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ICAeI?IAEOAEUeIUE AAA

Icaei?iaeoaeueiue aaa yaeyaony iaeaieaa i?inoui e aeinooiiui (a
oaoie/aneii ioiioaiee) aeaeii oeeeee/aneeo oi?aaeiaiee, a iioiio e naiui
ianniaui. Ii naiui ne?iiiui iiaen/aoai, aaa a ea/anoaa
icaei?iaeoaeueiiai n?aaenoaa eniieuecotho aieaa 100 iei. ethaeae
n?aaeiaai e iiaeeeiai aic?anoa iaoae ieaiaou. Niaeanii ioeoeeaeueiui
aeaiiui, a iaoae no?aia ca?aaeno?e?iaaii 5207 eeoaia ethaeoaeae aaaa, a
eioi?uo caieiaaony 385 oun. ethaeoaeae aaaa; naiinoiyoaeueii aaaathueo
ian/eouaaaony 2 iei. /aeiaae.

Aeey oneeaiey i?iiaaaiaeu caiyoee icaei?iaeoaeueiui aaaii iaiaoiaeeii
aeoaaea iniciaoue ineoieiaeth aaaathuaai /aeiaaea e iioeau, eioi?ua ei
?oeiaiaeyo. I. N. Eeea?eiiia (1988) auaeaeyao neaaeothuea iniiaiua
iioeaaoeee ethaeae n?aaeiaai aic?anoa e caiyoeyi icaei?iaeoaeueiui
aaaii: oe?aieaiea caei?iauey e i?ioeeaeoeea caaiea- aaiee; iiauoaiea
?aaioiniiniaiinoe; oaeiaieuenoaea io naiiai i?ioeanna aaaa; no?aieaiea
oeo/oeoue naie ?acoeueoaou a aaaa (nii?oeaiay iioeaaoeey); neaaeiaaiea
iiaea ia aaa (ynoaoe/aneay iioeaaoeey); no?aieaiea e iauaieth;
no?aieaiea iiciaoue naie i?aaieci, naie aiciiaeiinoe; iioeaaoeey
oai?/anoaa, iioeaaoeey ainieoaiey e oe?aieaiey naiuee; «naiaeiue» aaa;
neo/aeiua iioeaaoeee. Iaeiaei, ii iaaethaeaieyi aaoi?a, iaeaieaa
neeueiui noeioeii aeey caiyoee yaeyaony eiaiii oaeiaieuenoaea, ia?iiiia
/oanoai ?aaeinoe, eioi?ia i?eiineo aaa. A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
i?ae?auatho caiyoey oa ethaee, eioi?ua a ?acoeueoaoa iai?aaeeueiie
o?aie?iaee ia niiaee eniuoaoue yoe iuouaiey.

Iaiaoeeee ineoieia Oaeeaiaa?aa? (1988) ioia/aao neaaeothuea i?e/eiu
iaaeinoaoi/iie oece/aneie aeoeaiinoe ianaeaiey: iaaeinoaoi/iay
inaaaeiieaiiinoue i iieueca caiyoee (40 % ianaeaiey); ionoonoaea
eioa?ana e caiyoeyi (47 %); i?aaeii/oaiea eaeeo-eeai ae?oaeo caiyoee a
naiaiaeiia a?aiy (62%); eaiue (57%); ionoonoaea eioi?iaoeee i
aiciiaeiinoe caiyoee, i?iaeaia naiaiaeiiai a?aiaie, iaaa?ea a naie
aiciiaeiinoe («ana ?aaii ie/aai ia iieo/eony»).

Oaoieea icaei?iaeoaeueiiai aaaa ianoieueei i?inoa, /oi ia o?aaoao
niaoeeaeueiiai iao/aiey, a aai aeeyiea ia /aeiaa/aneee i?aaieci
/?acau/aeii aaeeei. Iaeiaei i?e ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe aai aicaeaenoaey
neaaeoao auaeaeeoue aeaa iaeaieaa aaaeiuo iai?aaeaiey: iauee e
niaoeeaeueiue yooaeo.

Iauaa aeeyiea aaaa ia i?aaieci naycaii n eciaiaieyie ooieoeeiiaeueiiai
ninoiyiey OeIN, eiiiainaoeeae iaaeinoathueo yia?aicao?ao,
ooieoeeiiaeueiuie naeaeaaie a nenoaia e?iaiia?auaiey e nieaeaieai
caaieaaaaiinoe.

O?aie?iaea a aaaa ia auiineeainoue yaeyaony iacaiaieiui n?aaenoaii
?ac?yaeee e iaeo?aeecaoeee io?eoeaoaeueiuo yiioeee, eioi?ua aucuaatho
o?iie/aneia ia?aiia ia?aiai?yaeaiea. Yoe aea oaeoi?u cia/eoaeueii
iiauoatho ?ene ieiea?aea a ?acoeueoaoa ecauoi/iiai iinooieaiey a e?iaue
ai?iiiia iaaeii/a/ieeia — aae?aiaeeia e ii?aae?aiaeeia.

Icaei?iaeoaeueiue aaa (a iioeiaeueiie aeice?iaea) a ni/aoaiee n aiaeiuie
i?ioeaaeo?aie yaeyaony eo/oei n?aaenoaii ai?ueau n iaa?anoaieae e
aanniiieoeae — aieaciyie XX aaea, aucaaiiuie ia?aiui ia?aiai?yaeaieai
eciaeeeai iinooiathuae eioi?iaoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa nieiaaony ia?aiia
iai?yaeaiea, oeo/oaaony nii e naii/oanoaea, iiauoaaony
?aaioiniiniaiinoue. «Auaeaaiea ineoieiae/aneiai no?anna oece/aneei» —
oae ioa?aeoa?eciaaea yoi yaeaiea o?aoe?aoiay ieeiieeneay /aiieiiea
Oaoueyia Eacaieeia. Iniaaiii iieacai a yoii ioiioaiee aa/a?iee aaa,
eioi?ue nieiaao io?eoeaoaeueiua yiioeee, iaeiieaiiua ca aeaiue, e
«naeeaaao» ecauoie aae?aiaeeia, auaeaeyaiiai a ?acoeueoaoa no?annia.
Oaeei ia?acii, aaa yaeyaony eo/oei i?e?iaeiui o?aieaeeecaoi?ii — aieaa
aeaenoaaiiui, /ai eaea?noaaiiua i?aia?aou.

