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Терминальные состояния и клиническая смерть

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13

Oniao ?aaieiaoeee ai iiiaii caaeneo io a?aiaie, i?ioaaeoaai n iiiaioa
inoaiiaee e?iaiia?auaiey aei ia/aea ?aaieiaoeee. A iniiaa ia?ii?eyoee,
iicaieythueo iiauneoue o?iaaiue auaeeaaaiinoe iaoeeaioia n inoaiiaeie
e?iaiia?auaiey e aeuoaiey eaaeeo eiioeaioeey “oeaii/ee auaeeaaiey” [I.
Aaneao, 1993]. Iia ninoieo ec ?yaea yoaiia: ia ianoa i?ienoanoaey, i?e
o?ainii?oe?iaea, a iia?aoeeiiiie aieueieoeu, a ioaeaeaiee eioaineaiie
oa?aiee e a ?aaaeeeoaoeeiiiii oeaio?a [W. Eaoa, I. Manciny, 1996] .
Naiui neaaui caaiii yoie oeaii/ee yaeyaony yooaeoeaiia iaania/aiea
iniiaiie iiaeaea?aeee o?iaiy aeecie ia ianoa i?ienoanoaey. Eiaiii io
iaai a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a caaeneo enoiae. Neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi a?aiy,
a oa/aiea eioi?iai iiaeii ?ann/eouaaoue ia oniaoiia ainnoaiiaeaiea
na?aea/iie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia?aie/aii [A. A. ?yaia, 1996]. ?aaieiaoeey a
iau/iuo oneiaeyo iiaeao auoue oniaoiie, anee ia/aoa iaiaaeeaiii eee a
ia?aua ieioou iinea ianooieaiey inoaiiaee e?iaiia?auaiey [A. A?ia?, Ae.
Eaaaeea?i, 1996].

Iniiaiui i?eioeeiii ?aaieiaoeee ia anao yoaiao aa i?iaaaeaiey yaeyaony
iieiaeaiea, /oi “?aaieiaoeey aeieaeia i?iaeeaaaoue aeeciue, a ia
caoyaeaaoue nia?oue”. Eiia/iua ?acoeueoaou iaeeaeaiey ai iiiaii caaenyo
io ea/anoaa ?aaieiaoeee. Iia?aoiinoe a aa i?iaaaeaiee iiaoo
ianeaeaaoueny aiineaaenoaee ia ia?ae/iia iia?aaeaeaiea, aucaaaoaa
oa?ieiaeueiia ninoiyiea.

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey na?aea/ii-eaai/iie ?aaieiaoeee auee eceiaeaiu a
?oeiaiaenoaa I. Naoa?a, nicaeaiiiai ii caeaco Anaie?iie oaaea?aoeee
iauanoa aianoaceieiaia (AOIA) a 1968 aiaeo. Aiineaaenoaee iii
iaiaeiie?aoii aeiiieiyeinue e ia?aecaeaaaeinue. Eceiaeaiiay ieaea
iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiey na?aea/ii-eaai/iie e oea?aa?aeueiie ?aaieiaoeee
aace?oaony ia noaiaea?oao, i?eiyouo AOIA, e niioaaonoaoao i?eiyoui a
iaoae no?aia i?eioeeiai iaeeaeaiey i?aaiecia.

OA?IEIAEUeIUA NINOIssIEss E EEEIE*ANEAss NIA?OUe

I?ioeann oie?aiey e ianooieaiey nia?oe aeiaieueii iiae?iaii eco/ai a
iiiai/eneaiiuo enneaaeiaaieyo [A. A. Iaaianeee, 1986;

I. Naoa?, 1997]. Iau/ii auaeaeytho o?e ia?eiaea oie?aiey — i?aaaiieth,
aaiieth e eeeie/aneoth nia?oue.

I?aaaiiaeueiia ninoiyiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeaceioaa?aoeee anao ooieoeee
i?aaiecia, e?eoe/aneei o?iaiai a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey, ia?ooaieyie
niciaiey ?acee/iie noaiaie au?aaeaiiinoe, ia?ooaieyie aeuoaiey.
I?aaaiiaeueiia ninoiyiea iiaeao aeeeoueny io ianeieueeeo ieioo aei
ianeieueeeo /ania. Caoai ianooiaao oa?ieiaeueiay iaoca, iniiaiuie
i?iyaeaieyie eioi?ie n/eoathony i?ae?auaiea aeuoaiey (io ianeieueeeo
naeoiae aei 3—4 ieioo) e iaee/ea eaeeiaaio?eeoey?iiai eee yeoiie/aneiai
na?aea/iiai ?eoia. Oa?ieiaeueiay iaoca iaoneiaeaia a?aiaiiui iiauoaieai
oiiona aeoaeaeathuaai ia?aa, iinea /aai aicieeaao aaiiaeueiia aeuoaiea,
naeaeaoaeuenoaothuaa i ianooieaiee aaiiee (iiyaeaiea ei?ioeie na?ee
aaeioia eee iaeiiai iiaa?oiinoiiai aaeioa).

I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aaiiaeueiiai ia?eiaea, eae i?aaeei, iaaaeeea.
Na?aea/iua nie?auaiey e aeuoaiea auno?i i?ae?auathony. Iaaethaeathony
ia?ooaiey aeiiaoaieee aeuoaiey — iii caiaaeeaiiia, iiaa?oiinoiia,
aeoeaii aeeth/athony aniiiiaaoaeueiua iuooeu. Aaciiaiai iayooaeoeaiue
aneaaenoaea iaeiia?aiaiiiai o/anoey a aeoa aeuoaiey iuooe,
iaania/eaathueo aaeio e auaeio. Ioia/aaony oeaio?aeecaoeey
e?iaiia?auaiey (a iieueco iicaa, ia/aie, ii/ae, na?aeoea). Auno?i
ianooiaao enoiuaiea eiiiainaoi?iuo iaoaieciia e ianooiaao eeeie/aneay
nia?oue.

Eeeie/aneay nia?oue — yoi ia?eiae iaaeaeo aeeciueth e nia?oueth, eiaaea
iao aeaeeiuo i?eciaeia aeecie, ii aua i?iaeieaeathony aeeciaiiua
i?ioeannu, aeathuea aiciiaeiinoue iaeeaeaiey i?aaiecia. Aeeeoaeueiinoue
yoiai ia?eiaea i?e iau/iie oaiia?aoo?a oaea ninoaaeyao 5—6 ieioo, iinea
/aai ?acaeaathony iaia?aoeiua eciaiaiey a oeaiyo i?aaiecia [N. Paradis,
1996] . A iniauo oneiaeyo (aeiioa?iey, oa?iaeieiae/aneay caueoa) yoio
ia?eiae i?iaeeaaaaony aei 15—16 ieioo.

1. Inoaiiaea e?iaiia?auaiey (ionoonoaea ioeuenaoeee ia iaaeno?aeueiuo
a?oa?eyo);

2. Ionoonoaea naiinoiyoaeueiiai aeuoaiey (iao yeneo?nee a?oaeiie
eeaoee);

3. Ionoonoaea niciaiey;

4. Oe?ieea c?a/ee;

5. A?aoeaeney (iao ei?iaaeueiiai ?aoeaena e ?aaeoeee c?a/eia ia naao):

6. Aeae o?oia (aeaaeiinoue, ae?ioeeaiic). I?ioeann oie?aiey
oa?aeoa?ecoaony oaanaieai ooieoeee aeeciaiii aaaeiuo nenoai i?aaiecia
(ia?aiie, aeuoaiey, e?iaiia?auaiey e ae?.).

Oaanaiea ia?aiie nenoaiu. Iaeneiaeueii /oanoaeoaeueiu e aeiienee ei?a
aieiaiiai iicaa e iicaea/ea. Iiae aicaeaenoaeai eenei?iaeiiai aieiaeaiey
iicaa nia/aea aicieeatho aicaoaeaeaiea e yeoi?ey, niaiythueany
iaeooaiiii, niii?ii, eiiie. I?ioiaeeo 15 naeoiae n iiiaioa aueeth/aiey
e?iaioiea a aieiaiii iicaa aei iioa?e niciaiey.

I?ae?auaiea na?aea/iie aeayoaeueiinoe. I?ae?auaiea iaaiaoaeueiie
ooieoeee na?aeoea aicieeaao a ?acoeueoaoa anenoieee eee oea?eeeyoeee
ieiea?aea [I. A. Iaea, 1994]. Anenoieey iiaeao aicieeiooue aiacaiii
(ia?ae/iay) eee ?acaeoueny iinea oea?eeeyoeee aeaeoaei/eia (aoi?e/iay).
Iinea ia?ae/iie anenoieee, eae i?aaeei, nio?aiythony ?aca?aiua
aiciiaeiinoe aeey oniaoiiai iaeeaeaiey i?aaiecia. Iinea aoi?e/iie —
?aca?aia iao, /oi cia/eoaeueii nieaeaao oainu ia oniaoioth ?aaieiaoeeth.
Ia neaaeoao iiieiaoue anenoieeth eae ecieeieth ia yeaeo?iea?aeeia?aiia,
ai ia?auo, yoi iiaeao a ?yaea neo/aaa aeaci?eaioe?iaaoue a?a/a
(iaeni?aaiinoue yeaeo?iea?aeeia?aoa, neo/aeiia ioniaaeeiaiea
yeaeo?iaeia, ieceiaiieeooaeiay yeaeo?iea?aeeia?aiia e o.i.), a ai
aoi?uo, iaee/ea yeaeo?ii?iaeoeoeee na?aeoea ia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
nio?aiaiee e?iaioiea — yoi yaeaiea iacuaaaony yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneie
aeennioeeaoeeae e ano?a/aaony a 30—50 % neo/aaa aaiiaeeiaie/aneeo
eaoano?io. I?e aeaiiii oaiiiaia iuooea na?aeoea aua aaia?e?oao
aeiyeaeo?e/aneea iioaioeeaeu, eioi?ua ?aaeno?e?othony ia
yeaeo?iea?aeeia?aiia, ii ia nii?iaiaeaeathony i?e yoii nie?auaieyie
ieiea?aea.

