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IAUAA NO?IAIEA I?AAIA C?AIEss

I?aai c?aiey (c?eoaeueiue aiaeecaoi?) ninoieo ec /aou?ao /anoae: 1)
ia?eoa?e/aneay, eee aini?eieiathuay, /anoue — aeaciia yaeiei (bulb-us
ocali) n aai i?eaeaoeaie; 2) i?iaiaeyuea iooe — c?eoaeueiue ia?a,
ninoiyuee ec aeniiia aaiaeeiia?iuo eeaoie, oeacia, c?eoaeueiue o?aeo;
3) iiaeei?eiaua oeaio?u — ia?oaeiua eieai/aoua oaea, c?eoaeueiay
eo/enoinoue, eee eo/enoue io/ie A?aoeeiea; 4) aunoea c?eoaeueiua oeaio?u
a caouei/iuo aeieyo ei?u aieueoeo iieooa?ee.

Aeaciia yaeiei (?en. 4)— ia?iia ia?aciaaiea, ?aniieaaaaony a aeaciuo
aiaaeeiao /a?aia — i?aeoao. Aeac eiaao ia nianai i?aaeeueioth
oa?iaeaeioth oi?io. Aeeeia aai naaeooaeueiie ine a n?aaeiai ?aaia 24 ii,
ai?eciioaeueiia— 23,6 ii, aa?oeeaeueiie — 23,3 ii. Aeey oiai /oiau
i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia iiaa?oiinoe aeaciiai yaeiea, oiio?aaeytho oaeea aea
oa?ieiu, eae aeey iiaa?oiinoe oa?a. A oeaio?a ?iaiaeoeu iaoiaeeony
ia?aaeiee iiethn, i?ioeaiiieiaeii aio eaaeeo caaeiee iiethn.
Niaaeeiythuay eo eeiey iacuaaaony aaiiao?e/aneie inueth aeaca.
C?eoaeueiay e aaiiao?e/aneay ine ia niaiaaeatho. Eeiee, niaaeeiythuea
iaa iiethna ii ie?oaeiinoe aeaciiai yaeiea, ia?acotho niaie ia?eaeeaiu.
Ieineinoue, eioi?ay aeaeeo aeac ia ia?aaeithth a caaeithth iieiaeiu,
iacuaaaony yeaaoi?eaeueiie. Ie?oaeiinoue yeaaoi?a ac?ineiai /aeiaaea a
n?aaeiai 77,6 ii. Ianna aeaciiai yaeiea 7—8 a.

Ianiio?y ia neiaeiua iiiaiia?aciua ooieoeee, eioi?ua auiieiyao aeac eae
ia?eoa?e/aneay /anoue c?eoaeueiiai aiaeecaoi?a, ii eiaao ioiineoaeueii
i?inooth iae?iaiaoiie/aneoth no?oeoo?o. Aeaciia yaeiei neaaaaony ec o?ao
iaiei/ae, ie?oaeathueo aioo?aiiea i?ic?a/iua i?aeiieythuea n?aaeu:
ia?oaeiie, eee oea?iciie, n?aaeiae, eee ninoaeenoie, aioo?aiiae, eee
nao/aoie.

IAIEI*EE AEACIIAI ssAEIEA

Ia?oaeiay iaiei/ea aeaca.

Ia?oaeiay iaiei/ea (tunica externa) iineo iacaaiea oea?iciie eainoeu.
Yoi oiieay (0,3—1,0 ii), ii aianoa n oai ieioiay iaiei/ea. Iia
iaoneiaeeaaao oi?io aeaca, iiaeaea?aeeaaao aai ii?aaeaeaiiue oo?ai?,
auiieiyao caueoioth ooieoeeth e neoaeeo ianoii i?ee?aieaiey
aeaciaeaeaaoaeueiuo iuooe. A naith i/a?aaeue oea?iciay eainoea
iiae?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa ia?aaiuo ioaeaea — ?iaiaeoeo e neea?o.

?iaiaeoea (cornea, ?en. 5) i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?aaeiee ioaeae
ia?oaeiie oea?iciie iaiei/ee, caieiaao ‘/a aa i?ioyaeaiiinoe. ?iaiaeoea
i?ic?a/ia, ioee/aaony iioe/aneie aiiiaaiiinoueth. Iiaa?oiinoue aa
aeaaeeay, ca?eaeueii-aeanoyuay. E?iia auiieiaiey iaueo ooieoeee,
naienoaaiiuo ia?oaeiie iaiei/ea, ?iaiaeoea i?eieiaao o/anoea a
i?aeiieaiee naaoiauo eo/ae. Neea aa i?aeiieaiey ?aaia 40,0 aeio?.
Ai?eciioaeueiue aeeaiao? ?iaiaeoeu a n?aaeiai 11 ii, aa?oeeaeueiue — 10
ii. Oieueia oeaio?aeueiie /anoe ?iaiaeoeu 0.4—0.6 ii, ia ia?eoa?ee
0.8—1 ii, /oi iaoneiaeeaaao ?acee/ioth e?eaecio aa ia?aaeiae e caaeiae
iiaa?oiinoae. N?aaeiee ?aaeeon e?eaeciu — 7,8 ii.

A?aieoea ia?aoiaea ?iaiaie iaiei/ee a neea?o eaeao eini nia?aaee iacaae.
A nayce n yoei ?iaiaeoeo n?aaieaatho n /aniaui noaeeii, anoaaeaiiui a
ii?aao. Iieoi?ic?a/iay ciia ia?aoiaea ?iaiaeoeu a neea?o iineo iacaaiea
eeiaa. Oe?eia eeiaa— 1 ii. Eeiao niioaaonoaoao iaaeoaieee oee?eoey?iue
aeaeiaie—ai?icaeea neea?u (sulcus sclerae), eioi?ue e neoaeeo oneiaiie
a?aieoeae iaaeaeo ?iaiaie e aaei/iie iaiei/eaie.

I?e iee?ineiie/aneii enneaaeiaaiee a ?iaiaeoea auaeaeytho iyoue
a10aa:—1) ia?aaeiee yieoaeee ?iaiaeoeu; 2) ia?aaeiyy iia?aie/iay o
ieanoeiea, eee aioiaiiaa iaia?aia; 3) nianoaaiiia aauanoai ?i- aiaeoeu,
eee no?iia; 4) caaeiyy iia?aie/iay ieanoeiea, eee aeanoeaiaoiaa
iaia?aia; 5) caaeiee yieoaeee ?iaiaeoeu, eee yiaeioaeee.

Ia?aaeiee yieoaeee ?iaiaeoeu yaeyaony i?iaeieaeaieai yieoaeey
eiiuthieoeau, eeaoee aai ?aniieaaathony a iyoue — oanoue neiaa, oieueia
ninoaaeyao 10—20% io oieueiu ?iaiaeoeu. Ia?aaeiea neie yieoaeey ninoiyo
ec iiiaia?aiiuo ieineeo iai?iaiaaaathueo eeaoie. Aacaeueiua eeaoee
eiatho oeeeeiae?e/aneoth oi?io.

Yieoaeee ?iaiaie iaiei/ee iaeaaeaao aunieie ?aaaia?aoeaiie
niiniaiinoueth. Eeeie/aneea iaaethaeaiey iieacuaatho, /oi aeaoaeou
?iaiaeoeu ainnoaiaaeeaathony n ii?aceoaeueiie auno?ioie ca n/ao
i?ieeoa?aoeee eeaoie iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy. Aeaaea i?e ii/oe iieiii
iooi?aeaiee yieoaeee ainnoaiaaeeaaaony a oa/aiea 1—3 aeiae.

Iiae yieoaeeai ?aniieiaeaia aanno?oeoo?iay iaeii?iaeiay ia?aaeiyy
iia?aie/iay ieanoeiea, eee aioiaiiaa iaiei/ea. Oieueia iaiei/ee — 6—9
ii. Iia yaeyaony iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie aeaeeiece?iaaiiie /anoueth no?iiu,
eiaao oio aea oeie/aneee ninoaa, /oi e nianoaaiiia aauanoai ?iaiaeoeu.

Ii iai?aaeaieth e ia?eoa?ee ?iaiaeoeu ia?aaeiyy iia?aie/iay ieanoeiea
enoii/aaony e ieai/eaaaony a 1 ii io e?ay ?iaiaeoeu. Iinea iia?aaeaeaiey
iia ia ?aaaia?e?oao.

Nianoaaiiia aauanoai ?iaiaeoeu, eee no?iia, ninoaaeyao aieueooth /anoue
anae aa oieue. Iia ninoieo ec oiieeo, i?aaeeueii /a?aaeothueony iaaeaeo
niaie niaaeeieoaeueiioeaiiuo ieanoeiie, io?inoee eioi?uo niaea?aeao
iiiaeanoai oii/aeoeo oea?eee oieueiie 2—5 iei. ?ieue oeaiaioe?othuaai
aauanoaa iaaeaeo oea?eeeaie auiieiyao neeaeaathuee ioeieae, a ninoaa
eioi?iai aoiaeeo na?ienoay nieue noeueoiaeaeo?i-iiaie eeneiou,
iaania/eaathuay i?ic?a/iinoue iniiaiiai aauanoaa ?iaiaeoeu.

Ia?aaeiyy o?aoue no?iiu aieaa neiaeia ii naiaio no?iaieth e aieaa
eiiiaeoia, /ai aeoaieea aa neie, e eiaao eaiaeey?ioth no?oeoo?o.
Aiciiaeii, yoei iauyniyaony aieueoay neeiiiinoue e iaaooaieth caaeiae
iiaa?oiinoe no?iiu. E?iia ?iaiae/iuo eeaoie, a ?iaiaeoea ano?a/athony a
iaaieueoii eiee/anoaa aeoaeaeathuea eeaoee oeia oea?iaeanoia e
eeioieaeiua yeaiaiou. Iie, iiaeiaii ea?aoiaeanoai, ea?atho caueoioth
?ieue i?e iia?aaeaeaieyo no?iiu.

N aioo?aiiae noi?iiu nianoaaiiay oeaiue ?iaiaeoeu ia?aie/aia oiieie
(0,006—0,012 ni), i/aiue ieioiie yeanoe/iie caaeiae iia?aie/iie
ieanoeieie (aeanoeaiaoiaa iaia?aia), oea?eeeu eioi?ie iino?iaiu ec
aauanoaa, eaeaioe/iiai eieeaaaio. Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiii-noueth caaeiae
iia?aie/iie ieanoeiee yaeyaony ?acenoaioiinoue ii ioiioaieth e
oeie/aneei ?aaaaioai, iia aaaeia eae caueoiue aa?uea? io aoi?aeaiey
aaeoa?ee e a?anoaiey eaieeey?ia. Aeanoeaiaoiaa iaia?aia niiniaia
i?ioeainoiyoue eeoe/aneiio aicaeaenoaeth aiieiiai yennoaeaoa i?e ycaao
?iaiaeoeu, oi?ioi ?aaaia?e?oao e auno?i ainnoaiaaeeaaaony a neo/aa
?ac?ooaiey, i?e iia?aaeaeaieyo ceyao, e?ay aa caaeaathony. Aeeaea e
eeiao iia noaiiaeony oieua, caoai, iinoaiaiii ?acaieioiyynue, ia?aoiaeeo
ia ei?iaineea?aeueioth o?aaaeoeo, i?eieiay o/anoea a aa ia?aciaaiee.

Ni noi?iiu ia?aaeiae eaia?u caaeiyy iia?aie/iay ieanoeiea iie?uoa
caaeiei yieoaeeai. Yoi iaeei neie ieineeo i?eciaoe/aneeo oanoeoaieueiuo
eeaoie, ieioii i?eeaaathueo ae?oa e ae?oao. Nouanoaoao iiaiea, /oi yoio
yieoaeee aeeaeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Caaeiee yieoaeee ioaaonoaaiai ca
iaiaiia i?ioeannu iaaeaeo ?iaiaeoeae e aeaaie ia?aaeiae eaia?u, ea?aao
aaaeioth ?ieue a iaania/aiee i?ic?a/iinoe ?iaiaeoeu. I?e iia?aaeaeaiee
aai iiyaeyaony ioae ?iaiaeoeu. Yiaeioaeee oaeaea i?eieiaao o/anoea a
ia?aciaaiee ei?iaineea?aeueiie o?aaaeoeu, ia?acoy aie?oa eaaeaeiai
o?aaaeoey?iiai aieieia.

?iaiaeoea niaa?oaiii ia niaea?aeeo e?iaaiiniuo ninoaeia, oieueei
iiaa?oiinoiua neie eeiaa niaaaeaiu e?aaaui ninoaeenoui nieaoaieai
eeioaoe/aneeie ninoaeaie. I?ioeannu iaiaia iaania/eaathony ca
n/ao-e?aaaie iaoeenoie ninoaeenoie naoe, neacu e aeaae ia?aaeiae eaia?u.

Yoa ioiineoaeueiay eciee?iaaiiinoue aeaaii?eyoii neacuaaaony ia
ia?anaaeea ?iaiaeoeu i?e aaeueiao. Aioeoaea ia aeinoeaatho ia?anaaeaiiie
?iaiaeoeu e ia ?ac?ooatho aa, eae yoi i?ienoiaeeo n ae?oaeie
/oaea?iaeiuie oeaiyie. ?iaiaeoea i/aiue aiaaoa ia?aaie e yaeyaony iaeiie
ec naiuo auniei/oanoaeoaeueiuo oeaiae /aeiaa/aneiai i?aaiecia. Ia?yaeo n
/oanoaeoaeueiuie ia?aaie, enoi/ieeii eioi?uo yaeyaony o?ieie/iue ia?a, a
?iaiaeoea onoaiiaeaii iaee/ea neiiaoe/aneie eiia?aaoeee, auiieiythuae
o?ioe/aneoth ooieoeeth. Aeey oiai /oiau iaiai aauanoa i?ienoiaeee
ii?iaeueii, iaiaoiaeeia oi/iay naaeaine?iaaiiinoue iaaeaeo oeaiaauie
i?ioeannaie e e?iaueth. Eiaiii iiyoiio ecethaeaiiui ianoii eeoai/eiauo
?aoeaioi?ia yaeyaony ?iaiae/ii-neea?aeueiay ciia, aiaaoay ninoaeaie.
Caeanue-oi e ?aniieaaathony ninoaeenoi-oeaiaaua ?aoeaioi?u,
?aaeno?e?othuea iaeaeoea naeaeae a ii?iaeueiuo i?ioeannao iaiaia
aauanoa.

