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Ieai

1. Neieeic – iaoieiaey iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa:

a) ii?aaeaeaiea;

a) oi?iu neieeica;

a) ia?aua i?iyaeaiey.

2. I?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey neieeica:

a) a?iaeaeaiiiai;

a) i?eia?aoaiiiai.

3. Ea/aaiua ia?ii?eyoey.

4. I?ioeeaeoeea neieeica.

Neieeic – yoi aieiaia ene?eaeaiea iicaiii/ieea ai o?iioaeueiie
ieineinoe. ?aaa?iue ai?a, eioi?ue i?e yoii iaaethaeaaony, ia?acoao
aeaoi?iaoeeth n auioeeinoueth aaie e ecaaee – eeoineieeic.

Neieeic ano?a/aaony ai?acaei /aua, /ai ia yoii aeoiatho. Ii aeaiiui
Iaoa?ao?aneiai aeaoneiai i?oiiaaee/aneiai einoeoooa ei. A.E.Oo?ia?a, o
40% ianeaaeiaaiiuo oeieueieeia noa?oeo eeannia auyaeaii ia?ooaiea
noaoeee, o?aaothuaa ea/aiey. Iacaaiea neieeic iieo/aao ii o?iaith
ecaeaa: oaeiue, a?oaeiie eee iiynie/iue e niioaaonoaaiii auioeeie
noi?iiu ene?eaeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii iiaeii ano?aoeoue iai?eia?
i?aainoi?iiiee a?oaeiie neieeic.

Neieeic iiaeao auoue i?inoui, eee /anoe/iui, n iaeiie aieiaie aeoaie
ene?eaeaiey, e neiaeiui – i?e iaee/ee ianeieueeeo aeoa ene?eaeaiey a
?aciua noi?iiu e, iaeiiaoe, oioaeueiui, anee ene?eaeaiea caoaaouaaao
aanue iicaiii/iee. Ii iiaeao auoue oeene?iaaiiui e iaoeene?iaaiiui,
en/acathuei a ai?eciioaeueiii iieiaeaiee, iai?eia? i?e oei?i/aiee iaeiie
eiia/iinoe. Iaeiia?aiaiii ni neieeicii iau/ii iaaethaeaaony e oi?ney
aai, o.a. iiai?io aie?oa aa?oeeaeueiie ine, i?e/ai oaea iicaiieia
ieacuaathony ia?auaiiuie a auioeeoth noi?iio, a inenoua io?inoee
a aiaioooth. Oi?ney niinianoaoao aeaoi?iaoeee a?oaeiie eeaoee e aa
aneiiao?ee, aioo?aiiea i?aaiu i?e yoii naeeiathony e niauathony.

Ia/aeueiua yaeaiey neieeica iiaoo auoue iaia?oaeaiu oaea a ?aiiai
aeaonoaa, ii a oeieueiii aic?anoa (10 – 15 eao) ii i?iyaeyaony
iaeaieaa au?aaeaii.

Yoeieiae/anee ?acee/atho neieeicu a?iaeaeaiiua (ii
A.Ae.*aeeeio iie ano?a/athony a 23.0%), a iniiaa eioi?uo eaaeao
?acee/iua aeaoi?iaoeee iicaiieia:

iaaei?acaeoea;

eeeiiaeaeiay eo oi?ia;

aeiaaai/iua iicaiiee e.o.ae.

E i?eia?aoaiiui neieeicai ioiinyony:

1. ?aaiaoe/aneea, aicieeathuea iau/ii aiacaiii e
iaoneaaeeaathueany iuoa/iie eiio?aeoo?ie ia caei?iaie noi?iia i?e
iaee/ee yaeaiee ieiceoa eee niiiaeeeia?o?eoa;

2. ?aoeoe/aneea, eioi?ua i/aiue ?aii i?iyaeythony ?acee/iuie
aeaoi?iaoeeyie iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa. Iyaeinoue einoae e
neaainoue iuooe, iioaiea ?aaaiea ia ?oeao (i?aeiouanoaaiii ia eaaie),
aeeeoaeueiia neaeaiea, iniaaiii a oeiea, – ana yoi aeaaii?eyonoaoao
i?iyaeaieth e i?ia?anne?iaaieth neieeica;

3. ia?aeeoe/aneea, /aua aicieeathuea iinea aeaoneiai ia?aee/a,
i?e iaeiinoi?iiiai iuoa/iii ii?aaeaiee, ii iiaoo iaaethaeaoueny e
i?e ae?oaeo ia?aiuo caaieaaaieyo;