Ae?oaei iaoaieciii ?acaeoey inoaiiaee e?iaiia?auaiey yaeyaony
oea?eeeyoeey aeaeoaei/eia. I?e iae aicieeatho ?ac?iciaiiua,
aanii?yaei/iua, ?aciia?aiaiiua e, /oi naiia aeaaiia, iayooaeoeaiua
nie?auaiey ioaeaeueiuo iuoa/iuo io/eia. Niiioaiiia i?ae?auaiea
oea?eeeyoeee aeaeoaei/eia i?ienoiaeeo e?aeia ?aaeei, oioy eiiaaea
(iau/ii o aieueiuo eioa?eoii ieiea?aeii) ?aaeno?e?othony e?aoeia?aiaiiua
yieciaeu oea?eeeyoeee (10— 20 nae), i?ae?auathueany naiii?iecaieueii.
Aeeaaiic oea?eeeyoeee aeaeoaei/eia noaaeony ii yeaeo?iea?aeeia?aiia, ia
eioi?ie iaaethaeathony ia?aaoey?iua eieaaaiey ia?aaiiia?iie aiieeooaeu n
/anoioie 400—600 a ieiooo (?en. 2). Oea?eeeyoeey i?eaiaeeo e inoaiiaea
e?iaiia?auaiey (ia ii?aaeaeythony ioeuen e a?oa?eaeueiia aeaaeaiea,
inoaiaaeeaaaony aeuoaiea, ianooiaao iioa?y niciaiey, ?anoe?ythony
c?a/ee). Iinoaiaiii, n enoiuaieai yia?aaoe/aneeo caiania, oea?eeeyoeey
noaiiaeony neaaiau?aaeaiiie (ieceiaiieeooaeiie) e ia?aoiaeeo a iieiia
i?ae?auaiea na?aea/iie aeayoaeueiinoe (aoi?e/iay anenoieey). A yoii
neo/aa eiiiainaoi?iia ?aca?au ieiea?aea a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
enoiuaiu, /oi cia/eoaeueii nieaeaao oainu ia oniaoiia iaeeaeaiea
iino?aaeaaoaai.

Ninoaeenoue eiiiiiaio. ?acaeoea oa?ieiaeueiuo ninoiyiee e
iaiin?aaenoaaiii inoaiiaea e?iaiia?auaiey nii?iaiaeaeathony au?aaeaiiuie
eciaiaieyie a ?acee/iuo oeaiyo e n?aaeao i?aaiecia. A i?inaaoa
e?iaaiiniuo ninoaeia ia?acothony ?aciiai eaeea?a naonoee ec oi?iaiiuo
yeaiaioia e?iae. Oooaeoaaony aeaoi?ie?oaiinoue y?eo?ioeeoia, eioi?ua ia
iiaoo “i?ioeniooueny” a i?inaao eaieeey?ia, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
“aeiee?iaaieth” ninoaeia iee?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea (a ii?ia aeeaiao?
y?eo?ioeeoa ianeieueei i?aauoaao i?inaao eaieeey?a; naienoai
aeaoi?ie?iaaoueny iicaieyao ei iaiyoue naith oi?io e i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac
eaieeey?u). Ioia/aaony neeaeaaiea yeaiaioia e?iae ec-ca iioa?e eie
yeaeo?e/aneiai ca?yaea. Ca n/ao eciaiaiey eeieaeiie i?iieoeaaiinoe
yiaeioaeey ninoaeia e ianoaaeeueiinoe eeieaeia ninoaeenoia ?onei
iaiieiyaony e?oiiuie eaieyie aee?a e aicieeaao aee?iaay yiaieey.
I?ienoiaeeo caaeaaiea i?aaiiuo oeeueo?ia (i?aaeaea anaai eaaeeo)
oi?iaiiuie yeaiaioaie e?iae, neoueaathueiny yiaeioaeeai eaieeey?ia. Oae
eae eaieeey?iay naoue caaeoa, eaeao ooioe?iaaiea e?iaioiea.

Oaiiiai Iaoaeeeia. O aieueiiai n inoaiiaeie na?aea/iie aeayoaeueiinoe
iaaethaeaaony, oae iacuaaaiue, oaiiiai Iaoaeeeia — i?ienoiaeeo
iayoieeiia?aciia ia?aiauaiea e?iae ec a?oa?ee a aaiu, iioii — ec aai a
a?oa?ee. I?e ainnoaiiaeaiee e?iaioiea aiciiaeii ?acaeoea ?aia?ooceiiiuo
ii?aaeaiee.

Ia?ooaiey iaiaiiuo i?ioeannia. E?aeia iianii ?acaeoea iia?aaeaeaiey
iicaa i?e inoaiiaea e?iaiia?auaiey. ?acaeaathuayny eoaiey i?eaiaeeo e
iia?aaeaeaieth no?oeoo?u oeaiae e eeaoie aneaaenoaea nieaeaiey o?iaiy
aaeaiiceio?eoinoi?iie eeneiou, ia?aiauaiey eiiia eaeueoeey a eeaoeo n
aeoeae?iaaieai oinoieeiacu, iaeiieaiey naiaiaeiuo ?aaeeeaeia I2.
Iaeaieeaathony i?iaeoeou iaiaia aauanoa, eeneiou, ia?ooaaony aaciaue
ninoaa e?iae, eciaiyaony n?iaenoai aaiiaeiaeia e eenei?iaeo. Eaeao
enoiuaiea oaeaaiaeiuo ?aca?aia i?aaiecia e aeeth/aiea a iaiaiiue
i?ioeann aee?ia n ?acaeoeai eaoiiaiee. A i?aaiecia iaeaieeaaaony aei 1,
5 oun. iaoaaieeoia, eioi?uo a ii?ia iao. Iaeiieaiea eeneio aaaeao e
nieaeaieth ?I e?iae aei 7 e ieaea (ii?ia 7, 35—7, 45).

NOAAeEE E YOAIU NA?AeA*II-EAAI*IIE E OeA?AA?AEUeIIE ?AAIEIAOeEE

Ii I. Naoa?o [1997] i?e i?iaaaeaiee ?aaieiaoeee auaeaeyaony 3 noaaeee e
9 yoaiia.

Noaaeey I — yeaiaioa?iia iiaeaea?aeaiea aeecie. Ninoieo ec o?ao yoaiia:

A (airway open) — ainnoaiiaeaiea i?ioiaeeiinoe aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae;

A (breath for victim) — yeno?aiiay eneonnoaaiiay aaioeeyoeey eaaeeo e
ieneaaiaoeey;

N (circulation his blood) — iiaeaea?aeaiea e?iaiia?auaiey.

Noaaeey II — aeaeueiaeoaa iiaeaea?aeaiea aeecie. Caeeth/aaony a
ainnoaiiaeaiee naiinoiyoaeueiiai e?iaiia?auaiey, ii?iaeecaoeee e
noaaeeecaoeee iieacaoaeae e?iaiia?auaiey e aeuoaiey. Noaaeey II
aeeth/aao a naay o?e yoaia:

D (drug) — iaaeeeaiaioiciua n?aaenoaa e eiooceiiiay oa?aiey;

A (ECG) — yeaeo?iea?aeeineiiey e ea?aeeia?aoey;

F (fibrillation) — aeaoea?eeeyoeey.

Noaaeey III — aeeeoaeueiia iiaeaea?aeaiea aeecie. Caeeth/aaony a
iinea?aaieiaoeeiiiie eioaineaiie oa?aiee e aeeth/aao yoaiu:

G (gauging) — ioeaiea ninoiyiey;

I (human mentation) ainnoaiiaeaiea niciaiey;

I — ei??aeoeey iaaeinoaoi/iinoe ooieoeee i?aaiia.

?aaieiaoeeiiiua aeaenoaey naaiaeiy iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia o?e eiiieaena
[A. I. Ceeueaa?, 1996]:

1) Ia?ae/iue ?aaieiaoeeiiiue eiiieaen (I?E), eniieuecoaiue eae
iaaeeoeeineeie, oae e iaiaaeeoeeineeie ?aaioieeaie, i?ioaaeoeie
niaoeeaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo.

2) Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiue ?aaieiaoeeiiiue eiiieaen (N?E), iaeaaeaiea
eioi?ui naaiaeiy iaiaoiaeeii aeey anao iaaeeoeeineeo ?aaioieeia e
niaa?oaiii iaycaoaeueii aeey nio?oaeieeia iaaeeoeeiu e?eoe/aneeo
ninoiyiee.

3) Iino?aaieiaoeeiiiay eioaineaiay oa?aiey (I?EO), i?iaiaeeiay
?aaieiaoieiaaie a ioaeaeaieyo eioaineaiie oa?aiee.

Iniiaiui i?eioeeiii i?iaaaeaiey ?aaieiaoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee aeey
eaaeaeiai ec yoeo eiiieaenia yaeyaony o?eaaea — “ciaoue”, “oiaoue”,
“eiaoue”.)

NOAAeEss I. YEAIAIOA?IIA IIAeAeA?AEAIEA AEECIE

Yoai A. Ainnoaiiaeaiea i?ioiaeeiinoe aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae

I?e aicieeiiaaiee iaioeiaeiuo ninoiyiee i?ioiaeeiinoue aeuoaoaeueiuo
iooae /anoi ia?ooaia ec-ca caiaaeaiey ycuea, eioi?ue i?ee?uaaao aoiae a
ai?oaiue e aicaeoo ia iiaeao iiianoue a eaaeea. E?iia oiai, o aieueiiai
a aanniciaoaeueiii ninoiyiee anaaaea nouanoaoao iianiinoue anie?aoeee e
caeoii?ee aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae eii?iaeiuie oaeaie e ?aioiuie iannaie [N.
A. Aaneeueaa e niaao., 1987].

Aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey i?ioiaeeiinoe aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae iaiaoiaeeii
i?iecaanoe “o?ieiie i?eai ia aeuoaoaeueiuo iooyo” [?. J. F. Baskett et
al., 1996]. I?e yoie iaieioeyoeee i?ienoiaeeo ?anoyaeaiea ia?aaeieo
iuooe oae, ca n/ao /aai ei?aiue ycuea i?eiiaeieiaaony iaae caaeiae
noaieie aeioee.

Iaoiaeeea auiieiaiey o?ieiiai i?eaia (?en. C):

1) cai?ieeaeuaaiea aieiau);

2) auaeaeaeaiea ieaeiae /aethnoe aia?aae;

3) ioe?uaaiea ?oa.

II—V iaeueoeaie iaaeo ?oe caoaaouaatho ainoiaeyuoth aaoaue ieaeiae
/aethnoe aieueiiai ieiei ooiie ?aeiaeiu e auaeaeaatho aa n neeie aia?aae
(aaa?o), niauay ieaeithth /aethnoue oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ieaeiea coau
aunooiaee aia?aaee aa?oieo coaia.