Ii?iaeueii i?ioaeathuea iaiaiiua i?ioeannu — caeia i?ic?a/iinoe
?iaiaeoeu. Aii?in i i?ic?a/iinoe yaeyaony aaeaa ee ia naiui nouanoaaiiui
a oeceieiaee ?iaiaeoeu. Aei neo ii? inoaaony caaaaeeie, ii/aio ?iaiaeoea
i?ic?a/ia. Auneacuaatho i?aaeiieiaeaiey, /oi i?ic?a/iinoue caaeneo io
naienoa i?ioaeiia e ioeeaioeaeia ?iaiae/iie oeaie. I?eaeatho cia/aiea
i?aaeeueiinoe ?aniieiaeaiey eieeaaaiiauo oea?eee. Ia aeae?aoaoeeth
ieacuaaao aeeyiea ecae?aoaeueiay i?iieoeaaiinoue yiaeioaeey e yieoaeey.
Ia?ooaiea acaeiiaeaenoaey a iaeiie ec yoeo neiaeiuo oeaiae i?eaiaeeo e
iioa?a i?ic?a/iinoe ?iaiaeoeu.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiuie naienoaaie ?iaiaeoeu neaaeoao n/eoaoue
i?ic?a/iinoue, ca?eaeueiinoue, noa?e/iinoue, ?acia?, aunieoth
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue, ionoonoaea ninoaeia.

Neea?a (sclera) caieiaao 5/6 anae ia?oaeiie, eee oea?iciie, iaiei/ee
aeaciiai yaeiea. Ianiio?y ia iaeii?iaeiinoue iniiaiuo no?oeoo?iuo
yeaiaioia ?iaiaeoeu e neea?u, iineaaeiyy iieiinoueth eeoaia i?ic?a/iinoe
e eiaao aaeue, eiiaaea neaaea aieoaiaaoue oeaao. /ai iaoneiaeaii aa
iacaaiea «aaei/iay iaiei/ea». Neea?a ninoieo ec nianoaaiiiai aauanoaa,
ia?acothuaai aa aeaaioth ianno, iaaeneea?aeueiie ieanoeiee — yieneea?u e
aioo?aiiaai, eiathuaai neaaea ao?ue iooaiie neiy — ao?ie ieanoeiee
neea?u. A caaeiai ioaeaea neea?o i?iaiaeaao c?eoaeueiue ia?a. Caeanue
iia aeinoeaaao iaeaieueoae oieueiu — aei 1,1 ii. Ii iai?aaeaieth
eia?aaee neea?a enoii/aaony. Iiae i?yiuie iuooeaie aeaca a iaeanoe
yeaaoi?a oieueia aa aeioiaeeo aei 0,3 ii. A iaeanoe i?ee?aieaiey
nooiaeeeee i?yiuo iuooe neea?a aiiaue noaiiaeony oieua — aei 0,6 ii. A
iaeanoe i?ioiaeaeaiey c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa ioaa?noea caoyiooi oae
iacuaaaiie ?aoao/aoie ieanoeieie (lamina cribrosa). Yoi naiia oiieia
ianoi neea?u. Aieueoay /anoue aieieii neea?u o aeenea c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa
ia?aoiaeeo a iaiei/eo, iie?uaathuoth c?eoaeueiue ia?a nia?oaee. Neaicue
ioaa?noey ?aoao/aoie ieanoeiee iaaeaeo niaaeeieoaeueiiooaaiuie e
aeeiciuie aieieiaie i?ioiaeyo io/ee aieieii c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa.

Nianoaaiii ninoaeaie neea?a aaaeia, ii /a?ac iaa i?ioiaeyo ana noaieeee,
i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ninoaeenoiai o?aeoa. Ninoaeu, i?iaiaeathuea
oea?icioth eainoeo a ia?aaeiai na ioaeaea, iai?aaeythony e ia?aaeiaio
ioaeaeo ninoaeenoiai o?aeoa. O caaeiaai iiethna aeaca neea?o i?iaiaeatho
ei?ioeea e aeeeiiua caaeiea ?anie/iua a?oa?ee. Iicaaee yeaaoi?a auoiaeyo
aiaeiai?ioiua aaiu (v. vorticosae). Iau/ii eo auaaao /aou?a (aeaa
ieaeiea e aeaa aa?oiea), ii eiiaaea ano?a/aaony e oanoue aiyi-ai?ioiuo
aai.

*oanoaeoaeueiay eiia?aaoeey eaeao io aeaciie aaoae o?ieie/iiai. ia?aa.
Neiiaoe/aneea aieieia neea?a iieo/aao ec aa?oiaai_oaeiiai neiiaoe/aneiai
ocea. Iniaaiii ieiai iieeii?oiuo ia?aiuo ieii/aiee a iaeanoe,
niioaaonoaothuae oeeeea?iiio oaeo e ei?iaineea?aeueiie o?aaaeoea.

N?aaeiyy iaiei/ea aeaca.

N?aaeiyy iaiei/ea aeaca (tunica media) iineo iacaaiea ninoaeenoiai, eee
oaaaeueiiai, o?aeoa. Iia iiae?acaeaeyaony ia o?e ioaeaea: ?aaeoaeeo,
?anie/iia oaei e oi?eieaeath. A oeaeii ninoaeenoue o?aeo yaeyaony
aeaaiui eieeaeoi?ii ieoaiey aeaca. Aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo aeiieie?othuay
?ieue ai aioo?eaeaciuo iaiaiiuo i?ioeannao. A oi aea a?aiy eaaeaeue
ioaeae ninoaeenoiai o?aeoa aiaoiie/anee e oeceieiae/anee auiieiyao
niaoeeaeueiua, i?enouea aio ooieoeee.

?aaeoaeea, eee ?aaeoaeiay iaiei/ea (iris), i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?aaeiee
ioaeae ninoaeenoiai o?aeoa. I?yiiai eiioaeoa n ia?oaeiie iaiei/eie iia
ia eiaao. ?aniieaaaaony ?aaeoaeea ai o?iioaeueiie ieineinoe oaeei
ia?acii, /oi iaaeaeo iae e ?iaiaeoeae inoaaony naiaiaeiia i?ino?ainoai —
ia?aaeiyy eaia?a aeaca, caiieiaiiay aeeaeeei niaea?aeeiui — eaia?iie,
eaee aiaeyienoie, aeaaie. *a?ac i?ic?a/ioth ?iaiaeoeo e aiaeyienooth
aeaao ?aaeoaeea aeinooiia ia?oaeiiio iniio?o. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyao aa
e?aeiyy ia?eoa?ey — ei?aiue ?aaeoaeiie iaiei/ee, i?ee?uoie
iieoi?ic?a/iui eeiaii. Yoa ciia aeaeia eeoue i?e aiieineiiee.

?aaeoaeea eiaao aeae oiieie, ii/oe ie?oaeie ieanoeiee; Ai?eciioaeueiue
aeeaiao? aa 12.5 ii. aa?oeeaeueiue 12 ii.

A oeaio?a ?aaeoaeee iaoiaeeony e?oaeia ioaa?noea – c?a/ie (pupiua). iii
neoaeeo aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey eiee/anoaa naaoiauo eo/ae i?iieeathueo a
aeac. Aaee/eia c?a/ea iinoiyiii iaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io neeu naaoiaiai
iioiea. N?aaeiyy aaee/eia aai 3 ii, iaeaieueoay— 8 ii, iaeiaiueoay
—_1_ii.

Ia?aaeiyy iiaa?oiinoue ?aaeooee eiaao ?aaeea?ioth en/a?/aiiinoue, /oi
i?eaeaao ae e?oaeaaiie ?enoiie e ?aeueao. En/a?/aiiinoue iaoneiaeaia
?aaeeaeueiui ?aniieiaeaieai ninoaeia, aaeieue eioi?uo i?eaioe?iaaia
no?iia.

Uaeaaeaeiua oaeoaeaiey a no?iia ?aaeoaeee iacuaatho e?eioaie, eee
eaeoiaie.

Ia?aeeaeueii c?a/eiaiio e?ath, ionooiy ia 1,5 ii, ?aniieiaeai coa/aoue
aaeee, eee a?uaeaee, aaea ?aaeoaeea eiaao iaeaieueooth oieueio — 0,4 ii.
Iaeaieaa oiieee o/anoie ?aaeoaeee niioaaonoaoao aa ei?ith(0,2 ii).
A?uaeaee aeaeyo ?aaeoaeeo ia aeaa ciiu: aioo?aiithth — c?a/eiaoth e
ia?oaeioth— ?anie/ioth. A ia?oaeiii ioaeaea ?anie/iie ciiu caiaoiu
eiioeaio?e/aneea eiio?aeoeeiiiua ai?icaeu — neaaenoaea nie?auaiey e
?ani?aaeaiey ?aaeoaeee i?e aa aeaeaeaiey. A ?aaeoaeea ?acee/atho
ia?aaeiee— iaciaea?iaeueiue e caaeiee yeoiaea?iaeueiue, eee
?aoeiaeueiue, ioaeaeu. Ia?aaeiee iaciaea?iaeueiue eenoie aeeth/aao
ia?oaeiue iia?aie/iue neie e no?iio ?aaeoaeee. Caaeiee yeoiaea?iaeueiue
eenoie i?aaenoaaeai aeeeaoaoi?ii n aai aioo?aiiei iia?aie/iui e
ieaiaioiui neiyie. Iineaaeiee o c?a/eiaiai e?ay ia?acoao ieaiaioioth
aao?iieo, eee eaeio.

E yeoiaea?iaeueiiio eenoeo i?eiaaeeaaeeo e noeieoa?, nianoeaoeeny a
no?iio ?aaeoaeee ii oiaeo aa yia?eiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey. Oeaao ?aaeoaeee
caaeneo io aa ieaiaioiiai neiy e i?enoonoaey a no?iia e?oiiuo
iiiai-io?ino/aouo ieaiaioiuo eeaoie. Eiiaaea ieaiaio a ?aaeoaeiie
iaiei/ea neaieeaaaony a aeaea ioaeaeueiuo iyoai. O a?thiaoia ieaiaioiuo
eeaoie iniaaiii iiiai, o aeueaeiinia eo iao nianai.

Eae ioia/aii auoa, ?aaeoaeea eiaao aeaa iuooeu: noeieoa?, noaeeaathuee
c?a/ie, e aeeeaoaoi?, iaoneiaeeaathuee aai ?anoe?aiea. Noeieoa?
?aniieaaaaony a c?a/eiaie ciia no?iiu ?aaeoaeee. Aeeeaoaoi? iaoiaeeony a
ninoaaa aioo?aiiaai ieaiaioiiai eenoea, a aai ia?oaeiie ciia. A
?acoeueoaoa acaeiiaeaenoaey aeaoo aioaaiienoia — noeieoa?a e aeeeaoaoi?a
— ?aaeoaeiay iaiei/ea auiieiyao ?ieue aeeao?aaiu aeaca, ?aaoee?othuae
iioie naaoiauo eo/ae. Noeieoa? iieo/aao eiia?aaoeeth io
aeaciaeaeaaoaeueiiai, a aeeeaoaoi? io neiiaoe/aneiai ia?aa.
*oanoaeoaeueioth eiia?aaoeeth ?aaeoaeee inouanoaeyao o?ieie/iue ia?a.

Ninoaeenoay naoue ?aaeoaeiie iaiei/ee neeaaeuaaaony ec aeeeiiuo caaeieo
?anie/iuo e ia?aaeieo ?anie/iuo a?oa?ee. Aaiu ie eiee/anoaaiii, ie ii
oa?aeoa?o aaoaeaiey ia niioaaonoaotho a?oa?eyi. Eeioaoe/aneeo
ninoaeia_a_ ?aaeoaeea iao, ii aie?oa a?oa?ee e aai eiathony
ia?eaaneoey?iua i?ino?ainoaa.

?anie/iia, eee oeeeea?iia, oaei (corpus ciliare) yaeyaony i?iiaaeooi/iui
caaiii iaaeaeo ?aaeoaeiie a nianoaaiii ninoaeenoie iaiei/eaie. Iii
iaaeinooiii iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio iniio?o iaaii?oaeaiiui aeacii. Eeoue
iaaieueoie o/anoie iiaa?oiinoe ?anie/iiai oaea, ia?aoiaeyuee a ei?aiue
?aaeoaeee, iiaeii aeaeaoue i?e niaoeeaeueiii iniio?a n iiiiuueth
aiieieeicu.

?anie/iia oaei i?aaenoaaeyao niaie caieiooia eieueoei oe?eiie ieiei 8
ii. Aai iiniaay /anoue oaea aeni/iie. Caaeiyy a?aieoea ?anie/iiai oaea
i?ioiaeeo ii oae iacuaaaiiio coa/aoiio e?ath (ora serrata) e
niioaaonoaoao ia neea?a ianoai i?ee?aieaiey i?yiuo iuooe aeaca.
Ia?aaeithth /anoue ?anie/iiai oaea n aai io?inoeaie ia aioo?aiiae
iiaa?oiinoe’ iacuaatho ?anie/iui aaioeii — corona ciliaris. Caaeiyy
/anoue, eeoaiiay io?inoeia orbiculus ciliaris, eee oaea.

N?aaee ?anie/iuo io?inoeia (eo ieiei 70) auaeaeytho aeaaiua e
i?iiaaeooi/iua. Ia?aaeiyy iiaa?oiinoue aeaaiuo ?anie/iuo io?inoeia
ia?acoao ea?iec, eioi?ue iinoaiaiii ia?aoiaeeo a neeii. Iineaaeiee
caeai/eaaaony, eae i?aaeei, ?iaiie eeieae, ii?aaeaeythuae ia/aei ieineie
/anoe. I?iiaaeooi/iua io?inoee ?aniieaaathony a iaaeio?inoeiauo
aiaaeeiao. Iie ia eiatho /aoeie a?aieoeu e a aeaea ai?iaeaa/aouo
aicauoaiee ia?aoiaeyo ia ieineoth /anoue. Io o?onoaeeea e aieiaui
iiaa?oiinoyi iniiaiuo ?anie/iuo io?inoeia oyioony aieieia ?anie/iiai
iiynea (zonula ciliaris) — naycee, iiaeaea?aeeaathuae o?onoaeee Iaeiaei
?anie/iua io?inoee yaeythony eeoue i?iiaaeooi/iie ciiie oeenaoeee
aieieii. Iniiaiay ianna aieieii ?anie/iiai iiynea eae io ia?aaeiae, oae
e io caaeiae iiaa?oiinoe o?onoaeeea iai?aaeyaony ecaaee e i?ee?aieyaony
ia aiai i?ioyaeaiee ?anie/iiai oaea aieioue aei coa/aoiai e?ay.
Ioaeaeueiuie aieieiioeaie iiynie oeene?oaony ia oieueei e ?anie/iiio
oaeo, ii e e ia?aaeiae iiaa?oiinoe noaeeiaeaeiiai oaea. Ia?acoaony
neiaeiay nenoaia ia?aieaoathueony e iaiaieaathueony iaaeaeo niaie
aieieii naycee o?onoaeeea. ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo yeaaoi?ii o?onoaeeea e
aa?oeiaie io?inoeia ?anie/iiai oaea a ?aciuo aeacao iaiaeeiaeiai (a
n?aaeiai 0.5ii).