4. i?eau/iua, ia ii/aa i?eau/iie ieioie inaiee (/anoi eo iacuaatho
“oeieueiuie”, oae eae a yoii aic?anoa iie iieo/atho iaeaieueoaa
au?aaeaiea). Iaiin?aaenoaaiiie i?e/eiie eo iiaoo auoue iai?aaeeueii
ono?iaiiua ia?ou, ?annaaeeaaiea oeieueieeia aac o/aoa eo ?inoa e
iiia?ia ia?o, iioaiea ii?ooaeae n ia?auo eeannia, aea?aeaiea ?aaaiea
ai a?aiy i?iaoeee ca iaeio ?oeo e.o.ae.

Yoei ia?a/iai eiia/ii ioaaouaathony ia ana aeaeu neieeicia, a eeoue
iniiniua.

I?eiyoi n/eoaoue, /oi i?e/eiie o?aaiu iiynieoeu yaeythony
o?aie?iai/iua ia?aa?ocee. Iaaeaeo oai, aiee a ieaeiai ioaeaea
iicaiii/ieea eoaea /aua aucaaiu iau/iie iianaaeiaaiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth /aeiaaea. A yoii e e?iaony iauyniaiea,
eacaeinue au, no?aiiiai i?ioeai?a/ey, eiaaea ia aieue a
iiynieoea aeaeothony ethaee ieeiaaea ia ciaaoea nii?oa. Naiia
a?aaeiia – yoi neaeaoue. Oaeeaeoaeueii, ii i?e neaeaiee iicaiii/iee
iaa?oaeai neeueiaa, /ai eiaaea iu noiei! Ai?i/ai, iiauoaiiay iaa?ocea
– yoi aua iie aeaea. Ii iiiao /ania iai i?eoiaeeoueny neaeaoue a
naiie a?aaeiie iica – iaeeiieaoenue aia?aae. A oaeii iieiaeaiee
e?ay iicaiieia naeeaeathony e cauaieytho iaaeiicaiii/iue aeene ec
o?yuaaie oeaie. Aiiaua yoa oeaiue ioee/aaony caia/aoaeueiie
yeanoe/iinoueth, iicaieythuae ae oniaoii nii?ioeaeyoueny eiii?annee.
Iaeiaei iaaei o/eouaaoue, /oi i?e neaeaiee neea aeaaeaiey ia
aiaoiee e?ae aeenea aic?anoaao a 11 ?ac! Aea e oiio aea
i?iaeieaeaaony ia oieueei a oa/aiea ?aai/aai e o/aaiiai aeiy, ii /anoi e
aeiia.

Enoaoe, eae aea oiaaea iauynieoue oio i?inoie oaeo, /oi onoaa io
aeeeoaeueiiai noiyiey iu no?aieiny nanoue? I?e/eia a oii, /oi
aieue a iiynieoea ia anaaaea auaaao neaaenoaeai ia?aa?ocee
iaaeiicaiii/iuo aeeneia. *anoi aieue i?iaioee?oao iuooeu ieca
nieiu, eioi?ua i?e noiyiee ieacuaathony a ninoiyiee
noaoe/aneiai iai?yaeaiey. Noieo nanoue, eae iuooeu ?anneaaeythony,
e aieue ooeoaao. Enoaoe, iai?yaeaiea aeeneia ?aaeei auaaao i?e/eiie
aiee. Aieeo o?aaia, eioi?ay aicieeea aeaaii e oaia?ue aeaao naay
ciaoue. Eiaaea /aeiaae naaeeony, o?aaie?iaaiiay iaeanoue iaiyao
iieiaeaiea. Ionthaea eeethcey iaeaa/aiey.

Eioa?anii ?acia?aoueny, ii/aio ana-oaee neaeaiea neeueiaa iaa?oaeaao
iicaiii/iee, /ai noiy/aa iieiaeaiea. Iauyniaiea a oii, /oi
aa?oeeaeueii oaei iiaeaea?aeeaaao eae neeeao aoeaeii, oae e
aieueoie iannea ioneoeaoo?u. A eoiaa iaa?ocea “?aniueyaony” ii
anaio oaeo, e iicaiii/ieeo aeaeaaony “eaa/a”.

