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Оздоровительные тренировки

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Icaei?iaeoaeueiua o?aie?iaee

Eioaineaiinoue o?aie?iaee

A nayce n aic?anoiuie iniaaiiinoyie ethaeae n?aaeiaai e iiaeeeiai
aic?anoa (aoa?ineea?ic, iiieaeaiea yeanoe/iinoe noaiie e?iaaiiniuo
ninoaeia, e?iainiaaaeaiey ieiea?aea e onoie/eainoe e aeiienee)
o?aie?iaea a icaei?iaeoaeueiii aaaa aeieaeia i?iaiaeeoueny a ay?iaiie
ciia yia?ai- iaania/aiey, oae eae ia?aciaaiea eenei?iaeiie
caaeieaeaiiinoe a yoii neo/aa iiaeao i?eaanoe e niacio ei?iia?iuo
ninoaeia. Yoi cia/eo, /oi eioaineaiinoue iaa?ocee aeieaeia auoue ia auoa
o?iaiy IAII. Yoio iieacaoaeue ay?iaiuo aiciiaeiinoae i?aaiecia iiaeao
cia/eoaeueii aa?uee?iaaoueny a caaeneiinoe io aic?anoa e o?iaiy
oece/aneie iiaeaioiaeaiiinoe. Aai aaee/eia iaeaieaa oi/ii iiaeao auoue
au?aaeaia a i?ioeaioao io IIE; o ia/eiathueo oeceoeueoo?ieeia
niioaaonoaoao i?eia?ii 50–60 % io eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo cia/aiee IIE. N
oaaee/aieai noaaea caiyoee e ?inoii o?aie?iaaiiinoe a oi?aaeiaieyo ia
auiineeainoue o?iaaiue IAII iiaeao aic?anoaoue aei 75–80 °/i IIE,
aneaaenoaea /aai a?aieoeu ay?iaiie ciiu cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?ythony, a
nei?inoue aaaa aic?anoaao i?e oie aea eiioeaio?aoeee eaeoaoa a e?iae
(aei 4,0 iiieue/e).

IAII yaeyaony aieaa eioi?iaoeaiui iieacaoaeai ay?iaiuo aiciiaeiinoae,
/ai IIE. N ?inoii o?aie?iaaiiinoe o ethaeae n?aaeiaai aic?anoa a
i?ioeanna caiyoee icaei?iaeoaeueiie oeceoeueoo?ie oaaee/aiea IIE
iaaethaeaaony eeoue a oa/aiea ia?aiai aiaea caiyoee. A aeaeueiaeoai
iiauoaiea ay?iaiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e auiineeainoe inouanoaeyaony
eiaiii ca n/ao iiauoaiey o?iaiy IAII, eioi?ue i?eaeeaeaaony e o?iaith
IIE. A nayce n yoei o ia/eiathueo ethaeoaeae aaaa nei?inoue aeieaeia
niioaaonoaiaaoue 50–60 % IIE, a o iiuoiuo aaaoiia n iiiaieaoiei noaaeai
caiyoee iia iiaeao aic?anoaoue aei 75– 80 % IIE, /oi niioaaonoaoao
o?iaith eo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai IAII. Aieaa aunieay eioaineaiinoue caiyoee
a icaei?iaeoaeueiie oeceoeueoo?a n/eoaaony iaoeaeaniia?aciie.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaeaieaa oeceieiae/anee iainiiaaiiie yaeyaony aeice?iaea
eioaineaiinoe iaa?ocee a i?ioeaioao io IIE, eioi?oth aeinoaoi/ii oi/ii
iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue ii /anoioa na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee, oae eae iaaeaeo
yoeie iieacaoaeyie nouanoaoao i?yiay ei??aeyoeeiiiay caaeneiinoue .

Yoo caaeneiinoue iaaeyaeii io?aaeaao oi?ioea ecaanoiiai niaaoneiai
o/aiiai A. Ai?oeiaa: iioeiaeueiay *NN ?aaia 180 ieion aic?ano, /oi
niioaaonoaoao 60 % IIE (eioaineaiinoue iaa?ocee, iioeiaeueiay aeey
ia/eiathueo aaaoiia). A nayce n iiauoaieai o?iaiy IAII a i?ioeanna
o?aie?iaee oi?ioi iiaeaioiaeaiiua aaaoiu iiaoo iieueciaaoueny oi?ioeie
190 ieion aic?ano (75% IITH. Iai?eia?, aeey ia/eiathuaai aaaoia a
aic?anoa 40eao iioeiaeueiue ioeuen aoaeao ninoaaeyoue ieiei 140 oae/iei
(180 ieion 40), a aeey iiuoiiai aaaoia — 150 oae/iei (190 ieion 40). N
yoie aea oeaeueth iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeice?iaeo iaa?ocee a i?ioeaioao
io iaeneiaeueiie *NN, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony ii oi?ioea: 220 ieion
aic?ano. A yoii neo/aa aeeaiacii eieaaaiee *NN a caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy
o?aie?iaaiiinoe e aic?anoa aoaeao ninoaaeyoue 65–85% *NN, eee
(65–85%). (220– –aic?ano).

