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NIAeA?AEAIEA

1)AAAAeAIEA…………………………………………………….
………………………………………..

2)AEAeU
IA?EIOEEIA……………………………………………………..
…………………………..

3)AeEAAIINOEEA IA?EIOE*ANEIAI IIUessIAIEss

NIINIAU ?ANIICIIAAIEss E IIAeAA?AEAeAIEss

OIIO?AAEAIEss
IA?EIOEEIA……………………………………………………..
………..

4)I?IOEEAEOEEA E OA?IAEIEIAE*ANEIA

EA*AIEA AA?IEIIAIE CAAENEIINOE
………………………………………………….

5)EA*AIEA IAEIOI?UO YENO?AIUO
NINOIssIEE………………………………………..

6)IIIssOEA “CAeI?IAUeA” E “AIEACIUe” A EEEIEEA
IA?EIIAIEE…………………

7)NIENIE
EEOA?AOO?U……………………………………………………..
…………………….

Aaaaeaiea

?aoaiea i?iaeaiu iaiaaeeoeeineiai iio?aaeaiey ia?eioe/aneeo
aauanoa ia

oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy auoei a
?ac?yae

ia?aii/a?aaeiuo caaea/, noiyueo ia?aae ainoaea?noaii, e
oanii naycaii n

nia?aiaiiui ninoiyieai ?inneeneiai iauanoaa, eioi?ia /aua
anaai

ii?aaeaeyaony niaoeeaeenoaie eae ianoaaeeueiia e aeaaea
e?eceniia.

Ninoiyiea oeie/aneie caaeneiinoe, ?acaeaathuaany o oiai eee
eiiai

eiaeeaeaea, yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii aicaeaenoaey niaieoiiinoe
oaeoi?ia eae

aeieiae/aneiai, oae e ineoieiae/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai
ii?yaeeia.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi eiie?aoiia (eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia)
ni/aoaiea i?e/ei,

i?eaiaeyueo e oi?ie?iaaieth ia?ei- e oieneeiiaiee, ?acee/ii
o eaaeaeiai

iaoeeaioa ia?eieiae/aneie eeeieee. N iaeiie noi?iiu,
i/aaeaeiua oniaoe

aeieiae/aneie ia?eieiaee iicaieytho aieaa /aoei auyaeyoue

iae?iaeieiae/aneea e aaiaoe/aneea iniiau iaoieiae/aneeo
i?ioeannia,

eaaeaueo a iniiaa iio?aaeaiey ?acee/iuo ineoiaeoeaiuo
aauanoa. N

ae?oaie, i?ienoaaeoaa a ii?aoi?iaiiie ?innee nieaeaiea
aeeciaiiiai

o?iaiy ianaeaiey e nii?iaiaeaeathuea yoio i?ioeann yaeaiey
iaaaoeaii

aeeytho ia yooaeoeaiinoue iaaeeoeeineeo ia?ii?eyoee.

Aii?in i i?e/eiao, ii?iaeaeathueo, iniaaiii n?aaee
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo e

eeoe iieiaeiai aic?anoa, ?acee/iua oi?iu caaeneiinoe eae
ianniaia,

yieaeaie/aneia yaeaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia naaiaeiyoiee
aeaiue iaeei ec

aeooaeueiuo aniaeoia yooaeoeaiie ai?ueau n ia?ei- e
oieneeiiaieyie.

Aac eco/aiey i?e/ei e oaeoi?ia, i?eaiaeyueo e ?acaeoeth
oeie/aneie

caaeneiinoueth io ?acee/iuo ineoiaeoeaiuo aaaioia,
iaaiciiaeii

aaeaeaaoii ieaie?iaaoue oaeoeeo e no?aoaaeth
i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo, ea/aaiuo

e ?aaaeeeoaoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee o iio?aaeoaeae ineoiaeoeaiuo
aauanoa

(IAA).

Iienaiea iaoiaea

Aeaiiia iiniaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aiaeec eiiieaena
oaeoi?ia

ieacuaathueo iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea
iaeo?iaieaathueo

aauanoa n?aaee ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo a nia?aiaiiie ?innee.

?anniao?eaathony eae nioeeaeueiua e iee?inioeeaeueiua, oae e

eiaeeaeaeoaeueii- ineoiiaoieiae/aneea e ineoieiae/aneea
i?aaeeeoi?u

ia?eioecia, noaaoea aeooaeueiuie a oa/aiea iineaaeiaai
aeanyoeeaoey.

I?aii?aeaeiua ineoiiaoiiaoieiae/aneea ?anno?ienoaa o

ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo ia?eiiaiia i?aaenoaaeaiu a i?eaeiaeueiie
aaoi?neie

o?aeoiaea.

Nioeeaeueiua oaeoi?u

Ianoaaeeueiay yeiiiie/aneay neooaoeey,
oa?aeoa?ecothuayny nieaeaieai

aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy aieueoae /anoe ianaeaiey ?innee,
oiaiueoaieai

aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe, nouanoaaiiui o?iaiai aac?aaioeoeu a
?yaea

?aaeiiia, ionoonoaeai iiieiaaiuo e iniciaaaaiuo
ethaeueie oneiaee

aeey auno?iai oeo/oaiey neooaoeee, i?eaiaeeo e
ninoiyieth oae

iacuaaaiie “nioeeaeueiie aeai?annee”, ionoonoaeth
/oanoaa ee/iie

ia?niaeoeau e cia/eiinoe. ?aeeaie?oaiua iaeioi?uie
n?aaenoaaie

ianniaie eioi?iaoeee (NIE) aunieea noaiaea?ou
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai

aeaaininoiyiey, eioi?ua noi?ie?iaaiu iiae aeeyieai
ca?oaaaeiie

eeii- e oaeai?iaeoeoeee, i?eaiaeyo e oi?ie?iaaieth o
/anoe

ineoe/anee iac?aeie iieiaeaaee eieoaoeeiiiuo iiaeaeae
iiaaaeaiey.

?ieue ia?eioe/aneeo e ineoiaeoeaiuo aauanoa, a eieoaoeee

“aeaaiaeainoaey” aanueia nouanoaaiia.

