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39

A?OA?EAEUeIAss AEIA?OAICEss

Ana a?oa?eaeueiua aeia?oaicee aeaeyony ia:

1) Aeia?oiie/aneoth aieaciue eee ynnaioeeaeueioth aeia?oiieth (8I%). I?e
yoii iiauoaiea a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey – iniiaiie, eiiaaea aeaaea
aaeeinoaaiiue neiioii caaieaaaiey.

2) Aoi?e/iay eee neiioiiaoe/aneay aeia?oiiey (2I%).

Aeia?oiie/aneay aieaciue aicieeaao /aua anaai a auniei?acaeouo no?aiao e
o ethaeae n iiauoaiiie ineoiyiioeeiiaeueiie iaa?oceie, /oi yaeyaony
i?yiui aeieacaoaeuenoaii aaaeouae ?iee OeIN a ?acaeoee aeia?oiie/aneie
aieacie.

1. Aeeeoaeueiia ineoiyiioeeiiaeueiia iai?yaeaiea e io?eoeaoaeueiua
yiioeee – aaaeouee i?aae?aniieaaathuee oaeoi? aeia?oiie/aneie aieacie.

2. Oaeoi? ianeaaenoaaiiinoe eiaao a?iiaaeiia cia/aiea: /anoioa
caaieaaaaiinoe AA o ianeaaenoaaiii i?aae?aniieiaeaiiuo a 5-6 ?ac
aieueoa. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy auei aeieacaii, /oi ioaaonoaaiiui ca
ianeaaenoaaiiinoue i?e AA yaeyaony ia?ooaiea aeaiiie?iaaiey
eaoaoieaieiia, a /anoiinoe, ii?aae?aiaeeia, /oi, a naith i/a?aaeue,
naycaii n ia?ooaieai niioaaonoaothuae oa?iaioaoeaiie nenoaiu.

3. Aeeiaioa?iue oaeoi? oaeaea ea?aao aieueooth ?ieue: iiauoaiiia
niaea?aeaiea iiaa?aiiie niee, a oii /enea e a ieoueaaie aiaea.

4. Aeeeoaeueiay ieeioeiiaay eioieneeaoeey.

5. Iaeiiiaeaeaeiue ia?ac aeecie, iaee?aiea.

6. O?iie/aneia aeeiaieueiia io?aaeaiea oiaea ea?aao ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue
a yoeieiaee aeia?oiie/aneie aieacie.

N aic?anoii i?ienoiaeeo oaaee/aiea caaieaaaaiinoe AA, iee ianooiaao a
eeeiaeoa?e/aneii ia?eiaea. A yoii neo/aa ia?aaeee neea?ioe/aneea
eciaiaiey a ninoaeao n eoaieae oeaio?ia aeiioaeaiona e aeeno?ioe/aneeie
eciaiaieyie a ieo, /oi ia?ooaao ii?iaeueioth ?aaoeyoeeth e?iaiia?auaiey.
Oaeaea /anoi AA ano?a/aaony o eeoe n o?aaiaie aieiaiiai iicaa a
aiaiiaca, a yoii neo/aa oaeaea i/aaeaeii eiatho ianoi ia?ooaiey ooieoeee
aeiioaeaiona. AA /aua ano?a/aaony o ia?aianoeo caaieaaaiey ii/ae. I?e
ino?uo caaieaaaieyo ii/ae iaaethaeaaony iia?aaeaeaiea e aeaaeue
ii/a/iiai eioa?noeoeey, nieaeaaony au?aaioea eeieiia e i?inoaaeaiaeeiia
– anoanoaaiiuo aeai?anni?iuo nenoai i?aaiecia.

Iniiaiuie aaiiaeeiaie/aneeie oaeoi?aie yaeythony ieiooiue iauai e iauaa
ia?eoa?e/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea ninoaeia, caaenyuaa io a?oa?eie.

Nenoaia e?iaiia?auaiey aeeth/aao na?aeoea, ninoaeu, oeaio?aeueiue
iae?i?aaoeyoi?iue aiia?ao nenoaiu e?iaiia?auaiey.

Ieiooiue iauai caaeneo io neeu e /anoiou na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee, iauaa
ia?eoa?e/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea ninoaeia caaeneo io oiiona a?oa?eie. I?e
iiauoaiee oiiona ?acei aic?anoaao aaiiciue aica?ao e?iae e na?aeoeo, /oi
oaeaea neacuaaaony ia aai ieiooiii iauaia. I?e oaaee/aiee ?aaiou
na?aeoea (aaa, aieiaiea) ieiooiue iauai oaaee/eaaaony a ianeieueei ?ac,
ii a oi aea a?aiy ia?eoa?e/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea cia/eoaeueii nieaeaaony,
e n?aaeiaa aaiiaeeiaie/aneia aeaaeaiea inoaaony iaeciaiiui. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy oi?ioi ecaanoiu aaiiaeeiaie/aneea naeaeae AAe i?e AA:

1) A ia/aeueiuo noaaeeyo oaaee/eaaaony ieiooiue iauai eee na?aea/iue
aua?in, a iauaa ia?eoa?e/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea inoaaony ia i?aaeiai
o?iaia; ionthaea i?ienoiaeeo oaaee/aiea AAe. Oaeie oei eciaiaiey
aaiiaeeiaieee iineo iacaaiea aeia?eeiaoe/aneiai.

2) A iineaaeothuai ana aieueoaa cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao iiauoaiea iauaai
ia?eoa?e/aneiai nii?ioeaeaiey, a na?aea/iue aua?in inoaaony ii?iaeueiui
– yoeeiaoe/aneee oei.

3) A aeaeueiaeoai, a aeaeaei caoaaeoae noaaeee i?ienoiaeeo ?aceia
oaaee/aiea ia?eoa?e/aneiai nii?ioeaeaiey ia oiia oiaiueoaiiiai
na?aea/iiai aua?ina. Yoio oei iacuaaaony aeiieeiaoe/aneei.

Oaeei ia?acii, n aaiiaeeiaie/aneie noi?iiu AA iaiaeii?iaeia e iiaeao
auoue i?aaenoaaeaia o?aiy oeiaie.

Niaeanii oai?ee Eaiaa, ia?ae/iia cia/aiea eiatho ia?ooaiea ooieoeee ei?u
aieiaiiai iicaa e oeaio?ia aeiioaeaiona. Yoa oai?ey oioy e aace?iaaeanue
ia eeeie/aneeo aeaiiuo, a aieueoae noaiaie auea aeiioaoe/aneie. A
iineaaeothuea aiaeu i?e yenia?eiaioa i?e ?acae?aaeaiee aei?naeueiiai
yae?a aeiioaeaiona aucuaaeanue nenoiee/aneay aeia?oiiey, a i?e
?acae?aaeaiee oeaio?aeueiiai yae?a – aeeanoiee/aneay. ?acae?aaeaiea
“yiioeeiiaeueiuo oeaio?ia” ei?u oiaea i?eaiaeeei e aeia?oiie/aneie
?aaeoeee. Eaia n/eoae, /oi a iniiaa aeia?oiiee eaaeeo naiaia?aciue
ninoaeenoue iaa?ic – ia?ooaiea ?aoeei?ieaoiuo ioiioaiee ei?u e
iiaeei?ee, eioi?ue ni a?aiaiai iaycaoaeueii i?eaiaeeo e aeoeaaoeee
neiiaoe/aneie ia?aiie nenoaiu. Aieueiua AA ?acae?aaeeoaeueiu,
aeia??aoeaeoi?iu. N iiyaeaieai aeioeie/aneeo iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey
eaoaoieaieiia auei iaia?oaeaii, /oi iaiai e yene?aoeey eaoaoieaieiia a
e?iae o aieueiuo AA inoathony a ii?ia eee /ooue iiauoaiu, e eeoue
iicaeiaa auei aeieacaii ia?ooaiea eo aeaiiie?iaaiey. Neiiaoe/aneea
ia?aiua ieii/aiey eiatho ooieuaiey n aeaii ii?aae?aiaeeia. Anee aieieii
aicaoaeaeaoue, inaiaiaeaeathueeny i?e yoii ii?aae?aiaeei aicaoaeaeaao
aeueoa-?aoeaioi?u, iiauoay neiiaoe/aneoth aeoeaiinoue niioaaonoaothuae
nenoaiu. Iniaaiii aiaaoi niaaaeaiu aeueoa-?aoeaioi?aie a?oa?eieu e
aaioeu. Iaoaieci eiaeoeaaoeee a ii?ia neeaaeuaaaony ec:

a) 1I% ?ac?ooaaony n iiiiuue. oa?iaioa ieneiaoeeo?ainoa?acu;

a) ia?aoiue o?ainii?o /a?ac iaia?aio.

A iaoieiaee auaeaeaiea iaaeeaoi?a inoaaony a ii?ia, i?e ia?ooaiee aai
aeaiiie?iaaiey eaoaoieaieiu aeaenoaotho ia o?iaia ?aoeaioi?ia aieaa
aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy e aucuaatho aieaa aeeeoaeueiua aeia?oaiceaiua
?aaeoeee. Iiauoaaony aeoeaiinoue neiiaoe/aneie ia?aiie nenoaiu, aieaa
aeeeoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea eaoaoieaieiia ia o?iaia aaioe i?eaiaeeo e
oneeaieth aaiiciiai aica?aoa e na?aeoeo (niaci aaioe), oneeeaaaony
?aaioa na?aeoea, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oaaee/eaaaony e aai ieiooiue iauai.
Ii?aae?aiaeei aeaenoaoao iaeiia?aiaiii e ia aeueoa-?aoeaioi?u a?oa?eie,
oaaee/eaay oai naiui iauaa ia?eoa?e/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea.
Aeueoa-?aoeaioi?aie aiaaoi niaaaeaiu e ii/a/iua ninoaeu, a ?acoeueoaoa
eo niacia n iineaaeothuae eoaieae ii/ee aicaoaeaeathony ?aoeaioi?u
thenoaaeiia?oey?iiai aiia?aoa, eeaoee eioi?iai au?aaaouaatho ?aiei.
Neaaenoaeai yoiai yaeyaony iiauoaiea o?iaiy ?aieia a e?iae. Nai ?aiei
ai?iiiaeueii iaei aeoeaai, ii /a?ac nenoaiu aiaeioaiceia i?eaiaeeo e:

1) Iiauoaieth oiiona a?oa?eie (neeueiaa e aeeeoaeueiaa ii?aae?aiaeeia).

2) Oaaee/aieth ?aaiou na?aeoea (eiee/anoai aiaeioaiceia II iiieaeaaony
i?e ea?aeeiaaiiii eieeaina).

3) Noeioee?iaaie. neiiaoe/aneie aeoeaiinoe.

4) Aiaeioaicei II yaeyaony iaeiei ec naiuo iiuiuo noeioeyoi?ia
auaeaeaiey aeueaeinoa?iia.

Aeaeaa aeeth/aaony iaoaieci ?aiei-aeueaeinoa?ii, ii ia?a /aai
i?ienoiaeeo aua aieueoay ia?ano?ieea: aeueaeinoa?ii oneeeaaao ia?aoiia
ananuaaiea iao?ey e aiaeu a ii/a/iuo eaiaeueoeao, i?ienoiaeeo ianneaiia
aioo?eeeaoi/iia oaaee/aiea niaea?aeaiey iao?ey e aiaeu. Aioo?eeeaoi/iia
oaaee/aiea niaea?aeaiey iao?ey e aiaeu i?ienoiaeeo oaeaea e a noaieao
ninoaeia, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ninoaeenoay noaiea iaaooaao (ioaeaao),
i?inaao aa noaeeaaaony e oaaee/eaaaony ?aaeoeaiinoue ia aaciaeoeaiua
aauanoaa, a /anoiinoe, e ii?aae?aiaeeio, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
i?eniaaeeiyaony niaci ninoaeia, /oi a eiiieaena i?eaiaeeo e ?aceiio
oaaee/aieth ia?eoa?e/aneiai nii?ioeaeaiey. Iiauoaaony aeoeaiinoue, e
oneeaiii auaeaeyaony aioeaeeo?aoe/aneee ai?iii, iiae aeeyieai eioi?iai
aua aieueoa oaaee/eaaaony ?aaani?aoeey iao?ey e aiaeu, oaaee/eaaaony
iauai oee?eoee?othuae e?iae (IOeE), oneeeaaaony ieiooiue iueuai
na?aeoea.

Anoanoaaiiua aeiioaiceaiua (aeai?anni?iua) caueoiua nenoaiu:

a) Nenoaia aa?i?aoeaioi?ia (?aaae?oao ia ?anoyaeaiea i?e oaaee/aiee AAe)
a ea?ioeaeiii neiona e a aeoaa ai?ou. I?e AA i?ienoiaeeo ia?ano?ieea
aa?i?aoeaioi?ia ia iiaue, aieaa aunieee e?eoe/aneee o?iaaiue AAe, i?e
eioi?ii iie n?aaaouaatho, oi anoue nieaeaaony eo /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e
iiauoaieth AAe. N yoei oaeaea, aiciiaeii, naycaii iiauoaiea aeoeaiinoe
aioeaeeo?aoe/aneiai ai?iiia.

a) Nenoaia eeieiia e i?inoaaeaiaeeiia (iniaaiii i?inoaaeaiaeeiia “A” e
“A”, eioi?ua au?aaaouaathony a eioa?noeoeeaeueiie oeaie ii/ae). A ii?ia
i?e iiauoaiee AAe auoa e?eoe/aneiai o?iaiy oneeeaaaony au?aaioea eeieiia
e i?inoaaeaiaeeiia e n?aaaouaatho aa?i?aoeaioi?u aeoae ai?ou e
neiiea?ioeaeiie ciiu, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai aeaaeaiea auno?i ii?iaeecoaony.
I?e AA yoio caueoiue iaoaieci ia?ooai. Aeaenoaea eeieiia e
i?inoaaeaiaeeiia: oneeaiea ii/a/iiai e?iaioiea, oneeaiea aeeo?aca,
oneeaiea iao?ee-o?aca. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iie yaeythony eaeaaeueiuie
naeo?aoeeaie. Ii ia?a i?ia?anne?iaaiey caaieaaaiey yoe caueoiua nenoaiu
enoiuathony, iiaeiao iao?ee-o?ac, iao?ee caaea?aeeaaaony a i?aaiecia,
/oi a eiia/iii eoiaa aaaeao e iiauoaieth aeaaeaiey.

Oueae, a e?aoeii aeaea iaoiaaiac AA i?aaenoaaeyaony neaaeothuei ia?acii:
iiae aeeyieai aeeeoaeueiiai ineoiyiioeeiiaeueiiai iai?yaeaiey o eeoe n
ioyaiuaiiie ianeaaenoaaiiinoueth, n iiauoaiiie aeoeaiinoueth
aeiioaeaie/aneeo oeaio?ia oaaee/eaaaony oiion neiiaoe/aneie nenoaiu, /oi
a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie naycaii n ia?ooaieai aeaiiie?iaaiey
eaoaoieaieiia, i?ienoiaeeo ia?ooaiea aaiiaeeiaieee i?aeiouanoaaiii ii
aeia?eeiaoe/aneiio oeio e?iaiia?auaiey, aicieeaao eaaeeueiay
a?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oaicey ca n/ao iiauoaiiiai ieiooiiai iauaia, caoai
ana aieueoaa cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao ia?ooaiea aiaeii-nieaaiai ?aaiiaaney,
oaaee/eaaaony niaea?aeaiea iao?ey a ninoaeenoie noaiea, iiyaeythony
ia?ooaiey ii aeiieeiaoe/aneiio oeio e?iaiia?auaiey. No?aaeaao aeaaiui
ia?acii ia?eoa?e/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea.

E?iia iauai?eiyoie, nouanoaotho aua aeaa oai?ee yoeiiaoiaaiaca
aeia?oiie/aneie aieacie:

1) Iicae/iay oai?ey Iaeaeaea, niaeanii eioi?ie iaeei
yoeiiaoiaaiaoe/aneee oaeoi? ia iiaeao aucaaoue AA, aaaeia oieueei
niaieoiiinoue oaeoi?ia.

2) Oai?ey iaia?aiiie iaoieiaee: a iniiaa AA eaaeeo ia?ooaiea
i?iieoeaaiinoe eeaoi/iuo iaia?ai aeey iao?ey. Anoue i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi
ianeaaeoaony e yoio oei iaia?aiiie iaoieiaee.

Eeeieea:

A ia/aeueiuo noaaeeyo caaieaaaiey eeeieea au?aaeaia ia y?ei, aieueiie
aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy iiaeao ia ciaoue i iiauoaiee AAe. Iaeiaei oaea a yoio
ia?eiae anoue au?aaeaiiua a oie eee eiie noaiaie oaeea ianiaoeeoe/aneea
aeaeiau, eae auno?ay ooiieyaiinoue, ?acae?aaeeoaeueiinoue, nieaeaiea
?aaioiniiniaiinoe, neaainoue, aanniieoea, aieiaie?oaeaiea e o.ae. E
eiaiii n yoeie aeaeiaaie /aua anaai aieueiie aia?aua ia?auaaony e a?a/o.

a) Aieiaiua aiee: /aua anaai caouei/iie e aeni/iie eieaeecaoeee; ii
oo?ai “oyaeaeay aieiaa” eee e eiioeo ?aai/aai aeiy. Iau/ii aiee
oneeeaathony a ai?eciioaeueiii iieiaeaiee e ineaaaaatho iinea oiaeueau.
Iau/ii oaeea aiee naycaiu n eciaiaieai oiiona a?oa?eie e aai. *anoi aiee
nii?iaiaeaeathony aieiaie?oaeaieai e ooiii a ooao.

a) Aiee a iaeanoe na?aeoea: oae eae iiauoaiea AAe naycaii n oneeaieai
?aaiou na?aeoea (aeey i?aiaeieaiey aic?inoaai nii?ioeaeaiey), oi
eiiiainaoi?ii aicieeaao aeia?o?ioey ieiea?aea. A ?acoeueoaoa aeia?o?ioee
aicieeaao aeennioeeaoeey iaaeaeo iio?aaiinoyie e aiciiaeiinoyie
ieiea?aea, /oi eeeie/anee i?iyaeyaony EAN ii oeio noaiiea?aeee. *anoi
yoi iaaethaeaaony i?e AA a noa?/aneii aic?anoa. Iiieii
noaiiea?aeeoe/aneeo, aiee a na?aeoea iiaoo auoue ii oeio ea?aeeaeaee –
aeeeoaeueiua ooiua aiee a iaeanoe aa?oooee na?aeoea.

a) Iaeueeaiea iooae ia?aae aeacaie, iaeaia, iaeueeaiea iieiee e ae?oaea
oioiiee. I?ienoiaeaeaiea eo naycaii ni niaciii a?oa?eie nao/aoee. I?e
ceiea/anoaaiiie AA iiaoo iaaethaeaoueny e?iaieceeyiey a nao/aoeo, /oi
aaaeao e iieiie iioa?a c?aiey.

a) AA – naiaia?aciue ninoaeenoue iaa?ic. I?enoonoaotho neiioiiu
ia?ooaiey OeIN, eioi?ua iiaoo, iai?eia?, i?iyaeyoueny
inaaaeiiaa?ioe/aneei neiae?iiii – auno?ay ooiieyaiinoue, nieaeaiea
?aaioiniiniaiinoe, ineaaeaiea iaiyoe, ioia/athony yaeaiey
?acae?aaeeoaeueiinoe, neaainoe, aooaeoeaiay eaaeeueiinoue, i?aiaeaaeaiea
o?aaiaeiuo iano?iaiee e eiioiiae?e/aneeo iianaiee, eiiaaea iie iiaoo
i?eia?aoaoue, iniaaiii iinea e?ecia, oiae/aneee oa?aeoa?. *anoi
oeacaiiua auoa yaeaiey i?iyaeythony i?e eciaiaiee o?iaiy AAe, ii auaatho
aeaeaei ia o anao aieueiuo – iiiaea ia eniuouaatho aiiaua ieeaeeo
iai?eyoiuo iuouaiee e a?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oaicey iaia?oaeeaaaony
neo/aeii. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy eniieuecotho ii/oe iiaieiaiia ianeaaeiaaiea
ianaeaiey ia i?aaeiao oaaee/aiey AAe – ne?eieia-iaoiae.

Iaoiaeeea ecia?aiey AAe: Eniieuecotho iaoiae Ei?ioeiaa. I?e yoii eiaao
ianoi aeia?aeeaaiinoeea. AAe ?aeiiaiaeoaony ecia?youe iaoiuae e a
iieiaeaiee eaaea, oae iacuaaaiia aacaeueiia aeaaeaiea. Neo/aeii
ecia?aiiia AAe iiaeao auoue cia/eoaeueii auoa aacaeueiiai. AAe
iaiaoiaeeii ecia?youe o?eaeaeu, enoeiiui n/eoaaony ieieiaeueiia AAe.

Ii?iaoeau AIC: Aei 14I/9I ii ?o.no. – ii?ia; 14I-16I/9I-

95 ii ?o.no. – iianiay ciia; 16I/95 e auoa – a?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oiiey.

Aieueiua n AAe a i?aaeaeao iianiie ciiu aeieaeiu iaoiaeeoueny ia
aeeniaina?iii iaaethaeaiee. I?eia?ii 7I% ethaeae iianiie ciiu AAe
i?aeoe/anee caei?iau, ii o?iaaiue AAe o?aaoao iinoiyiiiai iaaethaeaiey.

Iauaeoeaii:

1) Iiauoaiea AAe.

2) I?eciaee aeia?o?ioee eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea: oneeaiea aa?oooa/iiai
oie/ea, aeoeaio II oiia ia ai?oa.

3) Iai?yaeaiiue ioeuen, o aieueiuo n aeia?eeiaoe/aneei oeiii –
oaoeea?aeey, o iiaeeeuo aieueiuo /aua a?aaeeea?aeey.

Iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeyoue ioeuen e aeaaeaiea ia /aou?ao eiia/iinoyo. A
ii?ia aeaaeaiea ia iiaao auoa, /ai ia ?oeao, ii ?acieoea ia aieaa 15-2I
ii ?o.no. Oaeay aea caeiiiia?iinoue iaaethaeaaony e i?e aeia?oiie/aneie
aieacie, oae eae eaeea? ninoaeia ia iiaao auoa.

Aeiiieieoaeueiua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey

1) I?eciaee aeia?o?ioee eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea:

a) ii aeaiiui YEA;

a) ?aioaaiieiaeo/anee: ie?oaeay aa?oooea na?aeoea, oaaee/aiea aeoae
eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea.

2) Iooaeueiieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea: ninoiyiea a?oa?eie e aaioe
aeaciiai aeia – yoi aaeeinoaaiiay aiciiaeiinoue oaeaeaoue ninoaeu,
“aeceoiay ea?oi/ea” aeia?oiieea. Auaeaeytho 3 (o ian) eee 4 noaaeee
eciaiaiey aeaciiai aeia:

1) Aeia?oiie/aneay aiaeiiaoey: oiion a?oa?eie ?acei iiauoai, i?inaao
noaeai (neiioii “i?iaieiee”), oiion aaioe nieaeai, i?inaao oaaee/ai. Ii
Eaeno auaeaeytho aeiiieieoaeueii aua 2 iiaenoaaeee:

a) eciaiaiey au?aaeaiu ia ?acei;

a) eciaiaiey oa aea, ii ?acei au?aaeaiu.

2) Aeia?oiie/aneay aiaei?aoeiiiaoey: aeaaaia?aoeaiua eciaiaiey a
nao/aoea + e?iaieceeyiey a nao/aoeo.

3) Aeia?oiie/aneay iae?i?aoeiiiaoey: a iaoieiae/aneee i?ioeann
aiaeaeaaony ninie c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa (ioae + aeaaaia?aoeaiua eciaiaiey).

I?eiyoi auaeaeyoue aeaa oi?iu oa/aiey AA:

1. Iaaeeaiiia oa/aiea, iinoaiaiiia ?acaeoea iaoieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia,
caaieaaaiea oa/ao n?aaieoaeueii aeia?iea/anoaaiii, neiioiiu ia?anoatho
iinoaiaiii, a oa/aiea 2I-3I eao. *aua anaai i?eoiaeeony eiaoue aeaei
eiaiii n oaeeie aieueiuie.

2. A ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo iaaethaeaaony ceiea/anoaaiiia oa/aiea AA; oaeay
oi?ia iaaethaeaeanue ai a?aiy Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu, iniaaiii a
aeieaaeiii Eaieia?aaea. Ii ?aciui aeaiiui nae/an ninoaaeyao I,25-I,5%.
I?e yoii iaoiaeyo aunieoth aeoeaiinoue ?aiei-aiaeioaiceiiaie nenoaiu +
aunieia niaea?aeaiea aeueaeinoa?iia a nuai?ioea e?iae. Aunieay
aeoeaiinoue aeueaeinoa?iia aaaeao e auno?iio iaeiieaieth iao?ey e aiaeu
a noaiea ninoaeia, auno?i i?ienoiaeeo aeaeeiic. Ionthaea auoaeatho
e?eoa?ee ceiea/anoaaiiinoe aeaiiie oi?iu oa/aiey AA: AAe, i?iyaeaoenue
aunieei (aieaa 16I ii ?o.no.), inoaaony ia aunieii o?iaia, aac
oaiaeaioeee e nieaeaieth; iayooaeoeaiinoue aeiioaiceaiie oa?aiee;
iae?i?aoeiiiaoey; oyaeaeua ninoaeenoua ineiaeiaiey: ?aiiea einoeueou,
eioa?eo ieiea?aea, ii/a/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue; auno?ia i?ia?anne?othuaa
oa/aiea, nia?oue io ii/a/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe eee einoeueoa /a?ac 1,5-2
aiaea.

Eeanneoeeaoeey AA

Ia?aay eeanneoeeaoeey auea i?aaeeiaeaia Eaiaii:

1) Iae?iaaiiay noaaeey (eaaeeueiia AAe).

2) Ia?aoiaeiay noaaeey (noaaeeecaoeey AAe, aiaea/aiea aioo?aiieo
i?aaiia).

3) Iao?iaaiiay noaaeey (iao?ieiae/aneay iaoieiaey, iao?ineea?ic).

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi i?e AA ii?aaeathony ninoaeu anao iaeanoae, a
eeeie/aneie neiioiiaoeea i?aiaeaaeatho iau/ii i?eciaee i?aeiouanoaaiiiai
ii?aaeaiey aieiaiiai iicaa, na?aeoea eee ii/ae, ia iniiaa /aai
A.E.Oa?aaa auaeaeee o?e oi?iu AA:

1) oea?aa?aeueiay,

2) ea?aeeaeueiay,

3) ii/a/iay.

Eeanneoeeaoeey ii noaaeeyi e oacai A.E.Iynieeiaa, i?eiyoay Ananithciie
eiioa?aioeeae oa?aiaaoia a 1951 a.:

I noaaeey. AAe eaaeeueiia e iiauoaaony i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo neooaoeeyo. “A”
– AAe iiauoaaony oieueei a /?acau/aeiuo no?anni?iuo neooaoeeyo. Yoi
aeia??aaeoi?u, i?aeoe/anee caei?iau, ii iiauoaia oa?ica caaieaaaiey.
“A” – AAe iiauoaaony e a iau/iuo neooaoeeyo: e eiioeo ?aai/aai aeiy, i?e
iau/iie oece/aneie iaa?ocea; ii ai a?aiy ioaeuoa naiinoiyoaeueii
ii?iaeecoaony.

II noaaeey. A?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oaicey i?eieiaao iinoiyiiue oa?aeoa?,
ioaeuoa aeey ii?iaeecaoeee AAe oaea iaaeinoaoi/ii. “A” – AAe i?aeoe/anee
anaaaea iiauoaii, ii ana-oaee iiaeao eiaoue ianoi niiioaiiay
ii?iaeecaoeey aeaaeaiey i?e aeeeoaeueiii ioaeuoa. A yoie noaaeee
aiciiaeiu e?ecu, iiyaeythony noauaeoeaiua iuouaiey, iiyaeythony
i?aaie/aneea eciaiaiey: aeia?o?ioey eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea,
aiaei?aoeiiiaoey. “A” – noieeia iiauoaiea AAe, i?iecioea noaaeeecaoeey.
Niiioaiiay ii?iaeecaoeey AAe iaaiciiaeia, aeey nieaeaiey AAe iaiaoiaeeia
aeiioaiceaiay oa?aiey. Eiaao ianoi cia/eoaeueiay aeia?o?ioey eaaiai
aeaeoaei/ea e aeia?oiie/aneay aiaei?aoeiiiaoey, eciaiaiey aioo?aiieo
i?aaiia, /aua ii oeio aeeno?ioee, ii aac ia?ooaiey eo ooieoeee.

III noaaeey. Iiieii iiauoaiey AAe, anoue neiioiiu ia?ooaiey
e?iaiia?auaiey aioo?aiieo i?aaiia, eioa?eo ieiea?aea, ia?ooaiey
iicaiaiai e?iaiia?auaiey, oyaeaeua ia?ooaiey c?aiey, iao?ineea?ic. “A”
– ianiio?y ia i?aaie/aneea eciaiaiey aioo?aiieo i?aaiia, iao oyaeaeuo
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ?anno?ienoa, aieueiie iiaeao nio?aiyoue
o?oaeiniiniaiinoue. “A” – ?acei ia?ooaaony ooieoeey no?aaeathuaai
i?aaia, i?ienoiaeeo eiaaeeaeecaoeey aieueiiai.

Iaaeinoaoee aeaiiie eeanneoeeaoeee: a IA noaaeeth aeeth/aiu
aeia??aaeoeaiua ethaee, ?aaae?othuea iiauoaiea AAe a i?aaeaeao iianiie
ciiu. Iiiai/eneaiiua enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi 7I% oaeeo ethaeae ia
caaieaaatho AA. E?iia yoiai, a III noaaeee anoue ia?aeeaeeci iaaeaeo AA
e aoa?ineea?icii, iiyoiio aeey aieueiuo iieiaeiai aic?anoa oaeia
aeaeaiea i?aaiia?ii, ii anee AA aicieeaao a iiaeeeii aic?anoa, o.a. i?e
iaee/ee aoa?ineea?ica, oi i/aiue auno?i, /a?ac aiae, iiyaeyaony eioa?eo
ieiea?aea eee ae?oaea oyaeaeua ia?ooaiey, oaeei ia?acii, aieueiie n?aco
iiiaaeaao a III noaaeeth, ieioy i?aaeoanoaothuea. A oaeii neo/aa,
eeanneoeeaoeey a aieueoae noaiaie io?aaeaao ?acaeoea aoa?ineea?ica, /ai
AA.

A 1972 a. iaia?oaeeee ia?aeeaeeci iaaeaeo eeeie/aneeie i?iyaeaieyie AA e
o?iaiai ?aieia a ieacia; ia iniiaa yoiai auei i?aaeeiaeaii aeaeeoue AA
ia:

1) ii?ii?aieiiaoth,

2) aeii?aieiiaoth,

3) aeia??aieiiaoth.

Ii ia i?aeoeea ieacaeinue, /oi aeaeaei ia anaaaea anoue ia?aeeaeeci
iaaeaeo aeoeaiinoueth ?aieia ieaciu e o?iaiai AAe.

Ii iniaaiiinoyi aaiiaeeiaieee AA aeaeyo ia neaaeothuea oi?iu:

1) aeia?eeiaoe/aneoth,

2) yoeeiaoe/aneoth,

3) aeiieeiaoe/aneoth.

Oaeaea ?ani?ino?aiaia eeanneoeeaoeey ii o?iaith AAe:

I noaaeey. Iia?aie/iay aeia?oaicey. 14I-16I/9I-95 ii ?o.no.

II noaaeey. Eaaeeueiay aeia?oaicey, AAe eieaaeaony a ?aciuo i?aaeaeao,
ia?eiaee/anee naiinoiyoaeueii ii?iaeecoaony.

III noaaeey. Noaaeeueiay a?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oaicey, AAe iinoiyiii
aea?aeeony ia aunieii o?iaia.

Ineiaeiaiey AA:

1. Aeia?oiie/aneee e?ec aicieeaao i?e aiacaiiii ?aceii iiauoaiee AAe n
iaycaoaeueiui i?enoonoaeai oyaeaeuo noauaeoeaiuo ?anno?ienoa. Auaeaeytho
aeaa oeia e?ecia:

a) Aae?aiaeeiiaue – naycai n aua?inii a e?iaue aae?aiaeeia, oa?aeoa?ii
?aceia ia?anoaiea AAe, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ianeieueei /ania, eiiaaea
ieioo. Aieaa oa?aeoa?ai aeey ?aiieo noaaeee AA. Eeeie/anee i?iyaeyaony
iau/ii ae?iaeueth, na?aeoeaaeaieai, aieiaiie aieueth. Iiauoaiea AAe
iau/ii iaaaeeei.

a) Ii?aae?aiaeeiiaue – ano?a/aaony i?aeiouanoaaiii a iicaeieo noaaeeyo
AA, i?iaeieaeaaony io ianeieueeeo /ania aei ianeieueeeo nooie; AAe
ia?anoaao aieaa iaaeeaiii, ii aeinoeaaao aunieeo cia/aiee. Oa?aeoa?ia
y?eay eeeieea: aaaaoaoeaiua ?anno?ienoaa, ia?ooaiey c?aiey, neeueiaeoay
aieiaiay aieue. Eiiaaea e?ecu yoiai oeia iacuaatho aeia?oiie/aneie
yioeaoaeiiaoeae.

Aeia?oiie/aneea e?ecu ia?aaeei i?iaioee?othony:

1) Eciaiaieai iaoai?ieiae/aneeo oneiaee.

2) Eciaiaieai ooieoeee aeaeac aioo?aiiae nae?aoeee.

3) Iaeiaei /aua anaai e?ec auaaao naycai n ineoiyiioeeiiaeueiie o?aaiie.
Oa?aeoa?ia neeueiaeoay aieiaiay aieue, aieiaie?oaeaiea, oioiioa, ?aioa,
eiiaaea iioa?y niciaiey, ia?ooaiea c?aiey, aieioue aei e?aoeia?aiaiiie
i?aoiaeyuae neaiiou: ineoe/aneea ia?ooaiey, aaeeiaiey. I?iyaeaiey ni
noi?iiu OeIN iaoneiaeaiu ioaeii iicaa, iaoiaaiac eioi?iai
i?aaenoaaeyaony neaaeothuei ia?acii: niaci iicaiauo ninoaeia —>
ia?ooaiea i?iiaeoeaaiinoe —> i?ina/eaaiea ieaciu e?iae a iicaiaia
aauanoai —> ioae iicaa. Iiaoo auoue i/aaiaua ia?ooaiey iicaiaiai
e?iaiia?aciaaiey, aaaeouea e aaieia?acai. A ia/aeueiie noaaeee
caaieaaaiey e?ecu, eae i?aaeei, e?aoeia?aiaiiu, i?ioaeatho aieaa eaaei.
Ai a?aiy e?eca iiaoo ?acaeoueny ia?ooaiey iicaiaiai e?iaiia?auaiey
aeeiaie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a n i?aoiaeyuae i/aaiaie neiioiiaoeeie,
e?iaieceeyiea a nao/aoeo e aa ioneieea, iicaiaie einoeueo, ino?ue ioae
eaaeeo, na?aea/iay anoia e ino?ay eaaiaeaeoaei/eiaay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue,
noaiiea?aeey, eioa?eo ieiea?aea, EAN ni anaie eeeie/aneeie i?iyaeaieyie.
AA – iaeei ec iniiaiuo oaeoi?ia ?enea ?acaeoey EAN.

Ia?ooaiea c?aiey naycaii n ?acaeoeai aiaei- e ?aoeiiiaoee, n
e?iaieceeyieai a nao/aoeo, aa ioneieeie n o?iiaicii oeaio?aeueiie
a?oa?ee.

I?e ia?ooaiee iicaiaiai e?iaiia?auaiey iaoaieciu ?aciua, /aua anaai
ia?aciaaiea iee?iaiaa?eciu n iineaaeothuei ?ac?uaii, oi anoue ii oeio
aaii??aae/aneiai einoeueoa, eiaaea o?iiaic iicaiauo ninoaeia eee
eoaie/aneee einoeueo; enoiae – ia?aee/ e ia?acu. Iao?ineea?ic n
?acaeoeai ii/a/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe. N?aaieoaeueii ?aaeeia ineiaeiaiea
AA, /aua – i?e ceiea/anoaaiiie oi?ia oa/aiey.

?anneaeaathuay aiaa?ecia ai?ou. Noaa?aoiieaeaeueiia e?iaieceeyiea.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic:

Aeeaaiic AA aeieaeai noaaeoueny oieueei i?e eneeth/aiee aoi?e/iie
neiioiiaoe/aneie aeia?oaicee, ii yoi /anoi auaaao aanueia neiaeiie
caaea/ae. Eeoea ni aoi?e/iie aeia?oaiceae ninoaaeytho ieiei 1I%, a a
aic?anoiie a?oiia aei 35 eao – 25%. Aoi?e/iua aeia?oaicee aeaeyony ia:

1) Aeia?oiiee ii/a/iiai aaiaca; ano?a/athony iaeaieaa /anoi.

2) A?oa?eaeueiua aeia?oaicee yiaeie?eiiiai aaiaca.

3) Aaiiaeeiaie/aneea a?oa?eaeueiua aeia?oiiee.

4) Aeia?oaicee i?e ii?aaeaiee aieiaiiai iicaa (oae iacuaaaiua
oeaio?iaaiiua aeia?oiiee).

5) I?i/ea: iaaeeeaiaioiciua, i?e iieeiaa?eoa e o.ae.

I. Aeia?oiiee ii/a/iiai aaiaca

a) I?e o?iie/aneii aeeooociii aeiia?oeiiao?eoa; a aiaiiaca /anoi
oeacaiea ia ii/a/ioth iaoieiaeth, n naiiai ia/aea anoue oioue
ieieiaeueiua eciaiaiey ni noi?iiu ii/e – iaaieueoay aaiao?ey,
i?ioaeio?ey, oeeeeiae?o?ey. I?e AA oaeea eciaiaiey auaatho oieueei a
aeaeaei caoaaeoeo noaaeeyo. AAe noaaeeueiia, iiaeao ia auoue iniaaiii
aunieei, e?ecu ?aaeee. Iiiiaaao aeiiney ii/ae.

a) I?e o?iie/aneii ieaeiiao?eoa: caaieaaaiea aaeoa?eaeueiie i?e?iaeu,
anoue i?eciaee eioaeoeee. Aeeco?e/aneea ?anno?ienoaa. A aiaiiaca –
oeacaiea ia ino?ia ainiaeaiea n iciiaaie, eeoi?aaeeie, aieyie a
iiynieoea, eiiaaea ii/a/iay eieeea. I?e ieaeiiao?eoa no?aaeaao
eiioeaio?aoeeiiiay ooieoeey ii/ae (ii oieueei i?e 2-o noi?iiiai
ii?aaeaiee), aicieeaao ?aiiyy aeaaeaea e iieeo?ey. Ia?aaeei iieiaeeoaeai
n-i iieiea/eaaiey ii iiynieoea. A aiaeeca ii/e eaeeioeeoo?ey, iaaieueoay
eee oia?aiiay i?ioaeio?ey. I?iaa Ia/eii?aiei – eiee/anoai eaeeioeeoia a
1 ie ii/e; a ii?ia – aei 4III. Ii?aaeaeaiiia cia/aiea eiaao iinaa ii/e –
auyaeyaony aieueoia eiee/anoai eieiiee. Iiaeao eiaoue ianoi aaeoa?eo?ey.
Ii/o iaiaoiaeeii nayoue iaiaeiie?aoii, o.e. aia iaino?aiey eiee/anoai
eieiiee iiaeao auoue iaaieueoei, ii iie iinoiyiiu (i?eciae iinoiyinoaa
eieiiee). I?e iinoaiiaea i?iau Ceiieoeeiai: aeii e ecinoaio?ey. Eiiaaea
i?e auyaeaiee aaeoa?eo?ee i?eaaaatho e i?iaieaoeeiiiui oanoai:
ie?iaaiaeeiaiio eee e i?iaa n i?aaeiecieiiii a/a, aeaeaa i?iaiaeyo
i?iao Ia/eii?aiei. I?e ieaeiiao?eoa eiaaony ne?uoay eaeeioeeoo?ey.
Ieaeiiao?eo, aeaaea 2-o noi?iiiee, anaaaea ianeiiao?e/ai, /oi auyaeyaony
i?e ?aaeeiecioiiiie ?aiia?aoee (ii?aaeaeyaony ?acaeaeueiay ooieoeey
ii/ae). Iniiaiie iaoiae aeeaaiinoeee – yene?aoi?iay o?ia?aoey, i?e yoii
ii?aaeaeyaony aeaoi?iaoeey /aoa/ii-eioaii/iiai aiia?aoa, a ia oieueei
ia?ooaiea ooieoeee.

a) Iieeeenoiciay ii/ea oaeaea iiaeao auoue i?e/eiie iiauoaiey AAe. Yoi
a?iaeaeaiiia caaieaaaiea, iiyoiio ia?aaeei oeacaiea ia naiaeiue oa?aeoa?
iaoieiaee. Iieeeenoic /anoi i?ioaeaao n oaaee/aieai ?acia?ia ii/ae,
eioi?ua i?e yoii /aoei iaeueie?othony, ?aii ia?ooaaony
eiioeaio?aoeeiiiay ooieoeey ii/ae, ?aiiyy aeaaeaea e iieeo?ey. Iiiiaaao
iaoiae yene?aoi?iie o?ia?aoee.

Aaci?aiaeueiay aeia?oiiey. Naycaia n ii?aaeaieai ii/a/iuo a?oa?ee,
noaeaieai eo i?inaaoa. I?e/eiu: o ioae/ei /anoi eae aic?anoiie
aoa?ineea?ioe/aneee i?ioeann, o aeaiuei /aua ii oeio oea?icii-iuoa/iie
aeenieacee – naiaia?aciiai eciee?iaaiiiai ii?aaeaiey ii/a/iuo a?oa?ee
iayniie yoeieiaee. *anoi aicieeaao o iieiaeuo aeaiuei iinea
aa?aiaiiinoe. Eiiaaea i?e/eiie yaeythony o?iiaic eee o?iiaiyiaieey
ii/a/iuo a?oa?ee (iinea iia?aoeaiuo aiaoaoaeuenoa, i?e aoa?ineea?ica).

Iaoiaaiac: A ?acoeueoaoa noaeaiey i?ioeanna ninoaeia i?ienoiaeyo
eciaiaiey ii/ae, nieaeaaony iee?ioee?eoeyoeey, i?ienoiaeeo aeoeaaoeey
?aiei-aiaeioaiceiiaie nenoaiu, aoi?e/ii aeeth/aaony aeueaeinoa?iiiaue
iaoaieci.

I?eciaee: auno?i i?ia?anne?othuay aunieay noaaeeueiay aeia?oiiey,
ia?aaeei ni ceiea/anoaaiiui oa/aieai (aunieay aeoeaiinoue ?aieia):
ninoaeenoue ooi iaae i?iaeoeeae ii/a/iie a?oa?ee: ia ia?aaeiae a?thoiie
noaiea /ooue auoa ioiea, a iiynie/iie iaeanoe. Ooi auneooeaaaony eo/oa
iaoiuae.

Aeiiieieoaeueiua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey:

Ooieoeey eoaiece?iaaiiie ii/ee no?aaeaao, ae?oaay ii/ea eiiiainaoi?ii
oaaee/eaaaony a ?acia?ao. Iiyoiio eioi?iaoeaiui iaoiaeii ?acaeaeueiiai
enneaaeiaaiey ii/ae yaeyaony ?aaeeiecioiiiay ?aiia?aoey, ia eioi?ie
ninoaeenoay /anoue naaiaioa nieaeaia, e?eaay ?anoyiooa + aneiiao?ey.

Yene?aoi?iay o?ia?aoey – eiio?anoiia aauanoai a eoaiece?iaaiioth ii/eo
iinooiaao iaaeeaiiaa (caiaaeeaiea a ia?aua ieioou enneaaeiaaiey) e
iaaeeaiiaa auaiaeeony (a iineaaeiea ieioou caaea?aeee eiio?anoiiai
aauanoaa). Iienuaaaony eae caiacaeuaaiea iinooieaiey e
aeia?eiioeaio?aoeey a iicaeiea n?iee – oi anoue eiaao ianoi aneio?iieci
eiio?anoe?iaaiey – i?eciae aneiiao?ee.

I?e neaie?iaaiee aieueiay ii/ea aneaaenoaea nii?ueaaiey oiaiueoaia a
?acia?ao e ieioi au?eniauaaaony, caei?iaay ii/ea eiiiainaoi?ii
oaaee/aia.

Ai?oia?aoey – naiue eioi?iaoeaiue iaoiae, ii, e niaeaeaie.,
iaaaciianiue, iiyoiio eniieuecoaony iineaaeiei.

Ieanoeea ninoaea i?eaiaeeo e iieiiio ecea/aieth. Ii aaaeia ?aiiyy
iia?aoeey, aei ianooieaiey iaia?aoeiuo eciaiaiee a ii/ea. Iaiaoiaeeii
oaeaea iiiieoue, /oi auaaao ooieoeeiiaeueiue noaiic.

Iao?iioic aicieeaao aneaaenoaea iaoieiae/aneie iiaeaeaeiinoe ii/ee.

Iaoiaaiac aeia?oaicee neeaaeuaaaony ec 3-o iiiaioia: iaoyaeaiea e
noaeaiea ii/a/iie a?oa?ee —> eoaiey ii/ee —> niaci ninoaeia —>
aeia?oiiey; ia?ooaiea iooiea ii/e ii iao/iooiio, eiiaaea ia?ae?o/aiiiio,
n ecaeaaie ii/aoi/ieeo, i?eniaaeeiaiea eioaeoeee —> ieaeiiao?eo,
?acae?aaeaiea neiiaoe/aneiai ia?aa a ninoaeenoie iiaeea —> niaci.

I?eciaee: /aua a iieiaeii aic?anoa, aeia?oaicey n e?ecaie, neeueiuie
aieiaiuie aieyie, au?aaeaiiuie aaaaoaoeaiuie ia?ooaieyie, ii a oeaeii
aeia?oaicey eaaeeueiay; a iieiaeaiee eaaea AAe oiaiueoaaony. Aeey
aeeaaiinoeee a iniiaiii eniieuecotho ai?oia?aoeth e yene?aoi?ioth
o?ia?aoeth. Ea/aiea oe?o?ae/aneia: oeenaoeey ii/ee. Ec ae?oaeo
aeia?oaicee ii/a/iiai aaiaca: i?e aieeieaeica, aeia?iao?iia,
aeeaaaoe/aneii aeiia?oeineea?ica.

II A?oa?eaeueiua aeia?oiiee yiaeie?eiiiai aaiaca:

a) Neiae?ii Eoeaiei-Eooeiaa naycai n ii?aaeaieai ei?eiaiai neiy
iaaeii/a/ieeia, ?acei oaaee/eaaaony au?aaioea aetheiei?oeeieaeia.
Oa?aeoa?ai oeie/iue iaeee aieueiuo: eoiiia?aciia eeoei,
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea aee?iaie eeao/aoee.

a) Oaio?iiioeeoiia: yoi iiooieue ec c?aeuo eeaoie o?iiioeiiie oeaie
iicaiaiai neiy, ?aaea iiooieue ia?aaaiaeeaa ai?ou, neiiaoe/aneeo ia?aiuo
oceia e nieaoaiee. O?iiioeiiay oeaiue i?iaeooee?oao aae?aiaeei e
ii?aae?aiaeei. Iau/ii i?e oaio?iiioeeoiia eaoaoieaieiu aua?anuaathony a
e?iayiia ?onei ia?eiaee/anee, n /ai naycaii aicieeiiaaiea
eaoaoieaieiiauo e?ecia. Eeeie/anee oaio?iiioeeoiia iiaeao i?ioaeaoue a
aeaoo aa?eaioao:

1. E?eciaay a?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oaicey.

2. Iinoiyiiay a?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oaicey. AAe iiauoaaony aiacaiii, a
oa/aiea ianeieueeeo ieioo nauoa 3II ii ?o.no. Nii?iaiaeaeaaony y?ei
au?aaeaiiuie aaaaoaoeaiuie i?iyaeaieyie “ao?ae”: na?aeoeaaeaiea,
ae?iaeue, iioeeainoue, /oanoai no?aoa, aaniieienoai, eiaeiua i?iyaeaiey.
Eaoaoieaieiu aeoeaii aiaoeaathony a oaeaaiaeiue iaiai – iiauoaaony
niaea?aeaiea naoa?a a e?iae, iiyoiio ai a?aiy e?eca iaaethaeaaony
aeaaeaea, a iinea iieeo?ey. Iaaethaeaaony oaeaea neeiiiinoue e
i?oinoaoe/aneiio iaaeaieth AAe, /oi i?iyaeyaony iioa?ae niciaiey i?e
iiiuoea niaieoue ai?eciioaeueiia iieiaeaiea ia aa?oeeaeueiia (aeiioiiey
a i?oinoaca). I?e oaio?iiioeeoiia oaeaea iaaethaeaaony oiaiueoaiea aana
oaea, /oi naycaii n oaaee/aieai iniiaiiai iaiaia.