Oaeei ia?acii, ii?iaiaie aaee/eiie eioaineaiinoe iaa?ocee,
iaania/eaathuae ieieiaeueiue icaei?iaeoaeueiue yooaeo, i?eiyoi n/eoaoue
?aaioo ia o?iaia 50 % io IIE eee 65 % io iaeneiaeueiie aic?anoiie *NN
(niioaaonoaoao ioeueno ieiei 120 oae/iei aeey ia/eiathueo e 130 oae/iei
aeey iiaeaioiaeaiiuo aaaoiia). O?aie?iaea i?e *NN ieaea oeacaiiuo
aaee/ei iaeiyooaeoeaia aeey ?acaeoey auiineeainoe, iineieueeo oaea?iue
iauai e?iae a yoii neo/aa ia aeinoeaaao iaeneiaeueiie aaee/eiu e
na?aeoea ia aei eiioea eniieuecoao naie ?aca?aiua aiciiaeiinoe.
Iaeneiaeueiay .*NN, aeiionoeiay o ethaeae n?aaeiaai aic?anoa a i?ioeanna
caiyoee icaei?iaeoaeueiie oeceoeueoo?ie e iaania/eaathuay iaeneiaeueiue
o?aie?iai/iue yooaeo, niioaaonoaoao eioaineaiinoe 80 % IIE eee 85 % *NN
(iaen), /oi niioaaonoaoao ioeueno ieiei 150 oae/iei. Oaaee/aiea *NN auoa
oeacaiiie aaee/eiu iaaeaeaoaeueii, oae eae icia/aao ia?aoiae a ciio
niaoaiiiai ay?iaii-aiay?iaiiai yia?aiiaania/aiey (aeiionoeii oieueei
aeey iaeioi?uo oi?ioi iiaeaioiaeaiiuo aaaoiia). Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
aeeaiacii aaciianiuo iaa?ocie, ieacuaathueo o?aie?othuee yooaeo a
icaei?iaeoaeueiie oeceoeueoo?a, a caaeneiinoe io aic?anoa e o?iaiy
iiaeaioiaeaiiinoe iiaeao eieaaaoueny io 120 aei 150 oae/iei. O?aie?iaea
n aieaa aunieie *NN a icaei?iaeoaeueiii aaaa ia iiaeao auoue i?eciaia
oeaeaniia?aciie, oae eae eiaao yaioth nii?oeaioth iai?aaeaiiinoue. Yoi
iiaeoaa?aeaeatho e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee Aia?eeaineiai einoeoooa nii?oeaiie
iaaeeoeeiu (AENI).

N?aaeiea (iioeiaeueiua) aaee/eiu *NN, i?eaaaeaiiua a yoeo
?aeiiaiaeaoeeyo, niioaaonoaotho oi?ioea: 190 ieion aic?ano e
i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey oi?ioi iiaeaioiaeaiiuo aaaoiia. Oaeay o?aie?iaea
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth 30 — 60 iei aeey ethaeae n?aaeiaai aic?anoa
aeaao iaeneiaeueiue icaei?iaeoaeueiue yooaeo. Aieaa eioaineaiua
e?aoeia?aiaiiua (ieeiaua) iaa?ocee niinianoaotho aieueoaio oaaee/aieth
IIE, a iaiaa iai?yaeaiiua, ii aieaa i?iaeieaeeoaeueiua (ii?iaiaua) —
ii?iaeecaoeee iannu oaea e oieanoa?eiiaiai iaiaia (A.A.Ae?o, 1988). A
?aeiiaiaeaoeeyo AENI iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi aeey ac?ineuo ethaeae, ia
caieiaaoeony ?aiaa oece/aneie eoeueoo?ie eee nii?oii, i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa
iaa?ocee oia?aiiie eioaineaiinoe, ia i?aauoathuea 75 % IIE eee aea 80 %
*NN (iaen), oae eae iie iaeaieaa iieii ioaa/atho oeceieiae/aneei
iniaaiiinoyi ethaeae n?aaeiaai aic?anoa. Aiaeiae/iuo ?acoeueoaoia
?acaeoey ay?iaiuo aiciiaeiinoae iiaeii aeinoeaiooue i?e iaiaa
eioaineaiie o?aie?iaea, ii ca aieaa i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue ia?eiae a?aiaie
(i?e no?iaii niaethaeaiee ia? aaciianiinoe).

