o?aenii?oa aiaeu, ieanoe/aneeo e ae?oaeo aauanoa.
Ia?ooaiey ?aaoeyoeee ?inoa i?eaiaeyo e ii?oiaaiaoe/aneei aiiiaeeyi naiie
?acee/iie cia/eiinoe – io iicae/iinoe eenoueaa e oeaaoeia aei
iae?ioe/aneeo ii?aaeaiee e aiiiaeueiie i?ieeoa?aoeee iiaaaia e
ia?aciaaiey iiooieae. A ianoao iae?ioe/aneeo ii?aaeaiee /anoi
iaeaieeaathony iaeioi?ua aauanoaa oeia neiiieaoeia – oeoi?anoee?othuaai
a?iiaoe/aneiai niaaeeiaiey, iaeiaei aeieacaoaeuenoaa niaoeeoe/aneie ?iee
ae?ona a aeineioaca yoeo aauanoa iiea ionoonoaotho.

Iaoaieciu ia?aaea/e ae?onia
?anoaiee.

Iaoaie/aneay ia?aaea/a ae?onia ?anoaiee ia
iiaa?oiinoue eenoa iiaeao auoue inouanoaeaia a yenia?eiaioa ni iiiaeie
ae?onaie, iaeiaei iaeiaa?iyoii, /oiau oaeie iooue ia?aaea/e aue iniiaiui
niiniaii ?ani?ino?aiaiey ae?onia ?anoaiee a anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo.
Iaeiei ec iaiiiaeo eneeth/aiee a yoii ioiioaiee yaeyaony AOI. Ia?aaea/o
ii/oe ethaiai ae?ona iiaeii inouanoaeoue i?eaeaeie. Oioy yoio niinia
ca?aaeaiey eniieuecoaony aeaaiui ia?acii i?e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo
enneaaeiaaieyo, ii iiaeao ea?aoue cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a ?ani?ino?aiaiee
ae?oniuo aieaciae ieiaeiauo aea?aaueaa e aeaei?aoeaiuo eonoa?ieeia.
Ia?aceoiia ?anoaiea iiaeeeea, aaonoi?ee eioi?ie aiaae?ythony a noaaee
?anoaiee – oicyaa (oaeei ia?acii onoaiaaeeaaaony aeeaay naycue iaaeaeo
ninoaeenouie nenoaiaie ?anoaiey – oicyeia e ia?aceoa), neoaeeo iieaciui
eino?oiaioii aeey eco/aiey ia?aaea/e ae?onia iiaui oicyaaai. Iaeiaei
i/aaeaeii, /oi oaeie iaoaieci ia?aaea/e ae?onia ia iiaeao auoue iniiaiui
niiniaii eo ?ani?ino?aiaiey a i?e?iaea.

Ia?aaea/a ae?onia ?anoaiee /eaienoiiiaeie
ia?aiin/eeaie.

A anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo iaeaieaa aaaeioth ?ieue a
ia?aaea/a ae?onia io iaeiiai ?anoaiey e ae?oaiio ea?atho aeeaioiua,
ieoathueany ia yoeo ?anoaieyo. Eiiaaea ia?aaea/a ae?ona ?anoaieth
ia?aiin/eeii inouanoaeyaony /enoi iaoaie/aneei iooai, ii a aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa – yoi niaoeeoe/aneee i?ioeann, io?aaeathuee ii?aaeaeaiiua nayce,
nouanoaothuea iaaeaeo ae?onii, ia?aiin/eeii e ?anoaieai.

Iniiaiuie ia?aiin/eeaie ae?onia ?anoaiee neoaeao
/eaienoiiiaea, iniaaiii ianaeiiua, ii eiiaaea oaeaea e eeaue. Anoue
iiiai iauaai iaaeaeo acaeiiioiioaieyie iaeioi?uo ae?onia ?anoaiee n eo
/eaienoiiiaeie – ia?aiin/eeaie e acaeiiioiioaieyie a?aaae?onia aeeaioiuo
(ia?aiineiuo /eaienoiiiaeie) n eo ia?aiin/eeaie. *eaienoiiiaea –
ia?aiin/eee n eiethuei oiaioeii, aunanuaathuea nie ?anoaiee, aanueia
yooaeoeaii ia?aiinyo ae?onu, iineieueeo iie iaeaaeatho niiniaiinoueth
aaiaeeoue ae?on a ioiineoaeueii aeoaiei ?aniieiaeaiioth oeaiue ?anoaiey
– oeiyio. Iaaieueoia /enei ae?onia iiiaaeaao a eneeaio, cia/eoaeueii
aieueoaa eo /enei ano?a/aaony ai oeiyia. Iaeaieaa oe?ie niaeo? ae?onia
?anoaiee, ia?aiineiuo oeyie. ?acee/atho ianeieueei oeiia ia?aaea/e
ae?onia ?anoaiee ianaeiiuie :

1) Aiaoiyy ia?aaea/a, inouanoaeyaiay noeeaoii, aac
ia?nenoaioeee ae?ona a i?aaiecia ia?aiin/eea. A yoii neo/aa ae?on
ni?ae?oaony ia aa?oeia noeeaoa ianaeiiiai, eiaaea iii ieoaaony ia
ca?aaeaiiii ?anoaiee, e iiaeao auoue n?aco aea ia?aianai ia caei?iaia
?anoaiea. Niiniaiinoue e ia?aaea/a ae?ona iiaeao auoue oo?a/aia i/aiue
nei?i, a iiaeao e nio?aiyoueny a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo aeiae, ii ia
iaia?oaeeaaaony iinea i/a?aaeiie eeiueee. Aiciiaeii, /oi iaeioi?ua
i?iaeoeou aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ?anoaiee niinianoaotho ia?aiino ae?ona ii
yoiio iaoaiecio.

2) ?aao?aeoaoeaiay ia?aaea/a.

Ae?on nio?aiyaony a ia?aaeiae eeoea ianaeiiuo (oeae e aeoeia)
a oa/aiea aeiaieueii aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie e ia?aaeaaony caei?iaiio
?anoaieth iooai io?uaeaaiey niaea?aeeiiai eeoee.