I?e iano?oeoeee aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae eii?iaeiui oaeii iino?aaeaaoaio
neaaeoao i?eaeaoue iieiaeaiea eaaea ia aieo e a iaaeeiiaoi/iie iaeanoe
i?iecaanoe 3—5 ?aceeo oaea?ia ieaeiae /anoueth eaaeiie. Iaeueoeai
i/euatho ?ioiaeioeo, iuoaynue oaeaeeoue eii?iaeiia oaei, caoai aeaeatho
iiiuoeo eneonnoaaiiiai aeuoaiey. Anee iao yooaeoa, inouanoaeytho
iaaeaaeeaaiea ia aeeaio. I?e yoii eaaeiiue iaeiie ?oee i?eeeaaeuaatho e
aeeaioo ii n?aaeiae eeiee iaaeaeo ioieii e ia/aaeaeiui io?inoeii.
Aoi?oth ?oeo eeaaeoo iiaa?o ia?aie e iaaeaaeeaatho ia aeeaio auno?uie
aeaeaeaieyie aaa?o ii n?aaeiae eeiee.

A nayce n iianiinoueth eioeoee?iaaiey ?aaieiaoi?a i?e i?yiii eiioaeoa ni
neecenoie ?oa e iina iino?aaeaaoaai eneonnoaaiiia aeuoaiea
oeaeaniia?acii i?iaiaeeoue n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo ono?ienoa. E
i?inoaeoei ec ieo ioiinyony aicaeooiaiaeu, ono?ienoai aeey eneonnoaaiiie
aaioeeyoeee OAe?, “life-key” (“eeth/ aeecie”), eeoeaaua ianee e ae?.

Eiooaaoeeiiiua o?oaee e eiooaaoeey o?aoae

Eaaeaeue a?a/ nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue aeieaeai aacoei?eciaiii oiaoue
i?iaiaeeoue eiooaaoeeth o?aoae, oae eae iia inoaaony “cieioui
noaiaea?oii” iaania/aiey iaaeaaeiie caueou aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae e
aaioeeyoeeiiiiai eiio?iey a ?aaieiaoeeiiiie i?aeoeea [E. I. Eaooi, I.
?iocai, 1989]. Eiooaaoeey o?aoae iicaieyao eciee?iaaoue aeuoaoaeueiua
iooe, iiaeaea?aeeaaoue eo i?ioiaeeiinoue, i?aaeioa?auaoue anie?aoeeth,
i?iaiaeeoue aaioeeyoeeth, ieneaaiaoeeth e naiaoeeth o?aoaia?iioeaeueiiai
aea?aaa. Aa iiaeii inouanoaeyoue /a?ac ?io eee iin. I?io?aoaeueiay
eiooaaoeey aieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueia a iaioeiaeiuo neooaoeeyo, oae eae iia
iiaeao auoue i?iecaaaeaia auno?aa.

Nooueth iaoiaea yaeyaony aaaaeaiea yeanoe/iiai aicaeooiaiaea
(eiooaaoeeiiiie o?oaee) a o?aoath iiae eiio?ieai ea?eiaineiia.
Eiooaaoeeth o?aoae iiaeii i?iaanoe “neaiui iaoiaeii” (ii iaeueoeo).
Nouanoaoao aieueoie auai? eiooaaoeeiiiuo o?oaie ?aciie aeeeiu e
aeeaiao?a.

Iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiey i?io?aoaaeueiie eiooaaoeee eciaiooui eeeieii
Iaeeioioa [ii A. A. Aoiyoyio, 1984]:

1) ioe?uoue ?io iaoeeaioa i?aaie ?oeie;

2) iiianoeoue ea?eiaineii a eaaoth ?oeo e aaanoe eeeiie a i?aaue oaie
?oa iaoeeaioa, nianoea aai ycue aeaai oaeei ia?acii, /oiau iiaeii auei
iniio?aoue iieinoue ?oa aieueiiai;

3) i?iaanoe eeeiie ea?eiaineiia aia?aae ii n?aaeiae eeiee (aeaeay
o?aeoeee ii ine ?oeiyoee ea?eiaineiia), iniio?aoue ?io aieueiiai,
ycu/ie, aeioeo e iaaeai?oaiiee;

4) iniio?aoue /a?iaeiaeaeiua o?yue, aoiae a ai?oaiue e aieiniaua naycee,
iiaeiya iaaeai?oaiiee eeeieii ea?eiaineiia;

5) aaanoe yiaeio?aoaaeueioth o?oaeo n i?iaiaeieeii i?aaie ?oeie /a?ac
i?aaue oaie ?oa iaoeeaioa iiae eiio?ieai c?aiey, /oiau iaiaeaoea
?aniieiaeeeanue ca aieiniauie nayceaie;

6) ecaea/ue i?iaiaeiee e ia/aoue aaioeeyoeeth eaaeeo;

7) ecaea/ue ea?eiaineii, ?acaeooue iaiaeaoeo aeey aeinoeaeaiey
aa?iaoe/iinoe, caoeene?iaaoue o?oaeo n iiiiuueth caaycee eee
eaeeiieanou?y.

Aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey ?aao?aeoaoeee aeaeoaei/iiai niaea?aeeiiai
iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue i?eai Naeeeea, eioi?ue caeeth/aaony a
naeaaeaiee ieuaaiaea iaaeaoeai ia ia?noiaaeaeiue o?yu.

Eiooaaoeeth i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaeii oniaoii i?iaanoe aneaioth (ii
iaeueoeo). I?e yoii aacuiyiiui iaeueoeai iiaeieiatho iaaeai?oaiiee, a
oeacaoaeueiue aaiaeyo a ieuaaiae. Eiooaaoeeiiioth o?oaeo i?iaiaeyo
iaaeaeo ieie a aieiniaoth uaeue.

Eiieeioiiey

Eiieeioiiey (e?eeioe?aioiiey) caeeth/aaony a ane?uoee (i?ieiea)
ia?noiaueoiaeaeiie iaia?aiu i?e iaaiciiaeiinoe eiooaaoeee o?aoae eee
iaee/ee iano?oeoeee a iaeanoe ai?oaie. Iniiaiua aeinoieinoaa yoiai
iaoiaea caeeth/aaony a i?inoioa oaoie/aneiai auiieiaiey e nei?inoe
auiieiaiey (ii n?aaiaieth n o?aoainoiieae).

Ia?noiaueoiaeaeiay iaia?aia ?aniieaaaaony iaaeaeo ieaeiei e?aai
ueoiaeaeiiai e aa?oiei e?aai ia?noiaaeaeiiai o?yua ai?oaie. A yoie
iaeanoe ionoonoaotho e?oiiua ninoaeu e ia?au. Eiieeioiiey auiieiyaony a
iieiaeaiee iaeneiaeueiiai ?acaeaaiey aieiau iacaae. A iiaeeiiaoi/ioth
iaeanoue eo/oa iieiaeeoue iaaieueoie aaeee. Aieueoei e n?aaeiei
iaeueoeai iaiaoiaeeii caoeene?iaaoue ai?oaiue ca aieiaua iiaa?oiinoe
ueoiaeaeiiai o?yua. Iaae ia?noiaueoiaeaeiie iaia?aiie aeaeaaony
iiia?a/iue ?ac?ac eiaee. Ii iiaoth oeacaoaeueiiai iaeueoea neaeueiaeai
ia?oi?e?otho naio iaia?aio, iinea /aai /a?ac ioaa?noea a o?aoath
i?iaiaeyo ieanoeeiaoth eee iaoaeee/aneoth eaitheth.

Aeey iaeaa/aiey eiieeioiiee nicaeaiu niaoeeaeueiua ono?ienoaa —
eiieeioiiu. Iaeii?aciaua iaai?u “Partex” aeey eiieeioiiee ninoiyo ec
iiaea aeey ?anna/aiey eiaee, o?iaea?a e eaithee.

O?aoainoiiey

O?aoainoiieae i?eiyoi iacuaaoue nicaeaiea nionouey o?aoae n ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeie iooai aaaaeaiey eaithee eee eiooaaoeeiiiie o?oaee /a?ac
?anna/aiiua eieueoea o?aoae (o?aoaioiiey — ?anna/aiea eieaoe o?aoae) [?.
J. F. Baskett et al., 1996]. O?aoainoiieth i?iecaiaeyo i?e
iai?ioiaeeiinoe aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae a aa?oieo ioaeaeao, iaaiciiaeiinoe
eiooaaoeee o?aoae, iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?iaaaeaiey aeeeoaeueiie eneonnoaaiiie
aaioeeyoeee eaaeeo e o.i. A caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy ?anna/aiey eieaoe
o?aoae ?acee/atho aa?oithth, n?aaeithth e ieaeithth o?aoainoiieth (ii
ioiioaieth e ia?aoaeeo ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu). Ac?ineui iau/ii i?iecaiaeyo
aa?oithth o?aoainoiieth.

Aeey iaeaa/aiey iaeiaeaiey o?aoainoiiu iaiaoiaeeii iaeneiaeueii
i?eaeeceoue ai?oaiue e o?aoath e ia?aaeiae iiaa?oiinoe oae. Aieueiie i?e
yoii eaaeeo ia nieia, aieiaa cai?ieeiooa iacaae, iiae iea/e iiaeeiaeai
iaaieueoie aaeee. Iau/ii iaieioeyoeeth i?iaiaeyo iiae ianoiie aianoaceae
iiaieaeiii eee eeaeieaeiii. A yeno?aiiuo oneiaey o?aoainoiio
iaeeaaeuaatho aac aianoacee. I?iecaiaeyo ii n?aaeiae eeiee ?ac?ac eiaee,
iiaeeiaeiie eeao/aoee e iiaa?oiinoiie oanoeee io ieaeiaai e?ay
ueoiaeaeiiai o?yua aei y?aiiie yiee. Iuooeu ?acaeaeaatho ooiui iooai.
Iiia?a/iui iaae?acii ?annaeatho oanoeeth, i?ee?aieythuoth eainoeo
ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu e ia?noiaaeaeiiio o?yuo. Iaiaaeea eieueoea o?aoae
auoa ia?aoaeea, eo ane?uaatho i?iaeieueiui ?ac?acii (iaaeaeo
ia?aui-aoi?ui eee aoi?ui-o?aoueei). E?ay ?ac?aca ?acaiaeyo ?anoe?eoaeai
e aaiaeyo eaitheth eee eiooaaieiiioth o?oaeo.