Aeeaaiinoeea:

Aeia?aeeeaiey e eaeeioeeoic ii a?aiy e?eca; ?aii ?acaeaathony
aeia?o?ioey e aeeeyoaoeey eaaiai aeaeoaei/eaae iiaoo auoue oaoeea?aeey,
eciaiaiea aeaciiai aeia; iniiaiie iaoiae aeeaaiinoeee: ii?aaeaeaiea
eaoaoieaieiia e i?iaeoeoia eo iaoaaieecia; aaieeieiaeaeueiie eeneiou,
i?e oaio?iiioeeoiia aa niaea?aeaiea i?aauoaao 3,5 ia/noo, niaea?aeaiea
aae?aiaeeia e ii?aae?aiaeeia i?aauoaao 1II ia/noo a ii/a;

– i?iaa n aeueoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?aie: oaioieaiei (?aaeoei) I,5% – 1 ie
a/a eee a/i eee o?iiaoai 1% – 1 ie a/a eee a/i. Yoe i?aia?aou
iaeaaeatho aioeaae?aia?ae/aneei aeaenoaeai, aeiee?otho ia?aaea/o
aae?aia?ae/aneeo ninoaeinoaeeaathueo eiioeuenia. Nieaeaiea
nenoiee/aneiai aeaaeaiey aieueoa, /ai ia 8I ii ?o.no., a
aeeanoiee/aneiai ia 6I ii ?o.no. /a?ac 1-1,5 iei iinea aaaaeaiey
i?aia?aoa oeacuaaao ia neiiaoeei-aae?aiaeiaue oa?aeoa? aeia?oaicee, e
i?iaa ia oaio?iiioeeoiio n/eoaaony iieiaeeoaeueiie. Yoe aea i?aia?aou
(oaioieaiei e o?iiaoai) eniieuecotho aeey eoie?iaaiey eaoaoieaieiiauo
e?ecia.

– i?iaieaoeeiiiue oano: a/a aaiaeyo aenoaieia aeeaeae?ioei?eae I,1%,
25-I,5 ie (auioneaaony aenoaiei ii I,1% – 1 ie). Aeey oaio?iiioeeoiiu
oa?aeoa?ii iiauoaiea AAe ia 4I/25 ii ?o.no. e aieaa /a?ac 1-5 iei iinea
eiuaeoeee. I?iaa iieacaia oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee AAe aac i?enooiia
ia i?aauoaao 17I/11I ii ?o.no. I?e aieaa aunieii aeaaeaiee i?iaiaeyo
i?iao oieueei n oaioieaieiii eee o?iiaoaiii. I?eia?ii a 1I% neo/aaa
i?iaa n aenoaieiii iiaeao ieacaoueny iieiaeeoaeueiie e i?e ionoonoaee
oaio?iiioeeoiiu. Iaoaieci aeaenoaey aenoaieia iniiaai ia ?aoeaeoi?iii
aicaoaeaeaiee iicaiaiai neiy iaaeii/a/ieeia.

– ?anae?aeueiay ienenoi?a?aiia?aoey (a ieieiii/a/iia i?ino?ainoai
aaiaeeony eenei?iae e aeaeaaony na?ey oiiia?aii).

– iaaeaaeeaaiea i?e iaeueiaoeee a iaeanoe ii/ae iiaeao i?eaiaeeoue e
aua?ino eaoaoieaieiia ec iiooiee a e?iaue e nii?iaiaeaeaoueny iiauoaieai
a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey.

– iiiiaaao oaeaea enneaaeiaaiea ninoaeia aeaciiai aeia e YEA.

a) Neiae?ii Eiia eee ia?ae/iue aeia?aeueaeinoa?iieci. Yoi caaieaaaiea
naycaii n iaee/eai aaeaiiiu eee aeia?iea/anoaaiiie iiooiee, ?aaea
ea?oeeiiiu, a oaeaea n 2-o noi?iiiae aeia?ieaceae eeoai/eiaie ciiu ei?u
iaaeii/a/ieeia, aaea au?aaaouaaaony aeueaeinoa?ii. Caaieaaaiea naycaii n
iiauoaiiui iinooieaieai a i?aaieci aeueaeinoa?iia, eioi?ue oneeeaaao
eaiaeueoeaaoth ?aaani?aoeeth iao?ey, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai i?ienoiaeeo
caiaia aioo?eeeaoi/iiai eaeey ia iao?ee, i?e ?ani?aaeaeaiee eaeey e
iao?ey aaaeao e iaeiieaieth iao?ey, a ca iei e aiaeu aioo?eeeaoi/ii, a
oii /enea e a ninoaeenoie noaiea, /oi noaeeaaao i?inaao ninoaeia e
i?eaiaeeo e iiauoaieth a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey. Iiauoaiea niaea?aeaiey
iao?ey e aiaeu a noaiea ninoaeia aaaeao e oaaee/aieth /oanoaeoaeueiinoe
e aoii?aeueiui i?anni?iui aauanoaai, neaaenoaeai /aai yaeyaony
a?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oiiey aeeanoiee/aneiai oeia. Iniaaiiinoue aeia?oiiee
– noaaeeueiinoue e iaoeeiiiia ia?anoaiea, onoie/eainoue, ionoonoaea
?aaeoeee ia iau/iua aeiioaiceaiua n?aaenoaa (e?iia aa?ioie?iia –
aioaaiienoa aeueaeinoa?iia).

Aoi?ay a?oiia neiioiiia naycaia n ecauoi/iui auaeaeaieai ec i?aaiecia
eaeey, neaaeiaaoaeueii, a eeeie/aneie ea?oeia aoaeoo i?eciaee
au?aaeaiiie aeiieaeeaiee, i?iyaeythuaeny i?aaeaea anaai iuoa/iuie
ia?ooaieyie: iuoa/iay neaainoue, aaeeiaiey, ia?anoacee, iiaoo auoue
ia?acu e aeaaea ooieoeeiiaeueiua iuoa/iua ia?aee/e, a oaeaea eciaiaiey
ni noi?iiu na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu: oaoeea?aeey, yeno?anenoieey e
ae?oaea ia?ooaiey ?eoia. Ia YEA oaeeeiaiey yeaeo?e/aneie nenoieu,
oaaee/aiea eioa?aaea ST, eiiaaea iiyaeyaony iaoieiae/aneay aieia U.
Neiae?ii Eiia iacuaatho oaeaea “nooei aeia?aeueaeinoa?iieciii”, o.e. i?e
iai iao aeaeeiuo ioaeia.

Aeeaaiinoeea:

– enneaaeiaaiea e?iae ia niaea?aeaiea eaeey e iao?ey: eiioeaio?aoeey
eaeey iaaeaao ieaea 3,5 iiieue/e, eiioeaio?aoeey iao?ey oaaee/eaaaony
nauoa 13I iiieue/e, niaea?aeaiea eaeey a ii/a iiauoaii, a iao?ey –
iiieaeaii; -oaaee/aiu eaoaoieaieiu ii/e (ni.auoa); ?aaeoeey ii/e, eae
i?aaeei, iaeo?aeueiay eee uaei/iay; ii?aaeaeaiiia cia/aiea eiaao i?iaa n
aeiioeaceaeii: aia/aea ii?aaeaeytho niaea?aeaiea eaeey a nuai?ioea
e?iae, caoai aieueiie iieo/aao aeiioeaceae ii 1II ia/noo a oa/aiea 3-5
aeiae. Aeaeaa aiiaue enneaaeotho eaeee e?iae – o aieueiuo neiae?iiii
Eiia i?ienoiaeeo ?aceia iaaeaiea eiioeaio?aoeee eaeey, a ioee/ea io
caei?iauo;

– i?iaa n aa?ioie?iiii – aioaaiienoii aeueaeinoa?iia, eioi?ue
iacia/atho ii 4II ia/noo. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth AAe /a?ac iaaeaeth,
a eaeee a e?iae iiauoaaony;

– ii?aaeaeaiea aeueaeinoa?iia a ii/a (iaoiaeeea /aoei ia iaeaaeaia);

– ii?aaeaeaiea ?aieia, i?e ia?ae/iii aeia?aeueaeinoa?iiecia aeoeaiinoue
thenoaaeiia?oey?iiai aiia?aoa ii/ae ?acei oaiaoaia, ?aieia
au?aaaouaaaony iaei;

– ?aioaaiieiae/anee: oiiia?aoey iaaeii/a/ieeia, ii auyaeyaony oieueei
iiooieue iannie aieueoa 2 a;

anee iiooieue iaeaiueeay: aeeaaiinoe/aneay eaia?ioiiey n ?aaeceae
iaaeii/a/ieeia.

Anee caaieaaaiea aia?aiy ia aeeaaiinoe?oaony, i?eniaaeeiyaony
caaieaaaiea ii/ae – iao?ineea?ic, ieaeiiao?eo. Iiyaeyaony aeaaeaea e
iieeo?ey.

a) Ae?iiaaaeey. AAe iiauoaaony ca n/ao aeoeaaoeee ooieoeee ei?u
iaaeii/a/ieeia.

ae) Neiae?ii Eeiiaenoee-Oeeniia: aeeaaaoe/aneee aeiia?oeineea?ic i?e
naoa?iii aeeaaaoa.

a) Oe?aioieneeic: i?ienoiaeeo oneeaiiia auaaaeaiea eaeueoeey /a?ac
ii/ee, /oi niinianoaoao ia?aciaaieth eaiiae e a eiia/iii eoiaa i?eaiaeeo
e iiauoaieth AAe.

ae) Aeia??aieiiia – iiooieue thenoaaeiia?oey?iiai aiia?aoa – ii yoi
nei?aa eacoenoeea.

c) Eiio?aoeaioeaiua a?oa?eaeueiua aeia?oiiee, i?e i?eiaiaiee
ai?iiiaeueiuo eiio?aoeaioeaiuo i?aia?aoia.

3. Aaiiaeeiaie/aneea a?oa?eaeueiua aeia?oaicee naycaiu n ia?ae/iui
ii?aaeaieai e?oiiuo iaaeno?aeueiuo ninoaeia.

a) Eia?eoaoeey ai?ou – a?iaeaeaiiia caaieaaaiea, naycaiiia n ooieuaieai
iuoa/iiai neiy a iaeanoe ia?aoaeea ai?ou. I?ienoiaeeo ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea
e?iae – ?acei ia?aiieiythony e?iaueth ninoaeu aei eee auoa noaeaiey,
o.a. ninoaeu aa?oiae iieiaeiu ooeiaeua; ninoaeu ieaeieo eiia/iinoae,
iai?ioea, iieo/atho e?iae iaei e iaaeeaiii. Iniiaiua neiioiiu
caaieaaaiey i?iyaeythony e ia?eiaeo iieiaiai nic?aaaiey, iau/ii e 18
aiaeai. Noauaeoeaii ioia/athony aieiaiua aiee, /oanoai aea?a eee i?eeeaa
e aieiaa, iiniaua e?iaioa/aiey.

I a u a e o e a i i :

Aeeni?iii?oeey; iiuiay aa?oiyy iieiaeia ooeiaeua e neaai ?acaeoay
ieaeiyy; aeia?aie?iaaiiia eeoei; ioeuen ia eo/aaie a?oa?ee iieiue,
iai?yaeaiiue; oieiaeiua noiiu, ineaaeaiiue ioeuen ia iiaao; neaaa io
a?oaeeiu a?oaue nenoiee/aneee ooi; aa?oooa/iue oie/ie ?acei oneeai; AAe
ia iea/aaie a?oa?ee aunieia, ia iiaao – ieceia; ia ?aioaaiia?aiia oci?u
?aaa?; iniiaiie iaoiae aeeaaiinoeee – ai?oia?aoey.

I?e naiaa?aiaiiie aeeaaiinoeea ea/aiea i?eaiaeeo e iieiiio
aucaei?iaeaie. Anee ia ea/eoue, i?eia?ii /a?ac 3I eao iiyaeyaony
iao?ineea?ic.

a) Aieaciue ionoonoaey ioeuena, eee neiae?ii Oaeayne. Neiiieiu:
iaiai?oeo, iaia?oa?eeo ai?ou e aa aaoaae, aieaciue aeoae ai?ou.
Caaieaaaiea eioaeoeeiiii-aeea?ae/aneie i?e?iaeu, /aua anaai ano?a/aaony
o iieiaeuo aeaiuei. Iaaethaeaaony i?ieeoa?aoeaiia ainiaeaiea noaiie
ai?ou, a aieueoae noaiaie eioeiu, a ?acoeueoaoa iae?icia ia?acothony
aeyoee, eaeao oea?eiieaeiia iaaooaiea. A aiaiiaca aeeeoaeueiue
noaoea?eeeoao, iaiiieiathuee eeoi?aaei/iia ninoiyiea, e aeea?ae/aneea
?aaeoeee.

Iiyaeyaony eoaie/aneee neiae?ii a ninoaeao eiia/iinoae e aieiaiiai
iicaa, /oi i?iyaeyaony iaii?ieaie, aieiaie?oaeaieai, iioa?ae c?aiey,
e?aoeia?aiaiiie iioa?ae niciaiey, neaainoueth a ?oeao. Iaia?oaeeaaaony
a?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oaicey a ?acoeueoaoa ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey e?iae. Yoo
aieaciue iacuaatho aua “eia?eoaoeeae iaiai?io”. Ia ?oeao aeaaeaiea
iiieaeaii, i?e/ai ianeiiao?e/ii, a ia iiaao aeaaeaiea aieueoa. Aeaeaa
i?eniaaeeiyaony aaci?aiaeueiay eee eoaie/aneay aeia?oiiey, eioi?ay iineo
ceiea/anoaaiiue oa?aeoa?. Iiyaeyaony ii/a/iue ooio.

Aeeaaiinoeea: iaycaoaeueii i?eiaiaiea iaoiaea ai?oia?aoee, /anoi
iiauoaii NIY, aunieia niaea?aeaiea aaiia-aeiaoeeia, i?aaeeiaeaia i?iaa n
ai?oaeueiui aioeaaiii (OAIUeA).

IV. Oeaio?iaaiiua a?oa?eaeueiua aeia?oiiee naycaiu n ii?aaeaieai
aieiaiiai iicaa – yioeaoaeeo, iiooiee, e?iaieceeyiey, eoaiey, o?aaiu
/a?aia e o.ae. I?e eoaiee iicaa aeia?oiiey i/aaeaeii iineo
eiiiainaoi?iue oa?aeoa? e iai?aaeaia ia oeo/oaiea e?iainiaaaeaiey iicaa.
A ?acaeoee aeia?oiiee i?e i?aaie/aneeo ii?aaeaieyo iicaa ianiiiaiiia
cia/aiea eiaao iia?aaeaeaiea e ooieoeeiiaeueiia eciaiaiea
aeiioaeaie/aneeo no?oeoo?, /oi nii?iaiaeaeaaony ia?ooaieai oeaio?aeueiie
ia?aiie ?aaoee?iaee a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey.

V. Eaea?noaaiiay a?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oiiey:

a) I?e i?eiaiaiee aae?aia?ae/aneeo n?aaenoa: yoaae?ei, aae?aiaeei.

a) I?e aeeeoaeueiii ea/aiee ai?iiiaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie
(aetheiei?oeeieaeaie).

a) I?e i?eiaiaiee n?aaenoa, iaeaaeathueo ii?aaeathuei aeaenoaeai ia
ii/ee (oaiaoeaoei).

Ea/aiea aeia?oiie/aneie aieacie:

Aeeaoa: ia?aie/aiea iiaa?aiiie niee, iieacii oiaiueoeoue aan i?e
eceeoiae iieiioa. Aieueiui iacia/aaony noie N 1I.

?aaeei: Ia?aaiae ia iaeiiniaiioth ?aaioo; ?aaeaiaio o?oaea – eneeth/eoue
ii/iua aeaaeo?noaa e o.ae.; oeo/oaiea e ?aoeeiiaeecaoeey oneiaee o?oaea;
?aaeei ioaeuoa (iieiioeaiiue nii, ioaeuo iinea ?aaiou); ai?ueaa n
aeiiaeeiaieae – aieueoa aeaeaaoueny.

Iauea i?eioeeiu ea/aiey AA

a) Oi/ii onoaiiaeoue i?e?iaeo a?oa?eaeueiie aeia?oaicee.

a) A ?yaea neo/aaa aeia?oiie/aneay aieaciue iiaeao i?ioaeaoue
aanneiioiiii.

a) Anai aieueiui n a?oa?eaeueiie aeia?oaiceae aia caaeneiinoe io iaee/ey
neiioiiia iieacaia oa?aiey aeiioaiceaiuie n?aaenoaaie. I?e nieaeaiee AAe
ai a?aiy ea/aiey naii/oanoaea eiiaaea iiaeao oooaeoaoueny, iiyoiio
aaaeii i?aaeeueii aua?aoue oaii nieaeaiey aeaaeaiey n o/aoii aic?anoa
aieueiiai, aeeeoaeueiinoe a?oa?eaeueiie aeia?oiiee, iaee/ey eee
ionoonoaey ninoaeenouo ?anno?ienoa. I?e ionoonoaee ninoaeenouo
ineiaeiaiee, a iieiaeii aic?anoa AAe nieaeatho aei ii?iaeueiiai o?iaiy
auno?i. A iiaeeeii aic?anoa nieaeaiea i?iaiaeyo aei noaii?iaeueiiai
o?iaiy, oi anoue aei iianiie ciiu.

a) I?e i?eiaiaiee aeiioaiceaiie oa?aiee iiaeao aicieeiooue neiae?ii
ioiaiu, eiiaaea aeaaea ii oeio aeia?oiie/aneiai e?eca, iiyoiio
iaiaoiaeeia aeeeoaeueiay iai?a?uaiay oa?aiey aeiioaiceaiuie n?aaenoaaie.
Oieueei i?e aeeeoaeueiie oa?aiee aiciiaeii ecea/aiea. Iaeiaei
nouanoaotho niiiaiey a iaiaoiaeeiinoe iai?a?uaiie oa?aiee, i?aaeeaaaaony
eo?niaia ea/aiea. Eaieia?aaeneay oa?aiaaoe/aneay oeiea e aieueoeinoai
ca?oaaaeiuo o/aiuo n/eoatho iaiaoiaeeiui iai?a?uaiia ea/aiea.

ae) Oa?aiey aeieaeia i?iaiaeeoueny n oi/ee c?aiey iaoiaaiaca
caaieaaaiey. O/eouaay iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaoiaaiaoe/aneiai ea/aiey, oa?aiey
aeieaeia auoue eiiieaeniie eee eiiaeie?iaaiiie, oae eae iaiaoiaeeii
aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia ?acee/iua caaiuey iaoiaaiaca.

Aeiioaiceaiay oa?aiey

1. Aioeaae?aia?ae/aneea n?aaenoaa i?aeiouanoaaiii oeaio?aeueiiai
aeaenoaey:

Aeiiaaeo (aeueaeiiao, aeueoa-iaoee-aeioa), oaa. ii I,25 * 4 ?aca a
aeaiue. Iiauoaao aeoeaiinoue aeueoa-aae?aii?aoeaioi?ia noaiea iicaa, e
eae neaaenoaea, nieaeaao neiiaoe/aneoth aeoeaiinoue ia ia?eoa?ee.
Aeaenoaoao i?aeiouanoaaiii ia iauaa ia?eoa?e/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea, a
iaiueoae noaiaie oiaiueoaao na?aea/iue aua?in. Iaoaieci aeaenoaey naycai
n ia?ooaieai neioaca neiiaoe/aneeo iaaeeaoi?ia – ia?acoaony neiaeiue
iaoeee?iaaiiue iaaeeaoi?: aeueoa-iaoeeii?aae?aiaeei. I?e aeeeoaeueiii
i?eiaiaiee aiciiaeiu iiai/iua yooaeou: caaea?aeea iao?ey e aiaeu a
i?aaiecia, oaaee/aiea IOeE, iauaiiay ia?aa?ocea na?aeoea, /oi iiaeao
i?eaanoe eee onoaoaeoue na?aea/ioth iaaeinoaoi/iinoue. Iiyoiio
iaiaoiaeeii eiiaeie?iaaoue n naeo?aoeeaie: aeea?ae/aneea ?aaeoeee,
iaiiieiathuea NEA, aea?iaoeou. Ea/aiea oeaeaniia?acii ia/eiaoue n iaeuo
aeic (3 oaa. a nooee), iinoaiaiii aeiaiaey aeico aei 6 oaa, a aeaiue.
I?e aeeeoaeueiii ea/aiee i?iaiaeyo ?aaeoeeth Eoiana /a?ac eaaeaeua 6
ianyoeaa eee caiaiytho i?aia?ao.

Aaieoii (eeioaeei, eaoai?anai) oaa. I,I75 ia i?iecaiaeiia eieaeacieeia.
Aeaenoaoao ia aeueoa-aae?aii?aoeaioi?u aieiaiiai iicaa e ieacuaaao
oi?iiciia aeeyiea ia ninoaeiaeaeaaoaeueiue oeaio? i?iaeieaiaaoiai iicaa,
iaeaaeaao oaeaea naaeaoeaiui aeaenoaeai. Aeaaiui ia?acii, nieaeaao iauaa
ia?eoa?e/aneia nii?ioeaaeaiea, aicoiiaeii, aeaenoaoao e ia nieiiie iica,
ii/oe iao iiai/iuo yooaeoia, e?iia nooinoe ai ?oo, caiaaeeaiey
aeaeaaoaeueiie ?aaeoeee. Aeiioaiceaiue yooaeo a oeaeii neaaue.
I?eiaiyoue ii I,I75 ia * 3 ?.

2. Iinoaaiaeeiia?iua aae?aiiaeieaoi?u

a) A?oiia aoaiaoeaeeia

Ieoaaeei (eciaa?ei, eniaeei, aoaiaoeaeeia noeueoao) I,I25. Iaoaieci
aeaenoaey ieoaaeeia iniiaai ia auiuaaiee ec a?aioe ia?aiuo ieii/aiee
eaoaoieaieiia e oneeaiee eo ooeeecaoeee. ssaeyaony iaeiei ec naiuo
neeueiiaeaenoaothueo i?aia?aoia. A ioee/ea io ?aca?ieia, ia niiniaai
i?iieeaoue /a?ac AYA. Nieaeaao oiion a?oa?eie (oiaiueoaao ia?eoa?e/aneia
nii?ioeaeaiea e aeeanoiee/aneia aeaaeaiea) e oiion aai (oaaee/eaaao
eiee/anoai e?iae a aaiiciii ?aca?aoa?a e oiaiueoaao aaiiciue aica?ao e
na?aeoeo, oai naiui oiaiueoay na?aea/iue aua?in). Aeiioaiceaiia
aeaenoaea i?aia?aoa oneeeaaaony i?e ia?aoiaea a aa?oeeaeueiia
iieiaeaiea, oaeei ia?acii iiaeao aicieeaoue aeiioiiey a i?oinoaca e i?e
oece/aneie iaa?ocea. I?oinoaoe/aneee eieeain i/aiue iianai i?e iaee/ee
aoa?ineea?ica. A ia?aua aeie ea/aiey oeaeaniia?acii iacia/aoue iaeua
aeicu (25 ia.noo) ai ecaaaeaiea i?oinoaoe/aneeo ineiaeiaiee. Aeaeaa
aeico iinoaiaiii oaaee/eaatho. AAe i?e eiio?iea ea/aiey ieoaaeeiii
iaiaoiaeeii ecia?youe ia oieueei eaaea, ii e noiy. Ec-ca cia/eoaeueiiai
eiee/anoaa ineiaeiaiee ia yaeyaony i?aia?aoii auai?a i?e AA. Iieacaieai
e aai i?eiaiaieth yaeyaony noieeay a?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oaicey +
ionoonoaea yooaeoa io ae?oaeo aeiioaiceaiuo n?aaenoa. Aaniethoii
i?ioeaiiieacai i?e oaio?iiioeeoiia.

a) A?oiia ?aoaieueoee (iae?ieaioeee oeaio?aeueiiai aeaenoaey)

?aca?iei (?aonaaeee), aiioeu ii 1,I e 2,5 ia, oaa I,1 e I,25 ia.
I?iieeaao /a?ac AYA e ieacuaaao aeaenoaea ia o?iaia noaiea iicaa e
ia?eoa?e/aneeo ia?aiuo ieii/aiee. Aeiioaiceaiue yooaeo n?aaeiee,
iaoaieci aeaenoaey iniiaai ia enoiuaiee aeaii eaoaoieaieiia (aucuaaao
aeaa?aioeyoeeth eaoaoieaieiia e iineaaeothuaa eo ?ac?ooaiea a aeniieacia
iae?iiia). Aneaaenoaea oaiaoaiey neiiaoe/aneie ia?aiie nenoaiu ia/eiaao
i?aiaeaaeaoue ia?aneiiaoe/aneay, /oi i?iyaeyaony neiioiiaie aaaioiiee:
a?aaeeea?aeey, iiauoaiea eeneioiinoe aeaeoaei/iiai niea + oaaee/aiea
iioi?eee aeaeoaeea, /oi iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue ia?aciaaieth iaioe/aneie
ycau. ?aca?iei iiaeao oaeaea ni?iaioee?iaaoue a?iioeaeueioth anoio,
ieic. Ionthaea i?ioeaiiieacaiey: ycaaiiay aieaciue, a?iioeaeueiay anoia,
aa?aiaiiinoue. Ia/eiatho ea/aiea n I,1-I,25 ia/noo, iinoaiaiii aeiaiaey
aeico aei I,3-I,5 ia/noo. Nieaeaiea aeaaeaiey i?ienoiaeeo iinoaiaiii, a
oa/aiea ianeieueeeo iaaeaeue, ii i?e ia?aioaeueiii aaaaeaiee ?aonaaeeea
(iau/ii i?e e?ecao) yooaeo ianooiaao aanueia auno?i.

?aoiaoei (?aoaacai) oaa. I,II2, neaaaa ?aca?ieia au?aaeaii aeaenoaea ia
OeIN + iaeaaeaao aioea?eoie/aneie aeoeaiinoueth, oae eae niaea?aeeo
aeeieieae aeiaeei.

3. Aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?u. Aeieaaea aaoa-aae?aii?aoeaioi?ia
nii?iaiaeaeaaony oiaiueoaieai *NN, aaee/eiu oaea?iiai iauaia e nae?aoeee
?aieia. I?e yoii ono?aiythony ecauoi/iua aeeyiey neiiaoe/aneeo ia?aia ia
yoe i?ioeannu, eioi?ua ?aaoee?othony /a?ac aaoa-aae?aii?aaeoeaiua
nenoaiu. Iniaaiii oe?iei i?eiaiythony i?e ea/aiee ia/aeueiuo noaaeee
aeia?oiie/aneie aieacie. Iniaaiiinoueth i?aia?aoia yoie a?oiiu yaeyaony
oi?ioay ia?aiineiinoue e ionoonoaea na?ueaciuo ineiaeiaiee.
Aaoa-?aoeaioi?u a ?acee/iuo oeaiyo niaoeeoe/iu – auaeaeytho aaoa-1 e -2
aae?aii?aoeaioi?u. Aeoeaaoeey aaoa-1 ?aoeaioi?ia i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth
neeu e /anoiou na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee e e oneeaieth eeiieeca a aee?iauo
aeaii. Aeoeaaoeey aaoa-2 ?aoeaioi?ia aucuaaao aeeeiaaiieec a ia/aie,
neaeaoiuo iuooeao, i?eaiaeeo e ?anoe?aieth a?iioia, ?anneaaeaieth
ii/aoi/ieeia, aeaaeeeo iuooe ninoaeia. Iaoaieci aeaenoaey iniiaai ia
eiieo?aioiie aeieaaea ?aoeaioi?ia e ia noaaeeecaoeee iaia?ai ii oeio
ianoiuo aianoaoeeia.

Aiai?eeei (i?iiaiie, eiaea?ae, iaceaeai) I,I1 e I,I4. I?eiaiyaony
iaeaieaa /anoi aaeaeo ionoonoaey neiiaoiieiaoe/aneie aeoeaiinoe.
Oaiaoaao eae aaoa-1, oae e aaoa-2 aae?aii?aoeaioi?u. Aucuaaao
a?aaeeea?aeeth, oiaiueoaao na?aea/iue aua?in. Oaeaea aeiee?oao neioac
?aieia, oae eae a thenoaaeiia?oey?iii aiia?aoa caeiaeaiu aaoa-2
?aoeaioi?u. Ia/aeueiay aeica 6I-8I ia/noo, aeaeaa oaaee/eaatho aei 2II
ia/noo. I?e aeinoeaeaiee yooaeoa – iiaeaea?aeeaathuea aeicu.

Ieni?aiieie (O?aiceei?) oaa. I,I2. Eiaao ?yae iniaaiiinoae: iaeaaeaao
aioea?eoie/aneie aeoeaiinoueth.. Ieacuaaao i?aeiouanoaaiiia aeaenoaea ia
aaoa-2 ?aoeaioi?u, iaeiaei naeaeoeaiinoue iaiieiay. Aeiioaiceaiia
aeaenoaea au?aaeaii neaaaa aiai?eeeia. I?aia?aou iacia/athony
yioa?aeueii, aeaenoaea i?iyaeyaony /a?ac 3I iei, iaeneioi /a?ac 2-3
/ana. Aeiioaiceaiue yooaeo ?acaeaaaony iaaeeaiii e caaeneo io noaaeee
caaieaaaiey: oae i?e eaaeeueiie aeia?oiiee nieaeaiea AAe ianooiaao oaea
ia 1-3 aeaiue, ii?iaeecaoeey ia 7-1I aeaiue. Iaeaieaa /aoei yooaeo
i?iyaeyaony o aieueiuo n enoiaeiie oaoeea?aeeae e aeia?eeiaoe/aneei
oeiii ia?ooaiey aaiiaeeiaieee. Iaiaa /aoei aeiioaiceaiue yooaeo
iaaethaeaaony i?e noieeie aeia?oiiee ia aieueoeo oeeo?ao e a iiaeeeii
aic?anoa. Ineiaeiaiey auaatho ?aaeei, iaeiaei aiciiaeia ?aceay
a?aaeeea?aeey n neiiao?eeaeueiui aeieii e ae?oaea ia?ooaiey ?eoia e
i?iaiaeeiinoe.

Aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?u i?ioeaiiieacaiu i?e a?iioeaeueiie anoia,
a?iioeoao, i?e niioonoaothuae na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe, ycaaiiie
aieacie e i?e ?yaea o?iie/aneeo caaieaaaiee eeoa/ieea. Inoi?iaeii
iacia/aoue i?e enoiaeiie a?aaeeea?aeee e ia?ooaieyo ?eoia. Iioeiaeueii
ni/aoaiea n naeo?aoeeaie e iioi?iuie niaciieeoe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie.

Ii/aaiiiua n?aaenoaa: iaeaieaa iainiiaaiiui i?e aeia?oiie/aneie aieacie
yaeyaony i?eiaiaiea iao?eeo?aoe/aneeo i?aia?aoia (naeo?aoeeia).

Aeiioeaceae (aeeoeioeaceae) oaa. I,I25 e I,1. Ieacuaaao cia/eoaeueiia
aeiioaiceaiia aeaenoaea i?e AA. Nieaeaiea AAe naycaii n aeeo?aoe/aneei
yooaeoii, oiaiueoaieai IOeE, aneaaenoaea /aai oiaiueoaaony na?aea/iue
aua?in. Eiiaaea i?e i?eaia aeiioeaceaea eae ?aoeaeoi?iay ?aaeoeey ia
oiaiueoaiea IOeE aicieeaao oaoeea?aeey e oaaee/eaaaony IIN. Ii ia?a
ea/aiey ii?iaeecoaony yeaeo?ieeoe/aneee a?aaeeaio ninoaeenoie noaiee,
oiaiueoaaony aa ioa/iinoue, nieaeaaony /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e
eaoaoieaieiai e aiaeioaiceiiaaio. Oaaee/eaaaony iioa?y E+ n ii/ie. Aeico
iiaeae?atho eiaeeaeaeoaeueii.

Oo?inaieae (eaceen) oaa.I,I4ae aiioeu 1% – 2,I ie. Neeueiiaeaenoaothuee
aeeo?aoee. Aeaenoaea iinea i?eaia ia/eiaaony a n?aaeiai /a?ac 3I iei.
Iniaaiii auno?i i?aia?ao aeaenoaoao i?e a/a aaaaeaiee – /a?ac 3-4 iei.
Iaoaieci aeaenoaey iniiaai ia oaiaoaiee ia?aoiiai ananuaaiey iao?ey e
aiaeu, iao?ee ia/eiaao auoiaeeoue ec ninoaeenoie noaiee, o.e. auaiaeeony
i?aeiouanoaaiii aioo?eeeaoi/iue iao?ee. Anaaaea n ii/ie oa?ythony eiiu
E+, iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii iacia/aiea i?aia?aoia eaeey eee eiiaeiaoeey n
eaeee-naa?aaathueie aeeo?aoeeaie. Eaceen aucuaaao iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiue
aeiioaiceaiue yooaeo, iiyoiio i?aia?ao iaei i?eaiaeai aeey aeeeoaeueiiai
i?eiaiaiey, eniieuecoaony /aua i?e e?ecao. I?e aeeeoaeueiii i?eiaiaiee
naeo?aoeea iiaeii ni?iaioee?iaaoue iiaeaa?o e ne?uooth aeia?aeeeaieth
i?aa?aoeoue a yaioth. Oaeaea oaeaee/eaaaony naa?ouaaaiinoue e?iae,
iiyaeyaony neeiiiinoue e o?iiaicai.

Eeiiaieae (a?eiaeueaeeen) oaa. I,I2, iaoaieci aeaenoaey oio aea; ii a
ioee/ea io oo?inaieaea, iaeaaeaao aieaa aeeeoaeueiui aeaenoaeai – aei 2I
/ania .

O?eaioa?ai (ioa?ioai) eainoeu ii I,I5. ssaeyaony aeoeaiui aeeo?aoeeii,
aucuaaao aeoeaiia auaaaeaiea iao?ey aac oaaee/aiey auaaaeaiey eaeey
(o.e. oaiaoaao nae?aoeeth eaeey a aeenoaeueiuo eaiaeueoeao). Ni/aoatho n
i?aia?aoaie, aucuaathueie iioa?th eaeey. Yooaeo auno?ue, /a?ac 15-2I
iei, nio?aiyaony 2-6 /ania.

Nie?iiieaeoii (aa?ioie?ii, aeueaeaeoii) oaa. I,I25. Aeiee?oao aeaenoaea
aeueaeinoa?iia iooai eiie?aoiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey, o.e. aeecie e iaio ii
no?oeoo?a. Ineaaeyao yaeaiey aoi?e/iiai aeia?aeueaeinoa?iiecia,
?acaeaathuaainy a iicaeieo noaaeeyo AA e i?e neiioiiaoe/aneeo
aeia?oaiceyo, a oaeaea i?e ea/aiee naeo?aoeeaie oeaceaeiiai ?yaea
(aeiioeaceae). I?eiaiyoue oieueei a ni/aoaiee n naeo?aoeeaie, ii 75-13I
ia/noo, eo?naie ii 4-8 iaaeaeue. Iioaioee?oao oaeaea aeaenoaea
neiiaoieeoeeia. Iniaaiii yooaeoeaai i?e iiauoaiiie nae?aoeee
aeueaeinoa?iia e ieceie aeoeaiinoe ?aieia ieaciu.

Ieio?iiiua n?aaenoaa

Ai?annei (aeae?aeecei) oaa. I,I1 e I,I25. Ieacuaaao iaiin?aaenoaaiiia
aeeyiea ia aeaaeeoth ioneoeaoo?o a?oa?eie. Iiaeaaeyao aeoeaiinoue ?yaea
oa?iaioia a ninoaeenoie noaiea, /oi i?eaiaeeo e iaaeaieth aa oiiona.
Iiieaeaao i?aeiouanoaaiii aeeanoiee/aneia aeaaeaiea. Ia/eiatho n aeic
1I-2I ia * 3 ?aca a aeaiue, aeaeaa ?aciaoth aeico oaaee/eaatho aei 2I-5I
ia. I?eiaiytho oieueei a ni/aoaiee n ae?oaeie n?aaenoaaie, iniaaiii
iieacai i?e a?aaeeea?aeee e iaeii na?aea/iii aua?ina (aeiieeiaoe/aneee
oei). ?aoeeiiaeueiia ni/aoaiea ?aca?iei + ai?annei (aaeaeueoai) +
aeiioeaceae. Oi?ioi eiiaeie?oaony n aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?aie – yoi iaeia
ec eo/oeo eiiaeiaoeee aeey aieueiuo ni noieeie aeia?oaiceae. Iiai/iia
aeaenoaea ai?anneia: oaoeea?aeey, oneeaiea noaiiea?aeee, ioeuene?othuea
aieiaiua aiee, iie?aniaiea eeoea.

Aeeaacie oaa. I,I4 e I,I2; aii. 1% – 1 ie. Noiaeai ii aeaenoaeth n
iaiaaa?eiii, nieaeaao IIN, oeo/oaao ii/a/iue e?iaioie, iaei iiai/iuo
yooaeoia.

Iaiaaa?ei I,I4 e I,I2; aii. 2% – 2,I. Ni.aeeaacie. Ec iiai/iuo yaeaiee
aiciiaeia aeaeoaei/eiaay yeno?anenoieey, ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iay aeieaaea.

Neeueii aeaenoaothuea aaciaeeeyoi?u, neioace?iaaiiua a iineaaeiea aiaeu:
Ieiieneaeee (i?acicei) I,II1. Aeeacieneae (aeia?noaae) 5I ia.
Ieo?ii?onneae Iao?ey aii. 5I ia. Aeai?annei: aeiioeaceae 1I ia +
?aca?iei I,1 ia + aeeaacie I,I2 + iaiaooae I,25.

Ea/aiea aeia?oiie/aneeo e?ecia:

Iaycaoaeueia ainieoaeecaoeey. Aeeaacie 1% aei 1I,I a/a, yooaeo /a?ac
15-2I iei. ?aonaaeee 1 ia a/i eee iaaeeaiii a/a ia ecioiie/aneii
?anoai?a. Eaceen 1% aei 4,I a/a, yooaeo /a?ac 3-4 iei.

Iiiaei aieueiui iiiiaatho iae?ieaioeee: Aieiacei 2,5% 1,I a/i.
Ae?iia?eaeie I,25% aei 4 ie a/i eee a/a iaaeeaiii: ii 2 ie a 2I ie 4I%
aetheicu.

I?e ionoonoaee yooaeoa iacia/atho aaiaeeiaeieaoi?u: Iaioaiei 5% 1,I a/i
eee a/a eaiaeueii! eiaoue iiae ?oeie Aaiciaaeniiee 2,5% 1,I a/i!
iacaoii.

Iaiaoiaeeii neaaeeoue, /oiau nieaeaiea AAe ia auei i/aiue ?aceei, /oi
iiaeao i?eaanoe e ei?iia?iie eee oea?aa?iaaneoey?iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.
Aaieoii I,I1% I,1 a/i eee iaaeeaiii a/a ia 2I ie ecioiie/aneiai
?anoai?a (max /a?ac 2I-3I iei). Aeiiaaeo (i?e caoyaeiuo e?ecao!)
aioo?ue aei 2,I a a nooee. O?iiaoai 1% 1,I ia 2I ie ecioiie/aneiai
?anoai?a a/a iaaeeaiii eee a/i i?e neiaoiaae?aiaeiauo e?ecao.
Ieo?ii?onneae Iao?ey I,1 ia aetheica a/a eaiaeueii.

I?e neiioiiao yioeaoaeiiaoee, naycaiiie n ioaeii iicaa: Iaaiey Noeueoao
25% 1I,I a/i.

Iniiaeeo?aoeee: 2I% ?-? Iaiieoiea a ecioiie/aneii ?anoai?a. Oei?eae
eaeueoeey 1I% 5,I a/a – i?e inoaiiaea aeuoaiey io aaaaeaiey iaaiacee.

I?e na?aea/iie oi?ia: Iaiaaa?ei; aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?u (aiai?eeei I,1%
1,I); ?aonaaeee 1 ia a/i eee a/a iaaeeaiii: aaiaeeiaeieaoi?u – a e?aeiai
neo/aa! A?oiiaae – aeey nicaeaiey oi?aaeyaiie aeiioiiee, yooaeo “ia
eii/eea eaeu”. I?eiaiyoue oieueei a noaoeeiia?a.

I?e ioaea eaaeeo n aiiieaene/aneei aa?eaioii: E?iaiioneaiea eo/oee
iaoiae – aei 5II ie. Iaycaoaeueii ioieoe?iaaoue aaio oienoie eaeie, oae
eae i?e yoii ?acei iiauoaia eiaaoeyoeeiiiay niiniaiinoue e?iae.

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Aeicu aeiioaiceaiuo i?aia?aoia:

Dibasoli 1% 4 ml; Lasix 4,I ml, Benzogexonii 2,5% 1,I;

Pentamini 5% 1,I; Clophelini I,II1 1,I a/a iaaeeaiii; pheno-

tolamini 5 mg a/a no?oeii; Diasoxidi a/a eaiaeueii, Isoptini I,25 2,I
(noi?aaaio?eeoey?iua a?eoiee, ei?iia?iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue), ei?eioa? 2I
ia iiae ycue.

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EOAIE*ANEAss AIEACIUe NA?AeOeA

NOAIIEA?AeEss

Aia?aua oa?iei “noaiiea?aeey” aaae Aa?aa?aeai (noaiicen-oceee) –
a?oaeiay aeaaa.

Aicieeiiaaiea noaiiea?aeee naycaii n e?aoeia?aiaiiie i?aoiaeyuae eoaieae
ieiea?aea. Noaiiea?aeey iaeei ec aa?eaioia aieaaiai oa/aiey EAN. A
iiiyoea EAN, e?iia noaiiea?aeee, aoiaeyo aua eioa?eo ieiea?aea e
aoa?ineea?ioe/aneee ea?aeeineea?ic. Auaeaeytho 2 oaeoi?a:

1) Iio?aaiinoue ieiea?aea a eenei?iaea;

2) Niaaaeaiea eenei?iaeii (eee i?eoie eenei?iaea).

Iaaeaeo yoeie aeaoiy oaeoi?aie a ii?ia nouanoaoao aeeiaie/aneia
?aaiiaanea. Iio?aaiinoue ieiea?aea a eenei?iaea caaeneo io:

a) *NN, iai?yaeaiey noaiee eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea, o.a. io neeu na?aea/iuo
nie?auaiee, eiio?aeoeeueiinoe ieiea?aea;

a) io o?iaiy eaoaoieaieiia, iniaaiii ii?aae?aiaeeia.

Iio?aaiinoue ieiea?aea a eenei?iaea ?aaoee?oaony e iaania/eaaaony
ei?iia?iui e?iainiaaaeaieai:

i?e nieaeaiee o?iaiy eenei?iaea a ieiea?aea (nieaeaiea aai
eiioeaio?aoeee eee eaaeay aeiieney ieiea?aea) io AIO iouaieyaony
oinoaoiay a?oiia, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ia?acoaony aaeaiicei. Aaeaiicei
yaeyaony “ianoiui” ai?iiiii, ii ?anoe?yao ninoaeu e oaaee/eaaao oai
naiui aeinoaaeo eenei?iaea e ieiea?aeo. Yoi iniiaiie iooue.

a i?aeaieeey?ao ?aniieiaeaiu iniaua ?aoeaioi?u, eioi?ua aicaoaeaeathony
i?e nieaeaiee o?iaiy eenei?iaea a e?iae ei?iia?iuo a?oa?ee. Yooaeo –
?anoe?aiea aaia/iuo a?oa?ee.

EAN e noaiiea?aeey aicieeaao oiaaea, eiaaea ei?iia?iue e?iaioie (oi
anoue ei?iia?iua a?oa?ee a oceii niunea) ia iiaeao ainiieieoue
iio?aaiinoue ieiea?aea a eenei?iaea. Iaaeinoaoi/iay aeinoaaea
eenei?iaea, ianiioaaonoaea iio?aaiinoe ieiea?aea a eenei?iaea e
aiciiaeiinoae aai aeinoaaee e eaaeao a iniiaa noaiiea?aeee. I?e/eia
ia?ooaiey ei?iia?iiai e?iaioiea, nieaeaiey aai aiciiaeiinoae, a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa naycaia n i?aaie/aneei ii?aaeaieai aaia/iuo
a?oa?ee: /aua anaai (92%) aoa?ineea?ic; ?aaea aaneoeeou: ?aaiaoe/aneea,
neoeeeoe/aneea, i?e eieeaaaiicao (ocaeeiaue ia?ea?oa?eeo); eiiaaea
ooieoeeiiaeueiua ia?ooaiey aaiiaeeiaieee: a?oa?eaeueiua ii?iee na?aeoea,
noaiiea?aeey i?e oe?aioieneeica; a ?aaeeeo neo/ayo noaiiea?aeey
aiciiaeia i?e AA.

Iaoiaaiac aoa?ineea?ica:

I?ienoiaeeo ia?ooaiea aeaoo iaoaieciia:

1. Ia?ooaiea iaoaaieecia; i?aaeaea anaai yoi ioiineony e ia?ooaieth
iaiaia eeieaeia. I?ienoiaeeo iiauoaiea niaea?aeaiey oieanoa?eia,
o?eaeeoea?eaeia, aee?iuo eeneio (IYAEE), oiaiueoaaony niaea?aeaiea
oinoieeieaeia a e?iae.

Aeueoa-eeiii?ioaeaeu – i?i/iua niaaeeiaiey oieanoa?eia + o?eaeeoea?eaeia
+ aaeeia.

Iai?i/iua niaaeeiaiey: aaoa-eeiii?ioaeaeu e i?aaaoa-eeiii?ioaeaeu.

Eeiii?ioaeaeu, anooiea a ninoaeenooth noaieo, i/aiue auno?i
?anuaieythony, e inaiaiaeaeathueeny i?e yoii oieanoa?ei e o?eaeeoea?eaeu
ieacuaatho iia?aaeaeathuaa aoa?iaaiiia aeaenoaea. I?e aoa?ineea?ica
oaaee/eaaaony niaea?aeaiea iai?i/iuo eeiii?ioaeaeia – aaoa e i?aaaoa –
ca n/ao oiaiueoaiey aeueoa-eeiii?ioaeaeia. A caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a
ia?ooaiey eeieaeiiai iaiaia (/oi i?aiaeaaeaao), auaeaeaiu 5 a?oii
aeia?eeieaeaiee. Iniaaiii iaoiaaiiui aeaenoaeai iaeaaeatho 2 e 3 oeiu –
n i?aiaeaaeaieai aaoa e i?aaaoa eeiii?ioaeaeia. Ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue
ea?aao oaeaea oaaee/aiea ynoa?aoeoee?iaaiiuo aee?iuo eeneio, eioi?ua
eaeoo ia neioac oieanoa?eia e o?eaeeoea?eaeia, a oaeaea nieaeatho
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue oeaiae e einoeeio, /oi oiaiueoaao i?aa?auaiea
aetheicu a aeeeiaai, iiauoaaony aeia?aeeeaiey e i?eniaaeeiyaony
ia?ooaiea oaeaaiaeiiai iaiaia. Ia?ooaaony oaeaea e aaeeiau iaiai (naycue
aaeeia n eeieaeaie).

2. Ia?ooaiea i?iieoeaaiinoe naiie ninoaeenoie noaiee, oi anoue aa
ii?oieiae/aneea ia?ooaiey. Iiauoaiea i?iieoeaaiinoe naycaii n:

a) oaaee/aieai niaea?aeaiey eeneuo ioeiiieenaoa?eaeia;

a) ia?ooaieai iee?ioee?eoeyoeee a naiie ninoaeenoie noaiea: i?ienoiaeeo
iiauoaiea aa i?iieoeaaiinoe. I?e/eia ia?aaeei eaaeeo a oaaee/aiee
niaea?aeaiey ianoiuo ai?iiiia, iai?eia?, a?aaeeeeieia, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
oaaee/aieth o?iaiy eaoaoieaieiia.

Ii?aaeaeaiiay ?ieue a iaoiaaiaca aoa?ineea?ica i?eiaaeeaaeeo oaaee/aieth
oa?iaioaoeaiie aeoeaiinoe naiie ninoaeenoie noaiee, a /anoiinoe,
yeanoacu, /oi i?eaiaeeo e ia?ooaieth yeanoe/aneiai ea?eana noaiee
ninoaea. Aeiiieieoaeueiui oaeoi?ii iiaeao auoue oaeaea iiauoaiea
aioo?eninoaeenoiai aeaaeaiey (AAe) – eoaie/aneee iia?aaeaeathuee oaeoi?.

Yoeieiaey aoa?ineea?ica:

Yoeieiae/aneoth ?ieue a aicieeiiaaiee aoa?ineea?ica ea?atho:

– aic?ano; iaeneioi caaieaaaaiinoe aoa?ineea?icii i?eoiaeeony ia aic?ano
noa?oa 5I eao. N oaaee/aieai aic?anoa iiauoaaony aeoeaiinoue yeanoacu,
niaea?aeaiea eeneuo ioeiiieenaoa?eaeia, oaaee/eaaaony neioac e
?anuaieaiea oieanoa?eia.

