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?inneeneee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Iaaeeoeeineee Oieaa?neoao

Eaoaae?a eo/aaie aeeaaiinoeee e eo/aaie oa?aiee

Caaaaeothuee eaoaae?ie: Ia?aneaaei E. A.

Oaia: ?AE OAEEE IAOEE

I?aiiaeaaaoaeue: Ieeeoeia O. I.

Nooaeaio: Ieieieia Ae. N.

Iineaa

1997

Niaea?aeaiea

TOC \o “1-3″ Aaaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc407155254 PAGEREF
_Toc407155254 2

Yoeieiaess e Iaoiaaiac GOTOBUTTON _Toc407155255 PAGEREF
_Toc407155255 2

Eeanneoeeaoeess GOTOBUTTON _Toc407155256 PAGEREF _Toc407155256 3

Eeeie/aneass eeanneoeeaoeess GOTOBUTTON _Toc407155257 PAGEREF
_Toc407155257 3

Eeanneoeeaoeess ii nenoaia TNM GOTOBUTTON _Toc407155258 PAGEREF
_Toc407155258 5

Eeeieea e i?issaeaiess GOTOBUTTON _Toc407155259 PAGEREF
_Toc407155259 6

Aeeaaiinoeea GOTOBUTTON _Toc407155260 PAGEREF _Toc407155260 7

Ea*aiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc407155261 PAGEREF _Toc407155261 8

I?aae?aeiaua caaieaaaiess GOTOBUTTON _Toc407155262 PAGEREF
_Toc407155262 8

?ae GOTOBUTTON _Toc407155263 PAGEREF _Toc407155263 9

I?ioeeaeoeea GOTOBUTTON _Toc407155264 PAGEREF _Toc407155264 14

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u GOTOBUTTON _Toc407155265 PAGEREF _Toc407155265
15

Aaaaeaiea

Noaoenoeea iieacuaaao, /oi n?aaee ceiea/anoaaiiuo iiooieae o aeaiuei ?ae
oaeee caieiaao /aoaa?oia ianoi (iinea ?aea aeaeoaeea, eiaee e iiei/iuo
aeaeac), a ii iieacaoaeyi nia?oiinoe – aoi?ia. Ano?a/aaony ii a aic?anoa
40—60 eao, ii a iineaaeiaa a?aiy ?ae oaeee iaoee noae ano?a/aoueny o
aeaiuei aei 40 eao, ia?aianoeo aa?aiaiiinoue

E /eneo iniiaiuo iaoiaeia ea/aiey ?aea oaeee iaoee ioiinyony
oe?o?ae/aneee e eiiaeie?iaaiiue, i?e/ai, iineaaeiee yaeyaony iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaiui. Ia ooi/iaia caaeneiinoue ?acoeueoaoia io
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe i?eiaiaiey (aei eee iinea iia?aoeee) e ?aaeeia
o?aeoeeiie?iaaiey aeicu. Eeeie/anee ia iainiiaai iauai iiaeacaeioiie
eeioaaeaiyeoiiee, iaeiiai ec yoaiia aenoa?yeoiiee ii Aa?oaaeio.

I?eiaiaiea /enoi oe?o?ae/aneiai iaoiaea a ea/aiee aeaiiiai caaieaaaiey
ia?aie/aii eeoue ?aiieie noaaeeyie aieacie, /oi ?aaeei ano?a/aaony a
eeeie/aneie i?aeoeea. Iau/ii, ano?a/aaony ?ae ia noaaeee aeoaieie
eiaacee iiooiee a no?iio, /oi aeaeaao oe?o?ae/aneee iaoiae
iayooaeoeaiui.

Eo/aaay oa?aiey iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue o?aaiaoecaoeee i?enouae
oe?o?ae/aneiio iaoiaeo, /oi iniaaiii aaaeii aeey ea/aiey caaieaaaiey o
iieiaeuo aeaiuei.

Iaeiaei yooaeoeaiinoue ea/aiey caaieaaaiey caaeneo ia oieueei io
i?eiaiyaiie iaoiaeeee, ii oaeaea io naiaa?aiaiiie eiiieaeniie
aeeaaiinoeee aeaiiiai caaieaaaiey.

Ieaea aoaeao noaiaoe/ii ?anniio?aia aeeaaiinoeea e ea/aiea caaieaaaiey
?aeii oaeee iaoee.

Yoeieiaey e Iaoiaaiac

A aicieeiiaaiee ?aea oaeee iaoee aieueoia cia/aiea i?eaeaaony oae
iacuaaaiui oiiiaui caaieaaaieyi, e eioi?ui ioiinyony ana
aeia?ieanoe/aneea i?ioeannu a oaeea iaoee: aeenea?aoicu (eaeeiieaeee,
aeaioiiaieeeiiaoic, y?eo?iieaeee), aeaeacenoi-iuoa/iua aeia?ieacee
(iaieeey?iay eee oieeeeoey?iay y?icey, oieeeeoey?iay aeia?o?ioey).
I?aae?aeiaui caaieaaaieai n/eoaaony aeenieacey. Ia/aeueiay noaaeey –
ieieiaeueiay aeenieacey yieoaeey oaeee iaoee, i?e eioi?ie a ieaeiae
o?aoe yieoaeey i?ienoiaeeo aiiiaeueiay i?ieeoa?aoeey yieoaeeioeeoia. A
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa oaeea eciaiaiey iinyo niiioaiii ia?aoeiue oa?aeoa?
e yieoaeee aica?auaaony a ii?iaeueiia ninoiyiea; iaeiaei aieaa
au?aaeaiiay aeenieacey n aiiiaeueiie i?ieeoa?aoeeae, ioaaouaathuae 2/3
aeoaeiu yieoaeey, /aua anaai ia?a?anoatho a carcinoma in situ, aaea ana
oaea neie eeaoie eiatho aiiiaeueiia no?iaiea. Iinea oiai eae ?aeiaua
eeaoee i?ioiaeyo aacaeueioth iaia?aio e ia/eiaao i?ieeoa?e?iaaoue a
no?iia i?aaia, ia/eiaaony eiaaceaiay noaaeey ?aea.

Aeey i?aae?aeiauo caaieaaaiee oa?aeoa?iu oaeea i?eciaee, eae aoeie/iay
i?ieeoa?aoeey oeaiaauo yeaiaioia, o?iie/aneia oa/aiea, iinoiyinoai
neiioiiia, onoie/eainoue e eiina?aaoeaiui iaoiaeai ea/aiey,
?aoeeaeeae?iaaiea iinea iia?aoeaiiai enna/aiey.

?ae oaeee iaoee /aua anaai ?acaeaaaony ec yieoaeey aeaaaeeuiie /anoe
oea?aeeaeueiiai eaiaea. A nayce n yoei ano?a/athony aeaa aenoieiae/aneea
oi?iu – ieineieeaoi/iue ?ae (carcinoma planocellulare) e aeaeacenoue ?ae
(adenocarcinoma).

Eeanneoeeaoeey

Eeeie/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey

Eeanneoeeaoeey, i?aaeeiaeaiiay A. E. Na?aa?iaui (1962), iniiaaia ia
aaiaoe/aneii i?eioeeia, niaeanii eioi?iio a ia?aoth a?oiio ioiinyo
yieaea?iaeueiue ?ae, ai aoi?oth – ?ae ec itheea?iaa yieoaeey, a o?aoueth
– ?ae ec yia?eiiaeueiuo ca/aoeia (aa?oia?iaieee oiae). E.
yieaea?iaeueiaio ?aeo ioiinyo i?iaiaaaathuee, iai?iaiaaaathuee e
ieceiaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue. Ec itheea?iaa yieoaeey aicieeaao
aaeaiiea?oeeiiia eee aeaeacenoi-nieeaeiay oi?ia.