Ionoonoaea oeaeinoiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie no?aoaaee,
i?eaioe?othuae

iieiaeia iieieaiea no?aiu ia “nio?aiaiea” nianoaaiiiai
caei?iauey e

?aaioiniiniaiinoe, eae iniiaiiai e iaycaoaeueiiai
oaeoi?a

nianoaaiiiai aeeciaiiiai aeaaiiieo/ey.

Iainoi?iaeiia e ca/anooth eaaeiiuneaiiia ia?auaiea n
iaoa?eaeaie i

ia?eioeeao a ioaeaeueiuo n?aaenoaao ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee, i?eaiaeyuaa

e oi?ie?iaaieth “iacaei?iaiai” eioa?ana e iio?aaeaieth e

iio?aaeoaeyi, “iiceoeaiiai” e iei ioiioaiey.

Iaaycaiiay, ii?aaeaeaiiuie e?oaaie, iauanoao aeeneonney
i

“oeaeaniia?aciinoe” eaaaeecaoeee ia?eioe/aneeo aauanoa a
?innee, a

oii /enea iaeiiaieia e oaiaeaioeeiciia inaauaiea iiuoa

“eaaaeecaoeee” ia?eooaiu a Ieaea?eaiaeao e Eniaiee, n
oiie/aieai ia

io?eoeaoaeueiuo iineaaenoaeyo yoiai oaaa.

Oaiaeaioeey e “aoiaiecaoeee” a ioiioaiee e ia?eiiaiee
eae

iauanoaaiiiio yaeaieth, ca/anooth iinyuay aano?aeoiue
oa?aeoa?,

aac o/aoa ?aaeueiuo oneiaee, e eioi?ui ioiinyony:

aunieee o?iaaiue yeiiiie/aneie e oaieiaiie i?anooiiinoe
a no?aia;

ieceay noaiaiue i?aaiaiai ainieoaiey a?aaeaeai;

iaaeinoaoi/iay noaiaiue yooaeoeaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe
eniieieoaeueiie

aeanoe;

Iaaeinoaoi/ii ?ac?aaioaiiay iieiaeaaeiay iieeoeea,
ionoonoaea o

iieiaeaaee ?aaeueiuo oi?i eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
naiiau?aaeaiey, nie?auaiea

“iiceoeaiuo oi?i” aeinoaa, eceeoiyy eiiia?oeeaeecaoeey
aeinoaiauo e

ia?aciaaoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee.

Iaaeinoaoi/iay noaiaiue a?aaeaeaineiai niciaiey.

I?iaaeu a oaaea?aeueiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, iniaaiii a
aii?inao

iaania/aiey ianaeaiey aioeia?eioe/aneie i?iiaaaiaeie e

i?ioeaiaeaenoaey i?iiaaaiaea ia?eioeeia.

Iee?inioeeaeueiua oaeoi?u

Cia/eoaeueiay ?ieue n?aaee yoeieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia,
i?eaiaeyueo e

oi?ie?iaaieth aaeaeeeoeaiiai iiaaaeaiey o
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo,

o?aaeeoeeiiii ioaiaeeony naiuea. Aeeyiea iee?in?aaeu
(aeeaeaeoaai

ie?oaeaiey eiaeeaeaea), eoaea, aaconeiaii, aeeth/athony
aeeceea

?iaenoaaiieee n eiaeeaeaeoaeueii i?enoueie nioeeaeueii-
ineoieiae/aneeie

oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, a ?yaey neo/aaa yaeyaony iniiaiui
iaoiaaiiui

oaeoi?ii a aaiaca ia?eieiae/aneeo caaieaaaiee.

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo iaaaoeaiuo iineaaenoaee nieaeaiey
aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy

ianaeaiey, yaeyaony oiaiueoaiea ?iee naiuee eae eeth/aaiai
nioeeaeueiiai

einoeoooa, iaania/eaathuaai iauanoaaiioth noaaeeueiinoue.
Caeanue, iiieii

o?aaeeoeeiiiuo naiaeiuo aeenaa?iiiee, neaaeoao auaeaeeoue
ianeieueei

niaa?oaiii iiauo oaeoi?ia:

Eciaiaiea “nenoaiu oeaiiinoae” a ni/aoaiee n ?aaeceae
i?ioeiai

i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth aaoi?eoaoa noa?oaai iieieaiey a
aeacao

iieiaeaaee.

Aeeiaieeci iaeiiai eee iaieo ?iaeeoaeae a nia?aiaiiuo
oneiaeyo

yaeyaony aieaa cia/eiui oaeoi?ii ?enea caaieaaaaiinoe
ia?ei- e

oieneeiiaieyie o aeaoae e iiae?inoeia, aaeaeo aieaa
auno?ie

aeanioeeaeecaoeee aieueiuo o?iie/aneei aeeiaieeciii,
iioa?ae eie

enoi/ieeia n?aaenoa nouanoaiaaiey, e a ?yaea neo/aaa
aeeeuey, /oi a

naith i/a?aaeue iaoneiaeaii ieceei o?iaiai nioeeaeueiie
iiiiue yoiio

eiioeiaaioo.

Ieceay noaiaiue ?aeeaeiciinoe iauanoaa eae iniiau aeey
yoe/aneeo e

ii?aeueiuo noaiaea?oia naiuee, ia oiia ?ac?ooaiey
yoe/aneeo

eiioeaioeee e iinooeaoia a?aiai nioeeaeecia.

Ia aeinoaoi/iay eioi?ie?iaaiiinoue ?iaeeoaeae a aii?inao

oi?ie?iaaiey aioeia?eioe/aneeo onoaiiaie a niciaiee
aeaoae.