Eioaineaiinoue iaa?ocee ii?aaeaeyao e ae?oaea oeceieiae/aneea yooaeou
o?aie?iaee. Oae, ia ia?aie nooiaie (i?e eioaineaiinoe caiyoee aei 10 %
IITH ioia/aaony oeo/oaiea noauaeoeaiuo iieacaoaeae caei?iauey: nia,
naii/oanoaey, iano?iaiey. Ia aoi?ie nooiaie (i?e oaaee/aiee
eioaineaiinoe aei 65 °/i IITH iaaethaeaaony ?yae iieiaeeoaeueiuo
ii?oiooieoeeiiaeueiuo eciaiaiee a i?aaiecia: eaieeey?ecaoeey neaeaoiuo
iuooe e ieiea?aea, yeiiiiecaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe na?aeoea e iiauoaiea aai
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae, o?aaeaiea *NN a iieia e i?e n?aaeieo
o?aie?iai/iuo iaa?oceao, nieaeaiea a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey. Ia o?aoueae
nooiaie o?aie?iaee (eioaineaiinoue iaa?ocee 75 % IIE e auoa)
iaaethaeathony oaaee/aiea yia?aaoe/aneiai iioaioeeaea neaeaoiuo iuooe e
ia/aie ca n/ao aeaiiie?iaaiey aeeeiaaia, oaaee/aiea iaaeii/a/ieeia,
aeia?o?ioey ieiea?aea e o. ae. Aeey aeinoeaeaiey oaeeo ?acoeueoaoia
iaiaoiaeeia o?aie?iaea ia ?aaea 3 ?ac a iaaeaeth ii 30–90 iei (A.
I..Caoeei?neee, 1983). Ii aeaiiui AENI, iaa?ocea n eioaineaiinoueth
ieaea 50 % IIE ?anoeaieaaaony eae eaaeay, 50–75 “/i IIE — oia?aiiay,
nauoa 75 % IIE — eae oyaeaeay. A nayce n yoei caiyoey icaei?iaeoaeueiie
oiaeueaie iiaoo auoue ioianaiu e eaaeie o?aie?iai/iie iaa?ocea; aaa,
/a?aaeothueeny n oiaeueaie (aaa — oiaeueaa), — e oia?aiiie;
iai?a?uaiue aaa (o oi?ioi iiaeaioiaeaiiuo aaaoiia i?e eioaineaiinoe 75–
80 % IIE) — e aeinoaoi/ii oyaeaeie oece/aneie iaa?ocea. Naa?ooyaeaeua
iaa?ocee (nauoa 85 °/i IIE) a icaei?iaeoaeueiie o?aie?iaea ia aeieaeiu
i?eiaiyoueny, oae eae auno?i i?eaiaeyo e ooiieaieth e aeeneii?aeeiaoeee
ooieoeee aeuoaiey e e?iaiia?auaiey (n aiciiaeiui ia?aiai?yaeaieai
aaeaioaoeeiiiuo iaoaieciia). Oa?aeoa? ni?aaiiaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe a
ianniaie oece/aneie eoeueoo?a (a ioee/ea io nii?oa) ia i?aaeiieaaaao
aeinoeaeaiey aunieiai ?acoeueoaoa.

*ANOIOA CAIssOEE

Iioeiaeueiay /anoioa caiyoee aeey ia/eiathueo — 3 ?aca a iaaeaeth.
Aieaa /anoua o?aie?iaee iiaoo i?eaanoe e ia?aooiieaieth e o?aaiai
iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa, oae eae ainnoaiiaeoaeueiue ia?eiae
iinea caiyoee o ethaeae n?aaeiaai aic?anoa oaaee/eaaaony aei 48/.
Oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa caiyoee o iiaeaioiaeaiiuo ethaeoaeae
icaei?iaeoaeueiiai aaaa aei 5 ?ac a iaaeaeth iaaeinoaoi/ii iainiiaaiii,
oae eae aeiiieieoaeueiue i?e?ino IIE a yoii neo/aa i/aiue
iacia/eoaeueiue eee aea aiiaua ia iaaethaeaaony (Eaoai, Eeeia, 1984).
Oiaiueoaiea eiee/anoaa caiyoee aei aeaoo a iaaeaeth cia/eoaeueii iaiaa
yooaeoeaii e iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny eeoue aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey
aeinoeaiooiai o?iaiy auiineeainoe (ii ia aa ?acaeoey). I?e yoii
aiciiaeii nieaeaiea eioaineaiinoe iaa?ocee aei ieaeiaai -i?aaeaea — i?e
oaaee/aiee i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe caiyoey.