Oniieaeaathuaa aeeyiea aaaa oneeeaaaony aeaenoaeai ai?iiiia aeiioeca
(yiaei?oeiia), eioi?ua auaeaeythony a e?iaue i?e ?aaioa ia
auiineeainoue. I?e eioaineaiie o?aie?iaea eo niaea?aeaiea a e?iae
aic?anoaao a 5 ?ac ii n?aaiaieth n o?iaiai iieiy e oaea?aeeaaaony a
iiau- oaiiie eiioeaio?aoeee a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo /ania. Yiaei?oeiu
aucuaatho ninoiyiea naiaia?aciie yeoi?ee, iuouaiea aani?e/eiiie
?aaeinoe, oece/aneiai e ineoe/aneiai aeaaiiieo/ey, iiaeaaeytho /oanoai
aieiaea e aiee, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ?acei oeo/oaaony iano?iaiea.
Ineoeao?u oe?iei eniieuecotho oeeeee/aneea oi?aaeiaiey i?e ea/aiee
aeai?anneaiuo ninoiyiee — iacaaeneii io eo i?e/eiu. Niaeanii aeaiiui E.
Eoia?a, iieo/aiiui a Aeaeeanneii oeaio?a ay?iaeee, aieueoeinoai ethaeae,
i?iaaaathueo ca o?aie?iaeo 5 ei, eniuouaatho ninoiyiea yeoi?ee ai a?aiy
e iinea ieii/aiey oece/aneie iaa?ocee, /oi yaeyaony aaaeouae iioeaaoeeae
aeey caiyoee icaei?iaeoaeueiui aaaii.

A ?acoeueoaoa oaeiai iiiaiia?aciiai aeeyiey aaaa ia oeaio?aeueioth
ia?aioth nenoaio i?e ?aaoey?iuo iiiaieaoieo caiyoeyo eciaiyaony e oei
ee/iinoe aaaoia, aai ineoe/aneee noaoon. Ineoieiae n/eoatho, /oi
ethaeoaee icaei?iaeoaeueiiai aaaa noaiiayony aieaa iaueoaeueiu,
eiioaeoiu, aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiu, eiatho aieaa aunieoth naiiioeaieo e
oaa?aiiinoue a naieo neeao e aiciiaeiinoyo. Eiioeeeoiua neooaoeee o
aaaoiia aicieeatho cia/eoaeueii ?aaea e aini?eieiathony iaiiiai
niieieiaa; ineoieiae/aneee no?ann eee aiiaua ia ?acaeaaaony, eee aea
aia?aiy iaeo?aeecoaony, /oi yaeyaony eo/oei n?aaenoaii i?ioeeaeoeee
eioa?eoa ieiea?aea.

A ?acoeueoaoa aieaa iieiioeaiiiai ioaeuoa oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie nenoaiu
iiauoaaony ia oieueei oece/aneay, ii e oinoaaiiay ?aaioiniiniaiinoue,
oai?/aneea aiciiaeiinoe /aeiaaea. Iiiaea o/aiua ioia/atho iiauoaiea
oai?/aneie aeoeaiinoe e ieiaeioai?iinoe iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee iinea
ia/aea caiyoee icaei?iaeoaeueiui aaaii (aeaaea a iiaeeeii aic?anoa).

Caiyoey icaei?iaeoaeueiui aaaii ieacuaatho nouanoaaiiia iieiaeeoaeueiia
aeeyiea ia nenoaio e?iaiia?auaiey e eiioieoao. I?e ianeaaeiaaiee 230
ioae/ei e aeaiuei n?aaeiaai aic?anoa, caieiathueony icaei?iaeoaeueiui
aaaii, onoaiiaeaii aeinoiaa?iia oaaee/aiea niaea?aeaiey a e?iae
y?eo?ioeeoia, aaiiaeiaeia e eeioioeeoia, aneaaenoaea /aai iiauoaaony
eenei?iaeiay aieinoue e?iae, aa caueoiua naienoaa (A. I. Ieoaiei, 1988).
I?e ianeaaeiaaiee 40 /aeiaae a aic?anoa io 30 aei 60 eao (noaae caiyoee
— io 2 aei 20 eao) iaia?oaeaii oaaee/aiea a nuai?ioea e?iae
eiioiiaeiaoeeiia (A. A. Eiaaiue, 1986), /oi niinianoaoao nieaeaieth
caaieaaaaiinoe. I?e aiaeeca o?oaeiniiniaiinoe e /anoiou caaieaaaiee
?aai/eo e neoaeaueo i?aaei?eyoee a. Iieoaau ieacaeinue, /oi o ethaeae,
caieiathueony icaei?iaeoaeueiui aaaii, eiee/anoai aeiae
iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe nieceeinue a n?aaeiai n 18,1 aei 1,2 a aiae (E. E.
Aoaea, 1986). *eaiu Niieaineiai eeoaa ethaeoaeae aaaa ni noaaeai caiyoee
aieaa 3 eao i?aeoe/anee ia iiaeaa?aeaiu i?inooaeiui caaieaaaieyi. A o
neoaeaueo yiiineie aaciaie eiiiaiee a Oieei, caieiathueony
icaei?iaeoaeueiie oeceoeueoo?ie, eiee/anoai aeiae iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe
ninoaaeyao 1,5 a aiae, a oi a?aiy eae o ?aaioieeia, ia caieiathueony
aeoeaii oeceoeueoo?ie, — E aeiae. A ?acoeueoaoa caiyoee
icaei?iaeoaeueiui aaaii aaaeiua Eciaiaiey i?ienoiaeyo e a aeioeie/aneii
ninoaaa e?iae, /oi aeeyao ia aini?eei/eainoue i?aaiecia e ?aeiaui
caaieaaaieyi. Oae, i?e ianeaaeiaaiee 126 aaaoiia noa?oa 40 eao
iaia?oaeaiu iieiaeeoaeueiua naeaeae a nenoaia i?ioeaiiiooieaaie caueou
i?aaiecia, i?iii?oeeiiaeueii noaaeo caiyoee icaei?iaeoaeueiui aaaii.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, /ai ?aiueoa ia/aoue o?aie?iaee, oai aieueoa
onoie/eainoue i?aaiecia e ?aeiaui caaieaaaieyi (A. E. Ieuaiei, 1986).
Iaooaiaa?aa? iaaethaeae 16000 ioae/ei a oa/aiea 16 eao. A ia?aie a?oiia
n iaeie oece/aneie aeoeaiinoueth (?anoiae yia?aee ia auiieiaiea
oece/aneeo oi?aaeiaiee iaiaa 500 eeae a iaaeaeth) ?aeiaua caaieaaaiey
iaia?oaeaiu o 26 % iaaethaeaaiuo, a ai aoi?ie, oece/anee aieaa aeoeaiie,
a?oiia — o 19 %.