Yoai A. Eneonnoaaiiia aeuoaiea

Eneonnoaaiiia aeuoaiea — yoi aaeoaaiea aicaeooa eee iaiaauaiiie
eenei?iaeii niane a eaaeea iaoeeaioa, auiieiyaiia aac eee n i?eiaiaieai
niaoeeaeueiuo ono?ienoa, oi anoue a?aiaiiia caiauaiea ooieoeee aiaoiaai
aeuoaiey [D. Benson et al., 1996]. Auaeuoaaiue /aeiaaeii aicaeoo
niaea?aeeo io 16 aei 18% eenei?iaea, /oi iicaieyao aai eniieueciaaoue
aeey eneonnoaaiiiai aeuoaiey i?e i?iaaaeaiee ?aaieiaoeee.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi o aieueiuo n inoaiiaeie aeuoaiey e na?aea/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?ienoiaeeo niaaeaiea eaai/iie oeaie, /aio a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie niinianoaoao i?iaaaeaiea iai?yiiai iannaaea
na?aeoea [I. A. Iaea, 1994]. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue i?e
iannaaea na?aeoea aaeaeaaoioth aaioeeyoeeth eaaeeo. Eaaeaeia aaeoaaiea
aeieaeii caieiaoue 1—2 naeoiaeu, iineieueeo i?e aieaa aeeeoaeueiii
oi?ne?iaaiiii aaeoaaiee aicaeoo iiaeao iiianoue a aeaeoaeie. Aaeoaaiea
iaaei i?iecaiaeeoue ?acei e aei oao ii?, iiea a?oaeiay eeaoea iaoeeaioa
ia ia/iao caiaoii iiaeieiaoueny. Ia ?enoieao iieacaia iaoiaeeea
i?iaaaeaiey eneonnoaaiiie aaioeeyoeee ?io a ?io e ?io a iin.

Auaeio o iino?aaeaaoaai i?e yoii i?ienoiaeeo ianneaii, aeaaiaea?y
nicaeaaoaiony iiauoaiiiio aeaaeaieth a eaaeeo, eo yeanoe/iinoe e ianna
a?oaeiie eeaoee [A. Gilston, 1987]. Ianneaiue auaeio aeieaeai auoue
iieiui. *anoioa aeuoaoaeueiuo aeaeaeaiee aeieaeia ninoaaeyoue 12—16 a
ieiooo. Aaeaeaaoiinoue eneonnoaaiiiai aeuoaiey ioeaieaaaony ii
ia?eiaee/aneiio ?anoe?aieth a?oaeiie eeaoee e ianneaiiio auaeuoaieth
aicaeooa.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi n 1988 aiaea yoe iaoiaeu yenie?aoi?iiai
eneonnoaaiiiai aeuoaiey ia ?aeiiaiaeothony Anaie?iie annioeeaoeeae
aianoaceieiaia a nayce n iianiinoueth eioeoee?iaaiey ?aaieiaoi?a i?e
i?yiii eiioaeoa ni neecenoie ?oa e iina iino?aaeaaoaai (iieacaii
eniieueciaaiea “eeth/a aeecie”, OAe?, eeoeaauo ianie, aicaeooiaiaeia e
o.i.) [European Resuscitation Council, 1992].

Aniiiiaaoaeueioth aaioeeyoeeth eniieuecotho ia oiia nio?aiaiiiai
naiinoiyoaeueiiai, ii iaaaeaeaaoiiai aeuoaiey o aieueiiai. Neio?iiii
aaeioo aieueiiai /a?ac 1—3 aeuoaoaeueiuo aeaeaeaiey i?iecaiaeeony
aeiiieieoaeueiia aaeoaaiea aicaeooa. Aaeio aeieaeai auoue ieaaiui e ii
a?aiaie niioaaonoaiaaoue aaeioo aieueiiai.

Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi ainnoaiiaeaiea naiinoiyoaeueiiai aeuoaiey auno?i
ainnoaiaaeeaaao ana inoaeueiua ooieoeee. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi
aeuoaoaeueiue oeaio? yaeyaony aiaeeoaeai ?eoia aeey iicaa.

Yoai N. Iiaeaea?aeaiea e?iaiia?auaiey

Iinea inoaiiaee e?iaiia?auaiey a oa/aiea 20—30 ieioo a na?aeoea
nio?aiaiu ooieoeee aaoiiaoecia e i?iaiaeeiinoe, /oi iicaieyao aai
“caionoeoue”. Iacaaeneii io iaoaiecia inoaiiaee na?aea/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe, iaiaaeeaiii aeieaeia auoue ia/aoa na?aea/ii-eaai/iay
?aaieiaoeey aeey i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey ?acaeoey iaia?aoeiiai ii?aaeaiey
oeaiae i?aaiecia (iicaa, ia/aie, na?aeoea e ae?.) e ianooieaiey
aeieiae/aneie nia?oe [N. A. Aaneeueaa e niaao., 1987]. Iniiaiie oeaeueth
iannaaea na?aeoea yaeyaony nicaeaiea eneonnoaaiiiai e?iaioiea. Iaeiaei
na?aea/iue aua?in e e?iaioie, nicaeaaaaiue ia?oaeiui iannaaeai na?aeoea,
ninoaaeyao ia aieaa 30 % io ii?iu [I. Naoa?, 1997] e oieueei 5 %
ii?iaeueiiai iicaiaiai e?iaioiea [I. Ia?eii, 1996]. Eae i?aaeei, yoiai
auaaao aeinoaoi/ii aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aeecianiiniaiinoe oeaio?aeueiie
ia?aiie nenoaiu ai a?aiy na?aea/ii-eaai/iie e oea?aa?aeueiie ?aaieiaoeee
i?e oneiaee aeinoeaeaiey aeinoaoi/iie ieneaaiaoeee i?aaiecia ia
i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia ieioo.

Aeioeceea eneonnoaaiiiai e?iaioiea i?e iannaaea na?aeoea a i?ioeanna
na?aea/ii-eaai/iie ?aaieiaoeee,

I?eiyoi n/eoaoue, /oi a iniiaa iai?yiiai iannaaea na?aeoea eaaeeo
naeaaeaiea na?aeoea nia?aaee a?oaeeiie, ncaaee — iicaiii/iui noieaii, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai e?iaue ec iieinoae na?aeoea iinooiaao a ninoaeu
i?aaiecia. Yoi oae iacuaaaiue na?aea/iue ianin [N. N. Chandra, 1993]. Ii
ai a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey iai?yiiai iannaaea na?aeoea i?ienoiaeeo naeaoea ia
oieueei na?aeoea, ii e ae?oaeo aioo?ea?oaeiuo no?oeoo? (iaeaieueoaa
cia/aiea eiaao naeaoea eaaeeo, eioi?ua niaea?aeao cia/eoaeueiia
eiee/anoai e?iae e eaaei naeaaeeaathony) [J. Peters, P. Ihle., 1990].
Yoio iaoaieci i?eiyoi iacuaaoue a?oaeiui ianinii.

N ia/aea ainueieaeanyouo aiaeia ?anniao?eaaaony aii?in, /oi aeaeaeao
e?iaue i?e cae?uoii (iai?yiii) iannaaea na?aeoea — na?aea/iue eee
a?oaeiie ianin? Oeueo?acaoeiaia neaie?iaaiea e ae?oaea iaoiaeu
enneaaeiaaiey a yenia?eiaioa e eeeie/aneeo oneiaeyo iieacaee, /oi i?e
cae?uoii iannaaea ?aaioatho iaa iaoaiecia, ii o /aeiaaea i?aiaeaaeaao
a?oaeiie ianin, eiaaea i?e naeaaeaiee a?oaeiie eeaoee aeaeaeaiea e?iae a
ai?oo iaania/eaaaony naeaoeai anao ninoaeenouo aieinoae. Aeaaiay
aieinoue — eaaeea n eo iaeui e?oaii e?iaiia?auaiey [A. I. Ceeueaa?,
1997].

I?e ioe?uoii iannaaea na?aeoea ?aaioaao oieueei na?aea/iue ianin. Oaeia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeioeceea eneonnoaaiiiai e?iaioiea o?aaoao aianaiey
ei??aeoea a na?aea/ii-eaai/ioth ?aaieiaoeeth [N. Bircher et al „ 1996].

Inoaiiaea e?iaioa/aiey

Inoaiiaea e?iaioa/aiey oaeaea ioiineony e I yoaio, oae eae ia oiia
i?iaeieaeathuaeny e iaainiieiaiiie e?iaiiioa?e i?iaaaeaiea
?aaieiaoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee aoaeao i?inoi iayooaeoeaii.

Aeey a?aiaiiie inoaiiaee a?oa?eaeueiiai ia?oaeiiai e?iaioa/aiey ia
aeiainieoaeueiii yoaia eniieuecoaony i?eaeaoea a?oa?ee auoa ianoa
iia?aaeaeaiey e einoiiio aunooio eee iaeneiaeueiia naeaaiea eiia/iinoe n
iineaaeothuei iaeiaeaieai e?iaiinoaiaaeeaathuaai aeaooa. E?iaioa/aiea ec
iaaeno?aeueiuo ninoaeia i?e o?aaiaoe/aneeo aiiooaoeeyo eiia/iinoae
iiaeii inoaiiaeoue iooai iaeiaeaiey e?iaiinoaiaaeeaathueo caaeeiia.
Aaiiciia e eaieeey?iia e?iaioa/aiea inoaiaaeeaatho iooai iaeiaeaiey
ooaie aeaayuae iiaycee.

E?iaioa/aiea a iaeanoe oaca e eiia/iinoae iiaeii oniaoii inoaiiaeoue
iooai eniieueciaaiey iiaaiaoe/aneie i?ioeaioieiaie iaeaaeaeu
(“i?ioeaioieiaua a?thee”, “i?ioeaioieiaue einothi”, ono?ienoai EIAe,
“a?aneao”). Yoei niiniaii iiaeii i?iaanoe oaiiiiaaeo e?iaioi/aueo
ninoaeia, iiaaiaoe/aneia ueie?iaaiea ia?aeiiia e auoanieoue ec ninoaeia
ieaeieo eiia/iinoae e oaca aei 500—1000 ie e?iae a oeaio?aeueioth
oee?eoeyoeeth.