Ia ia?eaeeiiaeueiii ?ac?aca ?anie/iia oaei eiaao aeae o?aoaieueieea n
iniiaaieai, ia?auaiiui e ?aaeoaeiie iaiei/ea, e n aa?oeiie, iai?aaeaiiie
e oi?eieaeaa.

A ?anie/iii oaia, eae e a ?aaeoaeiie iaiei/ea, ?acee/atho: 1)
oaaaeueioth, iaciaea?iaeueioth, /anoue, ninoaaeythuoth i?iaeieaeaiea
oi?eieaeae e ninoiyuoth ec iuoa/iie e niaaeeieoaeueiie oeaie, aiaaoie
ninoaeaie; 2) ?aoeeaeueioth, iae?iyeoiaea?iaeueioth,
/anoue—i?iaeieaeaiea nao/ao-ee,”aeaoo aa yieoaeeaeueiuo neiaa.

A ninoaa iaciaea?iaeueiie /anoe ?anie/iiai oaea aoiaeyo /aou?a niiy:

1) noi?aoi?eieaeay; 2) iuoa/iue niie; 3) ninoaeenoue neie n ?anie/iuie
io?inoeaie; 4) aacaeueiay ieanoeiea—iaia?aia A?ooa.

?aoeiaeueiay /anoue ninoieo ec aeaoo neiaa yieoaeey — ieaiaioiiai e
aanieaiaioiiai.

?anie/iia oaei oeene?iaaii o neea?aeueiie oii?u. Ia inoaeueiii
i?ioyaeaiee neea?o e oeeeea?iia oaei ?acaeaeyao iaaeninoaeenoia
i?ino?ainoai, /a?ac eioi?ia eini io neea?u e ?anie/iiio oaeo i?ioiaeyo
oi?eieaeaeueiua ieanoeiee.

?anie/iay, eee aeeiiiaeaoeeiiiay iuooea ninoieo ec aeaaeeeo iuoa/iuo
aieieii, eaeoueo a o?ao iai?aaeaieyo — a ia?eaeeiiaeueiii, ?aaeeaeueiii
e oee?eoey?iii. Ia?eaeeiiaeueiua aieieia i?e nie?auaiee iiaeoyaeaatho
oi?eieaeath eia?aaee, a nayce n /ai. yoa /anoue iuooeu iacuaaaony tensor
chorioideae (ae?oaia aa iacaaiea — iuooea A?theea). ?aaeeaeueiay /anoue
?anie/iie iuooeu eaeao io neea?aeueiie oii?u e ?anie/iui io?inoeai e
ieineie /anoe ?anie/iiai oaea. Yoa /anoue iineo iacaaiea iuooeu Eaaiiaa.
Oee?eoey?iua iuoa/iua aieieia ii?aaeaeythony eae iuooea Itheea?a. Iie ia
ia?acotho eiiiaeoiie iuoa/iie iannu, a i?ioiaeyo a aeaea ioaeaeueiuo
io/eia. Ni/aoaiiia nie?auaiea anao io/eia ?anie/iie iuooeu iaania/eaaao
aeeiiiaeaoeeiiioth ooieoeeth ?anie/iiai oaea.

Ca iuoa/iui neiai eaeao ninoaeenoue niie ?anie/iiai oaea, ninoiyuee ec
?uoeie niaaeeieoaeueiie oeaie, niaea?aeauae aieueoia eiee/anoai
ninoaeia, yeanoe/aneea aieieia e ieaiaioiua eeaoee.

Aaoae aeeeiiuo ?anie/iuo a?oa?ee i?iieeatho a ?anie/iia oaei ec
iaaeninoaeenoiai i?ino?ainoaa. Ia ia?aaeiae iiaa?oiinoe ?anie/iiai oaea,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii o e?ay ?aaeoaeee, yoe ninoaeu niaaeeiythony n ia?aaeiae
?anie/iie a?oa?eae e ia?acotho aieueoie a?oa?eaeueiue e?oa ?aaeoaeee.
Iniaaiii aiaaou ninoaeaie io?inoee ?anie/iiai oaea, eioi?ui ioaiaeeony
aaaeiay ?ieue — i?iaeooee?iaaiea aioo?eaeaciie aeeaeeinoe. Oaeei
ia?acii, ooieoeey ?anie/iiai oaea aeaieiay: ?anie/iay iuooea
iaania/eaaao aeeiiiaeaoeeth, ?anie/iue yieoaeee — i?iaeoeoeeth
aiaeyienoie aeaae. Eioo?e io ninoaeenoiai neiy eaeao oiieay
aanno?oeoo?iay aacaeueiay ieanoeiea, eee iaia?aia A?ooa. E iae i?eeaaaao
neie ieaiaioe?iaaiiuo yieoaeeaeueiuo eeaoie, ca eioi?ui neaaeoao neie
aanieaiaioiiai oeeeeiae?e/aneiai yieoaeey.

Iaa yoeo neiy yaeythony i?iaeieaeaieai nao/aoee, iioe/anee
iaaeayoaeueiie aa /anoe.

?anie/iua ia?au a iaeanoe ?anie/iiai oaea ia?acotho aonoia nieaoaiea.
*oanoaeoaeueiua ia?au i?ienoiaeyo ec I aaoae o?ieie/iiai ia?aa,
ninoaeiaeaeaaoaeueiua — ec neiiaoe/aneiai nieaoaiey, aeaeaaoaeueiua
(aeey ?anie/iie iuooeu) — ec aeaciaeaeaaoaeueiiai ia?aa.

Nianoaaiii noaeenoay iaiei/e a aeac a — o i ? e i e ae oT^HonoiaeaJ —
ninoaaeyao caaeithth,~naioth iaoe?ioth /anoue ninoaeenoiai o?aoa io
coa/aoiai e?ay aei c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa. Iia ieioii niaaeeiaia ni inea?ie
oieueei aie?oa ianoa auoiaea c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa.

Oieueia nianoaaiii ninoaeenoie iaiei/ee eieaaeaony io 0,2. aei 0.4 ii.
Iia niaea?aeeo iyoue neiaa: 1) noi?aoi?eieaeaeueiue, ninoiyeie ec oiieeo
niaaeeieoaeueeioeaieuo ieanoeiie, iie?uouo yiaeioaeeai e
iiiaiio?ino/aouie ieaiaioiuie eeaoeaie; 2) niie e?oiiuo ninoaeia,
ninoiyuee aeaaiui ia?acii ec iiiai/eneaiiuo aianoiiice?otheeo a?oa?ee e
aai; 3) neie n?aaeieo e iaeeeo ninoaeia; 4) oi?yioaieeey?iie neie; 5)
noaeeiaeaeioth ieanoeieo, ioaeaeythuoth ninoaeenooth iaiei/eo io
ieaiaioiiai neiy nao/aoee.

Ecioo?e e oi?eieaeaa aieioioth i?eeaaeeo iioe/aneay /anoue nao/aoee.

Ninoaeenoay nenoaia oi?eieaeae i?aaenoaaeaia caaeieie ei?ioeeie
?anie/iuie a?oa?eyie, eioi?ua a eiee/anoaa a—8 i?iieeatho o caaeiaai
iiethna neea?u e ia?acotho aonooth ninoaeenooth naoue. Iaeeea
ninoaeenoie naoe niioaaonoaoao aeoeaiie ooieoeee ninoaeenoie iaiei/ee.
Oi?eieaeay yaeyaony yia?aaoe/aneie aacie, iaania/eaathuae ainnoaiiaeaiea
iai?a?uaii ?aniaaeathuaainy c?eoaeueiiai io?io?a, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey
c?aiey. Ia anai “i?ioyaeaiee iioe/aneie ciiu nao/aoea e oi?eieaeay
acaeiiaeaenoaotho a oeceieiae/aneii aeoa c?aiey.

Aioo?aiiyy iaiei/ea aeaca

Nao/aoea (retina) ?acaeaaaony, eae oaea auei neacaii, ac .auiy/eaaiey
noaiee ia?aaeiaai iicaiaiai iocu?y. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iia yaeyaony
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie /anoueth iicaiaie ei?u, auianaiiie aa ia?eoa?eth. A
iae. iaoiaeyony oeie/iua iicaiaua eeaoee (ano?iieoue, eeaoee
itheea?ianeeo aieieii, iaoeiia?aciua eeaoee Aieueaeee), ?aniieiaeaiiua
iaaeaeo iae?iiaie. A c?eoaeueiii aiaeecaoi?a nao/aoea auiieiyao ?ieue
ia?eoa?e/aneiai ?aoeaioi?a.

Nao/aoea^ aunoeeaao anth aioo?aiithth iiaa?oiinoue ninoaeenoiai o?aeoa.
Niioaaonoaaiii no?oeoo?a e ooieoeee a iae ?acee/atho aeaa ioaeaea.
Caaeiea aeaa o?aoe nao/aoee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aunieiaeeooa–
?aioee?iaaiioth iaa/ioth oeaiue. Yoi iioe/aneay /anoue nao/aoee. O ianoa
ia?aoiaea oeeeea?iia? oaea a oi?eieaeath iioe/aneay /anoue eii/aaony.
Ieii/aiea ia iaicia/aaony coa/aoui e?aai. Neaiay /anoue nao/aoee
ia/eiaaony io coa/aoie eeiee e i?iaeieaeaaony aei c?a/eiaiai e?ay, aaea
iia ia?acoao e?aaaoth ieaiaioioth eaeio. Nao/aoea ninoieo caeanue anaai
eeoue eo aeaoo neiaa.

Iioe/aneay /anoue nao/aoee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oiieoth i?ic?a/ioth
ieaieo, e?aiei niaaeeiaiioth n iiaeeaaeaueie oeaiyie a aeaoo ianoao — o
coa/aoiai e?ay e aie?oa c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa; Ia inoaeueiii i?ioyaeaiee
nao/aoea i?eeaaeeo e ninoaeenoie iaiei/ea, oaea?aeeaaaony ia naiai ianoa
aeaaeaieai noaeeiaeaeiiai oaea e aeinoaoi/ii eioeiiie naycueth

iaaeaeo iaei/eaie e eieai/eaie e io?inoeaie eeaoie ieaiaioiiai neiy*
Naycue yoa a oneiaeyo iaoieiaee eaaei ia?ooaaony e i?ienoiaeeo ioneieea
nao/aoee.

Ianoi auoiaea c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa ec nao/aoee iineo iacaaiea aeenea c ?
aAo a e ue i i a i ia?aa. Ia ?annoiyiee ieiei 4 ii

eia?oaee io aeenea c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa eiaaony oaeoaeaiea — oa!
iacuaaaiia aeaeoia iy o e i. A c?eoaeueiuo eeaoeao yoie iaeani
iaoiaeeony aeaeoue” ieaiaio, iaee/eai eioi?iai e iaoneiaeaia iacaaiea.

Oieueia nao/aoee ieiei aeenea 0,4 ii, a iaeanoe aeaeoiai iyoia —
0,1—0,05 ii, o coa/aoie eeiee — 0,1 ii.

Iee?ineiie/anee nao/aoea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oeaiue o?ao iae?iiia
ia?oaeiiai — oioi?aoeaioi?iiai, n?aaeiaai — a n:n i oe y-aoeaiiai e
aioo?aiiaai—aaiae eii a?ii a i. Aniai”_ eoiiinoe iie ia?acotho 10 neiaa
nao/aoee (?en. 10): 1) neie ieaiaioiiai yieoaeey; 2) neie iaei/ae e
eieai/ae; 3) ia?oaeioth oiiaeueioth iia?aie/ioth iaia?aio; 4) ia?oaeiue
ca?ienoue neie; 5) ia?oaeiue nao/aoue neie; 6) aioo?aiiee ca?ienoue
neie; 7) aioo?aiiee nao/aoue neie;

8) aaeaeeiia?iue n?ie; 9) neie ia?aiuo aieieii; 10) aioo?aiithth
aeeaeueioth iia?aie/ioth iaia?aio. ssaea?iua e aaiaeeiea?iue neie
niioaaonoaotho oaeai iae?iiia, nao/aoua — eo eiioaeoai.

Eo/ naaoa, i?aaeaea /ai iiianoue ia naaoi/oanoaeoaeueiue neie nao/aoee,
aeieaeai i?ieoe /a?ac i?ic?a/iua n?aaeu aeaca: ?iaiaeoeo, o?onoaeee,
noaeeiaeaeiia oaei e anth oieuo nao/aoee. Iaei/ee e eieai/ee
oioi?aoeaioi?ia yaeythony naiuie aeoaieeie /anoyie nao. /aoee. Nao/aoea
aeaca /aeiaaea ioiineony e oeio eiaa?oe?iaaiiuo.

Naiui ia?oaeiui neiai nao/aoee yaeyaony ieaiaioiue neie. Eeaoee
ieaiaioiiai yieoaeey’eiatho oi?io oanoea?aiiuo i?eci, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a
iaeie ?yae. Oaea eeaoie caiieiaiu ca?iaie ieaiaioa. Ieaiaio iineo
iacaaiea oonoeeia e ioee/aaony io ieaieaiAnanoaeenoie iaiei/ee —
iaeaieia. Aaiaoe/anee ieaiaioiue yieoaeee i?eiaaeeaaeeo nao/aoea, ii
ieioii niayi n ninoaeenoie iaiei/eie.