Oaeei ia?acii, iieiaeeoaeueiua eciaiaiey a ?acoeueoaoa caiyoee
icaei?iaeoaeueiui aaaii niinianoaotho oe?aieaieth caei?iauey e
iiauoaieth nii?ioeaeyaiinoe i?aaiecia aeaenoaeth iaaeaaii?eyoiuo
oaeoi?ia aiaoiae n?aaeu.

Niaoeeaeueiue yooaeo aaaiaie o?aie?iaee caeeth/aaony a iiauoaiee
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu e ay?iaiie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?aaiecia. Iiauoaiea ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae
i?iyaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai a oaaee/aiee nie?aoeoaeueiie e «ianiniie»
ooieoeee na?aeoea, ?inoa oece/aneie ?aaioiniiniaiinoe. I?e ianeaaeiaaiee
580 aaaoiia a aic?anoa io 30 aei 70 eao auei iaia?oaeaii, /oi iniiaiua
iieacaoaee aeayoaeueiinoe na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu (*NN, AAe, YEA)
ia ioee/aeenue io aeaiiuo iieiaeuo caei?iauo ethaeae. Aeaaea oaeie
aaaeiaeoee iieacaoaeue, eae ei?iia?iue e?iaaoie, io?aaeathuee noaiaiue
?acaeoey IAN, o iiaeeeuo ethaeae ia aue nieaeai. O ia/eiathueo
ethaeoaeae icaei?iaeoaeueiiai aaaa oieueei ca 8 iaaeaeue caiyoee
ioia/aii oaaee/aiea nie?aoeiinoe ieiea?aea e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
na?aeoea, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai oece/aneay ?aaioiniiniaiinoue ii oanoo
PWC170 aic?inea ia 30 %. Yoe eciaiaiey nii?iaiaeaeaeenue oaaee/aieai
ei?iia?iiai e?iaioiea e niaaaeaiey ieiea?aea eenei?iaeii aieaa /ai ia 25
% (A. A. Ie?iaia, 1985).

N iiiiuueth iiaaeoeo enneaaeiaaiee (yoiea?aeeia?aoey) onoaiiaeaii, /oi
?aaoey?iua caiyoey aaaii i?eaiaeyo e oaaee/aieth iannu eaaiai
aeaeoaei/ea (ca n/ao ooieuaiey aai caaeiae noaiee e iaaeaeaeoaei/eiaie
ia?aai?iaeee), eioi?ia nii?iaiaeaeaaony ?inoii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
na?aeoea e niiniaiinoe ieiea?aea onaaeaaoue eenei?iae. I?e/ai yoe
eciaiaiey ia niinianoaotho au?aaeaiiiio oaaee/aieth ?acia?ia na?aeoea,
oa?aeoa?iiio aeey nii?oniaiia. Oaeie aa?eaio aaeaioaoeee e o?aie?iai/iui
iaa?oceai yaeyaony iioeiaeueiui n oi/ee c?aiey ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
aiciiaeiinoae i?aaiecia e iiaeaea?aeaiey noaaeeueiiai o?iaiy caei?iauey
(A. A. Aeaiai, 1989). A ioee/ea io iaoieiae/aneie aeia?o?ioee ieiea?aea
oaaee/aiea iannu eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea nii?iaiaeaeaaony ?anoe?aieai
i?inaaoa ei?iia?iuo a?oa?ee, eaieeey?ecaoeeae ieiea?aea, oaaee/aieai
e?iaioiea e niiniaiinoe na?aea/iie iuooeu onaaeaaoue eenei?iae.
Aiaeeeneea o/aiua iaaethaeaee iienaiiua eciaiaiey oaea /a?ac 6 iaaeaeue
iinea auiieiaiey o?aie?iai/iie i?ia?aiiu (a oia?aiiii oaiia — 3 ?aca a
iaaeaeth ii 30 iei). Aeey oaaee/aiey nie?aoeiinoe na?aea/iie iuooeu
aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao ?anoe?aiea ei?iia?iuo a?oa?ee e eaieeey?ecaoeey
ieiea?aea, oeo/oathuay aai o?ioeeo. O ecaanoiiai aia?eeaineiai
ia?aoiioea aea Ia?a, oia?oaai a aic?anoa 73 eao, i?inaao ei?iia?iuo
a?oa?ee aue a 3 ?aca aieueoa ii n?aaiaieth n ninoaeii iao?aie?iaaiiiai
/aeiaaea (Iaaii, 1978).

Iiiai/eneaiiua enneaaeiaaiey ia aeeaioiuo iieacaee, /oi o?aie?iaea ia
auiineeainoue i?eaiaeeo e eaieeey?ecaoeee ieiea?aea e oneeaieth
ieiea?aeeaeueiiai e?iaioiea ca n/ao ia?aciaaiey iiauo eaieeey?ia. Oae, o
niaae, auiieiyaoeo i?eioaeeoaeueioth o?aie?iaeo a aaaa ia o?aaeaaia (ii
1 / a aeaiue) /a?ac 6 ianyoeaa auei ioia/aii cia/eoaeueiia oaaee/aiea
noiia?iie ieiuaaee iiia?a/iiai na/aiey ei?iia?iuo a?oa?ee ii n?aaiaieth
n iao?aie?iaaiiuie aeeaioiuie. Aieaa oiai, eiathony aeaiiua ia
oaaee/aiee eieeaoa?aeueiiai (iaoiaeiiai) e?iaiia?auaiey e ei?iia?iiai
e?iaioiea o niaae n yenia?eiaioaeueiui eioa?eoii (i?e ia?aaycea eaaie
ienoiaeyuae ei?iia?iie a?oa?ee) iinea eo?na aaaiaie o?aie?iaee. Ii
iaia?oaeee au?aaeaiiia oaaee/aiea ieiea?aeeaeueiiai e?iaioiea o 4 (ec 7)
ii?iaeenouo niaae n yenia?eiaioaeueiui eioa?eoii iinea auiieiaiey
o?aie?iai/iie i?ia?aiiu a aaaa ia o?aaeaaia.