A iaoae no?aia i?eiyoa Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eeeieei-aiaoiie/aneay
eeanneoeeaoeey ?aea oaeee iaoee ii noaaeeyi:

I noaaeey: iiooieue ia?aie/aia oaeeie iaoee;

II noaaeey:

a) iiooieue eioeeueo?e?oao ia?aiao?ee n iaeiie eee iaaeo noi?ii, ia
ia?aoiaey ia noaieo oaca (ia?aiao?aeueiue aa?eaio);

a) ?ae eioeeueo?e?oao aeaaaeeua, ia ia?aoiaey ia ieaeithth aai o?aoue
(aeaaaeeuiue aa?eaio);

a) yiaeioaeeaeueiue ?ae, ia?aoiaeyuee ia oaei iaoee (iaoi/iue aa?eaio).

III noaaeey:

a) iaeiinoi?iiiyy eee aeaonoi?iiiyy iiooieaaay eioeeueo?aoeey noaiie
oaca. I?e ?aeoaeueiii enneaaeiaaiee iao naiaiaeiiai i?iiaaeooea iaaeaeo
iiooieueth e noaieie oaca (ia?aiao?aeueiue aa?eaio);

a) iiooieaaay eioeeueo?aoeey ieaeiae o?aoe aeaaaeeua (aeaaaeeuiue
aa?eaio);

a) iaeueie?othony eciee?iaaiiua iaoanoacu o noaiee oaca i?e
ioiineoaeueii iaeii ia?ae/iii ?aea oaeee iaoee (noaaeey
III—eciee?iaaiiua oaciaua iaoanoacu).

IV noaaeey:

a) iiooieue i?i?anoaao ii/aaie iocu?ue, /oi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony
oeenoineiie/anee eee iaee/eai naeua (noaaeey IV—ii/aaie iocu?ue):

a) iiooieue i?i?anoaao a i?yioth eeoeo (noaaeey IV—rectum),

a) iiooieue auoiaeeo ca iaeanoue iaeiai oaca, eiathony ioaeaeaiiua
iaoanoacu.

A 1950 a. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue eiia?ann aeooa?ia e aeiaeieiaia aeeth/ee a
eeanneoeeaoeeth ?aea oaeee iaoee noaaeeth «I»—oae iacuaaaioth
i?aeiaaceaioth noaaeeth ?aea (?ae in situ). Ii?oieiae/anee yoi
ceiea/anoaaiiue i?ioeann ieineiai yieoaeey oaeee iaoee aac eiaacee a
ninaaeiea i?aaiu e oeaie. I?e ?aea in situ aicieeatho eciaiaiey a
eeaoeao anao neiaa yieoaeey (ia?ooaiea ?aniieiaeaiey eeaoie, iioa?y
iiey?iinoe, aeia?o?iiaoic yae?a, iaii?iaeueiia niioiioaiea iaaeaeo
yae?ii e oeeoiieaciie, oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa ieoicia n aoeie/iuie
eeaoeaie, eciaiaiey oi?iu e ?acia?ia yae?a). Eciaiaiiue yieoaeee iiaeao
aiaae?youeny a aeaeacenoue neie e aeaaea caiauaoue aai, ii ieeiaaea ia
i?i?uaaao aacaeueioth iaia?aio. Ea?oeeiiia in situ iiaeao aeeeoaeueii ia
i?iyaeyoueny. Iaeiaei iia iiaeao ia?aeoe a noaaeeth eioeeueo?aoeee,
aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy inoaaaoueny aac eciaiaiee e, iaeiiaoe, iiaeao
naiii?iecaieueii en/aciooue. *aua anaai i?aeiaaceiiue ?ae auyaeyaony o
aeaiuei n y?iceyie, yiaeioea?eeoeeoaie, eaeeiieaeeae. Iniaaiii
inoi?iaeii iaaei noaaeoue aeeaaiic i?e aa?aiaiiinoe, eiaaea ca ?ae iiaoo
auoue i?eiyou eciaiaiey yieoaeey, iaoneiaeaiiua ai?iiiaeueiuie
aeeyieyie. Iineaaeiyy Eeanneoeeaoeey Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie Oaaea?aoeee
Aeooa?ia e Aeiaeieiaia (FIGO) 1987 aiaea aeeth/aao iaiiiai ae?oaea
noaaeee (ni Oaae. ? 1 )

Oaaeeoea ? 1. Eeeie/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey ea?oeeiiiu oaeee iaoee aeey
i?iaiica e auai?a ea/aiey.

Noaaeey Oa?aeoa?enoeea

0 Carcinoma in situ, eio?ayieoaeeaeueiaue ?ae

I Ea?oeeiiia, no?iai ia?aie/aiiay oaeeie ( ?ani?ino?aiaieai ia oaei
iaoee neaaeoao i?aiaa?a/ue)

IA I?aeeeie/aneay ea?oeeiiia ( aeeaaiinoe?oaony oieueei iee?ineiie/anee)

IA1 Ieieiaeueiay eiaacey a no?iio, ?acee/eiay a iee?ineii

IA2 Iee?ineiie/aneea eciaiaiey, iiaeaeathueany ecia?aieth ( aeoaeia
eiaacee ia aieaa 5ii io aacaeueiie iaia?aiu; ?ani?ino?aiaiea a
ai?eciioaeueiii iai?aaeaiee ia aieaa 7ii)

IB Eciaiaiey aieaa cia/eoaeueiu, /ai i?e IA2; aeey auai?a iaoiaea
ea/aiey iaiaoiaeeii ?aaeno?e?iaaoue eciaiaiey a ie?oaeathueo oeaiyo

II Ea?oeeiiia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ca i?aaeaeu oaeee iaoee, ii ia aeinoeaaao
noaiie oaciaie iieinoe; a i?ioeann aiaea/aiu noaiee aeaaaeeua, ii aac
?ani?ino?aiaiey ia aai ieaeithth o?aoue

IIA ?ae aac yaiiai aiaea/aiey ia?aiao?ey

IIB ?ae n yaiui aiaea/aieai ia?aiao?ey

III ?ae, ?ani?ino?aiythueeny ia noaiee oaca; i?e ?aeoaeueiii
enneaaeiaaiee ionoonoaoao naiaiaeiia i?ino?ainoai iaaeaeo iiooieueth e
noaieie oaca; iiooieue ii?aaeaao ieaeithth o?aoue aeaaaeeua, n
aeeth/aieai anao oi?i aeae?iiao?ica eee iaooieoeeiie?othuae ii/eie

IIIA ?ani?ino?aiaiea ia noaiee oaca

IIIB ?ani?ino?aiaiea ia noaiee oaca, aeae?iiao?ic e/eee
iaooieoeeiie?othuay ii/ea

IV Ea?oeeiiia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ca i?aaeaeu iaeiai oaca eee cao?aaeaaao
neecenooth iaiei/eo ii/aaiai iocu?y eee i?yiie eeoee ( aoeeaciue ioaeai
ii naaa ia neoaeeo iniiaaieai aeey ioianaiey iiooiee e IV noaaeee )

IVA ?ani?ino?aiaiea iiooiee ia ninaaeiea i?aaiu

IVB ?ani?ino?aiaiea iiooieaaie oeaie a ioaeaeaiiua i?aaiu

?ae oaeee iaoee /anoi (40—50% neo/aaa) ii?aaeaao aeaaaeeua.
?ani?ino?aiaiea iiooiee ia aeaaaeeua i?ienoiaeeo ii eeioaoe/aneei
ninoaeai e eiioaeoiie eiieaioaoeeae. Oaei iaoee ii?aaeaaony ?aaeei e
oieueei eiioaeoiie eiieaioaoeeae. *aua iaaethaeaaony ?ani?ino?aiaiea
i?ioeanna ia ia?aiao?aeueioth eeao/aoeo e ?aaeiia?iua eeioaoe/aneea
oceu. Ii/aaie iocu?ue e i?yiay eeoea ii?aaeathony i?aeiouanoaaiii per
continuitatum. O?oau e ye/ieee oaeaea ?aaeei aiaeaeathony a i?ioeann, e
iniaaiii ?aaeei ii?aaeathony ii/aoi/ieee.