Ineoiiaoieiae/aneea oaeoi?u

Ia?ooaiey iiaaaeaiey o aeaoae e iiae?inoeia,
nii?iaiaeaeathueany

iaiaaeeoeeineei iio?aaeaieai ineoiaeoeaiuo aauanoa, e a
/anoiinoe

ioiinyueony e ia?eioe/aneei, iiaoo auoue iaoneiaeaiu
?acee/iuie

ineoieiae/aneeie (eee ineoeao?e/aneeie) i?e/eiaie. A
iineaaeiea

aeanyoeeaoey ?anno?ienoaa e iniaaiiinoe iiaaaeaiey o aeaoae
e

iiae?inoeia ii ?aciiio iiieiathony e eeanneoeoee?othony
?acee/iuie

enneaaeiaaoaeyie (G. Heuyer, J.Dublineau, ?aaiou ?aciuo eao,
Michaux

L, 1953, Stutte H, 1960, Ooaeia A.E.,1971; 1987, Eiaaeaa
A.A. ?aaiou

?aciuo eao). Ia/aoei ia?aie/aiu neiioiiaoe/aneea ?aiee
ineoe/aneeo

caaieaaaiee, iai?eia? oecio?aiee (Ee/ei A.A., 1985). Oaeei
ia?acii,

oi eee eiia ?anno?ienoai (eee ineoe/aneay iniaaiiinoue)
a?yae ee iiaeao

auoue eeanneoeoee?iaaii n oi/ee c?aiey naieioeee a
aeinoaoi/iie noaiaie

ei??aeoii. Enoiaey ec neacaiiiai, aaoi?u ianoiyuaai iiniaey

iiiuoaeenue auaeaeeoue ineoieiae/aneea (ineoeao?e/aneea)
i?eciaee ii

i?eioeeio oaiiiaiieiae/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey. Ec
o?aaeeoeeiiii

?anniao?eaaaiuo a eeeieea iiae?inoeiaie e aeaoneie
ineoeao?ee

niaoeeoe/aneeo aic?anoiuo ineoiiaoieiae/aneeo neiae?iiia
(no?aiiuo

oaea/aiee, iaoaoece/aneie eioieneeaoeee e aaaieaeiiai) iai
ano?a/aeny,

a iniiaiii, eeoue iineaaeiee. Eae ecaanoii, aaaieaeiue
neiae?ii,

iienuaaaiue a naia a?aiy eae “ii?aeueiia iiiaoaoaeuenoai”,
eiaao

neaaeothuea iniiaiua neiioiiu (a iiieiaiee A.A. Ii?iciaa):

Ia?oaeaiea ee/iinoe n ieaaee?iaeie iiiyoee aeia?a e cea,
a- e

aioenioeeaeueiuie oaiaeaioeeyie, oo?aoie eioa?ana e
o/aaa e

iauanoaaiii iieaciiio o?oaeo.

?anoi?iiaeaiea “iecoeo” aea/aiee.

Ineoe/aneee eioaioeeeci.

Eiathony neiioiiu, iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iua aeey ?aiiaai
aaaieaea

(iaaethaeathuaainy o aeaoae 11-13 eao), e a /anoiinoe , oae
iacuaaaiue

“a?aae naiaeiie iaiaaenoe”. Aeaiiue neiioii i?iyaeyaony a

iaei??eae?oaiii iaaaoeaiii ioiioaiee ?aaaiea oaeoe/anee e
ethaui

aeaenoaeyi ?iaenoaaiieeia a ioiioaiee naay.

Eae iieacae iiuo ?aaiou eeeieee aeaoneie e iiae?inoeiaie
ia?eieiaee

iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai einoeoooa ia?eieiaee Ieicae?aaa
?inneeneie

Oaaea?aoeee, a iiea c?aiey a?a/a ineoeao?a-ia?eieiaa /aua
anaai

iiiaaeatho aieueiua n aaaieaeiui neiae?iiii,
iaaethaeathueiny aia ?aiie

oecio?aie/aneiai i?ioeanna, ii iaia?oaeeaathuea
iaa?ieiae/aneoth

iee?ii?aaie/aneoth neiioiiaoeeo. A oi aea a?aiy, iau/ii
ia?acei

au?aaeaiiua a i?aii?aeaeiii ia?eiaea i?eciaee aaaieaeiiai
neiae?iia

oneeeaathony i?e i?eniaaeeiaiee ia?eioecaoeee. Ii iiaieth
aaoi?ia, i?e

ia?eiiaieyo aaaieaeiue neiae?ii neoaeeo eae yoeieiae/aneei
oaeoi?ii a

ioiioaiee iio?aaeaiey IAA (a /anoiinoe, oaeea i?iyaeaiey
oiiiyiooiai

neiioiiieiiieaena, eae aioe- e anioeeaeueiinoue,
?anoi?iiaeaiiinoue

aea/aiee, ?aaea ineoe/aneee eioaioeeeci), oae e neaaenoaeai

ia?anoathuae oiene/aneie yioeaoaeiiaoee e ineoiaaiiiai
aii?iaeueiiai

?acaeoey ee/iinoe ia?eiiaia (a iiieiaiee E. Aeiaea?a).
Iaiaoiaeeii

ioiaoeoue, /oi aioe- e anioeeaeueiinoue, ?anoi?iiaeaiiinoue
aea/aiee,

ioaeaeueiua i?iyaeaiey ineoe/aneiai eioaioeeecia eae
i?aaeeeoi?u

ia?eiiaiee iiaoo ano?a/aoueny ia?aaeei aia ?aiie aaaieaeiiai
neiae?iia,

eae iiii?anno?ienoaa eee iniaaiiinoe ee/iinoe. A /anoiinoe,
aioe- e

anioeeaeueiua oaiaeaioeee iiaoo iaaethaeaoueny a ?aieao
aii?iaeueiiai

?acaeoey ee/iinoe (a iiieiaiee E. Aeiaea?a) i?e oi?ie?iaaiee

“e?aaaie” ineoiiaoee (eae i?aaeei, aicaoaeeiiai eee

enoa?i-aicaoaeeiiai oeia). Yoe aea ee/iinoiua iniaaiiinoe
iiaoo

iaaethaeaoueny a ?aieao “yaea?iie” ineoiiaoee eee
niioaaonoaothuae

aeoeaiooaoeee ee/iinoe (a iiieiaiee E. Eaiiaa?aea), a oaeaea
i?e

ineoii?aaie/aneii neiae?iia. Ai anao neo/ayo oaeaea neaaeoao
eneeth/eoue

aa?iyoiinoue oecio?aie/aneiai i?ioeanna. Eeeieea oiiiyiooiai
oaiiiaia

aeinoaoi/ii oi?ioi iienaia iiiaeie enneaaeiaaoaeyie, e
iiyoiio a neeo

iaiaoiaeeiinoe naeaoiai eceiaeaiey iaoa?eaea a aeaiiii
iiniaee ia

eceaaaaony. Oeaeaniia?acii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi a ia?eiae
oiaaeea aeooiaiuo

oeaiiinoae, oa?aeoa?iiai aeey ii?aoi?iaiiie ?innee, /anoioa
aioe- e

anioeeaeueiuo oaiaeaioeee e niioaaonoaaiii eo ?ieue eae
yoeieiae/aneeo

oaeoi?ia ia?eiiaiee o ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo caeiiiia?ii
aic?anoaao.