O ethaeae n eoaie/aneie aieaciueth na?aeoea ?acaeoea eieeaoa?aeueiiai
e?iaiia?auaiey cia/eoaeueii cao?oaeiaii, iaeiaei aeaaea i?e iaee/ee
oaeie oyaeaeie iaoieiaee a ?yaea neo/aaa, eniieuecoy aeeeoaeueioth
o?aie?iaeo ia auiineeainoue, iiaeii aeiaeoueny iieiaeeoaeueiuo
?acoeueoaoia. Iiaua auniei/oanoaeoaeueiua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey
ei?iia?iiai e?iaiia?auaiey n iiiiuueth ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo ecioiiia
(oaeeee-201) iicaieeee onoaiiaeoue oeo/oaiea ia?oocee ieiea?aea o 6 (ec
16) aieueiuo EAN iinea 12-iany/iie o?aie?iaee a oiaeueaa e aaaa.

Oneeaiea ei?iia?iiai e?iaioiea nii?iaiaeaeaeinue oaaee/aieai
nie?aoeoaeueiie e «ianiniie» ooieoeee na?aeoea. Ii aeaiiui Ananithciiai
ea?aeeieiae/aneiai oeaio?a, iinea auiieiaiey 12-iany/iie
?aaaeeeoaoeeiiiie i?ia?aiiu (oiaeueaa e aaa) o iaoeeaioia iaaethaeaeinue
oaaee/aiea oaea?iiai iauaia n 70 aei 80 ie; yoi iicaieeei oaaee/eoue
ay?iaioth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue (IITH n 22 aei 27 ie/ea). A ?acoeueoaoa
iiiaieaoieo caiyoee icaei?iaeoaeueiui aaaii o aieueiuo, ia?aianoeo
eioa?eo ieiea?aea, yoio iieacaoaeue oaaee/eaaaony aei o?iaiy,
oa?aeoa?iiai aeey iao?aie?iaaiiuo ioae/ei, — 30 ie/ea, a i?e
eioaineaiie o?aie?iaea–aea 35 ie/ea. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ?aaaeeeoaoeeiiiiai
oeaio?a a Oi?iioi i?ioanni? Eaoaiaae (1979) o iinoeioa?eoiuo aieueiuo,
i?ioaaeoeo aeeeoaeueioth o?aie?iaeo a aaaa ia naa?oaeeeiiua aeenoaioeee,
ioia/ae oaaee/aiea IIE n 20 aei 50 ie/ea — o?iaaiue auiineeainoe,
iicaieythuee i?iaaaeaoue ia?aoiineoth aeenoaioeeth ca 4 /. Yoe aeaiiua
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ia ia?iiiie ?iee o?aie?iaee ia auiineeainoue aeey
ainnoaiiaeaiey oece/aneie ?aaioiniiniaiinoe.

Iinea i?ioiaeaeaiey eo?na ?aaaeeeoaoeee a oa/aiea 12 iaaeaeue a
ea?aeeieiae/aneii naiaoi?ee o aieueiuo auei ioia/aii iiauoaiea
?aaioiniiniaiinoe (ii aeaiiui noaiaeneiaeueiiai oanoa) n 420 aei 600
eai/iei, a a oa/aiea aeaoo eao naiinoiyoaeueiuo caiyoee
icaei?iaeoaeueiie oiaeueaie e aaaii — n 510 aei 720 eai/iei (Ae. I.
A?iiia, 1983). Oaeei ia?acii, aeaaea aieueiui n oyaeaeui ei?iia?i-
ea?aeeineea?icii aeaaiaea?y ?aaoey?iui o?aie?iaeai oaeaeinue nouanoaaiii
oaaee/eoue ooieoeeiiaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe nenoaiu e?iaiia?auaiey e
cia/eoaeueii iiauneoue oece/aneoth ?aaioiniiniaiinoue e o?iaaiue
caei?iauey.

Anoanoaaiii, /oi yooaeoeaiinoue o?aie?iaee ia auiineeainoue e
aiciiaeiinoe aa eniieueciaaiey o caei?iauo ethaeae n?aaeiaai aic?anoa
cia/eoaeueii auoa.

O aaaoiia 60–69 eao iieacaoaeue ?aaioiniiniaiinoe ii oanoo PWC170
auoa, /ai o ia aaaathueo naa?noieeia (852 i?ioea 660 eai/iei), a oaeaea
o ioae/ei 40–49 eao, aaaeoueo neaey/ee ia?ac aeecie (852 i?ioea 784
eai/iei). Iaeeoei y?ei au?aaeaiiue iiieaaeeaathuee yooaeo aaaa —
caaea?aeea aic?anoiiai nieaeaiey ?aaioiniiniaiinoe ia oeaeuo 20 eao

Aiaeec aeaiiuo, iieo/aiiuo aaoi?ii (A. A. Ieeueia?, 1986) iieacae, /oi
aaaeouei oaeoi?ii iiauoaiey ay?iaiuo aiciiaeiinoae e oece/aneie
?aaioiniiniaiinoe yaeyaony aaee/eia o?aie?iai/iie iaa?ocee .

Ec oaaeeoeu aeaeii, /oi iiae aeeyieai aaaiauo o?aie?iaie o aeaiuei a
oa/aiea ?yaea eao iaaethaeaeny ?ino ay?iaiuo aiciiaeiinoae e oece/aneie
?aaioiniiniaiinoe ia?aeeaeueii n oaaee/aieai o?aie?iai/iuo iaa?ocie —
niioaaonoaaiii n 29,5 aei 48ie/ea e n 485 aei 1086 eai/iei. O ioae/ei
n?aaeiaai aic?anoa oece/aneay ?aaioiniiniaiinoue a n?aaeiai ninoaaeyea
1200-1500 eai/iei– aieueoa, /ai o iieiaeuo iao?aie?iaaiiuo ioae/ei
(1000 eai/iei), e ii/oe oaeay aea, eae e o nooaeaioia einoeoooia
oece/aneie eoeueoo?u, niaoeeaeece?othueony a aoeeeee/aneeo aeaeao nii?oa
(oaooiaaiea, ai?ueaa, oooaie).