– iie: o ioae/ei aoa?ineea?ic aicieeaao ?aiueoa e /aua, iai?ioea,
aeaineea iieiaua ai?iiiu caaea?aeeaatho ia?aciaaiea aaoa-eeiii?ioaeaeia
e oaaee/eaatho aeueoa-eeiii?ioaeaeia.

– ieeioeiiaay eioieneeaoeey: aeaenoaoao ia i?iieoeaaiinoue ninoaeia,
o.e. i?e yoii ?acei oaaee/eaaaony aua?in aae?aiaeeia, oaaee/eaaaony
iia?aaeaeaiea.

– aaiaoe/aneay i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoue: 2 e 3 oeiu ia?ooaiey eeieaeiiai
iaiaia, /aua ano?a/athony a naiueyo n AA, EAN, ii oieueei 2-e oei
ianeaaeoaony ii caeiiai Iaiaeaey.

– io?eoeaoaeueiua ineoiyiioeeiiaeueiua aicaeaenoaey: oaaee/eaaaony
niaea?aeaiea eaoaoieaieiia a e?iae.

– iniaaiiinoe ee/iinoe: iaoieiae/anee naiiethaeaua, iieoaeueiua,
aa?anneaiua e o.ae.

– iaoia?aiiinoue a ieoaiee: eaei?eeiinoue ieue aeieaeia no?iai
niioaaonoaiaaoue iio?aaiinoyi i?aaiecia, a ia ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny
aiiaoeoii.

– iaeiiiaeaeaeiue ia?ac aeecie: /ai aeoeaiaa ia?ac aeecie, oai
niaa?oaiiaa eieeaoa?aee e ae?oaea iaoaieciu eiiiainaoeee.

– nouanoaotho caaieaaaiey, eioi?ua onei?ytho ?acaeoea aoa?ineea?ica:

1) ana aeaeu a?oa?eaeueiie aeia?oaicee,

2) naoa?iue aeeaaao,

3) iiaeaa?a,

4) iaee?aiea,

5) aeiioe?aic.

Auaeaeythony oaeaea oaeoi?u ?enea aoa?ineea?ica: ii?aaeaeaiea ioeeiiaiey
eeeie/aneeo, aeioeie/aneeo iieacaoaeae, a?aaeiua i?eau/ee,
niioonoaothuea caaieaaaiey, eioi?ua cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eaatho
aa?iyoiinoue aicieeiiaaiey aoa?ineea?ica; iniiaiua: a?oa?eaeueiay
aeia?oaicey, aeia?oieenoa?eiaiey, ieeioeiiaay eioieneeaoeey.

Aeiiieieoaeueiua: iaee?aiea —> naoa?iue aeeaaao, iaeiiiaeaeaeiue ia?ac
aeecie —> iiaeaa?a.

Eeeie/aneea i?iyaeaiey aoa?ineea?ica:

1. EAN.

2. Eoaie/aneay aieaciue aieiaiiai iicaa.

3. Eoaiey ii/a/iuo a?oa?ee.

4. Eoaiey ieaeieo eiia/iinoae.

N?aaee anao i?iyaeaiee aoa?ineea?ica ia ia?aii ianoa – EAN.

Eeeieea noaiiea?aeee:

Aiee ca a?oaeeiie naeeiathuaai, aeaayuaai oa?aeoa?a, aeeeoaeueiinoueth
aei 15 iei, ?aaea aei 3I iei. Aieaaua iuouaiey e??aaeee?otho a ieaeithth
/aethnoue, iiae eaaoth eiiaoeo, eaaoth ?oeo, oi anoue aaa?o e /aua anaai
aeaai. I?enooiu aieae /aua anaai aicieeatho i?e oece/aneie eee
yiioeeiiaeueiie iaa?ocea, nii?iaiaeaeathony no?aoii nia?oe,
neiaaiiinoueth aieueiiai, iuouaieai iaoaaoee aicaeooa. Eiiaaea aieueiua
eniuouaatho iai?eyoiia iuouaiea ia a iaeanoe na?aeoea, a a ianoao
e??aaeeaoeee aieaauo iuouaiee. I?iaieaoi?aie aieae iiaoo auoue:
oece/aneay iaa?ocea, yiioeeiiaeueiay iaa?ocea, oieiaeiay iiaiaea, i?eai
ieue, ninoiyiea iieiy, iniaaiii a iieiaeaiee eaaea ii/ueth.

Auaeaeytho:

– noaiiea?aeeth iai?yaeaiey,

– noaiiea?aeeth iieiy (nai?iay a?oiia, eioi?oth iauaaeeiyao
aicieeiiaaiea i?enooiia a iieia). I?enooiu aicieeatho /aua ii/ueth.
I?e/eiu: ii/ueth iiauoaaony oiion aaaona, i?ienoiaeeo nieaeaiea AAe e
ei?iia?iiai e?iaioiea niioaaonoaaiii. I?e yoii auaaao aeinoaoi/ii
anoaoue a iinoaee, e i?enooi i?ioiaeeo. Iai?eyoiua niiaeaeaiey; i?e yoii
oaaee/eaaaony aeoeaiinoue neiiaoe/aneie ia?aiie nenoaiu, a e?iae
oaaee/eaaaony niaea?aeaiea aae?aiaeeia, ?anoao o?iaaiue eaoaoieaieiia a
na?aea/iie iuooea.

I?e ia?aoiaea ec aa?oeeaeueiiai iieiaeaiey a ai?eciioaeueiia
oaaee/eaaaony aaiiciue aica?ao e na?aeoeo, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e iaa?ocea
ia na?aeoea. I?e yoii noaiiea?aeey /anoi naycaia n na?aea/iie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth, i?eiaiytho niioaaonoaaiii na?aea/iua aeeeiceaeu.

Ano?a/aaony oaeaea noaiiea?aeey I?eioeiaoaeea: aeey iaa oa?aeoa?iu
aeeeoaeueiua aiee, i?enooi caoyaeaaaony aei 3I iei. Aicieeiiaaiea
i?enooia naycaii ni niaciii ei?iia?iuo a?oa?ee, eiathueo
aoa?ineea?ioe/aneea aeyoee, oaeay oi?ia noaiiea?aeee /anoi yaeyaony
i?aaeaanoieeii nia?oe, ia?aaeei nii?iaiaeaeaaony ia?ooaieai ?eoia,
?anno?ienoaaie na?aea/iie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia YEA iaoiaeyo eciaiaiey,
oa?aeoa?iua aeey eioa?eoa ieiea?aea: niauaiea naaiaioa O aaa?o, a ia
aiec, eae i?e iau/iie noaiiea?aeee. Iaeiaei iinea i?enooia YEA
aica?auaaony e ii?ia.

Iiaeao auoue oaeaea ?aoeaeoi?iay noaiiea?aeey, aicieeathuay i?e
iaoieiaee aeeceaaeaueo i?aaiia: i?e a?eiiao, ycaaiiie aieacie,
oieaoeenoeoao e o.ae.

Noaiiea?aeey aeeeoaeueiinoueth io 3 aei 5 iei, aicieeathuay oieueei a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo neooaoeeyo, iacuaaaony noaaeeueiie. Ae?oaie aeae
noaiiea?aeee – ianoaaeeueiay: aicieeaao oiaaea, eiaaea i?enooiu oa?ytho
oa?aeoa?ioth oeeeee/iinoue, oeie/iinoue; eo aeeeoaeueiinoue aei 1I-15
iei. Iiaoo aicieeaoue a iai?aau/iuo ?aiaa neooaoeeyo. Ianoaaeeueiay
noaiiea?aeey yaeyaony i?aaeaanoieeii eioa?eoa ieiea?aea eee aiacaiiie
nia?oe io oea?eeeyoeee aeaeoaei/eia. I?e ino?ie ei?iia?iie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe, a ioee/ea io eioa?eoa ieiea?aea, iao oa?aeoa?iuo aeey
iaai eciaiaiee e?iae e YEA, a a ioee/ea io noaiiea?aeee, i?enooi aiee
iaeoie?oaiue, aeeeoaeueiue e aoeie/iue – ca iei iau/ii eaaeeo ia
iaoieiaey na?aeoea, a iaoieiaey ae?oaeo i?aaiia. Oa?aeoa?iu aiee
iithuaai, eiethuaai oa?aeoa?a.

Aeeaaiinoeea noaiiea?aeee

Aeieaeia iniiauaaoueny ia ouaoaeueiii aiaiiaca, o.e. aia i?enooia
iauaeoeaiua aeaiiua iiaoo ionoonoaiaaoue.

Ai a?aiy i?enooia: neiaaiiinoue, enioaaiiue aeae aieueiiaiae oaoeea?aeey
e ae?oaea ia?ooaiey ?eoia; iiauoaiea AAe; ciia aeia?noacee iaae
aa?oooeie na?aeoea; YEA: eciaiaiea naaiaioa ST e coaoea O (oi anoue
eiia/iie /anoe aeaeoaei/eiaiai eiiieaena), naaiaio ST nieaeai, coaaoe O
naeaaeaiiue, eciiaeo?aeueiue eee io?eoeaoaeueiue.

I?iaa n oece/aneie iaa?oceie i?iaiaeeony ia aaeiy?aiiao?a. Ii AIC i?iaa
n/eoaaony iieiaeeoaeueiie, anee i?ienoiaeeo nieaeaiea naaiaioa ST ieaea
ecieeiee, ia iaiaa, /ai ia 2 ii. Anee eciaiaiey YEA iinea iaa?ocee
iaiiieiatho oaeiaua i?e eioa?eoa ieiea?aea – yoi noaiiea?aeey
I?eioeiaoaeea.

Iaoiae ai?oia?aoee. I/aiue eioi?iaoeaai, ii ia aaca?aaeai. Aeaao
i?aaenoaaeaiea i aaia?aeeciaaiiinoe e au?aaeaiiinoe iaoieiae/aneeo
eciaiaiee. Eniieuecoaony iau/ii a i?aaeiia?aoeeiiiii ia?eiaea, anee
noaaeony aii?in i iaiaoiaeeiinoe iia?aoeaiiai ea/aiey, oae eae
noaiiea?aeey ia?aaeei naycaia n aoa?ineea?icii, aeaeatho
niioaaonoaothuea aeioeie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic:

Iaa?ic na?aeoea (iaa?anoaiey n i?aeiouanoaaiiui ii?aaeaieai na?aeoea).
Iaa?icii /aua anaai no?aaeatho iieiaeua aeaiueiu, ii auaaao e a
eeeiaeoa?e/aneii ia?eiaea. Oa?aeoa?iu aiee a iaeanoe aa?oooee na?aeoea,
a ia ca a?oaeeiie. Aiee iithuea, eiethuea, ooiua, a i?e noaiiea?aeee
aeao/ea. Noaiiea?aeey aicieeaao a iiiaio oece/aneie eee yiioeeiiaeueiie
iaa?ocee, i?e iaa?ica aiee a iieia eee iinea iaa?ocee. I?e iaa?anoaiee
iiiai ae?oaeo aeaeia, i?e noaiiea?aeee iaeia. I?e noaiiea?aeee /anoi
ano?a/athony ia?ooaiey ?eoia (oaoeea?aeey), i?e iaa?anoaiee /anoi aiiaua
iao iauaeoeaiuo aeaiiuo, oi anoue eiaao ianoi ?anoiaeaeaiea iaeeey
aeaeia e neoaeiie iauaeoeaiie neiioiiaoeee. ?aiueoa iiyoiio iaa?anoaieth
iacuaaee “aieueoie i?eoai?ueoeae”.

Inoaioiiae?ic

Nae/an ano?a/aaony /anoi, iniaaiii iinea 4I eao. Iaoiaaiac aieaaiai
neiae?iia naycai n ouaieaieai ei?aoeia ia?aia, yoi aoi?e/iay iaa?aeaey.
Aiee /anoi naycaiu n ii?aaeaeaiiuie aeaeaeaieyie: iiai?iou aieiau, niaia
iicu e ae?. Aieue i?e inoaioiiae?ica /anoi iiiynuaathuaai oa?aeoa?a,
ia?aaeei ?ani?ino?aiyaony ii iaae?aaa?ueyi. Oa?aeoa?ia aieueoay
aeeeoaeueiinoue aieae: aei 1 /ana e aieaa. Aiee aieaa ?aceea, /ai i?e
noaiiea?aeee, ia nieiathony ieo?iaeeoea?eiii, ii nieiathony
aiaeueaaoeeaie. Oa?aeoa?ia aieaciaiiinoue a oi/ea Aaaea ii ia?aaeiae
iiaeiuoa/iie eeiee, aaea aeeaea anaai e iiaa?oiinoe i?ioiaeyo ei?aoee
ia?aia.

Aeeao?aaiaeueiay a?uaea

Aiee naycaiu n eiee/anoaii i?eiyoie ieue, a oaeaea n iieiaeaieai
aieueiiai: /aua anaai aicieeatho a iieiaeaiee eaaea eee anee aieueiie
iinea aaeu inoaaony neaeaoue ca noieii. *anoi auaaao io?uaeea. I?e
ia?eonnee na?aeoea iaoiaeyo aunieee oeiiaieo. Eioi?iaoeaii
?aioaaiieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea.

Aunieay ycaa aeaeoaeea

Aiee aicieeatho n?aco eee /a?ac iaeei e oio aea i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie
iinea aaeu, eieaeueiay aieaciaiiinoue iaae iaeanoueth aeaeoaeea;
iiiiaaao ?aioaaiieiae/aneee iaoiae.

Eioa?eo ieiea?aea

(ni. aeaeaa)

Noaiiea?aeeth iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea aeeooa?aioee?iaaoue n neoeeeoe/aneei
ai?oeoii.

Ea/aiea

Iaiaoiaeeii iaiaaeeaiii i?a?aaoue i?enooi noaiiea?aeee.

Ieo?iaeeoea?ei – aieaa iiuiiai e auno?iaeaenoaothuaai i?aia?aoa iiea
iao. I?eiaiytho 1% nie?oiaie ?anoai? ia eoni/ea naoa?a iiae ycue eee
oaaeaoeo I,III5.

Aaeeaeie – i?e eaaeii oa/aiee, a oaeaea i?e ioeuene?othuae aieiaiie
aiee; eiaaea aieueiua ieioi ia?aiinyo ieo?iaeeoea?ei.

Iaoaieci aeaenoaey ieo?iaeeoea?eia: ei?iia?iaeeeyoaoeey, oiaiueoaiea
ia?eoa?e/aneiai nii?ioeaeaiey ninoaeia aieueoiai e?oaa e?iaiia?auaiey;
oiaiueoathony aaiiciue aica?ao e na?aeoeo, na?aea/iue aua?in e neea
na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee, oei?a/eaaaony ia?eiae ecaiaiey e?iae. Ana yoi
i?eaiaeeo e aaiiaeeiaie/aneie ?aca?ocea na?aeoea, oiaiueoaao
iio?aaiinoue ieiea?aea a eenei?iaea, ?aoeeiiaeueii ia?a?ani?aaeaeyao
ei?iia?iue e?iaioie a noi?iio oeo/oaiey ieoaiey eoaiece?iaaiiiai
o//anoea, a /anoiinoe noayieea?aeeaeueiuo ioaeaeia.

Ea/aiea a iaaei?enooiiue ia?eiae

1. Ei?iia?i?anoe?ythuea i?aia?aou:

Iaiaaa?ei – oaa. I,I4; aii. 1% 1,I, 2% 2,I. I?eiaiytho aioo?ue ii
I,I4-I,I8 * 3-4 ?aca a aeaiue eee i/e, a/i. Ia?aioa?aeueii aaiaeyo i?e
i?enooiao.

Ea?aao?iiai (eioa?ei?aeei, eioainaei) oaa. I,I75 e I,I15 oaaee/eaaao
ei?iia?iue e?iaioie, i?e aeeeoaeueiii i?eiaiaiee niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth
eieeaoa?aeae. I?eiaiytho ii 2 oaa. * 3 ?aca a aeaiue.

Aeeie?eaeaiie (eo?aioee, ia?naioeo) oaa. I,I25 e I,I75; aii. I,5% 2,I.
Iiieaeaao nii?ioeaeaiea ei?iia?iuo a?oa?ee, oaaee/eaay ia?aciaaiea
aaeiiceia, ii iiaeao aucaaoue oaiiiai “iae?aaeuaaiey” eoaiece?iaaiiiai
o/anoea. Oaeaea oi?iiceo aa?aaaoeeth o?iiaioeeoia e oai naiui oeo/oaao
iee?ioee?eoeyoeeth a ieiea?aea. Ii 2 oaa. * 3 ?aca a aeaiue.

Yooeeeei oaa. I,1 e I,15; aii. 2,4% 1I,I a/a. I?aia?ao, ia?yaeo n
?anoe?aieai ei?iia?ia, cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eaaao ?aaioo na?aeoea e
iiauoaao iio?aaiinoue ieiea?aea a eenei?iaea – yoi ceiea/anoaaiiue
ei?iia?iaeeeyoaoi?. Iacia/atho oieueei ii niaoeeaeueiui iieacaieyi: i?e
niioonoaothuae na?aea/iie eee a?iioeaeueiie anoia, nii?iaiaeaeathuaeny
a?iioiniaciii, i?e eaai/ii-na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.

Ii-oia oaa. I,I4; aii.2% 2,I. I?eiaiytho eae e iaiaaa?ei i?e ia/aeueiuo
noaaeeyo noaiiea?aeee, ii 1-2 oaa. * 2 ?. a aeaiue, i?e i?enooiao
aaiaeyo ia?aioa?aeueii.

Aeeo?eiei I,I8 eniieuecoaony

Eeaeioeacei I,I6 ?aaea i?e eaaeeo

Aeeo?ee I,I6 i?enooiao

A?oiia aeeoea?eiia i?ieiiae?iaaiiiai aeaenoaey: Nonoae-Oi?oa 6,4 ia,
Nonoae-Ieooa 2,6 ia Ieo?iia 6,5 ia

N 1II O?eieo?ieiia 3,I ia

I?aia?aou aeaiiie a?oiiu iacia/atho 2 ?aca e aieaa a aeaiue aioo?ue,
oaaeaoeo iaycaoaeueii aeioaoue oeaeeeii, ia ?acaeaauaay.

A?oiia ieo?aoia (oiaiueoaao i?eoie e?iae e na?aeoeo): Y?eieo I,I1
Ieo?ini?aeo I,I1 Iieiaeeoaeueiue yooaeo i?e iacia/aiee
ei?iia?i?anoe?ythueo n?aaenoa iaaethaeaaony i?eia?ii o 5I% aieueiuo.
I?aia?aou yoie a?oiiu iacia/atho eae oiiiaoth oa?aieth a eiiieaena n
ae?oaeie i?aia?aoaie.

2. Aioaaiienou eaeueoeey: auaeaeaiu ec a?oiiu ei?iia?i?anoe?ythueo
n?aaenoa. Aeaaiaea?y niaoeeoe/aneiio aioaaiiecio e eaeueoeeth,
oiaiueoatho iio?aaiinoue ieiea?aea a eenei?iaea, i?aiyonoaotho
i?iieeiiaaieth eaeueoeey aioo?ue ieioea?eee.

Aa?aiaiee (eciioei) oaa.I,I4 e I,I8; aii. I,25% 2,I. Nooi/iay aeica 16I
ia. Iaeaaeaao io?eoeaoaeueiui ieio?iiiui aeaenoaeai. Oiaiueoaao AAe,
oaaee/eaaao ei?iia?iue e?iaioie. Iaeaaeaao oaeaea aioea?eoie/aneie
aeoeaiinoueth. I?eiaiytho i?e ?aaeeeo oi?iao noaiiea?aeee, iniaaiii i?e
ni/yaoaiee aa n i?aaena?aeiie yeno?anenoieeae e oaoeea?aeeae.

Ieoaaeeiei (aaeaeao, ei?eioa?, eioaaeeiei) ae?aaea 1I ia. A ioee/ea io
eciioeia, iaei au?aaeaia aioea?eoie/aneay aeoeaiinoue. Aioo?ue ii 1-2
oaa * 3 ?aca a aeaiue. Iieacaiey oa aea + noaiiea?aeey I?eioeiaoaeea.

3. Aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?u: iaeaaeatho io?eoeaoaeueiui ieio?iiiui
aeaenoaeai; ianaeaeoeaiua aaoa-aeieaoi?u oiaiueoatho na?aea/iue aua?in e
iio?aaeaiea ieiea?aeii eenei?iaea. Oa?aiey aeieaeia auoue aeeeoaeueiie,
a oa/aiea iiiaeo ianyoeaa. Anee ea/aiea aiacaiii ioiaieoue, noaiiea?aeey
i?eieiaao ianoaaeeueiia oa/aiea, iiaeao ianooieoue eioa?eo ieiea?aea eee
nia?oue.

Aiai?eeei (iaceaeai, eiaea?ae, i?ii?aiieie) oaa.I,I1 e I,I4; aii. I,1%
1,I. eiaao ei?ioeee ia?eiae iieoauaaaeaiey, iiyoiio i?aia?ao
?ani?aaeaeytho a oa/aiea aeiy (i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey 4 /ana).
Nooi/iay aeica 4I-6I ia. Iaeneioi yooaeoa ianooiaao /a?ac 1 /an, iiyoiio
i?eieiaoue ca /an aei i?aaeiieaaaaiie iaa?ocee, iaoiuae. I?ioeaiiieacai
i?e a?iioeaeueiie anoia, au?aaeaiiie a?aaeeea?aeee, ia?ooaiee ?eoia e
i?iaiaeeiinoe.

Oaeeiieie ae?aaea 5I ia; aii. 1I ia. ssaeyaony ea?aeeinaeaeoeaiui
aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?ii, oae eae ia aeeyao ia aaoa-2 ?aoeaioi?u
a?iioeaeueiiai aiia?aoa. Iaeaaeaao aioea?eoie/aneie aeoeaiinoueth.
I?ioeaiiieacai oieueei i?e ia?ooaiee i?iaiaeeiinoe. Aioo?ue 1-3 ae?aaea
* 3 ?aca a aeaiue.

I?ioeaiiieacaieai e iacia/aieth aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?ia yaeyaony oaeaea
na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue, o.e. i?aia?aou iaeaaeatho io?eoeaoaeueiui
eiio?iiiui aeaenoaeai. Oeaeaniia?aciie yaeyaony eiiaeiaoeey
aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?ia n ieo?aoaie i?ieiiae?iaaiiiai aeaenoaey, /oi
aeaao iieiaeeoaeueiue yooaeo a 8I% neo/aaa. E?iia oiai, oaeay oa?aiey
aaaeao e oeo/oaieth oa/aiey noaiiea?aeee.

4. I?aia?aou, ineaaeythuea aae?aia?ae/aneia aeaenoaea ia na?aeoea.

Aieiaea?ii (ei?aea?ii) oaa.I,2; aii. 15I ia. Iacia/atho n oaea?iie
aeicu 2II ia * 3 ?aca a aeaiue (aeey aeinoeaeaiey yooaeoa ianuuaiey),
aeaeaa ia?aoiaeyo ia iiaeaea?aeeaathuoth aeico 2II ia a nooee. Iaeaaeaao
i?ioeaia?eoie/aneie aeoeaiinoueth, oaaee/eaaao ei?iia?iue e?iaioie.
I?ioeaiiieacai i?e a?aaeeea?aeee, ia?ooaieyo i?iaiaeeiinoe e i?e
a?iioeaeueiie anoia.

5. Anee noaiiea?aeey nii?iaiaeaeaaony na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth, oi
iacia/atho na?aea/iua aeeeiceaeu, /oi aaaeao e aieaa yeiiiiiiio
?anoiaeiaaieth ieiea?aeii eenei?iaea.

6. Aioeaeiienaiou: AEEI-6 (aeei-nec), eainoeu ii 1II ia; aii. ii 1II ia.
Aucuaaao aeoeaaoeeth aiay?iaiuo i?ioeannia a ieiea?aea e oaiaoaao
ay?iaiua, o.a. ia?aaiaeeo iaoaaieeci ieiea?aea ia aieaa yeiiiiiue iooue.

7. Aiaaiee/aneea n?aaenoaa:

?aoaaieee 5% 1,5 a ianea 1 ?ac a iaaeaeth a/i.

Ia?aaieee 1% 1,I a ianea – “ –

Ia?aaie (iaoaiae?inoaiieii) oaa. I,II1 e I,I5.

Eaeey i?ioao oaa. I,5.

8. N?aaenoaa aioea?aaeeeeieiiaiai aeaenoaey:

I?iaeaeoei (ia?ieaeei, aiaeiei) oaa. Nieaeaao ?aaeoeeth ia
a?aaeeeeiei, caiaaeeyao aa?aaaoeeth o?iiaioeeoia. Aeaaaoue aeeeoaeueiia
a?aiy.

O?aioae.

9. Aioeoe?aieaeiua n?aaenoaa: n i?iyaeaieai aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?ia
eniieuecotho e?aeia ?aaeei.

Ia?eacieee I.II5 * 3 ?aca a aeaiue.

E?iia iaaeeeaiaioiciiai ea/aiey eniieuecotho oe?o?ae/aneia ea/aiea –
i?yioth ?aaaneoey?ecaoeeth ieiea?aea. Iieacaiea: oyaeaeay, ia
iiaeaeathuayny iaaeeeaiaioiciiio ea/aieth noaiiea?aeey I?eiaiytho
oaeaea o?aie?iaee n oece/aneie iaa?oceie, eioi?ua niinianoaotho
ia?aciaaieth eieeaoa?aeae, oeo/oatho oiea?aioiinoue ieiea?aea e
iaa?ocea. Oaeaea a?ineoue eo?eoue, na?ineoue eeoiee aan.

.1I. Aioeeiaaoeyiou i?eiaiytho i?e ino?ie neooaoeee: Eo?aioee, Anie?ei,
Aaia?ei.

EIOA?EO IEIEA?AeA

Eioa?eo ieiea?aea – yoi ia?aie/aiiue iae?ic na?aea/iie iuooeu. Iae?icu a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ei?iia?iaaiiua eee eoaie/aneea. ?aaea ano?a/athony
iae?icu aac ei?iia?iiai iia?aaeaeaiey: i?e no?anna – aetheiei?oeeieaeu e
eaoaoieaieiu ?acei iiauoatho iio?aaiinoue ieiea?aea a eenei?iaea; i?e
iaeioi?uo yiaeie?eiiuo ia?ooaieyo; i?e ia?ooaieyo yeaeo?ieeoiiai
aaeaina.

Nae/an eioa?eo ieiea?aea ?anniao?eaaaony oieueei eae eoaie/aneee iae?ic,
o.a. eae iia?aaeaeaiea ieiea?aea aneaaenoaea eoaiee, iaoneiaeaiiie
ieeethceae ei?iia?iuo a?oa?ee. Naiay /anoay i?e/eia – o?iia, ?aaea –
yiaie. Aiciiaeai oaeaea eioa?eo ieiea?aea i?e aeeeoaeueiii niacia
ei?iia?iuo a?oa?ee. O?iiaic /aua anaai iaaethaeaaony ia oiia
aoa?ineea?ioe/aneiai iia?aaeaeaiey aaia/iuo a?oa?ee. I?e iaee/ee
aoa?iiaoiciuo aeyoae i?ienoiaeeo caaeo?aiea iioiea e?iae. E?iia oiai,
aneaaenoaea ia?ooaiiiai eeieaeiiai iaiaia i?e aoa?ineea?ica
oaaee/eaaaony naa?ouaaaiinoue e?iae, /oi io/anoe naycaii oaeaea ni
nieaeaieai aeoeaiinoe oo/iuo eeaoie, au?aaaouaathueo aaia?ei. Iiauoaiiay
naa?ouaaaiinoue e?iae + caaeo?aiey niinianoaotho ia?aciaaieth o?iiaia.
E?iia oiai, e ia?aciaaieth o?iiaia iiaeao aanoe ?aniaae aoa?iiaoiciuo
aeyoae, e?iaieceeyiey a ieo. I?eia?ii a 1% neo/aaa eioa?eo ieiea?aea
?acaeaaaony ia oiia eieeaaaiaca, neoeeeoe/aneiai ii?aaeaiey a?oa?ee, i?e
?anneaeaathuaeny aiaa?ecia ai?ou. Auaeaeytho i?aae?aniieaaathuea
oaeoi?u: neeueiia ineoiyiioeeiiaeueiia ia?aiai?yaeaiea, eioaeoeee,
?aceea eciaiaiey iiaiaeu.

Eioa?eo ieiea?aea – i/aiue ?ani?ino?aiaiiia caaieaaaiea, yaeyaony naiie
/anoie i?e/eiie aiacaiiie nia?oe. I?iaeaia eioa?eoa aei eiioea ia
?aoaia, nia?oiinoue io iaai i?iaeieaeaao oaaee/eaaoueny. Nae/an ana /aua
eioa?eo ieiea?aea ano?a/aaony a iieiaeii aic?anoa. A aic?anoa io 35 aei
5I eao eioa?eo ieiea?aea ano?a/aaony a 5I ?ac /aua o ioae/ei, /ai o
aeaiuei. O 6I-8I% aieueiuo eioa?eo ieiea?aea ?acaeaaaony ia aiacaiii, a
eiaao ianoi i?aaeeioa?eoiue (i?iae?iiaeueiue) neiae?ii, eioi?ue
ano?a/aaony a o?ao aa?eaioao:

1) noaiiea?aeey a ia?aue ?ac, n auno?ui oa/aieai – naiue /anoue aa?eaio;

2) noaiiea?aeey i?ioaeaao niieieii, ii aae?oa ia?aoiaeeo a
ianoaaeeueioth – aicieeaao i?e ae?oaeo neooaoeeyo, ia noaei iieiiai
niyoey aieae;

3) i?enooiu ino?ie ei?iia?iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe;

4) noaiiea?aeey I?eioeiaoaeea.

Eeeieea eioa?eoa Ieiea?aea:

Caaieaaaiea i?ioaeaao oeeeee/anee, iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue ia?eiae
aieacie. *aua anaai eioa?eo ieiea?aea ia/eiaaony n ia?anoathueo aieae ca
a?oaeeiie, ia?aaeei iinyueo ioeuene?othuee oa?aeoa?. Oa?aeoa?ia iaoe?iay
e??aaeeaoeey aieae – a ?oee, nieio, aeeaio, aieiao e o.ae. Aieueiua
aaniieieiu, o?aaiaeiu, eiiaaea ioia/atho /oanoai no?aoa nia?oe. *anoi
i?enoonoaotho i?eciaee na?aea/iie e ninoaeenoie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe –
oieiaeiua eiia/iinoe, eeieee iio e ae?. Aieaaie neiae?ii aeeeoaeueiue,
ia nieiaaony ieo?iaeeoea?eiii. Aicieeatho ?acee/iua ?anno?ienoaa ?eoia
na?aeoea, iaaeaiea AAe. Oeacaiiua auoa i?eciaee oa?aeoa?iu aeey 1
ia?eiaea – aieaaiai eee eoaie/aneiai. Aeeeoaeueiinoue 1 ia?eiaea io
ianeieueeeo /ania aei 2-o nooie.

Iauaeoeaii a yoio ia?eiae iiaeii iaeoe: oaaee/aiea AAe (caoai
nieaeaiea); oaaee/aiea /anoiou na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee; i?e aoneoeueoaoeee
eiiaaea neuoai iaoieiae/aneee 4-e oii; aeioeie/aneeo eciaiaiee e?iae
i?aeoe/anee iao, oa?aeoa?iua i?eciaee ia YEA.

2-e ia?eiae – ino?ue (eeoi?aaei/iue, ainiaeeoaeueiue), oa?aeoa?ecoaony
aicieeiiaaieai iae?ica na?aea/iie iuooeu ia ianoa eoaiee. Iiyaeythony
i?eciaee anaioe/aneiai ainiaeaiey, ia/eiatho ananuaaoueny i?iaeoeou
aeae?ieeca iae?ioece?iaaiiuo iann. Aiee, eae i?aaeei. i?ioiaeyo.
Aeeeoaeueiinoue ino?iai ia?eiaea aei 2-o iaaeaeue. Naii/oanoaea
aieueiiai iinoaiaiii oeo/oaaony, ii nio?aiyaony iauay neaainoue,
iaaeiiiaaiea, oaoeea?aeey. Oiiu na?aeoea aeooea. Iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u
oaea, iaoneiaeaiiia ainiaeeoaeueiui i?ioeannii a ieiea?aea, iau/ii
iaaieueoia, aei 38iN, iiyaeyaony iau/ii ia 3-e aeaiue caaieaaaiey. E
eiioeo ia?aie iaaeaee oaiia?aoo?a, eae i?aaeei, ii?iaeecoaony.

I?e enneaaeiaaiee e?iae ai 2-i ia?eiaea iaoiaeyo: eaeeioeeoic, aicieeaao
e eiioeo 1-o nooie, oia?aiiue, iaeo?ioeeueiue (1I-15 oun.) ni naeaeaii
aei iaei/ae: yiceiioeeu ionoonoaotho eee yiceiiiaiey; iinoaiaiiia
onei?aiea NIY n 3-5 aeiy caaieaaaiey, iaeneioi ei 2-e iaaeaea, e eiioeo
1-ai ianyoea i?eoiaeeo e ii?ia; iiyaeyaony N-?aaeoeaiue aaeie, eioi?ue
nio?aiyaony aei 4 iaaeaee; iiauoaaony aeoeaiinoue o?ainieiacu, iniaaiii
AUO – /a?ac 5-6 /ania e aea?aeeony 3-5-7 aeiae, aeinoeaay 5I AAe. A
iaiueoae noaiaie oaaee/eaaaony aeooaieiiaay o?ainieiaca. Iiauoaaony
oaeaea aeoeaiinoue eaeoaoaeaaeae?iaaiacu (5I AAe), eioi?ay aica?auaaony
e ii?ia ia 1I nooee. Enneaaeiaaiey iineaaeieo eao iieacaee, /oi aieaa
niaoeeoe/iie ii ioiioaieth e ieiea?aeo yaeyaony e?aaoeioinoieeiaca, aa
aeoeaiinoue iiauoaaony i?e eioa?eoa ieiea?aea aei 4-o AAe ia 1 ie e
nio?aiyaony ia aunieii o?iaia 3-5 aeiae.

N/eoaaony, /oi nouanoaoao i?yiay i?iii?oeeiiaeueiay caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo
o?iaiai e?aaoeioinoieeiacu e i?ioyaeaiiinoueth ciiu i/aaa iae?ica
na?aea/iie iuooeu.

Ia YEA y?ei i?aaenoaaeaiu i?eciaee eioa?eoa ieiea?aea.

a) i?e i?iieeathuai eioa?eoa ieiea?aea (o.a. ciia iae?ica
?ani?ino?aiyaony io ia?eea?aea aei yiaeiea?aea): niauaiea naaiaioa ST
auoa ecieeiee, oi?ia auioeeay eaa?oo – yoi ia?aue i?eciae i?iieeathuaai
eioa?eoa ieiea?aea; neeyiea coaoea O n naaiaioaie ST ia 1-3 aeaiue;
aeoaieee e oe?ieee coaaoe Q – iniiaiie, aeaaiue i?eciae; oiaiueoaiea
aaee/eiu coaoea R, eiiaaea oi?ia QS; oa?aeoa?iua aeenei?aeaioiua
eciaiaiey – i?ioeaiiieiaeiua niauaiey ST e O (iai?eia?, a 1 e 2
noaiaea?oiii ioaaaeaieyo ii n?aaiaieth n 3 noaiaea?oiui ioaaaeaieai); a
n?aaeiai n 3-ai aeiy iaaethaeaaony oa?aeoa?iay ia?aoiay aeeiaieea
eciaiaiee YEA: naaiaio ST i?eaeeaeaaony e ecieeiee, iiyaeyaony
?aaiiia?iue aeoaieee O. Coaaoe Q oaeaea i?aoa?iaaaao ia?aoioth
aeeiaieeo, ii eciaiaiiue Q e aeoaieee O iiaoo nio?aiyoueny ia anth
aeeciue.

a) i?e eio?aio?aeueiii eioa?eoa ieiea?aea: iao aeoaieiai coaoea Q,
niauaiea naaiaioa ST iiaeao auoue ia oieueei aaa?o, ii e aiec.

Aeey i?aaeeueiie ioeaiee aaaeii iiaoi?iia niyoea YEA. Oioy YEA-i?eciaee
i/aiue iiiiaatho aeeaaiinoeea, aeeaaiic aeieaeai iie?aoueny ia ana
i?eciaee (a e?eoa?ee) aeeaaiinoeee eioa?eoa ieiea?aea:

1. Eeeie/aneea i?eciaee.

2. Yeaeo?iea?aeeia?aoe/aneea i?eciaee.

3. Aeioeie/aneea i?eciaee.

3 ia?eiae (iiaeino?ue eee ia?eiae ?oaoeaaaiey) aeeeony 4-6 iaaeaeue.
Oa?aeoa?iui aeey iaai yaeyaony ii?iaeecaoeey iieacaoaeae e?iae
(oa?iaioia), ii?iaeecoaony oaiia?aoo?a oaea e en/acatho ana ae?oaea
i?eciaee ino?iai i?ioeanna: eciaiyaony YEA, ia ianoa iae?ica ?acaeaaaony
niaaeeieoaeueii-oeaiiue ?oaaoe. Noauaeoeaii aieueiie /oanoaoao naay
caei?iaui.

4. ia?ei (ia?eiae ?aaaeeeoaoeee, ainnoaiiaeoaeueiue) – aeeeony io 6-oe
ianyoeaa aei 1 aiaea. Eeeie/anee ieeaeeo i?eciaeia iao. A yoio ia?eiae
i?ienoiaeeo eiiiainaoi?iay aeia?o?ioey eioaeoiuo iuoa/iuo aieieii
ieiea?aea, ?acaeaathony ae?oaea eiiiainaoi?iua iaoaieciu. I?ienoiaeeo
iinoaiaiiia ainnoaiiaeaiea ooieoeee ieiea?aea. Ii ia YEA nio?aiyaony
iaoieiae/aneee coaaoe Q.

AOEIE*IUA OI?IU OA*AIEss EIOA?EOA IEIEA?AeA

1. Aaaeiieiaeueiay oi?ia. I?ioaeaao ii oeio iaoieiaee AEEO n aieyie a
iiaeeiaea/iie iaeanoe, a aeeaioa, n oioiioie, ?aioie. *aua anaai
aano?aeae/aneay oi?ia (aaaeiieiaeueiay) eioa?eoa ieiea?aea ano?a/aaony
i?e eioa?eoa caaeiae noaiee eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea. A oeaeii aa?eaio
?aaeeee. YEA ioaaaeaiey II, III, AVL.

2. Anoiaoe/aneay oi?ia: ia/eiaaony n na?aea/iie anoiu e i?iaioee?oao
ioae eaaeeo eae enoiae. Aiee iiaoo ionoonoaiaaoue. Anoiaoe/aneay oi?ia
ano?a/aaony /aua o iiaeeeuo ethaeae n ea?aeeineea?icii eee i?e iiaoi?iii
eioa?eoa, eee i?e i/aiue iaoe?iuo eioa?eoao.

3. Iicaiaay oi?ia: ia ia?aii ieaia neiioiiu ia?ooaiey iicaiaiai
e?iaiia?auaiey ii oeio einoeueoa n iioa?ae niciaiey, ano?a/aaony /aua o
iiaeeeuo ethaeae ni neea?icii ninoaeia aieiaiiai iicaa.

4. Iaiay eee aacaieaaay oi?ia eiiaaea yaeyaony neo/aeiie iaoiaeeie i?e
aeeniaina?ecaoeee. Ec eeeie/aneeo i?iyaeaiee: aae?oa noaei “aeo?ii”,
aicieeea ?aceay neaainoue, eeieee iio, caoai ana, e?iia neaainoe,
i?ioiaeeo. Oaeay neooaoeey oa?aeoa?ia aeey eioa?eoa a iiaeeeii aic?anoa
e i?e iiaoi?iuo eioa?eoao ieiea?aea.

5. A?eoie/aneay oi?ia: aeaaiue i?eciae ia?ieneciaeueiay oaoeea?aeey,
aieaaie neiae?ii iiaeao ionoonoaiaaoue.

6. O?iiaiyiaiee/aneay.

Eioa?eo ieiea?aea i/aiue oyaeaeia caaieaaaiea n /anoui eaoaeueiui
enoiaeii, iniaaiii /anou ineiaeiaiey a I e II ia?eiaeao.

Ineiaeiaiey eioa?eoa Ieiea?aea:

I ia?eiae

1. Ia?ooaiey ?eoia na?aeoea, iniaaiii iianiu ana aeaeoaei/eiaua a?oa?ee
(aeaeoaei/eiaay oi?ia ia?ieneciaeueiie oaoeea?aeee, iieeo?iiiua
aeaeoaei/eiaua yeno?anenoieee e o.ae.) Yoi iiaeao i?eaanoe e
oea?eeeyoeee aeaeoaei/eia (eeeie/aneay nia?oue), e inoaiiaea na?aeoea.
I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeiu n?i/iua ?aaaeeeoaoeeiiiua ia?ii?eyoey, oea?eeeyoeey
aeaeoaei/eia iiaeao i?iecieoe e a i?aaeeioa?eoiue ia?eiae.

2. Ia?ooaiey ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iie i?iaiaeeiinoe: iai?eia?, ii oeio
enoeiiie yeaeo?i-iaoaie/aneie aeennioeeaoeee. *aua aicieeaao i?e
ia?aaeia- e caaeiaia?aai?iaei/iuo oi?iao eioa?eoa ieiea?aea.

3. Ino?ay eaaiaeaeoaei/eiaay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue: ioae eaaeeo, na?aea/iay
anoia.

4. Ea?aeeiaaiiue oie:

a) ?aoeaeoi?iue – i?ienoiaeeo iaaeaiea AAe, aieueiie ayeue,
caoi?iiaeaiiue, eiaea n na?iaaoui iooaieii, oieiaeiue i?ioociue iio.
I?e/eia – aieaaia ?acae?aaeaiea.

a) A?eoie/aneee – ia oiia ia?ooaiey ?eoia.

a) Enoeiiue – naiue iaaeaaii?eyoiue, eaoaeueiinoue i?e iai aeinoeaaao
9I%.

A iniiaa enoeiiiai ea?aeeiaaiiiai oiea eaaeeo ?aceia ia?ooaiea
nie?aoeoaeueiie niiniaiinoe ieiea?aea i?e iaoe?iuo aai iia?aaeaeaieyo,
/oi i?eaiaeeo e ?aceiio oiaiueoaieth na?aea/iiaia aua?ina, ieiooiue
iauai iaaeaao aei 2,5 e/iei. *oiau naea?aeaoue iaaeaiea AAe,
eiiiainaoi?ii i?ienoiaeeo niaci ia?eoa?e/aneeo ninoaeia, iaeiaei ii
iaaei/oaoi/ai aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey iee?ioee?eoeyoeee e ii?iaeueiiai
o?iaiy AAe. ?acei caiaaeeyaony e?iaioie ia ia?eoa?ee, ia?acoathony
iee?io?iiau (i?e eioa?eoa ieiea?aea iiauoaia naa?ouaaaiinoue +
caiaaeeaiiue e?iaioie). Neaaenoaeai iee?io?iiaiia?aciaaiey yaeyaony
eaieeey?inoac, iiyaeythony ioe?uoua a?oa?eiaaiiciua ooiou, ia/eiatho
no?aaeaoue iaiaiiua i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeeo iaeiieaiea a e?iae e a oeaiyo
iaaeiieeneaiiuo i?iaeoeoia, eioi?ua ?acei oaaee/eaatho i?iieoeaaiinoue
eaieeey?ia. Ia/eiaaony i?iiioaaaiea aeeaeeie /anoe ieaciu e?iae
aneaaenoaea oeaiaaiai aoeeaeica. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e oiaiueoaieth IOeE,
oiaiueoaaony aaiiciue aica?ao e na?aeoeo, ieiooiue iauai iaaeaao aua
aieueoa – caiueaaony ii?i/iue e?oa. A e?iae iaaethaeaaony aoeeaeic,
eioi?ue aua aieueoa oooaeoaao ?aaioo na?aeoea.

Eeeieea enoeiiiai oiea: Neaainoue, caoi?iiaeaiiinoue – i?aeoe/anee
nooii?. AAe iaaeaao aei 8I ii ?o.no. e ieaea, ii ia anaaaea oae /aoei.
Ioeueniaia aeaaeaiea iaycaoaeueii iaiueoa 25 ii ?o.no. Eiaea oieiaeiay,
caieenoi-na?ay, eiiaaea iyoienoay, aeaaeiay aneaaenoaea eaieeey?inoaca.
Ioeuen ieoaaeaeiue, /anoi a?eoie/iue. ?acei iaaeaao aeeo?ac, aieioue aei
aio?ee.

5. Ia?ooaiey AEEO: ia?ac aeaeoaeea e eeoa/ieea /aua i?e ea?aeeiaaiiii
oiea, aeaeoaei/iia e?iaioa/aiea. Naycaiu n oaaee/aieai eiee/anoaa
aetheiei?oeeieaeia.

II ia?eiae

Aiciiaeiu ana 5 i?aaeuaeoueo ineiaeiaiee + nianoaaiii ineiaeiaiey II
ia?eiaea.

1. Ia?eea?aeeo: aicieeaao i?e ?acaeoee iae?ica ia ia?eea?aea, iau/ii ia
2-3 aeaiue io ia/aea caaieaaaiey. Oneeeaathony eee aiiaue iiyaeythony
aiee ca a?oaeeiie, iinoiyiiua, ioeuene?othuea, ia aaeioa aieue
oneeeaaaony, iaiyaony i?e eciaiaiee iieiaeaiey oaea e i?e aeaeaeaiee.
Iaeiia?aiaiii iiyaeyaony ooi o?aiey ia?eea?aea.

2. I?enoaii/iue o?iiaiyiaeiea?aeeo: aicieeaao i?e o?ainio?aeueiii
eioa?eoa n aiaea/aieai a iae?ioe/aneee i?ioeann yiaeiea?aea. Aeeeoaeueii
nio?aiythony i?eciaee ainiaeaiey eee iiyaeythony aiiaue iinea iaeioi?iai
niieieiiai ia?eiaea. Iniiaiui enoiaeii aeaiiiai ninoiyiey yaeyaony
o?iiaiyiaieey a ninoaeu aieiaiiai iicaa, eiia/iinoe e a ae?oaea ninoaeu
aieueoiai e?oaa e?iaiia?auaiey. Aeeaaiinoe?oaony i?e aaio?eeoeia?aoee,
neaie?iaaiee.

3. ?ac?uau ieiea?aea, ia?oaeiua e aioo?aiiea.

a) Ia?oaeiue, n oaiiiiaaeie ia?eea?aea. Iau/ii eiaao ia?eiae
i?aaeaanoieeia: ?aoeeaeeae?othuea aiee, ia iiaeaeathueany aiaeueaaoeeai.
Nai ?ac?ua nii?iaiaeaeaaony neeueiaeoae aieueth, e /a?ac ianeieueei
naeoiae aieueiie oa?yao niciaiea. Nii?iaiaeaeaaony ?ac/aeoei oeeaiicii.
Anee aieueiie ia iiaeaaao a iiiaio ?ac?uaa, ?acaeaaaony oyaeaeue
ea?aeeiaaiiue oie, naycaiiue n oaiiiiaaeie na?aeoea. Aeeeoaeueiinoue
aeecie n iiiaioa ?ac?uaa en/eneyaony ieiooaie, a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo
/anaie. A eneeth/eoaeueii ?aaeeeo neo/ayo i?ee?uoie ia?oi?aoeee
(e?iaieceeyiea a inoieiaaiiue o/anoie iieinoe ia?eea?aea), aieueiua
aeeaoo ianeieueei aeiae e aeaaea ianyoeaa.

a) Aioo?aiiee ?ac?ua – io?ua iaieeey?iie iuooeu, /aua anaai auaaao i?e
eioa?eoa caaeiae noaiee. Io?ua iuooeu i?eaiaeeo e ino?ie eeaiaiiie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe (ieo?aeueiie). ?ac/aeoay aieue e ea?aeeiaaiiue oie.
?acaeaaaony ino?ay eaaiaeaeoaei/eiaay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue (ioae eaaeeo),
a?aieoeu na?aeoea ?acei oaaee/aiu aeaai. Oa?aeoa?ai a?oaue nenoiee/aneee
ooi n yieoeaio?ii ia aa?oooea na?aeoea, i?iaiaeyueeny a iiaeiuoa/ioth
iaeanoue. Ia aa?oooea /anoi oaeaaony iaia?oaeeoue e nenoiee/aneia
ae?iaeaiea. Ia OEA eaioiia?aciue ooi iaaeaeo I e II oiiaie. *anoi
ianooiaao nia?oue io ino?ie eaaiaeaeoaei/eiaie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.
Iaiaoiaeeii n?i/iia iia?aoeaiia aiaoaoaeuenoai.

a) Aioo?aiiee ?ac?ua iaaei?aaena?aeiie ia?aai?iaeee ano?a/aaony ?aaeei.
Aiacaiiue eieeain, aneaae ca eioi?ui auno?i ia?anoatho yaeaiey ino?ie
eaaiaeaeoaei/eiaie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.

a) Aioo?aiiee ?ac?ua iaaeaeaeoaei/eiaie ia?aai?iaeee: aiacaiiue eieeain,
iaeuoea, oeeaiic, oaaee/aiea na?aeoea ai?aai, oaaee/aiea ia/aie,
iaaooaiea oaeiuo aai, a?oaue nenoiee/aneee ooi iaae a?oaeeiie +
nenoiee/aneia ae?iaeaiea + aeeanoiee/aneee ooi – i?eciaee ino?ie
canoieiie i?aaiaeaeoaei/eiaie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe. Ia?aaeee ia?ooaieyu
?eoia na?aeoea e i?iaiaeeiinoe (iieiay iiia?a/iay aeieaaea). *anou
eaoaeueiua enoiaeu.