Eeanneoeeaoeey ii nenoaia TNM

Iniiaiay caaea/a eeanneoeeaoeee ii nenoaia TNM – iauaeoeaii ioeaieoue
iniaaiiinoe ianoiiai, ?aaeiia?iiai e ioaeaeaiiiai iaoanoace?iaaiey ?aea
oaeee iaoee (eae ai?i/ai, e aeey ae?oaeo ?aeia) aeey auai?a
iioeiaeueiiai iaoiaea aai ea/aiey e n?aaiaiey ?acoeueoaoia ea/aiey,
aeinoeaioouo a ?aciuo eeeieeao.

T ( tumor ) – ia?ae/iay iiooieue

O1 – ea?oeeiiia, ia?aie/aiiay oieueei oaeeie iaoee.

Ois – ea?oeeiiia in situ.

T1a – i?aeeeie/aneay eiaaceaiay ea?oeeiiia.

O1b – eeeie/anee eiaaceaiay ea?oeeiiia.

O2 – ea?oeeiiia, ?ani?ino?aiythuayny ca i?aaeaeu oaeee iaoee, ii ia
aeinoeaathuay noaiie iaeiai oaca, eee ea?oeeiiia, aiaeaeathuay a
iiooieaaue i?ioeann noaiee aeaaaeeua aei ieaeiae o?aoe, ia ii?aaeay
iineaaeithth.

O2a – ea?oeeiiia, ?ani?ino?aiythuayny oieueei ia aeaaaeeua eee oaei
iaoee.

T2b – ea?oeeiiia, eioeeueo?e?othuay ia?aiao?ee n aiaea/aieai eee aac
aiaea/aiey a iiooieaaie i?ioeann aeaaaeeua eee oaea iaoee.

O3 – ea?oeeiiia, ?ani?ino?aiythuayny ia ieaeithth o?aoue aeaaaeeua eee
aeinoeaathuay noaiie iaeiai oaca.

O4 – ea?oeeiiia, auoiaeyuay ca i?aaeaeu iaeiai oaca, eee
?ani?ino?aiythuayny ia ii/aaie iocu?ue e i?yioth eeoee.

N – ?aaeiia?iua eeioioceu

A iau/iuo oneiaeyo o?oaeii ioeaieoue ninoiyiea eeioaoe/aneeo oceia, oioy
?acei oaaee/aiiua e oeene?iaaiiua eioeeueo?aou iiaoo iaeueie?iaaoueny o
noaiie oaca i?e iaee/ee naiaiaeiiai i?ino?ainoaa iaaeaeo ieie e
iiooieueth. Iiyoiio aiciiaeiu aeaa eaoaai?ee: NX+ eee NX-.

N2 – iaeueie?othony oeene?iaaiiua ieioiua eioeeueo?aou ia noaiea oaca
i?e iaee/ee naiaiaeiiai i?ino?ainoaa iaaeaeo ieie e iiooieueth

I – aeenoaeueiua iaoanoacu

I0 – aeenoaeueiua iaoanoacu ionoonoaotho.

I1 – aeenoaeueiua iaoanoacu eiathony.

Oaaeeoea ? 2. Niiinoaaeaiea eeeie/aneie e TNM eeanneoeeaoeee

Eeeie/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey TNM

Ia T1a NX M0

Ib T1b NX M0

IIa T2a NX M0

IIb T2b NX M0

III T3 NX M0; T1 N2 M0; T2a N2 M0; T2b N2 M0

IV T4 NX M0; T1b NX M1; T2a NX M1; T2b NX M1; T3 NX M1;

T4 NX M1

Eeeieea e i?iyaeaiey

Eeeie/aneia i?iyaeaiea ?aea oaeee iaoee oa?aeoa?ecoaony eeanne/aneie
o?eaaeie neiioiiia: aaee, aiee e e?iaioa/aiey. I?aaaea, iie yaeythony
iicaeieie i?eciaeaie e ia eiatho aeeaaiinoe/aneie oeaiiinoe. E
niaeaeaieth, a ?aiieo noaaeeyo caaieaaaiey neiioiiaoeea i/aiue aaaeia.
Ii aeaiiui A. E. Na?aa?iaa (1962), aiee iiyaeythony o 25—30% aieueiuo,
e?iaioa/aiea: 55—60%, aiee o 10—12% aieueiuo. E?iaioa/aiey i?e ?aea
oaeee iaoee auaatho a aeaea iaaieueoeo auaeaeaiee eee iaeeueiua: iiaoo
iiyaeyoueny io eaaeie o?aaiu (ni?eioeaaaiea, oaa?aeue nooe, aioo?aiiaa
enneaaeiaaiea iaeueoeai eee ca?eaeaie, coitus e o. ae.). Oae iacuaaaiua
eiioaeoiua e?iaioa/aiey yaeythony neaaenoaeai ?ac?uaa o?oieeo ninoaeia
iiooiee. I?e iooi?aeaiee iae?ioe/aneeo aa o/anoeia ane?uaathony
eeioaoe/aneea ninoaeu e uaee, /oi i?eaaaeeo e auaeaeaieth aiaeyienouo
eee ie?aoaiiuo e?iaueth aaeae, eioi?ua eiatho aeae iyniuo iiiiaa, aac
caiaoa eee ceiaiiiua.

Aiee i?e ?aea oaeee iaoee yaeythony iicaeiei neiioiiii e oeacuaatho ia
aiaea/aiea a iiooieaaue i?ioeann eeioaoe/aneeo oceia e eeao/aoee oaca n
ia?aciaaieai eioeeueo?aoia, naeaaeeaathueo ia?aiua noaieu e nieaoaiey
oaca.

Eieaeecaoeey e oa?aeoa? aieae ?acee/iu. *aua anaai aieueiua aeaeothony
ia aiee a iiynieoea, aieco aeeaioa, a iaeanoe e?anooea e i?yiie eeoee.
I?e eioeeueo?aoeee iiooieueth noaiie oaca aiee iiaoo iiyaeyoueny a
ieaeieo eiia/iinoyo.

Aiee, e?iaioa/aiey e aiee i?e ?aea oaeee iaoee ioee/athony oii?noaii e
aeeeoaeueiinoueth. I?e i?i?anoaiee iiooiee a ii/aaie iocu?ue eee i?yioth
eeoeo iiyaeyaony eeeie/aneay ea?oeia, naycaiiay n yoeie i?aaiaie
(aeeco?ey, ?anno?ienoai ii/aenioneaiey, aoiiey eeoa/ieea, caii?u, e?iaue
a ii/a e eaea, naeue).

Aeeaaiinoeea

Ianiio?y ia oi /oi ceiea/anoaaiiua iiooiee oaeee iaoee aeinooiiu aeey
aecoaeueiiai eiio?iey,i?eia?ii a 70% aieueiuo iinooiatho a noaoeeiia?u
ni II e III noaaeeae iiooieaaiai i?ioeanna. I?e/eiu caiouaiiinoe
caaieaaaiey a ?yaea neo/aaa iaoneiaeaiu ionoonoaeai aeieaeiie
iieieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaeie iaeioi?uo ec ieo.

Aeeaaiinoeea ?aea oaeee iaoee a ia/aeueiuo noaaeeyo i?aaenoaaeyao
aieueoea o?oaeiinoe. Aieueiua n iiaeic?aieai ia iiooieue aeieaeiu
iaoiaeeoueny iiae iaaethaeaieai a?a/a e ia?eiaee/anee i?ioiaeeoue
ianeaaeiaaiea o aeiaeieiaa. Eiiieaen eeeie/aneiai ianeaaeiaaiey aieueiuo
?aeii oaeee iaoee aeeth/aao aiaeec e?iae, aeiaioaeueiia aeaaaeeuiia
enneaaeiaaiea, iniio? ca?eaeaie, ?aeoaeueii-a?thoiinoaii/iia e
?aeoi-aaaeiaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea, aeeaaiinoe/aneea i?iau,
eieueiineiieth, aeaaaeeuiua iacee e aeiineth.