Iiieii oaaee/aiey ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ?aca?aia e iaeneiaeueiie ay?iaiie
iiuiinoe, iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao yeiiiiecaoeey na?aea/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe, nieaeaiea iio?aaiinoe ieiea?aea a eenei?iaea, aieaa
yeiiiiiia aai ?anoiaeiaaiea, /oi i?iyaeyaony a nieaeaiee /anoiou
na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee a iieia (a?aaeeea?aeey) e a ioaao ia noaiaea?oioth
iaa?oceo. Oae, iiae aeeyieai aaaiaie o?aie?iaee o ethaeae n?aaeiaai
aic?anoa ii ia?a aic?anoaiey iaaeaeueiiai iauaia aaaa (n 8 aei 48 ei)
iaaethaeaeinue ia?aeeaeueiia nieaeaiea *NN a iieia — a n?aaeiai n 58
aei 45 oae/iei. A.I.Ieuaiei (1988) iaaethaeae oiaiueoaiea ioeuena a
iieia a oa/aiea ia?aiai aiaea caiyoee icaei?iaeoaeueiui aaaii n 78 aei
62 oae/iei, i?e/ai caiaoiia nieaeaiea *NN ioia/aeinue eeoue n 6-ai
ianyoea caiyoee. Ii iaaethaeaieyi aaoi?a, o iiuoiuo aaaoiia n
iiiaieaoiei noaaeai e iauaiii aaaiauo iaa?ocie 30– 50ei a iaaeaeth *NN
a iieia ninoaaeyao 42–54 oae/iei. Oaeei ia?acii, o ethaeae n?aaeiaai
aic?anoa iiae aeeyieai o?aie?iaee ia auiineeainoue a?aaeeea?aeey
aeinoeaaao ii/oe oaeeo aea aaee/ei, eae e o i?aaenoaaeoaeae oeeeee/aneeo
aeaeia nii?oa (ieieiaeueiay *NN o aaaoiia yeno?aeeanna — 28–38
oae/iei).

Aaeeei aeeyiea aaaa e ia oaeoi?u ?enea IAN. Iiae aeeyieai caiyoee
icaei?iaeoaeueiui aaaii iaaethaeaaony ii?iaeecaoeey eeieaeiiai iaiaia:
nieaeaiea niaea?aeaiey a e?iae oieanoa?eia, o?eaeeoea?eaeia e EEI (n
iiauoaieai EAI). Niaea?aeaiea EAI o eaaea/eo aieueiuo ninoaaeyao anaai
26ia%,o aaaeoueo iaeiiiaeaeaeiue ia?ac aeecie — 42 ia%, o aaaoiia
n?aaeiaai aic?anoa — 63 ia%. O ioae/ei e aeaiuei, caieiathueony aaaii,
euaeiui nii?oii, ieaaaieai, o?iaaiue EAI, yaeythueony iniiaiui caueoiui
n?aaenoaii i?ioea aoa?ineea?ica, ia 20–30 % auoa, /ai o oece/anee
ianneaiuo .

Aeaiiua oaaeeoeu naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi aaaoiu eiatho eo/oea
iieacaoaee eeieaeiiai iaiaia, a o?iaaiue o?eaeeoea?eaeia a 2 ?aca ieaea,
/ai iaeiiiaeaeaeiua ethaee. O/aiua Aaoeiaoiineiai oieaa?neoaoa
iaaethaeaee 14 aaaoiia, eiathueo neaaeothuea aeaiiua n?aaeiee aic?ano
— 60 eao, ?ino — 174 ni, ianna oaea — 66 ea, aee?iaie eiiiiiaio — 11
%, IIE– 3 ie/ea, iauai aaaiaie iaa?ocee –50ei a iaaeaeth, noaae
?aaoey?iuo caiyoee — 11 eao. Auei onoaiiaeaii iioeiaeueiia niioiioaiea
?acee/iuo iieacaoaeae eeieaeiiai iaiaia, eioi?ua ii/oe ia ioee/aeenue io
aeaiiuo. Oaeei ia?acii, ?aaeeeaeueiua eciaiaiey eeieaeiiai iaiaia iiae
aeeyieai o?aie?iaee ia auiineeainoue iiaoo noaoue iiai?ioiui iiiaioii a
?acaeoee aoa?ineea?ica.

A iiuoao ia aeeaioiuo n yenia?eiaioaeueiui aoa?ineea?icii auei iieacaii,
/oi aeeeoaeueiay o?aie?iaea ia auiineeainoue oia?aiiie eioaineaiinoe
cia/eoaeueii oiaiueoaea ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue neea?ioe/aneiai i?ioeanna.
Eniieuecoy aoa?iaaiioth aeeaoo, niaea?aeauoth aieueoia eiee/anoai
oieanoa?eia, aucuaaee iaoe?iue aoa?ineea?ic ai?ou o iaacueyi; iinea
yoiai 50% aeeaioiuo aaaaee ia o?aaeaaia (3 ?aca a iaaeaeth ii 1/). *a?ac
6 ianyoeaa o o?aie?iaaiiuo aeeaioiuo iaaethaeaeinue ii/oe iieiia
en/aciiaaiea aoa?iiaoiciuo aeyoae a ai?oa, oiaaea eae a eiio?ieueiie
a?oiia iie i?iaeieaeaee ia?anoaoue. O niaae oaeaea ioia/aii iieiia
en/aciiaaiea aoa?ineea?ica ai?ou iinea o?aie?iaee ia o?aaeaaia ii 1 / a
aeaiue iaeiaei oaeie yooaeo aeinoeaaeny eeoue i?e aeinoaoi/ii
eioaineaiie e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiie o?aie?iaea.