3) Oee?eoeyoeaiay ia?aaea/a.

I?e aeaiiii oeia ia?aiina ae?on iiaeao auoue ia?aaeai ae?oaiio
?anoaieth ia n?aco iinea ieoaiey ia?aiin/eea ia aieueiii ?anoaiee, a
eeoue ii ieii/aiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai eaoaioiiai ia?eiaea.
I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aai iiaeao ninoaaeyoue io ianeieueeeo /ania aei
ianeieueeeo aeiae. I?e oaeie ia?aaea/a niiniaiinoue ia?aiin/eea
ia?aaeaaaoue ae?on ae?oaiio ?anoaieth nio?aiyaony iaiiiai aeieueoa, /ai
i?e ?aao?oaoeaiie ia?aaea/a. Auei iieacaii, /oi ae?on oee?eoee?oao a
oeaiyo ianaeiiiai e i?e eeiueea iii ia oo?a/eaaao niiniaiinoe e ia?aiino
ae?ona.

4) I?iiaaaoeaiay ia?aaea/a.

Ae?on aeaenoaeoaeueii ?aciiiaeaaony a oeaiyo ianaeiiiai, i?aaeaea
/ai aeinoeaaao aai ?ioiauo /anoae. Aeeeoaeueiinoue eaoaioiiai ia?eiaea
ii?aaeaeyaony a?aiaiai, iaiaoiaeeiui aeey ?aciiiaeaiey ae?ona. A
eiia/iii n/aoa ae?on iiiaaeaao a nethiiua aeaeacu ianaeiiiai e ni
nethiie ia?aiineony a ?anoaiea. Aieueoie eeann ia?aiin/eeia ae?onia
?anoaiee – oeeeaaeee ii/oe anaaaea inouanoaeyao ia?aaea/o ae?onia
?anoaieyi eiaiii ii yoiio iaoaiecio. E aeaiiiio eeanno ioiineony
ia?aiin/ee ae?ona ?aiaauo iiooieae e iiiaea ae?oaea.

Niiniaiinoue ianaeiiiai ia?aiineoue oio eee eiie ae?on eiio?iee?oaony
aaiaoe/anee e iiaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny ?acee/eai a iaeiii aaia, eioi?ue,
ii-aeaeeiiio, eiio?iee?oao i?iieoeaaiinoue eeoa/ieea aeey ae?ona. A
iieueco oaeie oi/ee c?aiey aiai?eo oio oaeo, /oi iinea ioieoeee a?thoea
ianaeiiia, ianiiniaiia ia?aaeaaaoue ae?on, i?eia?aoaao yoo niiniaiinoue.
Aiaeiae/iia yaeaiea iaaethaeaaony e o ianaeiiuo – ia?aiin/eeia
iaeioi?uo ae?onia aeeaioiuo.

I?eieiay ai aieiaiea oaniua nayce iaaeaeo ianaeiiuie e ?anoaieyie,
eioi?uie iie ieoathony, iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi ae?onu a oiaea
yaiethoeee ?ani?ino?aieeenue io iaeiiai eeanna oicyaa e ae?oaiio e
ieacaeenue ecae?aoaeueii aaeaioe?iaaiiuie e “aeaieiiio” ia?aco aeecie.
Nouanoaaiiue yoai eioaeoeee oaeiai ?iaea i?aaenoaaeyao i?iieeiiaaiea a
eeaoeo ae?oniie ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou, aaiaoe/aneea iioaioeee eioi?ie,
iauaaeeiaiiua n aaiaoe/aneeie iioaioeeyie eeaoee, e ii?aaeaeytho
aiciiaeiinoue ?aciiiaeaiey ae?ona. Niinia i?iieeiiaaiey ae?oniie
ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou a eeaoeo, aa?iyoii, eiaao iaiaa aaaeiia cia/aiea,
/ai iaoaaiee/aneea e aeineioaoe/aneea oneiaey, nouanoaothuea a eeaoea, a
eioi?oth i?iiee ae?oniue aaiii.

Eae oaea oiiieiaeinue auoa, iaeioi?ua ae?onu ?anoaiee, ia?aaeaaaaiua
ianaeiiuie, ii ?yaeo naienoa iaiiieiatho ae?onu aeeaioiuo.

Ia?aaea/a ae?onia ?anoaiee iaiaoiaeaie e
a?eaaie.

Caaieaaaiey ?anoaiee, ia?aaeathueany /a?ac ii/ao, ecaanoiu aeaaii.
Iaeiaei ?ieue iaiaoiae a ia?aiina iaeioi?uo ae?onia ?anoaiee, a oii
/enea ae?ona eieueoeaaie iyoienoinoe oaaaea e ae?ona iia?aieiainoe
oaaaea, auea onoaiiaeaia ioiineoaeueii iaaeaaii. Yoe /a?ae
“i?eia?aoatho” e ia?aaeatho ae?on ia?ceoe?oy ia ei?iyo ?anoaiee, e iiaoo
neoaeeoue aio oaaaeeuai a oa/aiea ?yaea ianyoeaa, iaeiaei /a?ac yeoea
ae?on, ii-aeaeeiiio, ia ia?aaeaaony iioiinoao /a?aae.

Ecaanoii, /oi ae?on iae?ica oaaaea e ii e?aeiae ia?a aua aeaa ae?ona
?anoaiee ia?aiinyony i?eieoeaiui ia?aceoe/aneei oeeiieoeaoii.
Niiniaiinoue e ia?aaea/a niaoeeoe/ia eae a ioiioaiee ooaiiia ae?ona, oae
e a ioiioaiee ooaiiia ia?aiin/eea, e ae?on ia?aiineony, ii-aeaeeiiio
ciinii?aie a?eaa. Ae?oaea a?eau, aa?iyoii, oaeaea iiaoo neoaeeoue
ia?aiin/eeaie ae?onia, naycaiiuo n ii/aie.

Ae?onu, iaoiaaiiua aeey ianaeiiuo.