Yoai F. Yeaeo?e/aneay aeaoea?eeeyoeey

Yeaeo?e/aneay aeaoea?eeeyoeey na?aeoea caiyea i?i/iia ianoi a
i?iaaaeaiee na?aea/ii-eaai/iie ?aaieiaoeee. Neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi
aeaaea ia oiia iannaaea na?aeoea oneiaey ieneaaiaoeee oea?eeee?othuaai
ieiea?aea iaaeaaii?eyoiu e aeiieney ieiea?aea i?ia?anne?oao, iiyoiio,
/ai ?aiueoa auiieiaia aeaoea?eeeyoeey, oai aieueoa oainia ia oniaoiia
ainnoaiiaeaiea naiinoiyoaeueiie na?aea/iie aeayoaeueiinoe [I. E. Ao?ae/,
1975]. Ecaanoii, /oi naaiaeiy yeaeo?e/aneay aeaoea?eeeyoeey yaeyaony
aaeeinoaaiii yooaeoeaiui iaoiaeii ainnoaiiaeaiey na?aea/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?e oea?eeeyoeee ieiea?aea. O/eouaay, /oi oea?eeeyoeey
aeaeoaei/eia eiaao ianoi a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa inoaiiaee
e?iaiia?auaiey, a iaianaiea yeaeo?e/aneiai ?ac?yaea aeaoea?eeeyoi?a
i?aeoe/anee ia ieacuaaao a?aaea i?e anenoieee eee oa?ieiaeueiuo
a?aaeea?eoieyo, iiaeii i?iaanoe iiiuoeo yeaeo?e/aneie aeaoea?eeeyoeee
aei ooi/iaiey ?aciiaeaeiinoe aaiiaeeiaie/aneie eaoano?iou (anenoieey eee
oea?eeeyoeey) [?. Martens, Y. Vandekerck-hove, 1996].

Aeey i?iaaaeaiey yeaeo?e/aneee aeaoea?eeeyoeee eniieuecothony
aeaoea?eeeyoi?u eae iinoiyiiiai, oae e ia?aiaiiiai oiea. Ia?aua aieaa
yooaeoeaiu e aaciianiu.

I?e i?iaaaeaiee ia?oaeiie aeaoea?eeeyoeee iaeei ec yeaeo?iaeia
?aniieaaatho ia ia?aaeiae iiaa?oiinoe a?oaeiie eeaoee ieaea eeth/eoeu o
i?aaiai e?ay a?oaeeiu, a ae?oaie — a iaeanoe aa?oooee na?aeoea.
Yeaeo?iaeu aeieaeiu auoue niacaiu niaoeeaeueiie ianoie eee iaa?ioou
ianeieueeeie neiyie ia?ee, nii/aiiie oeceieiae/aneei eee aeia?oiie/aneei
nieaaui ?anoai?ii aeey oiaiueoaiey o?ainoi?aeaeueiiai nii?ioeaeaiey.
Yeaeo?iaeu iaiaoiaeeii ieioii i?eaeeiaoue e oaeo aieueiiai. I/aiue
aaaeii ia?aae aeaoea?eeeyoeeae neeueii naeaaeoue a?oaeioth eeaoeo
yeaeo?iaeaie aeey oiaiueoaiey a?oaeiiai nii?ioeaeaiey. N yoie aea
oeaeueth aeaoea?eeeyoeeth neaaeoao inouanoaeyoue a oaco auaeioa, /oiau
?acia?u a?oaeiie eeaoee auee ieieiaeueiuie (yoi iaania/eaaao nieaeaiea
o?ainoi?aeaeueiiai iai?yaeaiey ia 15—20 %). Aaee/eia oiea aeieaeia auoue
aeinoaoi/iie neeu, /oiau iiaeaaeoue yeoiie/aneea i/aae aicaoaeaeaiey a
ieiea?aea. I?e i?iaaaeaiee ia?oaeiie aeaoea?eeeyoeee ia/aeueiue ?ac?yae
ninoaaeyao 3—3, 5 oun. aieueo (ieiei 200 Aeae). Anee ia?aay iiiuoea ia
oaeaeanue, oi aa iaiaoiaeeii iiaoi?youe, iiauoay iai?yaeaiea eaaeaeue
?ac ia 0, 5 oun. aieueo (i?aaeae 5—6 oun. aieueo eee 360 Aeae). I?e
i?iaaaeaiee ioe?uoie aeaoea?eeeyiee ia?aiia/aeueiay aaee/eia
aeaoea?eeee?othuaai iai?yaeaiey ninoaaeyao 1, 5—1, 75 oun. aieueo, a
i?aaeaeueiia iai?yaeaiea 2, 5—3 oun. aieueo.

Iinea ainnoaiiaeaiey ?eoia iiaeao ?acaeoueny iiaoi?iay oea?eeeyoeey
aeaeoaei/eia aaeaeo yeaeo?e/aneie ianoaaeeueiinoe ieiea?aea,
iaoneiaeaiiie ino?ie ei?iia?iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth e aoi?e/iuie
ia?ooaieyie iaoaaieecia. Aeey noaaeeecaoeee yooaeoa ?aeiiaiaeoaony
ii?iaeecaoeey eeneioii-uaei/iiai ninoiyiey, ei??aeoeey iaoaaiee/aneiai
aoeeaeica. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo iiaoi?iay yeaeo?e/aneay aeaoea?eeeyoeey
ieacuaaaony iayooaeoeaiie, iau/ii yoi auaaao i?e ieceiaiieeooaeiie
oea?eeeyoeee aeaeoaei/eia e iaono?aiaiiie eenei?iaeiie caaeieaeaiiinoe.
A oaeii neo/aa iieacaii aaaaeaiea aae?aiaeeia, aeae?iea?aiiaoa iao?ey,
aeiiieieoaeueiua oneeey ii ieneaaiaoeee i?aaiecia e iinea ei?ioeiai
ia?eiaea iannaaea na?aeoea aiiaue i?iaanoe yeaeo?e/aneoth
aeaoea?eeeyoeeth.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iaeioi?uie aaoi?aie ia?aniio?aiu i?eioeeiu
i?iaaaeaiey ?aaieiaoeee i?e ia?ae/iie inoaiiaea nenoaiiiai e?iaioiea a
iieueco yoaiia N e D. Oae I. X. Aaee [1996] iieaaaao, /oi anee iniiaiie
i?e/eiie inoaiiaee e?iaiia?auaiey yaeyaony yeoiie/aneea ia?ooaiey ?eoia
i?e ieeethceaiuo caaieaaaieyo ei?iia?iuo a?oa?ee i?e ionoonoaee
anoeenee, oi i?e i?iaaaeaiee na?aea/ii-eaai/iie ?aaieiaoeee i?ei?eoao
ioaeaaony aeaoea?eeeyoeee, iannaaeo na?aeoea e iaaeeeaiaioiciie oa?aiee.

NOAAeEss II. AeAEUeIAEOAA IIAeAeA?AEAIEA AEECIE

Yoai D. Iaaeeeaiaioiciua n?aaenoaa e eiooceiiiay oa?aiey

Aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey naiinoiyoaeueiiai e?iaiia?auaiey iaiaoiaeeii eae
iiaeii ?aiueoa ia/aoue aaaaeaiea iaaeeeaiaioiciuo i?aia?aoia e
eiooceiiioth oa?aieth [A. A. Ii?ic, 1996]. Aaaaeaiea i?aia?aoia neaaeoao
ia/eiaoue eae iiaeii ?aiueoa e iiaoi?youe eaaeaeua 5 ieioo.

I?aia?aou, eniieuecoaiua i?e i?iaaaeaiee ia?ae/iiai ?aaieiaoeeiiiiai
eiiieaena e eo aeice?iaee

Aae?aiaeei. Aae?aiiieiaoee, iaeaieaa /anoi i?eiaiythueeny i?e
i?iaaaeaiee na?aea/ii-eaai/iie e oea?aa?aeueiie ?aaieiaoeee. Oeo/oaao
ei?iia?iue e iicaiaie e?iaioie, iiauoaao aicaoaeeiinoue e nie?aoeiinoue
ieiea?aea. Ia?ae/iay aeica aae?aiaeeia ninoaaeyao 1 ia [E. lender, 1991]
. I?e iayooaeoeaiinoe aae?aiaeei aaiaeeony a oie aea aeica /a?ac
eaaeaeua 3—5 ieioo [A. I. Ceeueaa?, 1995]. Iinea ainnoaiiaeaiey
na?aea/iie aeayoaeueiinoe nouanoaoao aunieee ?ene ?aoeeaeeaa
oea?eeeyoeee aeaeoaei/eia, iaoneiaeaiiia iaaaeaeaaoiie ei?iia?iie
ia?ooceae [E. Under, 1991]. Ii yoie i?e/eia eniieuecotho “aa?anneaiua”
aeicu aacii?anni?ia [I. A. Iaia, 1994]. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy nouanoaoao
oaeoeea eniieueciaaiey aieueoeo aeic aae?aiaeeia (5 ia e aieaa) ai a?aiy
i?iaaaeaiey ?aaieiaoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee [I. Aaneao, 1993]. Oeaeueth yoie
oa?aiee yaeyaony aeinoeaeaiea niiioaiiie e noaaeeueiie aaiiaeeiaieee i?e
nenoiee/aneii aeaaeaiee ia iaiaa 100—110 ii ?o. no.

Aeae?iea?aiiao iao?ey. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia?aniao?eaaaony ioiioaiea e
eniieueciaaieth aeae?iea?aiiaoa iao?ey ai a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey ?aaieiaoeee
[I. A. Iaia, 1992]. Ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?eiaiyoue aai aei ainnoaiiaeaiey
naiinoiyoaeueiie ?aaiou na?aeoea. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi aoeeaeic i?e
aaaaeaiee aeae?iea?aiiaoa iao?ey aoaeao oiaiueoai eeoue a neo/aa
oaeaeaiey /a?ac eaaeea ia?acothuaainy i?e aai aeennioeeaoeee NI2 . A
neo/aa aea iaaaeaeaaoiinoe eaai/iiai e?iaioiea e aaioeeyoeee CO2
oneeeaaao aia- e aioo?eeeaoi/iue aoeeaeic. Iaeiaei n/eoaaony iieacaiiui
aaaaeaiea aeae?iea?aiiaoa iao?ey a aeica 0, 5—1, 0 iiieue/ea, anee
i?ioeann ?aaieiaoeee caoyaeaaaony nauoa 15—20 ieioo.