Ia iniiaaiee aeeeoaeueiiai iaaethaeaiey ca aieueiuie IAN iiiaea o/aiua
n/eoatho, /oi iiaeii i?einoaiiaeoue ?acaeoea aoa?ineea?ica n iiiiuueth
auiieiaiey oeeeee/aneeo oi?aaeiaiee. Aiciiaeiinoue ia?aoiiai ?acaeoey
aoa?ineea?ica o ei?iia?iuo aieueiuo iiae aeeyieai o?aie?iaee ia
auiineeainoue naycaia n aeoeaecaoeeae aee?iaiai iaiaia, nieaeaieai
niaea?aeaiey EEI e iiauoaieai EAI.

Nioai (1983) iaaethaeae oaaee/aiea a e?iae EAI o 40 ei?iia?iuo aieueiuo
iinea 3-iaaeaeueiiai eo?na oece/aneie o?aie?iaee (aaa ii 20–40 iei 3
?aca a iaaeaeth e aaa ia o?aaeaaia). I.Ae.Aiaioey (1980) oaeaea ioia/ae
ii?iaeecaoeeth oieanoa?eiiaiai iaiaia o aieueiuo EEN n iiauoaieai EAI
iinea 12-iany/iie ?aaaeeeoaoeeiiiie i?ia?aiiu (?aaioa ia aaeiy?aiiao?a
ii 1 / 3 ?aca a iaaeaeth).

Iiae aeeyieai o?aie?iaee ia auiineeainoue nieaeaaony ayceinoue e?iae,
/oi iaeaa/aao ?aaioo na?aeoea e oiaiueoaao iianiinoue o?iiaiia?aciaaiey
e ?acaeoey eioa?eoa.

Aeaaiaea?y aeoeaecaoeee aee?iaiai iaiaia aaa yaeyaony yooaeoeaiui
n?aaenoaii ii?iaeecaoeee iannu oaea. O ethaeae, ?aaoey?ii caieiathueony
icaei?iaeoaeueiui aaaii, aan oaea aeecie e eaeaaeueiiio, a niaea?aeaiea
aee?a a 1,5 ?aca iaiueoa, /ai o iaaaaathueo.

Eae aeaeii ec oaaeeoeu, caieiathueany aaaii eiaee aan oaea a iiiaio
ianeaaeiaaiey ia 10 ea iaiueoa, /ai eo iaei– iiaeaeaeiua naa?noieee,
oioy a aic?anoa 18 eao eo eaeaaeueiue aan aue iaeeiaeiaui. I?e yoii
neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aaaoiu ia ia?aie/eaaee naie ieuaaie ?aoeeii e ia
i?eaea?aeeaaeenue niaoeeaeueiuo aeeao. Oaeei ia?acii, iieiaeeoaeueiue
yooaeo ii?iaeecaoeee iannu oaea aue iaoneiaeai oieueei aeiiieieoaeueiui
?anoiaeii yia?aee ai a?aiy o?aie?iaie.

Aanueia yooaeoeaiie a yoii ieaia iiaeao auoue e auno?ay oiaeueaa (ii 1 /
a aeaiue), /oi niioaaonoaoao ?anoiaeo yia?aee 300–400 eeae — a
caaeneiinoe io iannu oaea. Aeiiieieoaeueiue ?anoiae yia?aee ca 2 iaaeaee
ninoaaeo a yoii neo/aa ia iaiaa 3500 eeae, /oi i?eaaaeao e iioa?a 500 a
aee?iaie oeaie. A ?acoeueoaoa ca 1 ianyoe o?aie?iaee a icaei?iaeoaeueiie
oiaeueaa (aac eciaiaiey ieuaaiai ?aoeeiia) ianna oaea oiaiueoaaony ia 1
ea.

A?oiia aia?eeaineeo o/aiuo iaaethaeiee aeaiuei, ianna oaea eioi?uo auea
a n?aaeiai ia 80% aieueoa ii?iu. A oa/aiea 2 ianyoeaa iie caieiaeenue
icaei?iaeoaeueiie oiaeueaie (ii 2 / a aeaiue ni nei?inoueth 5 ei//) aac
ia?aie/aiey ieuaaiai ?aoeeiia. Iinea ieii/aiey yenia?eiaioa auei
Ioia/aii nieaeaiea iannu oaea a n?aaeiai ni 100 aei 93 ea.

Eae iieacaee enneaaeiaaiey, aeice?iaaiiay oece/aneay iaa?ocea iicaieyao
ii?iaeeciaaoue ianno oaea ia oieueei ca n/ao oaaee/aiey yia?aicao?ao, ii
e a ?acoeueoaoa oaiaoaiey /oanoaa aieiaea (i?e auaeaeaiee a e?iaue
yiaei?oeiia). I?e yoii nieaeaiea iannu oaea iooai oaaee/aiey ?anoiaea
yia?aee (n iiiiuueth oece/aneeo oi?aaeiaiee) aieaa .oeceieiae/ii. Ii
aeaiiui eiieoaoa yenia?oia AIC (1984), iioa?y 3–4ea iannu oaea iiae
aeeyieai oece/aneie o?aie?iaee niinianoaoao aieaa au?aaeaiiie e
noaaeeueiie ii?iaeecaoeee oieanoa?eiiaiai iaiaia, /ai a ?acoeueoaoa
eciaiaiey ieuaaiai ?aoeeiia. Anee o/anoue, /oi ca 1 / iaaeeaiiiai aaaa
ni nei?inoueth 9– 11 ei// ?anoiaeoaony aaeaia aieueoa yia?aee, /ai ai
a?aiy oiaeueau (600 i?ioea 300 eeae), oi i/aaeaeii, /oi n iiiiuueth
aaaiauo o?aie?iaie aiaeiae/iiai yooaeoa iiaeii aeinoeaiooue cia/eoaeueii
auno?aa. Iinea ieii/aiey o?aie?iaee ?aaioaaoea iuooeu «ii eia?oeee» a
oa/aiea ianeieueeeo /ania i?iaeieaeatho iio?aaeyoue aieueoa eenei?iaea,
/oi i?eaiaeeo e aeiiieieoaeueiiio ?anoiaeo yia?aee. A neo/aa
au?aaeaiiiai iaee?aiey iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii ni/aoaiea iaieo iaoiaeia —
o?aie?iaee ia auiineeainoue e ia?aie/aiey ieuaaiai ?aoeeiia (ca n/ao
aee?ia e oaeaaiaeia).