Eioa?aniua aeaiiua a ioiioaiee iioeiaeueiie /anoiou caiyoee iieo/aiu
A.A.Ie?iaiaie (1985). I?e n?aaiaiee yooaeoeaiinoe 2-, 3- e 5-?aciauo
caiyoee ii 30 iei (n eioaineaiinoueth 60 % IIE) iaia?oaeaii, /oi
oeo/oaiea ?yaea ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iieacaoaeae aieaa au?aaeaii i?e o?ao
o?aie?iaeao, /ai i?e iyoe. Oooaeoaiea iaeioi?uo iieacaoaeae
aeayoaeueiinoe na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu i?e 5-?aciauo o?aie?iaeao
iauyniyaony oai, /oi a yoii neo/aa caiyoey /anoe/ii i?ioiaeyo ia oiia
iaiieiiai ainnoaiiaeaiey, oiaaea eae i?e 3-?aciauo o?aie?iaeao i?aaieci
eiaao a6eueoea aiciiaeiinoe aeey iieiioeaiiiai ioaeuoa e ainnoaiiaeaiey.
A nayce n yoei ?aeiiaiaeaoeee iaeioi?uo aaoi?ia i iaiaoieiinoe.
aaeaaeiaaiuo (?aciauo) o?aie?iaie a icaei?iaeoaeueiii aaaa eeoaiu
iniiaaiee. Iaeiaei i?e oiaiueoaiee eioaineaiinoe iaa?ocee ieaea
iioeiaeueiie (iai?eia?, i?e o?aie?iaea a icaei?iaeoaeueiie oiaeueaa)
/anoioa caiyoee aeieaeia auoue ia iaiaa 5 ?ac a iaaeaeth.

EIOA?AAEU IOAeUOA

Eioa?aaeu ioaeuoa iaaeaeo caiyoeyie caaenyo io aaee/eiu o?aie?iai/iie
iaa?ocee. Iie aeieaeiu iaania/eaaoue iieiia ainnoaiiaeaiea
?aaioiniiniaiinoe aei enoiaeiiai o?iaiy eee aea aei oacu
noia?eiiiainaoeee (naa?oainnoaiiaeaiey). O?aie?iaea a oaca
iaaeiainnoaiiaeaiey iaaeiionoeia aeey caieiathueony icaei?iaeoaeueiie
oece/aneie eoeueoo?ie, oae eae aaeaioaoeeiiiua aiciiaeiinoe ethaeae
n?aaeiaai aic?anoa ia?aie/aiu. *ai aieueoa aaee/eia o?aie?iai/iie
iaa?ocee, oai aieaa i?iaeieaeeoaeueiuie aeieaeiu auoue eioa?aaeu
ioaeuoa. I?e 3-?aciaie o?aie?iaea n eniieueciaaieai n?aaeieo ii aaee/eia
iaa?ocie (30–60 iei) i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ioaeuoa 48 / iaania/eaaao
iieiia ainnoaiiaeaiea ooieoeee. I?e iaeuo iaa?oceao (15—CI iei)
ainnoaiiaeaiea ?aaioiniiniaiinoe caaa?oaaony a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo
/ania, iiyoiio o?aie?iaee iiaoo i?iaiaeeoueny 5–6 ?ac a iaaeaeth.
Iaeiaei, iai?eia?, aaeaaeiaaiue aaa n eniieueciaaieai iaeuo iaa?ocie
iaiaa yooaeoeaai, iineieueeo aucuaaao cia/eoaeueii iaiueoea
ooieoeeiiaeueiua naeaeae a i?aaiecia.

Iniaia cia/aiea aeey ?acaeoey iauae auiineeainoe eiatho aieueoea
(ieieii?aaeaeueiua ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe) iaa?ocee, iai?eia? aaa
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth 1,5– 2,0 /, eioi?ua iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny ia
/aua 1 ?aca a iaaeaeth. Aeey i?ioeeaeoeee ninoiyiey ia?a o?aie?iaaiiinoe
oaeea iaa?ocee aeieaeiu /a?aaeiaaoueny a aine?aniua aeie: iai?eia?,
ia?aia aine?anaiuea — aaa i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth 1 /, aoi?ia — 1,5 /,
o?aouea — niiaa 1 / e o. ae. A inoaeueiua aeie o?aie?iai/iua iaa?ocee
aeieaeiu auoue cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa — io 30 aei 60 iei. Oaeia
/a?aaeiaaiea aieueoeo, iaeuo e n?aaeieo iaa?ocie a aeaooiaaeaeueiii
o?aie?iai/iii oeeeea aeey ethaeoaeae icaei?iaeoaeueiiai aaaa iaania/eo
aieaa iieiia ainnoaiiaeaiea e aieueooth yooaeoeaiinoue caiyoee,
iiiaiia?aciia aeeyiea icaei?iaeoaeueiie o?aie?iaee ia i?aaieci.

IAOIAeU O?AIE?IAEE

Iniiaiui iaoiaeii o?aie?iaee a icaei?iaeoaeueiii aaaa yaeyaony ? a a i i
i a ? i u e i a o i ae, niinianoaothuee ?acaeoeth iauae auiineeainoe.
A ea/anoaa o?aie?iai/iiai n?aaenoaa a yoii neo/aa eniieuecoaony
iai?a?uaiue aaa a ?aaiiia?iii oaiia i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth 30–60 iei 2
?aca a iaaeaeth e 90–120iei 1 ?ac a iaaeaeth (eioaineaiinoue 65–75 %
IITH. Eioaineaiinoue aaaa caaeneo io aai nei?inoe. Aeeaiacii nei?inoae a
icaei?iaeoaeueiie o?aie?iaea .eieaaeaony io 7 aei 12 ei//, i?e/ai aai
aa?oiyy a?aieoea iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny eeoue a a?oiia aaaoiia aei 40
eao, n iiiaieaoiei noaaeai caiyoee. O ia/eiathueo ethaeoaeae
icaei?iaeoaeueiiai aaaa nei?inoue iau/ii ia i?aauoaao 9–10 ei, a o
aieaa iiaeaioiaeaiiuo — 10–11 ei//.