Eiaaea /aeiaae naaeeony, oi iiaeaea?aeeaathuee iuoa/iue ei?nao
ooeiaeua ?anneaaeyaony, e any oyaeanoue oaea eiaeeony ia
iicaiii/iue noiea. Ionthaea e o?aaiu, aicieeathuea i?e
aeeeoaeueiii neaeaiee.

Iaaei iiae/a?eiooue, /oi a iicaiii/iuo aeeneao ne?uo ia?iiiue
iioaioeeae naiiei??aeoeee. Aeaaea anee au o?aaie?iaaee aeene, ii
ainnoaiiaeony, anee au noiaaoa eneeth/eoue o?aaie?othuaa aai
aicaeaenoaea.

Aeaaeaiey ia iaaeiicaiii/iua aeenee (a i?ioeaioao io iieiaeaiey noiy)
i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoea 1.

Oaaeeoea 1

Eaaea ia nieia ………………….. 25%

Eaaea ia aieo …………………… 75%

Noiy ………………………….. 100%

Noiy, n iaeeiiii aia?aae …………. 150%

Noiy, n iaeeiiii aia?aae, a ?oeao aan. 220%

Neaey ………………………….. 140%

Neaey n iaeeiiii aia?aae ………….. 185%

Neaey n iaeeiiii aia?aae, a ?oeao aan . 275%

Ea/aiea caaeneo io aic?anoa aieueiiai, oeia neieeica e noaiaie
aeaoi?iaoeee iicaiii/ieea.

Aeaoneee neieeic i?e I e II noaiaiyo ene?eaeaiey iicaiii/ieea
ea/ao eiina?aaoeaii. Aaaeiui oneiaeai oniaoiiai ea/aiey yaeyaony
iieiioeaiiia e aiaaoia aeoaieiaie ieoaiea, ?aaoey?iia i?aauaaiea ia
naaaeai aicaeooa, iiaeaeaeiua ea?u. Iinoaeue aeieaeia auoue aeanoeie,
aeey /aai ia e?iaaoue oeeaaeuaatho aea?aayiiue ueo. Nooe e noie ia
?aai/ai ianoa aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue ?inoo. Ioaeii neaaeeoue,
/oiau ?aaaiie neaeae ca noieii i?yii, a iiae aai i?e yoii
aeinoeaaee iiea. Aaaeia oaeaea i?aaeeueiay onoaiiaea naaoa, a i?e
ia?ooaiee c?aiey iaycaoaeueia aai ei??aeoeey. Nenoaiaoe/anee i?iaiaeyo
ea/aaioth aeiianoeeo e /anoi iacia/atho iioaiea ei?naoia.

Eiina?aaoeaiia ea/aiea i?iaiaeyo oaeaea a niaoeeaeueiuo
oeieao-eioa?iaoao aeey aeaoae ni neieeicii, a eioi?uo
iaeiia?aiaiii n iao/aieai ii iau/iie i?ia?aiia nicaeai
iaiaoiaeeiue e?oaeinooi/iue ea/aaiue ?aaeei. Iaeiei ec aaaeoueo
n?aaenoa eiina?aaoeaiiai ea/aiey neieeica yaeyaony ea/aaiay
oeceoeueoo?a. Oece/aneea oi?aaeiaiey ieacuaatho noaaeeece?othuaa
aeeyiea ia iicaiii/iee, oe?aieyy iuooeu ooeiaeua, iicaieytho
aeiaeoueny ei??eae?othuaai aicaeaenoaey ia aeaoi?iaoeeth, oeo/oeoue
inaieo, ooieoeeth aiaoiaai aeuoaiey, aeatho iauaoe?aieythuee yooaeo.
EOE iieacaia ia anao yoaiao ?acaeoey neieeica, ii aieaa oniaoiua
?acoeueoaou iia aeaao i?e ia/aeueiuo oi?iao neieeica.

I?ioeaiiieacaiu oece/aneea oi?aaeiaiey, oaaee/eaathuea aeaeinoue
iicaiii/ieea e i?eaiaeyuea aai e ia?a?anoyaeaieth. Eiiieaen
n?aaenoa EOE, i?eiaiyaiuo i?e eiina?aaoeaiii ea/aiee neieeica
aeeth/aao:

ea/aaioth aeiianoeeo;

oi?aaeiaiey a aiaea;

iannaae;

ei??aeoeeth iieiaeaieai;

yeaiaiou nii?oa.