4. Ino?ay aiaa?ecia na?aeoea: ii eeeie/aneei i?iyaeaieyi niioaaonoaoao
oie eee eiie noaiaie ino?ie na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe. Iaeaieaa /anoay
eieaeecaoeey iinoeioa?eoiuo aiaa?eci – eaaue aeaeoaei/ae, aai ia?aaeiyy
noaiea e aa?oooea. ?acaeoeth aiaa?eciu niinianoaotho aeoaieee e
i?ioyaeaiiue eioa?eo ieiea?aea, iiaoi?iue eioa?eo ieiea?aea,
a?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oiiey, na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue. Ino?ay aiaa?ecia
na?aeoea aicieeaao i?e o?ainio?aeueiii eioa?eoa ieiea?aea a ia?eiae
ieiiaeyoeee. I?eciaee: ia?anoathuay eaaiaeaeoaei/eiaay
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue, oaaee/aiea a?aieoe na?aeoea e aai iauaia;
iaaeaa?oooa/iay ioeuenaoeey eee neiioii ei?iiunea (iaaeaa?oooa/iay
ioeuenaoeey + aa?oooa/iue oie/ie), anee aiaa?ecia oi?ie?oaony ia
ia?aaeiae noaiea na?aeoea; i?ioiaeeanoiee/aneee ?eoi aaeiia, aeiaaai/iue
III oii; nenoiee/aneee ooi, eiiaaea ooi “aie/ea”; ianiioaaonoaea
iaaeaeo neeueiie ioeuenaoeeae na?aeoea e neaaui iaiieiaieai ioeuena; ia
YEA iao coaoea ?, iiyaeyaony oe?ieee Q, io?eoeaoaeueiue coaaoe O – oi
anoue nio?aiythony ?aiiea i?ecoiaee eioa?eoa ieiea?aea.

Iaeaieaa aeinoiaa?ia aaio?eeoeia?aoey. Ea/aiea iia?aoeaiia. Aiaa?ecia
/anoi i?eaiaeeo e ?ac?uao, nia?oe io ino?ie na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe,
iiaeao ia?aeoe a o?iie/aneoth aiaa?ecio.

III ia?eiae

1. O?iie/aneay aiaa?ecia na?aeoea aicieeaao a ?acoeueoaoa ?anoyaeaiey
iinoeioa?eoiiai ?oaoea. Iiyaeythony eee aeieai nio?aiythony i?eciaee
ainiaeaiey. Oaaee/aiea ?acia?ia na?aeoea, iaaeaa?oooa/iay ioeuenaoeey.
Aoneoeueoaoeaii aeaieiie nenoiee/aneee eee aeeanoiee/aneee ooi –
nenoiei-aeeanoiee/aneee ooi. Ia YEA canouaoay oi?ia e?eaie ino?ie oacu.
Iiiiaaao ia?aioaaiieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea.

2. Neiae?ii Ae?annea?a eee iinoeioa?eoiue neiae?ii. Naycai n
naineaeeecaoeeae i?aaiecia i?iaeoeoaie aooieeca iae?ioece?iaaiiuo iann,
eioi?ua a aeaiiii neo/aa aunooiatho a ?iee aooiaioeaaiia. Ineiaeiaiea
iiyaeyaony ia ?aiueoa 2-6 iaaeaee io ia/aea caaieaaaiey, /oi aeieacuaaao
aeea?ae/aneee iaoaieci aai aicieeiiaaiey. Aicieeatho aaia?aeeciaaiiua
ii?aaeaiey na?iciuo iaiei/ae (iieena?iceou), eiiaaea aiaeaeathony
neiiaeaeueiua iaiei/ee. Eeeie/anee yoi ia?eea?aeeo, ieaa?eo, ii?aaeaiea
nonoaaia, /aua anaai eaaiai iea/aaiai nonoaaa. Ia?eea?aeeo aicieeaao
aia/aea eae nooie, caoai ia?aoiaeeo a yennoaeaoeaiue. Oa?aeoa?iu aiee ca
a?oaeeiie, a aieo (naycaiu n ii?aaeaieai ia?eea?aea e ieaa?u). Iiaeuai
oaiia?aoo?u aei 4IiN , eeoi?aaeea /anoi iineo aieiiia?aciue
oa?aeoa?, Aieaciaiiinoue e i?eiooeinoue a a?oaeeiii-?aaa?iuo e
a?oaeeiii-eeth/e/iuo ni/eaiaieyo. *anoi onei?aiiia NIY, eaeeioeeoic,
yiceiioeeey. Iauaeoeaii i?eciaee ia?eea?aeeoa, ieaa?eoa. Oa?icu aeey
aeecie aieueiiai aeaiiia ineiaeiaiea ia i?aaenoaaeyao. Iiaeao oaeaea
i?ioaeaoue a ?aaeooee?iaaiiie oi?ia, a oaeeo neo/ayo eiiaaea o?oaeii
aeeooa?aioee?iaaoue n-i Ae?annea?a n iiaoi?iui eioa?eoii ieiea?aea. I?e
iacia/aiee aetheiei?oeeieaeia neiioiiu auno?i en/acatho.

3. O?iiaiyiaiee/aneea ineiaeiaiey: /aua a iaeii e?oao e?iaiia?auaiey.
Yiaieu i?e yoii a eaai/ioth a?oa?eth iiiaaeatho ec aai i?e o?iiaioeaaeoa
ieaeieo eiia/iinoae, aai oaca. Ineiaeiaiea aicieeaao, eiaaea aieueiua
ia/eiatho eaeaeaaoueny iinea aeeeoaeueiiai iinoaeueiiai ?aaeeia.

I?iyaeaiey o?iiaiyiaieee eaai/iie a?oa?ee: eieeain, eaai/iay aeia?oaicey
n aeoeaioii II oiia iaae eaai/iie a?oa?eae, oaoeea?aeey, ia?aa?ocea
i?aaiai na?aeoea, aeieaaea i?aaie iiaeee io/ea Aenna. ?aioaaiieiae/anee
auyaeythony i?eciaee eioa?eo-iiaaiiiee. Iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe
aiaeiioeueiiiia?aoeth, oae eae aeey naiaa?aiaiiiai oe?o?ae/aneiai
ea/aiey iaiaoiaeei oi/iue oiie/aneee aeeaaiic. I?ioeeaeoeea caeeth/aaony
a aeoeaiii aaaeaiee aieueiiai.

4. Iinoeioa?eoiay noaiiea?aeey. I iae aiai?yo a oii neo/aa, anee aei
eioa?eoa i?enooiia noaiiea?aeee ia auei, a aia?aua aicieeee iinea
ia?aianaiiiai eioa?eoa ieiea?aea. Iia aeaeaao i?iaiic aieaa na?ueaciui.

IV ia?eiae

Ineiaeiaiey ia?eiaea ?aaaeeeoaoeee ioiinyony e ineiaeiaieyi EAN.

Ea?aeeineea?ic iinoeioa?eoiue. Yoi oaea enoiae eioa?eoa ieiea?aea,
naycaiiue n oi?ie?iaaieai ?oaoea. Eiiaaea aai aua iacuaatho eoaie/aneie
ea?aeeiiaoeae. Iniiaiua i?iyaeaiey: ia?ooaiey ?eoia, i?iaiaeeiinoe,
nie?aoeoaeueiie niiniaiinoe ieiea?aea. Iaeaieaa /anoay eieaeecaoeey –
aa?oooea e ia?aaeiyy noaiea.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiay aeeaaiinoeea eioa?eoa Ieiea?aea:

1. Noaiiea?aeey. I?e eioa?eoa aiee iinyo ia?anoathuee oa?aeoa?, aieueoae
eioaineaiinoe, aieueiua aicaoaeaeaiu, aaniieieiu, a i?e noaiiea?aeee –
caoi?iiaeaiu. I?e eioa?eoa iao yooaeoa io ieo?iaeeoea?eia, aiee
aeeeoaeueiua, eiiaaea /anaie; i?e noaiiea?aeee /aoeay e??aaeeaoeey
aieae, i?e eioa?eoa – iaoe?iay. Iaee/ea na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe aieaa naienoaaiii eioa?eoo ieiea?aea. Ieii/aoaeueiay
aeeaaiinoeea – ii YEA.

2. Ino?ay ei?iia?iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue. Yoi – caoyioaoeeny i?enooi
noaiiea?aeee n yaeaieyie i/aaiaie aeeno?ioee ieiea?aea., oi anoue
i?iiaaeooi/iay oi?ia. Aeeeoaeueiinoue aieae io 15 iei aei 1 /ana, ia
aieaa: yooaeoa io ieo?iaeeoea?eia oiaea iao. Eciaiaiey YEA
oa?aeoa?ecothony niauaieai naaiaioa ST ieaea ecieeiee, iiyaeyaony
io?eoeaoaeueiue coaaoe O. A ioee/ea io noaiiea?aeee, iinea ieii/aiey
i?enooia eciaiaiey YEA inoathony, a a ioee/ea io eioa?eoa ieiea?aea
eciaiaiey aea?aeaony oieueei 1-3 aeiy e iieiinoueth ia?aoeiu. Iao
iiauoaiey aeoeaiinoe oa?inaioia, oae eae iao iae?ica.

3. Ia?eea?aeeo. Aieaaie neiae?ii aanueia noiaeai n oaeiaui i?e eioa?eoa
ieiea?aea. Aieue aeeeoaeueiay, iinoiyiiay, ioeuene?othuay, ii iao
ia?anoathuaai, aieiiia?aciiai oa?aeoa?a aiee. Iao i?aaeaanoieeia
(ianoaaeeueiie noaiiea?aeee). Aiee /aoei naycaiu n aeuoaieai e
iieiaeaieai oaea. I?eciaee ainiaeaiey: iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u,
eaeeioeeoic. Iiyaeythony ia iinea ia/aea aieae, a i?aaeoanoaotho, eee
iiyaeythony aianoa n ieie. Ooi o?aiey ia?eea?aea aeieai nio?aiyaony. Ia
YEA niauaiea naaiaioa ST auoa ecieeiee, eae e i?e eioa?eoa ieiea?aea, ii
iao aeenei?aeaioiinoe e iaoieiae/aneiai coaoea Q – aeaaiiai i?eciaea
eioa?eoa ieiea?aea; iiaeuai naaiaioa ST i?ienoiaeeo i?aeoe/anee ai anao
ioaaaeaieyo, oae eae eciaiaiey a na?aeoea iinyo aeeooociue oa?aeoa?, a
ia i/aaiaue, eae i?e eioa?eoa. I?e ia?eea?aeeoa i?e aica?auaiee naaiaioa
ST ia ecieeieth coaaoe O inoaaony iieiaeeoaeueiui, i?e eioa?eoa –
io?eoeaoaeueiui.

4. Yiaieey noaiea eaai/iie a?oa?ee (eae naiinoiyoaeueiia caaieaaaiea, a
ia ineiaeiaiea eioa?eoa ieiea?aea). Aicieeaao ino?i, ?acei oooaeoaaony
ninoiyiea aieueiiai. Ino?ua caa?oaeeiiua aiee, ioaaouaathuea anth
a?oaeioth eeaoeo, ia ia?aue ieai aunooiaao aeuoaoaeueiay
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue: i?enooi oaeoouey, aeeooociue oeeaiic. I?e/eiie
yiaieee auaatho ia?oeaoaeueiay a?eoiey, o?iiaioeaaeo, iia?aoeaiua
aiaoaoaeuenoaa ia i?aaiao iaeiai oaca e ae?. *aua iaaethaeaaony yiaieey
i?aaie eaai/iie a?oa?ee, iiyoiio aiee aieueoa ioaeatho ai?aai, a ia
aeaai.

I?eciaee ino?ie na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe ii i?aaiaeaeoaei/eiaiio
oeio: iaeuoea, oeeaiic, oaaee/aiea ia/aie. Aeoeaio II oiia ia eaai/iie
a?oa?ee, eiiaaea iaaooaiea oaeiuo aai. YEA iaiiieiaao eioa?eo a i?aauo I
e II a?oaeiuo ioaaaeaieyo, anoue i?eciaee ia?aa?ocee i?aaiai na?aeoea,
iiaeao auoue aeieaaea iiaeee io/ea Aenna. Eciaiaiey en/acatho /a?ac 2-3
aeiy.

Yiaieey /anoi i?eaiaeeo e eioa?eoo eaaeiai: o?eiu, ooi o?aiey ieaa?u,
i?eciaee ainiaeaiey, ?aaea iaaethaeaaony e?iaioa?eaiuea.
?aioaaiieiae/anee eciaiaiey eeeiiaeaeiie oi?iu, /aua ni?aaa aieco.

5. ?anneaeaathuayny aiaa?ecia ai?ou. *aua anaai aicieeaao o aieueiuo n
aunieie a?oa?eaeueiie aeia?oaiceae. Iao ia?eiaea i?aaeaanoieeia, aieue
n?aco aea iineo ino?ue oa?aeoa?, eeiaeaeueiay. Oa?aeoa?ai iea?e?othuee
oa?aeoa? aieae: ii ia?a ?anneaeaaiey aiee ?ani?ino?aiythony aiec a
iiynie/ioth iaeanoue, a ieaeiea eiia/iinoe. A i?ioeann ia/eiatho
aiaeaeaoueny ae?oaea a?oa?ee – aicieeatho neiioiiu ieeethcee e?oiiuo
a?oa?ee, iooiaeyueo io ai?ou. Ionoonoaoao ioeuen ia eo/aaie a?oa?ee,
iiaeao iaaethaeaoueny neai?ioa. Ia YEA iao i?eciaeia eioa?eoa. Aiee
aoeie/iua, ia nieiathony ia?eioeeaie.

6. Ia/aii/iay eieeea. Iaiaoiaeeii aeeooa?aioee?iaaoue n aaaeiieiaeueiie
oi?iie eioa?eoa ieiea?aea. *aua o aeaiuei, anoue /aoeay naycue n i?eaiii
ieue, aiee ia iinyo ia?anoathuaai aieiiia?aciiai oa?aeoa?a,
e??aaeee?otho ai?aai aaa?o. *anoi iiaoi?iay ?aioa. Eieaeueiay
aieaciaiiinoue, iaeiaei yoi auaaao e i?e eioa?eoa ieiea?aea aneaaenoaea
oaaee/aiey ia/aie. Iiiiaaao YEA. Iiauoaia aeoeaiinoue EAeA 5, a i?e
eioa?eoa – EAeA 1.

7. Ino?ue iaie?aaoeo. Oaniay naycue n aaeie: i?eai aee?iie ieue,
neaaeeiai, aeeiaiey. Iiiynuaathuea aiee, iiauoaia aeoeaiinoue EAeA 5.
Iiaoi?iay, /anoi iaoe?ioeiay ?aioa. Iiiiaaao ii?aaeaeaiea aeoeaiinoe
oa?iaioia (aieeaca ii/e), YEA.

8. I?iaiaeiay ycaa aeaeoaeea. Ia ?aioaaiia?aiia aicaeoo a a?thoiie
iieinoe (na?i iaae ia/aiueth).

9. Ino?ue ieaa?eo. Naycue aieae n aeuoaieai, ooi o?aiey ieaa?u.

1I. Ino?ua ei?aoeiaua aiee (?ae, ooaa?eoeac iicaiii/ieea, ?aaeeeoeeo).
Aiee naycaiu n eciaiaieai iieiaeaiey oaea.

11. Niiioaiiue iiaaiioi?aen. I?eciaee aeuoaoaeueiie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe,
ei?iai/iue ia?eooi?ue caoe, ionoonoaea aeuoaiey i?e aoneoeueoaoeee (ia
anaaaea).

12. Aeeao?aaiaeueiay a?uaea. Niioonoaoao iaioe/aneee ycioaaeo. Aiee
naycaiu n iieiaeaieai oaea, aieueoa a ai?eciioaeueiii iieiaeaiee oaea,
n?uaeaaiea, /oanoai aeaeaiey, oneeaiiay naeeaaoeey. Aiee iiyaeythony
iinea i?eaia ieue. Oioiioa, ?aioa.

13. E?oiiciay iiaaiiiey. A neo/aa caoaaoa a iaoieiae/aneee i?ioeann
iaaeeanoaiaeueiie ieaa?u aiee iiaoo auoue ca a?oaeeiie. Aunieay
eeoi?aaeea, aeaiiua ni noi?iiu eeaeeo.

Oi?ioee?iaea aeeaaiica

1. EAN.

2. Aoa?ineea?ic ei?iia?iuo a?oa?ee.

3. Eioa?eo ieiea?aea n oeacaieai aeaou (io …) e eieaeecaoeey
iaoieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna (eaeie noaiee).

4. Ineiaeiaiey.

Ea/aiea eioa?eoa Ieiea?aea

Aeaa caaea/e:

1. I?ioeeaeoeea ineiaeiaiee.

2. Ia?aie/aiea ciiu eioa?eoa.

Iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau ea/aaiay i?aeoeea niioaaonoaiaaea ia?eiaeo
caaieaaaiey.

1. I?aaeuioa?eoiue ia?eiae. Aeaaiay oeaeue ea/aiey a yoio ia?eiae –
i?aaeoi?aaeeoue aicieeiiaaiea eioa?eoa ieiea?aea:

– iinoaeueiue ?aaeei (aei oao ii?, iiea anoue i?eciaee ia?anoaiey
ei?iia?iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe);

– i?yiua aioeeiaaoeyiou:

– aaia?ei, iiaeii aaiaeeoue a/a, ii /aua i?eiaiytho i/e ii 5-1I
oun. AAe /a?ac eaaeaeua 4-6 /ania.

– aioea?eoie/aneea n?aaenoaa: iiey?ecothuay nianue. Anee

– aetheica 5% 2II-5II ie o aieueiiai naoa?iue aeea-

– oei?eae eaeey 1I% – 3I,I aao, oi aetheico caiaieoue

– noeueoao iaaiey 25% – 2I,I oec?anoai?ii.

– einoeei 4-12 AAe

– eiea?aieneeaca 1II ia

– aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?u /Anaprillini I,I4;

– ieo?aou i?ieiiae?iaaiiiai aeaenoaey (Sustak-forte).

eiiaaea i?iaiaeyo yeno?aiioth ?aaaneoey?ecaoeeth ieiea?aea.

2. Ino?aeoee ia?eiae. Iniiaiay oeaeue ea/aiey – ia?aie/eoue ciio
iia?aaeaeaiey ieiea?aea. Niyoea aieaaiai neiae?iia: ia/eiaoue
i?aaeeueiaa n iae?ieaioaiaeueaacee, a ia n ia?eioeeia, o.e. i?e yoii
iaiueoa ineiaeiaiee; oaioaiee 1-2 ie a/a ia aetheica /I,II5% 2 ie;
ae?iia?eaeie 2,I ie I,25% 2 ie ia 4I ie 5% ?-?a aetheicu; oaeaiiiae
(niaea?aeeo a 1 ie I,I5 ia oaioaieea e 2,5 ia ae?iia?eaeiea) 2-4 ie a/a
no?oeii. Aiaeaaoe/aneee yooaeo ianooiaao iaiaaeeaiii iinea a/a
aaaaeaiey (o 6I% aieueiuo) e nio?aiyaony 3I iei.

Oaioaiee, a ioee/ea io iieaoia, i/aiue ?aaeei oaiaoaao aeuoaoaeueiue
oeaio?. Iinea iae?ieaioaiaeueaacee niciaiea auno?i ainnoaiaaeeaaaony. Ia
ia?ooaaony eeoa/iay ia?enoaeueoeea e ii/aioaeaeaiea. Iaeuecy ni/aoaoue n
iieaoaie e aa?ae?ooaoaie, o.e. aiciiaeii iioaioee?iaaiea i?iai/iuo
yooaeoia

I?e iaiieiii yooaeoa iiaoi?ii aaiaeyo /a?ac 6I iei. ii?oei 1% 1,5 i/e
eee a/a no?oeii; iiiiiii 2% – 1,I i/e eee a/a; i?iiaaeie 1% – 1,I i/e.

Iiai/iua yaeaiey i?aia?aoia a?oiiu ii?oeia:

a) oaiaoaiea aeuoaoaeueiiai oeaio?a – iaei?oei 1-2 ie a/a.

a) nieaeaiea ?I e?iae e eiaeooee?iaaiea neiae?iia yeaeo?e/aneie
ianoaaeeueiinoe na?aeoea;

a) niinianoaoao aeaiiie?iaaieth e?iae, nieaeaieth aaiiciiai aica?aoa,
i?eaiaey e ioiineoaeueiie aeiiaieaiee;

a) iiuiia aaaio?iiiia aeaenoaea – onoaoaeyaony a?aaeeea?aeey, iiaeao
auoue oioiioa, ?aioa, oaiaoaiea ia?enoaeueoeee eeoa/ieea e ia?ac
ioneoeaoo?u ii/aaiai iocu?y.

A nayce n aiciiaeiinoueth oeacaiiuo ineiaeiaiee i?eiaiaiea ii?oeiia e
aai aiaeiaia i?e eioa?eoa ieiea?aea aeieaeii auoue naaaeaii e ieieioio.

Caeenii-eenei?iaeiay aiaeaacey. Aa i?eiaiaiea i?e eioa?eoa ieiea?aea –
i?ei?eoao niaaoneie iaaeeoeeiu. I?eiaiytho ii neaaeothuae noaia:

Yoai i?iaaaeaiey

Oaoieea auiieiaiey a) I?aiaaeeeaoeey

a) Aeaieo?iaaiecaoeey

a) Ia?eiae aiaeaacee

a) 2-e ia?eiae aiaeaacee

ae) Auaaaeaiea ec ia?eica Aaaaeaiea ieiieueoaia, ao?iieia,
ii?oeia, ae?iia?eaeiea (a oii /enea e ia aeiainieoaeueiii yoaia).

Aaioeeyoeey eaaeeo /enoui eenei?iaeii a oa/aiea 3-5 iei.

Eiaaeyoeey caeenueth acioa e eenei?iaeii a niioiioaiee 2,5:1 a oa/aiea
1I iei.

Eiaaeyoeey caeenueth acioa e eenei?iaeii a niioiioaiee 1:1 aei 5
/ania.

Aaioeeyoeey eaaeeo /enoui eenei?iaeii a oa/aiea 1I iei.

Aeey oneeaiey iaacaieeaathuaai yooaeoa, niyoey o?aaiae, aaniieienoaa,
aicaoaeaeaiey:

– aiaeueaei 5I% – 2,I a/i eee a/a;

– aeeiaae?ie 1% – 1,I a/i (naaeaoeaiue yooaeo) + aieiacei 2,5% – 1,I a/i
a/a (iioaioee?iaaiea ia?eioeeia). E?iia oiai, aieiacei ieacuaaao
aeiioaiceaiia aeaenoaea, iiyoiio i?e ii?iaeueiii eee iiieaeaiiii
aeaaeaiee aaiaeyo oieueei aeeiaae?ie. Aieiacei iiaeao aucuaaoue
oaoeea?aeeth.

I?e eieaeecaoeee eioa?eoa ia caaeiae noaiea eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea aieaaie
neiae?ii nii?iaiaeaeaaony a?aaeeea?aeeae – aaanoe oieeiieeoee: ao?iieia
noeueoao I,1% – 1,I (i?e oaoeea?aeee ia aaiaeeoue!).

Aicieeiiaaiea eioa?eoa /anoi naycaii n o?iiaicii ei?iia?iuo a?oa?ee,
iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii aaaaeaiea aioeeiaaoeyioia, eioi?ua iniaaiii
yooaeoeaiu a ia?aua ieioou e /anu caaieaaaiey. Iie oaeaea ia?aie/eaatho
ciio eioa?eoa + iaacaieeaathuee yooaeo.

Aeiiieieoaeueii: aaia?ei 1I-15 oun. (ieiei 2 ie), a 1 ie – 5 oun.AAe;
oea?eiieecei 6 oun. a/a eai.; no?aioaca 25I oun. ia oec. ?-?a a/a eai.

Aaia?ei aaiaeyo a oa/aiea 5-7 aeiae iiae eiio?ieai naa?ouaathuae nenoaiu
e?iae, aaiaeyo 4-6 ?ac a nooee (o.e. aeeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey 6
/an.), eo/oa a/a. Oaeaea iiaoi?ii aaiaeeony oea?eiieecei a oa/aiea 1-2
noo. (o.a. oieueei a oa/aiea 1-ai ia?eiaea).

I?ioeeaeoeea e ea/aiea a?eoiee

a) Iiey?ecothuay nianue (ninoaa ni. auoa), aoiaeyuea a iaa eia?eaeeaiou
niinianoaotho i?iieeiiaaieth eaeey aioo?ue eeaoie.

a) Eeaeieaei – i?aia?ao auai?a, aieaa yooaeoeaai i?e aeaeoaei/eiauo
a?eoieyo. 5I-75 ia no?oeii.

a) Iiaieaeiaieae 1II ia a/a no?oeii, /a?ac 5 iei., aei aeinoeaeaiey
yooaeoa, aeaeaa eaiaeueii (1I% ?-? 5 ie).

a) Iaceaeai aei 5 ia a/a iaaeeaiii (I,1% ?-? 1 ie).

ae) Oeieaeei ii I,2-I,5 /a?ac 6 /an. aioo?ue.

I?eiaiytho oaeaea ieo?aou i?ieiiae?iaaiiiai aeaenoaey – aneaaenoaea
ei?iia?iianoe?ythuaai aeaenoaey iie oeo/oatho eieeaoa?aeueiia
e?iaiia?auaiea e oai naiui ia?aie/eaatho ciio eioa?eoa. I?aia?aou:
Ieo?ini?aeo oaa. I.I1; Y?eieo oaa. I,I1; Nonoae ieooa 2,6 ia e nonoae
oi?oa 6,4 ia.

III Ino?ue ia?eiae eioa?eoa ieiea?aea.

Oeaeue ea/aiey a ino?ue ia?eiae – i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea ineiaeiaiee. I?e
iaineiaeiaiiii eioa?eoa ieiea?aea ni 2-3 aeiy ia/eiatho EOE. Ioiaiytho
oea?eiieecei (ia 1-2 aeaiue), ii aaia?ei inoaaeytho aei 5-7 aeiae iiae
eiio?ieai a?aiaie naa?ouaaiey. Ca 2-3 aeiy aei ioiaiu aaia?eia
iacia/atho aioeeiaaoeyiou iai?yiiai aeaenoaey; i?e yoii iaycaoaeai
eiio?ieue i?io?iiaeia 2 ?aca a iaaeaeth, ?aeiiaiaeoaony nieaeaoue
i?io?iiaei aei 5I%. Enneaaeoaony ii/a ia y?eo?ioeeou (iee?iaaiaoo?ey).
Oaieeei (nienie A) I,I3 ii 3 ?aca a aeaiue, ioee/aaony io ae?oaeo
i?aia?aoia auno?ui yooaeoii: 8 /ania. Iaiaeeeoia?ei oaa.I,I5 a 1 aeaiue
ii 4 o. 3 ?aca, ia 2-e aeaiue 3 o. 3 ?aca e aeaeaa ii I,1-I,2 a nooee
eiaeeaeaeoaeueii. Oai?iia?ii oaa. I,II5 (I,II1) Neieoia? oaa. I,II4
(I,II2) Ieo?ioa?ei oaa. I,II5 Iiaoei oaa. I,I5 Aeeeoia?ei oaa. I,I1.

Iieacaiey e iacia/aieth aioeeiaaoeyioia iai?yiiai aeaenoaey:

1) A?eoiee.

2) O?ainio?aeueiue eioa?eo (ii/oe anaaaea anoue ei?iia?io?iiaic).

3) O oo/iuo aieueiuo.

4) Ia oiia na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.

I?ioeaiiieacaiey e iacia/aieth aioeeiaaoeyioia iai?yiiai aeaenoaey:

1) Aaii??aae/aneea ineiaeiaiey, aeeaoacu, neeiiiinoue e e?iaioa/aieyi.

2) Caaieaaaiey ia/aie (aaiaoeo, oee??ic).

3) Ii/a/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue, aaiaoo?ey.

4) sscaaiiay aieaciue.

5) Ia?eea?aeeo e ino?ay aiaa?ecia na?aeoea.

6) Aunieay a?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oaicey.

7) Iiaeino?ue naioe/aneee yiaeiea?aeeo.

8) Aaeoaieiicu A e N.

Oeaeue iacia/aiey iai?yiuo aioeeiaaoeyioia – i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea
iiaoi?iiai aeia?eiaaoeyoeeiiiiai neiae?iia iinea ioiaiu i?yiuo
aioeeiaaoeyioia e oea?eiieeoe/aneeo n?aaenoa, nicaeaiea aeiieiaaoeyoeee
n oeaeueth i?ioeeaeoeee iiaoi?iuo eioa?eoia ieiea?aea eee ?aoeeaeeaia,
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea o?iiaiyiaiee/aneeo ineiaeiaiee.

A ino?ii ia?eiaea eioa?eoa ieiea?aea iaaethaeathony aeaa ieea ia?ooaiey
?eoia – a ia/aea e eiioea yoiai ia?eiaea. Aeey i?ioeeaeoeee e ea/aiey
aeatho aioea?eoie/aneea n?aaenoaa: iiey?ecothuoth nianue e ae?oaea
i?aia?aou (ni.auoa). Ii iieacaieyi iacia/atho i?aaeiecieii. I?eiaiytho
oaeaea aiaaiee/aneea n?aaenoaa: ?aoaaieee 5% 1,I a/i – oeo/oaao ?aneioac
iae?iy?aia e neioac aaeeia, aeaaii?eyoii aeeyao ia iaoaaieeci ieiea?aea.
Ia?aaieee 1% 1,I Ia?aaie oaa. I,II1 (I,II5).

N 3-ai aeiy caaieaaaiey ia/eiatho aeiaieueii auno?i ?anoe?youe ?aaeei. E
eiioeo 1 iaaeaee aieueiie aeieaeai naaeeoueny, /a?ac 2 iaaeaee oiaeeoue.
Iau/ii /a?ac 4-6 iaaeaeue aieueiiai ia?aaiaeyo a ioaeaeaiea
?aaaeeeoaoeee. Aua /a?ac ianyoe – a niaoeeaeece?iaaiiue
ea?aeeieiae/aneee naiaoi?ee. Aeaeaa aieueiua ia?aaiaeyony iiae
aiaoeaoi?iia iaaethaeaiea e ea/aiea o ea?aeeieiaa.

Aeeaoa. A ia?aua aeie caaieaaaiey ieoaiea ?acei ia?aie/eaatho, aeatho
iaeieaei?eeioth, eaaei onaiyaioth ieuo. Ia ?aeiiaiaeothony iieiei,
eaionoa, ae?oaea iaiue e o?oeou, aucuaathuea iaoai?eci. Ia/eiay n 3 aeiy
caaieaaaiey iaiaoiaeeii aeoeaii iii?iaeiyoue eeoa/iee, ?aeiiaiaeothony
ianeyiia neaaeoaeueiia eee i/enoeoaeueiua eeeciu, /a?iineea, eaoe?,
naaeea. Nieaaua neaaeoaeueiua iaeuecy – ec-ca iianiinoe eieeaina.

IV ia?eiae ?aaaeeeoaoeee.

?aaaeeeoaoeee ?acee/atho:

a) Oece/aneay – ainnoaiiaeaiea aei iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiiai o?iaiy
ooieoeee na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu. Iaiaoiaeeii aeiaeaaoueny
aaeaeaaoiie ?aaeoeee ia oece/aneoth iaa?oceo, /oi aeinoeaaaony a
n?aaeiai /a?ac 2-6 iaaeaeue oece/aneeo o?aie?iaie, eioi?ua ?acaeaatho
eieeaoa?aeueiia e?iaiia?auaiea.

a) Ineoieiae/aneay – o aieueiuo, ia?aianoeo eioa?eo ieiea?aea, ia?aaeei
?acaeaaaony no?ao ia?aae iiaoi?iui eioa?eoii. I?e yoii iiaeao auoue
ii?aaaeaii i?eiaiaiea ineoio?iiiuo n?aaenoa.

a) Nioeeaeueiay ?aaaeeeoaoeey – aieueiie iinea ia?aianaiiiai eioa?eoa
ieiea?aea n/eoaaony iao?oaeiniiniaiui 4 ianyoea, caoai aai iai?aaeytho
ia AOYE. 5I% aieueiuo e yoiio a?aiaie aica?auaaony e ?aaioa, oi anoue
o?oaeiniiniaiinoue i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth ainnoaiaaeeaaaony. Anee
aicieeatho ineiaeiaiey, oi a?aiaiii onoaiaaeeaaaony a?oiia
eiaaeeaeiinoe, iau/ii II, ia 6-12 ianyoeaa.

Ea/aiea ineiaeiaiiiai eioa?eoa ieiea?aea

I. Ea?aeeiaaiiue oie.

a) ?aoeaeoi?iue (naycai n aieaaui neiae?iiii).

Iaiaoiaeeii iiaoi?iia aaaaeaiea aiaeueaaoeeia: Ii?oei 1% 1,5 ie i/e eee
a/a no?oeii. Aiaeueaei 5I% 2 ie a/i, a/a. Oaeiiiiae 2-4 ie a/a
no?oeii.

Ninoaeioiiece?othuea n?aaenoaa: Ei?aeeaiei 1-4 ie a/a (oe. ii 1I ie);
Iacaoii 1% 1,I i/e, a/a, ia oec.?anoai?a; Ii?aae?aiaeei I,2% 1,I a/a;
Aiaeioaiceiaieae 1 ia a/a eaiaeueii.

a) Enoeiiue ea?aeeiaaiiue oie.

Iiauoaiea nie?aoeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe ieiea?aea: No?ioaioei I,I5%
I,5-I,75 a/a iaaeeaiii ia 2I,I ecioiie/aneiai ?anoai?a. Ei?aetheii
I,I6% 1,I a/a, oaeaea ia ecioiie/aneii ?anoai?a eee ia iiey?ecothuae
niane. Aetheaaii 2-4 ia a/a eaiaeueii ia iiey?ecothuai ?anoai?a. Eiaao
cia/eoaeueiia i?aeiouanoai ia?aae aetheiceaeaie: iaeaaeay, eae e
aeeeiceaeu, iieiaeeoaeueiui eiio?iiiui aeaenoaeai, a ioee/ea io ieo ia
ieacuaaao a?eoiiaaiiiai aeaenoaey. Iiaeao auoue eniieueciaai i?e
ia?aaeice?iaea na?aea/iuo aeeeiceaeia. Iaycaoaeueii aaiaeeoue ia
iiey?ecothuae niane eee aianoa n ae?oaeie i?aia?aoaie eaeey, oae eae ii
aucuaaao aeiieaeeaieth.

Ii?iaeecaoeey AAe: Ii?aae?aiaeei I,2% 2-4 ie ia 1 e 5% ?-?a aetheicu
eee ecioiie/aneiai ?anoai?a. AAe iiaeaea?aeeaaaony ia o?iaia 1II ii
?o.no. Iacaoii 1% 1,I a/a; ei?aeeaiei 2-4 ie; Aeia?oaiceiaieae 2,5-5 ia
ia 25I ie 5% aetheicu a/a eaiaeueii, iiae iaycaoaeueiui eiio?ieai AAe,
oae eae iaeaaeaao ?acei au?aaeaiiui i?anni?iui aeaenoaeai.

I?e ianoieeii yooaeoa io auoaoeacaiiuo i?aia?aoia: Aeae?iei?oecii 2II
ia, I?aaeiecieii 1II ia. Aaiaeeoue ia oeceieiae/aneii ?anoai?a.

Ii?iaeecaoeey ?aieiae/aneeo naienoa e?iae (oae eae iaycaoaeueii
ia?acothony iee?ininoaeenoua o?iiau, ia?ooaaony iee?ioee?eoeyoeey).
I?eiaiytho a iauai?eiyouo aeicao: aaia?ei; oea?eiieecei;
ieceiiieaeoey?iua aeaeno?aiu.

Ono?aiaiea aeiiaieaiee, oae eae i?ienoiaeeo i?iiioaaaiea aeeaeeie /anoe
e?iae: ?aiiieeaetheei, iieeaetheei – a iauaia aei

1II ie ni nei?inoueth 5I,I a iei.

Ei??aeoeey eeneioii-uaei/iiai ?aaiiaaney (ai?ueaa n aoeeaeicii): iao?ey
aeea?aiiao 5% aei 2II,I; iao?ey eaeoao.

Iiaoi?iia aaaaeaiea iaacaieeaathueo n?aaenoa. Ainnoaiiaeaiea ia?ooaiee
?eoia e i?iaiaeeiinoe.

Oaeaea eiiaaea eniieuecotho ai?oaeueioth eiio?aioeuenaoeeth – iaeei ec
aeaeia aniiiiaaoaeueiiai e?iaiia?auaiey, iia?aoeeth enna/aiey ciiu
iae?ica a ino?ii ia?eiaea, aeia?aa?e/aneoth ieneaaiaoeeth.

II. Aoiiey aeaeoaeea e eeoa/ieea. Naycaiu n aaaaeaieai aieueoeo aeic
ao?iieia, ia?eioe/aneeo aiaeueaaoeeia e n ia?ooaieai iee?ioee?eoeyoeee.
Aeey eeeaeaeaoeee iaiaoiaeeiu: i?iiuaaiea aeaeoaeea /a?ac oiieee ciiae n
eniieueciaaieai ?anoai?a niaeu; iinoaiiaea aaciioaiaeiie o?oaee;
aaaaeaiea a/a aeia?oiie/aneiai ?anoai?a NaCl 1I% 1I,I; ia?aiao?aeueiay
iiaieaeiiaay aeieaaea. Yooaeoeaai i?ica?ei I,I5% 1,I i/e.

III. Iinoeioa?eoiue neiae?ii. Yoi – ineiaeiaiea aooieiioiiie i?e?iaeu,
iiyoiio aeeooa?aioeeaeueii-aeeaaiinoe/aneei e ea/aaiui n?aaenoaii
yaeyaony iacia/aiea aetheiei?oeeieaeia, eioi?ua aeatho i?e yoii ioee/iue
yooaeo. I?aaeiecieii 3I ia (6 oaa.), ea/eoue aei en/aciiaaiey i?iyaeaiee
caaieaaaiey, caoai aeico i/aiue iaaeeaiii nieaeaoue a oa/aiea 6 iaaeaeue
– iiaeaea?aeeaathuay oa?aiey ii 1 oaa. a aeaiue. I?e oaeie noaia ea/aiey
?aoeeaeeaia ia auaaao. Oaeaea aeanaineaeeece?othuay oa?aiey.

EA?AeEINEEA?IC

Ea?aeeineea?ic – yoi ?ac?anoaiea niaaeeieoaeueiie oeaie a na?aea/iie
iuooea, ianooiathuaa iau/ii aneaae ca aeaaeueth iuoa/iuo aieieii eee
ia?aeeaeueii ae. I?e/eiu ?acaeoey ea?aeeineea?ica e aai aeaeu:

I. Ia ianoa auaoaai ainiaeaiey i?e ieiea?aeeoa. Ieiea?aeeoe/aneee
ea?aeeineea?ic. I?e/eia aai ?acaeoey naycaia n iaaethaeathueieny i?e
ieiea?aeeoa yennoaeaoeaiuie e i?ieeoa?aoeaiuie i?ioeannaie a no?iia
ieiea?aea e n aeano?oeoeaiuie eciaiaieyie ieioeeoia. Aeey yoiai aeaea
ea?aeeineea?ica oa?aeoa?iu eioaeoeeiiiua e aeea?ae/aneea caaieaaaiey a
aiaiiaca, iaee/ea i/aaia o?iie/aneie eioaeoeee, /aua iieiaeie aic?ano
aieueiuo. Ia YEA aeeooociua eciaiaiey eee eciaiaiey i?aeiouanoaaiii
i?aaiai aeaeoaei/ea. Ia?ooaiey ?eoia e i?iaiaeeiinoe ano?a/athony /aua,
/ai neiioiiu na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe. ?acia?u na?aeoea oaaee/aiu
?aaiiia?ii eee aieueoa ai?aai. AAe ii?iaeueiia eee iiieaeaiiia. *aua
i?eciaee o?iie/aneie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe e?iaiia?auaiey ii
i?aaiaeaeoaei/eiaiio oeio. Eciaiaiee aeioeie/aneeo iieacaoaeae e?iae
/anoi iao. Oiiu na?aeoea ineaaeaiu, /anoi auneooeaaaony III oii iaae
aa?oooeie na?aeoea.

II. Eae i?iyaeaiea EAN – aoa?ineea?ioe/aneee ea?aeeineea?ic. ?acaeaaaony
iaaeeaiii, iineo aeeooociue oa?aeoa?. Aicieeaao aac i/aaiauo
iae?ioe/aneeo eciaiaiee a ieiea?aea: i?ienoiaeeo iaaeeaiiay aeeno?ioey,
ao?ioey e aeaaeue ioaeaeueiuo iuoa/iuo aieieii a nayce n aeiieneae e
ia?ooaieyie iaoaaieecia. Ii ia?a aeaaee ?aoeaioi?ia /oanoaeoaeueiinoue
ieiea?aea e eenei?iaeo nieaeaaony – i?ia?anne?oao EAN. Eeeie/aneay
neiioiiaoeea aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy iiaeao inoaaaoueny neoaeiie. A
?acoeueoaoa ?acaeoey niaaeeieoaeueiie oeaie ooieoeeiiaeueiua o?aaiaaiey
e inoaaoeiny eioaeoiui iuoa/iui aieieiai aic?anoatho. Ianooiaao
eiiiainaoi?iay aeia?o?ioey, a caoai e aeeeaoaoeey na?aeoea. *aua
oaaee/eaaaony eaaue aeaeoaei/ae. Caoai iiyaeythony i?eciaee na?aea/iie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe: iaeuoea, na?aeoeaaeaiea, ioaee ia iiaao, aiaeyiea
iieinoae. Ii ia?a i?ia?anne?iaaiey ea?aeeineea?ica iaaethaeathony
iaoieiae/aneea eciaiaiey a neioniaii ocea – iiaeao aicieeiooue
a?aaeeea?aeey. ?oaoeiaua i?ioeannu o iniiaaiey eeai?aaia, a oaeaea a
iaieeey?iuo iuooeao e nooiaeeeueiuo ieoyo a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo iiaoo
aucaaoue ?acaeoea ai?oaeueiiai eee ieo?aeueiiai noaiica eee
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe ?acee/iie noaiaie au?aaeaiiinoe.

Aoneoeueoaoeaii: ineaaeaiea na?aea/iuo oiiia, iniaaiii I oiia ia
aa?oooea, /anoi nenoiee/aneee ooi ia ai?oa, aieioue aei i/aiue a?oaiai
i?e neea?ica (noaiica) ai?oaeueiiai eeaiaia eee nenoiee/aneee ooi ia
aa?oooea aneaaenoaea ioiineoaeueiie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe ieo?aeueiiai
eeaiaia. Iaaeinoaoi/iinoue e?iaiia?auaiey /aua ?acaeaaaony ii
eaaiaeaeoaei/eiaiio oeio. AAe /anoi iiauoaii. I?e enneaaeiaaiee e?iae
aeia?oieenoa?eiaiey, oaaee/aiea aaoa-eeiii?ioaeaeia. Aeey
aoa?ineea?ioe/aneiai ea?aeeineea?ica i/aiue oa?aeoa?iu ia?ooaiey ?eoia e
i?iaiaeeiinoe – /aua anaai ia?oeaoaeueiaey a?eoiey, yeno?anenoieey,
aeieaaeu ?aciie noaiaie e ?acee/iuo o/anoeia i?iaiaeyuae nenoaiu.

III. Iinea eioa?eoa ieiea?aea – iinoeioa?eoiue ea?aeeineea?ic. Iineo
i/aaiaue oa?aeoa?. I?ienoiaeeo a ?acoeueoaoa caiauaiey iiaeaoaai o/anoea
iuooeu na?aeoea iieiaeie niaaeeieoaeueiie oeaiueth. Eeeieea, eae e i?e
aoa?ineea?ioe/aneii ea?aeeineea?ica.

E?aeia ?aaeei ano?a/aaony ia?ae/iue ea?aeeineea?ic. E yoiio aeaeo
ioiineony ea?aeeineea?ic i?e iaeioi?uo eieeaaaiacao, i?e a?iaeaeaiiii
oea?iyeanoica e o.ae.

I?iaiic i?e ea?aeeineea?ica ii?aaeaeyaony iaoe?iinoueth ii?aaeaiey
ieiea?aea, a oaeaea iaee/eai e aeaeii ia?ooaiey ?eoia e i?iaiaeeiinoe.

I?eia? oi?ioee?iaee aeeaaiica: EAN. Aoa?ineea?ic ei?iia?iuo a?oa?ee.
Noaiiea?aeey iai?yaeaiey e iieiy. Iinoeioa?eoiue ea?aeeineea?ic.
Noi?aaaio?eeoey?iay oi?ia ia?ieneciaeueiie oaoeea?aeee. Na?aea/iay
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue II noaiaie.

IA?OOAIEss ?EOIA NA?AeOeA

Aicieeiiaaiea a?eoiee naycaii n ia?ooaieai aicaoaeeiinoe, aaoiiaoecia e
i?iaiaeeiinoe.

Eeanneoeeaoeey ia iniiaa YEA i?iyaeaiee:

1. Neioniaua a?eoiee:

a) oaoeea?aeey,

a) a?aaeeea?aeey,

a) neioniaay a?eoiey.

2. Yeno?anenoieey:

a) i?aaena?aeiay,

a) ocaeeiaay,

a) aeaeoaei/eiaay.

3. Ia?ieneciaeueiay:

a) noi?aaaio?eeoey?iay oaoeea?aeey,

a) aaio?eeoey?iay.

4. O?aiaoaiea e ia?oeaiea i?aaena?aeee:

a) ia?ieneciaeueiay oi?ia,

a) noaaeeueiay oi?ia.

5. Aeieaaeu:

a) neiiao?eeaeueiay,

a) aioo?ei?aaena?aeiay,

a) ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iay,

a) io/ea Aenna e aai iiaeae,

ae) aieieii Io?eeiuea.

Yoeieiaey a?eoiee

Ooieoeeiiaeueiua eciaiaiey a caei?iaii na?aeoea (ineoiaaiiua ia?ooaiey),
oi anoue oaeea, eioi?ua aicieeatho ia oiia iaa?icia,
ei?oeeiaenoea?aeueiuo eciaiaiee i?e ?aoeaeoi?iuo aeeyieyo ni noi?iiu
ae?. i?aaiia – oae iacuaaaiua aenoea?iea?aeeaeueiua ?aoeaenu.

I?aaie/aneea ii?aaeaiey na?aeoea: ana i?iyaeaiey EAN, ii?iee na?aeoea,
ieiea?aeeou, ieiea?aeeiiaoee.

Oiene/aneea iia?aaeaeaiey ieiea?aea, /aua anaai i?e ia?aaeice?iaea
eaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa.

I?e iaoieiaee aeaeac aioo?aiiae nae?aoeee (oe?aioieneeic, aeiioe?aic,
oaio?iiioeeoiia).

Yeaeo?ieeoiua naeaeae, ia?ooaiey iaiaia eaeey e iaaiey, a oii /enea
aeiieaeeaiey i?e i?eaia na?aea/iuo aeeeiceaeia, naeo?aoeeia e e?oaeo
i?aia?aoia.

O?aaiaoe/aneea iia?aaeaeaiey na?aeoea. Aic?anoiua eciaiaiey: ineaaeaiea
ia?aiuo aeeyiee ia na?aeoea, nieaeaiea aaoiiaoecia neioniaiai ocea,
iiauoaiea /oanoaeoaeueiinoe e eaoaoieaieiai – yoi niinianoaoao
ia?aciaaieth yeoiie/aneeo i/aaia.

Iaoiaaiac

A iniiaa ia?ooaiee ?eoia anaaaea eaaeao aeeno?ioe/aneea ia?ooaiey.
Ia?ooaaony aaoiiaoeci, ?ao?aeoa?iinoue, nei?inoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey
eiioeuena. Ieiea?ae noaiiaeony ooieoeeiiaeueii iaiaeii?iaeiui. Ec-ca
yoiai aicaoaeaeaiea ?ao?ia?aaeii aoiaeeo a iuoa/iua aieieia e
oii?ie?othony aaoa?ioiiiua i/aae aicaoaeaeaiey.

YENO?ANENOIEEss

Naycaia n iiyaeaieai aeiiieieoaeueiiai aaoa?ioiiiiai i/aaa
aicaoaeaeaiey, oa?yaony ooieoeeiiaeueiay iaeii?iaeiinoue ieiea?aea.
Aeiiieieoaeueiue i/aa aicaoaeaeaiey ia?eiaee/anee iinueaao eiioeuenu,
i?eaiaeyuea e aiai/a?aaeiiio nie?aua6ieth na?aeoea eee aai ioaeaeia.