O ia/eiathueo aaaoiia n?aaeiaai aic?anoa ia ia?aii, iiaeaioiaeoaeueiii,
yoaia o?aie?iaee eniieuecoaony ia?aiaiiue iaoiae — /a?aaeiaaiea
ei?ioeeo io?aceia oiaeueau e aaaa. Iiuoiua aaaoiu n iiiaieaoiei noaaeai
iiaoo eniieueciaaoue a ea/anoaa ia?aiaiiiai iaoiaea o?aie?iaee e?inn ii
oia?aiii ia?ana/aiiie ianoiinoe (30– 90 iei) ia /aua 1 ?aca a iaaeaeth.
Yoi iaeaieaa Yooaeoeaiia n?aaenoai ?acaeoey ay?iaiuo aiciiaeiinoae e
iauae auiineeainoe, oae eae eioaineaiinoue aaaa ia ioaeaeueiuo io?aceao
iiaeao aeinoeaaoue niaoaiiie ciiu yia?aiiaania- /aiey n oaaee/aieai *NN
aei «ieeiauo» cia/aiee

(90–95 % io iaeneioia). Aeeeoaeueiue ?aaiiia?iue aaa n eioaineaiinoueth
75 % IIE iaania/eaaao ?acaeoea auiineeainoe o ia/eiathueo e
iiaeaea?aeaiea aeinoeaiooiai o?iaiy o iiaeaioiaeaiiuo aaaoiia.
*a?aaeiaaiea io?aceia oiaeueau e aaaa (aaa-oiaeueaa) niioaaonoaoao
eioaineaiinoe 50–60 % IIE e eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa
iiaeaioiaeoaeueiiai n?aaenoaa o?aie?iaee aeey ia/eiathueo.

Auai? iioeiaeueiie aaee/eiu o?aie?iai/iie iaa?ocee, a oaeaea
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe, eioaineaiinoe e /anoiou caiyoee ii?aaeaeyaony
o?iaiai oece/aneiai ninoiyiey caieiathuaainy. Eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeey
o?aie?iai/iuo iaa?ocie a icaei?iaeoaeueiie oece/aneie eoeueoo?a yaeyaony
aaaeiaeoei oneiaeai eo yooaeoeaiinoe; a i?ioeaiii neo/aa o?aie?iaea
iiaeao i?eianoe a?aae.

A caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy oece/aneiai ninoiyiey ana caieiathueany iiaoo
auoue ?acaeaeaiu ia o?e a?oiiu: ia?aay a?oiia (n i a oe e a e ue i a y)
— OOA ieceee e ieaea n?aaeiaai, aoi?ay (iiaeaioiaeoaeueiay) — OOA
n?aaeiee e o?aouey (iniiaiay) — OOA auoa n?aaeiaai. I?eaaaeai i?eia?iua
o?aie?iai/iua ieaiu aeey yoeo a?oii a ia?aue aiae caiyoee
icaei?iaeoaeueiui aaaii.

A ia?aie a?oiia, aaea caieiathueany eiatho, eae i?aaeei, ?acee/iua
ioeeiiaiey a ninoiyiee caei?iauey, eniieuecoaony iiaeaioiaeoaeueiay
6-iaaeaeueiay i?ia?aiia icaei?iaeoaeueiie oiaeueau n iinoaiaiii
aic?anoathuae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth e eioaineaiinoueth. N yoie
oeaeueth a ea/anoaa i?eaioe?a (eioi?ue neaaeoao niioianoe n
aiciiaeiinoyie eaaeaeiai eiaeeaeaea) iiaeii ainiieueciaaoueny i?ia?aiiie
Eoia?a aeey ia/eiathueo .

I?e iaee/ee i?ioeaiiieacaiee e aaao a oa/aiea neaaeothueo 6 iaaeaeue
aeenoaioeey oaaee/eaaaony aei 5 ei, a a?aiy oiaeueau — aei 45 iei (4
?aca a iaaeaeth). A aeaeueiaeoai yoa iaa?ocea nio?aiyaony a ea/anoaa
iniiaiie o?aie?iai/iie i?ia?aiiu, iaania/eaathuae ieieiaeueiue icaei-
?iaeoaeueiue yooaeo. Eioaineaiinoue iaa?ocee a yoii neo/aa niioaaonoaoao
ieiei 50 % IIE, a *NN iiaeao eieaaaoueny a aeeaiaciia 100–120 oae/iei.