Iiieii iniiaiuo icaei?iaeoaeueiuo yooaeoia aaaa, naycaiiuo n
aicaeaenoaeai ia nenoaiu e?iaiia?auaiey e aeuoaiey, iaiaoiaeeii
ioiaoeoue oaeaea aai iieiaeeoaeueiia aeeyiea ia oaeaaiaeiue iaiai,
ooieoeeth ia/aie e aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai o?aeoa, einoioth nenoaio.

Oeo/oaiea ooieoeee ia/aie iauyniyaony oaaee/aieai iio?aaeaiey eenei?iaea
ia/aii/iie oeaiueth ai a?aiy aaaa a 2–3 ?aca — n 50 aei 100–150
ie/iei. E?iia oiai, i?e aeoaieii aeuoaiee ai a?aiy aaaa i?ienoiaeeo
iannaae ia/aie aeeao?aaiie, /oi oeo/oaao iooie aeae/e e ooieoeeth
aeae/iuo i?ioieia, ii?iaeecoy eo oiion. Iieiaeeoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou
eniieueciaaiey aaaa a ni/aoaiee n oiaeueaie iieo/aiu O.O.A?aneaiiaui
(1983) o aieueiuo n aeeneeiaceae aeae/iuo iooae; a yoii neo/aa iniaaiii
yooaeoeaai aaa a ni/aoaiee n a?thoiui aeuoaieai. A ?acoeueoaoa aea?aoeee
aioo?aiieo i?aaiia, aicieeathuae ai a?aiy aaaa, iiauoaaony iioi?eea
eeoa/ieea e aai ae?aiaaeiay, ooieoeey.

?aaoey?iua o?aie?iaee a icaei?iaeoaeueiii aaaa iieiaeeoaeueii aeeytho ia
ana caaiuey iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa, i?aiyonoaoy ?acaeoeth
aeaaaia?aoeaiuo eciaiaiee, naycaiiuo n aic?anoii e aeiiaeeiaieae.
Ia?aie/aiea i?eoiea nonoaaiie aeeaeeinoe (eeiou) i?e aeiiaeeiaiee
i?eaiaeeo e ia?ooaieth ieoaiey o?yuae e iioa?a yeanoe/iinoe naycie,
nieaeaieth aii?oecaoeeiiiuo naienoa nonoaaia e ?acaeoeth a?o?icia.
Oeeeee/aneea oi?aaeiaiey (aaa, aaeineiaae, ieaaaiea) oaaee/eaatho i?eoie
eeiou e nonoaaiui o?yuai e iaaeiicaiieiaui aeeneai, /oi yaeyaony eo/oae
i?ioeeaeoeeie a?o?ica e ?aaeeeoeeoa. Iieiaeeoaeueiia aeeyiea aaaa ia
ooieoeeth nonoaaia aiciiaeii oieueei i?e oneiaee eniieueciaaiey
aaeaeaaoiuo (ia i?aauoathueo aiciiaeiinoe aeaeaaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa)
iaa?ocie, iinoaiaiiiai eo oaaee/aiey a i?ioeanna caiyoee.

OIAeUeAA IA EUAEAO

Yoio aeae oeeeee/aneeo oi?aaeiaiee eniieuecoaony a naaa?iuo ?aaeiiao n
niioaaonoaothueie eeeiaoe/aneeie oneiaeyie e. ii naiaio
icaei?iaeoaeueiiio aicaeaenoaeth ia onooiaao aaao. I?e oiaeueaa ia
euaeao, iiieii iuooe aieaie e aaae?a, a ?aaioo aeeth/athony oaeaea
iuooeu aa?oieo eiia/iinoae e iea/aaiai iiyna, nieiu e aeeaioa, /oi
o?aaoao aeiiieieoaeueiiai ?anoiaea yia?aee. A nayce n yoei a ?acaeoee
ay?iaiuo aiciiaeiinoae e auiineeainoe euaeieee i?aainoiaeyo aaaoiia; iie
eiatho naiua aunieea iieacaoaee IIE — aei 90 ie/ea.

O/anoea a ?aaioa i?aeoe/anee anao iniiaiuo iuoa/iuo a?oii niinianoaoao
aa?iiie/iiio ?acaeoeth yeaiaioia iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa. Yoio
aeae oeeeee/aneeo oi?aaeiaiee aeaaii?eyoii aeeyao ia ia?aioth nenoaio,
oae eae auiieiyaony ia naaaeai aicaeooa. Niaoeeoeea aeaeaaoaeueiiai
iaauea a oiaeueaa ia euaeao iiauoaao /oanoai ?aaiiaaney (i/aiue aaaeiia
aeey iiaeeeuo ethaeae) a ?acoeueoaoa o?aie?iaee iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai e
aanoeaoey?iiai aiia?aoa. Io/aoeeai i?iyaeyaony e caeaeeaathuee yooaeo,
iiauoaaony iaaini?eei/eainoue i?aaiecia e i?inooaeiui caaieaaaieyi. Ia
neo/aeii ii icaei?iaeoaeueiiio aeeyieth Eoia? noaaeo oiaeueao ia euaeao
ia ia?aia ianoi, ioeaieaay aa aeaaea auoa, /ai aaa.

Iaa?ocea ia nonoaau e iianiinoue eo o?aaiaoecaoeee i?e oiaeueaa ia
euaeao cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa, /ai i?e aaaa. Iaeiaei oaoieea
ia?aaeaeaeaiey ia euaeao aieaa neiaeiay e aeey iaiiaeaioiaeaiiuo
ia/eiathueo n?aaeiaai e iiaeeeiai aic?anoa iiaeao i?aaenoaaeyoue
ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe, aa?iyoiinoue o?aaiaoecia (aeeth/ay ia?aeiiu),
aic?anoaao. A nayce n yoei aeey euaeiuo i?iaoeie neaaeoao auae?aoue
ioiineoaeueii ?iaiua o?annu aac aieueoiai ia?aiaaea aunio. E?ooua
iiaeuaiu ieacuaatho aeiiieieoaeueioth (ii?ie /?acia?ioth) iaa?oceo ia
nenoaio e?iaiia?auaiey.