Aeeth/aiey a eo naycue n ae?oniie eioaeoeeae.

O ianaeiiuo ecaanoii iiiai ?acee/iuo ae?oniuo aieaciae.
Iaeioi?ua ec ieo ii?aaeatho iieaciuo ianaeiiuo, oaeeo, eae oooiaue
oaeeii?yae, ae?oaea – ianaeiiuo – a?aaeeoaeae, a ai?ueaa n eioi?uie iie
iiaoo ea?aoue aaaeioth ?ieue. I?e iiiaeo ae?oniuo caaieaaaieyo ianaeiiuo
a eo eeaoeao ia?acothony iieeyae?e/aneea aeeth/aiey. Iiyoiio oaeea
caaieaaaiey auee iacaaiu iieeyae?icaie. Iieeyae?u – niaoeeoe/aneea
i?iaeoeou eioeoee?othueo eeaoeo ae?onia. I?e iaeieo eioaeoeeyo iie
ia?acothony a yae?a eeaoie, i?e ae?oaeo – a oeeoiieacia. I?e iaeioi?uo
ae?oniuo caaieaaaieyo, iacuaaaiuo a?aioeacaie, a ii?aaeaiiuo eeaoeao
ia?acothony ia iieeyae?u, a a?aioey?iua aeeth/aiey, eee eainoeu. Eiiaaea
iaoiaaiiua aeey ianaeiiuo ae?onu aiana ia ia?acotho aioo?eeeaoi/iuo
aeeth/aiee.

ssaea?iua iieeyae?icu.

ssaea?iua iieeyae?icu auee iienaiu o /aooae?ueuo, ia?aiii/aoie?ueuo e
aeaoe?ueuo. Oeie/iui i?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue iieeyae?ic oooiaiai
oaeeii?yaea. *a?ac ianeieueei aeiae iinea eiuaeoeee aonaioeeaea ae?ona
eee iiaaeaiey eie eioeoee?iaaiiiai ei?ia a yae?ao eeaoie aieueoeinoaa
oeaiae iiyaeythony iaeeea aeeth/aiey. Iinoaiaiii eo /enei e ?acia?u
oaaee/eaathony e iaeioi?ua ec ieo iiaoo aeinoeaaoue 10-15 iei. A iaeiii
yae?a iiaeao niaea?aeaoueny aei 100 iieeyae?ia. ssaea?iue o?iiaoei
en/acaao, eeaoee a eiioeia aeaioo, e naiaiaeiua iieeyae?u iiyaeythony a
aaiieeioa. Iieeyae?u oooiaiai oaeeii?yaea i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
e?enoaeeu, ninoiyuea ec aaeea n aieueoei iieaeoey?iui aanii (ieiei 300
000), eioi?ue ninoieo ec noauaaeeieoe n iieaeoey?iui aanii ieiei 20 000.
Aaeie iieeyae?ia i/aiue onoie/ea e aeaenoaeth i?ioaieeoe/aneeo
oa?iaioia.

Aaeee iieeyae?e/aneeo aeeth/aiee, auaeaeaiiuo io ?acee/iuo ianaeiiuo,
aeatho ia?ae?anoiua na?ieiae/aneea ?aaeoeee, ii iaaeaeo aaeeaie
i?aaiecia – oicyeia e aaeeaie iieeyae?ia na?ieiae/aneiai ?iaenoaa iao.
Aiciiaeii, /oi aaeee iieeyae?ia eiaee?othony no?oeoo?iuie aaiaie ae?ona.
Iaeioi?ua ae?onu oaeaaaeinue a yenia?eiaioa ia?aaeaaaoue ae?oaei
ianaeiiui – oicyaaai, oioy /anoia iaee/ea o ianaeiiuo eaoaioiuo ae?onia
ineiaeiyao eioa?i?aoaoeeth oaeeo ?acoeueoaoia. Aaeee iieeyae?ia,
ia?acoaiuo aeaiiui ae?onii o ?aciuo oicyaa, na?ieiae/anee eaeaioe/iu.
Aioo?e iieeyae?ia eaaeao ae?oniua /anoeoeu, ?aniieiaeaiiua iiiaeeii/ea
eee a?oiiaie. Iiaeaa?aay iieeyae?u iyaeiio uaei/iiio aeae?ieeco, eaaei
auaeaeeoue niaea?aeaueany a ieo ae?eiiu. Iie ninoiyo a iniiaiii ec
iaei/eiia?aciuo eaineaeia, aioo?e eioi?uo iaoiaeeony aeaoooeaii/iay
AeIE, ie?oaeaiiay aeaoiy iaia?aiaie – aioo?aiiae (yoi, aa?iyoii, iaeei
neie aaeea, niioaaonoaothuee eaineaeo) e aiaoiae, ie?oaeathuae neiieaiey
ae?oniuo /anoeoe e ninoiyuae ec aaeea e eeieaeia.

Aeey AeIE eaaeaeiai ae?ona ianaeiiuo oa?aeoa?ai naie ioeeaioeaeiue
ninoaa. Eiee/anoai AeIE a eaaeaeii ae?eiia ninoaaeyao ieiei 10
aeaeueoii. ?acia?u ae?eiiia o ?aciuo ae?onia ianaeiiuo aa?uee?othony a
i?aaeaeao io 30 aei 50 ii a iiia?a/ieea aei 200-320 ii a aeeeio. Ia?yaeo
n oaeeie e?oiiuie /anoi ano?a/athony e iaeeea /anoeoeu – ia
?acaeaathueany, a nei?aa iaiieiua eee ?aniaaoeany ae?eiiu.

Eaoaioiua
eioaeoeee.