Ecioo?e e ieaiaioiiio yieoaeeth i?eeaaatho eeaoee iae?iyieoaeey -(i a
?aue iae?ii c?eoaeueiiai aiaeecaoi?a), io?inoee eioi?i–* ai — iaei/ee e
eieai/ee — ninoaaeytho naaoi/oanoaeoaeueiue neie. Eae ii
no?oeoo?a,’oiAe’ii oeceieiae/aneiio cia/aieth yoe io?inoee ?acee/athony
iaaeaeo niaie. Iaei/ee — oiieea, eiatho oeeeeiae?e/aneoth oi?io.
Eieai/ee eiatho oi?io eiiona eee aooueee, ei?i/a e oieua iaei/ae.
?aniieaaathony iaei/ee e eieai/ee a aeaea iaeenaaea, ia?aaiiia?ii. A
iaeanoe aeaeoiai iyoia iaoiaeyony oieueei eieai/ee. Ii iai?aaeaieth e
ia?eoa?ee eiee/anoai eieai/ae oiaiueoaaony, a iaei/ae aic?anoaao.
Eiee/anoai iaei/ae cia/eoaeueii i?aainoiaeeo eiee/anoai eieai/ae: anee
eieai/ae iiaeao auoue aei 8 iei., oi iaei/ae — aei 170 iei. Iaaei naaa
i?aaenoaaeoue, eaeiaa aea ieioiinoue eieai/ae e iaei/ae ia oaeii
ie/oiaeii iaeii i?ino?ainoaa, eaeia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nao/aoea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eco/aia oiieay no?oeoo?a (oeueo?ano?oeoo?a) yoeo
yeaiaioia. Iia i/aiue neiaeia. A ia?oaeiuo /eaieeao iaei/ae e eieai/ae
nin?aaeioi/aiu aeenee, inouanoaeythuea oioioeie/aneea i?ioeannu, ia /oi
oeacuaaao iiauoaiiay eiioeaio?aoeey ?iaeiineia a aeeneao iaei/ae e
eiaeiineia a aeeneao eieai/ae. E ia?oaeiui naaiaioai iaei/ae e eieai/ae
i?eeaaeeo neiieaiea ieoioiiae?ee, eioi?ui i?eienuaaaony o/anoea a
yia?aaoe/aneii iaiaia eeaoee. Iaei/eieanouea c?eoaeueiua

eeaoee yaeythony aiia?aoii noia?a/iiai c?aiey, oieai/eiianouea eeaooe —
aiia?aoii oeaio?aeueiiai e oeaaoiaiai c?aiey.

ssae?a iaei/ei- e eieai/eiianoueo c?eoaeueiuo eeaoie ninoaaeytho
ia?oaeiue ca?ienoue neie, eioi?ue ?aniieaaaaony eioo?e io ia?oaeiie
ae/aeueiie iia?aie/iie iaia?aiu.

Naycue ia?aiai e aoi?iai iae?iiia iaania/eaatho neiainu, ?aniieiaeaiiua
a ia?oaeiii nao/aoii, eee ieaoneoi?ieii, neia. A ia?aaea/a ia?aiiai
eiioeuena ea?atho ?ieue oeie/aneea aauanoaa — iaaeeaoi?u (a /anoiinoe,
aoeaoeeoieei), eioi?ua iaeaieeaathony a neiainao.

Aioo?aiiee ca?ienoue noie i?aaenoaaeai oaiaie e yae?aie aeiiey?iuo
iae?ioeeoia (aoi?ie iae?ii c?eoaeueiiai aiaeecaoi?a). Yoe eeaoee eiatho
aeaa io?inoea’: iaeei ec ieo iai?aaeai eia?oaee, iaano?a/o
neeaioe/ainiio aiia?aoo oioinaini?iuo eeaoie, ae?oaie — eeoo?e aeey
ia?aciaaiey neiaina n eaiae?eoaie iioeei-aaiaeeiia?iuo eeaoie. Aothey?u
aoiaeyo a eiioaeo n ianeieueeeie iaei/eiauie eeaoeaie, a oi a?aiy eae
eaaeaeay eieai/eiaay eeaoea eiioaeoe?oao n iaeiie aeiiey?iie eeaoeie,
/oi iniaaiii au?aaeaii a iaeanoe aeaeoiai iyoia.

Aioo?aiiee nao/aoue neie i?aaenoaaeai neiainaie aeiiey?iuo e
iioeei-aaiaeeiia?iuo iae?ioeeoia.

Iioeei-aaiaeeiia?iua eeaoee (o?aoee^ae?ii c?eoaeueiiai aiaeeca-oi?a)
ninoaaeytho ainueiie neie. Oaei yoeo eeaonyA^aiaaoi i?ioiieaciie,
niaea?aeeo e?oiiia yae?i. Eeaoea eiaao neeueii aaoayueany aeaiae?eou e
iaeei aenii — oeeeeiae?. Aeniiu ia?acotho noie ia?aiuo aieieii e,
niae?aynue a io/ie, oi?ie?otho c?eoaeueiue ia?a.

Iiaeaea?aeeaathuay oeaiue i?aaenoaaeaia iae?iaeeae, iia?aie/iuie
iaia?aiaie e iaaeooi/iui aauanoaii, eioi?ia eiaao nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea
a iaiaiiuo i?ioeannao.

A iaeanoe aeaeoiai iyoia_no?iaiea nao/aoee iaiyaony. Ii ia?a
i?eaeeaeaiey” e oeaio?aeueiie yiea aeaeoiai iyoia (fo»ea centralis)
en/acaao neie ia?aiuo aieieii, caoai — noie iioaei-aaiaeeiaa?iuo eeaoie
e aioo?aiiee nao/aoue noie e, iaeiiaoe, aioo?aiiee ca?ienoue neie yaea?
e ia?oaeiue ?aoeeoey?iue. Ia aeea_oeaio?aeueiie yiee nao/aoea ninoieo
eeoue ec eieai/eiianoueo^Aeaoie.. ‘Inoaeueiua yeaiaiou eae au naeaeioou
e e?ath aeaeoiai iyoia. Oaeia no?iaiea iaania/eaaao aunieia
oeaio?aeueiia c?aiea.

C?EOAEUeIUA IOOE

A iioe/aneii i?iaiaeyuai iooe ?acee/athoiyoue /anoae:

1) c?eoaeueiue ia?a; 2) oeacio, a eioi?ie i?ienoiaeeo /anoe/iue
ia?ae?ano aieieii c?eoaeueiuo ia?aia; 3) c?eoaeueiue o?aeo; 4) ia?oaeiua
eieai/aoua oaia, c?eoaeueiay eo/enoinoue; 5) iioe/aneee oeaio?
aini?eyoey (nssiira~calcarina) (?en. 11).

C?eoaeueiue ia?a (nervus opticus) ioiineony e /a?aiiui ia?aai (II ia?a).
Ii ia?acoaony ec inaauo oeeeeiae?ia iioeei-aaiaeeiia?iuo iae?ioeeoia. Ni
anao noi?ii nao/aoee inaaua oeeeeiae?u niae?athony e aeeneo,
oi?ie?othony a ioaeaeueiua io/ee e /a?ac ?aoao/aooth ieanoeieo auoiaeyo
ec aeaca.

Ia?aiua aieieia ec oiaaaeueiie iaeanoe (oae iacuaaaiue
iaiieei-eaeoey?iue io/ie) iai?aaeythony a aeni/ioth iieiaeio aeenea
c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa, caieiay aieueooth /anoue yoie iieiaeiu.

ci”

Inaaua oeeeeiae?u iioeei-aaiaeeiia?iuo iae?ioeeoia iiniaie iieiaeiu
nao/aoee eaeoo j> iiniaoth iieiaeio aeenea. Aieieia io ia?oaeiuo
ioaeaeia nao/aoee niae?athony a naeoi?u iaae e iiae iaiee-ei-iaeoey?iui
io/eii. Iiaeiaiua niioiioaiey aieieii nio?aiythony a ia?aaeiae /anoe
i?aeoaeueiiai io?acea c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa. Aeaeueoa io aeaca
iaeeeei-iaeoey?iue io/ie caieiaao inaaia iieiaeaiea, a aieieia
oaiii?aeueiuo ioaeaeia nao/aoee ia?aaeaeaathony ia anth oaiii?aeueioth
iieiaeio ia?aa, eae au ieoouaay nia?oaee iaieeei-iaeoey?iue io/ie e
ioiaeaeaay aai e oeaio?o.

Aeaeaa c?eoaeueiue ia?a a aeaea e?oaeiai eaiaoeea iai?aaeyaony e
aa?oooea i?aeou e /a?ac canalis opticus i?ioiaeeo a n?aaeithth /a?aiioth
yieo.

A i?aeoa ia?a eiaao S-ia-?aciue ecaea, /oi i?aaeioa?auaao ?anoyaeaiea
aai eae i?e yeneo?neyo aeaciiai yaeiea, oae e i?e iiaiia?aciaaieyo eee
ainiaeaieyo. Aianoa n oai ioia/athony iaaeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey, a eioi?uo
iaoiaeyony eio?aea-iaeeeoey?iue ioaeae ia?aa. Eaiae ieioii ioaaouaaao
c?eoaeueiue ia?a. E oiio aea ia?a i?ioiaeeo aaeece ?aoao/aoie e iniiaiie
iacoo, iiaeaa?aaynue ?eneo auoue naeaaeaiiui e ii?aaeaiiui i?e anyeiai
?iaea neioeoao. I?ieaey eaiae, c?eoaeueiue ia?a iiiaaeaao a iieinoue
/a?aia.

Oaeei ia?acii, a c?eoaeueiii ia?aa iiaeii auaeaeeoue eio?aieo-ey?ioth,
eio?ai?aeoaeueioth, eio?aeaiaeeeoey?eoth e eio?ao?aie-aeueioth /anoe.
Iauay aeeeia c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa ac?ineiai /aeiaaea ninoaaeyao a n?aaeiai
44—45 ii._ Ia i?aeoo i?eoiaeeony i?eia?ii 35 ii aeeeiu c?eoaeueiiai
ia?aa. C?eoaeueiue ia?a iaeao o?aiy iaiei/eaie, eioi?ua yaeythony
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui i?iaeieaeaieai o?ao iicaiauo iaiei/ae.

A oeacia niaa?oaaony ?anneiaiea e /anoe/iue ia?ae?ano aieieii
c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa. Ia?ae?aueaathony aieieia, eaeouea io aioo?aiieo
iieiaei nao/aoee. Aieieia, eaeouea io aeni/iuo iieiaei nao/aoee,
?aniieaaathony ii ia?oaeiui noi?iiai oeaciu. Io oeaciu ia/eiathony
c?eoaeueiua o?aeou. I?aaue c?eoaeueiue o?aeo aeeth/aao iaia?ae?auaiiua
aieieia, eaeouea io i?aaiai aeaca, e ia?ae?auaiiua aieieia —

31

_-._^. ^. ^viebivi-aaiii ?aniieiaeaiu aieieia eaaiai c?eoaeueiiai
o?aeoa. A oaeii iieiaeaiee aieieia inoathony aei eieai/aouo eaoa?aeueiuo
oae, a eioi?uo ia/eiaaony eio?aoea?aa?aeueii eaeouee »aoaa?oue iae?ii
c?eoaeueiiai aiaeecaoi?a. I?ieaey aioo?aiithth eainoeo, c?eoaeueiua iooe
ia?acotho eo/enoinoue, caeai/eaathuothny a iioe/aneii ei?eiaii iiea
(lobus opticus), aaea iaoiaeeony iyoue iae?ii c?eoaeueiiai aiaeecaoi?a.

AIOO?AIIAA ssAe?I AEACA

Aioo?aiiaa yae?i aeaca ninoieo ec i?ic?a/iuo naaoii?aiiieythueo n?aae:
noaeeiaeaeiiai oaea, o?onoaeeea e aiaeyienoie aeaae, iaiieiythuae
aeaciua eaia?u.

Eaia?u aeaca

Ia?aaeiyy eaia?a aeaca (camera anteria oculi)—yoi i?ino?ainoai,
ia?aaeithth noaieo eioi?iai ia?acoao ?iaiaeoea, caaeithth — ?aaeoaeiay
iaiei/ea, a a iaeanoe c?a/ea — oeaio?aeueiay /anoue” ia?aaeiae eainoeu
o?onoaeeea. Ianoi, aaea ?iaiaeoea ia?aoiaeeo a neea?o, a ?aaeoaeea — a
?anie/iia oaei, iineo iacaaiea oaea ia?aaeiae eaia?u. O aa?oeiu oaea
ia?aaeiae eaia?u iaoiaeeony iiaeaea?aeeaathuee inoia oaea eaia?u —
ei?iaineea?aeueiay o?aaaeoea. A ia?aciaaiee o?aaaeo-eu i?eieiatho
o/anoea yeaiaiou ?iaiaeiu, ?aaeoaeee e oeeeea?iiai oaia. O?aaaeoea a
naith i/a?aaeue yaeyaony aioo?aiiae noaieie aaiiciie iacooe neea?u, eee
oeaieiaa eaiaea. Inoia oaea e aaiiciay iacooa neea?u eiatho i/aiue
aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey oee?eoeyoeee aeeaeeinoe a aeaco. Yoi iniiaiie
iooue iooiea aioo?eaeaciie aeeaeeinoe (ni. ?en. 7). Aeoaeia ia?aaeiae
eaia?u aa?eaaaeueia. Iaeaieueoay aeoaeia ioia/aaony a oeaio?aeueiie
/anoe ia?aaeiae eaia?u, ?aniieiaeaiiie i?ioea c?a/ea: caeanue iia
aeinoeaaao 3—3,5 ii. A oneiaeyo iaoieiaee aeeaaiinoe/aneia cia/aiea
i?eia?aoaao eae aeoaeia eaia?u, oae e aa ia?aaiiia?iinoue.

Caaeiyy eaia?a ?aniieiaeaia iicaaee ?aaeoaeee, eioi?ay yaeyaony aa
ia?aeeae noaieie. Ia?oaeiie noaieie neoaeeo oeeeea?iia oaei, caaeiae —
ia?aaeiyy iiaa?oiinoue noaeeiaeaeiiai oaea. Aioo?aiithth noaieo
ia?acotho yeaaoi? o?onoaeeea e i?aaeyeaaoi?eaeueiua ciau ia?aaeiae e
caaeiae iiaa?oiinoae o?onoaeeea. Ana i?ino?ainoai caaeiae eaia?u
i?iiecaii oea?eeeaie ?anie/iiai iiynea, eioi?ua iiaeaea?aeeaatho
o?onoaeee a iiaeaaoaiiii ninoiyiee e niaaeeiytho aai n ?anie/iui oaeii
(ni. ?en. 7).

Eaia?u aeaca caiieiaiu aiaeyienoie aeaaie—i?ic?a/iie aaniaao- • iie
aeeaeeinoueth ieioiinoueth 1,005—1,007 n iieacaoaeai i?aeiieaiey 1,33.
Eiee/anoai aeaae o /aeiaaea aa i?aauoaao 0,2—0,5 ie. Au?aaaouaaaiay
ieiea?aui oaeii aiaeyienoay aeaaa niaea?aeeo niee, neaaeu aaeea,
anei?aeiiaoth eeneioo.