?acee/atho:

1) I?aaena?aeioth yeno?anenoieeth;

2) Oceiaoth (ao?eiaaio?eeoey?ioth);

3) AEaeoaei/eiaoth (aaio?eeoey?ioth).

Eiaao cia/aiea oneeaiea aaaoniiai eee neiiaoe/aneiai aeeyiey eee iaieo
aianoa. A caaeneiinoe io yoiai ?acee/atho: aaaoniua (a?aaeeea?aee/aneea)
yeno?anenoieu – iiyaeythony a iieia, /anoi iinea aaeu, e en/acatho iinea
oece/aneie iaa?ocee eee i?e aaaaeaiee ao?iieia; e neiiaoe/aneea
yeno?anenoieu, eioi?ua en/acatho iinea i?eaia aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?ia,
iai?eia?, iaceaeaia.

Ii /anoioa aicieeiiaaiey ?acee/atho:

a) ?aaeeea yeno?anenoieu – iaiueoa 5 a ieiooo;

a) *anoua yeno?anenoieu.

Ii eiee/anoao:

a) iaeeii/iua;

a) a?oiiiaua; anee aieueoa 6I yeno?anenoie a iei., aiai?yo i
ia?ieneciaeueiie yeno?anenoieee.

Ii a?aiaie aicieeiiaaiey:

a) ?aiiea,

a) iicaeiea.

Ii eoeieiaee:

a) i?aaie/aneea,

a) ooieoeeiiaeueiua (ea/aiey iau/ii ia o?aaotho).

AEaeoaei/eiaua yeno?anenoieu iaeaaeatho aeeeoaeueiie eiiiainaoi?iie
iaocie, e iiyoiio noauaeoeaii ia?aiinyony aieueiui ooaea, iuouaaony
“caie?aiea” na?aeoea. I?aaena?aeiua yeno?anenoieu ia?aaeei aiiaua ia
iuouathony aieueiuie. Eeeie/anee yeno?anenoiee/aneay aieia – yoi
i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiue, aieaa neaaue oaea? na?aeoea (e ioeuena,
niioaaonoaaiii). I?e aoneoeueoaoeee neuoai ai a?aiy yeno?anenoieu
i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiue, aieaa a?iieee oii. Aiciiaeai aeaoeoeeo ioeuena.

YEA i?eciaee:

1) I?aaeaeaa?aiaiiue eiiieaen QRS.

2) I?e aaio?eeoey?iie yeno?anenoiea eiaao ianoi ?ao?ia?aaeiia
?ani?ino?aiaiea aieiu aicaoaeaeaiey – QRS aeaoi?ie?iaai, oe?ieee,
?anuaieaiiue, iaiiieiaao aeieaaeo iiaeee io/ea Aenna. Coaae ?
ionoonoaoao. Anoue iieiay (aeaieiay) eiiiainaoi?iay iaoca. I?e
noi?aaaio?eeoey?iie yeno?anenoieee aieia ? i?aaeoanoaoao eiiieaeno QRS.

3) Aneaaenoaea ?aiiae yeno?anenoieu eiiiainaoi?iie iaocu iiaeao ia auoue
– yoi anoaai/iay yeno?anenoiea.

4) Eiiaaea yeno?anenoieu aicieeatho a ?aciuo ianoao – iieeo?iiiua
aeaeoaei/eiaua yeno?anenoieu (iaeia niio?eo aaa?o, ae?oaay – aiec).
Auaaao oaeaea o.i. R ia O yeno?anenoieu, eioi?ua aicieeatho ?aii, e
coaaoe R ianeaeaaaony ia coaaoe O.

Aeei?eoiey – /aoeay naycue, /a?aaeiaaiea yeno?anenoie n ii?iaeueiuie
eiiieaenaie (ii oeio aeaaiaiee, o?eaaiaiee e o.ae.). Anee
yeno?anenoiee/aneia ninoiyiea i?iaeieaeaaony aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy,
nouanoaotho aeaa aiaeeoaey ?eoia, oi a oaeii neo/aa aiai?yo i
ia?anenoieee.

E i?iaiinoe/anee iaaeaaii?eyoiui, oyaeaeui ioiinyo neaaeothuea aeaeu
yeno?anenoieee: R ia O yeno?anenoieey, aeaeoaei/eiaua iieeo?iiiua,
a?oiiiaua aeaeoaei/eiaua – ia?aaeei yaeythony i?aaeaanoieeaie
oea?eeeyoeee aeaeoaei/eia. Auaaao aeinoaoi/ii iaeiie R ia O
yeno?anenoieee, /oiau aucaaoue oea?eeeyoeeth aeaeoaei/eia.

IA?IENECIAEUeIAss OAOEEA?AeEss

Yoi aiacaiii aicieeathuee i?enooi na?aeoeaaeaiey n /anoioie 13I-24I
oaea?ia a iei. Auaeaeytho 3 oi?iu:

a) i?aaena?aeiay,

a) oceiaay,

a) aeaeoaei/eiaay.

Yoeieiaey aiaeiae/iay oaeiaie i?e yeno?anenoieee, ii noi?aaaio?eeoey?iay
ia?ieneciaeueiay oaoeea?aeey /aua naycaia n iiauoaieai aeoeaiinoe
neiiaoe/aneie ia?aiie nenoaiu, a aeaeoaei/eiaay oi?ia – n oyaeaeuie
aeeno?ioe/aneeie eciaiaieyie ieiea?aea.

Eeeieea

I?enooi ?acaeaaaony aiacaiii, na?aea/iay aeayoaeueiinoue ia?aoiaeeo ia
ae?oaie ?eoi. *enei na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee i?e aeaeoaei/eiaie oi?ia
iau/ii eaaeeo a i?aaeaeao 15I-18I eiioeuenia a iei., i?e
noi?aaaio?eeoey?iuo oi?iao- 18I-24I eiioeuenia. Ia?aaeei ai a?aiy
i?enooia ioeuene?otho ninoaeu oae. I?e aoneoeueoaoeee oa?aeoa?ai
iayoieeiia?aciue ?eoi (yia?eiea?aeey), iao ?acieoeu iaaeaeo I e II
oiiii. Aeeeoaeueiinoue i?enooia io ianeieueeeo ieioo aei ianeieueeeo
nooie. Oceiaay e i?aaena?aeiay ia?ieneciaeueiay oaoeea?aeey ia ieacuaaao
nouanoaaiiiai aeeyiey ia oeaio?aeueioth aaiiaeeiaieeo. Iaeiaei o
aieueiuo n niioonoaothuae EAN iiaeao onoaoaeoueny na?aea/iay
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue, oaaee/eoueny ioaee. Noi?aaaio?eeoey?iay
ia?ieneciaeueiay oaoeea?aeey oaaee/eaaao iio?aaiinoue ieiea?aea a
eenei?iaea e iiaeao ni?iaioee?iaaoue i?enooi ino?ie ei?iia?iie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi neioniaay oi?ia ia ia/eiaaony aiacaiii
e oaeaea iinoaiaiii caeai/eaaaony.

YEA i?eciaee:

1) I?e noi?aaaio?eeoey?iie oi?ia eiiieaenu QRS ia eciaiaiu.

2) AEaeoaei/eiaay oi?ia aeaao eciaiaiiue eiiieaen QRS (aiaeiae/iue
aeaeoaei/eiaie yeno?anenoieee eee aeieaaea iiaeee Aenna).

3) I?e noi?aaaio?eeoey?iie oi?ia coaaoe ? neeaaaony n O.

4) Coaaoe ? ia ii?aaeaeyaony a oneiaeyo eciaiaiiiai QRS, oieueei eiiaaea
ia?aae aeaoi?ie?iaaiiui eiiieaenii QRS iiaeii oaeaeaoue coaaoe ?. A
ioee/ea io noi?aaaio?eeoey?iie oi?iu aeaeoaei/eiaay ia?ieneciaeueiay
oaoeea?aeey anaaaea i?eaiaeeo e na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe, aeaao
ea?oeio eieeaina e iiaeao caeii/eoueny nia?oueth aieueiiai. Oyaeanoue
aeaeoaei/eiaie oi?iu iaoneiaeaia oai, /oi: aeaeoaei/eiaay
ia?ieneciaeueiay oaoeea?aeey – ?acoeueoao oyaeaeuo ii?aaeaiee ieiea?aea;
iia i?eaiaeeo e ia?ooaieth neio?iiiiai nie?auaiey i?aaena?aeee e
aeaeoaei/eia. Oiaiueoai na?aea/iue aua?in: eiiaaea aeaeoaei/ee e
i?aaena?aeey iiaoo nie?auaoueny iaeiia?aiaiii.

IA?OeAOAEUeIAss A?EOIEss

Aicieeaao aieaa 4II eiioeuenia a ieiooo.

Yoeieiaey. Nouanoaotho o?e oai?ee:

1. Aiciiaeii, naycaia n e?oaiaui aeaeaeaieai aicaoaeaeaiey.

2. Aneaaenoaea aicieeiiaaiey aieueoiai eiee/anoaa i/aaia aicaoaeaeaiey.

3. Eiaao ianoi aani?a?uaiia aicaoaeaeaiea i?aaena?aeee (?acee/iuo a?oii
iuoa/iuo aieieii).

I?aaena?aeey i?aeoe/anee ia nie?auathony, ii eiioeuenu ?iaeaeathony, e
/anoue eo i?ioiaeeo /a?ac ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iue ocae, o.a. aei
aeaeoaei/eia aeioiaeyo ia ana eiioeuenu, niioaaonoaaiii ia?aie/aiiie
i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iiai ocea. Eiioeuenu e
aeaeoaei/eai iinooiatho aanii?yaei/ii, ?eoi aeaeoaei/eia aaniethoii
iai?aaeeai. Ionthaea iacaaiea – “aeaee?eoi ei?aeen”. Nae/an oaeaea
i?eiaiytho iacaaiea “ia?oeaiea i?aaena?aeee”, i?aaeeiaeaiiia Eaiaii.

Auaeaeytho aeaa oi?iu ia?oeaoaeueiie a?eoiee:

1. Oaoenenoiee/aneay oi?ia (aieueoa 9I a iei.)

2. A?aaeenenoiee/aneay oi?ia (iaiueoa 6I a iei.)

I?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea caieiaao ii?iinenoiee/aneay oi?ia. Aieueiua n
ia?oeaoaeueiie a?eoieae eiatho ?acee/iua i?iyaeaiey na?aea/iie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.

Eeeieea

Ioeuen a?eoie/iue n aieiaie ?aciiai iaiieiaiey: iaee/ea aeaoeoeeoa
ioeuena (na?aeoea ?aaioaao “aionooth”); ?acee/iua eioa?aaeu e ?acee/iay
a?iieinoue oiiia na?aeoea i?e aoneoeueoaoeee.

YEA i?eciaee: oae eae iao iieiiai aicaoaeaeaiey i?aaena?aeee, iao
coaoea ? ia?aae aeaeoaei/eiauie eiiieaenaie; ?aciua eioa?aaeu R-R;
iaee/ea ?-iiaeiaiuo eieaaaiee (iaeeea aieiu + ia?iaiay ecieeiey).

O?AIAOAIEss I?AAeNA?AeEE

Naycaiu n ia?ooaieai ooieoeeiiaeueiie iaeii?iaeiinoe i?aaena?aeee.
I?ienoiaeeo iai?a?uaiia aeaeaeaiea eiioeuenia ii caieiooiio e?oao.
?iaeaeaaony 24I-45I eiioeuenia, ii i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue
ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iiai ocea ieaea, iiyoiio aeaeoaei/ee aicaoaeaeathony
ai?acaei ?aaea i?aaena?aeee.

Ano?a/athony aeaa oi?iu:

1) N i?aaeeueiui ?eoiii aeaeoaei/eia, auaaao ?aaea.

2) N iai?aaeeueiui ?eoiii aeaeoaei/eia, auaaao /aua e eeeie/anee
iaiiieiaao ia?oeaoaeueioth a?eoieth.

Ieii/aoaeueiay aeeaaiinoeea aiciiaeia oieueei ii YEA: aieueoa eiee/anoai
aiei ?, iie ?aniieaaathony /anoieieii a aeaea iee, ca ieie eee iaaeaeo
ieie – eiiieaenu QRS, aeaoi?ie?iaaiiua eee ia aeaoi?ie?iaaiiua; aieiu F
iniaaiii oi?ioi auaatho i?aaenoaaeaiu a 3 noaiaea?oiuo e i?aauo a?oaeiuo
ioaaaeaieyo.

Eae e ia?oeaoaeueiay a?eoiey, iiaeao i?ioaeaoue a oaoenenoiee/aneie,
ii?iinenoiee/aneie, a?aaeenenoiee/aneie oi?iao.

*aua ano?a/aaony oaoenenoiee/aneay oi?ia, eioi?ay ec?aaeea niiioaiii
ia?aoiaeeo a ii?ii- e a?aaeenenoiee/aneoth oi?iu.

IA?OeAIEA (o?aiaoaiea) AEAEOAeI*EIA

Yoi i?aeoe/anee nia?oue io i?ae?auaiey e?iaioiea. Yoi oa?ieiaeueiay
noaaeey oie?aiey na?aeoea. Auaaao a 2-o oi?iao:

1) e?oiiiaieiiaay;

2) iaeeiaieiiaay (i?iaiic ooaea).

Ea/aiea

I?e noi?aaaio?eeoey?iuo oi?iao aioea?eoie/aneea n?aaenoaa iiaeii ia
i?eiaiyoue, oae eae i?e yoeo oi?iao a?eoiee /anoi anoue naycue n
ia?aiuie ?anno?ienoaaie. Anee i?e/eia a?eoiee a oe?aioieneeica – oaeaea
ioaeii niaoeeaeueiia yoeieiae/aneia ea/aiea.

1. Aioea?eoie/aneea n?aaenoaa. Aeaenoaotho ia eeaoi/ioth iaia?aio e
oi?iicyo aa i?iieoeaaiinoue aeey E+ e Na+, oai naiui aeaenoaotho ia oacu
aea- e ?aiiey?ecaoeee. Iie nieaeatho aicaoaeeiinoue e aaoiiaoeci
ieiea?aea, eioi?ua aeeytho e ia nie?aoeiinoue na?aea/iie iuooeu, ii yoi
eo iiai/iia aeaenoaea.

Oeieaeeia noeueoao, ii?ioee I,I5 e I,2 Iiaieaeiaieae 1I% 5.I; oaa I,25
Aeiaeei oaa. I,I5; aii. 2,5% 2,I a/i Aeeo?eoiae eeaeieaei 2% 2,I.

2. Oeo/oaiea aioo?eeeaoi/iiai iaoaaieecia ieiea?aea: Eiea?aieneeaca
aii. 5I ia – eeeaeaee?oao ianoiue aoeeaeic Eaeey oei?eae 1I% ?-? aioo?ue
Iaiaiaei aii. ii 1I ie , ae?aaea Ania?eai Na 2 YAeOA – 3I% 5,I –
naycuaaao eaeueoeee, oi?iiceo niaaeeiaiea aai n aeoiieiceiii e
oiaiueoaao ?anoiae AOO. Oe?iei eniieuecoaony i?e ia?aaeice?iaea
na?aea/iuo aeeeiceaeia. Eciioei oaeaea naycuaaao eaeueoeee –
aae?aiiaeieaoi?.

3. Ii?iaeecaoeey aaaaoaoeaiie ia?aiie nenoaiu: aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?u:
Iaceaeai 4I ia eee I,1% 5,I Ao?iieia noeueoao I,1% 1,I – oiaiueoaao
aaaoniua aeeyiey i?e a?aaeeea?aeee.

I?e yeno?anenoieee: noi?aaaio?eeoey?iay oi?ia /anoi naycaia n ia?aiui
ia?aiai?yaeaieai, iaa?icaie —> i?eiaiytho naaeaoeaiua n?aaenoaa: –
Eaioi?u iiiia?iiao I,25 a eainoeao.

Aeey oneeaiey neiiaoe/aneeo aeeyiee iaeua aeicu aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?ia:
Iaceaeai 2I-4I ia a noo.

I?e aaaoniie yeno?anenoieee: Yeno?aeo aaeeaaeiiiu nooie ieaoeoeeei I,2%
1,I; oaa. I,II5 (a?oiia A) Aaeeieae 1 ae?. ii 3 ?aca a aeaiue.

I?e aeaeoaei/eiaie yeno?anenoieee: Oeieaeei I,1 (anee iao NI!)
Eeaeieaei – iiaeii i?e N?, eioa?eoa ieiea?aea 2% 2 ie ia 4I ie 5%
aetheicu Iiaieaeiaieae I,25 ii 4 ?. a aeaiue; aii. 1I% 5 ie Aeeo?eoiae
a/a.

I?e ia?ieneciaeueiie oaoeea?aeee – ea/aiea no?iai a caaeneiinoe io
oi?iu!

1) AEaeoaei/eiaay oi?ia. Iaoiaeu ?aoeaeoi?iiai aicaeaenoaey ia
i?eiaiytho. No?ioaioei aaniethoii i?ioeaiiieacai! Aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?u
ia yooaeoeaiu, iiaoo ni?iaioee?iaaoue NI, ea?aeeiaaiiue eieeain.
I?eiaiytho: IIAIEAEIAIEAe 1I% 1I,I a/a no?oeii aei 2 a?. a nooee.
Iaiaoiaeei eiio?ieue YEA e AAe, oae eae iiaeao aucaaoue ia?oeaiea
aeaeoaei/eia e iaaeaiea AAe aieioue aei eieeaina. Eeaeieaei aieaa
yooaeoeaai, 1II ia a/a (2% 2 ie) ia aucuaaao oooaeoaiey
aioo?eaeaeoaei/eiaie i?iaiaeeiinoe.

Yeaeo?ieiioeueniay oa?aiey – iaeeo/oee iaoiae, 4-6 oun.

2) Noi?aaaio?eeoey?iay oi?ia. Eiaao ianoi oneeaiea neiiaoeeona, iiyoiio
iaiaoiaeeii aeiaeaaoueny iiauoaiey oiiona aaaona: aeaaeaiea ia aeaciua
yaeiee (eae i?e i?iaa Aoia?a) ?aceee iiai?io aieiau, caaea?aeea aeuoaiey
ia aeoaieii aaeioa, aeaaeaiea eee oaea? eoeaeii ii yieaano?aeueiie
iaeanoe, o.a. ii nieia/iiio nieaoaieth iannaae neiiea?ioeaeiiai neiona,
iii/a?aaeii ni?aaa e neaaa. Anee yooaeoa iao, oi aaiaeyo: no?ioaioei
I,I5% I,5 ie ia 2I ie 5% aetheicu; iiaieaeiaieae 1I% 5 ie; aeeo?eoiae;
eeaeieaei; aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?u – eeai a/a n ao?iieiii, eeai iiae ycue,
ia aieaa 1I ia (aioo?ue 2I-4I ia), Anee ie/aai ia iiiiaei – YEO.

I?e ia?oeaiee e o?aiaoaiee i?aaena?aeee caaea/ae oa?aiee yaeyaony
onoaiiaeoue i?aaeeueiue ?eoi. Oeieaeei, yooaeoeaai a 6I% neo/aaa i?e
i?aaeeueiie ea/aaiie oaeoeea, ia/eiaoue n I,2-I,4 e iinoaiaiii aeico
aeiaanoe aei 2,4-3,I a/noo. Iiaieaeiaieae I,25 ii 3 ?. a aeaiue,
yeaeo?ieiioeueniay oa?aiey – yooaeoeaiinoue 8I-9I%.

Oaoenenoiee/aneoth oi?io aeaeaoaeueii ia?aaanoe a i?iaiinoe/anee aieaa
aeaaii?eyoioth a?aaeenenoiee/aneoth oi?io.

Iiaeaioiaea e yeaeo?ieiioeueniie oa?aiee:

1) Naanoe aei ieieioia i?iyaeaiey NI. I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii i?eiaiyoue
i?aia?aou, eioi?ua auno?i auaiaeyony ec i?aaiecia, ia eoioee?otho.

2) I?e a?eoiee aneaaenoaea iaiaeeiaeiaiai nie?auaiey i?aaena?aeee
ianooiaao eo aeeeyoaoeey e aiciiaeii ia?aciaaiea o?iiaia, eioi?ua i?e
oeo/oaiee e?iaioiea iiaoo io?uaaoueny e i?eaiaeeoue e o?iiaiyiaiee/aneei
ineiaeiaieyi. N oeaeueth i?ioeeaeoeee aaiaeeoue iai?yiua aioeeiaaoeyiou
a oa/aiea 2-o iaaeaeue.

3) Iaiaoiaeeii nei??aae?iaaoue eiioeaio?aoeeth eaeey a i?aaiecia, a
oa/aiea 2-o iaaeaeue aaiaeyo iiey?ecothuoth nianue.

4) Ca aeaiue-aeaa aei YEO aeatho aioea?eoie/aneea n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua a
aeaeueiaeoai aoaeoo eniieueciaaiu aeey ea/aiey: oeieaeei ia aieaa 1 a?,
aaoa-aeieaoi?u, ia aieaa 4I ia. Anee aieueiiio aieueoa 7I eao, oi i?e
ii?ii- e a?aaeenenoiee/aneie oi?ia ia?oeaoaeueiie a?eoiee iaiaycaoaeueii
aeiaeaaoueny ainnoaiiaeaiey neioniaiai ?eoia.

Ineiaeiaiey YEO

Iinea YEO iiaeao aicieeiooue ino?ay na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue,
o?iiaiyiaiee/aneea ineiaeiaiey, aiciiaeii en/aciiaaiea neioniaiai ?eoia,
a iiiaio iaianaiey ?ac?yaea iaiaoiaeeii ia?aaeaoue niiiua a?oa?ee –
iaiueoa iianiinoue o?iiaiyiaieee.

IA?OOAIEss I?IAIAeEIINOE

I?e ia?ooaiee i?iaiaeeiinoe ianooiatho ?acee/iua aeaeu aeieaae na?aeoea,
i?ienoiaeeo caiaaeeaiea eee iieiia i?ae?auaiea i?iaaaeaiey eiioeuena ii
i?iaiaeyuae nenoaia na?aeoea. Aiaeeoaeue ?eoia – neioniaue ocae –
?aniieaaaaony a i?aaii i?aaena?aeee. A iai ?acee/atho ? e O eeaoee. ? –
iaeniaea?iua eeaoee, eiatho naiue ieceee ii?ia aicaoaeeiinoe,
aaia?e?otho eiioeuenu, yaeythony aiaeeoaeyie ?eoia. O eeaoee
(o?ainii?oiua) i?iaiaeyo eiioeuenu e aieieiai Io?eeiuea, eioi?ua
iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiu n nie?aoeoaeueiui ieiea?aeii i?aaena?aeee. A
aeaeueiaeoai eiioeuen iiaeao ?ani?ino?aiyoueny ii 3-i iniiaiui iooyi:

1) Io/ie Aioiaia – iaaei?aaena?aeiue iooue, ii iaio i?ienoiaeeo i/aiue
auno?ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea aicaoaeaeaiey io i?aaiai e eaaiio i?aaena?aeeth.

2) Iooue Aaieaiaaoa niaaeeiyao neioniaue ocae

3) Iooue Oi?aeea n ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iui oceii

Yoe o?e io/ea aianoaiice?otho ia o?iaia ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iiai ocea. Ii
?aniieaaaaony a ieaeiae /anoe iaaei?aaena?aeiie ia?aai?iaeee. A iai
oaeaea eiathony ? e O eeaoee, ii ? eeaoie iaiueoa, a O aieueoa, oae eae
iniiaiay ooieoeey ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iiai ocea ia aicaoaeeiinoue, oioy ii
nai au?aaaouaaao nianoaaiiua eiioeuenu.

Ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iue ocae ia?aoiaeeo a io/ie Aenna, eioi?ue a naith
i/a?aaeue aeaeeony ia aeaa iiaeee – i?aaoth e eaaoth; eaaay iiaeea
aeaeeony ia ia?aaeithth e caaeithth aaoae, a iioii oaea ia/eiathony
aieieia Io?eeiuea, eioi?ua iaiin?aaenoaaiii eiioaeoe?otho n
nie?aoeoaeueiui ieiea?aeii. Aiaaoia e?iainiaaaeaiea i?iaiaeyuae nenoaiu
ieiea?aea, iniaaiii io i?aaie aaia/iie a?oa?ee, e aiaaoay eiia?aaoeey,
iniaaiii io neioniaiai ocea, aaea i?aaenoaaeaiu neiiaoe/aneea e
ia?aneiiaoe/aneea ia?aiua aieieia, a a AA ocea a iniiaiii
ia?aneiiaoe/aneea aieieia e aaiaeee (/ai iaania/eaaaony oeceieiae/aneia
caiaaeeaiea nei?inoe i?iaaaeaiey eiioeuenia ia o?iaia AA ocea); iiaeee
io/ea Aenna oaeaea a iniiaiii eiia?ae?othony ia?aneiiaoe/aneeie
aieieiaie, a aieieia Io?eeiuea aiiaua eeoaiu eiia?aaoeee. Ii?iaeueiia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea na?aeoea caaeneo io:

1) Ia?aneiiaoe/aneiai iaaeeaoi?a aoeaoeeoieeia, eioi?ue caiaaeeyao
i?iaaaeaiea eiioeuena ii anai ioaeaeai i?iaiaeyuae nenoaiu e iaaeeaoi?a
ii?aae?aiaeeia, eioi?ue onei?yao i?iaaaeaiea eiioeuena.

2) Eoaiee ieiea?aea, eioi?ay caiaaeeyao i?iaaaeaiea eiioeuena ii anai
ioaeaeai i?iaiaeyuae nenoaiu aneaaenoaea ianoiiai aoeeaeica.

3) Eiaao cia/aiea o?iaaiue ai?iiiia (aetheiei?oeeieaeia) e
eaoaoieaieiia.

4) Iiauoaiea eiioeaio?aoeee E+ caiaaeeyao i?iaaaeaiea eiioeuenia, a
aeiieaeeaiey (ii n ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?aaeaea!) onei?yao.

Yoeieiaey aeieaae na?aeoea

1. I?aaie/aneea ii?aaeaiey na?aeoea: ea?aeeineea?ic, eioa?eo ieiea?aea,
ana ieiea?aeeou, iniaaiii ?aaiaoe/aneiai aaiaca, neoeeen, a?iaeaeaiiua
ii?iee na?aeoea, o?aaiu na?aeoea, iniaaiii oe?o?ae/aneea.

2. Eciaiaiea oiiona neiiaoe/aneie e ia?aneiiaoe/aneie ia?aiie nenoaiu:
iaa?icu, aaaioiiee nii?oniaiia, iiooiee iicaa, aneaaenoaea
iaaeeeaiaioiciie oa?aiee:

a) ia?aaeice?iaea na?aea/iuo aeeeiceaeia,

a) ia?aaeice?iaea aioea?eoie/aneeo n?aaenoa (aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?ia).

3. Yeaeo?ieeoiua ia?ooaiey, iniaaiii aeia?eaeeaiey: iaaeeeaiaioiciua,
iaeioi?ua iaoieiae/aneea ninoiyiey, naycaiiua n oaaee/aieai eaeey a
i?aaiecia.

I?e eciee?iaaiiii eee ni/aoaiiii aeaenoaee auoaoeacaiiuo oaeoi?ia iiaoo
aicieeaoue ?acee/iua aeaeu aeieaae.

NEIAO?EEOEss?IAss AEIEAAeA

I?e yoii ia?ooathony ooieoeee O eeaoie (i?aaie/aneia eee
ooieoeeiiaeueiia ii?aaeaiea). Ia?ooaaony i?iaaaeaiea io neioniaiai ocea
e i?aaena?aeeyi. ?acee/atho 3 noaiaie:

1 noaiaiue – caiaaeeaiea i?iaaaeaiey eiioeuena;

2 noaiaiue – auiaaeaiea /anoe eiioeuenia, iaiieiia i?iaaaeaiea;

3 noaiaiue – iieiay aeieaaea i?iaaaeaiey. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy noaaeony
aeeaaiic oieueei 2 noaiaie, oae eae inoaeueiua ia aeeaaiinoe?othony. I?e
yoii ioeuen ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony e i?aaena?aeeyi, auiaaeaao aanue
eiiieaen.

Eeeieea

Caie?aiea na?aeoea, anee auiaaeaao iaeei eiioeuen. Aieiaie?oaeaiea, anee
auiaaeaao ianeieueei eiioeuenia. Neiae?ii Ii?aaiuee-Yaeaina-Noiena
(iioa?y niciaiey), anee auiaaeaao 6-8 eiiieaenia. Ia YEA ionoonoaoao
aanue na?aea/iue eiiieaen. Iao ?, O, QRS, aianoi ieo aeaeia aeeeoaeueiay
iaoca, eioi?ay auaaao e?aoiie eaeiio-eeai /eneo R-R e ?aaia
niioaaonoaaiii, 2, 3, 4 e o.ae. ii?iaeueiuo R-R. *anoi aeaeiu
auneaeuecuaathuea, caiauathuea eiiieaenu: ai a?aiy aeeeiiie iaocu ia
iiiiuue auneaeeaaao nianoaaiiue eiioeuen (iiiiaaao a?oeiaaio?eeoey?iue
ocae); i?e yoii ia aoaeao coaoea ?. Aoneoeueoaoeaii a yoi a?aiy iiaeao
auoue neuoai a?iieee oii – neeueiia nie?auaiea na?aeoea. Yoeieiaey /aua
ooieoeeiiaeueiay, ii/oe a iieiaeia neo/aaa – i?aaie/aneea eciaiaiey
na?aeoea, iniaaiii /anoi EAN. A?a/aaiay oaeoeea caaeneo io oi/iiai
aeeaaiica:

1) Iiiuoaoueny oaaee/eoue /anoioo na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee:

a) oieeiieeoeee (yeno?aeo aaeaaeiiiu, ieaoeoeeei I,I5)

a) neiiaoieeoeee, ii eo iacia/aoue iaei, n ia?iiiie inoi?iaeiinoueth,
oae eae iie iiaoo ni?iaioee?iaaoue i?enooi a?oaeiie aeaau: ecaae?ei I,I5
iiae ycue, aeey eiaaeyoeee 1% 25 ie.

2) I?ioeaia?eoie/aneay oa?aiey. Iacia/atho i/aiue iyaeea n?aaenoaa:
aeaeaaee I,25 ia ii/ue.

3) Aioaaiienou eaeueoeey: eciioei I,I4.

I?e /anoie iioa?a niciaiey aieueiiai ia?aaiaeyo ia iinoiyiioth
yeaeo?ieiioeuenioth oa?aieth. Ii /aua ea?aeeinoeioeyoeeth i?eoiaeeony
i?iaiaeeoue “ii o?aaiaaieth”.

NEIAe?II NEAAINOE NEIONIAIAI OCEA

(aeenooieoeey neioniaiai ocea, A??ano-2-neion)

Yoa iaoieiaey i/aiue aeecea e neiiao?eeaeueiie aeieaaea, ii ioee/aaony
oai, /oi no?aaeatho ? eeaoee, au?aaaouaathuea neioniaue ?eoi, a ia O
eeaoee. A yoii neo/aa /anoa a?aaeeea?aeey, eioi?ay iaoeeiiii aic?anoaao
e ia iiaeaeaaony aaaieeoeeai (ao?iieio e aai aiaeiaai). Caoai, ii ia?a
aic?anoaiey neaainoe neioniaiai ocea, i?eoiaeyo a aicaoaeaeaiea
aaoa?io?iiiua i/aae a i?aaena?aeeyo – aicieeatho ia?ieneciaeueiua
ia?ooaiey ?eoia: ia?ieneciaeueiay oaoeea?aeey eee ia?oeaiea e o?aiaoaiea
i?aaena?aeee. Ii auoiaea ec oaoeea?aeee ia?eiae anenoieee a oa/aiea
ianeieueeeo naeoiae, a caoai aiiaue aicieeaao neioniaay a?aaeeea?aeey.
Yoi iaoieiae/aneia ninoiyiea naycaii n i?aaie/aneei ii?aaeaieai
neioniaiai ocea (ii?aaeaiea ? eeaoie), iii eciaouaaao aieueiiai,
aeeeoaeueii caoyioaoaany iiaeao i?eaanoe e aai aeaaee. Neiae?ii
A??ano-2-neion yaeyaony iieacaieai e iinoiyiiie yeaeo?inoeioeyoeee –
oe?o?ae/aneia aiaoaoaeuenoai.

AIOO?EI?AAeNA?AeIAss AEIEAAeA

*anoi naycaia n i?aaie/aneeie ii?aaeaieyie, ia?aaeei i?aaeaanoiee
ia?oeaoaeueiie a?eoiee. Iiaeao auoue oaeaea i?e ?aceie aeeeaoaoeee
i?aaena?aeee.

Yoeieiaey: Ii?iee na?aeoea, EAN, ia?aaeice?iaea aioea?eoie/aneeo
n?aaenoa. Eeeie/aneeo i?iyaeaiee i?aeoe/anee ia aeaao. Aaeeinoaaiiue
iaoiae aeeaaiinoeee – ii YEA: ooe?aiea e ?anuaieaiea coaoea ? (a ii?ia
ia aieaa I,1I nae.). Ia?aaeei coaaoe ? noaiiaeony aeaoooaciui (+ -).
Iiaeao auoue e aieaa aeoaieia ii?aaeaiea – ii?aaeaiea io/ea Aioiaia –
neiae?ii ia?anenoieee i?aaena?aeee (i?aaia i?aaena?aeea ?aaioaao ia
?eoia neioniaiai ocea, a eaaia io nianoaaiiuo eiioeuenia ec aaoa?ioiiiuo
i/aaia aicaoaeaeaiey). Yoi i?eaiaeeo e oyaeaeui ia?ooaieyi
aaiiaeeiaieee. Ano?a/aaony ?aaeei.

AO?EIAAIO?EEOEss?IAss AEIEAAeA

Ae?oaia iacaaiea – i?aaena?aeii-aeaeoaei/eiaay aeennioeeaoeey. AA ocae
ninoieo ec o?ao ioaeaeia:

1) nianoaaiii AA ocae;

2) io/ie Aenna;

3) iiaeee io/ea Aenna.

Caiaaeeaiea eee i?ae?auaiea i?iaaaeaiey eiioeuenia io i?aaena?aeee e
aeaeoaei/eai a ?acoeueoaoa ii?aaeaiey iaeiiai ec 3-o auoaiacaaiiuo
o?iaiae eaaeeo a iniiaa AA aeieaaeu. I?e/ai, /ai ieaea ii?aaeaiea, oai
oyaeaeaa eeeie/aneea i?iyaeaiey, oai iaaeaaii?eyoiaa i?iaiic. Anee
iia?aaeaeaiea i?ienoiaeeo aei aeaeaiey io/ea Aenna ia iiaeee, oi
eiiieaen QRS ia YEA ia eciaiai; anee aea ieaea – eiaao ianoi ooe?aiea
eee eciaiaiea eiiieaena, eae e i?e aeieaaea iiaeee.

?acee/atho 3 noaiaie aeieaaeu:

1 noaiaiue. Caiaaeeaiea i?aaena?aeii-aeaeoaei/eiaie i?iaiaeeiinoe. Aei
aeaeoaei/eia aeioiaeyo ana eiioeuenu, ii nei?inoue eo i?iaaaeaiey
iiieaeaia. Noauaeoeaiuo i?iyaeaiee iao, aeeaaiinoeea oieueei ii YEA:
?eoi i?aaeeueiue, ii eioa?aae PQ oaaee/ai (a ii?ia ia aieaa I,2I nae).
Aeeeoaeueiinoue eioa?aaea naiay ?aciay. I?e i/aiue aeeeiiii eioa?aaea PQ
eiiaaea oaeaaony oneuoaoue ioaeaeueiue ?eoi i?aaena?aeee.

Yoeieiaey

a) Ia?aaeei ooieoeeiiaeueiua ia?ooaiey (aaaioiiey nii?oniaiia)

a) I?aaie/aneea. Ainiaeeoaeueiua i?ioeannu a ieiea?aea, ?oaoeiaua
eciaiaiey ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iiai ocea.

a) Yeaeo?ieeoiua eciaiaiey.

Iaeaieaa /anoi iaaethaeathony “a” e “a”. I?e aaaioiiee nii?oniaiia
o?oaeii aeeooa?aioee?iaaoue, aeey yoiai i?eiaiytho i?iao n ao?iieiii:
i?e aaaioiiee iinea aai i?eiaiaiey ia YEA en/acatho oa?aeoa?iua
eciaiaiey.

2 noaiaiue. Ia ana eiioeuenu aeinoeaatho aeaeoaei/eia, aeaeoaei/ee
nie?auathony iiae aeeyieai ioaeaeueiuo eiioeuenia (a ioee/ea io 3
noaiaie). ?acee/atho 2 oeia aeieaaeu 2-e noaiaie:

1) Ia?eiaeu Aaieaiaaoa-Naiieeiaa (Iiaeooe I) – ii ia?a i?iaaaeaiey
eiioeuenia iinoaiaiii oaeeeiyaony eioa?aae PQ aei iieiiai auiaaeaiey
ioeueniaie aieiu. Iau/ii i?e yoii oeia iia?aaeaeaiea n?aaieoaeueii
aunieia, iiyoiio QRS ia eciaiai. I?iaiinoe/anee aeaiiue oei
n?aaieoaeueii aeaaii?eyoai.

2) Oei Iiaeooe II n iinoiyiiui eioa?aaeii PQ, i?e yoii ia ana eiioeuenu
aeioiaeyo aei aeaeoaei/eia – a iaeieo neo/ayo i?iaiaeeony eaaeaeue
aoi?ie eiioeuen, a ae?oaeo – eaaeaeue o?aoee e o.ae. *ai ieaea
eiioeueniay i?iaiaeeiinoue, oai oyaeaeaa eeeieea. I?e yoie iaoieiaee
i?ienoiaeeo ieceia ii?aaeaiea – iiyoiio iaiyaony eiiieaen QRS. Ia?aaeei
Iiaeooe II yaeyaony i?aaeaanoieeii iieiie iiia?a/iie aeieaaeu.
Eeeie/aneea i?iyaeaiey: iaaeeaiiue ioeuen, iaaeeaiiue ?eoi aeaeoaei/eia.
I?iaiinoe/anee iaaeaaii?eyoai. *anoi ano?a/aaony i?e ia?aaeiai eioa?eoa
ieiea?aea.

3 noaiaiue: iieiay iiia?a/iay aeieaaea. I?e yoii iieiinoueth
i?ae?auaaony i?iaaaeaiea eiioeuenia e aeaeoaei/eai, a aeaeoaei/eao
?iaeaeaaony naie aaoa?ioiiiue i/aa eaeeiaaio?eeoey?iiai ?eoia., i?e/ai
/ai ieaea aaoiiaoeci, oai oyaeaeaa eeeieea. Iaaethaeaaony iieiay
aeennioeeaoeey: ?eoi i?aaena?aeee aeecie e ii?ia, a o aeaeoaei/eia naiy
/anoioa – 4I a iei. e iaiueoa. Iineaaeiyy caaeneo io o?iaiy
iia?aaeaeaiey: anee no?aaeaao AA ocae, 4I-5I a iei., anee iiaeea io/ea
Aenna – 2I a iei. e iaiueoa. I?iaiic caaeneo io iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey e
o?iaiy iia?aaeaeaiey. Iaeaieaa /anoi a iniiaa iieiiai iiia?a/iiai aeiea
eaaeeo oyaeaeia i?aaie/aneia ii?aaeaiea (neoeeen e ae?.) ?acei
oaaee/eaaaony oaea?iue iauai na?aeoea, aieueoia nenoiee/aneia aeaaeaiea,
aeeanoiee/aneia ieceia eee ii?iaeueiia, aic?anoaao ioeueniaia aeaaeaiea.
O aeaeoaei/eia aieueoay aeeanoiee/aneay iaoca, iie neeueii
ia?aiieiythony e?iaueth a aeeanoieo, ionthaea i?ienoiaeeo eo aeeeaoaoeey
e aeia?o?ioey. Ioeuen iaaeeaiiue. ?acia?u na?aeoea oaaee/eaathony, a
iniiaiii – aeaai, eiiaaea auneooeaaaony nenoiee/aneee ooi ioiineoaeueiie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe ieo?aeueiiai eeaiaia (ec-ca aeeeyoaoeee). Oiiu na?aeoea
ineaaeaiu, ia?eiaee/anee iiyaeyaony “iooa/iue” I oii – eiaaea ii/oe
niaiaaeatho ii a?aiaie nenoieu i?aaena?aeee e aeaeoaei/eia. Iiaeao auoue
III aeiiieieoaeueiue oii. Iiaoo iiyaeyoueny nenoiee/aneea ooiu ecaiaiey
ia iniiaaiee na?aeoea. *anoi iaia?oaeeaaaony ioeuenaoeey aai, naycaiiay
n nie?auaieai i?aaena?aeee, iniaaiii io/aoeeaay i?e iooa/iii oiia
No?aaeanei. Iiaoo auoue oyaeaeua ineiaeiaiey:

a) I?ia?anne?othuay na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue, iniaaiii i?e
oece/aneie iaa?ocea, naycaiiay n iaeie /anoioie na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee.

a) Neiae?ii Ii?aaiuee-Yaeaina-Noiena – /anoi aicieeaao i?e ia?aoiaea
iaiieiie aeieaaeu a iieioth e i?e i?ia?anne?iaaiee ia?ooaiee AA
i?iaiaeeiinoe. I?e yoii nianoaaiiue aaoiiaoeci aua ia oniae
au?aaioaoueny, e?iaue ia iinooiaao ia ia?eoa?eth, a /oanoaeoaeueiue
aieiaiie iica ioaa/aao iioa?ae niciaiey. A iniiaa neiae?iia i?ae?auaiea
iinooieaiey e?iae, eoaiey. A iaeieo neo/ayo yoi auaaao naycaii n
anenoieeae aeaeoaei/eia ia oiia iieiie aeieaaeu, a ae?oaeo n
oea?eeeyoeeae aeaeoaei/eia. Iacaaeneii io i?e/eiu, eiia/iue ?acoeueoao
iaeei e oio aea – iioa?y niciaiey.

Eeeieea.

Aiacaiiay aeaaeiinoue, iioa?y niciaiey, ioeuen ia ii?aaeaeyaony, oiiu
na?aeoea ia neuoiu. Caoai aieueiie neiaao, iiyaeythony no3aei?iae.
Iiaeao auoue iai?iecaieueiia ii/aenioneaiea e aeaoaeoeey. Caoai
aiciiaeia nia?oue /a?ac 3-4 ieioou, ii /anoi i?enooi caeai/eaaaony ia
1-2 ieiooa: aeeth/aaony eaeeiaaio?eeoey?iue aiaeeoaeue ?eoia
aeaeoaei/eia.

?acee/atho ianeieueei oac AA aeieaaeu 3 noaiaie:

A – iinoiyiiay oi?iaae

A – yieciaee/aneay (eioa?ieooe?othuay), /aua anaai aeaao neiae?ii
Ii?aaiuee-Yaeaina-Noiena. I?iaiinoe/anee yaeyaony naiie iaaeaaii?eyoiie
oi?iie. I?e yoii aeieaaea oi iieiay, oi iaiieiay.

Aeeaaiinoeea

Eeeie/anee: i?aaeeueiue iaaeeaiiue ioeuen (?eoi). Ia YEA iieiay
aeennioeeaoeey: o i?aaena?aeee naie ?eoi, o aeaeoaei/eia – naie (aieaa
iaaeeaiiue). *ai ieaea aeie, oai aieueoa aeaoi?iaoeey QRS.

AEIEAAeU IIAEAE IO*EA AENNA

?acee/atho neaaeothuea aeaeu:

a) Aeieaaea i?aaie iiaeee io/ea Aenna.

a) Aeieaaea eaaie iiaeee io/ea Aenna.

Aeieaaea iiaeae e oyaeaeui ia?ooaieyi aaiiaeeiaieee ia i?eaiaeeo, ana
caaeneo io oa?aeoa?a iniiaiiai i?ioeanna. I?e iieiie aeieaaea iiaeao
auoue ?anuaieaiea I oiia. Aeeaaiinoeea a iniiaiii ii YEA: i?ienoiaeeo
iaiaeiia?aiaiiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea eiioeuenia ia aeaeoaei/ee,
oaaee/eaaaony a?aiy eo ?ani?ino?aiaiey, io yoiai ooe?yaony e
?anuaieyaony QRS. A caaeneiinoe io aai oe?eiu ?acee/atho:

a) iaiieioth aeieaaeo (I,1I-I,12 nae);

a) iieioth aeieaaeo (aieaa I,12 nae).

I?e aeieaaea eaaie iiaeee io/ea Aenna iaaethaeaaony ioeeiiaiea ine
na?aeoea aeaai – iaiiieiaao aeia?o?ioeth eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea, ii i?e
aeieaaea iaaethaeaaony ?anoe?aiea eiiieaena QRS, aunieee ?anuaieaiiue R
a I noaiaea?oiii ioaaaeaiee e a eaauo a?oaeiuo (5,6).

I?e aeieaaea i?aaie iiaeee io/ea Aenna yoe eciaiaiey aicieeatho a i?aauo
a?oaeiuo ioaaaeaieyo (I, II), ooe?aiea eiiieaena QRS. Aeieaaea i?aaie
iiaeee auaaao eeanne/aneie e aoeie/iie.

a) Eeanne/aneay: a I noaiaea?oiii ioaaaeaiee i/aiue iaeaiueeee R e
aeoaiei ?anuaieaiiue S. A III noaiaea?oiii ioaaaeaiee ?anuaieaiiue
aeoaieee R.

a) aoeie/iay (aeieaaea Aeeueniia). Coaaoe R ii?iaeueiie auniou, coaaoe S
iaaieueoie, ii oe?ieee.

Eaaay iiaeea io/ea Aenna eiaao aeaa aaoi/ee – ia?aaeithth e caaeithth.
Ionthaea aua auaeaeytho ia?aaeithth e caaeithth iieoaeieaaeu. Iie iau/ii
ia i?eaiaeyo e ooe?aieth aeaeoaei/eiaiai eiiieaena, i?iyaeythony
aiacaiiui ioeeiiaieai yeaeo?e/aneie ine na?aeoea: aeaai i?e ia?aaeiai
iieoaeiea, ai?aai – i?e caaeiai iieoaeiea.

Ea/aiea

A. I?e iaia?oaeaiee aeieaaeu, iniaaiii o iaiieiaeiai /aeiaaea,
iaycaoaeueiay ainieoaeecaoeey, a iniaaiiinoe i?e neiae?iia
Ii?aaiuee-Yaeaina-Noiena e aai yeaeaaeaioao.

A. Aaaeii onoaiiaeoue e oa?aeoa? aeieaaeu e oa?aeoa? iniiaiiai
iaoieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna.

I?e ino?ii oa?aeoa?a ia?ooaiey:

1) Aaanoe i?aia?aou, oiaiueoathuea aaaoniua aeeyiey (oieeiieeoeee):
ao?iiei I,1% 1,I a/a; ieaoeoeeei I,2% 1,I i/e; anee a/a, oi ia 5II ie
5% aetheicu.

2) Oneeeoue neiiaoe/aneea aeeyiey ia i?iaiaeyuoth nenoaio: ii?aae?aiieei
I,2% 1,I a/a ia aetheica; yoaae?ei 5% 1,I a/i, i/e, a/a; aeoiaio I,I5%
I,5-1,I a/i eee a/a; ecaae?ei I,1% 1 ie.

3) Aetheiei?oeeieaeu: aeae?iei?oecii 2II ia/noo. Nieiaao ainiaeaiea,
ioae. Oiaiueoaao niaea?aeaiea eaeey a ciia i?iaaaeaiey eiioeuena ii
iia?aaeaeaiiiio o/anoeo. Iioaioee?oao neiiaoe/aneea aeeyiey. Aaiaeeony
iiaoi?ii /a?ac ianeieueei /ania.

4) Oiaiueoeoue niaea?aeaiea eaeey: eaceen 1% 1,I a/a.

5) Anee oeacaiiua auoa ia?ii?eyoey ieacuaathony iayooaeoeaiuie eee
eiaaony iieiue aeie eee Iiaeooe II a ni/aoaiee n aeieaaeie eaaie iiaeee
io/ea Aenna, oi iaycaoaeueii aaaaeaiea a?aiaiiiai ea?aeeinoeioeyoi?a
(yeaeo?iae aaiaeeony n iiiiuueth ciiaea eee eaoaoa?a a i?aaue
aeaeoaei/ae). Anee o aieueiiai ia?aaeiee eioa?eo ieiea?aea, iiaeao
auno?i ?acaeoueny iieiue aeie – yoi oaeaea iieacaiea e ia?aaiaeo
aieueiiai ia ea?aeeinoeioeyoeeth. Anee oa/aiea caaieaaaiey ineiaeieeinue
neiae?iiii Ii?aaiuee-Yaeaina-Noiena – ioaeia iaiaaeeaiiay iaaeeoeeineay
iiiiuue: iaianoe ianeieueei oaea?ia eoeaeii ii a?oaeeia – iaoaie/aneee
caione na?aeoea, iai?yiie iannaae na?aeoea (6I a iei) + eneonnoaaiiia
aeuoaiea “?io a ?io” 14 a iei. AEaeaoaeueii iiaeeeth/eoue aiia?ao YEA
aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oa?aeoa?a ia?ooaiey na?aea/iie aeayoaeueiinoe. Anee
iia iayooaeoeaia – aioo?ena?aea/ii aae?aiaeei eee ii?aae?aiaeei, e caoai
iiaoi?ii iaiineony ?ac?yae yeaeo?e/aneiai oiea; eiiaaea iaiaoiaeeii aei
1I e aieaa ?ac?yaeia. Anee anenoieey aeaeoaei/eia, ?aeiiaiaeoaony
aioo?ena?aea/iia aaaaeaiea oei?eaea eaeueoeey 1I% 5,I e ii?aae?aiaeeia,
e ia yoii oiia i?iaiaeeoue yeaeo?inoeioeyoeeth. Eniieuecoaony eaea –
yeaeo?iae, eioi?ay aaiaeeony a ieiea?ae; ii iae iaiinyony eiioeuenu.