EOE ni/aoaaony n ?aaeeiii nieaeaiiie noaoe/aneie iaa?ocee ia
iicaiii/iee. EOE i?iaiaeyo a oi?ia a?oiiiauo caiyoee,
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?ioeaaeo? (i?aeiouanoaaiii iieacaiu aieueiui i?e
iaaeaaii?eyoiii oa/aiee aieacie), a oaeaea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo caaeaiee,
auiieiyaiuo aieueiuie naiinoiyoaeueii. Iaoiaeeea EOE ii?aaeaeyaony
oaeaea noaiaiueth neieeica: i?e neieeica I, III, IV noaiaie iia
iai?aaeaia ia iiauoaiea onoie/eainoe iicaiii/ieea (noaaeeecaoeeth
iaoieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna), a a oi a?aiy eae i?e neieeica II noaiaie –
oaeaea ia ei??aeoeeth aeaoi?iaoeee.

Ei??aeoeey neieeica i?e auiieiaiee oece/aneeo oi?aaeiaiee
aeinoeaaaony eciaiaieai iieiaeaiey iea/aaiai, oaciaiai iiyna e ooeiaeua
aieueiiai. Oi?aaeiaiey aeieaeiu auoue iai?aaeaiu ia ei??aeoeeth
ene?eaeaiey iicaiii/ieea ai o?iioaeueiie ieineinoe. N
aieueoie inoi?iaeiinoueth n oeaeueth ei??aeoeee i?eiaiytho
oi?aaeiaiey, auoyaeaathuea iicaiii/iee, iai?eia? o aeiianoe/aneie
noaiee.

Oi?aaeiaiey ea/aaiie aeiianoeee aeieaeiu neoaeeoue oe?aieaieth
iniiaiuo iuoa/iuo a?oii, iiaeaea?aeeaathueo iicaiii/iee – iuooe,
aui?yieythueo iicaiii/iee, einuo iuooe aeeaioa, eaaae?aoiua iuooeu
iiynieoeu, iiaeacaeioii-iiynie/iuo iuooe e ae?. Ec /enea oi?aaeiaiee,
niinianoaothueo au?aaioea i?aaeeueiie inaiee, eniieuecothony
oi?aaeiaiey ia ?aaiiaanea, aaeaine?iaaiea, n oneeaieai c?eoaeueiiai
eiio?iey e ae?.

Iaeiei ec n?aaenoa EOE yaeyaony i?eiaiaiea yeaiaioia nii?oa:

ieaaaiea noeeai “A?ANN” iinea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai eo?na iao/aiey.
Yeaiaiou aieaeaiea iieacaiu aeaoyi n eiiiaine?iaaiiui
oa/aieai neieeica.

I?ioeeaeoeea neieeica i?aaeoniao?eaaao niaethaeaiea
i?aaeeueiie inaiee I?e aeeeoaeueiii neaeaiee iaiaoiaeeii
niaethaeaoue neaaeothuea i?aaeea:

neaee iaiiaeaeaeii ia aeieueoa 20 ieioo;

noa?aeny anoaaaoue eae iiaeii /aua. Ieieiaeueiay
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue oaeiai “ia?a?uaa” – 10 naeoiae

neaey, eae iiaeii /aua iaiye iieiaeaiea iia: nooiie aia?aae,
iacaae, iinoaaue eo ?yaeii, iioii, iaiai?io, ?acaaaee e.o.ae.

noa?aeny neaeaoue “i?aaeeueii”: nyaeue ia e?ae nooea, /oiau eieaie auee
niaioou oi/ii iiae i?yiui oaeii, eaeaaeueii aui?yie nieio e, anee
iiaeii, nieie /anoue iaa?ocee n iicaiii/ieea, iieiaeea i?yiua eieoe ia
iiaeeieioieee;

ia?eiaee/anee aeaeae niaoeeaeueiua eiiiainaoi?iua oi?aaeiaiey:

1) iiaenie e iiaeoyie eieaie e a?oaee. Naeaeae oi?aaeiaiea iaeneiaeueiia
/enei ?ac

2) i?eie ia iieo noieeo ia eieaiyo e auoyioouo ?oeao.

Noa?aeny iaeneiaeueii auaiooue nieio aaa?o, e iioii eae iiaeii neeueiaa
i?iaiooue aa aiec.