Iaeia ec oaeeaeoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae ae?onia ianaeiiuo – eo niiniaiinoue
nio?aiyoueny a i?aaiecia oicyeia a eaoaioiii ninoiyiee a oa/aiea iiiaeo
aaia?aoeee. O ianaeiiuo ii/oe iaaa?iyea eiaao ianoi o?ainiaa?eaeueiay
ia?aaea/a ae?ona, oioy ia eneeth/aaony e aiciiaeiinoue ca?aaeaiey
ee/eiie ai a?aiy eo auei?iee. Iaoiaeynue a eaoaioiii ninoiyiee, ae?on ia
aucuaaao eaeeo-eeai aeaeeiuo neiioiiia. Iaeiaei ii iiaeao auoue
aeoeae?iaai eaeei-eeai aioo?aiiei eee aiaoiei oaeoi?ii, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
neioaco eioaeoeeiiiiai ae?ona e iiyaeaieth neiioiiia aieacie. Oaeia
aeaenoaea iiaeao ieacaoue oaieiaie oie eee niaia ieue, iai?eia? caiaia
eenoueaa iaeiie oaeeiaeoeu eenoueyie ae?oaie. Noiaeiue yooaeo iieo/aee n
iiiiuueth ?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae e iaeioi?uo aauanoa. Oae, ssiaooaece
niiauee, /oi o oooiaiai oaeeii?yaea noeioeaie , i?iaioee?othueie
neiioiiu iieeyae?ica, iiaoo neoaeeoue oi?iaeueaeaaeae, aeae?ieneeaiei,
ia?aeene, ieneiu e ieo?eou. Ia iniiaaiee yoeo aeaiiuo ssiaooaece
auaeaeioe oai?eth ia ia?aciaaiee iieeyae?e/aneeo ae?onia ec
aaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea oicyeia a ?acoeueoaoa iooaaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey
ia o?iiiniiioth AeIE. Eioa?anii, /oi e yoie iunee ii i?eoae oiaaea,
eiaaea iooaaaiiua naienoaa iiiaeo ec oiiiyioouo aauanoa aua ia auee
ecaanoiu. Iaeiaei oai?ey ssiaooaece ia ano?aoeea aieueoie iiaeaea?aeee,
oae eae ecaanoii, /oi iaia?aiiia ca?aaeaiea aonaieoe oooiaiai
oaeeii?yaea ae?onii iieeyae?ica /anoi i?eaiaeeo ia e caaieaaaieth, a e
eaoaioiie eioaeoeee. Cia/eo, aonaieoeu, o eioi?uo iinea oeie/aneiai
aicaeaenoaey i?iyaeythony ae?onu, oaea iiaee auoue aai ne?uouie
iineoaeyie. Iiyoiio “i?iae?oniay” oai?ey eaoaioiinoe ae?onia iieeyae?ica
eaaeaony aieaa i?aaaeiiiaeiaiie, /ai oai?ey ia?aciaaiey ae?oniuo aaiiiia
ec aaiaoe/aneeo yeaiaioia eeaoee- oicyeia.

Aaaio, aucuaathuee o ae?icaeioeeu
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue e NI .

Aaaeiay na?ey enneaaeiaaiee auea iinayuaia eco/aieth o?ainienneaiiai
aaaioa, eiio?iee?othuaai /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e NI iaeioi?uo ?an
ae?icaeioeeu. I?e eiioeaio?aoeee NI , aucuaathuae o onoie/eauo ioo eeoue
ia?aoeiia ninoiyiea ia?eica, o /oanoaeoaeueiuo ioo ianooiaao ia?aee/, e
iie iiaeaatho. Aaiaoe/aneee oaeoi?, ioaaonoaaiiue ca yoo iniaaiiinoue,
iieo/ee iaicia/aiea I. Naiae o?ainienneaiinoueth, iooaaeeueiinoueth,
?acia?aie e niaoeeoe/iinoueth ii ioiioaieth e oicyeio ii iaiiieiaao
ae?on. A iaeioi?uo ioiioaieyo ii noiaeai n oia?aiiuie aaeoa?eioaaaie. A
i?aaiecia ioo, /oanoaeoaeueiuo e NI , niaea?aeeony ae?on, eioi?ue iiaeii
ecaea/ue ec eo oeaiae e eiuaoee?iaaoue onoie/eaui iooai, a ?acoeueoaoa
/aai iineaaeiea oiaea noaiiayony /oanoaeoaeueiuie. *oanoaeoaeueiinoue e
NI aicieeaao /a?ac ianeieueei aeiae, i?e/ai yoi a?aiy caaeneo io
aaee/eiu eiieoeoia. Noaey ii eioaeoeeiiiui oeo?ai yeno?aeoia, iieo/aiiuo
ec eiieoee?iaaiiuo ae?onii ioo, niaea?aeaiea ae?ona a i?aaiecia nia/aea
nieaeaaony, a caoai auno?i aic?anoaao aei iaeneioia, e eiaiii a yoi
a?aiy iooe noaiiayony /oanoaeoaeueiuie e NI . Aneaae ca ca?aaeaieai
onoie/eauo e NI , ii aini?eei/eauo e ae?ono ioo yoio ae?on iinea
ia?eiaea yeeeina i?ioiaeeo noaaeee aaaaoaoeaiiai ?aciiiaeaiey e
nic?aaaiey, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai niaea?aeaiea ae?eiiia – iioiieia a
i?aaiecia iooe aeinoeaaao ii?aaeaeaiiiai iaeneioia. Eiaaea eiee/anoai
aaaaoaoeaiiai ae?ona aeinoeaaao ii?iaiaie aaee/eiu, iooa noaiiaeony
/oanoaeoaeueiie e NI . Noaaeeueiia ninoiyiea, aiciiaeii, niioaaonoaoao
aieaa eioeiiie eioaa?aoeee ae?ona n i?aaieciii oicyeia, i?e eioi?ie
ae?on ia?aoiaeeo a iaeioaeoeeiiiia ninoiyiea e eeoue ec?aaeea iiaeao
ii?iaeaeaoue c?aeua ae?eiiu. Noaaeeece?iaaiiay oi?ia ae?ona iiaeao
ia?aaeaaaoueny naieaie anai iioiieai iaiaai iiea. I?e aianaiee ae?ona a
ceaioo ioaeneie aaiaoie ii ia?aoiaeeo a ianoaaeeece?iaaiioth
aaaaoaoeaioth oi?io.