A?aie/ao n aioe e anioeeaeueiuie oaiaeaioeeyie
aeaonei-iiae?inoeiaua

?aaeoeee i?ioanoa i?ioea cia/eiuo aeey ee/iinoe e
ia?aaeeaaaiuo eae

iaaaoeaiua yaeaiee iianaaeiaaiie aeecie. Oaeie i?ioano
iiaeao auoue

iai?aaeai eae i?ioea iaaeaaii?eyoiie naiaeiie ianoaiiaee
(iai?eia?,

a neo/aa iueyinoaa iooea eee iaoa?e, ieceiai iaoa?eaeueiiai
aeinoaoea a

naiuea), oae e i?ioea iauaeoeaii nouanoaothuae a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy iauae

aeaaaeueaaoeee aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae (iineaaeiaa ia?aaeei ia
iniciaaony e

noauaeoeaii ia?aaeeaaaony a aeaea io?eoeaoaeueiuo
yiioeeiiaeueiuo ?aaeoeee

ia iianaaeiaaiua yaeaiey aeecie).

Aii?in i nianoaaiii ?anoi?iiaeaiiinoe aea/aiee a oceii
niunea yoiai

oa?ieia aia ?aiie aaaieaeiiai neiae?iia neiaeai. I?e
eco/aiee

i?aii?aeaeiuo iniaaiiinoae ee/iinoe ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo,
aieueiuo

ia?eiiaieyie, iu auaeaeeee aeaa iniiaiua a?oiiu iaoeeaioia n
oiiiyiooui

oaiiiaiii:

?anoi?iiaeaiea aea/aiee o “aaaeiie/aneeo” ee/iinoae, oi
anoue o

iaoeeaioia, iniiaiui noeioeii iiaaaeaiey o eioi?uo a
i?aii?aeaeiii

ia?eiaea auei iieo/aiea” aaaeiie/aneeo” ia?aaeeaaiee:
ieuaauo,

naenoaeueiuo e o.i. E i?i/ei ianeaaeaeaieyi oaeea
iiae?inoee ia?aaeei

i?eaaaeytho naaa yooaeo io iio?aaeaiey ia?eioeeia.

?anoi?iiaeaiea aea/aiee o iaoeeaioia n i?aii?aeaeii
eiathuei ianoi

ineoii?aaie/aneei neiae?iiii (eae i?aaeei,
?aceaeoaeueiiai aaiaca).

N?aaee i?iyaeaiee ineoe/aneiai eioaioeeecia, oia?aiii
au?aaeaiiua

i?eciaee eioi?iai ii nouanoao yaeythony ii?iie o
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo

(ii iiaieth iaeioi?uo enneaaeiaaoaeae, aeaaea aei 30% e
aieaa eeoe ec

/enea ac?ineiai ianaeaiey eiatho a ea/anoaa iaaieaciaiiuo
ee/iinoiuo

iniaaiiinoae i?eciaee ineoe/aneiai eioaioeeecia, (oeeo. ii
Eiaaeaao

A.A., 1979), iaeaieaa /anoi a ea/anoaa i?aaeeeoi?a
ia?eiiaiee

aunooiaee neaaeothuea:

Iio?aaiinoue a y?eeo yiioeeiiaeueiuo ia?aaeeaaieyo.

?iainoue e ia?aoeoaeueiinoue (i?eciaaony eae neiioii
ineoe/aneiai

eioaioeeecia ia anaie enneaaeiaaoaeyie).

O ?iaeeo e ia?aoeoaeueiuo aeaoae e iiae?inoeia /anoi
iaaethaeaaony

ineoieiae/aneay caaeneiinoue io aieaa noa?oeo e aieaauo
ciaeiiuo. A

oneiaeyo, eiaaea nauo ia?eioeeia i?eiineo naa?oi?eaueue,

ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea n au?aaeaiiuie /a?oaie ?iainoe e
ia?aoeoaeueiinoe

ia?aaeei iiae aeaaeaieai ciaeiiuo, eiathueo au?aaeaiiua
aieaaua

iniaaiiinoe oa?aeoa?a e aiaea/aiiuo a noa?o ia?eiaeciana,
ia/eiatho

iio?aaeaiea ia?eioeeia.

A neo/aa, anee aeia?o?ioe?iaaiiua /a?ou ineoe/aneiai
eioaioeeecia,

oiiiyiooua auoa, ni/aoathony n yaeaieyie caaea?aeee
ineoe/aneiai

?acaeoey eee “aiaoeaoi?iuie” oi?iaie ieeaio?aiee, ?ene
i?eiauaiey e

nenoaiaoe/aneie ia?eioecaoeee cia/eoaeueii aic?anoaao.

O?aaiaeii – iieoaeueiua /a?ou oa?aeoa?a, yaeythueany iniiaie
oae

iacuaaaiie ineoanoaiee, oaeaea a neo/aa naiae cia/eoaeueiie

au?aaeaiiinoe iiaoo auoue i?aaeeeoi?aie nenoaiaoe/aneie
ia?eioecaoeee. A

aeaiiii neo/aa ia?eioeee i?eia?aoatho eiiioieeaoeaioth e

o?aieaeeece?othuoth (aa?iaa caiaiythuoth aa
yeoi?ece?othuoth) ooieoeee. *ai

aieaa au?aaeaiu o?aaiaeii-iieoaeueiua /a?ou, oai iaiaa
oaa?aiii

/oanoaoao naay ?aaaiie (iiae?inoie) n?aaee naa?noieeia, oai
aieaa ii

ioaeaeaaony a ineoieiae/aneie iiaeaea?aeea. Ia iieo/ay aa a
aeieaeiie

noaiaie, ii ia?aaeei i?eaaaaao e “oeie/aneie” iiaeaea?aeea,
eioi?oth aio

ioioii i?aaeinoaaeytho oi?aiaoeu ia?eioeeaie.