I?e o?iie/aneii oa/aiee aeieaaeu aaaeii ea/aiea iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey.
Oae, i?e eioieneeaoeee eaea?noaaie iaiaoiaeeia eo ioiaia. I?e
ainiaeeoaeueiuo caaieaaaieyo oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii niaoe.ea/aiea.

1) Oieeiieeoeee, /aua a oaa. e ii?ioeao: ieaoeoeeei I,II5 ii 3 ?. a
aeaiue, I,2% 1 ie; yeno?aeo aaeaaeiiiu nooie, ii?ioee ii I,I2 * 3 ?. a
aeaiue.

2) Neiiaoiieiaoeee: yoaae?ei I,I25 ii 3 ?. a aeaiue; aeoiaio I,I5 1,I
a/i; ecaae?ei I,II5 iiae ycue.

3) Naeo?aoeee: aeiioeaceae oaa. I,I25 e I,1 i?eiaiyoue ii noaia.
Oiaiueoaao niaea?aeaiea E+ e oai naiui oeo/oaao i?iaiaeeiinoue.

4) Aetheiei?oeeieaeu – a oii neo/aa, anee eiaaony ainiaeeoaeueiue
i?ioeann (ieiea?aeeo); anee aea iniiaiui iaoieiae/aneei i?ioeannii
yaeyaony o?iie/aneay EAN – iacia/aoue ia ioaeii.

5) Yeaeo?inoeioeyoeey – nicaeaaony eneonnoaaiiue aaoa?ioiiiue aiaeeoaeue
?eoia. Iieacaiey e yeaeo?inoeioeyoeee:

a) ana aeieaaeu, i?ioaeathuea n neiae?iiii Ii?aaiuee-Yaeaina-Noiena;

a) ianinoiyoaeueiinoue e?iaiia?auaiey CY ec-ca aeieaaeu;

a) /anoioa na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee iaiueoa 4I a iei.

a) au?aaeaiiue neiae?ii neaainoe neioniaiai ocea, o.a. oyaeaeua
ia?ieneciu, a ia oieueei a?aaeeea?aeey.

Eiathony ?acee/iua oeiu yeaeo?inoeioeyoeee – ia?oaeiua e aioo?aiiea,
iinoiyiiua e a?aiaiiua e o.ae. Aeaa aeaea noeioeyoi?ia:

1) Pace-make: ea?aeeinoeioeyoi? iinoiyiiiai aeaenoaey, ?aaioaao
iacaaenei?i io nianoaaiiiai ?eoia na?aeoea.

2) Aeaeaiia – oeceieiae/anee aieaa auaiaeai, o.e. aeaao eiioeuenu
oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee eioa?aae R-R noaiiaeony aieueoa caaeaiiiai
ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?iaiaiiiai eioa?aaea.

?AAIAOECI

O/aiea i ?aaiaoecia eiaao iiiaiaaeiaoth enoi?eth. Aia?aua naaaeaiey i
?aaiaoecia iiyaeeenue aua a o?oaeao Aeiiie?aoa. Aicieeea aoii?aeueiay
oai?ey (< eao. humor - aeeaeeinoue) - oaeouee ii nonoaaai i?ioeann. A ia/aea 2I a. ana caaieaaaiey nonoaaia ?anniao?eaaeenue eae ?aaiaoeci. A 17 a. Neaeaiaai ec a?oiiu ainiaeeoaeueiuo caaieaaaiee nonoaaia auaeaeee iiaeaa?o - iaiaiiay iaoieiaey. Oieueei a 1835 a. Aoeii e Nieieueneee iaeiia?aiaiii oeacaee, /oi ?aaiaoeci ia noieueei ii?aaeaao nonoaau, neieueei na?aeoea. A naia a?aiy Eanaa neacae: “?aaiaoeci eeaeao nonoaau, ii eonaao na?aeoea”. Caoai N.I.Aioeeiui auei iieacaii, /oi i?e ?aaiaoecia ii?ayathony i/aiue iiiaea i?aaiu: ii/ee, eiaea, ia?aiay nenoaia, ia/aiue, eaaeea. Oaeei ia?acii, ?aaiaoeci aacaeanou - yoi iieeaenoea?aeueiia caaieaaaiea.Ia/aei 2I aaea iciaiaiiaaeinue ao?iui ?acaeoeai ii?oieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee. A 19I4 a. ii?oieia Aoioo aia?aua iaia?oaeee e iienae niaoeeoe/aneee ii?oieiae/aneee noano?ao ?aaiaoecia - naiaia?acioth eeaoi/ioth a?aioeaio. A 1929 a. Oaeaeaaa iieacae, /oi ?aaiaoe/aneay a?aioeaia Aoiooa - oieueei iaeia ec noaaeee, a anaai nouanoaoao 3 oacu:1) Yennoaeaoeaii-i?ieeoa?aoeaiay oaca (aeaaaia?aoeaii-ainiaeeoaeueiay).2) Eeaoi/iay i?ieeoa?aoeey, ia?aciaaiea niaoeeoe/aneie eeaoi/iie a?aioeaiu.3) Neea?ic.Iiyoiio oaia?ue ?aaiaoe/aneoth a?aioeaio iacuaatho Aoioo-Oaeaeaaaneie. Ii ia anaaaea iaaethaeaaony iineaaeiaaoaeueiia /a?aaeiaaiea 3-o oeacaiiuo oac: ia?aay oaca iiaeao n?aco i?eaiaeeoue e 3 oaca. A 5I-o aiaeao Neai?oeia i?e enneaaeiaaiee ?aaiaoecia o aeaoae iieacae, /oi oyaeanoue eeeie/aneeo i?iyaeaiee ii?aaeaeyaony ia noieueei ?acaeoeai Aoioo-Oaeaeaaaneeo a?aioeai, neieueei ii?aaeaieai niaaeeieoaeueiie oeaie, aa iniiaiiai aauanoaa.A ninoaa niaaeeieoaeueiie oeaie aoiaeyo:a) eeaoi/iua yeaiaiou,a) aieieienoay oeaiue,a) iniiaiia aauanoai - iaeaieaa iiaeeueiay /anoue, eioi?ay a naay aeeth/aao: aiaeo, 5I% aaeeia i?aaiecia, ioeiiieenaoa?eaeu iaeo?aeueiua e eeneua, iai?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey.Iniiaiia aauanoai niaaeeieoaeueiie oeaie iaeaaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiie ayceinoueth, /ai iaania/eaaaony iai?iieoeaaiinoue eeaoi/iuo iaia?ai. Ayceinoue caaeneo io niaea?aeaiey eeneuo ioeiiieenaoa?eaeia, iniiaiui i?aaenoaaeoaeai eioi?uo yaeyaony aeaeo?iiiaay eeneioa, ninoiyuay a naith i/a?aaeue ec 2-o eeneioiuo inoaoeia, naycaiiuo iai?i/iie naycueth. Yoo naycue ?anuaieyao aeaeo?iieaeaca, eioi?ay a ii?ia iaoiaeeony iiae iinoiyiiui naea?aeeaathuei aeeyieai aioeaeaeo?iieaeac (aaia?ei, aetheiei?oeeieaeu). Iaaeaeo o?aiy yoeie nenoaiaie eiaaony aeeiaie/aneia ?aaiiaanea, aeaeo?iiiaay eeneioa - aeaeo?iieaeaca - aioeaeaeo?iieaeaca.I?e ?aaiaoecia no?aioieieee oneeaiii auaeaeytho aeaeo?iieaeaco, iia ?anuaieyao aeaeo?iiiaoth eeneioo, /oi i?eaiaeeo e en/aciiaaieth ayaeoueo naienoa iniiaiiai aauanoaa, iiauoaaony i?iieoeaaiinoue eeaoi/iuo iaia?ai, aeaaiaea?y /aio ainiaeeoaeueiue i?ioeann i?eieiaao aaia?aeeciaaiiue oa?aeoa?. I?e ?aaiaoecia no?aaeatho e eieeaaaiiaua aieieia, eo ?ac?ooaiea i?ienoiaeeo iiae aeeyieai ?acee/iuo oieneiia, i?e yoii eieeaaai iooiaeeo io eieeino?oieia, ia?ooaaony eieeaaaiiaay no?oeoo?a, /oi oaeaea niinianoaoao aaia?aeecaoeee eioaeoeee, ?aaiaoe/aneiai i?ioeanna.A 1942 a. Eeaiia?oa? auaeaeioe iiiyoea i eieeaaaiiauo aieaciyo (eieeaaaiicao) e ioian e iei ?aaiaoeci.?aaiaoeci - yoi nenoaiiia ii?aaeaiea niaaeeieoaeueiie oeaie n ii?aaeaieai anao aa yeaiaioia, n i?aeiouanoaaiiui ii?aaeaieai iniiaiiai aauanoaa.?aiueoa ?aaiaoeci iacuaaee “ino?ie eeoi?aaeeie”, eioi?ay eiaao o?iie/aneia ?aoeeaeeae?othuaa oa/aiea. Yoi aeiaieueii ?ani?ino?aiaiiia caaieaaaiea, ei aieatho aieaa 4% ac?ineiai ianaeaiey. Iaeneiaeueiay caaieaaaaiinoue i?eoiaeeony ia aic?ano io 7 aei 2I eao. A yoii aic?anoa e i?ienoiaeeo /aua anaai ia?aay aoaea ?aaiaoecia. Iaeiaei a iineaaeiea aiaeu iaiaoeeanue oaiaeaioeey e “iiac?ineaieth”. O aeaaai/ae ?aaiaoeci ano?a/aaony a 2-2,5 ?aca /aua, /ai o iaeue/eeia. ?aiueoa n/eoaee, /oi ?aaiaoeciii i?aeiouanoaaiii aieatho a no?aiao n oieiaeiui, nu?ui eeeiaoii, ii ieacaeinue, /oi io eeeiaoa caaieaaaaiinoue ia caaeneo.Yoeieiaey:?aaiaoecio , eae i?aaeei, i?aaeoanoaoao no?aioieieeiaia caaieaaaiea, /aua anaai aiaeia, ?aaea nea?eaoeia. Aicaoaeeoaeue aaoa-aaiieeoe/aneee no?aioieiee a?oiiu “A”. Ae?oeaioiua, iaoiaaiiua naienoaa aicaoaeeoaey naycaiu n iaee/eai a aai iaiei/ea i?ioaeia, eioi?ue niinianoaoao eeceno eaeeioeeoia, ia?aciaaieth aeeeoaeueii nouanoaothueo a i?aaiecia I-aioeoae.E?iia oiai, no?aioieiee auaeaeyao ianeieueei oieneiia - ec ieo no?aioieecei I iaeaaeaao iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ea?aeeioiene/aneei aeaenoaeai. Ii nai no?aioieiee a e?iae i?e ?aaiaoecia ia iaia?oaeeaaaony. Auea auaeaeiooa ae?oniay oai?ey ?aaiaoecia - ae?on Eienaee A-13, yoa oai?ey ia io?eoeaea cia/aiey no?aioieieea. Niaeanii ae?oniie oai?ee, ae?on i?eia?aoaao iaoiaaiiua naienoaa oieueei i?e naineaeeecaoeee no?aioieieeii. Iaeiaei ae?oniay oai?ey a aeaeueiaeoai ?ani?ino?aiaiey ia iieo/eea.Nae/an yoeieiaey ?aaiaoecia anaaaea naycuaaaony n aaiieeoe/aneei no?aioieieeii. Caaieaaaaiinoue ?aaiaoeciii iinea aiaeiu ninoaaeyao 1-2%, neaaeiaaoaeueii aeey aai aicieeiiaaiey ioaeia aua e eciaiaiiay ?aaeoeaiinoue i?aaiecia. A aeaeueiaeoai iiyaeeanue aeea?ae/aneay oai?ey ?aaiaoecia (Eii/aeianeee, No?aaeanei), niaeanii eioi?ie caaieaaaiea aicieeaao ia ia aunioa aiaeiu, a a n?iee naineaeeecaoeee, nionoy 2-3 iaaeaee iinea aiaeiu. *anoi iaiiieiaao aeea?ae/aneoth nuai?ioi/ioth aieaciue. Aunieee oeo? aioeoae (aioeno?aioieeceia, aioeaeaeo?iieaeacu): yooaeoeaia aeanaineaeeece?othuay oa?aiey - ana yoi aeieacuaaao aeea?ae/aneoth oai?eth. Yenia?eiaioaeueii oaeaeinue nicaeaoue iiaeaeue ?aaiaoecia iooai naineaeeecaoeee i?iaeoeoaie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe no?aioieieea. Eoae, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?aaiaoeci ?anniao?eaaaony eae caaieaaaiea eioaeoeeiiii-aeea?ae/aneie i?e?iaeu.Ea?atho oaeaea ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue iaaeaaii?eyoiua aicaeaenoaey: ia?aioeaaeaeaiea, ia?aooiieaiea, iaiieiioeaiiia ieoaiea n iaaeinoaoeii aaeeia e aeoaieiia, iaaeaaii?eyoiay ianeaaenoaaiiinoue (iaiieiioeaiiinoue eeiiia eiioiieiiiaoaioiuo eeaoie).Iaoiaaiac ?aaiaoecia:A ?acoeueoaoa naiae aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe no?aioieiee nicaeaao aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey naiaai i?iieeiiaaiey a eeaoeo, /oi naycaii a iniiaiii n iaee/eai I-i?ioaeia, eioi?ue eece?oao eaeeioeeou e niinianoaoao ia?aciaaieth aeeeoaeueii oee?eoee?othueo a e?iae I-aioeoae. No?aioieiee aaeni?ae?oaony a niaaeeieoaeueiie oeaie, ia iiaa?oiinoe yiaeioaeey e auaeaeyao oiene/aneea aauanoaa:a) no?aioieecei-I - aucuaaao aaiieec + niaoeeoe/aneia ea?aeeioiene/aneia aeaenoaea,a) no?aioieecei - eecen yaea? eaeeioeeoia,a) aeaeo?iieaeaca - ia?ooaao ayceea aauanoaa niaaeeieoaeueiie oeaie.E?iia oiai, a i?aaiecia au?aaaouaaaony eeii eiioiieiiiaoaioiuo eeaoie, neioace?othueo aioeoaea i?ioea no?aioieieea e i?iaeoeoia aai iaoaaieecia. I?e ianneaiii ia?aciaaiee aioeoae nicaeathony eiioiiua eiiieaenu, /oi nii?iaiaeaeaaony auaeaeaieai aeieiae/anee aeoeaiuo aauanoa: aenoaieia, na?ioiieia, a?aaeeeeieiia, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e aua aieueoaio oaaee/aieth i?iieoeaaiinoe eeaoi/iuo iaia?ai, niinianoaoao aua aieueoae aaia?aeecaoeee i?ioeanna. I?ienoiaeeo aeaiaoo?aoeey aaeeia, eioi?ua a ?acoeueoaoa yoiai ia/eiatho aunooiaoue a ?iee aooiaioeaaiia, a ioaao ia eioi?ua i?aaieci ia?acoao aooiaioeoaea. Caaieaaaiea i?eia?aoaao ?aoeaaeeae?othuee oa?aeoa?, o?iie/aneia oa/aiea. Ia?aciaaiea aooiaioeoae eaeao aua e a ?acoeueoaoa ianiaoeeoe/aneeo aicaeaenoaee: ioeaaeaeaiey e o.ae.?acee/atho 3 ia?eiaea ?aaiaoecia:1) Ia?eiae ia?ae/iie naineaeeecaoeee io ino?ie aiaeiu aei ia?auo eeeie/aneeo i?iyaeaiee ?aaiaoecia. Aeeeoaeueiinoue ieiei 2 iaaeaeue.2) Ia?eiae au?aaeaiiuo aeia?a?ae/aneeo ?aaeoeee eee ino?ay oaca caaieaaaiey, oaca au?aaeaiiuo eeeie/aneeo i?iyaeaiee.3) Ia?eiae aooinaineaeeecaoeee - ia?acothony aoi?e/iua aioeoaea, oi anoue aooiaioeoaea, eioi?ua iiaeaea?aeeaatho o?iie/aneee ?aoeeaeeae?othuee i?ioeann. Ii iiaeao auoue naycai ni aoi?e/iui i?iieeiiaaieai no?aioieieea eee n ianiaoeeoe/aneeie eioaeoeeyie.Ii?oieiae/aneea i?iyaeaiey iiaoo auoue i?aeiouanoaaiii i/aaiauie - oiaaea aoaeao i?aiaeaaeaoue eeaoi/iay i?ieeoa?aoeey n ii/oe iaycaoaeueiui enoiaeii a neea?ic (iaaeeaiiia, eaoaioiia oa/aiea). A ae?oaeo neo/ayo aeiieie?otho aeeooociua eciaiaiey, ?acaeoea i?ioeanna eaeao ao?ii, ii oa?aeoa? eciaiaiee i?e yoii yennoaeaoeaii-aeueoa?iaoeaiue; caeanue aiciiaeii iieiia ia?aoiia ?acaeoea.EeeieeaI/aiue ?aciiia?acia e ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony eieaeecaoeeae i?ioeanna. Iiaeao auoue e ne?uoia eaoaioiia oa/aiea.?aaiaoe/aneee iieea?o?eo - 3I% - ia?ae/iay aoaea ?aaiaoecia, ii a iineaaeiaa a?aiy noae ano?a/aoueny ?aaeei. A eeanne/aneie oi?ia /aua iaaethaeaaony o aeaoae. O ac?ineuo ii oeio ?aoeeaeeae?othuae a?o?aeaee. Oa?aeoa?ii ino?ia ia/aei, ii?aaeaiea i?aeiouanoaaiii e?oiiuo nonoaaia, auno?ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea n iaeiiai nonoaaa ia ae?oaie. A oa/aiea ianeieueeeo /ania aieue noaiiaeony i/aiue ?aceie. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo ?acei au?aaeaiiue aieaaie neiae?ii i?eaiaeeo e ia?aie/aieth iiaeaeaeiinoe ia?aeeaeueiiai nonoaaa, aieueiie i?eieiaao auioaeaeaiiia iieiaeaiea ia nieia, n iaeneiaeueiui uaaeaieai ii?aaeaiiiai nonoaaa. O?aioeocneea eeeieoeenou auaeaeytho neiioii “ia o?iiue iaiy” - auioaeaeaiiia iieiaeaiea + no?aaeaiea ia eeoea. I/aiue auno?i e a?o?aeaee i?eniaaeeiythony iauaeoeaiua neiioiiu ii?aaeaiey nonoaaia - eiaea iaae ii?aaeaiiuie nonoaaaie noaiiaeony ai?y/ae ia iuoiue, aicieeaao aeaeeiay ia aeac ioa/iinoue ia?ea?oeeoey?iuo oeaiae, ?aaea e?aniioa. A iieinoe nonoaaa iaeaieeaaaony yennoaeao, aua aieueoa oiaiueoaaony iauai aeaeaeaiee a ii?aaeaiiii nonoaaa.Aeey ?aaiaoecia oa?aeoa?ii neiiao?e/iia ii?aaeaiea e?oiiuo nonoaaia e eaoo/anoue a?o?eoia, caeeth/athuayny a auno?ii iiyaeaiee e ia?aoiii ?acaeoee (aeaaea aac ea/aiey) ainiaeeoaeueiuo eciaiaiee nonoaaia. O ethaeae iiaeeeiai aic?anoa a ianoiyuaa a?aiy /aua iaaethaeaaony aoeie/iia oa/aiea - ii?aaeathony i?aeiouanoaaiii iaeeea iaaeoaeaiaiaua nonoaau, ec?aaeea ii?aaeaaony oieueei iaeei nonoaa (?aaiaoe/aneee iiiia?o?eo); oaeaea iiaeao iaaethaeaoueny a?o?aeaey a ea/anoaa iiiineiioiia, oi anoue aac aeaeueiaeoaai i?eniaaeeiaiey e?aniiou e ioa/iinoe nonoaaia. Iiaeao ionoonoaiaaoue e oa?aeoa?iay eaoo/anoue i?ioeanna, i?ioeann iiaeao ia?anoaoue iaaeeaiii. I/aiue ?aaeei iaaethaeaaony ?aaiaoe/aneee ieiceo a ciia ii?aaeaiiiai nonoaaa. Oa?aeoa?ai auno?ue ioaao ia aaeaeaaoioth oa?aieth.Naiia /anoia i?iyaeaiea ?aaiaoecia (1II%) - ?aaiaoe/aneee ieiea?aeeo. Oa?aeoa? ii?aaeaiey i?e yoii auaaao i/aaiaui e aeeooociui.Aeeooociue ieiea?aeeoOa?aeoa?iu ?aiiea i?eciaee na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe. ?aii iiyaeyaony au?aaeaiiay iaeuoea, na?aeoeaaeaiea, ioaee, aiee a na?aeoea, ia?aaie. Oa?aeoa?ia neaainoue, iaaeiiiaaiea, iioeeainoue, aieiaiua aiee. *aua aeeooociue ieiea?aeeo aicieeaao a aeaoneii aic?anoa. O ac?ineuo i?aeoe/anee ia ano?a/aaony.Iauaeoeaii: eeoi?aaeea, iau/ii iai?aaeeueiiai oeia, oaoeea?aeey, i?e/ai ioeuen iia?aaeaao o?iaaiue oaiia?aoo?u. Oa?aeoa?ai “aeaaeiue oeeaiic”. Au?aaeaiiay iaeuoea, /oi canoaaeyao aieueiiai i?eieiaoue iieiaeaiea i?oiiiiy. Yeno?anenoieey. Iaaooaiea oaeiuo aai. Oaaee/aiea a?aieoe na?aeoea, iniaaiii aeaai. Oiiu na?aeoea aeooea. I oii, /anoi i?ioiaeeanoiee/aneee ?eoi aaeiia (aeiiieieoaeueiue III oii). Io/aoeeaua, ii iyaeea ieiea?aeeaeueiua nenoiee/aneea ooiu (ii?aaeathony nini/eiaua iuooeu) - iuoa/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue eeaiaiia; aoi?ie iaoaieci - ec-ca ?aceie aeeeaoaoeee iieinoae na?aeoea aicieeaao ooi ioiineoaeueiie eeaiaiiie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe. Eciaiaiey ia YEA: ioia/aaony nieaeaiea aieueoaaea anao coaoeia - nieaeaiea coaoea ?, oiaiueoaiea QRS, nieaeaiea naaiaioa ST, coaoea O, eciaiaiea aeoeoaei/eiauo eiiieaenia. Iiaoo ano?a/aoueny i?eciaee ia?ooaiey ?eoia (yeno?anenoieey), ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iay aeieaaea.I/aaiaue ieiea?aeeoIaoieiae/aneee i?ioeann /anoi eieaeecoaony ia caaeiae noaiea eaaiai i?aaena?aeey eee a iaeanoe caaeiae eaaie iaieeey?iie iuooeu. Eeeieea neoaeiay, noa?oay: iiaoo auoue iauea neaai au?aaeaiiua neiioiiu - eaaeay iaeuoea i?e iaa?oceao, neaaua aiee eee iai?eyoiua iuouaiey a iaeanoe na?aeoea. *anoi aaeeinoaaiiue neiioii - nenoiee/aneee ooi (i?e ii?aaeaieyo iaieeey?iie iuooeu). I/aiue aaaeia YEA: /anoi aiaeaeaaony ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iue ocae, aicieeaao AA aeieaaea e oaeeeiaiea eioa?aaea PQ, ?aaea ieceee e io?eoeaoaeueiue coaaoe O. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eciaiaiey eioa?aaea HQ iiaoo /anoi ionoonoaiaaoue, a aianoi yoiai iiaeii iaeoe oieiuaiea, ooe?aiea eee cacoa?aiiinoue coaoea ? e eiiieaena QRS, /oi aiai?eo i ia?ooaiee ?ani?ino?aiaiey aicaoaeaeaiey ii i?aaena?aeeyi e aeaeoaei/eai. Eiiaaea iaoiaeyo niauaiea eioa?aaea ST ieaea ecieeiee e ieceee eee aeaoooaciue O. I?e ia?ae/iii caaieaaaiee aneaaenoaea ?aaiaoe/aneiai ieiea?aea ii?ie oi?ie?oaony o 1I% aieueiuo, iinea aoi?ie aoaee o 4I%, iinea o?aoueae - o 9I%.?aaiaoe/aneee ea?aeeo, e?iia ieiea?aeeoa, aeeth/aao a naay yiaeiea?aeeo e ia?eea?aeeo.Yiaeiea?aeeoIiaeao auoue a 2-o aa?eaioao:1) N?aco aicieeaao oyaeaeue aaeueaoaeo a 1I% neo/aaa. Aa?eaio ?aaeeee, e ii?ie oi?ie?oaony n?aco.2) Ai?iaeaa/aoue yiaeiea?aeeo - ano?a/aaony /aua. Eiaao ianoi noayiaeiea?aeeaeueiia ii?aaeaiea n oi?ie?iaaieai ai?iaeaaie ii e?ath noai?ie. *anoi ii?aaeaaony ieo?aeueiue eeaiai, i?e yoii /aua oi?ie?oaony ieo?aeueiue noaiic, ?aaea iaaeinoaoi/iinoue eeaiaia. Eeeie/aneea i?iyaeaiey i/aiue neoaeiua. Ii eeeieea iinoaaeoue aeeaaiic i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii. Iauea i?iyaeaiey e neoaeiay iauaeoeaiay neiioiiaoeea a n?aaeiai iaaethaeathony ia ?aiueoa, /ai /a?ac 4-6 iaaeaeue, eiiaaea aeaaea iicaea. Iiyaeyaony aeeanoiee/aneee ooi i?e noaiica, ?aaea nenoiee/aneee i?e iaaeinoaoi/iinoe, eioi?ua iinoaiaiii noaaeeece?othony. Ooi /aoeee, ia?aaeei a?oaue eee aeaaea iocueaeueiue i?e iaaeinoaoi/iie cao/iinoe oiiia na?aeoea (oi anoue iao i?eciaeia ii?aaeaiey ieiea?aea).Ia?eea?aeeoAno?a/aaony ?aaeei, oa?aeoa?ii aeia?iea/anoaaiiia oa/aiea. Nooie ia?eea?aeeo i?iyaeyaony iinoiyiiuie aieyie a iaeanoe na?aeoea, ooiii o?aiey ia?eea?aea, /aua aaeieue eaaiai e?ay a?oaeeiu. A ia/aea caaieaaaiey ia YEA oa?aeoa?ii niauaiea naaiaioa ST auoa ecieeiee ai anao ioaaaeaieyo, caoai iiyaeythony aeaoooaciua eee io?eoeaoaeueiua coaoeu O, a naaiaio ST aica?auaaony e ecieeiee.Yennoaeaoeaiue ia?eea?aeeo oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaeiieaieai a iieinoe ia?eea?aea na?icii-oea?eiiciiai yennoaeaoa. Ii nouanoao yaeyaony neaaeothuae noaaeeae nooiai ia?eea?aeeoa.Eeeieea: oiaiueoaiea eee i?ae?auaiea aieae; ia?anoathuay iaeuoea, oneeeaathuayny a iieiaeaiee eaaea; aa?oooa/iue oie/ie ineaaeai eee ia ii?aaeaeyaony; naeaaeaiu iaae?aaa?iua i?iiaaeooee; cia/eoaeueiia oaaee/aiea a?aieoe na?aeoea; aeooea oiiu na?aeoea a nayce n iaee/eai auiioa; i?eciaee iiauoaiiiai aaiiciiai aeaaeaiey: iaaooaiea oaeiuo, eiiaaea e ia?eoa?e/aneeo aai; AAe /anoi iiieaeaii; YEA a oeaeii oaeay aea, eae e i?e nooii ia?eea?aeeoa + nieaeaiea aieueoaaea coaoeia ai anao ioaaaeaieyo.Iaee/ea ia?eea?aeeoa i?e ?aaiaoecia /anoi yaeyaony i?eciaeii ii?aaeaiey anao o?ao neiaa na?aeoea - iaiea?aeeoa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia?eea?aeeo ano?a/aaony ?aaeei. Nouanoaoao aua oa?iei ?aaiiea?aeeo - noiia?iue aeeaaiic ii?aaeaiey i?aeoe/anee anao iaiei/ae na?aeoea, ii /aua iiae iei iiae?acoiaaaaony ii?aaeaiea yiaeiea?aea e ieiea?aea.?aaiaoeci iiaeao ii?aaeaoue ei?iia?iua a?oa?ee - ?aaiaoe/aneee ei?iia?eo; eeeie/anee - neiioii noaiiea?aeee n aieyie ca a?oaeeiie, eiiaaea aiciiaeai eioa?eo ieiea?aea.I?e ?aaiaoecia oaeaea aiciiaeiu:a) Ii?aaeaiea eiaee a aeaea oceiaie eee eieueoeaaeaeiie y?eoaiu, ?aaiaoe/aneeo ocaeeia e o.ae. ?aaiaoe/aneea ocaeee /aua anaai ?aniieaaathony iaae ii?aaeaiiui nonoaaii, iaae einoiuie aunooiaie. Yoi iaeeea, aaee/eiie n ai?ioeio, ieioiua, aacaieaciaiiua ia?aciaaiey, ?aniieaaathueany iiae eiaeae, /aua ii 2-4 ocaeea.a) Ii?aaeaiea ia?aiie nenoaiu - ?aaiaoe/aneay (iaeay) oi?ay. Ano?a/aaony i?aeiouanoaaiii o aeaoae, iniaaiii o aeaai/ae. I?iyaeyaony ni/aoaieai yiioeeiiaeueiie eaaeeueiinoe n iuoa/iie aeiioiieae e ianeeuenoaaiiuie au/o?iuie aeaeaeaieyie ooeiaeua, eiia/iinoae e ieie/aneie ioneoeaoo?u.a) Ii?aaeaiea ii/ae, i?aaiia ieuaaa?aiey, eaaeeo, ninoaeia.Oa/aiea ?aaiaoeciaO aeaoae /aua ano?a/aaony ino?ia oa/aiea ?aaiaoecia, aeeeoaeueiinoue caaieaaaiey ieiei 2-o ianyoeaa. O ac?ineuo, aia?aua caaieaaoeo - iiaeino?ia oa/aiea 3-4 ianyoea. I?e iiaoi?iii caaieaaaiee /aua caoyaeiie oa?aeoa? 4-6 ianyoeaa. Eiiaaea iaaethaeaaony aani?a?uaii ?aoeeaeeae?othuaa oa/aiea. A iineaaeiea aiaeu iniaaiii /anoi noaei ano?a/aoueny eaoaioiia oa/aiea ?aaiaoecia, i?e yoii o?oaeia aeeaaiinoeea; caeanue aaaeai aiaiiac, naycue n i?aaeoanoaothuae no?aioieieeiaie eioaeoeeae. *anoi aac aeiiieieoaeueiuo iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey aeeaaiic iinoaaeoue aeiaieueii o?oaeii.Eaai?aoi?iay aeeaaiinoeeaEeeie/aneee aiaeec e?iae: iaeo?aeueiue eaeeioeeoic, ?acei onei?aiiia NIY, i/aiue ?aaeei aiaiey - iau/ii o aeaoae i?e oyaeaeii oa/aiee caaieaaaiey. Iiyaeaiea N-?aaeoeaiiai aaeea +++ eee ++++.I?e enneaaeiaaiee aaeeiauo o?aeoeee e?iae: A ino?ie oaca - oaaee/aiea aeueoa-2-aeiaoeeiia, i?e caoyaeiii oa/aiee oaaee/aiea aaiia-aeiaoeeiia. Eaeao iiauoaiiia ?anuaieaiea aeaeo?iiiaie eeneiou - noaiiaeony iieiaeeoaeueiie e?ani/iay i?iaa ia aaenicu - aeeoaieeaaieiiaay i?iaa AeOA, eioi?ay a ii?ia ninoaaeyao 25-3I AAe.Iiauoaiea oeo?a aioeno?aioieeceia I auoa 1:25I, aioeno?aioiaeaeo?iieaeacu e aioeno?aioieeiacu auoa 1:3II. Oaaee/aiea oea?eiiaaia e?iae auoa 4IIII ia/e (a ii?ia 4 a/e).YEA - ia?ooaiea AA i?iaiaeeiinoe. PQ aieueoa Q, 2I nae., eciaiaiea eiia/iie /anoe aeaeoaei/eiauo eiiieaenia e ae?. Oaaee/aiea o?iaiy neaeiauo eeneio (a ii?ia aei 18I AAe).Aeeaaiinoe/aneea e?eoa?ee Aeaeiina-Ianoa?iaaIniiaiua e?eoa?ee:1) Ea?aeeo (yiaei, iei, ia?e).2) ?aaiaoe/aneee iieea?o?eo.3) ?aaiaoe/aneay oi?ay.4) Iiaeeiaeiua ?aaiaoe/aneea ocaeee.5) Eieueoeaaeaeiay y?eoaia.6) ?aaiaoe/aneee aiaiiac.7) Yooaeoeaiinoue i?ioeai?aaiaoe/aneie oa?aiee.Aeiiieieoaeueiua (iaeua) e?eoa?ee:1) Noaoea?eeueiay oaiia?aoo?a eee eeoi?aaeea.2) A?o?aeaey.3) Eaeeioeeoic, onei?aiiia NIY, N-?aaeoeaiue aaeie.4) Eciaiaiea YEA - oaeeeiaiea PQ.5) I?aaeoanoaothuay no?aioieieeiaay eioaeoeey.6) Na?ieiae/aneea e aeioeie/aneea iieacaoaee.7) Iiauoaiea i?iieoeaaiinoe eaieeey?ia.I?e iaee/ee 2-o iniiaiuo eee iaeiiai iniiaiiai e aeaoo aeiiieieoaeueiuo e?eoa?eaa aeeaaiic ?aaiaoecia noaiiaeony aanueia aa?iyoiui.Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic?aaiaoieaeiue a?o?eo. O?iie/aneia eee iiaeino?ia oa/aiea n naiiai ia/aea, caaieaaaiea ia/eiaaony n ii?aaeaiey iaeeeo nonoaaia. Iao iie?aniaiey eiaee iaae nonoaaaie, ia oaaee/aia ianoiay oaiia?aoo?a. A iaoieiae/aneee i?ioeann aiaeaeathony eiaea e iuooeu, aicieeaao e ao?ioey. Aiaeaeathony nonoaau iiaa?oiinoae einoae, anoue i?eciaee inoaiii?ica, oa?aeoa?ia oo?aiiyy neiaaiiinoue aeaeaeaiee a nonoaaao. ?aaiaoe/aneee a?o?eo aeaao 1II% aucaei?iaeaiea; i?e ?aaiaoieaeiii ieeiaaea ia auaaao iieiiai ia?aoiiai ?acaeoey - “aeaoi?ie?othuee a?o?eo”. Na?aeoea i?aeoe/anee ieeiaaea ia ii?aaeaaony. I?e eaai?aoi?iii enneaaeiaaiee a e?iae iaoiaeyo ?aaiaoieaeiue oaeoi?, eiiaaea onei?aiiia NIY.Aiiieieeiaue a?o?eo. *aua i?e o?iie/aneie aiii?aa, /aua anaai ii?aaeaaony eieaiiue nonoaa, oa?aeoa?ia i/aiue neeueiay aieue; oa?aeoa?ii ii?aaeaiea iaeiiai e?oiiiai nonoaaa. ?aaeoeey Ai?aea-AEaiao-i?iaieaoeeiiiue oano ia aiii?ath.A?ooeaeeaciue a?o?eo. Ano?a/aaony i/aiue ?aaeei, /aua o ethaeae, i?ioanneiiaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo naycaia n aeeaioiuie. Iiiiaaao ?aaeoeey ?aeoa-Oaaeaeaeueniia, eiaeiay i?iaa Ath?ia.Oiiceeeiea?aeeaeueiue neiae?ii (oiiceeeiaaiiay ooieoeeiiaeueiay ea?aeeiiaoey) naycaia n ooieoeeiiaeueiuie ia?ooaieyie na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu i?e o?iie/aneii oiiceeeeoa. Iao ino?iai ia/aea, eiaaony o?iie/aneee aiaiiac. Iaeneiaeueiia i?iyaeaiea caaieaaaiey ia aunioa aiaeiu, a ia a n?iee naineaeeecaoeee iinea iaa. Ieeiaaea ia oi?ie?othony eeaiaiiua ii?iee, iao /aoeeo i?eciaeia ii?aaeaiey ieiea?aea. YEA iiaeao auoue iioiaea, ii ieeiaaea iao oaeeeiaiey PQ, iao aunieiai oeo?a aioeno?aioieeceia I e aioeaeaeo?iieaeacu.Ea?aeeiiaa?ic. *aua aieatho iieiaeua ethaee, iiaoo auoue aeaeiau ni noi?iiu na?aeoea e nenoiee/aneee ooi. I?e iaa?ica iiiai iaueo, yiioeeiiaeueii ie?aoaiiuo aeaeia. Iao i?eciaeia ainiaeaiey. Nenoiee/aneee ooi i?e iaa?ica oiaiueoaaony eee en/acaao iinea oece/aneie iaa?ocee eee a iieiaeaiee noiy. Iiae aeeyieai oece/aneie iaa?ocee e oieeiieeoeeia PQ ii?iaeecoaony.Oe?aioieneeic. Iauea neiioiiu: neaainoue, iioeeainoue, nenoiee/aneee ooi, na?aeoeaaeaiea, yeno?anenoieey. A i?e ?aaiaoecia aieueiua ayeua, caeanue ia oa?aeoa?ia iiauoaiiay aicaoaeeiinoue. I?ia?anne?othuaa iiooaeaiea, oiiu na?aeoea i/aiue a?iieea. Nenoiee/aneee ooi a iniiaiii ia ia aa?oooea, eae i?e ?aaiaoecia, a a ia?eea?aeeaeueiie iaeanoe, aeeaea e ninoaeai. Ia YEA aunieee aieueoaae, i?eciaee neiiaoeeioiiee.Oieaoeenoeo. No?aaeatho /aua aeaiueiu, iiaoo auoue aeaeiau ni noi?iiu na?aeoea e noaoea?eeeeoao. Iiauoaieth oaiia?aoo?u /anoi i?aaeoanoaoao iciia. Aeeniainey. Ia?aae iaino?aieai iia?aoiinoue a aeeaoa. I?iaa?eoue aieaciaiiinoue a oi/ea aeae/iiai iocu?y.Eaeeiiaoe/aneee ieiea?aeeo eee ieiea?aeeo Aa?aiiaa-Oeaeea?a. Yoeieiaey aei eiioea ia ynia. I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi aicaoaeeoaeai yaeyaony ae?on Eienaee a?oiiu A, eioi?ue ?ani?ino?aiai ai anai ie?a e aeaao ei?ioeea yieaeaie/aneea aniuoee a?eiia.Aicieeaao oyaeaeia ii?aaeaiea ieiea?aea n iaei au?aaeaiiie ainiaeeoaeueiie ?aaeoeeae. Iaaethaeaaony ii?aaeaiea /anoe ieiea?aea, io aeeno?ioe/aneeo eciaiaiee aieioue aei iae?ica - iiaoo auoue oeaeua iiey iae?ica. Ia?yaeo n ieie iiey oea?ica, ana yoi aiai?eo i oyaeanoe e auno?ioa i?ioeanna. ?yaeii n iae?ioece?iaaiiuie o/anoeaie iuoa/iua aieieia eiiiainaoi?ii aeia?o?ioe?othony, aicieeaao aeeeaoaoeey iieinoae na?aeoea, ea?aeeiiaaaeey, na?aeoea oaaee/eaaaony “ia aeacao”. I?ioeann ?ani?ino?aiyaony aei yiaeiea?aea, aicieeatho i?enoaii/iua o?iiau, /anoi iaaethaeaaony aioo?ena?aea/iue o?iiaic. Anaaaea anoue i?eciaee au?aaeaiiie na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe, eiathony oyaeaeua ia?ooaiey ?eoia - yeno?anenoieey, a?eoiey, aieioue aei iieiie AA aeieaaeu. Aoneoeueoaoeaii auneooeaathony aeiiieieoaeueiua oiiu na?aeoea - ?eoi aaeiia, /anoi nenoiee/aneea ooiu, eiiaaea iiyaeyaony aeeanoiee/aneee ooi ec-ca aeeeaoaoeee iieinoae na?aeoea. Oa?aeoa?ia neeiiiinoue e o?iiaiia?aciaaieth.Oi?ioee?iaea aeeaaiica (?ac?aaioaia Ianoa?iaui, 1956 a.)?aaiaoeci.1) Aeoeaiinoue i?ioeanna:a) aeoeaiue,a) iaaeoeaiue.2) Eeeieei-ii?oieiae/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea: yiaei, iei, ia?eea?aeeo; ii?aaeaiea ia?aiie nenoaiu - ?aaiaoe/aneee yioeaoaeeo, ii?aaeaiea iicaiauo ninoaeia; ?aaiaoe/aneee ieaa?eo e o.ae.3) Oa?aeoa? oa/aiey:a) ino?ia,a) iiaeino?ia,a) o?iie/aneia: caoyaeiia, iai?a?uaii-?aoeeaeeae?othuaa,eaoaioiia.4) Ooieoeeiiaeueiay ioeaiea ii?aaeaiiiai i?aaia: iaee/ea eee ionoonoaea na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe, enoiae.Ea/aiea1) Iaycaoaeueia ainieoaeecaoeey, iinoaeueiue ?aaeei.2) Aioeaeioeee: iaieoeeeeei 5II oun. * 6 ?ac a noo. - 2 iaaeaee.3) Noa?ieaeiua ai?iiiu: i?aaeiecieii 3I (iaeneiaeueii 4I) ia/noo. a 1 iaaeaeth, caoai eaaeaeoth iaaeaeth nieiatho ii 1 oaa. Anee ea/aiea ia/aoi iicaeiaa 2-o iaaeaeue io ia/aea caaieaaaiey - aeico ioaeii oaaee/eoue.4) Oiaiueoaiea i?iieoeaaiinoe eeaoi/iuo iaia?ai: aeoaiei N 1,5 a/noo.5) I?e au?aaeaiiuo aieyo a nonoaaao: anie?ei 1,I * 4 ?. a aeaiue, a?ooai 5,2 * 4 ?. a aeaiue, ?aiie?ei I,25 * 4 ?. a aeaiue, eiaeiiaoaoeei, aooaaeeii I,15. Eae i?ioeai?aaiaoe/aneea n?aaenoaa iie iaei yooaeoeaiu. I?eiaiytho i?e iaee/ee i?ioeaiiieacaiee e aetheiei?oeeieaeai e i?e eo ioiaia.6) Iyaeea oeeoinoaoeee: aeaeaaee I,25, ieaeaaiee I,2 (aiaeiae/ai aeaeaaeeo).Aeeeoaeueiinoue oa?aiee - ieieioi 2 ianyoea i?e ino?ii oa/aiee e 4 ianyoea i?e iiaeino?ii oa/aiee.II?IEE NA?AeOeA1. IEO?AEUeIUE NOAIICIniiaiua neiioiiu - iaeuoea, na?aeoeaaeaiea, a?eoiey, e?iaioa?eaiuea.Yoeieiaey anaaaea ?aaiaoe/aneay, ii a iieiaeia neo/aaa a aiaiiaca iao oeacaiee ia ?aaiaoeci. Aeth?oacuea (Aiaeey) - “iiaoo auoue a?iaeaeaiiua ieo?aeueiua noaiicu” (?). Cia/eoaeueii /aua o aeaiuei. A ii?ia aeeaiao? ieo?aeueiiai ioaa?noey 4-6 ni. I?e ?aaiaoecia iaoieiae/aneee i?ioeann ia/eiaaony ii e?ayi noai?ie eeaiaia, aaeece oea?iciiai eieueoea noai?ee n?anoathony, niaeaathony - ia?acoaony iaia?aia - oae ia?acoaony aeeao?aaiaeueiue oei ieo?aeueiiai noaiica. ?aaea ainiaeeoaeueiue i?ioeann ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia anth noai?eo eeaiaia, e ii i?aa?auaaony a ai?iieo n iaeiiiaeaeaeiie ia?aai?iaeeie. Ia?aaeei oaeie aeae noaiica i?ioaeaao ia ni anaie neiioiiaie, /aua i?iniao?eaaaony, aai o?oaeiaa iia?e?iaaoue. Iniiaiay iaa?ocea i?e ieo?aeueiii noaiica iaaeaao ia eaaia i?aaena?aeea.Yoaiu eiiiainaoeee ii?iea.1. Oiiiaaiiay aeeeyoaoeey e aeia?o?ioey eaaiai i?aaena?aeey.2. Ieiaaiiay aeeeyoaoeey eaaiai i?aaena?aeey - canoie e?iae a i?aaena?aeee - aeia?oaicey a iaeii e?oaa - oiiiaaiiay aeeeyoaoeey e aeia?o?ioey i?aaiai aeaeoaei/ea.3. Ieiaaiiay aeeeyoaoeey i?aaiai aeaeoaei/ea - canoie a aieueoii e?oaa.Eeeieea.Ia ia?aii yoaia eiiiainaoeey. Noauaeoeaii: - ii/oe ii?iaeueii, iiaeao auoue na?aeoeaaeaiea i?e oece/aneie iaa?ocea. Iauaeoeaii: aiaoiee aeae e a?aieoeu na?aeoea ii/oe ii?iaeueiua, iaeueiaoi?ii - aeeanoiee/aneia eioa/uea io?eueaiuea, aoneoeueoaoeaii - oneeaiiue I oii, /anoi oeiiathuee. Aeeanoiee/aneee ooi iniaaiii oi?ioi i?aaenoaaeai a ia/aeueioth oaco aeeanoieu. Neuoai oaeaea ieo?aeueiue uae/ie - uae/ie cae?uoey ieo?aeueiiai eeaiaia, aneaae ca II oiiii - “?eoi ia?aiaea”. Ia YEA - ?anuaieaiiue oe?ieee ? ec-ca aeia?o?ioee eaaiai i?aaena?aeey. ?aioaaiieiae/anee: oaaee/aiea a?aieoe na?aeoea ca n/ao eaaiai i?aaena?aeey. Aiciiaeiinoe eaaiai i?aaena?aeey auno?i en/a?iuaathony, aicieeaao eaai/iay aeia?oaicey - anooiaao a aeaenoaea caueoiue ?aoeaen Eeoaaaa: niaci a?oa?eie iaeiai e?oaa, /oiau oiaiueoeoue i?eoie e?iae, iiauoaaony aeaaeaiea a eaai/iie a?oa?ee, yoi i?eaiaeeo e aeia?o?ioee i?aaiai aeaeoaei/ea. Eeeieea noaiiaeony y?ei au?aaeaiiie.YEA - aeia?o?ioey eaaiai i?aaena?aeey ? > I,11” aeaoai?aua 1 2 V3-V5.

Noauaeoeaii: iaeuoea, e?iaioa?eaiuea, eaoaeue, oaeoouea, ia?aaeei aiee
noaiiea?aee/aneiai eee eioa?eoiiai oa?aeoa?a. Oyaeanoue yoeo neiioiiia
oaaee/eaaaony i?e oece/aneie iaa?ocea.

Iauaeoeaii: eioaioeeueiinoue, iieiaeaaue aeae, ae?ioeeaiic, neithoiee
?oiyiaoe ia eeoea, oeeaiic aoa, ooae, uae – “oaoeean ieo?aea”.
Aeia?o?ioey e aeeeyoaoeey i?aaiai aeaeoaei/ea aeatho oaaee/aiea
aaniethoiie na?aea/iie ooiinoe, iiyaeyaony na?aea/iue oie/ie,
yieaano?aeueiay ioeuenaoeey. Aa?oooa/iue oie/ie niacai eee ionoonoaoao.
Eioa/uea io?eueaiuea iaae aa?oooeie. I?e ia?eonnee oaaee/aiea
ioiineoaeueiie na?aea/iie ooiinoe ca eeieth ia?anoa?eaeen neaaa, oaeey
na?aeoea naeaaeaia.

Aoneoeueoaoeaii: oethiathuee I oii (ca n/ao neea?ice?iaaiiiai eeaiaia e
iaeiai iaiieiaiey eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea a aeeanoieo) aeoeaio, a caoai e
?anuaieaiea II oiia ia eaai/iie a?oa?ee (ec-ca aeia?oaicee iaeiai
e?oaa), nenoiee/aneee ooi iaae i?iaeoeeae eaai/iie a?oa?ee (a neo/aa
?acei au?aaeaiiie eaai/iie aeia?oaicee), aeeanoiee/aneee ooi
A?aoaia-Noeeea – ooi ioiineoaeueiie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe eeaiaia eaai/iie
a?oa?ee.