Aue onoaiiaeai iaiaeeaeaiiue e aaaeiue oaeo – ii?oieiae/aneia noiaenoai
ae?ona I n ?aaaeiae?onaie. Aieaa oiai, ieacaeinue, /oi iaeei ec
?aaaeiae?onia – ae?on aaceeoey?iiai noiiaoeoa, – aoaeo/e aaaaeai
ae?icaeioeea, iiaeao aucuaaoue ia?nenoaioioth eioaeoeeth e
iaoneaaeeaaoue noaaeeueioth /oanoaeoaeueiinoue o NI . Oaeei ia?acii,
onoaiiaeai aua iaeei neo/ae ?iaenoaa iaaeaeo ae?onaie, iaeaeaiiuie o
i/aiue aeaeaeeo ae?oa io ae?oaa oicyaa.

I?ienoiaeaeaiea e i?e?iaea ae?onia.

Ae?onu eae iacaaeneiua aaiaoe/aneea nenoaiu.

Eaeia ianoi caieiatho ae?onu a aeieiae/aneii ie?a ? Eaeiai eo
i?ienoiaeaeaiea e eoi eo aeeaeaeoea ?iaenoaaiieee ? Naaaeaiey i ae?onao,
eceiaeaiiua a yoie eieaa, /aoei iiaeoaa?aeaeatho iieiaeaiea, auneacaiiia
a naiii aa ia/aea : ae?onu iaeuecy oiiaeiaeyoue i/aiue iaeeei eeaoeai.
Ae?onu – yoi yeaiaiou aaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea, o eioi?uo anoue naiy
nianoaaiiay yaiethoeeiiiay enoi?ey, eai a ieo eiaaony ana iaiaoiaeeiia
aeey eo ia?aaea/e io iaeiiai oicyeia ae?oaiio.

A yoii niunea ae?onu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iacaaeneiua aaiaoe/aneea
nenoaiu. Yoi ia neo/aeii ioaeaeeaoeany o?aaiaiou aaiiia eaeie-oi eeaoee.
Ae?onai i?enoua aaiaoe/aneay iai?a?uaiinoue e niiniaiinoue iooe?iaaoue,
iie niaea?aeao iaai? aaiia, a ?acoeueoaoa niaeaniaaiiiai aeaenoaey
eioi?uo ia?acothony iiaua /anoeoeu oiai aea ae?ona. E iaeiiaoe, ae?onu
eiatho naith yaiethoeeiiioth enoi?eth, ii e?aeiae ia?a io/anoe
iacaaeneioth io yaiethoeee i?aaieciia, a eioi?uo iie ?ai?iaeooee?othony.
A oi aea a?aiy ae?onu ia noiyo a noi?iia io yaiethoeeiiiie enoi?ee
eeaoie e i?aaieciia. Eo aaiaoe/aneee iaoa?eae a oeie/aneii ioiioaiee
noiaeai n aaiaoe/aneei iaoa?eaeii anao eeaoie, oioy o iiiaeo ae?onia ii
ninoieo ec ?IE – eiaee?othuaai iieeia?a, iooaniaiiiai a i?ioeanna
yaiethoeee eeaoie ia aoi?inoaiaiioth ?ieue, a eeaoeao ?IE neoaeeo
iiaeniaiui ia?aiin/eeii aaiaoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee, a ia aa ia?ae/iui
iineoaeai. Anee n?aaieoue AeIE n Nieioeai, oi eeaoi/iua ?IE aoaeoo
ieaiaoaie, eioi?ua naaoyo io?aaeaiiui naaoii ; iaeiaei a ?IE –
niaea?aeaueo ae?onao yoe ieaiaou aiiaue noaee naiinoiyoaeueiuie
naaoeeaie.

Iaaeaeo oai iacaaeneiinoue ae?onia eae aaiaoe/aneeo nenoai naia
iiaeaa?aeaia yaiethoeeiiiui eciaiaieyi. Iai?eia?, aaiii oia?aiiiai oaaa
iiaeao eae oece/anee, oae e ooieoeeiiaeueii eioaa?e?iaaoueny n aaiiiii
aaeoa?ee. Ii iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue a aeaoo oi?iao – a aeaea ae?ona e a
aeaea a?oiiu o?iiiniiiuo aaiia eeaoee – oicyeia. Eiaaea a ?acoeueoaoa
iooaoeee oia?aiiue oaa oa?yao niiniaiinoue i?aa?auaoueny a i?ioaa, ii
oo?a/eaaao iaeio ec naieo oi?i nouanoaiaaiey – noaiiaeony a aieueoae
noaiaie eeaoi/iui eiiiiiaioii, iaai?ii aaiia eeaoee. E iaiai?io, eiaaea
i?ioaa iooe?oao, i?aa?auaynue a aeaoaeoiue i?ioaa ( o.a. a i?ioaa,
ianiiniaiue inouanoaeyoue ana ooieoeee, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey nianoaaiiie
?ai?iaeoeoeee e ca?aaeaiey ae?oaie aaeoa?eaeueiie eeaoee), ii eae au,
noaiiaeony a iaiueoae noaiaie ae?onii e a aieueoae – eeaoi/iui
eiiiiiaioii, oaia?ue aai aeaeueiaeoaa nouanoaiaaiea caaeneo io
nio?aiaiey aeaiiie eeaoi/iie eeiee eee aea io “iiiiue” ni noi?iiu
ae?oaiai, iaaeaoaeoiiai ae?ona.