I?e ionoonoaee i?ioeaiiieacaiee e aaaiaui o?aie?iaeai iinea inaiaiey
6-iaaeaeueiie i?ia?aiiu oiaeueau iiaeii ia?aoiaeeoue ei aoi?iio yoaio —
/a?aaeiaaieth ei?ioeeo io?aceia oiaeueau e aaaa (iai?eia?, 50 i aaaa
-1-150 i oiaeueau, caoai 100 i aaaa -(- 100 i oiaeueau e o. ae.) aei oao
ii?, iiea aaa ia ia?aeaeao a iai?a?uaiue. Iinea yoiai ia/eiaaony o?aoee
yoai — o?aie?iaea ia auiineeainoue. N?iee ia?aoiaea e iai?a?uaiiio aaao
no?iai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiu e ia aeieaeiu ieaie?iaaoueny ca?aiaa. A
caaeneiinoe io aic?anoa, ninoiyiey caei?iauey e OOA yoio yoai iiaeao
i?iaeieaeaoueny io ianeieueeeo ianyoeaa aei aiaea. Eioaineaiinoue
iaa?ocee ia yoii yoaia aic?anoaao aei 60–65 % IIE,
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue caiyoee — aei 30–40 iei, *NN — aei 120–130
oae/iei.

Ai aoi?ie a?oiia caiyoey iiaoo ia/eiaoueny n?aco ni aoi?iai yoaia —
/a?aaeiaaiea oiaeueau e aaaa (aaa — oiaeueaa). Ia?aoiae e iai?a?uaiiio
aaao aiciiaeai oaea /a?ac 6–12 iaaeaeue. E eiioeo ia?aiai aiaea
?aaoey?iuo caiyoee i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue iai?a?uaiiai aaaa oaaee/eaaaony
aei 40–60 iei (6–10 ei). Eioaineaiinoue iaa?ocee ia yoii yoaia iau/ii
aic?anoaao aei 65–70 % IIE, *NN — aei 130–140 oae/iei.

A o?aoueae a?oiia iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue yoai (aaa–oiaeueaa) iiaeao auoue
nie?auai aei 2–3 iaaeaeue; iinea yoiai ia?aoiaeyo e iai?a?uaiiio aaao.
Aai i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue e eiioeo aiaea iiaeao aeinoeaaoue 50–60 iei
(8–10 ei), a eioaineaiinoue — 70–75 % IIE i?e *NN 140– 150 oae/iei.
Oaeay iaa?ocea yaeyaony iioeiaeueiie n oi/ee c?aiey oe?aieaiey
caei?iauey, oae eae yia?aicao?aou aeinoeaatho 2000 eeae a iaaeaeth, e a
i?aaiecia i?ienoiaeyo eciaiaiey, naycaiiua n iiauoaieai o?iaiy IIE e
nieaeaieai oaeoi?ia ?enea IAN. Aeaeueiaeoaa oaaee/aiea iaa?ocee ia
yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui n oi/ee c?aiey icaei?iaeoaeueiie oeceoeueoo?u.
Aeeeoaeueiue aine?aniue aaa (aei 2 / e aieaa) eniieuecoaony eeoue i?e
iaee/ee neeueiie aaaiaie iioeaaoeee.

I?e eniieueciaaiee ae?oaeo aeaeia oeeeee/aneeo oi?aaeiaiee — ieaaaiey,
acaeu ia aaeineiaaea, a?aaee e o. ae. — nio?aiythony oa aea i?eioeeiu
aeice?iaaiey o?aie?iai/iuo iaa?ocie; i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue — 30–60
iei, eioaineaiinoue — 60–75 % IIE, ia?eiaee/iinoue caiyoee — 3– 4
?aca a iaaeaeth. Iiauoaiea o?iaiy neeiaie auiineeainoe e aeaeinoe
aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao auiieiaiey neeiauo oi?aaeiaiee. A nayce n yoei,
iiieii o?aie?iaee ia auiineeainoue, neaaeoao aeiiieieoaeueii auiieiyoue
oi?aaeiaiey aoeeeee/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, niinianoaothuea iiauoaieth neeu,
neeiaie auiineeainoe e aeaeinoe, a oaeaea i?aaeioa?auathuea ?acaeoea
aeaaaia?aoeaiuo eciaiaiee iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa (a?o?ic,
inoaioiiae?ic e ae?.) O ethaeae a aic?anoa noa?oa 40 eao yoe oi?aaeiaiey
aeieaeiu caieiaoue ieiei 40 % iauaai a?aiaie ia icaei?iaeoaeueioth
o?aie?iaeo. Eo iiaeii auiieiyoue iinea ieii/aiey caiyoee ii
icaei?iaeoaeueiiio aaao (4 neeiaay oaca, ii Eoia?o) eeai a aeie,
naiaiaeiua io aaaa. Ia?aue aa?eaio i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa, oae eae aaa
i?ae?anii iiaeaioaaeeaaao i?aaieci aeey auiieiaiey neeiauo oi?aaeiaiee,
noeioee?oy aeuoaiea e e?iaiia?auaiea. A ?acoeueoaoa /anoe/ii
iaeo?aeecothony io?eoeaoaeueiua yooaeou caaea?aeee aeuoaiey e
iaooaeeaaiey, oa?aeoa?iua aeey neeiaie o?aie?iaee.