Ieaaaiea

A yoii aeaea oeeeee/aneeo oi?aaeiaiee oaeaea o/anoaotho ana iuoa/iua
a?oiiu, ii aneaaenoaea ai?eciioaeueiiai iieiaeaiey oaea e niaoeeoeee
aiaeiie n?aaeu iaa?ocea ia nenoaio e?iaiia?auaiey a ieaaaiee iaiueoa,
/ai a aaaa eee oiaeueaa ia euaeao. Ianeieueei iaiueoa e ?anoiae yia?aee,
aneaaenoaea /aai IIE o ieiaoeia ieaea, /ai o euaeieeia e aaaoiia ia
n?aaeiea e aeeeiiua aeenoaioeee (70–75 ie/ea). Aeey aeinoeaeaiey
iaiaoiaeeiiai icaei?iaeoaeueiiai yooaeoa caiyoee ieaaaieai iaiaoiaeeii
?acaeoue aeinoaoi/ii aieueooth nei?inoue, i?e eioi?ie *NN aeinoeaaea au
ciiu o?aie?othuaai ?aaeeia (ia iaiaa 130 oae/iei). Aac iaeaaeaiey
i?aaeeueiie oaoieeie ieaaaiey naeaeaoue yoi aeiaieueii o?oaeii. A
?acoeueoaoa cao?oaeiaiiiai aaeioa (aeaaeaiea aiaeu ia a?oaeioth eeaoeo)
e auaeioa a aiaeo ieaaaiea niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth aiia?aoa aiaoiaai
aeuoaiey e oaaee/aieth aeeciaiiie aieinoe eaaeeo. Ieiaoeu aunieiai
eeanna eiatho naioth aieueooth AEAE ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
ae?oaeo aeaeia nii?oa–aea 7000–13IIIie. A?iioeaeueiay i?ioiaeeiinoue,
iaeneiaeueiay nei?inoue aaeioa e auaeioa o ieiaoeia oaeaea aieueoa, /ai
o ae?oaeo nii?oniaiia (niioaaonoaaiii 8,15 e 6,15 e/n).

Niaoeeoeea oneiaee aeey caiyoee ieaaaieai (iiauoaiiay aeaaeiinoue,
iee?ieeeiao aannaeia) iniaaiii aeaaii?eyoiu aeey ethaeae n a?iioeaeueiie
anoiie. I?e ieaaaiee i?enooiia anoiu iau/ii ia aicieeaao, oiaaea eae ai
a?aiy aaaa i?e oi?ne?iaaiiii aeuoaiee eo, aa?iyoiinoue auoa.
I?aeoe/aneia ionoonoaea iaa?ocee ia nonoaau e iicaiii/iee iicaieyao
oniaoii eniieueciaaoue yoio aeae iuoa/iie aeayoaeueiinoe i?e
caaieaaaieyo iicaiii/ieea (aeaoi?iaoeey, aeeneiaaiiue ?aaeeeoeeo e o.
ae.).

Yia?aaoe/aneia iaania/aiea iuoa/iie aeayoaeueiinoe i?e ieaaaiee
ioee/aaony ?yaeii iniaaiiinoae. Oaea naii i?aauaaiea a aiaea (aac
auiieiaiey eaeeo-eeai aeaeaeaiee) aucuaaao oaaee/aiea ?anoiaea yia?aee
ia 50% (ii n?aaiaieth n o?iaiai iieiy), iiaeaea?aeaiea oaea a aiaea
o?aaoao oaaee/aiey ?anoiaea yia?aee oaea a 2–3 ?aca, oae eae
oaieii?iaiaeiinoue aiaeu a 25 ?ac aieueoa, /ai aicaeooa. Aneaaenoaea
aunieiai nii?ioeaeaiey aiaeu ia 1 i aeenoaioeee a ieaaaiee ?anoiaeoaony
a 4 ?aca aieueoa yia?aee, /ai i?e oiaeueaa n aiaeiae/iie nei?inoueth, o.
a. ieiei 3 eeae/ea ia 1 ei (i?e oiaeueaa — 0,7 eeae/ea/2), A nayce n
yoei ieaaaiea iiaeao noaoue i?ae?aniui n?aaenoaii ii?iaeecaoeee iannu
oaea–i?e oneiaee ?aaoey?iinoe iaa?ocee (ia iaiaa CIiei 3 ?aca a
iaaeaeth). I?e iaeaaeaiee oaoieeie ieaaaiey, aeinoaoi/ii eioaineaiie e
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiie iaa?ocea ieaaaiea iiaeao yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaoueny
aeey iiauoaiey ooieoeeiiaeueiiai ninoiyiey nenoaiu e?iaiia?auaiey e
nieaeaiey oaeoi?ia ?enea EAN.

Ciaiea iniaaiiinoae aeeyiey ia i?aaieci ?acee/iuo aeaeia oeeeee/aneeo
oi?aaeiaiee iicaieyao i?aaeeueii aua?aoue icaei?iaeoaeueiua i?ia?aiiu a
caaeneiinoe io ninoiyiey caei?iauey, aic?anoa e o?iaiy oece/aneie
iiaeaioiaeaiiinoe. Aeey aieaa ?aciinoi?iiiaai aeeyiey ia i?aaieci,
eneeth/aiey iiiioiiiinoe caiyoee e aaeaioaoeee e i?eau/iie oece/aneie
iaa?ocea a oa/aiea iiiaieaoieo o?aie?iaie oeaeaniia?acii a?aiaiiia
ia?aeeth/aiea n iaeiiai aeaea oeeeee/aneeo oi?aaeiaiee ia ae?oaie eee
aea eniieueciaaiea eo a ni/aoaiee. Oae, iai?eia?, ethaeoaee euae a
ceiiaa a?aiy iiaoo iieiinoueth ia?aeeth/aoueny ia aeaiiue aeae nii?oa
(aeeth/ay o/anoea a ni?aaiiaaieyo), a eaoii iaycaoaeueii eniieueciaaoue
?aaoey?iua aaaiaua o?aie?iaee. Oieueei e?oaeiaiaee/iua caiyoey
icaei?iaeoaeueiie oeceoeueoo?ie iiaoo auoue yooaeoeaiu aeey i?ioeeaeoeee
aoa?ineea?ica e EAN

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