Oei?enoue eaeueoeee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oaeaea ia?aie/aii eniieueciaaiea
i?aia?aoia eaeueoeey i?e na?aea/ii-eaai/iie ?aaieiaoeee a nayce n
aiciiaeiui ?acaeoeai ?aia?ooceiiiuo ii?aaeaiee e ia?ooaieai i?iaeoeoeee
yia?aee. Aaaaeaiea i?aia?aoia eaeueoeey i?e i?iaaaeaiee ?aaieiaoeeiiiuo
ia?ii?eyoee iieacaii i?e iaee/ee aeiieaeueoeeaiee, aeia?eaeeaiee e
ia?aaeice?iaea aioaaiienoia eaeueoeey [A.I. Ceeueaa?, 1995].

Ao?iiei. I?eiaiaiea ao?iieia iieacaii i?e anenoieee e a?aaeenenoieee.
Ia?ae/iay aeica aeieaeia ninoaaeyoue 1 ia. I?e iayooaeoeaiinoe
aeiionoeii iiaoi?iia aaaaeaiea /a?ac 3—5 ieioo.

Eeaeieaei. Aaiaeeony iaa?oci/iay aeica eeaeieaeia 80—100 ia (1, 5 ia/ea)
aioo?eaaiii no?oeii. Iinea aeinoeaeaiey naiinoiyoaeueiiai e?iaiia?auaiey
i?iaiaeeony iiaeaea?aeeaathuay eioocey eeaeieaeia a aeica 2—4 ia/iei.

?anoai?u aetheicu. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony eniieueciaaoue
eiooceth aetheicu i?e i?iaaaeaiee ?aaieiaoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee a nayce n
oai, /oi iia iinooiaao a eoaiece?iaaiioth iaeanoue iicaa, aaea
aeeth/aynue a aiay?iaiue iaiai, ?anuaieyaony aei iiei/iie eeneiou.
Eieaeueiia iaeiieaiea a iicaiaie oeaie eaeoaoa oaaee/eaaao aa
iia?aaeaeaiea [I. Ia?eia, 1996]. Aieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueii eniieueciaaiea
oeceieiae/aneiai ?anoai?a eee ?anoai?a ?eiaa?a.

Oaea ai a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey ia?ae/iiai ?aaieiaoeeiiiiai eiiieaena neaaeoao
i?eiaiyoue ia?u ii i?ioeeaeoeea iia?aaeaeaiee iicaa. Iau/ii n yoie
oeaeueth aaiaeyony ieneaooe?ao iao?ey (2— 4 a), naaeoenai (20—40 ia),
aa?aeoo?aou (2—5 ia/ea). Ii?aaeaeaiiia cia/aiea iiaeao iieo/eoue a yoii
ieaia eniieueciaaiea aeieaoi?ia eaeueoeeaauo eaiaeia (aa?aiaiee a aeica
0, 1 ia/ea) e iaaiey noeueoaoa (a aeica 100 ia/ea). A yenia?eiaioa ia
aeeaioiuo iieo/aiu naeaeaoaeuenoaa yooaeoeaiiai nio?aiaiey
oea?aa?aeueiiai e?iaioiea a iino?aaieiaoeeiiiii ia?eiaea.

NOAAeEss III. AeAEUeIAEOAA IIAeAeA?AEAIEA AEECIE

Oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a i?iaaaeaiee ?aaieiaoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee ia noaaeee
III (ainnoaiiaeaiea niciaiey, ei??aeoeey iaaeinoaoi/iinoe ooieoeee
i?aaiia) ianiiiaiii i?eiaaeeaaeeo noaoeeiia?iiio yoaio ea/aiey.

Yoai G. Ioeaiea ninoiyiey

Aeey ioeaiee ninoiyiey aieueiuo e i?iaaaeaiey aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiie
eioaineaiie oa?aiee a IEE Iauae ?aaieiaoieiaee ?AII anao aieueiuo a
iinooa?ieiaeueiii ia?eiaea i?aaeeiaeaii ?acaeaeeoue ia o?e a?oiiu [A. A.
Aeaenaaaa, 1996; A. I. Ao?ae/, 1996].

1 a?oiia. Auno?ay, iaineiaeiaiiay aeeiaieea ainnoaiiaeaiey oeaio?aeueiie
ia?aiie nenoaiu. Aieueiua i?eoiaeyo a niciaiea /a?ac ianeieueei /ania, o
ieo ionoonoaoao a?oaay niiaoe/aneay iaoieiaey.

2 a?oiia. Ineiaeiaiiay aeeiaieea ainnoaiiaeaiey oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie
nenoaiu. Aanniciaoaeueiia ninoiyiea a oa/aiee 3—4 /ania n ?acaeoeai
aa?oia-noaieiaie neiioiiaoeee i?aoiaeyuaai oa?aeoa?a.

3 a?oiia. Iaoeeaiou yoie a?oiiu oa?aeoa?ecothony iicaeiei
ainnoaiiaeaieai ooieoeee oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie nenoaiu (aanniciaoaeueiia
ninoiyiea aieaa 1 nooie, ineiaeieaoaany iauaiicaiaie e iieeii?oiie
i/aaiaie iaa?ieiae/aneie neiioiiaoeeie.

YOAIU I E I. AINNOAIIAEAIEA NICIAIEss E EI??AEOeEss IAAeINOAOI*IINOE
OOIEOeEE I?AAIIA

I?e i?iaaaeaiee ?aaieiaoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee i?aaeaea anaai no?aiyony e
noaaeeecaoeee aeeciaiiuo ooieoeee. Ii i/aiue aaaeii, /oiau iaoeeaio aue
iieiioeaiiui, /oiau ii nio?aiee eioaeeaeo, iuoeaiea, yiioeeiiaeueioth
noa?o [A. Oee. 1993]. Oniao oea?aa?aeueiie ?aaieiaoeee ai iiiaii caaeneo
io:

1. Oyaeanoe e aeeeoaeueiinoe iia?aaeaeathuaai aicaeaenoaey (o?aaiu,
iaoaaiee/aneea ia?ooaiey, io?aaeaiey, aeiieney ethaiai aaiaca e o.i.).

2. Io naiaa?aiaiiinoe e ea/anoaa i?iaaaeaiey ia?ae/iiai ?aaieiaoeeiiiiai
iiniaey.

3. Io o?iaiy e ea/anoaa iinooa?ieiaeueiie eioaineaiie oa?aiee. Aieueoia
cia/aiea i?e yoii eiatho aoi?e/iua ia?ooaiey aiiainoaca, oaeea eae
eeneioii-iniiaiia ninoiyiea, aiaeii-yeae?ieeoiia ninoiyiea,
iniiey?iinoue e o.ae. Iie ieacuaatho iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aeeyiea ia
ninoiyiea iicaa e ia ia?niaeoeau aai ainnoaiiaeaiey [?. A. Steen, 1992]
.

Ana ia?ii?eyoey ii iiaeaea?aeaieth e ainnoaiiaeaieth ooieoeee iicaa
iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia 2 aieueoea a?oiiu:

— ia?ii?eyoey ii iiaeaea?aeaieth aiaoea?aa?aeueiiai aiiainoaca;

— iiaeaea?aeaiea e ainnoaiiaeaiea aioo?eiicaiaiai aiiainoaca.

Ia?ii?eyoey ii iiaeaea?aeaieth aiaoea?aa?aeueiiai aiiainoaca

Eiio?ieue ca o?iaiai nenoaiiiai a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey e aai
ei??aeoeey. A ?yaea neo/aaa auaiaeii nicaeaoue iinea ia?aianaiiiai
oa?ieiaeueiiai ninoiyiey aeia?ia?ooceth aieiaiiai iicaa ia 5—7 ieioo
iooai eneonnoaaiiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey nenoaiiie aeia?ia?oocee (aeey
ai?ueau n oaiiiaiii “no reflow”). A?oa?eaeueiia aeaaeaiea i?e yoii
i?aauoaao ii?io ia 20 % Aaeeinoaaiiia eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyao
/a?aiii-iicaiaay o?aaia. Caeanue aunieia nenoaiiia a?oa?eaeueiia
aeaaeaiea ia auaiaeii nicaeaaaoue. Iioeiaeueiui aeey aieueiuo n /a?aiiie
iicaiaie o?aaiie yaeyaony iiaeaea?aeaiea nenoiee/aneiai a?oa?eaeueiiai
aeaaeaiey ia auoa 110 ii ?o. no.

Eniieueciaaiea aa?aeoo?aoia a aianoace?othueo e noaia?eioe/aneeo aeicao
(aeey ono?aiaiey aaniieienoaa, iai?yaeaiey, noaei?ia e aeey nicaeaiey
aeiiiaoaaieecia a eeaoeao iicaa) [Ae. A. Eioo?aee, 1996]. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy a ?yaea enneaaeiaaiee inia?eaaaony oeaeaniia?aciinoue
eniieueciaaiey aa?aeoo?aoia, ii a ?innee eo i?eiaiaiea a
iinooa?ieiaeueiii ia?eiaea ii i?aaeiaio iiioey?ii.

I?iaaaeaiea oi?aaeyaiie aeia?aaioeeyoeee ?aeiiaiaeoaony aeey
i?ioeeaeoeee ?acaeoey aoeeaeica i?aaiecia (iniaaiii aieiaiiai iicaa) e
nieaeaiey aioo?e/a?aiiiai aeaaeaiey (aneaaenoaea oiaiueoaiey
aioo?e/a?aiiiai iauaia e?iae). Neaaeoao iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iai?yaeaiea
eenei?iaea a a?oa?eaeueiie e?iae ia o?iaia 100 ii ?o. no. e auoa,
iai?yaeaiea oaeaeeneiai aaca — ia o?iaia 25—35 ii ?o.no. Eiioeaio?aoeey
eenei?iaea ai aaeuoaaiii aicaeooa ia aeieaeia i?aauoaoue 50% ia
aeeeoaeueiii yoaia ea/aiey.

Nicaeaiea iaaeeeaiaioiciie ?aeaenaoeee n iiiiuueth iaaieueoeo aeic
iei?aeaenaioia ia oiia eneonnoaaiiie aaioeeyoeee eaaeeo e eiooaaoeee
o?aoae.