Ia?aaeei ia?eiiaiee iaaethaeathony o iiae?inoeia n aunieeie

eioaeeaeooaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie, i?aainoiaeyueie ca/anooth
eioaeeaeo

aieueoeinoaa naa?noieeia. I?e yoii ee/iinoue iiaeao
?acaeaaoueny a

i?aii?aeaeiii ia?eiaea aiieia aa?iiie/ii, ioiioaiey a naiuea
e ni

naa?noieeaie iiaoo auoue aeinoaoi/ii aeaaii?eyoiuie. Caeanue
?a/ue eaeao i

neo/ayo, eiaaea ia?eiiaiey ?acaeaaaony eae aoaeoi ia oiia
iieiiai

ineoieiae/aneiai e ineoeao?e/aneiai aeaaiiieo/ey. Ii iiaieth
aaoi?ia,

i?e/eiie ia/aea ia?eioecaoeee a yoeo neo/ayo ia?aaeei
neoaeeo

“eioi?iaoeeiiiay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue” (aeeceay eee
oiaeaeanoaaiiay

ineoieiae/aneiio iiiyoeth “naini?iay aeai?eaaoeey”).
Ineoieiae/aneea

iaoaieciu ia/aea ia?eioecaoeee caeeth/athony a oii, /oi
ie?oaeathuea

iee?inioeeaeueiua oneiaey ia i?aaeinoaaeytho oi?ioi
?acaeoiio

eioaeeaeooaeueii eiaeeaeaeo aeinoaoi/iuo iniiaaiee aeey
yiioeeiiaeueiiai e

eioaeeaeooaeueiiai ianuuaiey. I?ioeann aeecie a yoeo neo/ayo

aini?eieiaaony noauaeoeaii eiaeeaeaeii eae “neo/iue”. Iienee
ianuuaiey

yiioeeiiaeueiie noa?u e iiauoaiey eioaeeaeooaeueiie iaa?ocee
caeanue

ia?aaeei i?iaioee?otho iio?aaeaiea “eioaeeaeooaeueiuo”
ia?eioeeia

(eieaei) eee neioaoe/aneeo iieieaeia. A?a/ ineoeao?-ia?eieia
a

iiaeiaiie neooaoeee ia?aaeei ano?a/aaony n “eaeaeiuie”
ia?eiiaiaie,

eioaeeaeooaeueii aini?eieiathueie ia?eioeee eae aunoaa
aeaai.

Nouanoaaiioth ?ieue a i?eiauaiee e iio?aaeaieth IAA ia?aaeei
ea?atho

aeaonei-iiae?inoeiaua ?aaeoeee iiae?aaeaiey. Ii iaoaio
iiaieth, a iniiaa

yoeo ?aaeoeee iiaoo eiaoue ianoi ?acee/iua iniaaiiinoe
ee/iinoe,

aieueoeinoai ec eioi?uo ia?a/eneaii a ianoiyuai iiniaee.

?acoiaaony, a aeaiiii ?acaeaea iu ia?a/eneeee ia ana
ineoieiae/aneea e

ineoeao?e/aneea i?aaeeeoi?u ia?eiiaiee o ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo.
Aeaiiue

aii?in aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie ia yaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii
eco/aiiui e

ioaeaeaaony a aeaeueiaeoai enneaaeiaaiee. Iaeiaei, ii iaoaio
iiaieth, a

ianoiyuai iiniaee inaauaiu iniiaiua aniaeou aii?ina i

ineoieiae/aneeo e ineoeao?e/aneeo i?e/eiao i?eiauaiey

ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo e iio?aaeaieth ia?eioeeia, eioi?ua iiaoo

caeioa?aniaaoue i?aeoe/aneiai a?a/a.

A caeeth/aiee aeaiiie /anoe ?aaiou neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a
iiea c?aiey

a?a/a ineoeao?a-ia?eieiaa, ?aaioathuaai n
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieie

aieueiuie ia?eiiaieyie, ioiineoaeueii ?aaeei iiiaaeatho
iaoeeaiou,

iaia?oaeeaathuea a i?aii?aeaeiii ia?eiaea:

Eaeeiiaoe/aneoth (“aaioeiioth”) yieeaioe/aneoth aieaciue
n

noaei?iaeiuie noeaiaoaie , ?aiiei ia/aeii e
niioaaonoaothueie

eciaiaieyie ee/iinoe.

A?aaeiaua ineoicu.

Aaeethoeeiaoi?iua ?anno?ienoaa.

Neeiiiinoue e nenoaiaoe/aneiio ceioiio?aaeaieth
aeeiaieai.

Oi?ie?othueany ia?aiieyeueiua /a?ou oa?aeoa?a n
aeia?nioeeaeueiui

?aaeeeaeii.

Au?aaeaiiua i?iyaeaiey “?aoeie?iaaiiie” eiioiiae?ee.

Neiae?iiu no?aiiuo oaea/aiee eee iaoaoece/aneie
eioieneeaoeee (a

iiieiaiee A.A. Eiaaeaaa).

Caeeth/aiea

Ia iniiaaiee auoaeceiaeaiiiai noaiiaeony ynii, /oi aac
?aoaiey ?yaea

aeooaeueiuo i?iaeai nioeeaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, eciaiaiey
niaea?aeaiey

i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo aioeia?eioe/aneeo i?ia?aii n o/aoii
?aaeueiuo

ianoiuo oneiaee, i?iaaaeaiey aaeaeaaoiie iieiaeaaeiie
iieeoeee,

iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey, aeiaeoueny nieaeaiey

?ani?ino?aiaiiinoe ia?eieiae/aneeo caaieaaaiee n?aaee

ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo aoaeao /?acau/aeii cao?oaeieoaeueii.

Aeeaaiinoeea ia?eioe/aneiai iiueyiaiey.