Oioy oece/aneay eioaa?aoeey aaiiia ae?ona n o?iiiniiie eeaoee – oicyeia
aeaoaeueii eco/aia oieueei a nenoaia oaa – aaeoa?ey, ecaanoii, /oi
iiiaea iiooiea?iaeiua ae?onu oiaea aeeth/atho naie aaiii a o?iiiniio
eeaoee. Ai anao a?oiiao ae?onia ecaanoiu oaeaea aeaoaeoiua ae?onu,
ioaeaeathueany a iiiiuieea. E yoi ia oieueei aa?eaiou, ec?aaeea
aicieeathuea a eaai?aoi?iuo yenia?eiaioao : oaeea ae?onu nouanoaotho a
i?e?iaea e, ianiiiaiii, eiatho cia/aiea aeey yaiethoeee. I?aa?auaiea
iau/iiai ae?ona a aeaoaeoiue, aeeth/eaoeeny a aaiii eeaoee – oicyeia,
oi?iaeueii iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae i?aa?auaiea a?oiiu ae?oniuo aaiia a
iiaea?oiio aaiia eeaoee. E iaiai?io, a?oiiu eeaoi/iuo aaiia iiaoo
i?aa?auaoueny a aaiiiu ae?onia, e yoi ioiineony ia oieueei e aaiai,
aianaiiui a eeaoeo ae?onaie. Ia eneeth/aii, /oi ae?oniua aaiiiu iiaoo
aicieeaoue ec iaae?oniuo aaiaoe/aneeo yeaiaioia eeaoee. E iu aeieaeiu
iinoaaeoue aii?in : eaeea niauoey ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue a aicieeiiaaiee
ae?onia eae i?aaieciia e a yaiethoeeiiiie enoi?ee eo aaiaoe/aneiai
iaoa?eaea.

?IE – niaea?aeauea ae?onu e eeaoi/iua ?IE.

Naii nouanoaiaaiea ?IE-ae?onia noaaeo ?yae o?oaeii ?ac?aoeiuo aii?inia.
Ie o aaeoa?ee, ie o ae?oaeo i?aaieciia iao ie/aai aeinoaoi/ii iioiaeaai
ia ?aieeeaoeeth aaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea a oi?ia ?IE. I?aaaea, aeaiiua i
oii, /oi ?IE – niaea?aeauea oaae, ioiinyueany e iaeiie e oie aea a?oiia,
iaeaaeatho ?aciuie niaoeeoe/iuie aeey eaaeaeiai oaaa iaoaieciaie
?aieeeaoeee, canoaaeytho aicaea?aeeaaoueny io ieii/aoaeueiuo auaiaeia.
Anee yoe aeaiiua aa?iu, oi ia eneeth/aii e nouanoaiaaiea iiea aua ia
auyaeaiiuo eeaoi/iuo ?IE – ?aieeoee?othueo nenoai. Oaeoth aiciiaeiinoue
aeaenoaeoaeueii iinooee?iaaee, ii aieueoae /anoueth aac aeinoaoi/iuo
iniiaaiee.

Anee aea eeaoi/iuo aiaeiaee ia ieaaeaony, iai i?eaeaony auae?aoue iaeio
ec ?yaea ae?oaeo aeueoa?iaoea. Iai?eia?, iu iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoue ?IE –
niaea?aeauea ae?onu eae oieeaeueioth a?oiio, i?aaenoaaeythuoth iniaia
iai?aaeaiea yaiethoeee. Iiaeii oaeaea i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi yoe ae?onu
i?iecioee io AeIE – ae?onia, eioi?iaoeeiiiay ?IE eioi?uo i?eia?aea
niiniaiinoue i?yiie ?aieeeaoeee, oae /oi o?aine?eioeey aa n AeIE noaea
eceeoiae. Ii anee n/eoaoue yoi aiciiaeiui, oi iao i?e/ei ia?aie/eaaoueny
aeiioacie aicieeiiaaiey ?IE – ae?onia ia iniiaa ae?oniie eioi?iaoeeiiiie
?IE : noieue aea na?ueacii iu aeieaeiu ?anniio?aoue e aiciiaeiinoue
i?ienoiaeaeaiey oaeeo ae?onia io eeaoi/iuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?IE.

Iaiaoiaeeiui aeey yoiai yoaia auei au i?eia?aoaiea niioaaonoaothuaai
iaoaiecia ?aieeeaoeee e niiniaiinoe e ia?aciaaieth ae?eiiia.
Nouanoaiaaiea ae?onia, eiaee?othueo ia?aoioth o?aine?ioaco – oa?iaio,
o?aine?eae?othuee ?IE ae?eiia a niioaaonoaothuoth AeIE, – iieacuaaao aua
iaeio aiciiaeiinoue : iaeioi?ua ae?onu iiaee au i?eia?anoe ?IE –
?aieeeaco, /oi iicaieeei au ei iaieoenue aac ia?aoiie o?aine?eioeee, a
caiaeii eneeth/eei au aiciiaeiinoue eo eioaa?aoeee n o?iiiniiie eeaoee.
Ia?a/eneaiiua auoa aiciiaeiinoe, acyoua a oeaeii, eeethno?e?otho ?yae
iooae, eioi?ua iiaee au i?e o/anoee iaoaieciia ?aieeeaoeee ?IE aanoe e
i?aa?auaieth naaiaioia o?iiiniiiiai aaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea ae?oniua
aaeiiu e iaiai?io. E niaeaeaieth, neeoeii aieueoea i?iaaeu a iaoeo
ciaieyo iiea ia iicaieytho iino?ieoue iainiiaaiioth iiaeaeue oaeiai
?iaea.

Aua iaeio caaaaeeo ninoaaeyao nouanoaiaaiea ae?onia n aaiaie ec
ianeieueeeo o?aaiaioia aeaoooeaii/a/iie ?IE. N?aaee oaeeo ae?onia anoue
ia?aceou naiuo ?acee/iuo i?aaieciia – aaeoa?ee, a?eaia, ?anoaiee,
ianaeiiuo e iicaiii/iuo. I?iecioee ee ana yoe ae?onu io iauaai i?aaeea ?
Eee ?aciua a?oiiu eo aicieeaee iacaaeneii ia ?aciuo iooyo yaiethoeee
aneaaenoaea eaeeo-oi i?aeiouanoa, naycaiiuo n iiaeiaiui no?iaieai aaiiia
? Ioaaoia ia yoe aii?inu iiea iao.

I?ienoiaeaeaiea ae?onia e i?ienoiaeaeaiea eeaoee.