Iaaeeeaiaioiciia oeo/oaiea ?aieiae/aneeo naienoa e?iae. Eniieuecoy
?aieiae/anee aeoeaiua eaea?noaaiiua i?aia?aou (?aiiiethaetheei,
eo?aioee, o?aioae e ae?.), a oaeaea ii?iiaieaie/aneoth aaiiaeeethoeeth
neaaeoao no?aieoueny naeaeaoue e?iaue aieaa oaeo/ae e iaiaa ayceie,
eciaieoue cia/aiea ?I e?iae e iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aai a i?aaeaeao 7, 3—7, 6
(oi anoue io caeeneaiiiai ninoiyiey e?iae ia?aeoe e ii?iaeueiui
iieacaoaeyi).

Iioeiaeueiie aaee/eiie aaiaoie?eoa i?e ei??aeoeee ?aieiaee e?iae
yaeyaony aai iiaeaea?aeaiea ia o?iaia 30—35. Iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue e
ae?oaea aiiainoaoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee: aiaeiue aaeain, yeaeo?ieeou e
ae?. Iieacaii nicaeaiea eaaeie aeia-?iniiey?iinoe ieaciu ia o?iaia
320—330 iiniieue/e (ii?ia — 280—290 iiniieue/e). Yoi aeinoeaaaony
eniieueciaaieai iniioe/anee aeoeaiuo i?aia?aoia e iooai iiauoaiey
eieeieaeiiai aeaaeaiey, eniieuecoy ieacio, i?ioaei, aeueaoiei e o.i.
Nicaeaiea i?aauoathuaai ii?io iieioe/aneioi e iniioe/aneiai aeaaeaiey
iicaieyao inaiaiaeeoue eioa?noeoeee iicaa io ecauoea aiaeu. Aa?aony ai
aieiaiea iiaeaea?aeaiea ii?iaeueiiai niaea?aeaiey aetheicu a e?iae, oae
eae aetheica yaeyaony aeey iicaa iniiaiui yia?aaoe/aneei noano?aoii.

Ei?oeeinoa?ieaeu. I?aaeiecieii e ae?oaea ei?oeeinoa?ieaeu eniieuecoaony
ia i?ioyaeaiee ia?auo 2—3 aeiae iinooa?ieiaeueiiai ia?eiaea.
Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey ei?oeeinoa?ieaeia ia yoii yoaia
?aaieiaoeee a ?yaea enneaaeiaaiee iiaeaa?aaaony niiiaieth., A
ioa/anoaaiiie i?aeoeea aieueoeinoai ?aaieiaoieiaia eniieuecotho
ei?oeeinoa?ieaeu aeey nieaeaiey aioo?e/a?aiiiai aeaaeaiey.

Oaiia?aoo?iue aaeain. Iaiaoiaeeii iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ii?iioa?ieth
i?aaiecia. Aieueiua, ia?aianoea oa?ieiaeueiia ninoiyiea, neeiiiu e
?acaeoeth aeia?oa?iee. Ai-ia?auo, yoi naycaii n aeia?iaoaaieeciii,
ai-aoi?uo, — n aieueoeie yia?aaoe/aneeie o?aoaie i?aaiecia. Iiyoiio
neaaeoao no?aieoueny e nicaeaieth ii?iioa?iee, a a ?yaea neo/aaa —
oia?aiiie aeiioa?iee. I?eaioe?ii yaeyaony oaiia?aoo?a a ieuaaiaea,
?aaiay 35 °N. Aieaa ieceia ioeaaeaeaiea /?aaaoi ?acaeoeai
aeiioa?ie/aneie iaoieiaee e ?acee/iuie neiaeiinoyie ii ?aaoeyoeee
aeeciaiiuo ooieoeee.

Ieoaiea. Iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue ia?aioa?aeueiia e, a ?yaea neo/aaa,
yioa?aeueiia ieoaiea. A aeeaeaeoea nooee n iiiaioa ia?aianaiiiai
oa?ieiaeueiiai ninoiyiey ia/eiaai ainnoaiaaeeaaoue ia?ooaiioth
yia?aaoeeo i?aaiecia. Anee yioa?aeueiia ieoaiea iaaiciiaeii, oi neaaeoao
nicaeaoue naaeaine?iaaiiia ia?aioa?aeueiia ieoaiea. Aeey nieaeaiey
eioaineaiinoe eaoaaieecia iieacaii iacia/aiea aiaaiee/aneeo i?aia?aoia
(ia?aaie, ?aoaaieee).

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo i?eaaaatho e ?yaeo oeaeaiai?aaeaiiuo iaoiaeia
aicaeaenoaey: aioeeiaaoeyioiie oa?aiee, oi?iiaeaieth i?ioaieeca
(aaaaeaiea eiaeaeoi?ia i?ioaac), eniieueciaaieth aioeieneaeaioia (eiiie,
oee?oeiieaciei, ieaei, ieueoai, oieioa?ie), aioeaeiienaioia (AIIE,
oinoi?eee?iaaiiay aetheica, aooeiei).

Iiaeaea?aeaiea e ainnoaiiaeaiea aioo?eiicaiaiai aiiainoaca

I?aaeaea /ai aeoeaii aeeyoue ia aioo?e/a?aiiie aiiainoac, iaiaoiaeeii
eneeth/eoue i?aaie/aneia iia?aaeaeaiea iicaa aeey oiai, /oiau aia?aiy
i?iaanoe iia?aoeaiia aiaoaoaeuenoai ii iiaiaeo aioo?eiicaiauo aaiaoii e
o. i. Yoi aeinoeaaaony iooai nai?a aeaiiuo aiaiiaca, ioeaiee eeeie/aneie
ea?oeiu, i?eiaiaiey eino?oiaioaeueiuo iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey
(yoieieaoeey, oiiia?aoey).

Ana ia?ii?eyoey ii iiaeaea?aeaieth aioo?e/a?aiiiai aiiainoaca
oeaeaniia?acii i?iaiaeeoue ia oiia eiio?iey iniiaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee
iicaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. Eioaa?aeueiui iieacaoaeai iicaiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony yeaeo?iyioeieia?aoey. AEaeaoaeueii
iiieoi?e?iaaoue yoio iieacaoaeue ooieoeee iicaa.

I/aiue aaaeii eiio?iee?iaaoue aioo?e/a?aiiia aeaaeaiea. N yoie oeaeueth
iiaeii i?iecaanoe eaoaoa?ecaoeeth nieiiiiicaiaiai i?ino?ainoaa a iaeanoe
iiynieoeu e, oaeei ia?acii, ecia?youe nieiiiiicaiaia aeaaeaiea. Aeaiiua,
iieo/aiiua i?e yoii, ia anaaaea aeinoiaa?iu, oae eae aieiaiie iica e
iiynie/iue ioaeae nieiiiai iicaa iiaoo auoue ?aciauaiu. Aieaa oi/iie, ii
oaoie/anee neiaeiie iaoiaeeeie yaeyaony ecia?aiea aioo?e/a?aiiiai
aeaaeaiey a aeaeoaei/eao iicaa. Ca ?oaaaeii nouanoaoao ?yae i?eai?ia,
iicaieythuee eiaaceaii e iaeiaaceaii eiio?iee?iaaoue aioo?e/a?aiiia
aeaaeaiea a aeeiaieea (oaiciaeao/eee, aeao/eee aieiiaiai aeaenoaey
naa?oaunieeo e eio?ae?aniuo /anoio).

Aaee/eia aioo?e/a?aiiiai aeaaeaiey ia aeieaeia i?aauoaoue aaee/eio
aaiiciiai. Oaeia i?aauoaiea /?aaaoi aeiee?iaaieai aaiiciiai iooiea.
Aioo?e/a?aiiia aeaaeaiea ia o?iaia 15 ni aiaei. no. oaea iiaeao
i?aauneoue aaiiciia. Aeieaaea aaiiciiai iooiea i?eaaaeao e aeieaaea
i?eoiea e?iae e iicao, iiyoiio iaaei aea?aeaoue ia eiio?iea yoe aeaa
iieacaoaey e ia i?aauoaoue aioo?e/a?aiiia aeaaeaiea. N yoie oeaeueth
eniieuecoaony ?aaeei aeia?aaioeeyoeee e iniioe/aneea aeeo?aoeee.
Iniiaeeo?aoeee iicaieytho ca n/ao ?acieoeu iniioe/aneiai aeaaeaiey
ecaea/ue eeoithth aeeaeeinoue ec iieinoe iicaa e auaanoe /a?ac ii/ee
ecauoie aiaeu [I. Oyiia?, 1991].

Iaiieoie. Aaiaeeony a aeica 1—2 a/ea iannu oaea iaeiie?aoii. Aeey
nicaeaiey ?acieoeu iniioe/aneiai aeaaeaiey e auno?iai inaiaiaeaeaiey
iicaa io ecauoea aiaeu iaiieoie iaiaoiaeeii aaiaeeoue ni nei?inoueth 60
eae/iei.

Aeeoea?ei. Aai iiaeii aaiaeeoue /a?ac ?io (70—200 a a aeaea 50 %
?anoai?a) eee aioo?eaaiii ec ?an/aoa 1—2 ie/ea iannu oaea. N

iiiiuueth aeeoea?eia iiaeii aeiaeoueny nieaeaiey aioo?e/a?aiiiai
aeaaeaiey e oeo/oaiea e?iaioiea a iicaa ia ianeieueei /ania.

A ea/anoaa yooaeoeaiuo niiniaia Iiaeaea?aeaiey e ainnoaiiaeaiey
aioo?eiicaiaiai aiiainoaca eniieuecothony iaaeeeaiaioiciay oa?aiey,
yeno?aei?ii?aeueiua iaoiaeu, eaaioiaia aicaeaenoaea ia nieiiiiicaiaoth
aeeaeeinoue, eioocey iicaa.

Noaia iaaeeeaiaioiciie oa?aiee aieueiuo a iinooa?ieiaeueiii ia?eiaea [A.
A. Aeaenaaaa, 1996]

A ia?aua 3 /ana iino?aaieiaoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea anai aieueiui n oeaeueth
i?ioeeaeoeee iaa?ieiae/aneeo ?anno?ienoa aaiaeyony:

1) aioeieneaeaiou — oieioa?ie 6 ie 30 % ?anoai?a aioo?eiuoa/ii;

2) i?aia?aou, nieaeathuea yia?aaoe/aneea iio?aaiinoe iicaa

— ?aeaieoi 0, 5 % ?anoai? 2 ie,

— oeiiaioae iao?ey 200 ia

3) aioeaa?aaaiou — yooeeeei 2, 4 % ?anoai? 10 ie+ ieeioeiiaay eeneioa 1
% ?anoai? 1 ie ia oeceieiae/aneii ?anoai?a a/a eaiaeueii (eee eiiieaiei,
eaaeioii, o?aioae);

4) iaia?aiinoaaeeecaoi?u — ei?oeeinoa?ieaeu; i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa
iaoeei?aaeiecieii ec ?an/aoa 30 ia/ea iannu oaea, aiethniia aaaaeaiea —
1/4 ?ann/eoaiiie aeicu.