Niiniau ?aniiciaaaiey e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey oiio?aaeaiey

ia?eioeeia

Onoaiiaeoue oaeo oiio?aaeaiey ia?eioeeia iiaeii ianeieueeeie
iooyie:

N iiiiuueth yeni?ann-oanoia ia ia?eioeee

Ii einaaiiui i?eciaeai oiio?aaeaiey ia?eioeeia e
ia?eioe/aneie

caaeneiinoe

A i?ioeanna ia?eieiae/aneie yenia?oecu

Ia?eieiae/aneay yenia?oeca

Anee Aai iaiaoiaeeii aeieacaoue, /oi eoi-eeai ceioiio?aaeyao

ia?eioeeaie eee iaoiaeeony a ninoiyiee ia?eioe/aneiai
iiueyiaiey a

ianoiyuae iiiaio, e io yoiai caaeneo ?aoaiea nii?iuo
th?eaee/aneeo

aii?inia, oi iaiaoiaeeii i?iaaaeaiea
noaeaaii-ia?eieiae/aneie

yeniao?ecu. Noaeaaii-ia?eieiae/aneay yenia?oeca yaeyaony
iaeiie ec

?aciiaeaeiinoae noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineie yenia?oecu e
i?iaiaeeony oieueei

niaoeeaeenoaie ainoaea?noaaiiuo ia?eieiae/aneeo ea/aaiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee e

oieueei ii cai?ino i?aaiia IAAe eee thnoeoeee. Yoi cia/eo,
/oi aa iiaeii

i?iaanoe ii ?aoaieth noaea, anee, iai?eia?, Aaoe
eiouanoaaiiua nii?u

?acae?aao noae. Aiciiaeii i?iaaaeaiea n?i/iie yenia?oecu ii
?aoaieth

AAE, eiaaea iia eanaaony eeoe, oi?aaeythueie o?ainii?oiuie
n?aaenoaaie.

Anee Aai i?inoi caoioaeinue oee/eoue naiaai aeeceiai eee
ciaeiiiai

/aeiaaea a iio?aaeaiee ia?eioeeia, a i?iaaaeaiee
ioeoeeaeueiie

yenia?oecu, eiia/ii, Aai ioeaaeoo – yoi ouaieyao i?aaa
/aeiaaea.

Ia?eieiae/aneay yenia?oeca a Iaoa?ao?aa i?iaiaeeony,
iai?eia?, a

Ai?iaeneii ia?eieiae/aneii aeeniaina?a (A.I., 4-y eeiey,
ae.23/25), a

Iaeanoiii ia?eieiae/aneii aeeniaina?a (Iiai-Aeaayoeeii,
ae.19/1) e a

ae?oaeo ia?eieiae/aneeo aeeniaina?ao e ineoeao?e/aneeo
aieueieoeao.

Yeni?ann-oanou aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ia?eioeeia

A aeiiaoieo oneiaeyo iiaeii ociaoue ia oiio?aaeaiee
ia?eioeeia n

aunieie noaiaiueth aeinoiaa?iinoe n iiiiuueth
yeni?ann-oanoia ia

ii?aaeaeaiea ia?eioeeia a ii/a. Yeni?ann-oanou ia ia?eioeee
ii aeaeo e

ono?ienoao iioiaee ia oanou aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aa?aiaiiinoe,
anee Aai

i?eoiaeeeinue eo aeaeaoue 🙂

Aeaeeoa, nenoaia aeey oanoe?iaaiey i?aaenoaaeyao ec naay
aoiaaeioth

iieineo, ia eioi?oth iaeeaaii ia/oi a?aaea i?iiieaoee. Yoa

«i?iiieaoea» i?iieoaia a ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoao ianeieueeeie
oeie/aneeie

e aaeeiauie ninoaaaie. ?anoai? ia?eioeea (iai?eia?, ii/a
ia?eiiaia)

iiaeieiaaony aaa?o ii «i?iiieaoea» e anooiaao n oiiiyioouie
ninoaaaie

a na?eth iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo ?aaeoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa
iiyaeyaony

ie?aoeaaiea a oii ianoa, aaea i?ienoiaeeo caeeth/eoaeueiay
ec ieo.

?aaeoeee yaeythony eiioiioeie/aneeie, oi anoue i?ienoiaeyo
iaaeaeo

aioeoaeaie e aioeaaiaie, eiathueieny a «i?iiieaoea», e
i/aiue

/oanoaeoaeueiu. A ii/a, iai?eia?, yeni?ann-oano oeaaeeaaao
neaaeu

ia?eioeeia-iieaoia ia i?ioyaeaiee 5 nooie iinea
iaeiie?aoiiai i?eaia.

Nai oano auiieiyaony oae: Au i?ineoa iiaeic?aaaaiiai
iiii/eoueny a

aaii/eo, iinea /aai ia 5 naeoiae iioneaaoa a ii/o iieineo
aei

iaicia/aiiiai ai?eciioaeueiie /a?oie o?iaiy a ieaeiae aa
/anoe.

Anee a oa/aiea 5 ieioo a n?aaeiae /anoe iieinee iiyayony
aeaa

ei?e/iaaaoi-e?aniuo iiia?a/iuo /a?oi/ee, oi ana a ii?yaeea –
ia?eioee

ia iaia?oaeai. Anee iiia?a/iay /a?oi/ea aoaeao iaeia, oi a
ia?acoea ii/e

anoue ia?eioee. Iaeiiaoe, anee /a?oi/ae aiiaua iao, cia/eo,
oano

i?iaaaeai iai?aaeeueii e aai iaaei ia?aaeaeaoue.

Einaaiiua i?eciaee oiio?aaeaiey ia?eioeeia e ia?eioe/aneie

caaeneiinoe

Aeeeiiua ?oeaaa iaeaaeaeu anaaaea, iacaaeneii io iiaiaeu
e ianoaiiaee.

Iaanoanoaaiii oceea eee oe?ieea c?a/ee iacaaeneii io
inaauaiey.

Io?aoaiiue acaeyae..

*anoi – ia?yoeeaue aeae, nooea aieinu, ioaeoea eenoe
?oe; oaiiua,

?ac?ooaiiua, «iaeiiaiiua» coau a aeaea «iaiueeia».

Inaiea /aua noooeay..

Iaaiyoiay, «?anoyiooay» ?a/ue.

Iaoeethaeea e caiaaeeaiiua aeaeaeaiey i?e ionoonoaee
caiaoa aeeiaiey

eci ?oa.

ssaiia no?aieaiea ecaaaaoue ano?a/ n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
aeanoae.

?acae?aaeeoaeueiinoue, ?aceinoue e iaii/oeoaeueiinoue a
ioaaoao ia

aii?inu.

Iinea aai iiyaeaiey a aeiia o Aan i?iiaaeatho aaue eee
aeaiueae.