I?iaeaia i?ienoiaeaeaiey ae?onia – yoi, ii nouanoao i?iaeaia
iacaaeneiinoe aaiaoe/aneeo yeaiaioia a ?ai?iaeoeoeaiii e yaiethoeeiiiii
ioiioaiee. Iniiaiua aii?inu caeanue eanathony oiai, ianeieueei aeeeiiue
iooue i?ioee ae?onu a naiae iacaaeneiie yaiethoeee e a eaeie oi/ea
?acioeenue iooe yaiethoeeiiiiai ?acaeoey ae?onia e oao aaiaoe/aneeo
yeaiaioia, eioi?ua iu iaoiaeei a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a eeaoeao. Ae?on,
i?iieeioa a eeaoeo, iiaeao inoaaaoueny a iae eeai a oa/aiea eaeie-oi
aeiee eeaoi/iiai oeeeea, eeai ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo eeaoi/iuo
aaia?aoeee. O i?aaieciia, ?aciiiaeathueony iieiaui iooai iaeioi?ua
ae?onu iiaoo ia?aaeaaaoueny iineaaeothuei iieieaieyi /a?ac aaiaou.
Ae?on, aeieai nio?aiythueeny a eeaoea, i?aeoe/anee ia ioee/ei io
eeaoi/iiai eiiiiiaioa. Oaeoth /anoeoeo iu iiaee au n/anoue ae?onii,
ieacieaeie eee aaiii a caaeneiinoe io oeia aicaeaenoaey, aeaaiaea?y
eioi?iio aa oaeaeinue iaia?oaeeoue. Oaeei ia?acii, i?iaeaia
i?ienoiaeaeaiey ae?onia aeeth/aao : 1) aii?in ia ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
ae?onaie e eeaoi/iuie eiiiiiaioaie, 2) aii?in i i?ienoiaeaeaiee
eeaoi/iuo eiiiiiaioia e 3) aii?in i ?iaenoaa iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie aaiaie
ae?onia. Aeiaieueii oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaii i?aaenoaaeaiea i
“iiiioeeaoe/aneii” i?ienoiaeaeaiee eeaoee – i oii, /oi iaai? aa aaiia,
oi anoue aaiii nicaeaaaeny a ?acoeueoaoa aeeooa?aioeeaoeee iaeiiai
enoiaeiiai naiiaini?iecaiaeyuaainy yeaiaioa, eiiee eioi?iai eiiaaea ia
?acaeaeyeenue e aeaaiaea?y iooaoeeyi i?eia?aee ?acee/iua oi?iu e
ooieoeee. Ec oaeeo a?oii aaiia aeieaeiu auee caoai ia?aciaaoueny
o?iiiniiu, eai iaee/ea eaeiai-oi i?aaieciaaiiiai iaoaiecia,
iaania/eaathuaai ?aaiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea aaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea, aeaao
aieueoia i?aeiouanoai – iiiiaaao nio?aiyoue aeaaii?eyoiua eiiaeiaoeee
aaiia.

Iiyaeaiea iieiaiai i?ioeanna a oiaea aeaeueiaeoae yaiethoeee oneiaeieei
yoo noaio, iaeiaei o i?aaieciia, o eioi?uo aua ia auei iieiaiai
i?ioeanna, ana aaiu aeieaeiu auee aicieeiooue a i?aaeaeao iaeiie
eeaoi/iie eeiee. Niaeanii naiie i?inoie aeiioaca, oeeoiieacia oeaeeeii
yaeyaony i?iaeoeoii aeayoaeueiinoe aaiia. Oaeei ia?acii, ana
aaiaoe/aneea eiiiiiaiou eeaoie, ioiinyueony e iaeiie eeiee, aeieaeiu
eiaoue aaeeiia i?ienoiaeaeaiea. Ia?aaea/a aaiaoe/aneiai eiiiiiaioa –
aaia eee o?iiiniiu – ae?oaie eeaoea auea au oaea neeyieai /anoe
aaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea iaeiie eeiee n aaiiiii ae?oaie eeiee. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, ia eneeth/aia aiciiaeiinoue e iieeoeeaoe/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey
ii?iaeueiie eeaoee. Ianeieueei ia?ae/iuo naii?aieeoee?othueony iieaeoe
iiaee, iauaaeeieaoenue, nicaeaoue aeaaii?eyoioth eiiaeiaoeeth e
noi?ie?iaaoue a aeaeueiaeoai eeaoi/iue aaiii. Eee aea, iaeiiaoe,
eaeea-oi aaiaoe/aneea yeaiaiou iiaee i?iieeiooue a oaea ia?aciaaaoothny
eeaoeo. Neeyiea aaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea ?aciuo eeiee iiaei au i?iecieoe
ia ioiineoaeueii ?aiiai yoaia yaiethoeee eeaoee, e oiaaea i?eia?aoaiea
aaiii, o?iiiniiie eee ieacieaeie niiniaiinoe ia?aoiaeeoue ec iaeiie
eeaoee a ae?oaoth auei au aica?auaieai e enoiaeiie iacaaeneiinoe e
iiaoi?aieai enoiaeiiai i?ioeanna neeyiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, ana oai?ee i?ienoiaeaeaiey ae?onia naiaeyony e
?anniio?aieth ?acee/iuo aiciiaeiinoae neeyiey aeaoo eee aieueoaai /enea
aaiaoe/aneeo yeaiaioia e ia?aciaaiey ec ieo ooieoeeiie?othuae
aaiaoe/aneie nenoaiu. A neo/aa ae?onia, aucuaathueo auno?ia ?ac?ooaiea
eeaoee, oaeia neeyiea iiaeao ia auoue i/aaeaeiui, e ooiaeaiaioaeueiia
cia/aiea yoiai i?ioeanna ia auei caia/aii ?aiieie ae?onieiaaie, aeey
eioi?uo ae?on, ?aciiiaeathueeny a eeaoea, aue iiaeiaai aaeoa?ee,
?anoouae a eoeueoo?a. Ia naiii aea aeaea aeaaea eeaoea, ca?aaeaiiay
ae?oeaioiui ae?onii e ia?a/aiiay ia auno?oth aeaaeue, i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie ooieoeeiiaeueioth nenoaio, /uey eiia/iay noaeueaa – iieiay
aeaceioaa?aoeey – yoi eeoue iiai/iue ?acoeueoao aeaaiiai niauoey, a
eiaiii aaiaoe/aneie e aeioeie/aneie eioaa?aoeee ae?oniuo e eeaoi/iuo
iaoaieciia. Neeyiea iiaeao i?eaiaeeoue e aeeeoaeueiie eioaa?aoeee eeaoee
n ae?onii, eioi?ay nio?aiyaony a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo eeaoi/iuo
aaia?aoeee, eiiaaea aeaaea i?e iieiaii i?ioeanna. A neo/aa i?ioaaia, a
aiciiaeii, e iaeioi?uo iiooiea?iaeiuo ae?onia eioaa?aoeey iiaeao noaoue
ii/oe iinoiyiiie. Iaeioi?ua ieacieaeu e, auoue iiaeao, aeaaea naaiaiou
o?iiinii iiaee noi?ie?iaaoueny eiaiii oaeei iooai. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
yaiethoeey iaoaieciia, ?aaeecothueo ia?aaea/o aaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea,
iiaea i?eaanoe e i?aa?auaieth ioaeaeueiuo aaiia e a?oii aaiia a
ieacieaeu e ae?onu.