Oaeei ia?acii, no?oeoo?a icaei?iaeoaeueiie o?aie?iaee, iniiao eioi?ie
ninoaaeyao aaa ia auiineeainoue, auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii.

Ia?aay oaca (iiaeaioiaeoaeueiay) –ei?ioeay e eaaeay ?acieiea ia aieaa
10–15 iei. Aeeth/aao oi?aaeiaiey ia ?anoyaeaaiea (aeey iuooe ieaeieo
eiia/iinoae e nonoaaia) aeey i?ioeeaeoeee o?aai iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai
aiia?aoa. Eniieueciaaiea a ?acieiea neeiauo oi?aaeiaiee (ioaeeiaiee,
i?enaaeaiee) iaaeaeaoaeueii, iineieueeo a ia/aea o?aie?iaee o ethaeae
n?aaeiaai aic?anoa iiaoo aicieeiooue ineiaeiaiey a aeayoaeueiinoe
na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu (?aceia iiauoaiea a?oa?eaeueiiai
aeaaeaiey, aiee a iaeanoe na?aeoea e o. ae.).

Aoi?ay oaca (iniiaiay)–ay?iaiay. Ninoieo ec aaaa iioeiaeueiie
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe e eioaineaiinoe, /oi iaania/eaaao iaiaoiaeeiue
o?aie?iai/iue yooaeo: iiauoaiea ay?iaiuo aiciiaeiinoae, o?iaiy
auiineeainoe e ?aaioiniiniaiinoe, a oaeaea iiauoaiea OOA.

O?aouey oaca (caeeth/eoaeueiay) — «caieiea», oi anoue auiieiaiea
iniiaiiai oi?aaeiaiey n iiieaeaiiie eioaineaiinoueth, /oi iaania/eaaao
aieaa ieaaiue ia?aoiae io ninoiyiey aunieie aeaeaaoaeueiie aeoeaiinoe
(aeia?aeeiaiee) e ninoiyieth iieiy. Yoi cia/eo, /oi a eiioea caaaaa
iaiaoiaeeii oiaiueoeoue nei?inoue, a iinea oeieoa aua iaiiiai
i?iaaaeaoue o?onoeie eee i?inoi iioiaeeoue ianeieueei ieioo. ?aceay
inoaiiaea iinea auno?iai aaaa iiaeao i?eaanoe e iianiiio ia?ooaieth
na?aea/iiai ?eoia aneaaenoaea eioaineaiiai aua?ina a e?iaue aae?aiaeeia.
Aiciiaeai oaeaea a?aaeoaoeeiiiue oie — a ?acoeueoaoa aueeth/aiey
«iuoa/iiai ianina», iaeaa/athuaai i?eoie e?iae e na?aeoeo.

*aoaa?oay oaca (neeiaay–ii Eoia?o), i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue 15–20 iei.
Aeeth/aao ianeieueei iniiaiuo iaua?acaeaathueo oi?aaeiaiee neeiaiai
oa?aeoa?a (aeey oe?aieaiey iuooe iea/aaiai iiyna, nieiu e a?thoiiai
i?anna), iai?aaeaiiuo ia iiauoaiea neeiaie auiineeainoe. Iinea aaaa
iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea auiieiyoue oi?aaeiaiey ia ?anoyaeaaiea a caiaaeeaiiii
oaiia, oeene?oy e?aeiea iieiaeaiey ia ianeieueei naeoiae (aeey
ainnoaiiaeaiey ooieoeee iaa?oaeaiiuo iuoa/iuo a?oii e iicaiii/ieea).

Ianiio?y ia anth i?inoioo oaoieee icaei?iaeoaeueiie oiaeueau e aaaa, ia
yoii aii?ina neaaeoao inoaiiaeoueny ianeieueei iiae?iaiaa, oae eae
a?oaua ioeaee a oaoieea iiaoo noaoue i?e/eiie o?aai
iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa.

I?ioanni? Ae. Ae. Aeiineie (1983) auaeaeyao /aou?a nooiaie iao/aiey
oaoieea icaei?iaeoaeueiie oiaeueau e aaaa.

1 nooiaiue — aeice?iaaiiay oiaeueaa. Iau/iay oiaeueaa a i?eau/iii
oaiia, ii no?iai aeice?iaaiiay ii aeeeoaeueiinoe e nei?inoe
ia?aaeaeaeaiey; i?e yoii nio?aiyaony eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay oaoieea oiaeueau.
Eae i?aaeei, yoi oiaeueaa ianneaiay.