O?onoaee;

O?onoaeee (lens crystaHina) ?acaeaaaony ac yeoiaea?iu. Yoi
eneeth/eoaeueii yieoaeeaeueiia ia?aciaaiea. Ii eciee?iaai io inoaeue-

32

iuo iaiei/ae aeaca eainoeie, ia niaea?aeeo ia?aia, ninoaeia y ae?oaeo
eaeeo-eeai iaciaea-?iaeueiuo eeaoie. A nayce n yoei a o?onoaeeea ia
iiaoo aicieeaoue ainiaeeoaeueiua uoioeainu.

O ac?ineiai /aeiaaea o?onoaeee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ic?a/iia, neaaea
aeaeoiaaoia, neeueii i?aeiieythuaa naao oaei, eiathuaa oi?io
aeaiyeiauioeeie eeicu. Ii neea i?aeiieaiey o?onoaeee yaeyaony aoi?ie
n?aaeie (iinea ?iaiaeoeu) iioe/aneie nenoaiu aeaca. Aai i?aeiieythuay
neea a n?aaeiai 18,0 aeio?. ?aniieiaeai o?onoaeee iaaeaeo ?a-

aeoaeeie e noaeeiaeaeiui oaeii, a oaeoaeaiee ia?aaeiae iiaa?oiinoe
iineaaeiaai. Oaea?aeeaatho aai a yoii iieiaeaiee aieieia ?anie/iiai
iiynea (zonula ciliaris). eioi?ua ae?oaei naiei eiioeii i?ee?aieythony o
aioo?aiiae iiaa?oiinoe ?anie/iiai oaea.

O?onoaeee ninoieo ec o?onoaeeeiauo aieieii, ninoaaeythueo aauanoai
o?onoaeeea, e noiee-eainoeu. Eiinenoaioeey o?onoaeeea a iieiaeua aiaeu
iyaeay. N aic?anoii oaaee/eaaaony ieioiinoue iaeo?aeueiie aai /anoe,
iiyoiio i?eiyoi auaeaeyoue ei?o o?onoaeeea e yae?i o?onoaeeea. A
o?onoaeeea ?acee/atho yeaaoi? e aeaa iiethna — ia?aaeiee e caaeiee (?en.
12). Oneiaii ii yeaaoi?o o?onoaeee aeaeyo ia ia?aaeithth e caaeithth
iiaa?oiinoe. Eeiey, niaaeeiythuay ia?aaeiee e caaeiee iiethna,
iacuaaaony inueth o?onoaeeea. Aeeaiao? o?onoaeeea 9—10 ii.
Ia?aaeiacaaeiee aai ?acia? 3,5 ii. Ia?aaeiyy iiaa?oiinoue o?onoaeeea
iaiaa auioeeay, /ai caaeiyy.

Aenoieiae/anee o?onoaeee ninoieo ec eainoeu, yieoaeey eainoeu e aieieii.
Eainoea o?onoaeeea ii yeaaoi?o oneiaii aeaeeony ia ia?aaeithth e
caaeithth. Yieoaeee iie?uaaao eeoue aioo?aiithth iiaa?oiinoue ia?aaeiae
eainoeu, iiyoiio iineo iacaaiea yieoaeey ia?aaeiae noiee. Eeaoee aai
eiatho oanoeoaieueioth oi?io. O yeaaoi?a eeaoee i?eia?aoatho auoyioooth
oi?io e i?aa?auathony a o?onoaeeeiaia aieieii. Ia?aciaaiea aieieii
niaa?oaaony a oa/aiea anae aeecie, /oi i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth iauaia
o?onoaeeea. Iaeiaei /?acia?iiai oaaee/aiey o?onoaeeea ia i?ienoiaeeo,
oae eae oeaio?aeueiua, aieaa noa?ua aieieia oa?ytho aiaeo, iieioiaaatho,
noaiiayony oaea e iinoaiaiii a eo oeaio?a ia?acoaony eiiiaeoiia yae?i.
Yoi yaeaiea neea?ici?iaaiey neaaeoao ?anoeaieaaoue eae oeceieiae/aneea
i?ioeann, eioi?ue i?eaiaeeo eeoue e oiaiueoaieth iauaia aeeiiiaeaoeee
(ni. ?acaeae «Aeeiiiaeaoeey»), ii i?aeoe/anee ia nieaeaao i?ic?a/iinoe
o?onoaeeea.

O?onoaeee aianoa n ?anie/iui iiyneii ia?acoao ?anie/ii-o?onoaeeeiaoth
aeeao?aaio, eioi?ay aeaeeo iieinoue aeaca ia aeaa ia?aaiua /anoe:
iaiueooth — ia?aaeithth e aieueooth — caaeithth.

Noaeeiaeaeiia oaei

Noaeeiaeaeiia oaei (corpus vitreum) yaeyaony /anoueth iioe/aneie nenoaiu
aeaca. Iii auiieiyao iieinoue aeaciiai yaeiea, ca eneeth/aieai ia?aaeiae
e caaeiae eaia? aeaca, e oaeei ia?acii niinianoaoao nio?aiaieth aai
oo?ai?a e oi?iu. Ii iiaieth ?yaea enneaaeiaaoaeae, noaeeiaeaeiia oaei a
ecaanoiie noaiaie iaeaaeaao aii?oece?othueie naienoaaie, iineieueeo aai
aeaeaeaiey nia/aea yaeythony ?aaiiia?ii onei?aiiuie, a caoai ?aaiiia?ii
caiaaeeaiiuie. Iauai noaeeiaeaeiiai oaea ac?ineiai /aeiaaea 4 ie. Iii
ninoieo ec ieioiiai inoiaa e aeeaeeinoe, i?e/ai ia aeieth aiaeu
i?eoiaeeony ieiei 99% anaai ninoaaa noaeeiaeaeiiai oaea. Oai ia iaiaa
ayceinoue noaeeiaeaeiiai” oaea a ianeieueei aeanyoeia ?ac auoa ayceinoe
aiaeu. Ayceinoue noaeeiaeaeiiai oaea, yaeythuaainy aaeaia?aciie n?aaeie,
caaeneo io niaea?aeaiey a aai inoiaa iniauo aaeeia — aeo?iceia e
iooeeia. N ioeii?ioaeaeaii naycaia aeaeo?iiiaay eeneioa, ea?athuay
aaaeioth ?ieue a iiaeaea?aeaiee oo?ai?a aeaca. Ii oeie/aneiio ninoaao
noaeeiaeaeiia oaei i/aiue noiaeii n eaia?iie aeaaie, a oaeaea ni
nieiiiiicaiaie aeeaeeinoueth.

Aeey iiieiaiey iniaaiiinoae no?iaiey noaeeiaeaeiiai caea e
iaoieiae/aneeo eciaiaiee a iai iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea ia
yoaiao aai ?acaeoey. Ia?ae/iia noaeeiaeaeiia oaei yaeyaony
iaciaea?iaeueiui ia?aciaaieai e aanueia aeaeaei io ieii/aoaeueiiai
naiaai aeaea — i?ic?a/iiai aaey. Aoi?e/iia noaeeiaeaeiia oaei ninoieo ec
iaciaea?iu e yeoiaea?iu. A yoio ia?eiae ia/eiaao oi?ie?iaaoueny
aieieienoue inoia noaeeiaeaeiiai oaea (ec nao/aoee e ?anie/iiai oaea).

Noi?ie?iaaiiia noaeeiaeaeiia oaei (o?aoee ia?eiae) inoaaony iinoiyiiie
n?aaeie aeaca. I?e iioa?a iii ia ?aaaia?e?oao e caiaoaaony aioo?eaeaciie
aeeaeeinoueth.

Noaeeiaeaeiia oaei i?ee?aieyaony e ie?oaeathuei aai ioaeaeai aeaca a
ianeieueeeo ianoao. Aeaaiia ianoi i?ee?aieaiey iacuaatho iniiaie, eee
aacenii, noaeeiaeaeiiai oaea (?en. 13). Iniiaa

i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eieueoei, aunooiathuaa ianeieueei eia?aaee io
coa/aoiai e?ay. A iaeanoe aacena noaeeiaeaeiia oaei i?ioath naycaii n
?anie/iui yieoaeeai. Yoa naycue ianoieueei i?i/ia, /oi i?e ioaeaeaiee
noaeeiaeaeiiai oaea io iniiau a eciee?iaaiiii : aeaco aianoa n iei
io?uaathony ‘ yieoaeeaeueiua /anoe ?anie/iuo io?inoeia, inoaaaynue
i?ee?aieaiiuie e noaeeiaeaeiiio oaeo. Aoi?ia ii i?i/iinoe ianoi
i?ee?aieaiey noaeeiaeaeiiai oaea — e caaeiae eainoea o?onoaeeea —
iacuaaaony aeaeieaei-o?onoaeee iaie na.yc-e i e; nia eiaao aaaeiia
eeeie/aneia cia/aiea.

O?aouea caiaoiia ianoi i?ee?aieaiey noaeeiaeaeiiai oaea i?eoiaeeony ia
iaeanoue aeenea c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa e ii ?acia?ai niioaaonoaoao i?eia?ii
ieioaee aeenea c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa. Yoi ianoi i?ee?aieaiey iaeiaiaa
i?i/iia ec o?ao ia?a/eneaiiuo. Nouanoaotho oaeaea ianoa aieaa neaaiai
i?ee?aieaiey noaeeiaeaeiiai oaea a iaeanoe yeaaoi?a aeaciiai yaeiea.

Aieueoeinoai enneaaeiaaoaeae n/eoatho, /oi noaeeiaeaeiia oaei iniaia
iia?aie/iie iaiei/eie ia iaeaaeaao. Aieueoay ieioiinoue
ia?aaeiaai e caaeiaai iia?aie/iuo neiaa caaeneo io eiathueony caeanue
ianeieueei aieaa aonoi ?aniieiaeaiiuo ieoae inoiaa noaeeiaeaeiiai oaea.
I?e yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee onoaiiaeaii, /oi noaeeiaeaeiia oaei eiaao
oea?eeey?ioth no?oeoo?o, oea?eeeu eiatho aaee/eio ieiei 25 ii.
Aeinoaoi/ii eco/aia oiiia?aoey a e a-eieaeiiai, eee oeieaoiaa, eaiaea,
/a?ac eioi?ue a yia?eiiaeueiii ia?eiaea io aeenea c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa e
caaeiae eainoea o?onoaeeea i?ioiaeeo a?oa?ey noaeeiaeaeiiai oaea (a.
hyaloidea). Ei a?aiaie ?iaeaeaiey a. hyaloidea en/acaao, a aeaeieaeiue
eaiae nio?aiyaony a aeaea oceie o?oai/ee. Eaiae eiaao ecaeeenoue
S-ia?aciue oiae. A na?aaeeia noaeeiaeaeiiai oaea aeaeieaeiue eaiae
iiaeieiaaony eaa?oo, a a caaeiai ioaeaea eiaao oaiaeaioeeth
?aniieaaaoueny ai?eciioaeueii.

Aiaeyienoay aeaaa, o?onoaeee, noaeeiaeaeiia oaei aianoa n ?iaiaeoeae
ia?acotho i?aeiieythuea n?aaeu ‘aeaca, iaania/eaathuea io/aoeeaia
ecia?aaeaiea ia nao/aoea. Caeeth/aiiua a caieioooth ni anao noi?ii
eainoeo aeaca aiaeyienoay aeaaa e noaeeiaeaeiia oaei ieacuaatho ia
noaiee ii?aaeaeaiiia aeaaeaiea, iiaeaea?aeeaatho ecaanoioth noaiaiue
iai?yaeaiey, iaoneiaeeaatho oiion aeaca, aioo?eaeaciia aeaaeaiea

AEACIEOeA

Aeacieoea (orbita) — einoiia aianoeeeua aeey aeaca. Iia eiaao oi?io
/aou?aoa?aiiie ie?aieaeu, ia?auaiiie naiei iniiaaieai eia?aaee e
eia?oaee, aa?oeiie — ecaaee e eioo?e. Aeeeia ia?aaeiae ine i?aeou 4—5
ni, aunioa a iaeanoe aoiaea 3,5 ni, oe?eia 4 ni (?en. 14).

A aeacieoea ?acee/atho /aou?a noaiee: aioo?aiithth, aa?oithth,
ia?oaeioth, ieaeithth. Aioo?aiiyy noaiea naiay neiaeiay e oiieay. Aa
ia?acotho nia?aaee neaciay einoue, i?eiueathuay e eiaiiio io?inoeo
aa?oiae /aethnoe, i?aeoaeueiay ieanoeiea ?aoao/aoie einoe, ia?aaeiyy
/anoue eeeiiaeaeiie einoe.

I?e ooiuo o?aaiao iina iiaeao ia?ooeoueny oeaeinoiinoue ieanoeiee

?aoao/aoie einoe, /oi ia?aaeei i?eaiaeeo e i?aeoaeueiie yioecaia.

Ia iiaa?oiinoe neaciie einoe eiaaony y i e a aeey neaciiai iaoea,
eioi?ay iaoiaeeony iaaeaeo ia?aaeiei neaciui a?aaaoeii a eiaiii io?inoea
aa?oiae /aethnoe e caaeiei neaciui a?aaaoeii neaciie einoe. Io yiee
ia/eiaaony neacii-iiniaie einoiue eaiae, eioi?ue ioe?uaaaony a ieaeiai
iiniaii oiaeo. Aioo?aiiyy noaiea ioaeaeyao i?aeoo io ?aoao/aoie iacooe.
Iaaeaeo i?aeoaeueiia ieanoeieie ?aoao/aoie einoe e eiaiie einoueth
iaoiaeyony ia?aaeiea e caaeiea ?aoao/aoua ioaa?noey, /a?ac eioi?ua ec
aeacieoeu a iieinoue, iina i?ioiaeyo iaeiieiaiiua a?oa?ee, a ec iieinoe
iina a i?aeoo i?iieeatho iaeiieiaiiua aaiu.