A caaeneiinoe io aeeiaieee ainnoaiiaeaiey ooieoeee oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie
nenoaiu i?iaiaeeony aeaeueiaeoay oa?aiey.

1 a?oiia. N oeaeueth aeiee?iaaiey iaoaaiee/aneie aeoeaiinoe iieacaii
iacia/aiea aioeaa?aaaioia, aioeaeiienaioia e aioeieneaeaioia. Nieaeaiea
iaoaaieecia n iiiiuueth naaeaoeaiuo i?aia?aoia i?iaiaeeony ia
i?ioyaeaiee 2—3 aeiae. A oa/aiea 5 aeiae ?aeiiaiaeoaony eniieueciaaoue
oaeea i?aia?aou, eae aethoaieiiaay eeneioa, eeiinoaaee, n iyoiai aeiy —
aaeiia?eaeie e aioeaeai?annaiou. Ea/aiea iiio?iiaie, aethoaieiiaie
eeneioie, eeiioea?aa?eiii aeey yoie a?oiiu aieueiuo oeaeaniia?acii
i?iaiaeeoue ia i?ioyaeaiee 1 ianyoea.

2 a?oiia. Iieacaii aaaaeaiea oao aea naiuo i?aia?aoia, eioi?ua
iacia/aeenue aeey 1 a?oiiu. Aeiiieieoaeueii iacia/athony ?aieiae/anee
aeoeaiua aauanoaa aeey oeo/oaiey iee?ioee?eoeyoeee (eaaeioii, o?aioae,
eo?aioee). I?aia?aou aaiaeyony aieaa aeeeoaeueii (2 ianyoea).
I?iaiaeeony aeoaieiioa?aiey (10—14 aeiae).

3 a?oiia. N ieie i?aaenoieo i/aiue aeeeoaeueiay eaea?noaaiiay ?aaioa,
oeceioa?aiaaoe/aneea i?ioeaaeo?u. A ino?ii ia?eiaea, eae e aeey ia?auo
aeaoo a?oii, iieacaii aaaaeaiea i?aia?aoia, nieaeathueo yia?aaoe/aneea
iio?aaiinoe iicaa (iieieaeu, yieaoaeeiu, aa?aeoo?aou, i?iiioie,
i?iaaaeaiea iae?i-aaaaoaoeaiie noaaeee-

caoeee e o.i.). A iiaeino?ii ia?eiaea iaiaoiaeeia ioiaia i?aia?aoia,
nieaeathueo yia?aaoe/aneea iio?aaiinoe iicaa, i?iaeieaeaiea ea/aiey
i?aia?aoaie, oneeeaathueie iaoaaiee/aneea i?ioeannu iicaa
(oea?aa?ieecei, ie?aoeaoai; e?aaoeioinoao, einoaiii, iaeii).
I?iaeieaeeoue aaaaeaiea aioeieneaeaioia, aeacaa?aaaioia, eeiinoaaeea,
aeoaieiioa?aiey, ii iieacaieyi — iaia?aiinoaaeeecaoi?ia e
aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?ia.

Yeno?aei?ii?aeueiua iaoiaeu ea/aiey

I?e i?iaaaeaiee oea?aa?aeueiie ?aaieiaoeee n oniaoii eniieuecothony
Yeno?aei?ii?aeueiua iaoiaeu ea/aiey, oaeea eae oeueo?aoeeueo?aoeey
e?iae, oeeueo?aoeey e ni?aoeey nieiiiiicaiaie aeeaeeinoe. Eo
eniieueciaaiea iicaieyao oiaiueoeoue nia?oiinoue io ?aaieiaoeeiiiie
oea?aa?aeueiie iaoieiaee ia 10—18 % [A. E. ?aaeooeaae/, E. A. Ai?aa/aa,
1997].

Iaoiaeu eaaioiaiai aicaeaenoaey

?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea iaeo/aiey e?iae n iiiiuueth i?eai?ia,
aaia?e?othueo ii?aaeaeaiioth aeeeio naaoiaiai iioiea — oeueo?aoeieaoiaue
eee eaca?iue naao. Eaca?iia aicaeaenoaea ia e?iaue iicaieyao aeinoe/ue
oieaa?naeueiiai, iaoe?iiai ea/aaiiai yooaeoa, iioiio /oi e?iaue ?aciineo
yooaeo eaca?iiai eo/a ii anaio i?aaiecio. Aeeeia aieiu i?e iaeo/aiee
e?iae eaca?ii ninoaaeyao 6328 aiano?ai, iiuiinoue 20-10-3 Ao,
yeniiceoeey 20 ieioo. I?ioeaaeo?a i?iaiaeeony aaeaaeiaaii a oa/aiea
ianeieueeeo aeiae. Auai? ninoaea, eniieueciaaiiiai aeey aaaaeaiey
aieiiaiai aeao/eea, ea?aao aoi?inoaiaiioth ?ieue (oae eae e?iaue
yaeyaony aeeaeeei e?enoaeeii).

I/aiue yooaeoeaia eiiaeiaoeey aioo?eea?ioeaeiie eioocee e eaca?iiai
iaeo/aiey e?iae.

Eioocey iicaa

Aeey i?iaaaeaiey eioocee iicaa i?iecaiaeeony eaoaoa?ecaoeey
iiaa?oiinoiie aeni/iie a?oa?ee. Eaoaoa? i?iaiaeeony a noi?iio na?aeoea,
/oiau iiianoue a noaie iauae niiiie a?oa?ee (iia ianao ieiei 70 % iauaia
e?iae, iinooiathuaai e aieiaiiio iicao).

Ia?oo ce-iiiia ioeaaeaeaiea iicaa e?iaicaiaiythuae aeeaeeinoueth

Ia ainieoaeueiii yoaia ia?niaeoeaiui iaoiaeii yaeyaony ia?ooceiiiia
ioeaaeaeaiea aieiaiiai iicaa [A. E. ?aaeooeaae/, 1985]. Iaoiaeeea
caeeth/aaony a nicaeaiee iiaeaee eciee?iaaiiie iacaieiooie ia?oocee
aieiaiiai iicaa e?iaicaiauathueie aeeaeeinoyie, nia?aiiuie a aeaea
?acee/iuo nianae. Ia?aaeeiathony a?oa?eaeueiua e aaiiciua iaaeno?aeueiua
ninoaeu, iaaiaoaaony ia?oocao a ninoaeenooth naoue iicaa, aaea ii
i?ioiaeeo /a?ac eaieeey?ioth naoue, iaania/eaay aeecianiiniaiinoue
iicaa, e, n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo eaoaoa?ia, niae?aaony ec aaiiciuo
eieeaeoi?ia e oaeaeyaony ec i?aaiecia.

Eniieueciaaiea ia?ooceiiiiai ioeaaeaeaiey iicaa e?iaicaiaiythuae
aeeaeeinoueth iicaieyao nio?aieoue aeecianiiniaiinoue eeaoie aieiaiiai
iicaa i?e inoaiiaea e?iaiia?auaiey, e, oai naiui, auea?aoue a?aiy aeey
i?iaaaeaiey oe?o?ae/aneiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa eee ae?oaeo aeecianianathueo
ia?ii?eyoee.

EEOA?AOO?A

1. Aeaenaaaa A. A. Eeeieea, i?ioeeaeoeea e oa?aiey iinoaeiiene/aneeo
yioeaoaeiiaoee. //?aeiiaiaeaoeee. I., 1996.

2. Aaeeaiioein A. Iiaay oaoieea na?aea/iiai iannaaea — oeo/oaao ee iia
enoiae. //Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu aianoaceieiaee e ?aaieiaoieiaee.
Inaaaeathuee eo?n eaeoeee. A?oaiaaeuene—O?iina. 1997. — N. 143—149.

3. Aaneao I. Iiaua aniaeou na?aea/ii-eaai/iie ?aaieiaoeee. /
/Aeooaeueiua aii?inu aianoaceieiaee e ?aaieiaoieiaee. 10 Anaie?iue
eiia?ann aianoaceieiaia (ia?. n aiae.). A?oaiaaeuene, 1993. — N.
260—261.

4. Aiaeuea” A. A., Ieiei N. I.. Ia/a?ia ?. N. e niaao. Ia?ooceiiiay
oa?aiey i?e iaeeaeaiee i?aaiecia. //Iaoa?eaeu Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
Neiiiceoia “?aaieiaoieiaey ia ?oaaaea 21 aaea”. I., 1996. — N. 195—196.

5. Aaneeueaa N. A., TH?ueaa TH. I., Aeaaeaaa X. A. Iaoiaeu ieacaiey
ia?ae/iie ?aaieiaoeeiiiie iiiiue. //Iaoiae ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, Oaoeaio,
1987.

6. Aaee I. X. Ia?aniio? yoaiia na?aea/ii-eaai/iie ?aaieiaoeee:

yoaiu “D” e “N” oaia?ue aeaaainoaotho. //Iaoa?eaeu Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
Neiiiceoia “?aaieiaoieiaey ia ?oaaaea 21 aaea”. — Iineaa, 1996.

—N. 86—89.

7. A?ia? A., Eaaaeea?iAe. Na?aea/ii-eaai/iay ?aaieiaoeey (ia?. n aiae.).

— I., I?aeoeea, 1996.

8. Ao?ae/ I. E. Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu aeaoea?eeeyoeee na?aeoea. I.,
Iaaeeoeeia, 1976.

9. Ao?ae/ A-I.I iaa?ieiae/aneii iaania/aiee ioaeaeaiee ?aaieiaoeee
iauaai i?ioeey, ioaeaeaiee eioaineaiie oa?aiee e ea?aeei?aaieiaoeee.
//Iaoiae ?aeii. I., 1996.

10. Eaaiia A. A., Aino?eeia A. A. Eeeie/aneea aniaeou aiacaiiie
na?aea/iie nia?oe. //Iaoa?eaeu Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai Neiiiceoia
“?aaieiaoieiaey ia ?oaaaea 21 aaea*. I., 1996. — N. 358—362.

11. Eioo?aeeAe. A. Caueoa iicaa. //Aianoaceie. •e ?aieiaoie., 1996.

— ? 2. — N. 81—85.

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