Aeey iaiueoae o?aaiaoecaoeee iiooiee A. E. Na?aa?ia (1962) ?aeiiaiaeoao
aeaaaeeuiia enneaaeiaaiea i?iecaiaeeoue iaeiei oeacaoaeueiui iaeueoeai.
A ia/aeueiuo noaaeeyo ?aea oaeaaony i?iuoiaoue eioeeueo?aoeeth
(caoaa?aeaiea) aac /aoeeo a?aieoe, ?eaeaeiinoue oaeee iaoee. A iicaeieo
noaaeeyo ii?aaeaeyaony oi?ia iiooiee (yecioeoiay, yiaeioeoiay,
niaoaiiay, ycaaiiay), iiaeaeaeiinoue iaoee, ninoiyiea i?eaeaoeia, noaiie
aeaaaeeua, ieieiiaoi/iie eeao/aoee e iaeanoe aeeceaaeaueo i?aaiia
(i?yiie eeoee e ii/aaiai iocu?y). Iaeii aeiaioaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea, ii
iaaethaeaieyi A. E. Na?aa?iaa (1962), aeaao 58,3% iai?aaeeueiuo
aeeaaiicia.

A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea oaeea iaoee ia iuoiue i?aaenoaaeyaony
iaeciaiaiiie, aeaaaeeuiia aeiaioaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea aeieaeii
aeiiieiyoueny iniio?ii ca?eaeaie. Yoi iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue aeae
iiooiee. Yecioeoiay iiooieue eiaao aeae oeaaoiie eaionou, iie?uoa
oaiiuie ei?eaie (o/anoee ?aniaaea) e aeaaea i?e eaaeii i?eeiniiaaiee
e?iaioi/eo. Oaeea iaoee i?e yiaeioeoiuo oi?iao iiooiee ieioiay,
iaaoooay, neecenoay iaiei/ea oaiii-aaa?iaiai oeaaoa n naoueth iaeeeo,
eaaei e?iaioi/aueo ninoaeia. I?e ?aniaaea iiooiee ia?acothony .ycau.

Enneaaeiaaiea ca?eaeaie iniaoth oeaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao a ?aiieo
noaaeeyo caaieaaaiey; i?e yoii iiaeii aeaeaoue y?icee, oceiaaoua e
iaieeey?iua ?ac?anoaiey. Iniio? ca?eaeaie, ii aeaiiui A. E. Na?aa?iaa,
nie?auaao i?ioeaio aeeaaiinoe/aneeo ioeaie aei 12.

?aeoaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue ninoiyiea
e?anooeiai-iaoi/iuo naycie, noaiaiue aiaea/aiey a iiooieaaue i?ioeann
i?yiie eeoee (eioeeueo?aoeey noaiie, oeenaoeey eeoee e iiooiee).

Aeey ?aiiae aeeaaiinoeee ?aea e i?aae?aeiauo ninoiyiee i/aiue oeaiiui
enneaaeiaaieai yaeyaony eieueiineiiey. Neiino?oe?iaaiiay Aeicaeueiaiii a
1925 a. iioe/aneay nenoaia iicaieyao ?anniio?aoue ii?aaeaiiue o/anoie
aeaineeo iieiauo i?aaiia i?e oaaee/aiee a 10—15 ?ac. A iaoae no?aia
iieuecothony aeiieoey?iuie eieueiineiiaie. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eiathony
eieueiineiiu, oaaee/eaathuea a 200 ?ac. Eieueiineiieth oeaeaniia?aciaa
i?iecaiaeeoue aei aeiaioaeueiiai e ae?oaeo enneaaeiaaiee, aucuaathueo
e?iaioa/aiea. Eieueiineiiey iicaieyao ?acee/aoue ii?iaeueioth
neecenooth, e yeoiieth neecenoie iaiei/ee oea?aeeaeueiiai eaiaea, ciio
i?aa?auaiey, iniiao eaeeiieaeee, eaeeiieaeeth, ia?aciaaiea iieae.
Eieueiineiiey iicaieyao onoaiiaeoue i?aaeeueiue aeeaaiic a 70—80%
neo/aaa (Schmitt, 1959).

N?aaee aieueoiai /enea aeeaaiinoe/aneeo i?ia (no?iaa O?iaaea,
Oaaa-aeaoa, i?eai Ne?aaeay) iaeaieueoaa i?eciaiea iieo/eea i?iaa Oeeea?a
(1928). Iia caeeth/aaony a i?eeeaaeuaaiee aaoiiai oaiiiia, nii/aiiiai a
ethaieaaieii ?anoai?a, e oaeea iaoee. I?e yoii ii?iaeueiue yieoaeee
neecenoie ie?aoeaaaony a oaiii-ao?ue oeaao, a y?icee, eaeeiieaeee,
aeia?ea?aoic, ea?oeeiiiaoiciue yieoaeee ia aini?eieiatho ie?anee e
auaeyaeyo aeaaeiuie iyoiaie n /aoeeie a?aieoeaie ia oaiii-ei?e/iaaii
oiia. I?iao Oeeea?a oeaeaniia?acii i?iecaiaeeoue ia?aae aeiineae, a
aeiineth a?aoue ec eiae iaaaoeaiuo o/anoeia.

Aeiiney ai anao neo/ayo yaeyaony ?aoathuei iaoiaeii aeeaaiinoeee. Iia
iicaieyao ia oieueei auyaeoue aenoieiae/aneia no?iaiea iiooiee, ii e
ii?aaeaeeoue noaiaiue ceiea/anoaaiiinoe i?ioeanna, eioeoee?iaaiiia™
iiooiee, ?aaeoeeth ie?oaeathueo caei?iauo oeaiae. Iiaoi?iua aeiinee ai
a?aiy eo/aaie oa?aiee iicaieytho ii?aaeaeeoue yooaeoeaiinoue iaoiaea. A
neo/ayo, iiaeic?eoaeueiuo ia ?ae, acyoue i?e aeiinee eoni/ae iiooiee
aeieaeai niaea?aeaoue e caei?iaoth oeaiue (aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
eioeeueo?aoeee). A eeeie/anee yaiuo neo/ayo enneaaeiaaiea i?iaiaeeony n
oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey aenoieiae/aneie no?oeoo?u iiooiee, iiyoiio
aeinoaoi/ii a?aoue eiioioiiii eoni/ae iiooiee aac caei?iauo oeaiae.

Aeey ?aiiae aeeaaiinoeee ?aea oaeee iaoee oe?iei eniieuecoaony
oeeoieiae/aneee iaoiae—.enneaaeiaaiea aeaaaeeuiuo iaceia. I?aaeeiaeaii
iiiai ?acee/iuo iaoiaeia iieo/aiey iooi?aioouo n iiaa?oiinoe iiooiee
yieoaeeaeueiuo eeaoie e eo ie?anee (E. A. Iao?ianeay e TH. A. Eiaaeue,
1952; A. ss. Noaaneay, 1952; Friedman 1950; Lajos, Puli, 1951, e ae?.).
Enneaaeiaaiea aeaaaeeuiuo iaceia eiaao aieueooth i?aeoe/aneoth
oeaiiinoue e, ii aeaiiui iiiaeo aaoi?ia (A. E. Ea?ia?, 1950; A. A.
Iaiaeaeueooai, 1950; A. E. Na?aa?ia, 1962; e ae?.), iicaieyao
onoaiiaeoue i?aaeeueiue aeeaaiic a 90—96% neo/aaa.

Ea/aiea

I?aae?aeiaua caaieaaaiey

Ea/aiea y?icee, eaeeiieaeee e y?eo?iieaeee, yiaeioea?aeoeeoia, eiiaeeeii
e ?oaoeiauo aeaoi?iaoeee, niinianoaothueo aicieeiiaaieth i?ieeoa?aoeaiuo
i?ioeannia a oaeea iaoee, aeieaeii auoue ?aaeeeaeueiui. Iii
inouanoaeyaony aeeaoa?iiyenoeeceae eee aeeaoa?iieiaaoeyoeeae, a oaeaea
oe?o?ae/aneei iaoiaeii (aiiooaoeey oaeee iaoee) e eo/aaie oa?aieae.