Oo?aiiyy aeiianoeea, icaei?iaeoaeueiay o?aie?iaea, aeoeaiue ioaeuo –
iaiaoiaeeiue eaaeaeiio /aeiaaeo aeaeaaoaeueiue ieieioi e neeaaeuaaaony
ii ec oiaeueau, aaaa, aeiianoeee e ieaaaiey.

Iiieii oi?aaiaiee iauaoe?aieythuaai, icaei?iaeoaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?a, anoue e iaiaei niaoeeaeueiuo, iai?eia?, aeey
oe?aieaiey iuooe a?thoiiai i?anna, a?oaee, oeo/oaiey inaiee… Yoe
oi?aaeiaiey iicaieytho a eaeie-oi noaiaie eni?aaeyoue iaaeinoaoee
oeao?u, iicaieytho eo/oa aeaaeaoue naiei oaeii. Auiieiyoue eo iiaeii
a ethaia oaeiaiia a?aiy:

aianoa n eiiieaenii oo?aiiae ca?yaeee e a oiaea
icaei?iaeoaeueiie o?aie?iaee;

ai a?aiy iaaaeaiiiai ia?a?uaa;

ai a?aiy aine?aniie i?iaoeee ca ai?iae.

Oniao aoaeao caaenaoue io i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe e ?aaoey?iinoe
caiyoee.

I?aaeeueiay inaiea aeaeaao ian ia oieueei aieaa
i?eaeaeaoaeueiuie, ii e ai iiiaii niinianoaoao ii?iaeueiiio
ooieoeeiie?iaaieth anao i?aaiia e nenoai i?aaiecia, yaeyaony
i?ioeeaeoeeie neieeica.

Neaaeothuea oi?aaeiaiey cia/eoaeueii oe?aiyo iuooeu nieiu e
oaea?aeaoue oaei a i?aaeeueiii iieiaeaiee:

1) E.i. – noiy, ?oee ca aieiaie. N neeie ioaaaeeoa ?oee a noi?iiue,
iiaeiya ?oee aaa?o, i?iaieoanue. Cai?eoa ia 2-4 naeoiaeu e
aa?ieoanue a e.i. Iiaoi?eoa 6-10 ?ac. Aeuoaiea i?iecaieueiia.

2) E.i. – noiy e aea?aea ca nieiie aeiianoe/aneoth iaeeo (aa?oiee
eiiaoe i?eaeao e aieiaa, ieaeiee – e oaco). I?enyaeueoa, aa?ieoanue a
e.i. Iaeeiieoanue aia?aae, aa?ieoanue a e.i. e, iaeiiaoe,
iaeeiieoanue ai?aai, caoai aeaai. Eaaeaeia aeaeaeaiea auiieieoue 8-12
?ac.

3) E.i. – eaaea ia aeeaioa. Iia?aynue ia ?oee e, ia io?uaay aaaea? io
iiea, i?iaieoanue. Cai?eoa a yoii iieiaeaiee ia 3-5 naeoiae,caoai
aa?ieoanue a e.i.

4) E.i. – noiy ia oaa io noaiu. Einioaoenue ?oeaie noaiu, i?iaieoanue
iacaae, iiaeiya ?oee aaa?o, e aa?ieoanue a e.i. Iiaoi?eoue 5-8 ?ac.
Noiy o noaiu i?eaeieoanue e iae caoueeii, eiiaoeaie, yaiaeeoeaie
e iyoeaie. Caoai ioieaeeoa io noaiu e noa?aeoanue eae iiaeii aeieueoa
oaea?aeeaaoue yoi iieiaeaiea oaea. Anee au ?aaioaaoa neaey
ia?eiaee/anee “aaeeiaeoanue nieiie e iiynieoeae a nieieo nooea, a anee
anoue aunieee iiaeaieiaiee n oneeeai oie?aeoanue a iaai aieiaie.

E a caeeth/aiea: aaea au au ia iaoiaeeeenue, ia caauaaeoa
eiio?iee?iaaoue naith inaieo. Yoi iiiiaeao aai ecaaaeaoue
neieeica.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Aieueoay iaaeeoeeineay yioeeeeiiaaeey oii 23 no?. 386-389

2. AEo?iae “Caei?iauea” N 6 1986 a.

3. AEo?iae “Caei?iauea” N 8 1986 a.

4. Iaiaeeia I.I. Nie?iia A.A. O?aeaa? I.A., Oe?o?ae/aneea aieacie,
Iaaeeoeeia 1969 a., no?. 256,257

5. AEo?iae Neea e e?anioa N 8 1995 a.

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