Neaaeu oeieia ia?eiiaiu iau/ii ia iieacuaatho, ii
eiiaaea eo iiaeii

caiaoeoue ia oueueiie noi?iia eenoae, a aiiaua-oi
ia?eiiaiu ni

noaaeai aeaeatho naaa euaeoeee eoaea oaiaeii, e neaaeu
ioaeii eneaoue ai

anao iaeanoyo oaea, ia eneeth/ay eiaee ia aieiaa iiae
aieinaie.

*anoi neaaeu oeieia auaeyaeyo ia i?inoi eae
iiiaeanoaaiiua e?aniua

oi/ee, a neeaathony a ieioiua neiaaaoi-aaa?iaua oyaee ii
oiaeo aai.

I?aaeiieiaeeoue oiio?aaeaiea ia?eioeeia ii einaaiiui
i?eciaeai eaa/a

ethaeyi, eioi?ua iinoiyiii ano?a/athony eee aeeaoo n
iiaeic?aaaaiui, e e

niaeaeaieth, oaeeie ethaeueie /aua anaai yaeythony
?iaeeoaee.

Einaaiiua i?eciaee ia?eioecaoeee iiaoo auoue niaoeeoe/iuie
aeey

ioaeaeueiuo i?aia?aoia e iaueie, oa?aeoa?iuie aeey anao
ia?eioeeia. *oi

eanaaony iaueo aeey anao ia?eioeeia i?eciaeia, oi iie
aaniieiyo

aieiaoaeueiuo ?iaeeoaeae a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue. I?aaaea,
eiiaaea eo n/eoatho

«aiieia ii?iaeueiui aeey iiae?inoea iiaaaeaieai». Aio iie:

Ia?anoathuay ne?uoiinoue ?aaaiea (aiciiaeii, aac
oooaeoaiey

ioiioaiee n ?iaeeoaeyie). *anoi iia nii?iaiaeaeaaony
o/auaieai e

oaaee/aieai a?aiaie «aoeyiee», eiaaea ?aaaiie ooiaeeo ec
aeiia a oi

a?aiy, eioi?ia ?aiueoa i?iaiaeee a naiuea eee ca
o?ieaie.

Aiciiaeii, ?aaaiie neeoeii iicaeii eiaeeony niaoue e ana
aeieueoa

caeaaeeaaaony a iinoaee n oo?a.

Iaaeaao eioa?an e o/aaa eee e i?eau/iui oaea/aieyi e
oiaae, iiaeao

auoue, ?iaeeoaee ociatho i i?iaoeao oeieueiuo caiyoee.

Nieaeaaony oniaaaaiinoue.

Caoi oaaee/eaathony oeiainiaua cai?inu, e iieiaeie
/aeiaae aeoeaii

euao iooe eo oaeiaeaoai?aiey, aui?aoeaay aeaiueae ai ana

aic?anoathueo eiee/anoaao (anee ia/eiatho i?iiaaeaoue
aeaiueae ec

?iaeeoaeueneeo eioaeueeia eee oeaiiua aaue ec aeiia –
yoi i/aiue

o?aaiaeiue i?eciae!).

Iiyaeythony iiaua iiaeic?eoaeueiua ae?ocuey (ii aia/aea
iieiaeie

/aeiaae iau/ii ano?a/aaony n aanueia i?eee/iuie ia aeae

ia?eiiaiaie) eee iiaaaeaiea noa?uo i?eyoaeae noaiiaeony
iiaeic?eoaeueiui.

?acaiai?u n ieie aaaeoony oaiioii, iaiiiyoiuie o?acaie
eee a oaaeeiaiee.

Iano?iaiea ?aaaiea – yoi i/aiue aaaeiue i?eciae –
iaiyaony ii

iaiiiyoiui i?e/eiai, i/aiue auno?i e /anoi ia
niioaaonoaoao

neooaoeee: aeia?iaeooea e ayeinoue a neaiaeaea eee,
iaiai?io,

?acae?aaeeoaeueiinoue a niieieiie neooaoeee.

Iaeiiaoe, Au iiaeaoa caiaoeoue neaaeu eiuaeoeee (o.a.
oeieia) ii oiaeo

aai ia ?oeao.

I?IOEEAEOEEA E OA?IAEIEIAE*ANEIA EA*AIEA AA?IEIIAIE CAAENEIINOE

NENOAIIUE IAEIENIIIAUE OANO

a) Iieacaiey e ineoieiae/aneay iiaeaioiaea iaoeeaioa

Iaeienii – /enoue aioaaiieno iieaoia, eioi?ue /anoi
eniieuecoaony i?e

ea/aiee ia?aaeice?iaee iieaoia. Iaeieniiiaiio oanoo aeieaeii

i?aaeoanoaiaaoue aeeeoaeueiia (ia iaiaa 24 /ania – i?ei.
N.A.)

iaaethaeaiea iaoeeaioa n oeaeueth auyaeaiey aiciiaeiiai
neiae?iia

aanoeiaioeee.

Iaeieniiiaue oano i?iaiaeeony a neo/aa niiieoaeueiiai eee
neaai

au?aaeaiiiai aanoeiaioiiai neiae?iia, eee ii aeaeaieth
iaoeeaioa. (N

oeaeueth iauaeoeaecaoeee aeeaaiica iieaoiie ia?eiiaiee –
i?ei. N.A.)

Oano i?iaiaeeony iinea ioeaiee oece/aneiai ninoiyiey
iaoeeaioa,

eneeth/aiey iaee/ey a aai aiaiiaca ineoioe/aneeo ?aaeoeee e

aeea?ae/aneeo ?aaeoeee ia i?aia?ao.

A?a/ iaycai iiaeaioiaeoue iaoeeaioa e iaeieniiiaiio oanoo.
Aieueiua n

eaea?noaaiiie caaeneiinoueth aiyony i?iyaeaiey iaciaeiiuo ei
neiioiiia

aanoeiaioeee, iiyoiio eo iaaei oniieieoue. Iaeieniiiaue oano
aucuaaao

auno?ia ?acaeoea neiae?iia aanoeiaioeee e iaaaoeaioth
yiioeeiiaeueioth

?aaeoeeth. Yoa ?aaeoeey iiaeao i?eaanoe e ioeaco io
aeaeueiaeoaai ea/aiey,

ioeaco iaoiaeeoueny iiae iaaethaeaieai a noaoeeiia?a eee a
aeiaaiii

noaoeeiia?a. Iiyoiio i/aiue aaaeii oaaaeeoue iaoeeaioa a
iaiaoiaeeiinoe

i?iaaaeaiey oanoa, ia oioneay ec aeaeo neaaeothuaa:

Caaa?eoue iaoeeaioa, /oi aanoeiaioiue neiae?ii aoaeao niyo
aaeaeaaoiui

ea/aieai;

Iauynieoue aio, /oi iaeieniiiaue oano iaiaoiaeei, /oiau ia
naeaeaoue

caaeneiui iacaaeneiiai io iieaoia iaoeeaioa eee
noi?ie?iaaoue aieaa

oyaeaeoth caaeneiinoue o oia?aiii caaeneiiai i?e
iai?aaeeueiii

iacia/aiee caianoeoaeueiie oa?aiee.