Aeeaoa?iieiaaoeyoeeth oeaeaniia?acii i?eiaiyoue i?e iiaa?oiinoiie
eaeeiieaeee e y?eo?iieaeee, aeaneaaiaoeaiuo y?iceyo, ?acenoaioiuo e
iaaeeeaiaioai.

Aeeaoa?iieiaaoeyoeeth e aeeaoa?iiyenoeeyeth ia neaaeoao i?iecaiaeeoue
i?e aa?aiaiiinoe e ino?uo ainiaeeoaeueiuo i?ioeannao a aeaineeo iieiauo
i?aaiao. Aeeaoa?iieiaaoeyoeey iau/ii i?ioaeaao aane?iaii. No?oi,
ia?aciaaiiue ia ianoa eiaaoeyoeee, ioiaaeaao /a?ac 2 iaaeaee, a iieiia
ecea/aiea ianooiaao /a?ac 5—6 iaaeaeue.

I?e iinea?iaeiauo aeaoi?iaoeeyo oaeee, iaee/ee yeo?iiiiia neecenoie,
ecuycaeaiee, ?oaoeia, anee ia iieacaia aeeaoa?iieiaaoeyoeey, iiaeii
i?eiaieoue iia?aoeaiia ea/aiea. Ec iiiaeanoaa ieanoe/aneeo iia?aoeee
iaeaieaa /anoi i?iecaiaeeony iia?aoeey Ooo?iaei?oa.

Ec eo/aauo iaoiaeia iacia/aaony aioo?eiieinoiay oa?aiey. Aiieeeaoi? n
enoi/ieeii eceo/aiey (?aaeee eee eiaaeueo) iiaeaiaeeony e o/anoeo
ii?aaeaiey e oeene?oaony oaiiiiaaeie aeaaaeeua. A caaeneiinoe io
iiuiinoe enoi/ieea onoaiaaeeaaaony yeniiceoeey oae, /oiau aeica ia
neecenoie ninoaaeyea 1500—2000 ?aae. *aua yoa aeica ieacuaaaony
aeinoaoi/iie aeey ?ac?ooaiey ecauoi/iie oeaie, en/aciiaaiey
iaeeieeaoi/iie eioeeueo?aoeee aac au?aaeaiiuo eo/aauo ?aaeoeee ni
noi?iiu caei?iauo aeeceaaeaueo i?aaiia e oeaiae.

Aunieay yooaeoeaiinoue ea/aiey i?aae?aeiauo caaieaaaiee i?eaaea e
oe?ieiio i?eiaiaieth yoeo iaoiaeia ai anai” ie?a (I. I. Aa?aiiaa, 1953;
I. A. A?naiueaaa, 1953; A. E. Na?aa?ia, 1962; Cachman, 1945, e ae?.).

?ae

Ia?aae aioo?eiieinoiui iaeo/aieai aieueiui 2—3 ?aca a aeaiue i?iecaiaeyo
ni?eioeaaaiea aeaceioeoee?othuei ?anoai?ii (?eaaiiea eee
ia?aaioeiaieeneiai eaeey). Iiooieue ia?aaaouaatho ?anoai?ii
aioeaeioeeia. Eeoa/iee i/euatho n iiiiuueth eeeciu, ii/aaie iocu?ue
iii?iaeiytho. Aeey oiaiueoaiey aieae iacia/atho naa/e n aaeeaaeiiiie eee
ii?oeiai. Oaiiiiaaea aeaaaeeua, eioi?ay iaiaoiaeeia aeey oeenaoeee
enoi/ieea eceo/aiey, i?iecaiaeeony oae, /oiau iaania/eoue noie
auaeaeaiee ec iieinoe iaoee. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa iiaoo auoue ineiaeiaiey
(ieiiao?eo).

Yeniiceoeey i?e aioo?eiieinoiie eo/aaie oa?aiee ninoaaeyao 24—48 /ania;
a oa/aiea yoiai a?aiaie aieueiui iacia/aaony no?iaee iinoaeueiue ?aaeei
a niaoeeaeueiie oae iacuaaaiie ca?yaeiaie iaeaoa. Aioo?eiieinoiua
aiieeeaoeee iiaoi?ythony /a?ac 3—7 aeiae, a n?aaeiai 4—5 ?ac a
caaeneiinoe io noaaeee caaieaaaiey e iaiaoiaeeiie i/aaiaie aeicu.

A 1938 a. Tod e Meredith i?aaeeiaeeee ?an/ao aeic i?e eo/aaie oa?aiee
?aea oaeee iaoee i?iecaiaeeoue a aeaoo oneiaii i?eiyouo iaeanoyo— oi/eao
A e A, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ia o?iaia aioo?aiiaai caaa. Oi/ea A ?aniieaaaaony
ia 2 ni auoa aieiaiai naiaea aeaaaeeua e ionoieo ia 2 ni eaoa?aeueiaa
n?aaeeiiie ine iaoi/iiai eaiaea, o. a. i?eia?ii a ianoa ia?ana/aiey
iaoi/iie a?oa?ee n ii/aoi/ieeii. Oi/ea A ?aniieaaaaony ia yoii aea
o?iaia e ionoieo io ine iaoee ia 5 ni, o. a. a ciia eaoa?aeueiuo
ioaeaeia ia?aiao?aeueiie eeao/aoee e eeioaoe/aneeo oceia aieiaie noaiee
oaca.

Ciay aaee/eio aeicu a yoeo oi/eao, iiaeii eiaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea i
?ani?aaeaeaiee yia?aee eceo/aiey a iaeii oaco. Iauay i/aaiaay aeica i?e
aioo?eiieinoiii iaeo/aiee a iaeanoe 7000 ?aae, a III noaaeee—7500—8000
?aae.

I?e yoii aeica a iaeanoe oi/ae A ?aaiyaony: a 1 noaaeee— 1200—1300 ?aae,
ai II noaaeee—1500—1600 ?aae, a III noaaeee—1700—1800 ?aae.

?an/ao aeic i?e aioo?eiieinoiii iaeo/aiee i?iecaiaeeony ii
iaoaiaoe/aneei oaaeeoeai, eioi?ua ninoaaeaiu A. A. Iao?iaui (1955), A.
I. Oiaeeaae/ai e A. A. Aaaaeiaie (1952), A. E. .O?aiaiei (1965). Iaeiaei
yoe oaaeeoeu iicaieytho ii?aaeaeeoue aeico a oi/eao A e A eeoue
i?eaeeceoaeueii.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaeaieaa yooaeoeaai eiiaeie?iaaiiue
iaoiae ea/aiey ?aea oaeee iaoee. Ii iiaieth aieueoeinoaa eeeieoeenoia,
i?e 1 noaaeee caaieaaaiey iia?aoeaiiio ea/aieth n iineaaeothuae eo/aaie
oa?aieae iiaeeaaeao:

1. Aieueiua a aic?anoa aei 30—35 eao, o eioi?uo iiooieaaue i?ioeann
i?ioaeaao iaeaieaa ceiea/anoaaiii. I?eiaiaiea iaeiie eo/aaie oa?aiee a
yoeo neo/ayo iaoeaeaniia?acii, oae eae aicieeatho noaiicu e no?eeoo?u n
iineaaeothuei ia?aciaaieai yenei?eaoeee, yca, eieueieoia.