Aa?oithth noaieo i?aeou ninoaaeytho i?aeoaeueiay /anoue eiaiie einoe e
iaeia e?uei eeeiiaeaeiie einoe. O aa?oiaaioo?aiiaai ooea i?aeou a oieua
eiaiie einoe iaoiaeeony eiaiay iacooa. Ia a?aieoea aioo?aiiae e n?aaeiae
o?aoe aa?oiaai i?aeoaeueiiai e?ay eiaaony noi?ai?aeoaeueiia ioaa?noea,
eee au?acea, — ianoi auoiaea iaeiieiaiiuo a?oa?ee e ia?aa. Ia 5 ii
ecaaee io au?acee ?aniieaaaaony einoiue aeieiaeaeiue oei (trochlea),
/a?ac eioi?ue ia?aeeaeuaaaony nooiaeeeea aa?oiae einie iuooeu. O
ia?oaeiiai e?ay aa?oiae noaiee anoue yiea — aianoeeeua aeey neaciie
aeaeacu. Ia?oaeioth noaieo ninoaaeytho eiaiue io?inoie neoeiaie einoe,
neoeiaie io?inoie eiaiie einoe, aieueoia e?uei eeeiiaeaeiie einoe.

Ieaeiyy noaiea i?aeou i?aaenoaaeaia aa?oiae /aethnoueth, neoeiaie
einoueth e aeacie/iui io?inoeii iaaiie einoe. Iia ioaeaeyao i?aeoo io
/aethnoiie iacooe. Oaeei ia?acii, aeacieoea n o?ao noi?ii eiioaeoe?oao n
iacooaie iina, ioeoaea ia?aaeei a iaa ?ani?ino?aiythony iaoieiae/aneea
i?ioeannu.

Ia a?aieoea aa?oiae e ia?oaeiie noaiie a aeoaeia aeacieoeu eiaaony
aa?oiyy aeacie/iay uaeue. Iia ?aniieiaeaia iaaeaeo aieueoei e iaeui
e?ueii eeeiiaeaeiie einoe. *a?ac aa?oithth aeacie/ioth uaeue i?iieeatho
ana aeaciaeaeaaoaeueiua ia?au, I aaoaue o?ieie/iiai ia?aa, a oaeaea
iieeaeaao i?aeoo aa?oiyy aeacie/iay aaia (v. ophthalniica superior).

A ieaeiaia?oaeiii oaeo aeacieoeu iaaeaeo aieueoei e?ueii eeeiiaeaeiie
einoe e aa?oiae /aethnoueth ?aniieaaaaony ieaeiyy aeacie/iay uaeue,
niaaeeiythuay i?aeoo n e?ueoiiaaiie yieie. Uaeue cae?uoa ieioiie
oea?iciie ia?aiiieie, aeeth/athuae aeaaeeea iuoa/iua aieieia; /a?ac iaa
i?iieeaao a i?aeoo ieaeiai?aeoaeueiue ia?a e ooiaeeo ieaeiaaeacie/iay
aaia. O aa?oeiu aeacieoeu, a iaeii e?uea iniiaiie einoe, i?ioiaeeo eaiae
c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa, eioi?ue ioe?uaaaony a n?aaeithth /a?aiioth yieo.
*a?ac yoio eaiae ooiaeeo ec i?aeou c?eoaeueiue ia?a (n. opticus) a
i?iieeaao a i?aeoo a. ophthalniica.

E?ae i?aeou ieioiaa, /ai aa noaiee. Ii ianao caueoioth ooieoeeth.
Ecioo?e i?aeoo aunoeeaao iaaeeinoieoea, eioi?ay ieioii n?auaia n einoyie
oieueei ii e?ath e a aeoaeia i?aeou, iiyoiio i?e iaoieiae/aneeo
ninoiyieyo eaaei ioneaeaaaony. Aoiae a i?aeoo cae?uaaao
oa?cii?aeoaeueiay oanoeey, eee septum orbitae. Iia i?ee?aieyaony e

e?ayi i?aeou e o?yuae aae. E i?aeoa neaaeoao ioiineoue eeoue oa
ia?aciaaiey, eioi?ua eaaeao iicaaee septum orbitae. Neaciue iaoie eaaeeo
eia?aaee io oanoeee, iiyoiio ii ioiineony e yeno?ai?aeoaeueiui
ia?aciaaieyi. Oanoeey i?aiyonoaoao ?ani?ino?aiaieth ainiaeeoaeueiuo
i?ioeannia, eieaeecothueony a iaeanoe aae e neaciiai iaoea. O e?aaa
i?aeou oa?cii?aeoaeueiay oanoeey iaoiaeeony a oaniie nayce n oiieie
niaaeeieoaeueiioeaiiie ia?aiiieie, iaeaaathuae aeaciia yaeiei, eae
noieie (vagina buibi, eee oaiiiiaa eainoea). Aia?aaee yoa noiea
aieaoaaony a noaeiiuthonoeaaeueeoth oeaiue. Iia eae au aeaeeo i?aeoo ia
aeaa ioaeaea — ia?aaeiee e caaeiee. A ia?aaeiai ?aniieaaathony aeaciia
yaeiei e ieii/aiea iuooe, aeey eioi?uo oanoeey ia?acoao aeaaaeeua. A
caaeiai ioaeaea i?aeou iaoiaeyony c?eoaeueiua ia?a, iuooeu,
ninoaeenoi-ia?aiua ia?aciaaiey e aee?iaay eeao/aoea. Iaaeaeo oanoeeae
aeaca e aeaciui yaeieii eiaaony eaieeey?iay uaeue n iaaeoeaiaaie
aeeaeeinoueth, /oi iicaieyao aeaciiio yaeieo naiaiaeii a?auaoueny,
iiaeiaii oa?iaeaeiiio nonoaao.

A aeacieoea, iiieii iacaaiiuo oanoeee, iaoiaeeony nenoaia
niaaeeieoaeueiioeaiiuo naycie, eioi?ua oaea?aeeaao aeaciia yaeiei a
iiaeaaoaiiii ninoiyiee, eae a aaiaea.

AEACIAeAEAAOAEUeIUA IUOOeU

E aeaciaeaeaaoaeueiui iuooeai ioiinyony /aou?a i?yiua— aa?oiyy, ieaeiyy,
ia?oaeiay e aioo?aiiyy e aeaa einua — aa?oiyy e ieaeiyy (?en.15). Ana
iuooeu (e?iia aeaeiae einie) ia/eiathony io nooiaeeeueiiai eieueoea,
niaaeeiaiiiai n ia?einoii i?aeou aie?oa eaiaea c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa. Iie
eaeoo aia?aae

37

?anoiaeyueiny io/eii, ia?acoy iuoa/ioth ai?iieo, i?iaiaeatho oaeiiiao
eainoeo e i?ee?aieythony e neea?a: aioo?aiiyy i?yiay iuooea— ia
?annoiyiee 5,5ii io ?iaiaeoeu, ieaeiyy— 6,5ii, ia?oaeiay — 7 ii, aa?oiyy
— 8 ii. Eeiey i?ee?aieaiey nooiaeeeee aioo?aiiae e ia?oaeiie i?yiuo
iuooe eaeao ia?aeeaeueii eeiao, /oi iaoneiaeeaaao /enoi aieiaua
aeaeaeaiey, eoo?ayiyy i?yiay iuooea iiai?a/eaaao aeac eioo?e, a
ia?oaeiay — eia?oaee. Eeiey i?ee?aieaiey aa?oiae e ieaeiae i?yiuo iuooe
?aniieaaaaony eini: aeni/iue eiiaoe ionoieo io eeiaa aeaeueoa, /ai
iiniaie. Oaeia i?ee?aieaiea iaania/eaaao iiai?io ia oieueei eaa?oo a
eieco, ii iaeiiiiiayoii e . ‘ eioo?e. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aa?oiyy i?yiay
iuooea iaania/eaaao iiai?io aeaca eaa?oo e eioo?e, ieaeiyy i?yiay —
eieco e eioo?e. Aa?oiyy einay iuooea eaeao oaeaea io nooiaeeeueiiai
eieueoea eaiaea c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa, 7 iai?aaeyaony caoai eaa?oo e
eioo?e, ia?aa?anuaaaony /a?ac einoiue

– aeie i?aeou, iiai?a/eaaao iacaae e aeaciiio yaeieo, i?ioiaeeo iiae .
aa?oiae i?yiie iuooeae e aaa?ii i?ee?aieyaony iicaaee yeaaoi?a.

– Aa?oiyy einay iuiie i?e nie?auaiee iiai?a/eaaao aeac eieco e eia?oaee.
Ieaeiyy einay iuooea aa?ao ia/aei io iaaeeinoieoeu ieaeiaaioo?aiiaai
e?ay i?aeou, i?ioiaeeo iiae ieaeiae i?yiie iuooeae e i?ee?aieyaony e
neea?a iicaaee yeaaoi?a. I?e nie?auaiee yoa iuooea iiai?a/eaaao aeac
eaa?oo e eia?oaee.

– Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeieiaoaeyie aeaca yaeythony aa?oiyy* i?yiay e
ieaeiyy einay iuooeu, i ione a aaeyie neoaeao ieaeiyy i?yiay e aa?oiyy
einay iuooeu. Ooieoeeth aaaeoeoeee auiieiyao ia?oaeiay i?yiay, aa?oiyy e
ieaeiyy einua iuooeu, ooieoeeth aaeaeoeoeee—aioo?aiiyy, aa?oiyy e
ieaeiyy i?yiua iuooeu aeaca.

Eiia?aaoeey iuooe aeaca inouanoaeyaony aeaciaeaeaaoayueiui,
aeiei-aeaeeui e ioaiaeyuei ia?aaie. Aa?oiyy einay iuooea eiea?ae?oaony
aeieiaeaeiui ia?aii, ia?oaeiay i?yiay iieo/aao eiia?aaoeeth io
ioaiaeyuaai ia?aa. Ana inoaeueiua iuooeu eiia?ae?oao
aeaciaeaeaa-oaeueiue ia?a. Neiaeiua ooieoeeiiaeueiua acaeiiioiioaiey
aeaciuo iuooe eiatho aieueoia cia/aiea a annioeee?iaaiiuo aeaeaeaieyo
aeac.

1

AIAOIIEss E OECEIEIAEss AAE

Aaee (palpebrae) a aeaea iiaeaeaeiuo caneiiie i?ee?uaatho ia?aaeithth
iiaa?oiinoue aeaciiai yaeiea, caoeoay aai oai naiui io a?aaeiuo aiaoieo
aicaeaenoaee. Neieuecy ii aeaco i?e ieaaoaeueiuo aeaeaeaieyo, iie
?aaiiia?ii ?ani?aaeaeytho neaco e iiaeaea?aeeaatho “‘iaiaoiaeeioth
aeaaeiinoue ?iaiaie iaiei/ee e eiiuthieoeau e, e?iia oiai, niuaatho n
iiaa?oiinoe aeaca iiiaaoea iaeeea eii?iaeiua oaea e niinianoaotho eo
oaeaeaieth.

Iau/iia iinoiyiiia ieaaiea ai a?aiy aiae?noaiaaiey niaa?oaaony
?aoeaeoi?ei. Iii i?ienoiaeeo a ioaao ia ?acae?aaeaiea iiiai/eneaiiuo
ia?aiuo ieii/aiee i?e iaeaeoai iiaenuoaiee yieoaeey ?iaiaeoeu. I?e y?eie
aniuoea naaoa, i?aauaaiee a aoiinoa?a aaeeeo ia?ia e aacia, iaeaeoai
i?eeiniiaaiee e ?anieoeai eee aiacaiii iiyaeaoaeny oa?ica iia?aaeaeaiey
oaeaea ?aoeaeoi?ii i?ienoiaeeo ieioiia niueaiea aae.

Yoio caueoiue ?aoeaen iiaeao aucuaaoueny i?e ?acae?aaeaiee neecenoie
iaiei/ee ?oa, oiio?aaeaiee ino?uo, ai?ueeeo eee eeneuo ieuaauo
i?iaeoeoia, a oaeaea i?e aaeuoaiee aauanoa, ?acae?aaeathueo neecenooth
iaiei/eo iina. Ieioiia niueaiea aae ai a?aiy nia i?aaeoi?aaeaeaao
cani?aiea aeac y i?aiyonoaoao aunuoaieth ?iaiaie iaiei/ee.

E?ay aae niaaeeiythony o ia?oaeiiai e aioo?aiiaai eiioeia, ia?acoy
aeacioth uaeue ieiaeaeaaeaeiie oi?iu. Ia?oaeiue oaie aeaciie oaee
ino?ue, aioo?aiiee i?eooieai iiaeeiaiia?aciui ecaeaii. Yoio ecaea
ia?aie/eaaao i?ino?ainoai, iacuaaaiia neaciui ica?ii, a eioi?ii
iaoiaeyony neaciia iynaei— iaaieueoie aoai?ie ?iciaiai oeaaoa, a oio/an
eaoa?aeueiaa aai — iieoeoiiay neeaaeea ooieuaiiie neecenoie iaiaei/ee.
Yoe ia?aciaaiey yaeythony ?oaeeiaioaie o?aoueaai aaoa.

Aeeeia aeaciie uaee o ac?ineuo ieiei 30 ii, oe?eia — io 8 aei 15 ii. I?e
niieieiii acaeyaea i?yii ia?aae niaie aa?oiaa aaei neaaea i?ee?uaaao
aa?oiee naaiaio ?iaiaeoeu, a oi a?aiy eae ieaeiaa aaei ia aeioiaeeo aei
eeiaa ia 1—2 ii.

Oi?ia e oe?eia aeaciuo uaeae iau/ii eciaiythony i?e ?acee/iuo
yiioeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyieyo (niao, aiaa, no?aaeaiea e o. ae.),
?acae?aaeaiee aeaca aao?ii, neeueiui naaoii. Noaeaiea e eciaiaiea oi?iu
aeaciie oaee niioonoaotho ?acee/iui caaieaaaieyi aeaciiai yaeiea e aai
i?eaeaoi/iuo i?aaiia.

Naiaiaeiua e?ay aae eiatho oieueio ieiei 2 ii e i?e niueaiee aeaciie
uaee ieioii i?eeaaatho ae?oa e ae?oao. Aaei eiaao ia?aaeiaa, neaaea
naeaaeaiiia ?aa?i, ec eioi?iai ?anooo ?anieoeu, e caaeiaa, aieaa ino?ia
?aa?i, ia?auaiiia e ieioii i?eeaaathuaa e aeaciiio yaeieo. Ii anae
aeeeia aaea iaaeaeo ia?aaeiei e caaeiei ?aa?ii eiaaony iieinea ?iaiie
iiaa?oiinoe, eioi?ay iacuaaaony eioa?ia?ae-iaeueeui i?ino?ainoaii (?en.
16).