2 nooiaiue — icaei?iaeoaeueiay oiaeueaa. A ?aaioo aeeth/athony
aeiiieieoaeueiua iuoa/iua a?oiiu ieaeieo eiia/iinoae e oaca, /oi
oaaee/eaaao iauee ?anoiae yia?aee e cia/eoaeueii iiauoaao aa
yooaeoeaiinoue. Oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe: aeoeaiia iooaeeeaaiea noiiie;
ia?aiin iiae iiai?ioii oaca aia?aae n aeoeaiui ia?aeaoii — ca n/ao
i?eoyaeaaiey oaea aia?aae e iii?iie iiaa; iinoaiiaea noii ii/oe
ia?aeeaeueii ae?oa ae?oao n ieieiaeueiui ?acai?ioii. Ioaeii ecaaaaoue
«noiii?a» — «iaoueaiey» ia e?ae iyoee (n?ac eaaeoea), iiyoiio aieaiue
ia neaaeoao auiineoue neeoeii aeaeaei aia?aae. Oaeei ia?acii,
icaei?iaeoaeueiay oiaeueaa ai iiiaii iaiiieiaao nii?oeaioth — ca
eneeth/aieai iiae/a?eiooi aeoeaiie ?aaiou ?oeaie (/oi, enoaoe,
niaa?oaiii ia iaycaoaeueii). Ia?aoiae io iau/iie oiaeueau e
icaei?iaeoaeueiie inouanoaeyaony iinoaiaiii, n ia?eiaee/aneei
aeeth/aieai iiauo yeaiaioia.

3 nooiaiue — aaa o?onoeie. Aaa ni nei?inoueth 7–9 ei//, aeaeiaaeia,
eee «oa?eathuee» aaa. Aai oaoieea eiaeeaeaeoaeueia. Oa?aeoa?iua
iniaaiiinoe: iaaunieay nei?inoue, «oeaiaiuea» ?anneaaeaiiie noiiie e
aeanoeee oaea? iyoeie ia iii?o a ?acoeueoaoa «iaoueaiey».

4 nooiaiue–eaaeee oi?oaee aaa (oooeia) ni nei?inoueth 10–12 ei//.
ssaeyaony i?iiaaeooi/iui yoaiii io aaaa o?onoeie e nii?oeaiiio aaao. I?e
iinoaiiaea iiae ia iii?o iuooeu noiiu e aieaie oi?oai iai?yaathony, a
oaea? niya/aaony. I?ecaieaiea ia aiaoiee naiae noiiu n iyaeei ia?aeaoii
ia anth noiio e iaeiia?aiaiiui iiai?ioii oaca aia?aae. I?ecaieaiea,
ia?aeao e aeoeaiia iooaeeeaaiea noiiie inouanoaeythony auno?i, a iaeii
eanaiea; oie/ie iyaeee. Oaeay oaoieea aaaa cia/eoaeueii oeo/oaao
aii?oecaoeeiiiua naienoaa nonoaaia e i?aaeoi?aaeaeaao o?aaiu. Iaeiaei
ia?aoiae e oi?oaiio aaao aeieaeai i?ienoiaeeoue ieaaii e iinoaiaiii, ii
ia?a ?inoa o?aie?iaaiiinoe e oe?aieaiey iuooe, naycie e nonoaaia.
Iiiuoee ia/eiathueo eieoe?iaaoue oaoieeo nii?oeaiiai aaaa (aunieee auiin
aaae?a, ?aceee oie/ie, oe?ieee oaa) a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aoeeiiaeueiiai
?anoiaea yia?aee aucuaatho ?aceia oaaee/aiea *NN e auno?i i?eaiaeyo e
ooiieaieth; o?aie?iaea noaiiaeony iayooaeoeaiie.

A nayce n yoei ia ia?aii yoaia o?aie?iaee, eiaaea o?iaaiue oece/aneie
iiaeaioiaeaiiinoe e?aeia iecie e aeaeaaoaeueiue aiia?ao iieiinoueth
aeao?aie?iaai a ?acoeueoaoa iiiaieaoiae aeiiaeeiaiee, aeieaeai
i?eiaiyoueny aaa o?onoeie. Yoi aaa a iaeaa/aiiuo oneiaeyo: iieiia
?anneaaeaiea; ?oee iieoiiouaiu, iiae ii/oe i?yiua; iyaeee, eaaeee
oie/ie; iaeeee, naiaiyuee oaa. A i?ioeanna iiiaieaoiae o?aie?iaee
iinoaiaiii au?aaaouaaaony ?aoeeiiaeueiay e yeiiiiiay oaoieea,
niioaaonoaothuay eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui iniaaiiinoyi.

Iiieii icaei?iaeoaeueiie o?aie?iaee, caiyoey oece/aneie eoeueoo?ie
aeieaeiu aeeth/aoue iao/aiea iniiaai ineoi?aaoeyoeee, caeaeeaaiey e
iannaaea, a oaeaea a?aiioiue naiieiio?ieue e ?aaoey?iue a?a/aaiue
eiio?ieue. Oieueei eiiieaeniue iiaeoiae e i?iaeaiai ianniaie
oeceoeueoo?u iiaeao iaania/eoue yooaeoeaiinoue caiyoee aeey ei?aiiiai
oeo/oaiey caei?iauey ianaeaiey.

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