2. Aieueiua n ?aaeei?acenoai,oiuie oi?iaie ?aea.

3. Aieueiua n ?aoeeaeeaaie iinea eo/aaie oa?aiee (a 1 noaaeee
caaieaaaiey) .

4. Aieueiuo n o?iaenoaaie, ao?ioeae, noaiicaie aeaaaeeua, ao?aceyie.

5. Aieueiua ?aeii oaeee iaoee a ni/aoaiee n iiooieyie i?eaeaoeia e
o?iie/aneei naeueieiaiioi?eoii. Ai II noaaeee caaieaaaiey (iia?aie/iie a
niunea iia?aaaeueiinoe) aeieaeia i?iaiaeeoueny i?aeiouanoaaiii eo/aaay
oa?aiey.

A III e IV noaaeee caaieaaaiey iieacaia oieueei eo/aaay oa?aiey. Oaeei
ia?acii, eae ieoao A. E. Na?aa?ia (1962), «…iiaeii n/eoaoue oaa?aei
onoaiiaeaiiui, /oi aac i?eiaiaiey eo/enoie yia?aee ?ae oaeee iaoee
ea/eoue iaeuecy, o. a. aeey aieueoeinoaa aieueiuo yoio iaoiae ea/aiey
yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiii ?aaeeeaeueiui».

Eo/aaay oa?aiey iiaeao auoue i?iaaaeaia a ieaia .i?aaeiia?aoeeiiiiai eee
iineaiia?aoeeiiiiai ea/aiey. Iniiaiui i?eioeeiii oe?o?ae/aneiai ea/aiey
aeieaeia auoue ?aaeeeaeueiinoue iia?aoeee.

«Iaeue ?ae o?aaoao aieueoeo, a aieueoie—/aua anaai ieeaeeo eee eeoue
iaeuo iaeeeaoeaiuo iia?aoeee» (I. I. Iao?ia, 1949).

?anoe?aiioth yenoe?iaoeeth iaoee .n oaeaeaieai eeao/aoee e eeioaoe/aneeo
oceia (iaiaenoa?yeoiiey) iiaeii i?iecaiaeeoue aaaeiieiaeueiui e
aeaaaeeuiui niiniaaie. Aaaeiieiaeueiue iooue aieaa oaeiaai, oae eae
nicaeaao naiaiaeiue aeinooi e iiooiee e eeioaoe/aneei oceai,
?aniieiaeaiiui ii oiaeo e?oiiuo ninoaeia oaca. Oae eae ?aaeiia?iua
eeioaoe/aneea oceu aeiaieueii /anoi ii?aaeathony aeaaea i?e 1 noaaeee
caaieaaaiey, eo iaiaoiaeeii oaeaeyoue aianoa n eeao/aoeie oaca.

Eo/aaay oa?aiey i?e ?aea oaeee iaoee caeeth/aaony a ni/aoaiee
aioo?eiieinoiiai e aeenoaioeeiiiiai iaeo/aiey. Aioo?eiieinoiay iaoiaeeea
iicaieyao iiaeaiaeeoue ?aaeeiaeoeaiua i?aia?aou iaiin?aaenoaaiii e
ia?ae/iie iiooiee e nicaeaaaoue aeico, iaiaoiaeeioth aeey iieiiai aa
?ac?ooaiey.

Aeenoaioeeiiiia iaeo/aiea i?eiaiyaony aeey aicaeaenoaey ia ciio
?aaeiia?iiai iaoanoace?iaaiey e eioeeueo?aoia a ia?aiao?aeueiie
eeao/aoea.

I?ioeaiiieacaieyie e eo/aaie oa?aiee yaeythony ii?iee ?acaeoey ia?oaeiuo
iieiauo i?aaiia, ao?acey, noaiic aeaaaeeua, inoieiaaiiua
aiieii-ainiaeeoaeueiua i?ioeannu a i?eaeaoeao, aa?aiaiiinoue, ?oaoeiaua
eciaiaiey eiaee, iiaeeaaeauae iaeo/aieth, eaeeiiaiey (iaiaa 3000
eaeeioeeoia a 1 ii), caaieaaaiea na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu a
ninoiyiee aeaeiiiainaoeee, ino?ue aaiaoeo, iao?iciiao?eo, aaia?aeecaoeey
iiooieaaiai i?ioeanna, eaoaeney.

Ia?aae eo/aaie oa?aieae eaaeaeue aieueiie aeieaeai i?ieoe aeaoaeueiia
eeeie/aneia ianeaaeiaaiea. Iaiaoiaeeii ooi/ieoue noaiaiue
?ani?ino?aiaiey iiooieaaiai i?ioeanna, ninoiyiea ia?aiao?aeueiie
eeao/aoee e eeioaoe/aneeo oceia oaca, ii?aaeaeeoue iieiaeaiea iaoee ii
ioiioaieth e i?aaiai iaeiai oaca e n?aaeeiiie ine, ii?aaeaeeoue aeoaeio
caeaaaiey iiooiee, auaanoe i?iaeoeeth aa ia eiaeo, ecaioiaeoue
iiia?a/iue n?ac ia o?iaia iiooiee n ea?oie eciaeic, niaeanii i?eiyoiio
ieaio ea/aiey.

Aioo?e iieinoiia iaeo/aiea ia/eiaaony n aioo?eaeaaaeeuiuo aiieeeaoeee,
o. a. n aaaaeaiey ai aeaaaeeua iaiin?aaenoaaiii e iiooiee oaeee iaoee
i?aia?aoia Ni, caeeth/aiiuo a eieueiinoaou, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho eo
iaaeaaeioth oeenaoeeth. Niaea?aeaiea ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai aauanoaa a iaeiii
i?aia?aoa ia aeieaeii i?aauoaoue 10 ia. Anee aeaaaeeua oe?ieia,
aaiaeeony 5—6 i?aia?aoia (aeoeaiinoueth ii 5—6 ia), /oiau aanue iauai
iaoieiae/anee eciaiaiiuo oeaiae iaeo/aoue ?aaiiia?ii. Aeaaaeeuiua
aiieeeaoeee ?ac?ooatho iiooieue e inaiaiaeaeatho ia?oaeiue caa oaeee
iaoee, /oi iicaieyao i?iaeieaeaoue eth?e-oa?aieth iaeiia?aiaiiui
aaaaeaieai i?aia?aoia a iieinoue, oaeeo iaoee e aeaaaeeua. A iieinoue
iaoee ?aaeeiaeoeaiua i?aia?aou aaiaeyony a iaoaeee/aneeo oeeeeiae?ao
aeeeiie 6—8 ni, eciaioouo ii oi?ia iaoee.

A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea n?aaeeiiay inue iaoee niaiaaeaao ni n?aaeeiiie
inueth oaca. A naaoa yoiai iaaei iiiieoue, /oi II e III noaaeee
caaieaaaiey iaoea niauaaony a oo noi?iio, aaea ?aniieiaeai eioeeueo?ao
a. ia?aiao?ey. Iiyoiio ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeicu a iaeii oaco iaiyaony. Ii
aeaiiui A. A. Noaeeaae/a, i?e niauaiee iaoee ia 2 ni aeaai aeica a
i?aaie oi/ea A oiaiueoaaony aei 50%, a a oi/ea A—aei 58%. A oi aea a?aiy
aeica a eaaie oi/ea A oaaee/eaaaony ia 295%, a a oi/ea A—aei 176%.
Niauaiea iaoee eia?aaee eee ecaaee i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth aeicu ia
caaeiae noaiea ii/aaiai iocu?y eee ia?aaeiae noaiea i?yiie eeoee
niioaaonoaaiii ia 168—450 e 215—240%. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?e ii?aaeaeaiee
aeicu oi/eo A iaiaoiaeeii n/eoaoue iiaeaeaeiie.

Anee ii?aaeaeyoue iieiaeaiea oi/ae A ia ?annoiyiee 2 ni io
?aaeeiaeoeaiuo i?aia?aoia, aaaaeaiiuo a iieinoue iaoee (/oi
eiio?iee?oaony ?aioaaiia?aiiaie), oi a caaeneiinoe io niauaiey iaoee iie
caieiatho ?acee/iia iieiaeaiea a iaeii oaco, a oi a?aiy eae iieiaeaiea
oi/ae A inoaaony iinoiyiiui — ia ?annoiyiee 5 ni io n?aaeeiiie ine oaca.