Eiaea aao i/aiue oiieay e eaaei niae?aaony a neeaaeee. Iia eiaao iaaeiua
iooeiaua aieinee, naeueiua a iioiaua aeaeacu. Iiaeeiaeiay eeao/aoea
i/aiue ?uoeay e ii/oe niaa?oaiii eeoaia aee?a. Yoei iauyniyaony
eaaeinoue aicieeiiaaiey ioaeia aae i?e ooeaao, ianoiuo ainiaeeoaeueiuo
i?ioeannao, caaieaaaieyo na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu, ii/ae e ae?oaeo
iaueo caaieaaaieyo.

I?e ioe?uoie aeaciie uaee eiaea aa?oiaai aaea ianeieueei ieaea
iaaea?iaiie aeoae aoyaeaa;

aony aaeoaue i?ee?aieythueieny e iae aieieiaie iuooeu, iiaeieiathuae
aa?oiaa aaei, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai caeanue ia?acoaony

oaoa /aai caeanue ia?acoaony

aeoaieay aa?oiyy i?aeoiiaeueiaa?aeueiay neeaaeea. Iaaaa au?aaeaiiay

ai?eciioaeueiay neeaaeea eiaaony ia ieaeiai aaoa aaeieue ieaeiaai ,
i?aeoaeueiiai e?ay. O iiaeeeuo ethaeae ae?yaeay e ?uoei naycaiiay n |
iiaeeaaeaueie oeaiyie ii?ueienoay eiaea aa?oiaai aaoa a iaeanoe j
ia?oaeiiai oaea ia?aaeei naenaao iaae aeaciie uaeueth a aeaea einie
neeaaeee, i?eaeathuae aeaco oa?aeoa?iue noa?/aneee aeae.

Iiae eiaeae ?aniieiaeaia e?oaiaay iuooea aae, a eioi?ie ?acee/atho
i?aeoaeueioth e iaeueina?aeueioth /anoe (?en. 17). Aieieia i?aeoaeueiie
/anoe ia/eiathony io eiaiiai io?inoea aa?oiae /aethnoe ia aioo?aiiae
noaiea i?aeou e, naeaeaa iieiue e?oa aaeieue e?ay i?aeou, i?ee?aieythony
o ianoa naiaai ia/aea. Aieieia iaeueiaa?aeueiie /anoe ia eiatho
e?oaiaiai iai?aaeaiey e ia?aeeaeuaathony aeoaiia?acii iaaeaeo aioo?aiiae
e ia?oaeiie nayceaie aae. Eo nie?auaiea aucuaaao niueaiea aeaciie uaee
ai a?aiy nia e i?e ieaaiee. I?e caaeio?eaaiee i?ienoiaeeo nie?auaiea
iaaeo /anoae iuooeu.

Aioo?aiiyy naycea, ia/aaoenue ieioiui io/eii io eiaiiai io?inoea aa?oiae
/aethnoe eia?aaee io ia?aaeiaai neaciiai a?aaaoea, eaeao e aioo?aiiaio
oaeo aeaciie oaee, aaea ?acaeaaeaaaony e aieaoaaony ai aioo?aiiea eiioeu
o?yuae iaieo aae. Caaeiea oea?iciua aieieia yoie . naycee io aioo?aiiaai
oaea iiai?a/eaatho iacaae e i?ee?aieythony e caaeiaio neaciiio a?aaaoeo.
Oaeei ia?acii, iaaeaeo ia?aaeiei e caaeiei eieaiaie aioo?aiiae naycee
aae e neaciie einoueth ia?acoaony oea?iciia i?ino?ainoai, a eioi?ii
?aniieiaeai neaciue iaoie.

Aieieia iaeueiaa?aeueiie /anoe, eioi?ua ia/eiathony io caaeiaai eieaia
naycee e, ia?aeeioaoenue /a?ac neaciue iaoie, i?ee?aieythony e ainoe,
iacuaatho neaciie iuooeae, eee iuooeae Ai?ia?a. Ai a?aiy ieaaiey yoa
iuooea ?anoyaeaaao noaieo neaciiai iaoea, a eioi?ii nicaeaaony aaeooi,
ionanuaathuee /a?ac neaciua eaiaeueoeu neaco ec neaciiai ica?a.

Iuoa/iua aieieia, eioi?ua eaeoo aaeieue e?ay aae iaaeaeo ei?iyie ?anieoe
e auaiaeiuie i?ioieaie iaeaiieaauo aeaeac, ninoaaeytho ?anie/ioth
iuooeo, eee iuooeo ?eieaia. I?e aa niioaaonoaothuai iaoyaeaiee caaeiaa
?aa?i aaoa ieioii i?eiueaao a. aeaco. I?aeeoey?aay iuooea eiia?ae?oaony
eeoeaaui ia?aii, i?e ia?aee/a eioi?iai iaaethaeaaony eaaiooaeuei
(lagoptalmus) — iinoiyiii ioe?uoue aeac ec-ca iaaiciiaeiinoe niueaiey
aae. . Iicaaee iaeueiaa?aeueiie /anoe i?aeeoey?iie iuooeu iaoiaeeoa!
ieioiay niaaeeieoaeueiay ieanoeiea, eioi?ay iacuaaaony o?yuii aaa
(tarsus), oioy e ia niaea?aeeo o?yuaauo eeaoie. O?yu neoaeeo inoiaii aae
e ca n/ao naiae iaaieueoie auioeeinoe i?eaeaao ei niioaaonoaothuoth
oi?io. Ii i?aeoaeueiiio e?ath o?yue iaieo aae niaaeeiythony n e?aai
i?aeou ieioiie oa?cii?aeoaeueiie oanoeeae, eioi?ay neoaeeo
oiiia?aoe/aneie a?aieoeae i?aeou. Niaea?aeeiui i?aeou yaeytho». oeaie,
eaaeauea iicaaee oanoeee.

A oieua o?yua ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii e?ath aaea caeiaeaiu iaeaiieaae aeaeacu,
i?iaeooee?othuea aee?iaie nae?ao. Auaiaeiua i?ioiee eo auoiaeyo
oi/a/iuie ioaa?noeyie a eioa?ia?aeiaeueiia i?ino?ainoai, aaea iie
i?aaeeueiui ?yaeii ?aniieaaathony aaeieue caaeiaai ?aa?a aaea. O e?ay
aaea yoe aeaeacu ia?aieaoathony aieieiaie oiiiyiooie auoa ?anie/iie
iuooeu, eioi?ua o/anoaotho a i?ioeanna auaeaeaiey nae?aoa iaeaiieaauo
aeaeac. Yoa aee?iaay niacea i?aiyonoaoao ia?aeeaaiee neacu /a?ac e?ae
aaoa e iai?aaeyao aa eaoo?e a neaciia ica?i. Iia i?aaeio?aiyao eiaeo io
iaoea?aoeee, caaea?aeeaaao iaeeea eii?iaeiua oaea a i?e cae?uoie aeaciie
uaee nicaeaao aa iieioth aa?iaoecaoeeth.

Oii/aeoay ieaiea yoiai aee?iaiai nae?aoa i?ee?uaaao eaieeey?iue neie
neacu ia iiaa?oiinoe ?iaiaeoeu, caaea?aeeaay aai enia?aiea. Aaeieue
ia?aaeiaai ?aa?a aaea a 2—3 ?yaea ?anooo ?anieoeu. Ia aa?oiai aaea iie
iau/ii cia/eoaeueii aeeeiiaa, /ai ia ieaeiai, eo aieueoa e ii
eiee/anoao. Ieiei ei?iy eaaeaeie ?anieoeu ?aniieaaathony naeueiua
aeaeacee e aeaeieciaiaiiua iioiaua aeaeacu, auaiaeiua i?ioiee eioi?uo
ioe?uaathony a aieinyiua iaoi/ee ?anieoe.

Eioa?ia?aeiaeueiia i?ino?ainoai o aioo?aiiaai oaea aeaciie uaee
aneaaenoaea ecaeaa iaaeeaeueiiai e?ay aao ia?acoao iaaieueoea aicauoaiey
— neaciua nini/ee, ia aa?oeia eioi?uo iaaieueoeie ioaa?noeyie ceytho
neaciua oi/ee — ia/aeueiay /anoue neaciuo eaiaeueoeaa.

Ii aa?oiaio i?aeoaeueiiio e?ath e o?yuo i?ee?aieyaony iuooea,
iiaeieiathuay aa?oiaa aaei, eioi?ay ia/eiaaony io iaaeeinoieoeu i?aeou a
iaeanoe c?eoaeueiiai ioaa?noey. Yoa iuooea aaeao aaeieue aa?oiae noaiee
i?aeou aia?aae a iaaeaeaei io aa?oiaai e?ay i?aeou ia?aoiaeeo a oe?ieia
nooiaeeeea. Ia?aaeiea aieieia yoiai ‘ nooiaeeeey iai?aaeythony e
iaeueiaa?aeueiiio io/eo e?oaiaie iuooeu e e eiaea aaea. Aieieia n?aaeiae
/anoe nooiaeeeey i?ee?aieythony e o?yuo, a aieieia caaeiae /anoe
iiaeoiaeyo e eiiuthieoeaa aa?oiae ia?aoiaeiie neeaaeee. N?aaeiyy /anoue
yaeyaony nianoaaiii ieii/aieai iniaie iuooeu, ninoiyuae ec aeaaeeeo
aieieii. Yoa iuooea iaoiaeeony o ia?aaeiaai eiioea eaaaoi?a a oanii
naycaia n iei. Oaeia no?ieiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea nooiaeeeee iuooeu,
iiaeieiathuae aa?oiaa aaei, iaania/eaaao iaeiia?aiaiiia iiaeieiaiea anao
/anoae aaea: eiaee, o?yua, eiiuthieoe-

au aa?oiae ia?aoiaeiie neeaaeee. Aeaa iiaeee iuooeu, iiaeieiathuae
aa?oiaa aaei, eiea?ae?othony aeaciaeaeaaoaeueiui ia?aii, n?aaeiyy aa i
/anoue, ninoiyuay ec aeaaeeeo aieieii. — neiiaoe/aneei iaiii. I?e }
ia?aee/a neiiaoe/aneiai ia?aa iaaethaeaaony iaaieueoie ioic, a oi ‘•
a?aiy eae ia?aee/ aeaciaeaeaaoaeueiiai ia?aa i?eaiaeyo e iieiiio
iiouaieth aaea. Caaeiyy iiaa?oiinoue aaea iie?uoa eiiuthieoeaie, ieioii
niayiiie n o?yuii. ‘•

NIAAeEIEOAEUeIAss, EEE NEECENOAss, IAIEI*EA AEACA

Niaaeeieoaeueiie iaiei/eie, eee eiiuthieoeaie (conjunctiva), iacuaaaony
oiieay iaiei/ea, aunoeeathuay caaeithth iiaa?oiinoue aae e aeaciia
yaeiei aieioue aei ?iaiaeoeu. Nianoaaiii ia?aaeiee i?ic?a/iue yieoaeee
?iaiaeoeu aianoa n iiaeeaaeauae iiae iei ia?aaeiae iia?aie/iie
ieanoeieie yia?eiaaiaoi/anee oaeaea ioiineony e eiiuthieoeaa. I?e
cae?uoie aeaciie uaee niaaeeieoaeueiay iaiei/ea ia?acoao caieioooth
iieinoue —eiiuthyeoeaaeue-i u e i a oie — oceia oaeaaeaeiia i?ino?ainoai
iaaeaeo aaeaie e aeacii. *anoue eiiuthieoeau, iie?uaathuoth caaeithth
iiaa?oiinoue aae, iacuaatho eiiuthieoeaie a^e^A /anoue, iie?uaathuoth
ia?aaeiee naaiaio aeaciiai yaeiea, •®e iiuthieoeaie aeaciiai yaeiea eee
neea?u. A oie /anoe, aaea eiiuthieoeaa aae, ia?acoy naiaeu, ia?aoiaeeo
ia aeaciia yaeiei, aa iacuaatho eiiuthieoeaie ia?aoiaeiuo neeaaeie, eee
n a i-ae i i®E eiiuthieoeaa ioiinyony oaeaea ?oaeeiaio o?aoueaai aaea—
aa?oeeaeueiay iieoeoiiay neeaaeea, i?ee?uaathuay aeaciia yaeiei o
aioo?aiiaai oaea aeaciie uaee, e neaciia iynoei — ia?aciaaiea, ii
no?iaieth aeeceia e eiaea.

Eiiuthieoeaa aae ieioii n?auaia n o?yuaaie ieanoeieie. Yieoaeee caeanue
iiiaineieiue, oeeeeiae?e/aneee, n aieueoei eiee/anoaii
aieaei-aeaeiueieneaoie, auaeaeythueo neecue. I?e aiaoiai iniio?a
eiiuthieoeaa aae i?aaenoaaeyaony aeaaeeie, aeaaeii-?iciaie, aeanoyuae
iaiei/eie. Iiae iae i?e ii?iaeueiii ninoiyiee i?inaa/eaathony
caeiaeaiiua a oieua o?yua ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii ?anie/iiio e?ath aaea
aeaeoiaaoua .noieaeee iaeaiieaauo aeaeac. Eeoue o ia?oaeiiai e
aioo?aiiaai eiioea ! aae iie?uaathuay eo neecenoay iaiei/ea auaeyaeeo
neaaea aeia?aie?i- \ aaiiie e aa?oaoenoie ca n/ao nini/eia. I?e
iaoieiae/aneeo ninoiyieyo (?acae?aaeaiea eee ainiaeaiea) nini/ee
aeia?o?ioe?othony, yieoaeee noaiiaeony aieaa a?oaui, eiiuthieoeaa
auaeyaeeo oa?ioiaaoie, aucuaay o aieueiuo iuouaiea cani?aiiinoe eee
nooinoe a aeaco.

Eiiuthieoeaa ia?aoiaeiuo neeaaeie ?uoei naycaia n i?eeaaeaueie oeaiyie,
a a naiaeao eae au ianeieueei ecauoi/ia, /oiau ia ia?aie/eaaoue aeaciia
yaeiei i?e aai aeaeaeaieyo. A yoie /anoe eiiuthieoeau yieoaeee ec
iiiaineieiiai oeeeeiae?e/aneiai ia?aoiaeeo a iiiaineieiue ieineee,
niaea?aeauee iaei aieaeiaeaeiuo eeaoie. Noayieoaeeaeueiay oeaiue caeanue
aiaaoa aaeaiieaeiuie yeaiaioaie e neiieaieyie eeioieaeiuo eeaoie —
oieeeeoeaie. Ia ?acae?aaeaiea eee ainiaeaiea aaeaiieaeiue neie
eiiuthieoeau ?aaae?oao oneeaiiie eeaoi/iie i?ieeoa?aoeeae e oaaee/aieai
/enea oieeeeoeia. A eiiuthieoeaa aa?oiae ia?aoiaeiie neeaaeee eiaaony
aieueoia eiee/anoai neaciuo aeaeacie.