Ia aa?oooea na?aeoea: aeaoooaciue ooi n i?anenoiee/aneei e
i?ioiaeeanoiee/aneei oneeaieai (“aeaoooaciue ooi iaieeueieea”). *anoi
anoue oieueei i?anenoiee/aneia oneeaiea, iiyoiio nouanoaotho “iaiua”
ii?iee, o.e. i?anenoieeeon o?oaeii oneuoaoue; ieo?aeueiue uae/ie (e?iia
aa?oooee neuoai oaeaea a oi/ea Aioeeia-Y?aa).

Eaai/iay a?oa?ey iiaeao naeaaeeaaoue eaaoth iiaeeeth/e/ioth a?oa?eth –
ineaaeyaony ioeuen ia eaaie eo/aaie a?oa?ee (neiae?ii Iiiiaa). *anoi
aicieeatho ?acee/iua a?eoiee, a /anoiinoe, ia?oeaoaeueiay a?eoiey. I?e
aa iiyaeaiee na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue ?acei ia?anoaao, ia?ooaaony
?aaioa eaaiai i?aaena?aeey – iaaeinoaoie i?eoiea e?iae e iaio, canoie –
en/acaao i?enenoiee/aneee eiiiiiaio, ii yaeaiey na?aea/iie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe, iniaaiii canoie a iaeii e?oaa, ia?anoatho, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e ineaaeaieth ?aaiou i?aaiai aeaeoaei/ea.

Ineiaeiaiey

1) ?aiiaa iiyaeaiea na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe (i?enooiu na?aea/iie
anoiu, o?iie/aneay i?aaiaeaeoaei/eiaay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue).

2) Ia?oeaoaeueiay a?eoiey, naycaiiay n ?aceei ?anoyaeaieai i?aaiai
aeaeoaei/ea – iiyaeythony aaoa?ioiiiua i/aae aicaoaeaeaiey.

3) O?iiaiyiaiee/aneea ineiaeiaiey (o?iiaiia?aciaaiea eaeao /aua a eaaii
i?aaena?aeee n iineaaeothuae yiaieeae a ninoaeu aieueoiai e?oaa).
Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiia ea/aiea – oe?o?ae/aneia.

IAAeINOAOI*IINOUe IEO?AEUeIIAI EEAIAIA

Naiue /anoue ec ii?ieia na?aeoea 75%, ii iaaeinoaoi/iinoue a /enoii
aeaea ano?a/aaony e?aeia ?aaeei, eae i?aaeei, ni/aoaaony n ieo?aeueiui
noaiicii. Nooue ii?iea – aeaoaeo eeaiaia, i?e eioi?ii noai?ee,
niieioaoenue, ia cae?uaatho iieiinoueth ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iia ioaa?noea,
n?aaaouaaao iaoaieci ?aao?aeoaoeee (ia?aoiue oie e?iae a i?aaena?aeea),
iiyoiio a ia?eoa?e/aneea ninoaeu aieueoiai e?oaa e?iaiia?auaiey a
nenoieo iinooiaao iaiueoa e?iae, /ai aa iinooieei a eaaue aeaeoaei/ae a
aeeanoieo. N?aaee i?e/ei ieo?aeueiie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe ia ia?aii ianoa
noieo ?aaiaoeci, ?aaea io?ua nooiaeeeueiuo oi?ae i?e oyaeaeii
aaeoa?eaeueiii yiaeiea?aeeoa eee niiioaiiue io?ua nooiaeeeueiuo oi?ae,
io?ua aieiaee iaieeey?iie iuooeu iinea eioa?eoa ieiea?aea, aoi?e/ii –
i?e aoa?ineea?ica.

Yoaiu eiiiainaoeee:

I. Enoeiiay eiiiainaoeey – oiiiaaiiay aeeeyoaoeey e aeia?o?ioey eaaiai
aeaeoaei/ea.

II. Ieiaaiiay aeeeyoaoeey eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea, oiiiaaiiay aeeeyoaoeey e
aeia?o?ioey eaaiai i?aaena?aeey.

III. Ieiaaiiay aeeeyoaoeey eaaiai i?aaena?aeey, oiiiaaiiay aeeeyoaoeey e
aeia?o?ioey i?aaiai aeaeoaei/ea. Aeaeiiiainaoeey.

Eeeieea

Caaeneo io iauaia ?aao?aeoaoeee. Aeieaia a?aiy aeaeia iao, oae eae eaeao
eiiiainaoeey. Caoai, n iiyaeaieai canoiy a iaeii e?oaa e eaai/iie
aeia?oaicee, ?acaeaaaony iaeuoea – i?eciae na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe
ii eaaiaeaeoaei/eiaiio oeio, i?eniaaeeiyaony neaainoue, ioaee, oeeaiic,
oaaee/aiea ia/aie. Iauaeoeaii: i?eiiaeieiathuee aa?oooa/iue oie/ie,
nouanoaaiii ia niauaiiue, ia II yoaia eiiiainaoeee – ?aceeoie e
niauaiiue aeaai. I?e ia?eonnee oaaee/aiea a?aieoe ioiineoaeueiie
na?aea/iie ooiinoe a 5-i iaae?aaa?uea neaaa io n?aaeiaeeth/e/iie eeiee
(1 yoai), ca n?aaeiaeeth/e/ioth eeieth (2-e yoai), oaaee/aiea a?aieoe a
3-i iaae?aaa?uea neaaa (ieo?aeueiay eiioeao?aoeey). Aoneoeueoaoeaii
ineaaeaiea I oiia, i?e/ai noaiaiue ineaaeaiey ia?aeeaeueia oyaeanoe
eeeieee ii?iea (iaeei ec iaoaieciia ineaaeaiey I oiia – iao iieiiai
niueaiey noai?ie ieo?aeueiiai eeaiaia a nenoieo), ia II e III yoaiao
eiiiainaoeee – aeoeaio II oiia ia eaai/iie a?oa?ee, ia aa?oooea a?oaue
aeothuee nenoiee/aneee ooi. Ooi iaycaoaeueii neeaaaony n I oiiii,
caieiaao anth nenoieo eee oieueei /anoue aa, iineo oauaathuee oa?aeoa? e
i?iaiaeeony a iiaeiuoa/ioth iaeanoue, oneeeaaaony a iieiaeaiee aieueiiai
ia eaaii aieo, ia aaeioa iiaeao ineaaaaaoue, i?e ii?iea, iaoneiaeaiiii
io?uaii oi?ae, ooi iaeneiaeueii neuoai ia aa?oooea, i/aiue a?oaue, i?e
io?uaa aieiaee iaieeey?iie iuooeu ooi aeinoeaaao VI noaiaie. Eiiaaea
iiyaeyaony III iaoieiae/aneee oii. Ioeuen ia eciaiai, AAe inoaaony a
ii?ia. Ia ?aioaaiia?aiia e YEA i?eciaee aeia?o?ioee eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea.

Eeeie/anee neiioiiu ieo?aeueiiai noaiica e ieo?aeueiie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe
iiaoo auoue iaeeiaeiauie, iiyoiio aeey aeeoo. aeeaaiica aaaeai aiaiiac:
ia?eiae eaai/iie aeia?oaicee i?e ieo?aeueiii noaiica aieaa aeeeoaeueiue,
i?ioaeaao aiaeaie, a i?e ieo?aeueiie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe iiyaeyaony ia
yoaia aeaeiiiainaoeee, ii?ie aeeeoaeueii e oi?ioi eiiiaine?oaony. I?e
ieo?aeueiii noaiica auneooeaaaony ooi A?aoaia-Noeeea. Iaiaoiaeeii
o/eouaaoue oaeaea aeia?o?ioeth ?acee/iuo ioaeaeia na?aeoea – eaaiai i?e
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe e i?aaiai i?e noaiica. Eaaia i?aaena?aeea oaaee/eaaaony
e i?e noaiica, e i?e iaaeinoaoi/iinoe, ii i?e i?aiaeaaeaiee noaiica
aeeaiao? eaaiai i?aaena?aeey iaiueoa 1I ni (/aua 7-8 ni). a i?e
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe aieueoa 1I ni – eiaao ianoi ao?eiiaaaeey.
Au?aaeaiiinoue eaai/iie aeia?oaicee iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue ii
?aioaaiieiae/aneei aeaiiui. I?e iaeiia?aiaiiii niyoee YEA e OEA eioa?aae
iaaeaeo ia/aeii yeaeo?e/aneie nenoieu e ia/aeii iaoaie/aneie
oaaee/eaaaony i?e ieo?aeueiii noaiica aei I,1I” e aieaa (i?e ii?ia
I,I5”). Yoi i?ienoiaeeo aneaaenoaea oaaee/aiey ia?eiaea caiieiaiey
eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea. Eioa?aae iaaeaeo II oiiii e ieo?aeueiui uae/eii
ninoaaeyao a n?aaeiai I,1I”, e /ai ii iaiueoa, oai au?aaeaiiaa noaiic.
Eiiaaea iaaeinoaoi/iinoue ieo?aeueiiai eeaiaia auaaao ooieoeeiiaeueiie –
ioiineoaeueiay iuoa/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue, iai?eia?, o nii?oniaiia i?e
aeia?o?ioee eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea. I?e yoii aiciiaeia aeia?aeeaaiinoeea.

Ineiaeiaiey ieo?aeueiiai noaiica (aeiiieiaiea): E?iaioa?eaiuea e
eaai/iia e?iaioa/aiea, /anoua iiaaiiiee, oi?ie?iaaiea iiaaiioea?ica,
na?aea/iue oee??ic ia/aie, neiae?ii Ii?aaiuee-Yaeaina-Noiena.

IAAeINOAOI*IINOUe O?AONOAI?*AOIAI EEAIAIA

Nooue ii?iea – iao ia?eiaea iieiiai niueaiey noai?ie eeaiaia. Ai a?aiy
nenoieu /anoue e?iae ec i?aaiai aeaeoaei/ea caa?anuaaaony ia?aoii a
i?aaena?aeea, a yoi a?aiy iiyaeyaony nenoiee/aneee ooi iaae i?iaeoeeae
eeaiaia. *anoue e?iae ec i?aaena?aeey caa?anuaaaony a iieoth aaio,
iiyaeyaony iieiaeeoaeueiue aaiiue ioeuen (caiaoai ii ioeuenaoeee oaeiuo
aai), oaaee/eaaaony e ia/eiaao ioeuene?iaaoue ia/aiue. Oiaiueoaaony
iinooieaiea e?iae a eaai/ioth a?oa?eth ai a?aiy nenoieu i?aaiai
aeaeoaei/ea, aicieeaao ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea e?iae, oaaee/eaaaony canoie a
aieueoii e?oaa, iiyaeythony ioaee, ia?aaeei anoeeo. ?acia?u i?aaiai
aeaeoaei/ea oaaee/aiu. Oneeeaaaony aa?oooa/iue oie/ie. Nenoiee/aneee ooi
iiaeao auoue e o eaaiai e?ay a?oaeeiu – iiaeii niooaoue n ieo?aeueiui
ii?ieii (iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth) – aaaeia i?iaa ni aaeioii.

IIAeINO?UE NAIOE*ANEEE YIAeIEA?AeEO

Aia?aua aue iienai aieaa 1II eao iacaae. Aai a ?aciua a?aiaia iacuaaee
aieaciueth Inea?a, aieaciueth Oaeo e o.ae. Ia?aaeei caaieaaaiea
aicieeaao ia oiia ?aaiaoe/aneiai ii?iea na?aeoea. ?aiaa iiaeino?ue
naioe/aneee yiaeiea?aeeo ?anniao?eaaee eae yaiethoeeth ?aaiaoecia, ii
caoai auei iieacaii, /oi ii iiaeao ii?aaeaoue e eioaeoiia na?aeoea.
Nae/an ?anniao?eaaaony eae naiinoiyoaeueiia caaieaaaiea.

Yoeieiaey

*anoi caaieaaaieth i?aaeoanoaotho ?acee/iua eioaeoeee, aiaeiu,
ineiaeiaiey aai?oia, eiiaaea oe?o?ae/aneea aiaoaoaeuenoaa e o?aaiu.
Aicaoaeeoaeue caaieaaaiey /anoi caeaiyuee no?aioieiee, noaoeeieieee,
iiaaiieieee, a?eau ?iaea Eaiaeeaea. *anoi caaieaaaieth i?aaeoanoaoao
iiiaaeaiea a e?iaue iaeiae?oeaioiuo aaaioia, a ii?ia ianaeythueo
iieinoue ?oa, iiniaeioeo, aa?oiea aeuoaoaeueiua iooe e o.ae. I?aoiaeyuay
aaea?aiey iaaethaeaaony iinea yeno?aeoeee coaa, oiiceeyaeoiiee,
eaoaoa?ecaoeee ii/aauo iooae, iinea ?iaeia, aai?oia e o.ae. A ii?ia yoa
aaeoa?aiey /a?ac ianeieueei aeiae aanneaaeii i?ioiaeeo. Aeey
aicieeiiaaiey caaieaaaiey aaaeii nieaeaiea nii?ioeaeyaiinoe i?aaiecia
ec-ca i?aaeuaeouae naineaeeecaoeee.

Caaieaaaaiinoue oaeaea iiauoaaony a ia?eiae noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee, aiei e
o.ae. Iiaeii iieo/eoue e yenia?eiaioaeueioth iiaeaeue caaieaaaiey –
nainen a i?aaeaa?eoaeueii naineaeeece?iaaiiii i?aaiecia. *anoi aieaciue
?acaeaaaony o aieueiuo n ?aaiaoe/aneei ii?ieii na?aeoea, i?e iaee/ee
eciaiaiee aioo?aiiae iaiei/ee a?oa?ee. Aieaa ?aaeei ii?aaeaaony
eioaeoiia na?aeoea.

Iniaaiiinoe caaieaaaiey

Ii?aaeaaony yiaeiea?ae, eiaao ianoi aiaea/aiea ?YN – aaia?aeeciaaiiia
nenoaiiia ii?aaeaiea ninoaeia, aiaeaeathony e ae?oaea i?aaiu,
niaea?aeauea ?YN – ia/aiue, naeacaiea, ii/ee. I?e iiiaaeaiee aaeoa?ee a
e?iaue iie i?aaeaea anaai inaaeatho ia eeaiaiao na?aeoea, /aua ia
ai?oaeueiuo, a aeaeueiaeoai naie eeaiaiu noaiiayony enoi/ieeii
eioaeoeee. ?aaea no?aaeaao ieo?aeueiue eeaiai, aua ?aaea o?aonoai?/aoue.

Iniaaiiinoe ii?oieiaee caaieaaaiey: Eiaao ianoi iae?iaeic, oea?eiieaeiia
iaaooaiea, i?aeiouanoaaiii ycaaiiue yiaeiea?aeeo, iiaeao auoue e
ycaaiii-ai?iaeaa/aoue. I?ieeoa?aoeey ii/oe ia au?aaeaia, yoi i?eaiaeeo
e auno?ie aeaoi?iaoeee eeaiaia. Iau/ii ii?aaeaaony e ia/aiue –
iaaethaeathony yaeaiey naioe/aneiai aaiaoeoa. A naeacaiea aeia?ieacey
ioeueiu, aiciiaeiu iae?icu. Ii?aaeathony ii/ee – i/aaiaue eee aeeooociue
iao?eo. *anoi iaaethaeaaony aaia?aeeciaaiiia nenoaiiia ii?aaeaiea
ninoaeia, aeaaiui ia?acii – iaeeeo, aicieeaao oieneei-aeea?ae/aneee
aaneoeeo. Iiaoo auoue o?iiaiyiaiee/aneea ineiaeiaiey, i?aeiouanoaaiii
ii aieueoiio e?oao e?iaiia?auaiey. A oeaeii i?ioeann iieeii-ycaaiiue.
I?e ?aaiaoecia – oieueei iieeiiciue, ionthaea e neeiiiinoue e
o?iiaiia?aciaaieth.

Eeeieea

?aiueoa iaaethaeaeinue ino?ia ia/aei – iciia, aunieay oaiia?aoo?a.
Nae/an /aua iaaethaeaaony iiaeino?ia oa/aiea. Caaieaaaiea ia/eiaaony
iinoaiaiii: noaoaa?eeeoao, ?aceay neaainoue, iioeeainoue, iciiau,
aii?aeney, iioa?y aana. I?e iniio?a: aeaaeiinoue eiaeiuo iie?iaia n
aeaeoiaaoui iooaieii. Oa?aeoa?ai aaii??aae/aneee neiae?ii iaoaoee,
neiyee, iiniaua e?iaioa/aiey, e?iaieceeyiey a nao/aoeo, eiiaaea
noaa?aoiieaeaeueiua e?iaieceeyiey. Iaoaoee /aua iaia?oaeeaathony a
iaeanoe eeth/eoe, o iniiaaiey iiaoaaiai eiaea, ia eiiuthieoeaa aeaca, ia
neecenoie ?oa. Aaii??aae/aneee neiae?ii aicieeaao a ?acoeueoaoa:
ia?ooaiey i?iieoeaaiinoe ninoaeenoie noaiee (aaneoeeo), oaaee/aiey
naeacaiee e ia?ooaiey aa ooieoeee, /oi i?iyaeyaony o?iiaioeeoiiaieae
(o.a. nieaiiiaaaeey n yaeaieyie aeia?nieaiecia). ss?ei au?aaeaii
oaiaoaiea e?iaioai?aiey, /oi i?iyaeyaony aiaieae, aeaaeiinoueth. Neiioii
Eoeeia-Eeaiaia: aaii??aae/aneea iaoaoee ia neecenoie ieaeiaai aaea, iiae
iiaoyie. Eiiaaea iaoiaeyo e?aniua aieaciaiiua ocaeee, aia?aua iienaiiua
Inea?ii – ocaeee Inea?a (aicieeatho ec-ca ii?aaeaiey eaieeey?ia).

I?e aeeeoaeueiii oa/aiee caaieaaaiey iiyaeythony iiaoe a aeaea /aniauo
noaeie e iaeueoeu a aeaea aa?aaaiiuo iaei/ae. Oiene/aneee aaiaoeo
iaoneaaeeaaao eaaeoth aeaeoooiinoue eiaee oeaaoa “eioa n iieieii”. O
aieueoeinoaa aieueiuo iaoiaeyo oaaee/aiea naeacaiee, ?aaea – ia/aie.
Oaaee/aiea ia/aie naycaii n oiene/aneei aaiaoeoii eee n na?aea/iie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth. A ia/aea caaieaaaiey oaiia?aoo?a n ?aceeie
?aciaoaie, aaeoe/aneay, ?acei ecio?ythuay aieueiiai. Auaaao e noa
oaa?eeueiay oaiia?aoo?a. Iinoaiaiii oi?ie?othony neiioiiu ii?aaeaiey
na?aeoea: ia?aui ii?aaeaaony ai?oaeueiue eeaiai, oi?ie?oaony aai
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue, aicieeaao nenoiee/aneee ooi ia ai?oaae anee no?aaeaao
ieiea?ae (ieiea?aeeo) – ia ia?aue ieai aunooiatho neiioiiu na?aea/iie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe, a?eoiee. Aiciiaeiu iaae?uau e ia?oi?aoeee eeaiaiiuo
noai?ie, ?ac?ua oi?ae e iaieeey?iuo iuooe, /oi ?acei oooaeoaao
aaiiaeeiaieeo. Iniaaiii oyaeaei caaieaaaiea i?ioaeaao i?e
o?iiaiyiaiee/aneeo ineiaeiaieyo, naycaiiuo n yaeaieyie yiaeiea?aeeoa:
eioa?eo ieiea?aea, eioa?eo ii/ee, eioa?eo naeacaiee (eiiaaea n
iineaeothuei aanoeaaee?iaaieai) e yiaieee niioaaonoaothueo ninoaeia,
yiaieey a ninoaeu aieiaiiai iicaa, eeoa/ieea, eiia/iinoae n
niioaaonoaothuae neiioiiaoeeie. Iauaa aeey oeacaiiuo ninoiyiee –
aieaaie neiae?ii, eieeaioieaeiia ninoiyiea, ia?anoatho i?eciaee
ainiaeaiey, oaiia?aoo?iay ?aaeoeey, ?acei no?aaeaao ooieoeey
niioaaonoaothuaai i?aaia.

A neo/aa aeeeoaeueiiai oa/aiey iiaeino?iai naioe/aneiai yiaeiea?aeeoa
/anoi ii?aaeathony ii/ee:

a) i/aaiaue iao?eo – aeaao ii/aaie neiae?ii, aaeie a ii/a, y?eo?ioeeou,
eaiaeueoeaaue yieoaeee;

a) aeeooociue aeiia?oeiiao?eo – i?iyaeyaony a?oa?eaeueiie aeia?oaiceae,
ia?acei au?aaeaiiuie ioaeaie, ii oaiia?aoo?a nieaeaaony, /oi iiaeao
auoue iiaiaeii aeey ioeai/iiai aeeaaiica aeiiea?oeiiao?eoa eae
naiinoiyoaeueiiai caaieaaaiey.

Eaai?aoi?iay aeeaaiinoeea

Iiaoi?iua iinaau e?iae, iniaaiii iiiaio eeoi?aaeee, iciiaa. Yoi
aaniethoiue i?eciae! i?eaeeceoaeueii a 4I% neo/aaa aunaeaaaony
noaoeeieiee, a 6I% caeaiyuee no?aioieiee e ae?. aicaoaeeoaee.

Eeeie/aneee aiaeec e?iae: oia?aiiay ii?iio?iiiay aiaiey aac
?aoeeoeioeeoica, oaiaeaioeey e eaeeiiaiee (i?e ?aaiaoecia eaeeioeeoic!)
n aieueoei naeaeaii aeaai, aieioue aei eiuo, i?e o?iiaiee/aneeo
ineiaeiaieyo – eiiaaea eaeeioeeoic, yiceiioeeey, iiiioeeoic,
o?iiaioeeoiiaiey, ?acei onei?aiiia NIY aei 7I-9I ii//an. *anoi
oiene/aneay ca?ienoinoue eaeeioeeoia, oeie/iay iieiaeeoaeueiay
oi?iieiaay i?iaa, ia yeaeo?ioi?aa?aiia aaeeia e?iae – ii?ii eee
aeia?aaiiaaeiaoeeiaiey. Eiaeiiiieiaeeoaeueiay ?aaeoeey Aanna?iaia, Eaia.
Aiaeec ii/e, iniaaiii a neo/ayo aeeeoaeueiiai oa/aiey: aaeie,
iee?iaaiaoo?ey.

Oanou, iai?aaeaiiua ia auyaeaiea aaii??aae/aneiai neiae?iia: neiae?iiu
ueiea, aeaooa e ae?.

Eiiaaea a e?iae iaia?oaeeaaaony ?aaiaoieaeiue oaeoi?, nieaeaiea o?iaiy
eiiieaiaioa.

Aiaiey, o?iiaioeeoiiaiey e eaeeiiaiey naycaiu n aeia?nieaieciii.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic

?aaiaoeci. Aiee a nonoaaao, a a 3I% ao?aeaey + iieea?o?eo. *aua
oi?ie?oaony ieo?aeueiue ii?ie e eeoue i?e iiaoi?iuo aoaeao ai?oaeueiue.
Ia?ooaaony i?iaiaeyuay nenoaia na?aeoea, ia?aaeei AA aeieaaea –
oaeeeiaiea PQ, iao aaii??aae/aneiai neiae?iia., iao nieaiiiaaaeee e
aeia?nieaiecia, iao ooieuaiey iiaoaauo oaeaia a aeaea “aa?aaaiiuo
iaei/ae”, ii/oe ia ii?aaeathony ii/ee. A niiieoaeueiuo neo/ayo iinaau
e?iae – i?e ?aaiaoecia noa?eeueiu, iiiiaaao oaeaea ii?aaeaeaiea oeo?a
aioeoae – aioeno?aioieeceia, aioeno?aioiaeaeo?iieaeac.

Nenoaiiay e?aniay aie/aiea. No?aaeatho a iniiaiii aeaiueiu, a iiaeino?ue
naioe/aneee yiaeiea?aeeo ano?a/aaony /aua o ioae/ei. Oa?aeoa?ii
ii?aaeaiea na?iciuo iaiei/ae (ia?eea?aeeo, ieaa?eo), y?eoaia ia eeoea a
aeaea aaai/ee. Iinaau e?iae noa?eeueiu. Ia auaaao o?iiaiyiaiee/aneeo
ineiaeiaiee. LE-eeaoee.

Aeeooociue aeiia?oeiiao?eo. Ia auaaao ia?eiaea aeeeoaeueiie
i?aaeoanoaothuae eeoi?aaeee, ieeiaaea ia oi?ie?oaony ii?ie na?aeoea. Ia
auaaao nieaiiiaaaeee, o?iiaiyiaiee/aneeo ineiaeiaiee, aaiieoeueoo?a
noa?eeueia.

Neoeeeoe/aneee ai?oeo. Iao yaeaiee aaii??aae/aneiai aeeaoaca, ia auaaao
oaaee/aiey ia?aioeiaoiciuo i?aaiia. Anoue neiioiiu neoeeeoe/aneiai
ai?oeoa (ni.ieaea). Anoue i?eciaee ii?aaeaiey ae?oaeo i?aaiia –
iae?iethan, ii?aaeaiea einoiie nenoaiu e ae?.

Ea/aiea

Iaycaoaeueia ainieoaeecaoeey, no?iaee iinoaeueiue ?aaeei. Aeeaoa aac
iniauo ia?aie/aiee, ii anee anoue na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue –
ia?aie/eoue iiaa?aiioth nieue.

Aioeaeioeee. A oiaea ea/aiey iiaoi?iia ii?aaeaeaiea /oanoaeoaeueiinoe
oei?u e aua?aiiiio aioeaeioeeo. I?e /oanoaeoaeueiinoe e iaieoeeeeeio
(caeaiyuee no?aioieiee) – iaieoeeeeei iacia/atho a aieueoeo aeicao,
ieieioi 18 iei. AAe a noo., anee iaieoeeeeei aucuaaao aeea?ae/aneea
?aaeoeee, iacia/atho oeaoaeinii?eiu: oeaoaei?eaeei, oeaoaeioei.
Iaieoeeeeei iau/ii eiiaeie?otho ni no?aioiieoeeiii, i?e cieioenoii
noaoeeieieea aeoeaai eeieiieoeei. I?e A?aii-io?eoeaoaeueiie oei?a
iieacaiu iaiieoeei, eaiaieoeei. Anee a oa/aiea 3-4 aeiae iao yooaeoa –
AA niaiytho, aaiaeyo eaiaeueii aioo?eaaiii, oaaee/eaatho aeico, iaiytho
eiiaeiaoeee.

Aeanaineaeeece?othuea n?aaenoaa: aeeiaae?ie, ieiieueoai.

Aetheiei?oeeieaeu: /a?ac 3-4 aeiy iinea i?iaaaeaiey
aeanaineaeeece?othuae oa?aiee – i?aaeiecieii 2I-3I ia a noo. a oa/aiea
7-1I aeiae.

Iauaoe?aieythuay oa?aiey: aeoaieiu, ae?iaiia ia?aeeaaiea e?iae.
I?aia?aou, nieaeathuea i?iieoeaaiinoue ninoaeenoie noaiee: – aeoaiei N
2-4 a a noo., ?ooei I,1 ii 3 ?aca a aeaiue, aetheiiao eee oei?eae
eaeueoeey, aeoaiei E.

Oaiaoiaaiac

1. Ia?anoathuay na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue.

2. O?aiey.

3. Aaia?aeecaoeey nainena.

4. Ii/oe anaaaea oi?ie?oaony iaaeinoaoi/iinoue ai?oaeueiiai eeaiaia. 35%
aieueiuo oa?ytho ?aaioiniiniaiinoue.

AI?OAEUeIUA II?IEE

Iaaeinoaoi/iinoue ai?oaeueiiai eeaiaia

I?e iaaeinoaoi/iinoe ai?oaeueiiai eeaiaia iieoeoiiua noai?ee ia
cae?uaatho iieiinoueth onouea ai?ou, /oi i?eaiaeeo e ia?aoiiio oieo
/anoe e?iae ec ai?ou a eaaue aeaeoaei/ae ai a?aiy aai aeeanoieu
(ai?oaeueiay ?aao?aeoaoeey). ?acee/atho eeaiaiioth (ca n/ao ?ac?ooaiey
eee nii?ueaaiey noai?ie) e ioiineoaeueioth (i?e cia/eoaeueiie
aeeeyoaoeee eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea n ?anoe?aieai ai?oaeueiiai ioaa?noey)
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue ai?oaeueiiai eeaiaia.

Yoeieiaey

1) ?E;

2) EC;

3) neoeeeoe/aneee ai?oeo;

4) aeeooociua caaieaaaiey niaaeeieoaeueiie oeaie;

5) aoa?ineea?ic ai?ou;

6) o?aaiu;

7) a?iaeaeaiiue ii?ie.

Iaoiaaiac e eciaiaiey aaiiaeeiaieee. Iniiaiie iaoieiae/aneee i?ioeann
i?eaiaeeo e nii?ueaaieth (?aaiaoeci, aeeooociua caaieaaaiey
niaaeeieoaeueiie oeaie), ?ac?ooaieth (EC, neoeeen) e io?uao (o?aaia)
noai?ie eee ?anoyaeaieth onouey ai?ou (aeeeyoaoeey eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea).
A ?acoeueoaoa aicieeaao ia?aoiue oie e?iae ai a?aiy aeeanoieu ec ai?ou a
eaaue aeaeoaei/ae, aeinoeaathuee 5I% io aaee/eiu nenoiee/aneiai iauaia.
I?iii?oeeiiaeueii iauaio ?aao?aeoaoeee oaaee/eaaaony (aeeeyoe?oaony)
eaaue aeaeoaei/ae.

Eiiiainaoi?iua iaoaieciu:

1) Oiiiaaiiay aeeeyoaoeey eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea;

2) oia?aiiay aeia?o?ioey eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea;

3) oei?i/aiea oacu eciiao?e/aneiai nie?auaiey e oaeeeia- iea
ia?eiaea ecaiaiey;

4) oiaiueoaiea ia?eoa?e/aneiai ninoaeenoiai nii?ioeaeaiey;

5) oaoeea?aeey, oei?a/eaathuay aeeanoieo e oiaiueoathuay noa-iaiue
?aao?aeoaoeee.

Eeeie/aneay ea?oeia

A noaaeee eiiiainaoeee aeaeia iiaeao ia auoue. A aeaeueiaeoai aicieeatho
aeaeiau, naycaiiua n oaaee/aieai aua?ina e?iae ec eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea e
?aceei eieaaaieai aeaaeaiey a a?oa?eaeueiie nenoaia. Aieueiua aeaeothony
ia na?aeoeaaeaiea, ?ani?ino?aiaiioth ioeuenaoeeth, aieiaie?oaeaiey,
iaii?iee, aiee a iaeanoe na?aeoea. Iaeuoea e i?eciaee oaeoouey
aicieeatho a ia?eiae aeaeiiiainaoeee. Iauaeoeaii: aeaaeiinoue eiaee
(?aoeaeoi?iue niaci ninoaeia eiaee), ioeuenaoeey ia?eoa?e/aneeo a?oa?ee,
neiioii Ithnna, Eaeiea. Ioeuen aunieee e nei?ue, oaoeea?aeey (altus,
celer et frequens). Nenoiee/aneia aeaaeaiea iiauoaii, aeeanoiee/aneia –
iiieaeaii, ioeueniaia aeaaeaiea oaaee/aii. Ia ninoaeao auneooeaaaony
aeaieiie oii O?aoaa e aeaieiie ooi Aeth?icuea. Aa?oooa/iue oie/ie niauai
aeaai e aiec, eoiieiia?aciue, oneeaiiue. Ciia ioiineoaeueiie na?aea/iie
ooiinoe oaaee/aia aeaai e aiec. I?e aoneoeueoaoeee ioia/aaony ineaaeaiea
I e II oiiia, aeeanoiee/aneee ooi ai aoi?ii iaae?aaa?uea neaaa io
a?oaeeiu e ia a?oaeeia, ia/eiathueeny iaiin?aaenoaaiii io II oiia.

Eino?oiaioaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea: YEA, OEA, YoiEA, ?aioaaiia?aoey.
Oa/aiea caaeneo io yoeieiaee. Noaaeey eiiiainaoeee iiaeao
i?iaeieaeaoueny aeieai, neiioiiu iaaeinoaoi/iinoe e?iaiia?auaiey iiaoo
?acaeaaoueny ino?i e auno?i i?ia?anne?iaaoue.

Ea/aiea

Ea/aiea iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey e NI. Iacia/aiea na?aea/iuo aeeeiceaeia
o?aaoao ii?aaeaeaiiie inoi?iaeiinoe, oae eae caiaaeeaiea ?eoia e
oaaee/aiea na?aea/iiai aua?ina iiaeao oneeeoue ?aao?aeoaoeeth. A ?yaea
neo/aaa oeaeaniia?acii eniieueciaaiea aaciaeeeyoaoi?ia aeey
aeaiiie?iaaiey e?iae a ninoaeenoie nenoaia, /oi iiaeao oiaiueoeoue
?aao?aeoaoeeth. N yoie oeaeueth ?aeiiaiaeoaony iacia/aoue ai?annei,
oiaiueoathuee ia?eoa?e/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea ninoaeia, a ni/aoaiee n
ieo?aoaie (ieo?ini?aeo).

Oe?o?ae/aneia ea/aiea n i?ioace?iaaieai ai?oaeueiiai eeaiaia.

NOAIIC ONOUess AI?OU

Yoeieiaey:

1) ?aaiaoeci;

2) aoa?ineea?i;

3) EC;

4) a?iaeaeaiiia noaeaiea onouey ai?ou.

E?iia eeaiaiiiai noaeaiey onouey ai?ou, aiciiaeai iiaeeeaiaiiue
(noaai?oaeueiue) noaiic ca n/ao aeia?o?ioee iaaeaeaeoaei/eiaie
ia?aai?iaeee i?e aeia?o?ioe/aneie ea?aeeiiaoee.

Iaoiaaiac e eciaiaiey aaiiaeeiaieee. Noaeaiea i?inaaoa ai?ou aieaa, /ai
iaiieiaeio nicaeaao i?aiyonoaea oieo e?iae ec aeaeoaei/ea. Aeaeueiaeoaa
noaiice?iaaiea onouey ai?ou (ia 75% e aieaa) i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth
ieiooiiai iauaia. I?e oece/aneie iaa?ocea iauai i?aeoe/anee ia
oaaee/eaaaony.

Eiiiainaoi?iua iaoaieciu:

1) oaeeeiaiea nenoieu eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea;

2) iiauoaiea aeaaeaiey a iieinoe eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea;

3) aeia?o?ioey eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea.

Eeeie/aneay ea?oeia. A noaaeee eiiiainaoeee ii?iea aeaeia /anoi ia
auaaao. AEaeiau ii?aaeaeythony ionoonoaeai aaeaeaaoiiai aic?anoaiey
ieiooiiai iauaia e?iaiia?auaiey i?e oece/aneie iaa?ocea. Iiyaeythony
aieiaie?oaeaiey e iaii?iee a ?acoeueoaoa oooaeoaiey iicaiaiai
e?iaiia?auaiey e naeeiathuea caa?oaeeiiua aiee i?e nieaeaiee ei?iia?iuo
e?iaioiea. Iaeuoea iiyaeyaony a iicaeieo noaaeeyo ii?iea.

I?e nieaeaiee nie?aoeoaeueiie ooieoeee eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea aicieeatho
i?enooiu na?aea/iie anoiu.

Iauaeoeaiua aeaiiua. I?e iniio?a aiaoiee aeae aieueiuo aac iniaaiiinoae,
i?e au?aaeaiiii ii?iea aeaaeiinoue eiaee ca n/ao niacia ninoaeia eiaee.
Ioeuen e a?oa?eaeueiia aeaaeaiea i?e oia?aiiii noaiica ia eciaiythony.

I?e au?aaeaiiii ii?iea ii?aaeaeytho a?aaeeea?aeey, iaeue e iaaeeaiiue
ioeuen (parus tardus) ec-ca oiaiueoaiey na?aea/iiai aua?ina e oaeeeiaiey
nenoieu eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea. Nenoiee/aneia e ioeueniaia aeaaeaiea
oiaiueoathony. I?e au?aaeaiiii ii?iea aa?oooa/iue oie/ie oneeai e niauai
aeaai, a?aieoeu ioiineoaeueiie na?aea/iie ooiinoe oaeaea niauaiu aeaai.
I?e iaeueiaoeee iaeanoe na?aeoea ai aoi?ii iaae?aaa?uea ni?aaa io
a?oaeeiu ii?aaeaeyaony nenoiee/aneia ae?iaeaiea.

Aoneoeueoaoeaiua aeaiiua: I oii nio?aiai eee ianeieueei ineaaeai, II
oii /aua ineaaeai. Ia iniiaaiee na?aeoea, ai aoi?ii iaae?aaa?uea ni?aaa
io a?oaeeiu e ia a?oaeeia auneooeaaaony a?oaue nenoiee/aneee ooi,
oneeeaathueany a na?aaeeia nenoieu – “ooi ecaiaiey”. Ooi iau/ii
i?iaiaeeony ia niiioth e iiaeeeth/e/ioth a?oa?ee.

Eino?oiaioaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea: YEA, OEA, YoiEA, ?aioaaiia?aoey.

Oa/aiea noaiica onouey ai?ou: aeieaia a?aiy ia?ooaiea aaiiaeeiaieee
iieiinoueth eiiiaine?iaaii e i?ioaeaao aanneiioiiii.

1 noaaeey – ia/aeueiua eeeie/aneea i?iyaeaiey a aeaea aieiaie?oaeaiey,
caa?oaeeiiuo aieae i?e oece/aneie iaa?ocea, ia?aceay iaeuoea
?aoeaeoi?iiai aaiaca ec-ca iaaeinoaoi/iiai e?iainiaaaeaiey aieiaiiai
iicaa.

2 noaaeey – au?aaeaiiay eeeie/aneay ea?oeia. ?acee/aaony eoaie/aneee oei
(i?enooiu noaiiea?aeee, iaii?iee) e canoieiue oei (iaeuoea, i?enooiu
na?aea/iie anoiu).

3 noaaeey – oioaeueiay NI.

Ineiaeiaiey: ei?iia?iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue n i?enooiaie noaiiea?aeee,
aiciiaeai eioa?eo ieiea?aea. Na?aea/iay anoia, oioaeueiay NI. Ia?ooaiea
aioo?eaeaeoaei/eiaie i?iaiaeeiinoe (aeieaaea eaaie iiaeee io/ea Aenna),
aiciiaeiu ia?ooaiey na?aea/iiai ?eoia.

Ea/aiea. Niaoeeoe/aneee iaaeeeaiaioiciie oa?aiee ia nouanoaoao. Ea/aiea
iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey. Ea/aiea noaiiea?aeee (ieo?aou, eaeueoeeaaua
aeieaoi?u).

Ea/aiea NI ii iauei i?aaeeai, ii neaaeoao inoi?iaeii iiaeoiaeeoue e
iacia/aieth na?aea/iuo aeeeiceaeia, oae eae eo ea?aeeioiie/aneee yooaeo
iiaeao oneeeoue ia?ooaiea aaiiaeeiaieee ec-ca i?aiyonoaey oieo e?iae a
ai?oo.

Aiciiaeii oe?o?ae/aneia ea/aiea ii?iea.

EIOAEOeEIIIUA IEIEA?AeEOU

Ethaia eioaeoeeiiiia caaieaaaiea iiaeao ineiaeieoueny ieiea?aeeoii.
Anoue oi/ea c?aiey, /oi aeey ?acaeoey aai iaiaoiaeeii i?yiia
i?iieeiiaaiea eioaeoeee a ieiea?ae, ii ae?oaea n/eoatho, /oi aeaei a
aooieiioiiii i?ioeanna (aooiaeea?aey).

?cee/atho ia?aioeiaoiciue e eioa?noeoeeaeueiue ieiea?aeeo. Aeeaaiic /aua
anaai noaaeony aenoieiaii (ia ane?uoee 3,5%, a i?e aeecie oieueei
I,I2-I,3% – oi anoue i/aiue ieioay aeeaaiinoeea, ia/aoeea e?eoa?ee, ii a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ieiea?aeeo ia aue iaiin?aaenoaaiiie i?e/eiie
nia?oe), ?aaiaoe/aneea e aeeooa?eoe/aneea – 1/5 anao ieiea?aeeoia.

Yoeieiaey

Iaeaieaa /anoi no?aioieiee 46%, I?AE 42%, iiaaiieiee 3%.

Iauai?eiyoie eeanneoeeaoeee iao. Eeanneoeeaoeey Eaae?iaa:

1) Aiieie/eiaay.

2) Eioaeoeeiiii-aeea?ae/aneea (ianiaoeeoe/aneea:

a) ecaanoiie yoeieiaee (aeeooa?ey, a?eii e ae?.),

a) iaecaanoiie (NEA, ?aaiaoieaeiue iieea?o?eo, neea?iaea?iey).

3) Oieneei-aeea?ae/aneea:

a) nuai?ioi/iua,

a) eaea?noaaiiua,

a) i?e yecaia, aaeoeeiaeueiua.

4) ?aaiaoe/aneea.

Nae/an iieuecothony eeanneoeeaoeeae Aiioeia )198I a).

1) ?aaiaoe/aneea.

2) Ia?aaiaoe/aneea:

a) ae?oniua,

a) aaeoa?eaeueiua,

a) aeea?ae/aneea,

a) ia?aceoa?iua,

ae) i?ioicieiua.

Ii ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoe:

a) i/aaiaua,

a) aeeooociua.

Ii eeeieea:

a) n ia?ooaieai ?eoia,

a) n aieaaui neiae?iiii,

a) n na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth,

a) n o?iiaiyiaieeae eaai/iie a?oa?ee,

ae) iaeineiioiiiua.

Ii iaoiaaiaco:

a) ia?ae/ii-eioaeoeeiiiua,

a) eioaeoeeiiii-aeea?ae/aneea,

a) oieneei-aeea?ae/aneea.

Ii aiaoiie/aneiio i?eciaeo:

a) ia?aioeiaoiciua,

a) eioa?noeoeeaeueiua.

Naiuie /anouie aicaoaeeoaeyie ae?oniie i?e?iaeu yaeythony
yioa?iae?onu, naiua iianiua a?oiiu Eienaee, iiaeao auoue ae?on a?eiia,
ia?aa?eiia, eioaeoeeiiiiai iiiiioeeaica e ae?. Ae?on Eienaee: a?oiiu A e
A. A?oiia A eiaao 24 iiaeoeia. A – 6 na?ieiae/aneeo iiaeoeiia. A?oiia
A iiaeao aucuaaoue aiaeio, eeioaaeaieo, I?C, iaoaoeaeueioth nuiue,
eeioioeeoa?iua iaieiaeou. A?oiia A – a?eiiiiiaeiaiua caaieaaaiey,
i?oeou, ia?eou, iaie?aaoeou, iecaioa?aeueiua eeioaaeaieou, oeenoeou,
caaeiee o?ao?eo, yecaiu, ii?aaeaiey nonoaaia, iiaeao auoue
aaeaiiei?oeeaeueiue iae?ic.

I?iyaeaiey ieiea?aeeoa /a?ac 1-2 iaaeaee iinea ia/aea eioaeoeee.
Iithuea, eiethuea aiee a iaeanoe na?aeoea aac eioieneeaoeee, ia
nieiathony ie/ai, e?iia aoe?aiey iace n iaioieii, aueaoiaineiai
aaeuecaia, iniaaiii i?e ni/aoaiee n i?eaiii eiaeiiaoaoeeia – iinoaiaiii
caoeoatho. Oaeaea neaainoue, aaeeiaiey. O iaeioi?uo yaeaiey na?aea/iie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe: iaeuoea, ioaee ia iiaao, o aieueoeinoaa ioeuen aieueoa
1II oae. a iei. Iauaeoeaii: oaoeea?aeey a 6I-7I% > 1II a yeno?anenoieee,
AAe, eae i?aaeei, nieaeaaony, a aeia?oiiey i?aeoe/anee ia ano?a/aaony.
Eaaue aeaeoaei/ae oaaee/ai a 9% neo/aaa. Aeooinoue I oiia a 9I%
neo/aaa, nenoiee/aneee iyaeee ooi, caieiathueo 1/2 e aieueoa nenoieu.
Iayoieeiia?aciue ?eoi ieioi – i?e aieueoeo aeeooociuo eciaiaieyo
ieiea?aea. ?acaeaiaiea oiiia, III e IV oiiu, oi anoue ?eoi aaeiia, anee
III oii neeaaaony n IV – noiiaoeeiiiue ?eoi aaeiia. Iiauoaiea
oaiia?aoo?u, /anoi noaoaa?eeeoao. Ia YEA iiaoo auoue eciaiaiey
?aiiey?ecaoeee, iieeea?aeeia?aiia: YEA (V3) + OEA + noeaiia?aiia.

Anee io ia/aea R aei eiioea O ii?ia, oi i?e/eia ia a ieiea?aea. Iaoiae
Naaeoeeiai: iaoaiiea?aeeia?ao: aeaaeaiea nieaeaii.

Eaai?aoi?ii: eciaiaiea aaeeiauo o?aeoeee + i?iaa Aaeueaeiaia,
N-?aaeoeaiue aaeie ia iaeei +. I?e no?aioieieeiaie eioaeoeee
aioeno?aioieecei I aieueoa 5II AAe, i?e ae?oniuo – aioeae?oniua oaea >
/ai 1/16I eee ia?anoatho.

Aeeaaiic: Naycue n ae?oniie eioaeoeeae, eciaiaiey a na?aeoea: a?eoiey,
na?aeoeaaeaiea, eciaiaiey ia YEA, NI eee ethaua eciaiaiey a na?aeoea,
aioeno?aioieecei I > 5II AAe eee i?ioeaiae?oniua aioeoaea > /ai 1/16I
eee ia?anoatho.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic:

1. Iae?iaaiiay aeeno?ioey na?aeoea.

2. EAN – i?e iae iiiiaaao ieo?iaeeoea?ei, i?e ieiea?aeeoa – iao.

3. Oe?aioieneeic.

4. ?aaiiea?aeeo.

5. Oaeiue inoaioaiae?ic.

E?aeiee aa?eaio ieiea?aeeoa – ieiea?aeeo Aa?aiiaa-Oeaeea?a. Oaia?ue
n/eoatho aai ae?oniui. Ea/aiea ii neiioiiai a ?aaieiaoeee. Anee
i?eiaiyoue ai?iiiu, aioeaeioeee, i.a.a.n. ae?on aoaeao aeeoue a
ieiea?aea aeieueoa e 1II% ao.letalis.

Ea/aiea:

Iau/ii i?e ieiea?aeeoa iinoaeueiue ?aaeei aei 3-o iaaeaeue. Aioeaeioeee,
aeaenoaothuea ia no?aioieiee – iaieoeeeeeiu, i?e ae?oniie yoeieiaee –
eiioiiaeiaoeeiu. Aeanaineaeeece?othuea n?aaenoaa,
i?ioeaiainiaeeoaeueiua. E i?aaeiecieiio ioiioaiea naea?aeaiiia –
i?eiaiyoue oieueei i?e caoyaeaaiee i?ioeanna aieaa 2-o iaaeaeue.
Aaciianii i?eiaiyoue anie?ei, ii anee iacia/aia oiiceeyeoiiey, oi iaaei
i?eiaiyoue aieaeiie?ei, aieueoa?ai, a?ooai 4II ia * 3 ?., yoi 3 iaaeaee.

N?aaenoaa, oeo/oathuea iaoaaieeci: A-1, A-6, A-15, eiea?aieneeaca.
I?ioeeaeoeea: naiaoeey o?iie/aneeo i/aaia eioaeoeee. Iinea aiaeiu eee
a?eiia ia 3 iaaeaee inaiaiaeaeaoue io oyaeaeuo oece/aneeo iaa?ocie.
Iinea ia?aianaiiiai eioaeoeeiiiiai ieiea?aeeoa 3 aiaea aaniie e inaiueth
i?ioeai?aoeeaeeaiia ea/aiea.

IAAeINOAOI*IINOUe E?IAIIA?AUAIEss

A iiiyoea na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu aeeth/athony na?aeoea,
a?oa?eaeueiay e aaiiciay nenoaia, oeaio?aeueiue iae?i-aoii?aeueiue
iaoaieci ?aaoeyoeee.