I?e ionoonoaee ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo i?aia?aoia aioo?eaeaaaeeuiia iaeo/aiea
iiaeii i?iaiaeeoue ia aeeceioieoniuo ?aioaaiioa?aiaaoe/aneeo aiia?aoao.
Iaeiaei yoio iaoiae yooaeoeaai eeoue i?e yecioeoiuo oi?iao ?aea oaeee
iaoee 1 noaaeee. I?e ?aea oea?aeeaeueiiai eaiaea e yiaeioeoiie oi?ia
o?ainaaaeiaeueiay ?aioaaiioa?aiey ia iieacaia.

Oae eae i?e aioo?eiieinoiii iaeo/aiee iiuiinoue aeicu ia aeeaeaeoeo io
enoi/ieea ?annoiyieyo ?acei iaaeaao, iaeanoue oi/ae A iaeo/aaony a
iaaeinoaoi/iuo aeicao. Iiyoiio n oeaeueth aicaeaenoaey ia ciio
?aaeiya?iiai iaoanoace?iaaiey e eioeeueo?aoia a ia?aiao?aeueiie
eeao/aoea i?eiaiyaony aeenoaioeeiiiie iaeo/aiea, eioi?ia iiaeii
i?iaiaeeoue ia aaoao?iiao, eeiaeiuo onei?eoaeyo e aaiia onoaiiaeao
noaoe/aneei eee ?ioaoeeiiiui iaoiaeii.

Aeenoaioeeiiiia iaeo/aiea inouanoaeyaony a naiaiaeiua io
aioo?eiieinoiiai iaeo/aiey aeie. ?ani?aaeaeaiea yia?aee eceo/aiey a
iaeii oaco caaeneo io /enea e ?aniieiaeaiey iieae iaeo/aiey ii
ioiioaieth e n?aaeeiiie eeiee oaea. *aua anaai iaeo/aiea i?iaiaeeony n
/aou?ao iieae (aeaa iiaeacaeioiuo e aeaa e?anooeiauo) n
ia?iaiaeeeoey?iui iai?aaeaieai io/ea eceo/aiey e ai?eciioaeueiie
ieineinoe, Iiey iaeo/aiey aeieaeiu ?aniieaaaoueny ia ?annoiyiee 2—3 ni
io n?aaeeiiie eeiee oaea. I?e yoii io/ie eceo/aiey i?ioiaeeo a ciiu
oi/ae A, eneeth/ay n?aaeeiioth /anoue oaea e aieiaeo aaae?a. Ea/aiea
i?iaiaeeony oae, /oiau iaeei aeaiue iaeo/aeinue i?aaia iiaeacaeioiie e
i?aaia e?anooeiaia iiey, a ia ae?oaie aeaiue—eaaia iiaeacaeioiia e eaaia
e?anooeiaia. Yeniiceoeeiiiay aeica ia eiaea eaaeaeiai iiey aeieaeia
auoue ?ann/eoaia oae, /oiau a oi/ea A i/aaiaay aeica ninoaaeyea 200—250
?aae. Aaeaiaaeaeueiay i/aaiaay aeica i?e ni/aoaiee aioo?eiieinoiiai e
aeenoaioeeiiiiai iaeo/aiey aeieaeia auoue a i?aaeaeao 2000—230U ?aae a
oi/eao A e1000—1100 ?aae a oi/eao A.

I?e ?aea oaeee iaoee 1 noaaeee aeaaii?eyoiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea yia?aee
eceo/aiey a iaeanoe iiooiee aeinoeaaaony iaeo/aieai /aou?ao iieae
?acia?ii 5o12 ni. Aunioa iiey 12 ni (ieaeiyy a?aieoea ia o?iaia aa?oiaai
e?ay eiiiuo einoae) iicaieyao aeeth/aoue a ciio iaeo/aiey ?aaeiia?iua
eeioaoe/aneea oceu ia?aiai ii?yaeea. Oe?eia iiey 5 ni aeinoaoi/ia aeey
iaeo/aiey iaeanoe oi/ae A, eneeth/ay n?aaeeiioth /anoue oaea e aieiaeo
aaaea?.

I?e ?aea 1 noaaeee i/aaiaay aeica a oi/eao A aeieaeia ninoaaeyoue
3500—3700 ?aae, a a oi/eao A— 900—1000 ?aae. Yoi aeinoeaaaony i?e aeica
ia eiaea eaaeaeiai ec /aou?ao iieae 4000 ?aae.

I?e ?aea oaeee iaoee II e III noaaeee iaeo/aiea oeaeaniia?acii aanoe
iieyie 6O16 ni. Aioo?aiiyy a?aieoea iiey aeieaeia iaoiaeeoueny ia
aeeaea 2,5—3 ni io n?aaeeiiie eeiee oaea. Oaeay oe?eia iiey iicaieyao
iiaeaiaeeoue a ciio oi/ae A aeico 48%, a oi/ae A—100%. Ia i?aaiu,
?aniieiaeaiiua ii n?aaeeiiie eeiee oaea, i?eoiaeeony 20—30% aeicu. .
Aunioa iiey 16 ni (ieaeiyy a?aieoea ia o?iaia aa?oiaai e?ay eiiiuo
einoae) iicaieyao aeeth/aoue a iaeo/aiea anth ciio ?aaeiia?iiai
iaoanoace?iaaiey n eeioaoe/aneeie oceaie aoi?iai ii?yaeea. Iiyoiio
eiaaea eiaaony iiaeic?aiea ia iaoanoacu a ia?aai?oaeueiua eeioaoe/aneea
oceu, iiey iaeo/aiey iaiaoiaeeii ?aniieaaaoue iiae oaeii ae?oa e ae?oao,
oae /oiau aa?oiee e?ae iiey aue ia ?annoiyiee 1 ni a ieaeiee—3 ni io
n?aaeeiiie eeiee. I?e ?aea III noaaeee i/aaiaay aeica a oi/eao A
aeieaeia ninoaaeyoue 4500—5000 ?aae, a ib oi/eao A—2000—2300 ?aae. Yoi
aeinoeaaaony i?e aeica ia eiaea eaaeaeiai iiey iaeo/aiey 4800—5000 ?aae.

I?e ni/aoaiiie eo/aaie oa?aiee ?aea oaeee iaoee iiaeiuaiiua aeicu a
oi/eao A y A io aioo?eiieinoiiai e aeenoaioeeiiiiai iaeo/aiey aeieaeiu
noiie?iaaoueny.

Eeeie/aneea iaaethaeaiey (A. A. Eiceiaa, 1970; E. I. Eino?iieia, 1964, e
ae?.) iieacuaatho, /oi yoe aeicu ssaeythony aeinoaoi/iuie aeey
?ac?ooaiey ia?ae/iie, iiooiee, eioeeueo?aoia a .ia?aiao?aeueiie
eeao/aoea e iaoanoacia a eeioaoe/aneeo oceao.

Ni/aoaiiay eo/aaay oa?aiey ia aeieaeia i?aauoaoue 8—9 iaaeaeue.
I?e/eiaie ia?ooaiey ?eoia iaeo/aiey iiaoo auoue eo/aaie ?aeoeo, oeenoeo,
aeia?oiie/aneay aieaciue, ii?iee na?aeoea, o?iiaioeaaeo, iauay eo/aaay
?aaeoeey, eaeeiiaiey (ieaea 3000 a 1 ii).

A ieaia naiinoiyoaeueiiai ea/aiey aeenoaioeeiiiia iaeo/aiea i?iaiaeeony
a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ec-ca ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoe i?ioeanna aioo?eiieinoiia
iaeo/aiea iaaiciiaeii. O oaeeo aieueiuo aeenoaioeeiiiia iaeo/aiea
aeieaeii iaania/eoue iaiaoiaeeioth aeico eae ia ia?ae/ioth iiooieue, oae
e ia ciiu ia?aiao?aeueiioi e eeioiaaiiiai iaoanoace?iaaiey.