Iaaeiay, ?uoei naycaiiay n yieneea?ie neecenoay iaiei/ea, iie?uaathuay
ia?aaeithth iiaa?oiinoue aeaciiai yaeiea, auiieiyao ooieoeeth iie?iaiiai
/oanoaeoaeueiiai yieoaeey. Iiiaineiaiue ieineee yieoaeee yoie /anoy
eiiuthieoeau aac ?aceeo a?aieoe ia?aoiaeeo ia ?iaiaoth iaiei/eo e, eiay
aiaeiae/iia no?iaiea, a ii?iaeueiii ninoiyiee eiiaaea ia i?iaiaaaaao.

A eiiuthieoeaa aeaciiai yaeiea aaeaiieaeiay oeaiue a iacia/eoaeueiii
eiee/anoaa ano?a/aaony oieueei a ia?eoa?e/aneeo ioaeaeao, a a
ia?e-eeiaaeueiii ioaeaea iieiinoueth ionoonoaoao.

Eiiuthieoeaa auiieiyao aaaeiua oeceieiae/aneea ooieoeee. Aunieee
o?iaaiue /oanoaeoaeueiie eiia?aaoeee iaania/eaaao caueoioth ?ieue: i?e
iiiaaeaiee iaeue/aeoae ni?eiee iiyaeyaony /oanoai eii?iaeiiai oaea,
oneeeaaaony nae?aoeey neacu, o/auathony ieaaoaeueiua aeaeaeaiey, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai eii?iaeiia oaei iaoaie/anee oaeaeyaony ec
eiiuthieoe-aaeueiie iieinoe. Nae?ao eiiuthieoeaaeueiuo aeaeac, iinoiyiii
nia/eaay iiaa?oiinoue aeaciiai yaeiea, auiieiyao ?ieue niacee,
oiaiueoathuae o?aiea i?e aai aeaeaeaieyo. E?iia oiai, yoio nae?ao
auiieiyao o?ioe/aneoth ooieoeeth ?iaiaie iaiei/ee. Aa?uea?iay ooieoeey
eiiuthieoeau inouanoaeyaony ca n/ao iaeeey eeioieaeiuo yeaiaioia a
iiaeneecenoie iaiei/ea aaeaiieaeiie oeaie.

AIAOIIEss E OECEIEIAEss NEAOUO I?AAIIA

Neaciua i?aaiu ii auiieiyaiie ooieoeee e aiaoiii-oiiia?aoe/a-neiio
?aniieiaeaieth aeaeyony ia neacinae?aoi?iue e neaciioaiaeyoee aiia?aou
(?en. 18). E nae?aoi?iiio aiia?aoo ioiinyony neaciay aeaeaca e ?yae
aeiaaai/iuo iaeeeo aeaeacie, ?annayiiuo a naiaeao eieutheooi-aaeueiiai
iaoea.

Neaciay aeaeaca (glandula lacrimalis) ?aniieaaaaony iiae aa?oiaia?oaeiui
e?aai i?ieou a iaeiieiaiiie yiea. Ieineei eenoeii oa?cii?aeoaeuthe
oanoeee neaciay aeaeaca ?acaeaeyaony ia aieueooth — i ? a eoaeueioth e
iaiueooth — iaeueiaa?a eue i o th /anoe.

I?aeoaeueiay /anoue aeaeacu, ne?uoay iaaenathuei iaaeaeacie/iui e?aai
eiaiie einoe e iia?oaeaiiay a neacioth yieo, iaaeinooiia aeey
iaeueiaoeee e i?iuoiuaaaony oieueei i?e iaoieiae/aneeo eciaiaieyo —
ainiaeaiee eee iiooieyo. Iaeueiaa?aeueioth /anoue iiaeii aeaeaoue i?e
auai?ioa aa?oiaai aaea e ?aceii iiai?ioa aeaca eieco e eioo?e. A yoii
neo/aa iia aunooiaao iaae aeaciui yaeieii nia?oaee iiae eiiuthieoeaie
aa?oiaai naiaea neaaea aoa?enoui ia?aciaaieai aeaeoiaaoiai oeaaoa.

Auaiaeiua i?ioiee i?aeoaeueiie /anoe aeaeacu i?ioiaeyo iaaeaeo
aeieueeaie iaeueiaa?aeueiie e aianoa n aa i?ioieaie (iauei /eneii ieiei
15—20) iaeue/aeoeie ioaa?noeyie ioe?uaathony a ia?oaeiie iieiaeia
aa?oiaai eiiuthieoeaaeueiiai naiaea. E?iainiaaaeaaony neaciay aeaeaca
neaciie a?oa?eae, yaeythuaeny aaoaueth aeacie/iie a?oa?ee. ^Eiia?aaoeey
neaciie aeaeacu neiaeiay: /oanoaeoaeueioth eiia?aaoeeth iaania/eaaao
neaciue ia?a, enoiaeyuee ec I aaoae o?ieie/iiai ia?aa. iiieii yoiai,
aeaeaca eiaao ia?aneiiaoe/aneea e neiiaoe/aneea ia?aiua aieieia. Oeaio?
neaciioaeaeaiey iaoiaeeony ai acaeiiaeaenoaee nOe?oaeie oeaio?aie e
?aaae?oao ia neaiaeu, iinooiathuea ec ?aciuo ?aoeaioi?iuo cii.

Neaca i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ic?a/ioth aeeaeeinoue neaaiuaei/iie ?aaeoeee
ieioiinoueth 1,008. Oeie/aneee ninoaa neacu: aiaeu 97,8%;

nieae 1,8%, inoaeueioth /anoue ninoaaeytho aaeee, eeieaeu,
ioeiiieena-oa?eaeu e ae?oaea i?aaie/aneea eiiiiiaiou. ”

Neaciua i?aaiu auiieiytho aaaeiaeooth caueoioth ooieoeeth. Neaca
iaiaoiaeeia aeey iinoiyiii! e oaeaaeiaiey ?iaiaeoeu, iiauoathuaai aa
iioe/aneea naienoaa, e aeey iaoaie/aneiai auiuaaiey iiiaaoae a aeac
iuee. Aeaaiaea?y niaea?aeaieth aiaeu, nieae, aaeeiauo e eeieaeiuo
o?aeoeee neaca auiieiyao aaaeioth aeey ?iaiaie iaiei/ee o?ioe/aneoth
ooieoeeth. Iniaia aaeeiaia aauanoai eeciiei iaeaaeaao au?aaeaiiui
aaeoa?eoeeaeiui aeaenoaeai.

A ii?iaeueiii ninoiyiee aeey nia/eaaiey aeaciiai yaeiea o?aaoaony
iacia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai neacu (0,4—1 ie ca nooee), au?aaaouaaaiie
eiiuthieoeaaeueauie aeiaaai/iuie neaciuie aeaeacaie. Neaciay aeaeaca
anooiaao a aeaenoaea eeoue a iniauo neo/ayo: i?e iiiaaeaiee a aeac
./anoeoe ec ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, eiioaeoa n ?acae?aaeathueie aacaie,
aeaenoaee ineaieythuaai naaoa, oneeaiiii aunuoaiee (o aea?eiai eino?a,
ia neeueiii aao?o), ?acae?aaeaiee neecenoie iaiaei/ee ?oa eee iina
(iai?eia?, ai?/eoeae, iaoaou?iui nie?oii e ae?.), neeueiie aiee e
yiioeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyueo (?aaeinoue, ai?a). Neaca, iinooiathuay ec
neaciuo aeaeac, aeaaiaea?y ieaaoaeueiui aeaeaeaieyi aae a neeai
eaieeey?iiai iaoyaeaiey ?aaiiia?ii ?ani?aaeaeyaony ii iiaa?oiinoe
aeaciiai yaeiea. Oceay iieinea neacu iaaeaeo caaeiei ?aa?ii aaea e
aeaciui yaeieii iacuaaaony neaciui ?o/ueai. Neaca niae?aaony a
oaeoaeaiee eiiuthieoeaaeueiie iieinoe o aioo?aiiaai oaea aeaciie uaee —
neaciii ica?a. Ionthaea iia ioaiaeeonyaaei_ einoue iina /a?ac
niayiioaiaeyuea iooe, eioi?ua aeeth/atho .neaciua oi/ee, ae a c a ua e a
iaeueaeu, neaciue i ae i e e i i ni neaciue eaiae. “”—’
” Neaciua oi/ee (ii iaeiie ia eaaeaeii aaea) iiiaoathony aa aa?oeiao :

aicauoaiee — neaciuo nini/oia, o iaaeeaeueiiai oaea aeaciie uaee ii

caaeiaio ?aa?o eioa?ia?aeiaeueiiai i?ino?ainoaa. Iie ia?aoaiu e aeaciiio
yaeieo, ieioii i?eiueay e iaio a iaeanoe neaciiai ica?a. Neaciua oi/ee
ia?aoiaeyo a neaciua eaiaeueoeu, eiathuea aa?oeeaeueiua e
ai?eciioaeueiua eieaia. Aeeeia eaiaeueoeaa 8—10 ii. Ai?eciioaeueiua
/anoe eaiaeueoeaa eaeoo iicaaee aioo?aiiae niaeee aae e aiaaeatho a
neaciue iaoie ia aai eaoa?aeueiie noi?iia. Neaciue iaoie i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie cae?uooth naa?oo oeeeeiae?e/aneoth iieinoue aeeeiie 10—12 ii e
aeeaiao?ii 3—4 ii. Ii iiiauaaony a neaciie yiea. Yoi einoiia oaeoaeaiea
ia nouea eiaiiai io?inoea aa?oiae /aethnoe ni neaciie einoueth nia?aaee
ia?aie/aii neaciui ia?aaeiei a?aaaoeii, i?eiaaeeaaeauei eiaiiio io?inoeo
aa?oiae /aethnoe, ncaaee — caaeiei neaciui a?aaaoeii neaciie einoe.
Eiico yiea ia?aoiaeeo a einoiue iinineac-iue eaiae. Neaciue iaoie
caio?iaai a o?aoaieueiii i?ino?ainoaa, ia?aciaaiiii oanoeeyie.
Ia?aaeithth noaieo yoiai oanoeeaeueiiai eiaea ia?acoao oe?ieay ieanoeiea
aioo?aiiae naycee aae, aa ia?aaeiyy ii?oeey e aeoaieay oanoeey e?oaiaie
iuooeu aae, caaeithth — oa?cii?aeoaeueiay oanoeey e caaeiyy ieanoeiea
aioo?aiiae naycee, a oaeaea /anoue e?oaiaie iuooeu aae, aioo?aiithth —
iaaeeinoieoea neaciie yiee. Yoe aaaoiii-oiiia?aoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe
i?eieiathony ai aieiaiea i?e iia?aoeaiuo aiaoaoaeuenoaao ia neaciii
iaoea. Aaaeiui i?eaioe?ii yaeyaony aioo?aiiyy naycea aae. ?aniieiaeaiea
iaoieiae/aneeo eciaiaiee auoa e ieaea naycee eiaao aeeaaiinoe/aneia
cia/aiea. Oae, iiooieaaeaeiia auiy/eaaiea, ainiaeeoaeueiay
eioeeueo?aoeey eee oenooea, iaoiaeyueany iiae aioo?aiiae niaeeie, iau/ii
aicieeatho i?e iaoieiae/aneeo ninoiyieyo neaciiai iaoea. Aiaeiae/iua
eciaiaiey, iaia?oaeaiiua iaae nayceie, nei?aa naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i
caaieaaaiee ?aoao/aoiai eaae?eioa eee eiaiie iacooe.

Neaciie iaoie eieco ia?aoiaeeo a iinineaciue eaiae, ioe?uaathueeny ‘iiae
ieaeiae iiniaie ?aeiaeiie. Aeeeia aai i?aainoiaeeo aeeeio einoiiai
eaiaea e eieaaeaony io 14 aei 20 ii, oe?eia ?aaia 2—2,5ii. Neecenoay
iaiei/ea iaoea e’ eaiaeaaunoeaia “oeeeeiae?e/aneei yieoaeeai, eioi?ue
eiaao aieaeiaeaeiua eeaoee, i?iaeooee?othuea neecue. Iiaeneecenoue neie
aiaao aaeaiieaeiie oeaiueth. Ia?oaeiua neia ninoiyo ec ieioiie oea?iciie
oeaie, niaea?aeauae yeanoe/aneea aieieia. Ieaeiea ioaeaeu ia?aaeiae
noaiee iaoea inoathony iaeaieaa aaaeiuie yeanoe/aneie oeaiueth. Yoi
—-ianoi iaeiaiueoaai nii?ioeaeaiey: eiaiii caeanue i?e aeae?eioeenoeoao
i?ienoiaeeo ?anoyaeaiea a auiy/eaaiea noaiee iaoea, a yoii ianoa
oeaeaniia?acii i?iecaiaeeoue ?ac?ac i?e oeaaiiiiuo aeae?eioeenoeoao. Ii
oiaeo neaciuo eaaaeueoeaa, neaciiai iaoea e iinineaciuo eaiaeia eiathony
ecaeau, noaeaiey e eeaiaiiua neeaaeee. Iie iinoiyiiu a onouea
eaiaeueoeaa, a ianoa ia?aoiaea, iaoea a iinineaciue eaiae, o auoiaea
iinineaciiai eaiaea, /ai iauyniyaony noieue /anoay eieaeecaoeey no?eeoo?
e iaeeaa?aoeae a oeacaiiuo ianoao.

A iaoaiecia neaciioaaaeaiey i?eaeatho cia/aiea ?yaeo oaeoi?ia. Aeaaiui
ac ieo yaeyaony aeoeaiay i?enanuaathuay niiniaiinoue eaiaeueoeaa, a
noaieao eioi?uo caeiaeaiu iuoa/iua aieieia. Iiieii yoiai, ea?atho ?ieue
neoiiiia aeaenoaea neaciioaiaeyoae nenoaiu, aeaaeaiea ia neaco naeaouo
aae i?e caieiooie eiiutheooeaaeueiie iieinoe, eaieeey?iua neeu,
i?enanuaathuaa aeaenoaea iiniaiai

S? e ^iaeaiea i?inaaoa iaiia ^ ?auaiee i?aeeoeyiai

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