Ec anao aeeauo nouanoa, auoue iiaeao eiaiii aeey ae?onia
iiiioeeaoe/aneia i?ienoiaeaeaiea iaeiaiaa aa?iyoii, eai ae?onu anaaaea
?aieeoee?othony a ie?oaeaiee aieueoeo eiee/anoa iaae?oniuo ioeeaeiiauo
eeneio, niiniaiuo aeeth/aoueny a eo aaiii. E eaeie eaoaai?ee iu ioianai
aeaiiue aaiaoe/aneee yeaiaio – e aaiai, ieacieaeai, eee ae?onai, – a
eiia/iii n/aoa aoaeao caaenaoue io oiai, ianeieueei aeeeoaeueiui aue
ia?eiae iauiinoe aai yaiethoeeiiiie enoi?ee n enoi?eae ae?oaeo
eiiiiiaioia aaiiia. Niiniaiinoue e aica?auaieth iacaaeneiinoe iiaeao
ii?aaeaeyoueny ia oieueei iooaaaeueiinoueth, ii aeeeoaeueiinoueth
niaianoiiai nouanoaiaaiey, eioi?ay iiaeao i?eaiaeeoue ei ana aieueoae
acaeiicaaeneiinoe iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie eiiiiiaioaie eeaoee. Yeciaaiiue
yeaiaio aianaiiue a eeaoi/ioth eeieth, aa?iyoii, iiaeaa?aiaony noieue
aea au?aaeaiiui yaiethoeeiiiui eciaiaieyi, eae e ethaie ae?oaie
aaiaoe/aneee eiiiiiaio eeaoee, e aoaeao ia aieaa iioiae ia naiaai
ia?ae/iiai i?aaeea, /ai iioiaee ia naieo i?aaeeia yoe eiiiiiaiou.

Ia?aaeaaaaiua aaiaoe/aneea yeaiaiou, auno?i ?ac?ooathuea iiaoth aeey ieo
eeaoi/ioth nenoaio, aeieaeiu auee au a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa en/acaoue,
oae eae iie iiaee au nio?aieoueny oieueei i?e aeinooiiinoe aeey ieo
aan/eneaiiiai iiiaeanoaa eeaoie – oicyaa. *anoi, iaeiaei, neeyiea iiaei
auoue aeieaia?aiaiiui. I?e yoii inoaaony aaaeiue aii?in, ia eioi?ue iiea
iaeuecy ioaaoeoue : yaeyaony ee oaeia neeyiea iiaie e iaiau/iie
iniaaiiinoueth, aaaeouae a iniiaiii e ia?aciaaieth aiiiaeueiuo
eiiieaenia, ia eiathueo cia/eoaeueiie yaiethoeeiiiie oeaiiinoe, oi anoue
aieueiuo eeaoie, eee aea yoi iaeei ec i?ioeannia, eioi?ue ea?ae e ana
aua ea?aao nouanoaaiioth ?ieue a yaiethoeee ( a aiciiaeii e a
iioiaaiaca) ?

Ae?on iiaeao auoue e ?aa?anne?iaaaoei ia?aceoii, e o?aaiaioii eeaoi/iiai
aaiiia, noaaoei eioaeoeeiiiui, a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeoth oaco aai
yaiethoeeiiiie enoi?ee iu iaaethaeaai. A ?acee/iia a?aiy ii iiaeao auoue
e oai e ae?oaei. Iiaeiaii oiio eae eco/aiea no?oeoo?u e ?aciiiaeaiey
ae?onia a eiioea eiioeia anaaaea i?eaiaeeo ian e eeaoea eae nenoaia, a
eioi?ie eiatho ianoi i?iyaeaiey aeecie, oae e i?iaeaia i?ienoiaeaeaiey
ae?onia aica?auaao ian e aii?ino i i?ienoiaeaeaiee eeaoie eae
eioaa?e?iaaiiiai oeaeiai.

Ae?on – yoi, ii nouanoao, /anoue eeaoee. Iu n/eoaai ae?onaie oa
eiiiiiaiou eeaoee, eioi?ua aeinoaoi/ii iacaaeneiu aeey oiai, /oiau
ia?aaeaaaoueny ae?oaei eeaoeai, e n?aaieaaai eo n ae?oaeie eeaoi/iuie
eiiiiiaioaie, aieaa i?i/ii naycaiiuie ni anae nenoaiie. E eiaiii yoe
naienoaa ae?onia aeaeatho eo aanoeaiiuie aeey aeieiaia, i?aaeinoaaeyy ei
oieeaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue iaaethaeaoue a ioiineoaeueii eciee?iaaiiii
aeaea aeoeaiua aeaoa?ieiaiou aeieiae/aneie niaoeeoe/iinoe – ii enoeia oa
ee?ie/eee, ec eioi?uo iino?iaii ana aeeaia.

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