Iaeo/aiea aaaeaony n 4—5 iieae, ?acia?u eioi?uo onoaiaaeeaathony a
caaeneiinoe io noaiaie ?ani?ino?aiaiey i?ioeanna (6O16e8O16 ni). I?e
yeniiceoeeiiiie aeica ia eiaea eaaeaeiai iiey 4000—4500 ? a oeaio?a oaca
nicaeaaony aeica 7000—7500 ?aae, a a eaoa?aeueiuo aai ioaeaeao—
4500—5000 ?aae. I?e ?ani?ino?aiaiee iiooiee a ia?aaaceeaeueioth e
ia?aiao?aeueioth eeao/aoeo oeaeaniia?acii iaeo/aiea n /aou?ao iieae,
?aniieiaeaiiuo ia ?annoiyiee 4—5 ni io n?aaeeiiie eeiee oaea n oaeaie
iaeeiia io/ea eceo/aiey 35—40° e ai?eciioaeueiie ieineinoe. A yoii
neo/aa e?eaua eciaeic ?aniieaaathony a ia?aaeia-caaeiai iai?aaeaiee a
aeaea yeeeina.

I?e aicieeiiaaiee eioeeueo?aoia a ia?aiao?aeueiie eeao/aoea
aeaaii?eyoiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeic aeinoeaaaony iaeo/aieai .iiae oaeaie
iaeeiia io/ea 60″. I?e yoii [aa?eaioa aeiciua iiey auoyioou a aieiauo
iai?aaeaieyo e any ia?aiao?aeueiay eeao/aoea iaeo/aaony ?aaiiia?ii

Eniieueciaaiea oeao?iuo aeieia n ?anuaieythueie naeioeiauie ye?aiaie
cia/eoaeueii iiauneei yooaeoeaiinoue aeenoaioeeiiiie aaiia-oa?aiee.
Iaeo/aiea aaaeaony n aeaoo i?ioeaieaaeaueo iieae ?acia?ii 15o15-e 17O18
ni, ?acaeaeaiiuo naeioeiauie aeieaie. ?acia?u e oi?ia ?anuaieythuaai
oeao?iiai aeiea onoaiaaeeaathony, enoiaey ec aeiciiai iiey,
nicaeaaaaiiai aioo?eiieinoiui enoi/ieeii eceo/aiey. Oieueia naeioeiaiai
aeiea aeieaeia auoue oaeie, /oiau aeica a oi/ea A auea a 3—4 ?aca
iaiueoa, /ai a oa/ea A. Aeey yoiai aeinoaoi/ii eniieueciaaoue aeie
aunioie 6 ni a aeaea ona/aiiiai eiiona, eiathuaai a iniiaaiee
aaiiao?e/anee i?aia?aciaaiioth oi?io 50% eciaeicu, iieo/aiiie i?e
aioo?eiieinoiii iaeo/aiee.

I?e ea/aiee ?aoeeaeeaia e iaoanoacia ?aea oaeee iaoee iaaei o/eouaaoue,
/oi /aua anaai ?aoeeaeeau aicieeatho a ia?aiao?aeueiie, ia?a?aeoaeueiie
e ia?aaaceeaeueiie eeao/aoea oaca, a oaeaea a eoeueoa aeaaaeeua.
Iaoanoacu ?aea oaeee iaoee iaia?oaeeaathony a iaeanoe iiaeacaeioiuo
eeioaoe/aneeo oceia.

Aeenoaioeeiiiay eo/aaay oa?aiey iiaeao i?eiaiyoueny oieueei iinea
ooi/iaiey eieaeecaoeee iiooieaaiai i?ioeanna (eeioia?aoey,
?aioaaiia?aoey, aeiaioaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea). Oae eae o aieueiuo n
?aoeeaeeaaie e iaoanoacaie oaea eiathony eo/aaua eciaiaiey i?aaiia e
oeaiae iaeiai oaca iinea ia?aiai eo?na eo/aaie oa?aiee, iaeo/aiea
aeieaeii aanoenue n .o/aoii iaeneiaeueiiai uaaeaiey ie?oaeathueo
iiooieue caei?iauo oeaiae. ?aniieiaeaiea iieae iaeo/aiey ia aeieaeii
iiaoi?youe aa?eaiou ia?aiai eo?na iaeo/aiey. *aua anaai eniieuecothony
iiaeacaeioii-iaoiaua e aieiaua iiey. Aaeaaeiaaiay i/aaiaay aeica
ninoaaeyao 200—250 ?aae. O/eouaay ?aaeei?acenoaioiinoue ?aoeeaeeaia e
iaoanoacia i?e iiaoi?iii eo?na eo/aaie oa?aiee, i/aaiaay aeica
aeiaiaeeony aei 6000—6500 ?aae. Oniao eo/aaiai ea/aiey caaeneo eae io
iaoiaeeee iaeo/aiey, oae e io iauaai ninoiyiey aieueiie, ?acia?ia e
eieaeecaoeee ?aoeeaeeaa, iaoanoacia e ninoiyiey ie?oaeathueo oeaiae e
i?aaiia.

I?ioeeaeoeea

Iiuo i?ioeai?aeiaie ai?ueau ai anai ie?a naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi
ioia/aiiua oniaoe a ea/aiee ceiea/anoaaiiuo iiaiia?aciaaiee aeinoeaioou
iaa oieueei a nayce n oniaa?oainoaiaaieai oa?aiaaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia, ii e
a ?acoeueoaoa auyaeaiey caaieaaaiee ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo ?acaeoey.
Aeeaaiinoeea ia/aeueiuo oi?i ?aea oaeee iaoee niinianoaoao oiaiueoaieth
nia?oiinoe. Nieaeaiea caaieaaaaiinoe aeinoeaaaony ea/aieai oiiiauo e
i?aae?aeiauo i?ioeannia (yoi iaaeyaeii aeaeii ia i?eia?aa oiai, /oi ii
/anoioa caaieaaaaiinoueth ?aeii ia?aoea n 2-ai ianoa ia 4-ia ianoi
n?aaee ceiea/anoaaiiuo iiaiia?aciaaiee aeaiuei).

Nenoaia ianniauo iniio?ia (a NNN? e ?innee – aeeniaina?ecaoeey),
iicaieyao auyaeoue eeoue 8 – 10% anao caaieaaoeo. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
i?eiaiyaony oeeoieiae/aneee ne?eieia e aeaooyoaiiay nenoaia auyaeaiey
iaoieiaee oaeee iaoee.

Iniiaiay caaea/a oeeoieiae/aneiai ne?eieiaa – auaeaeeoue ia yoaia
ia?ae/iiai iniio?a aieueiuo, o eioi?uo iiaeic?aaaaony iaee/ea
iieieiae/aneeo caaieaaaiee oaeee iaoee, n oai /oiau a iineaaeothuai
iiaeaa?aiooue eo oaeoaeaiiiio ianeaaeiaaieth n eniieueciaaieai
aunieiyooaeoeaiuo aeeaaiinoe/aneeo iaoiaeia, aeeth/athueo ana iaoiaeu,
ia?a/eneaiiua auoa a ?acaeaea «Aeeaaiinoeea».

- Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

?ae oaeee iaoee. \ A. A. Aeoiaaneay \ Ieine “AAEA?ONUe” 1987 a.

Eeeie/aneay ?aioaaii-?aaeeieiaey o. 5 \ ?oeiaiaenoai \ A. A.
Caaeaaieaeca \ Iineaa “IAAeEOeEIA” 1985 a.

?oeiaiaenoai ii iaaeeoeeia o 1, 2 \ ?oeiaiaenoai \ Ia?e. Oa?i e Aeioi \
Iineaa “IE?” 1997a.

Oaeueaeoa? e aeooa?ea \ aeo?iae \ Iineaa “IAAeEOeEIA” ?8 1985 a.

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