Na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a naycaia n iaaeaieai
nie?aoeoaeueiie ooieoeee ieiea?aea. Aeoei e ieicei a iieia iaoiaeyony a
?aciauaiiii ninoiyiee, eo niaaeeiaieth i?aiyonoaotho eiiu eaeey e
iao?ey, i?e/ai eaeee aioo?eeeaoi/ii, a iao?ee aiaeeaoi/ii. Iiae aeeyieai
nie?aoeoaeueiiai eiioeuena iao?ee i?iieeaao aioo?ue eeaoee, niinianoaoao
niaaeeiaieth eaoeia e ieiceia oaeaea Na++. Nie?auathony ia?iiiua
eiee/anoaa aeoeia e ieiceia, /ai e iaania/eaaaony nie?auaiea ieiea?aea.
Aeaeaa aeoeae?oaony oaeoi? ?anneaaeaiey, i?ae?auaaony iinooieaiea
yia?aee, ianooiaao oaca iieiy. Ca a?aiy aeeanoieu i?ienoiaeeo oneeaiiia
ainnoaiiaeaiea caiania iae?iy?aia (AOO, e?aaoeioinoieeiaca) ca n/ao
ieeneaiey aetheicu, a/e, eaoiiiauo oae. Iniiaiie iooue ?aneioaca
iae?iy?aia ay?iaiue – naycai n ieeneeoaeueiui oinoi?eee?iaaieai, aeey
/aai iaycaoaeueii iaee/ea eenei?iaea e aeoaieiia a?oiiu A, iniaaiii A-1
– aoiaeeo a ninoaa eioaeoi?ia oa?iaioia.

Eoae, aeey ii?iaeueiiai nie?auaiey ieiea?aea iaiaoiaeeii: aeinoaoi/iiay
eiioeaio?aoeey nie?aoeoaeueiuo aaeeia, aeinoaoi/iay eiioeaio?aoeey
yeaeo?ieeoia (eaeey, iao?ey, eaeueoeey, iaaiey), aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai
ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa (a/e, aetheicu, aee?iuo eeneio, eenei?iaea,
aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai aeoaieiia a?oiiu A.

Iaoiaaiac na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe:

NI iiaeao ?acaeoueny i?e ia?ooaiee iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo ec 4-o
auoaia?a/eneaiiuo oaeoi?ia: iaaeinoaoie iinooieaiey ieoaoaeueiuo
aauanoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ?aneioaca iae?iy?aia: io?aaeaiea, oaeoouea.
Ia?ooaiea eo onaiaiey – iaaeinoaoie aeoaieiia, iniaaiii a?oiiu A,
ia?ooaiea ieeneeoaeueiiai oinoi?eee?iaaiey, iai?eia?, i?e
oe?aioieneeica, aiaiey. Ia?ooaiea eniieueciaaiey yia?aee – /aua anaai
i?e ia?aooiieaiee, eiaaea e ieiea?aeo i?aaeuyaeythony aieueoea
o?aaiaaiey, /ai iiaeao auoue aeoeioieiceiiaue eiiieaen.

Ii Oaaaeeio auaeaeytho aeaa oi?iu NI:

1) Yia?aiaeeiaie/aneay NI – naycaia n ia?ooaieai iauaai iaiaia
aauanoa: oe?aioieneeic, e?iaiiioa?y, aeiiaeoaieiic – oyaeaeie iau/ii ia
auaaao.

2) Aaiiaeeiaie/aneay NI – naycaia oaeaea n ia?aooiieaieai ieiea?aea,
ii na?aeoea i?e yoii ii?aaeaaony ia?ae/ii – ia?ooaaony ooieoeey
aeoei-ieiceiiaiai eiiieaena, ia?ooaaony iio?aaeaiea yia?aee – oa?aeoa?ia
aieaa au?aaeaiiay NI.

Iniiaiua i?iyaeaiey NI

Oiaiueoaaony neea na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee, iaaeaao oaea?iue iauai, o.a.
eiee/anoai e?iae, aua?anuaaaiie a ai?oo e eaai/ioth a?oa?eth, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai oaaee/eaaaony eiia/iia aeeanoiee/aneia aeaaeaiea,
iinoaiaiii oaaee/eaathony ?acia?u na?aeoea, i?ienoiaeeo aai aeeeaoaoeey.
Iiauoaaony aeaaeaiea a onouea iieuo aai – n?aaaouaaao ?aoeaen
Aaeia?eaeaea – aicieeaao oaoeea?aeey eae iaeei ec eiiiainaoi?iuo
iaoaieciia, ii iia naiue ianiaa?oaiiue iaoaieci eiiiainaoeee, oae eae
oiaiueoaaony a?aiy aeeanoieu, ?aneioac iae?iy?aia aua aieueoa
oiaiueoaaony. Aeiaieueii auno?i i?ienoiaeeo ia?anoaiea aeeno?ioe/aneeo
eciaiaiee a ieiea?aea, aua aieueoa nieaeaaony ieiooiue iauai, caoai
caiaaeeyaony e?iaioie – oeaie a aaeeieoeo a?aiaie aoaeoo iieo/aoue
iaiueoa eenei?iaea, oaaee/eaaaony eiee/anoai ainnoaiiaeaiiiai
aaiiaeiaeia, ionthaea – aeo?ioeeaiic, a e?iae aeia?eaiiey. Aicieeaao
iaeuoea (i?e/eia – aeia?eaiiey, ?acae?aaeaiea eaai/iuo ?aoeaioi?ia, a
oii /enea e a eaai/iie a?oa?ee. Aeiieney, aeiienaiey, iiauoaiiay
a?oa?eiaaiiciay ?acieoea ii eenei?iaeo i?eaiaeyo e oaaee/aieth iauaia
oee?eoee?othuae e?iae e e iiauoaieth aa ayceinoe, auoiaeo ec aeaii
aeiiieieoaeueiiai eiee/anoaa e?iae. Iiauoaaony iaa?ocea ia ieiea?ae,
nei?inoue e?iaioiea iaaeaao, aaiiciia aeaaeaiea iiauoaaony – iiyaeythony
ioaee. Ioaee iiae/eiythony caeiiai ae?iaenoaoeee – iiyaeythony ia iiaao
e a iiynie/iie iaeanoe, anee aieueiie noieo, ia e?anooea – anee ii
eaaeeo. Iaaeaao ii/a/iue e?iaioie, caiaaeeyaony eeoai/eiaay
oeeueo?aoeey, /oi aaaeao e iiauoaieth eiioeaio?aoeee iao?ey a e?iae.
Oaaee/eaaaony eiee/anoai aioeaeeo?aoe/aneiai ai?iiia – oaaee/eaaaony
?aaani?aoeey aiaeu, /oi oaeaea aaaeao e ioaeai. Niaea?aeaiea
aeueaeinoa?iia ia iaiyaony, ii eiaao cia/aiea eciaiaiea
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe ii/a/iie oeaie e aeueaeinoa?iio e ia?ooaiea aai
eiaeoeaaoeee a ia/aie. Iiyaeythony oaeaea ioaee aioo?aiieo i?aaiia, a
oii /enea ia/aie, /oi aaaeao e aeeno?ioe/aneei eciaiaieyi a iae,
ia?ooaieth aa ooieoeee, oiaiueoaieth niaea?aeaiey a e?iae aeueaoieiia –
iaaeaieth iieioe/aneiai aeaaeaiey ieaciu —>

Eeanneoeeaoeey NI:

1. Eaaiaeaeoaei/eiaay NI – canoie i?aeiouanoaaiii a iaeii e?oaa
e?iaiia?auaiey.

2. I?aaiaeaeoaei/eiaay NI – canoie i?aeiouanoaaiii a aieueoii e?oaa
e?iaiia?auaiey.

Auaeaeytho oaeaea ?aciiaeaeiinoe – canoie i?aeiouanoaaiii a ai?ioiie
aaia, iieie aaia, niaoaiiua oi?iu.

1) Ino?ay NI,

2) O?iie/aneay NI.

Eeanneoeeaoeey o?iie/aneie NI ii noaaeeyi:

I noaaeey – ia/aeueiuo i?iyaeaiee. NI aicieeaao oieueei i?e iaa?ocea. A
ioee/ea io caei?iauo ethaeae ia?eiae iineaaeaenoaey aieaa aeeeoaeueiue.

II-A. Iaeuoea, na?aeoeaaeaiea, ioaee i?e iaaieueoie oece/aneie
iaa?ocea, oaeaea e eiioeo aeiy. Eciaiaiey aieaa noieeea, iaeiaei iinea
aeeeoaeueiiai ioaeuoa i?aoa?iaaatho ia?aoiia ?acaeoea.

II-A. Ana neiioiiu au?aaeaiu, aicieeatho e a ninoiyiee iieiy, iiaoo
en/acaoue oieueei i?e ea/aiee.

III noaaeey iaia?aoeiuo eciaiaiee. Ana neiioiiu ?acei au?aaeaiu a
ninoiyiee iieiy. Yoo noaaeeth iacuaatho oaeaea oee??ioe/aneie noaaeeae,
oae eae /anoi i?eniaaeeiythony oee??ic ia/aie: eiiaaea iacuaatho
eaoaene/aneie noaaeeae.

INO?Ass EAAIAEAEOAeI*EIAAss IAAeINOAOI*IINOUe

?acaeaaaony ea?oeia na?aea/iie anoiu, i?ienoiaeeo ino?ia iiauoaiea
iauaia a iaeii e?oaa e?iaiia?auaiey, ?acaeaaaony canoie. Auaaao naycai n
?aceei ineaaeaieai nie?aoeoaeueiie ?aaiou eaauo ioaeaeia na?aeoea i?e
aeinoaoi/iie ?aaioa i?aauo.

I?e/eiu: eioa?eo ieiea?aea, ino?ay ei?iia?iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue, ii?iee
na?aeoea (ieo?aeueiue noaiic, ai?oaeueiua ii?iee), aunieay aeia?oiiey
(/anoi i?e ino?ii aeiia?oeiiao?eoa, EAN, eioaeoeey n ino?ui ioaeii
eaaeeo.

I?e ieo?aeueiii noaiica iao i?eciaeia eaaiaeaeoaei/eiaie NI, ii auaaao
na?aea/iay anoia (a noaeaiia ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iia ioaa?noea ia oniaaaao
ooiaeeoue any e?iaue ai a?aiy aeeanoieu, aicieeaao /enoi iaoaie/aneia
i?aiyonoaea a oneiaeyo iiauoaiiie ?aaiou i?aaiai aeaeoaei/ea).

Iiauoaaony i?iieoeaaiinoue eaai/iuo eaieeey?ia, ia?ooaaony eeioaoe/aneee
ae?aiaae – aeeaeeay /anoue e?iae i?iiioaaaao a aeueaaieu e a i?inaao
iaeeeo a?iioia, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai oiaiueoaaony aeuoaoaeueiay
iiaa?oiinoue eaaeeo, aicieeaao iaeuoea, iiaeao i?eniaaeeieoueny
a?iioiniaci. Anee i?enooi caoyaeaaaony, aicieeaao ?aceay aeiieney
oeaiae, a oii /enea e eaai/iie, iiauoaaony iinooieaiea aeeaeeie /anoe
e?iae a aeueaaieu, i?ienoiaeeo aniaieaaiea, ?acei oiaiueoaaony
aeuoaoaeueiay iiaa?oiinoue – yoi ioae eaaeeo.

Eeeieea

I?enooi na?aea/iie anoiu iiyaeyaony /aua anaai ii/ueth, aieueiie
i?inuiaaony io i?enooia oaeoouey. Iaeuoea /aua einie?aoi?iiai oeia. I?e
a?iioiniacia iiaeao auoue cao?oaeiai e auaeio. No?ao nia?oe, enioa ia
eeoea, aieueiie aneaeeaaao, naaeeony, oeaao eeoea caieenoi-na?ue,
aeuoaiea /anoia, aei 4I a iei. i?e ioaea eaaeeo eeiei/ouaa aeuoaiea,
auaeaeaiea aeie iaienoie iie?iou. Iauaeoeaii a?eoiey e oaoeea?aeey, a
eaaeeo aeanoeia aeuoaiea, iaeeea aeaaeiuo o?eiia.

INO?Ass I?AAIAEAEOAeI*EIAAss NI

*anoi auaaao naycaia n yiaieeae eaai/iie a?oa?ee. Iiyaeyaony oaeoouea,
auno?i iaaooatho oaeiua aaiu, i?ienoiaeeo auno?ay aeeeaoaoeey i?aaiai
aeaeoaei/ea, iiyaeyaony na?aea/iue oie/ie, /anoi auneooeaaaony
nenoiee/aneee ooi o a?oaeeiu neaaa nieco, oaaee/eaaaony ia/aiue. A
aicieeiiaaiee NI aieueooth ?ieue ea?atho aeeeoaeueiua caaieaaaiey
(ii?iee na?aeoea, aeaeiiiainaoeey i?e yoeo ii?ieao io/anoe naycaia n
aoa?ineea?ioe/aneei ii?aaeaieai na?aeoea).

Aieueooth ?ieue oaeaea ea?atho ia?ooaiey ?eoia (yeno?anenoieey) e
i?iaiaeeiinoe. I?ioeeaeoeea NI eiaao eieinnaeueiia cia/aiea, iniaaiii o
aieueiuo n na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouie caaieaaaieyie. Caeanue aaaeii
oia?aiiia ia?aie/aiea oece/aneeo iaa?ocie e o?aie?iaea n o/aoii
?aca?aiuo aiciiaeiinoae ieiea?aea.

Ea/aiea:

Aaaeii ea/aiea iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey, i?eaaaeoaai e ?acaeoeth NI.
Ea/aiea caaeneo io noaaeee: I e II-A noaaeee ea/aony aiaoeaoi?ii, II-A e
III noaaeey ea/aony a noaoeeiia?a.

1) Iieie – i?aaeaea anaai. Iniaaiiinoue iinoaeueiiai ?aaeeia –
iieoneaey/aa iieiaeaiea, i?e eioi?ii oiaiueoaaony aaiiciue aica?ao e
na?aeoeo, nieaeaaony aai ?aaioa.

2) Aeeaoa – ia?aie/aiea niee e aiaeu (aei 1 e a noo). Iieacaiu
eaaeionaiyaiua, aiaaoua iieiioeaiiuie aaeeaie, aeoaieiaie e eaeeai
i?iaeoeou: ea?oioaeue, iiieaei?u, eaionoa, oieiao, eo?aaa, ecthi.

3) O?oaeiono?ienoai:

I no. – inaiaiaeaeaiea io oyaeaeie oece/aneie ?aaiou,

II no. – eiaaeeaeiinoue.

4) Naiaa?aiaiiia ?aniiciaaaiea e ea/aiea iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey:
oe?aioieneeica, ?aaiaoecia, a?eoiee – i?iaieaoi?ia NI.

Iaaeeeaiaioiciay oa?aiey

1. I?aia?aou, oeo/oathuea iaoaaieeci ieiea?aea. Na?aea/iua aeeeiceaeu:

a) i?yiia aeaenoaea ia iaoaaieeci ieiea?aea iaiin?aaenoaaiii:
inaiaiaeaeaao eiiu eaeueoeey, iiauoaao aeoeaiinoue AOO-acu – i?yiia
ea?aeeioiie/aneia aeaenoaea, caiaaeeyao iinooieaiea eiiia eaeey;

a) ii?n?aaeiaaiiia aeaenoaea /a?ac aaaon: ia neioniaue ocae –
oiaiueoaaony oaoeea?aeey, ia AA ocae – caiaaeeyaony i?iaaaeaiea,
ia?aaiaeeo oaoenoiee/aneoth oi?io ia?oeaoaeueiie a?eoiee a
a?aaeenenoiee/aneoth. Ii o na?aea/iuo aeeeiceaeia e naie iianiinoe:
aeeceea oa?aiaaoe/aneea e oiene/aneea aeicu, i?e ea/aiee iaiaoiaeeii
o/eouaaoue /?acau/aeii ?acee/ioth /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e yoei i?aia?aoai,
iniaaiii o noa?eeia. Na?aea/iua aeeeiceaeu niiniaiu eoioee?iaaoue a
i?aaiecia.

I?eioeeiu ea/aiey aeeeiceaeaie

Ea/aiea ia/eiaoue iaeneiaeueii ?aii, iniaaiii iieacaiu aeeeiceaeu i?e
aaiiaeeiaie/aneie NI. Nia/aea aeatho ianuuathuoth aeico, caoai
iiaeaea?aeeaathuoth. Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua noaiu ianuuaiey:

a) auno?ia ianuuaiea (aeeaeoaeecaoeey) – aianuuathuay aeica aeaaony a
oa/aiea iaeieo nooie;

a) oia?aiii auno?ia – aeica aeaaony a oa/aiea 3-4 aeiae;

a) iaaeeaiiay aeaaeoaeecaoeey – ianuuaiea aaaeoo iaaeeaiii, iinoaiaiii,
aac i?aaeaea.

Iioeiaeueiay iaoiaeeea oia?aiii auno?ay.

Iaiaoiaeeia naiaa?aiaiiay i?ioeeaeoeea ia?aaeice?iaie: ouaoaeueiue
eiio?ieue ca ioeuenii, iniaaiii a ia?aua 5 aeiae, oi?ioi YEA eiio?ieue.
Iaania/aiea yia?aaoe/aneeie ?ano?naie, ii?iaeueiiai eaeeaaiai aaeaina.
Ioaeai ?aoeeiiaeueiue iiaeoiae e auai?o i?aia?aoa: no?ioaioei I,I5% e
ei?aetheii I,I6%, auno?iaeaenoaothuea i?aia?aou, iaei eoioee?otho,
aaiaeyony oieueei a/a; aeeaienei I,III25, 6I% ananuaaaiinoue a
eeoa/ieea, aeeaeoienei I,IIII1 iaeaaeaao 1II% ananuaaaiinoueth,
oeaeaieae I,III25, ananuaaaiinoue 4I%.

I?ioeaiiieacaiey:

a) Aicieeiiaaiea NI ia oiia a?aaeeea?aeee. I?aia?ao Oaeocee ieacuaaao
aeaenoaea ia /a?ac aaaon, a iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia na?aeoea – aai iiaeii
i?eiaiyoue e i?e a?aaeeea?aeee.

a) AEaeoaei/eiaua oi?iu a?eoiee (ia?ieneciaeueiay aeaeoaei/eiaay
oaoeea?aeey e ae?.), oae eae iiaeao auoue aeaeoaei/eiaay anenoieey.

a) Ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iua aeieaaeu, iniaaiii iaiieiue aeie.

Iiai/iua yooaeou io i?eiaiaiey aeeeiceaeia

AEaeoaei/eiaua a?eoiee: yeno?anenoieey, oea?eeeyoeey aeaeoaei/eia,
ia?ieneciaeueiay oaoeea?aeey. ?acee/iua aeieaaeu, iniaaiii
ao?ieaaio?eeoey?iua. ?anno?ienoaa AEEO: oioiioa, ?aioa, iiiin, ieioie
aiiaoeo. Ni noi?iiu OeIN: aieiaiay aieue, neaainoue.

2. I?aia?aou eaeey: oei?enoue eaeee 1I% ii 1 no. eiaeea * 3 ?aca a
aeaiue; iaiaiaei 1 ae?aaea * 3 ?aca a aeaiue, ania?eai (aiaeia
iaiaiaeia) ii 1 ae?aaea * 3 ?aca a aeaiue.

3. Aeoaieiu: eiea?aieneeaca 1II ie/noo. a/i; A-6 1% 1,I a/i;
ieeioeiiaay eeneioa I,I5.

4. Aiaaiee/aneea n?aaenoaa: eaeey i?ioao I,5 * 3 ?. a aeaiue ca /an
aei aaeu; ia?aaie, ?aoaaieee 5% 1,I a/i 1 ?ac a iaaeaeth.

5. Eaeee-naa?aaathuea aeeo?aoeee: aa?ioie?ii 1II ia/noo.

6. Eiai?iii 1,I a/i

7. Aeeo?aoee: eaceen 2,I a/a, aeiioeaceae 5I ia, o?aaeo I,I5.

8. I?aia?aou, iai?aaeaiiua ia oeo/oaiea ?aaiou na?aeoea:

a) Oiaiueoathuea aaiiciue aica?ao e i?aaiio na?aeoeo: ieo?iaeeoea?ei
I,III5; ieo?ini?aeo I,I1; nonoae I,64 ia ?anoe?ytho aaioeu, oaaee/eaay
eo aieinoue.

a) Oiaiueoathuea ia?eoa?e/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea: ai?annei e
ieo?ii?onneae iaaeoey – ?anoe?ytho a?oa?eieu i?e o?iie/aneie NI.
I?eiaiyoue INOI?IAEII! i?e ino?ie NI aaiaeeoue a/a.

9. Ieneaaiioa?aiey.

Ea/aiea na?aea/iie anoiu

N?i/iay ainieoaeecaoeey. Aieueiiio i?eaeatho iieoneaey/aa iieiaeaiea,
oiaiueoatho aaiiciue aica?ao e na?aeoeo. N oie aea oeaeueth aaiiciua
aeaoou ia eiia/iinoe. Anee iao ea?aeeiaaiiiai oiea – e?iaiioneaiea aei
5II ie.

Aeeo?aoeee: eaceen 1%, 2,I-6,I a/a; oo?inaieae I,I4. Ii?oei 1% 1,I
(oaiaoaao aicaoaeaeaiiue aeuoaoaeueiue oeaio? + oiaiueoaao aaiiciue
aica?ao e na?aeoeo); iaioaiei 5% aei 1 ie, aaicaaeniiee – ?acei
nieaeatho oiion aaioe, iioaioee?otho aeaenoaea ii?oeia. I?e ieceii AAe
IA I?EIAIssOUe! Yooeeeei 2, 4% 1I,I – nieiaao a?iioiniaci, ao?iieia
noeueoao I,1% 1,I – i?e a?aaeeea?aeee, no?ioaioei I,I5% I,25-I,5;
oaeiiiiae aeey iae?ieaioiaiaeueaacee, aeeiaae?ie 1% 1,I eee ieiieueoai
(aeei?acei) – aioeaenoaieiiua n?aaenoaa.

Iaiiaaneoaee – aaeuoaiea eenei?iaea, oaeaaeiaiiiai yoeeiaui nie?oii.
EAE – a oyaeaeuo neo/ayo. Yeaeo?ieiioeueniay oa?aiey i?e o?aiaoaiee
aeaeoaei/eia.

O?IIE*ANEEA CAAIEAAAIEss AEAE*IIAI IOCU?ss

E AEAE*IUO IOOAE

Eeanneoeeaoeey

1. Oieaoeenoeou:

a) eaeueeoeaciua,

a) aaneaiaiiua.

2. Aeeneeiacee aeae/iuo iooae.

3. Oieaiaeo.

O?IIE*ANEEE OIEAOeENOEO

Ii aeaiiui einoeoooa nei?ie iiiiue /anoioa iaia?oaeaiey eaiiae i?e
o?iie/aneii oieaoeenoeoa ninoaaeyao 99%, ii

oieueei 15% iiiaaeatho ia iia?aoeeiiiue noie, inoaeueiua 85% ea/ao
oa?aiaaou. *anoioa iaia?oaeaiey eaiiae i?e ane?uoee 2I-25%. Eaaeaeue
aeanyoue ioae/eia e eaaeaeay /aoaa?oay aeaiueia aieueiu o?iie/aneei
oieaoeenoeoii (aeae/ii-eaiaiiie aieaciueth). *aua aieatho aeaiueiu aei
4I eao, iiiai ?iaeaaoea, no?aaeathuea iieiioie e iaoai?eciii. Iinea 5I
eao /anoioa caaieaaaaiinoe ioae/ei e aeaiuei noaiiaeony i?aeoe/anee
iaeeiaeiaie. *aua aieatho ethaee, ?aaioa eioi?uo naycaia n
ineoiyiioeeiiaeueiuie iaa?oceaie e iaeiiiaeaeaeiui ia?acii aeecie.

Yoeieiaey:

Eioaeoeey – /anoi yoi oneiaii – iaoiaaiiay oei?a: eeoa/iay iaei/ea,
no?aioieiee, noaoeeieiee, a?thoii-oeoiciay iaei/ea, i?inoaeoea
(eyiaeee).

AEae/ue naia ii naaa iaeaaeaao aaeoa?eoeeaeiui aeaenoaeai, ii i?e
eciaiaiee ninoaaa aeae/e e iniaaiii i?e aa canoia aaeoa?ee iiaoo
iiaeieiaoueny /a?ac aeae/iue i?ioie a aeae/iue iocu?ue. Iiae aeeyieai
eioaeoeee i?ienoiaeeo i?aa?auaiea oieaaie eeneiou a eeoioieaaoth. A
ii?ia yoio i?ioeann i?ioaeaao oieueei a eeoa/ieea. Anee aea aaeoa?ee
i?iieeatho a aeae/iue iocu?ue, oi yoio i?ioeann ia/eiaao eaeoe a iai.
Eeoioieaaay eeneioa iaeaaeaao iia?aaeaeathuei aeaenoaeai e ia/eiaaony
ainiaeaiea noaiee iocu?y, ia yoe eciaiaiey iiaeao ianeaeaaoueny
eioaeoeey.

Aeeneeiacey iiaeao auoue a aeaea nianoe/aneiai nie?auaiey aeae/iiai
iocu?y e a aeaea aai aoiiee n canoiai aeae/e. Aia/aea iiaoo auoue
eciaiaiey /enoi ooieoeeiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a. Aeaeaa aicieeaao
ianiaeaniaaiiinoue aeaenoaey iocu?y e noeieoa?ia, /oi naycaii n
ia?ooaieai eiia?aaoeee e aoii?aeueiie ?aaoeyoeee iioi?iie ooieoeee
aeae/iiai iocu?y e aeae/iuo iooae.

A ii?ia ?aaoeyoeee inouanoaeyaony neaaeothuei ia?acii: nie?auaiea
aeae/iiai iocu?y e ?anneaaeaiea noeieoa?ia – aaaon. Niaci noeieoa?ia,
ia?aiieiaiea aeae/iiai iocu?y – neiiaoe/aneee ia?a. Aoii?aeueiue
iaoaieci: a aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeooe au?aaaouaathony 2 ai?iiia –
oieaoeenoieeiei e nae?aoei, eioi?ua aeaenoaotho iiaeiaii aaaono e oai
naiui iaeaaeatho ?aaoee?othuei aeaenoaeai ia aeae/iue iocu?ue e iooe.
Ia?ooaiea yoiai iaoaiecia auaaao i?e aaaaoiiaa?ica, ainiaeeoaeueiuo
caaieaaaieyo AEEO, ia?ooaiee ?eoia ieoaiey e ae?.

Aeenoieey – ia?ooaiea oeceei-oeie/aneeo naienoa aeae/e.

Eiioeaio?aoeey aeae/e a iocu?a a 1I ?ac aieueoa, /ai a ian/aie.
Ii?iaeueiay aeae/ue ninoieo ec aeee?oaeia, oieanoa?eia (ia?anoai?ei a
aiaea, iiyoiio, /oiau oaea?aeaoue aai a ?anoai?aiiii ninoiyiee a aeaea
eieeieaea, iaiaoiaeeii i?enoonoaea oieaoia), oinoieeieaeia, aeae/iuo
eeneio, ieaiaioia e o.ae. A ii?ia aeae/iua eeneiou e eo niee (oieaou)
ioiinyony e oieanoa?eio eae 7:1, anee eiee/anoai oieanoa?eia
oaaee/eaaaony, iai?eia? aei 1I:1. oi ii auiaaeaao a inaaeie, oai naiui
niinianoaoy ia?aciaaieth eaiiae.

Aeenoieee niinianoaoao aunieia niaea?aeaiea oieanoa?eia (i?e naoa?iii
aeeaaaoa, iaee?aiee, naiaeiie aeia?oieanoa?eiaiee), aeee?oaeia (i?e
aeiieeoe/aneeo aiaieyo o.ae.), aee?iuo, aeae/iuo eeneio. Aianoa n oai
aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao eioeoee?iaaiea aeae/e. Ia i?aeoeea /aua anaai
eiiaeie?othony auoaoeacaiiua oaeoi?u. Iia?aaeaeathuaa aeaenoaea
eeoioieaaie eeneiou, eiaaea iia ia?acoaony a aeae/iii iocu?a aianoi
aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoee iiae aeeyieai eioaeoeee, naycaii n
eciaiaieai ?I, auiaaeaiea nieae eaeueoeey e ae?.

Eeeieea:

1. Aieaaie neiae?ii. Oa?aeoa?ia no?iaay eieaeecaoeey aieae – a oi/ea
aeae/iiai iocu?y e a i?aaii iiae?aaa?uea, /aua iinea i?eaia aee?iie,
aea?aiie, ino?ie ieue, oieiaeiie aace?iaaiiie aiaeu, ieaa. Oa?aeoa?
aieae iiaeao auoue ?acee/iui:

– i?e iaeaeueeoeaciii oieaoeenoeoa aiee ooiua, oa?ieiua.

– i?e eaeueeoeaciii – ?aceea, ianoa?ieiua aiee, iiaoo auoue
ni?iaioee?iaaiu o?yneie, acaeie, iioaieai oyaeanoe, eiiaaea naycaiu n
ineoiyiioeeiiaeueiui iai?yaeaieai. Oeie/ia e??aaeeaoeey a eiiaoeo,
i?aaia iea/i, iaeanoue oae ni?aaa. Eiiaaea aiee iiyaeythony oieueei a
ianoao oeie/iie e??aaeeaoeee. Aiee i?ioiaeyo io ianoiiai i?eiaiaiey
oaiea, niaciieeoeeia, iiaoo auoue aiee a iaeanoe nieiu. Anee aiee
aeeyony aieaa 4-o /ania – cia/eo i?ioeann ?ani?ino?aieeny ca i?aaeaeu
aeae/iiai iocu?y.

2. Neiae?ii aeeniainee. Aicieeaao a ?acoeueoaoa caa?anuaaiey aeae/e a
aeaeoaeie. Iiyaeyaony iuouaiea ai?a/e ai ?oo, eiiaaea oyaeanoue a
yieaano?ee. ?aaeei i?eniaaeeiyaony oioiioa, ?aioa.

3. Eeoa/iay aeeniainey: neeiiiinoue e iaoai?ecio, eiiaaea
iaia?aiineiinoue iiei/iie aeeaou, /anoua iiiinu, ?aaea caii?u. I?e
oieeoeenoiiaie?aaoeoa aeeaeeee ceiaiiiue nooe. *anoi auaaao ?aoethen ec
aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoee a aeaeoaeie, /oi noauaeoeaii
nii?iaiaeaeaaony iuouaieai ai?a/e ai ?oo. Aneaaenoaea ?aoethena aeae/e
i?ienoiaeeo iinoaiaiiay ao?ioey neecenoie aeaeoaeea.

Ia?aaeei oieaoeenoeo ne?uaaaony iiae ?acee/iuie ianeaie:

1) Aeeeoaeueiay noaoaa?eeueiay oaiia?aoo?a, eiiaaea aeeyuayny
ianyoeaie. I?e yoii /anoi aeoiatho i ?acee/iuo i/aaao o?iie/aneie
eioaeoeee (o?iie/aneee oiiceeeeo, ?aaiaoeci, ooaa?eoeac), caauaay i
oieaoeenoeoa.

2) Oieaoeenoiea?aeeaeueiue neiae?ii. I?iyaeyaony aieyie a iaeanoe
na?aeoea, Iiyaeaiea eioi?uo naycaii n aenoea?i-aenoea?aeueiui ?aoeaenii
ii aaaono. Aieue eieaeecoaony a iaeanoe aa?oooee na?aeoea, aieueiie
iieacuaaao eo eieaeecaoeeth iaeiei iaeueoeai. Aiee aeeeoaeueiua, iithuea
iiaoo iineoue i?enooiiia?aciue oa?aeoa? (ia YEA iiaoo auoue
io?eoeaoaeueiua aieiu ? a i?aauo a?oaeiuo e a III noaiaea?oiii
ioaaaeaiee. Eiiaaea iiaoo auoue ia?ooaiey ?eoia ii oeio aeaaiaiee,
o?eaaiaiee). Aeey ?aniiciaaaiey aaaeii o/eouaaoue naycue n aaeie:
nia/aea aiee iiaoo iiyaeoueny a i?aaii iiae?aaa?uee, a eeoue caoai a
iaeanoe na?aeoea.

3) Ii oeio ao?aeaee: a yoii neo/aa aieueiua /anoi ea/aony io
?aaiaoecia, ii i?e ianoiyoaeueiii ianeaaeiaaiee i?eciaeia ainiaeaiey ia
iaoiaeyo. I?e ea/aiee oieaoeenoeoa aiee en/acatho.

4) Aeea?ae/aneee neiae?ii. Ioia/aaony iaia?aiineiinoue iaeioi?uo
ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia, iniaaiii iieiea, iaeioi?uo eaea?noa.

5) Eciaiaiey ni noi?iiu e?iae – neeiiiinoue e iaeo?iiaiee aei 3III e
ieaea. I?e yoii iao ie aiaiee, ie o?iiaioeeoiiaiee. I?e/eia aei eiioea
ia ynia, i/aaeaeii iaeo?iiaiey eiaao ia einoii-iicaiaia i?ienoiaeaeaiea,
a aioo?eninoaeenoia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea eaeeioeeoia – ia?aoiae ec
oee?eoey?iiai ioea a ia?aeiaeueiue. Yoi naycaii n iiauoaieai oiiona
ia?aneiiaoe/aneie ia?aiie nenoaiu.

Aia iaino?aiey io/aoeeaay iaeo?iiaiey (4 oun.), ioia/aaony ii/oe o
2I% aieueiuo. Eaeeiiaiey ioia/aaony oaeaea i?e ycaaiiie aieacie,
o?iie/aneii aano?eoa n iiieaeaiiie ia?aiie nae?aoeeae, i?e iaa?icao, oi
anoue i?e ia?ooaiee aaaaoaoeaiie ia?aiie nenoaiu ii oeio
ia?aneiiaoeeioiiee. Ianiio?y ia iaee/ea iaeo?iiaiee o aieueiuo iao
iiauoaiiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe e aaeoa?eaeueiie e ae?oniie eioaeoeee. I?e
iaino?aieyo iei i?eniaaeeiaiee ae?oaie eioaeoeee aicieeaao
iaeo?ioeeueiue eaeeioeoic.

6) Iaa?anoaie/aneee neiae?ii. Iaciaiea ianie oieaoeenoeoa aaaeao e
aeiiaeeaaiinoeea.

Iauaeoeaii:

A neo/aa iaineiaeiaiiiai oieaoeenoeoa iauaa ninoiyiea no?aaeaao iaei.
I?e oieanoaca aiciiaeia aeaeoooiinoue. sscue iaeiaeai aaeui eee
ei?e/iaaui iaeaoii. Aieaciaiiinoue i?e iaeueiaoeee iocu?iuo oi/ae, ii
/anoi ionoonoaoao i?e iaee?aiee e aunieii noiyiee aeeao?aaiu. Oaaee/aiea
aeae/iiai iocu?y a oeaeii ano?a/aaony ?aaeei, ii auaaao i?e iaee/ee
aaioeeueiiai eaiiy, i?e aiaeyiea iocu?y. *aua aeae/iue iocu?ue nii?uai,
oiaiueoai a iauaia, niayi n ninaaeieie i?aaiaie, i?e yoii iiaoo
aicieeaoue “ia?e”-i?ioeannu: aiaea/aiea a?thoeiu, ia/aie e o.ae.

Iieiaeeoaeueiua neiioiiu:

– Ea?a: aieaciaiiinoue i?e iaeueiaoeee aeae/iiai iocu?y a iieiaeaiee
noiy,

– ia aaeioa: Ia?oe: oi aea, ii aieueiie neaeeo;

– Ithnne: aieaciaiiinoue iaaeaeo iiaeeaie
a?oaeeiii-eeth/e/ii-ninoeaaeaeiie iuooeu;

– Eaiaia: aieaciaiiinoue i?e iieiea/eaaiee ii i?aaiio iiae?aaa?ueth;

– o?aieeon – neiioii Eeaeneiai: iiieaeaiea nii?ioeaeyaiinoe oeaiae
a?thoiie noaiee i?e iaeueiaoeee a i?aaii iiae?aaa?uea.

Eaai?aoi?iua aeaiiua:

1) Aiaeec e?iae i?e iaino?aiee: iaeo?ioeeueiue eaeeioeeoic,
onei?aiiia NIY aei 15-2I ii//an, iiyaeaiea N-?aaeoeaiiai aaeea,
oaaee/aiea aeueoa-1 e aaiiaaeiaoeeiia, oaaee/aiee neaeiauo eeneio.

2) Aeoiaeaiaeueiia ciiaee?iaaiea: o/eouaatho a?aiy iiyaeaiey ii?oeee
e eiee/anoai aeae/e. I?e iaia?oaeaiee oeiiueaa neece aa iee?ineiie?otho:
iaee/ea eaeeioeeoia, eyiaeee iiaeoaa?aeaeaao aeeaaiic. Iaee/ea eciaiaiee
a i?oeee “A” oeacuaaao ia i?ioeann a naiii iocu?a, a a ii?oeee “N” – ia
i?ioeann a aeae/iuo oiaeao.

3) ?aioaaiieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea: anee iocu?ue oi?ioi aeaeai, oi
cia/eo ii neea?ice?iaai. I?iecaiaeyo oaeaea a/a oieaoeenoi e
oieaiia?aoeth. Eaiie iiaoo auoue ?aioaaiiiaaaoeaiu, ii ia oiia eiio?anoa
iie oi?ioi ?anniao?eaathony. Eiiaaea i?eaaaatho e oiiia?aoee. I?e
iaee/ee aeeneeiacee i?eciaeia ainiaeaiey iao, ii iocu?ue aoaeao neeueii
?anoyioo e ieioi eee i/aiue auno?i iii?iaeiyaony.

Oaeaea iaoiaeu ?aaeeioaeaaeaeaiey, neaie?iaaiea, oaieiaeaeaiea
(iicaieyao aeeaaiinoe?iaaoue eaeueeoeaciue e aaneaiaiiue oieaoeenoeo).

OIEAIAEO

Yoi ainiaeaiea e?oiiuo aioo?eia/aii/iuo i?ioieia. *aua anaai
i?eniaaeoeiyaony e oieaoeenoeoo. Yoeieiaey a iniiaiii oa aea, /oi e i?e
oieaoeenoeoa. *anoi nii?iaiaeaeaaony iiauoaieai oaiia?aoo?u oaea,
eiiaaea iciiaii, eeoi?aaeeie. Oaiia?aoo?a oi?ioi ia?aiineony, /oi aiiaua
oa?aeoa?ii aeey eiee-aaoeeeey?iie eioaeoeee. Oa?aeoa?ii oaaee/aiea
ia/aie, e?ae aa noaiiaeony aieaciaiiui. *anoi iiyaeyaony aeaeoooa,
naycaiiay n oooaeoaieai iooiea aeae/e aneaaenoaea caeoii?ee aeae/iuo
i?ioieia neecueth, i?eniaaeeiyaony eiaeiue coae. I?e enneaaeiaaiee e?iae
eaeeioeeoic, onei?aiiay NIY.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeeaaiic:

I?e iaee/ee ianie aaiaoeoa aiciiaeia aeia?aeeaaiinoeea; i?e iaaeio/aoa
caaieaaaiee, i?ioaeathueo n aieyie a i?aaii iiae?aaa?uea aiciiaeia
aeiiaeeaaiinoeea.

sscaaiiay aieaciue. Iniaaiii ycaa aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoee n iaee/eai
ia?eaeoiaeaieoa, ia?eaano?eoa, eiaaea aiee oa?ytho oa?aeoa?ioth aeey
ycaaiiie aieacie oeeeee/iinoue. Caeanue ioaeii o/eouaaoue: ycaaiiue
aiaiiac, aiee ia e??aaeee?otho, iinea i?eaia aioaoeeaeia aiee
oiaiueoathony eee en/acatho.

Aano?eo. Anaaaea i?aiaeaaeatho ia aieaaua iuouaiey, a /oanoai
ia?aiieiaiey, oyaeanoe a yieaano?ee.

Caaieaaaiey oienoiai eeoa/ieea (?ae e ae?.) Ii/a/ii-eaiaiiay aieaciue.
Aaaeai aiaiiac, ?aioaaiieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea ii/ae – 9I% eaiie.

Iaie?aaoeo; aiiaiaeeoeeo. ?aaiaoeci. I?e iaee/ee ao?aeaee iiauoaiea
oaiia?aoo?u n aieyie a na?aeoea, i?e oieaoeenoeoa – eciaiaiee ni noi?iiu
na?aeoea ia iaoiaeyo.

Oe?aioieneeic. I?e iaee/ee iaa?anoaie/aneiai neiae?iia. I?e
oe?aioieneeica aieueiua ooaeatho, a aieueiua n oieaoeenoeoii /aua
iieiua.

Oa/aiea o?iie/aneiai oieaoeenoeoa:

?aoeeaeeae?othuee; ne?uoia eaoaioiia oa/aiea; i?enooiu ia/aii/iie
eieeee.

Ineiaeiaiey

Ia?aoiae ainiaeaiey ia ie?oaeathuea oeaie: ia?eoieaoeenoeo,
ia?eaeoiaeaieo e o.ae. Ia?aoiae ainiaeaiey ia ie?oaeathuea i?aaiu:
aano?eo, iaie?aaoeo. Oieaiaeo n ia?aoiaeii a aeeea?iue oee??ic ia/aie.
Iiaeao auoue iaoaie/aneay aeaeoooa. Anee eaiaiue cano?ye a iocu?iii
i?ioiea, oi aicieeaao aiaeyiea, yiieaia, aiciiaeii i?iaiaeaiea n
iineaaeothuei ia?eoiieoii; neea?ice?iaaiea noaiee iocu?y, a a
aeaeueiaeoai iiaeao aicieeaoue ?ae.

Iieacaiey e iia?aoeee

Iaoaie/aneay aeaeoooa nauoa 8-12 aeiae, /anoua i?enooiu ia/aii/iie
eieeee, iaooieoeeiie?othuee aeae/iue iocu?ue – iaeaiueeee, nii?uaiiue,
ia eiio?anoe?oao. Aiaeyiea iocu?y e ae?oaea i?iaiinoe/anee
iaaeaaii?eyoiua ineiaeiaiey.

Ea/aiea:

1) Aeeaoa: ia?aie/aiea aee?iie ieue, ia?aie/aiea eaei?eeiinoe ieue,
eneeth/aiea ieioi ia?aiineiuo i?iaeoeoia. ?aaoey?iia 4-5 ?aciaia
ieoaiea.

2) Aeey ai?ueau n eioaeoeeae aioeaeioeee (aeaeaoaeueii iinea iieo/aiey
aeaiiuo iinaaa e ii?aaeaeaiey /oanoaeoaeueiinoe aicaoaeeoaey):
oao?aoeeeeei ii I,1 ii 2 oaa. 4-6 ?ac a aeaiue, iaieoeeeeei,
no?aioiieoeei a oa/aiea 2 iaaeaeue ii 5II oun. 2 ?. a aeaiue.

3) Aeey oneeaiey iioi?eee aeae/iiai iocu?y – oieaoeenoieeiaiaoeee:
iaaiey noeueoao 25% 2II,I ii 1 no.eiaeea 3 ?aca a aeaiue; ni?aeo,
eneeeo, anee iaaiacey aucuaaao iiiin; oieaoeenoieeiei.

4) Ia oiia oieaoeenoieeiaoeeia aeatho oiea?aoeee: aeeioie 2 oaa * 3 ?aca
a aeaiue, oieaicei 1 * 2-3 ?aca a aeaiue, oieinan ii 1 /aeiie eiaeea * 3
?aca a aeaiue, oeeeaaeii I,1 * 3 ?aca a aeaiue (iaeaaeaao
i?ioeaiainiaeeoaeueiui aeaenoaeai, ineoaiaieae (niaciieeoe/aneia
aeaenoaea) ieaioeei I,15 * 3 ?aca a aeaiue, oieaaie ii 5 eaiaeue ia
naoa?a ca iie/ana aei aaeu, iaeaaeaao e niaciieeoe/aneei aeaenoaeai. I?e
aeae/iie eieeea aeico oaaee/eaatho aei 2I eaiaeue.

5) I?e aieyo niaciieeoeee ieio?iiiiai aeaenoaey: ii-oia I,I4 * 3 ?aca a
aeaiue, ao?iiei I,1% 2,I i/e, ieaoeoeeei I,II5 * 2, aaeeaaeiiiay;
iaoaoeei 1, II2 * 2, 1, 1%, 1.I i/e: ieeioiai (ii-oia + aeo ??);

6) Yeaeo?ioi?ac iiaieaeia 2-1I% ?anoai? e iaiaaa?eia ia iaeanoue ia/aie
oiaiueoaao aeeneeiaoe/aneea yaeaiey.

7) Aeoaieiu e aeinoeioeyoi?u (aeiy, iaoeeo?aoeee e ae?.)

8) Ea/aaiua o?aau: aannia?oiee, iyoa, ioaa? eoeo?ociuo ?ueaoe, aa?aa?en,
ieaeia, oeiiaiee e ae?.

9) Ieia?aeueiua aiaeu n ieceei niaea?aeaieai nieae: Annaiooee 18,
Iaooony, O?oneaaaoe, Ii?oei, Ai?aeiie.

1I) Naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiia ea/aiea aia oacu iaino?aiey.

11) Oeceioa?aiey (oaieua i?ioeaaeo?u, eiaeoeoioa?iey, ia?aoei).

I?ioeeaeoeea

Naiaoeey i/aaia o?iie/aneie eioaeoeee, naiaa?aiaiiia e ?aoeeiiaeueiia
ea/aiea oieaoeenoeoa, ?aaeei ieoaiey, i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea aeenoiuo
eiaacee, ino?uo eeoa/iuo caaieaaaiee.

IAEAAEAIEA

A?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oaicey

– eeanneoeeaoeey AA
…………………………………………………………

– ea/aiea aeia?oiie/aneie aieacie
…………………………………..

– ea/aiea aeia?oiie/aneeo e?ecia
……………………………………..

Eoaie/aneay aieaciue na?aeoea
………………………………………

– noaiiea?aeey
………………………………………………………………

– eeeieea noaiiea?aeee
……………………………………………………..

– ea/aiea noaiiea?aeee
……………………………………………………..

– eioa?eo Ieiea?aea
…………………………………………………….

– eeeieea eioa?eoa Ieiea?aea
………………………………………….

– aoeie/iua oi?iu eioa?eoa Ieiea?aea
…………………………….

– ineiaeiaiey eioa?eoa Ieiea?aea
…………………………………….

– aeeooa?aioeeaeueiay aeeaaiinoeea Eioa?eoa Ieiea?aea …………

– ea/aiea eioa?eoa Ieiea?aea
………………………………………….

– ea/aiea ineiaeiaiiiai eioa?eoa Ieiea?aea ………………………

– ea?aeeineea?ic
………………………………………………………..

Ia?ooaiey ?eoia na?aeoea ………………………………………..

– yeno?anenoieey
…………………………………………………………..

– ia?ieneciaeueiay oaoeea?aeey
…………………………………………

– ia?oeaoaeueiay a?eoiey
…………………………………………………

– o?aiaoaiea i?aaena?aeee
……………………………………………….

– ia?oeaiea (o?aiaoaiea) aeaeoaei/eia
………………………………..

– ea/aiea
………………………………………………………………
…….

Ia?ooaiey i?iaiaeeiinoe
……………………………………………

– neiiao?eeoey?iay aeieaaea
……………………………………………

– neiae?ii neaainoe neioniaiai ocea
………………………………..

– aioo?ei?aaena?aeiay aeieaaea
…………………………………………

– ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iay aeieaaea
……………………………………….

– aeieaaeu iiaeae io/ea Aenna
…………………………………………..

– ea/aiea
………………………………………………………………
…….

?aaiaoeci
………………………………………………………………
…..

– yoeieiaey
………………………………………………………………
….

– iaoiaaiac
………………………………………………………………
….

– eeeieea
………………………………………………………………
…….

– aeeooociue ieiea?aeeo
……………………………………………

– i/aaiaue ieiea?aeeo
……………………………………………….

– yiaeiea?aeeo
……………………………………………………………..

– ia?eea?aeeo
……………………………………………………………..

– aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue aeeaaiic
……………………………………..

– ea/aiea
………………………………………………………………
…….

Ii?iee na?aeoea
……………………………………………………………

– ieo?aeueiue noaiic
………………………………………………….

– eeeieea
………………………………………………………………
……..

– iaaeinoaoi/iinoue o?aonoai?/aoiai eeaiaia ……………….

– iiaeino?ue naioe/aneee yiaeiea?aeeo …………………………

– ea/aiea
………………………………………………………………
…….

– ai?oaeueiua ii?iee
………………………………………………….

– iaaeinoaoi/iinoue ai?oaeueiiai eeaiaia
…………………………….

– noaiic onouey ai?ou
……………………………………………………..

Eioaeoeeiiiua ieiea?aeeou
………………………………………..

Iaaeinoaoi/iinoue e?iaiia?auaiey ………………………………

– eeanneoeeaoeey
…………………………………………………………..

– ino?ay eaaiaeaeoaei/eiaay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue …………….

– ea/aiea
………………………………………………………………
…….

– ea/aiea na?aea/iie anoiu
…………………………………………….

O?iie/aneea caaieaaaiey

aeae/iiai iocu?y e aeae/iuo iooae ……………………………

– eeanneoeeaoeey
……………………………………………………………

O?iie/aneee oieeoeanoeo
……………………………………………….

– yoeieiaey
………………………………………………………………
…..

– eeeieea
………………………………………………………………
……..

– ea/aiea
………………………………………………………………
……..

IAEAAEAIEA
………………………………………………………………
……

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