(Caeanue ?a/ue eaeao i caianoeoaeueiii ea/aiee iieaoiie
ia?eiiaiee n

iiiiuueth iaoaaeiia, eioi?ia a ?innee cai?auaii. Iiae
“oia?aiiie” e

“aieaa oyaeaeie” caaeneiinoueth iiieiathony niioaaonoaaiii
ineoe/aneay e

oece/aneay caaeneiinoe, eioi?ua aucuaaao iaoaaeii – i?ei.
N.A.)

Iienaoue e iauynieoue iaoaieci neiae?iia ioiaiu o iaoeeaioa
n

eaea?noaaiiie caaeneiinoueth.

Iaoeeaio aeieaeai aeaoue ?anieneo, /oi ii i?ieioi?ie?iaai i
iaoiaeeea

auiieiaiey oanoa, a oaeaea eiaoue aa?aioee, /oi aanoeiaioeey
aoaeao

eoie?iaaia iaeauno?aeoei

niiniaii.

a) Iaoiaeeea iaeieniiiaiai oanoa

Aioo?eaaiiia aaaaeaiea iaeieniia (n?aaeiyy aeica 0,5 ia)
aucuaaao

aanoeiaioiue neiae?ii ia i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo ieioo. Aai

eioaineaiinoue i?iii?oeeiiaeueia noaiaie eaea?noaaiiie
caaeneiinoe.

Ia?aiao?u ioeaiee aanoeiaioiiai neiae?iia i?eaaaeaiu a
Oaaeeoea 1. Anee

aioo?eaaiiia aaaaeaiea cao?oaeiaii, iaeienii iiaeao auoue
aaaaeai

aioo?eiuoa/ii; a yoii neo/aa ?acaeoea aanoeiaioiiai
neiae?iia

caaea?aeeaaaony ia 30-60 ieioo…

…Iiuo i?iaaaeaiey iaeieniiiaiai oanoa a ?acee/iuo eeeieeao
aiai?eo i

oii, /oi:

Ii oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii ia?aiineony iaoeeaioaie;

Aucuaaao e?aoein?i/iue neiae?ii ioiaiu, iiyoiio iaiaa
o?aaiaoe/ai

(ii n?aaiaieth n anoanoaaiiui oa/aieai aanoeiaioeee aac
iaeieniia

– i?ei. N.A.)

Iiaeao i?eiaiyony a aeiaaiuo noaoeeiia?ao i?e iaee/ee

eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai ia?niiaea,

Aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iauaeoeaece?iaaoue aeeaaiinoeeo
i?eciaeia

oece/aneie caaeneiinoe;

Ia aucuaaao iiai/iuo yooaeoia o iieaoiacaaeneiuo
noauaeoia.

a) Niaoeeaeueiua i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey

Iaeieniiiaue oano ia iieacai aa?aiaiiui.

Oiio?aaeaiea iieaoia ianee?oao ineoicu, iiyoiio i?e
i?iaaaeaiee

iaeieniiiaiai oanoa ia?niiae aeieaeai auoue iiaeaioiaeai
aeey eoie?iaaiey

ineoioe/aneeo ?aaeoeee, neaaeothueo ca neiae?iiii ioiaiu.
Iaiaoiaeeii

oaeaea i?aaeoi?aaeeoue iaoeeaioa, /oi aai oiea?aioiinoue e
iieaoai

nieceony, e iau/iay aeica aa?ieia, iai?eia?,

iiaeao aucaaoue ino?oth eioieneeaoeeth.

Oaaeeoea 1.1 Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?acaeoey neiioiiia
aanoeiaioeee i?e

ioiaia iieaoiuo ia?eioeeia

Noaiaiue

aanoeiaioeeeNeiioiiu

Ii?oei*anu iinea iineaaeiaai aaaaeaiey

Aa?iei – Iaoaaeii

Noaiaiue 0Eiiioeueneaiia aea/aiea e ia?eioeeo,
no?ao6812

Noaiaiue 1Caaioa, neacioa/aiea, iioeeainoue,
ianii?e, nii

n i?iaoaeaeaieyie14834-48

Noaiaiue 2Iaino?aiea iienaiiuo neiioiiia,
ieae?eac,

iuoa/iue aeeneiioi?o ieeiy?aeoeey, a?eoiey,
a?o?aeaey,

ieaeaey, o?aii?, aiee a nieia161248-72

Noaiaiue 3 Iaino?aiea iienaiiuo neiioiiia,
aanniiieoea,

aeia?oaicey, aeiioa?iey, oaoeiiiy, oaoeea?aeey,

anoaiey.24-36 18-24

Noaiaiue 4 Iaino?aiea iienaiiuo neiioiiia,
oea?eeeyoeey

iuooe, ?aioa, aeea?ay (aiciiaeia iioa?y aana),
yyeoeyoeey,

niiioaiiue i?aaci, eaeeioeeoic, yiceiioeeey,
oia?aiiay

aeiiaeeeaiey36-48 24-36

IIEACAIEss AeEss IAIOEIAEIIE OA?AIEE I?E EIOIENEEAOeEE
IIEAOAIE

Iaoiaeeea

1) Aaiienou iieaoia (aa?iei, ii?oei, iaia?eaeei, iaoaaeii)
eee

aaiienou-aioaaiienou (aooi?oaiie, aoi?aii?oei, iaioacioeei)
iiaoo

aucaaoue ino?ia io?aaeaiea iieaoaie (ia?aaeice?iaeo) a
neo/ayo

i?eiaiaiey eo a aunieeo aeicao eee aianoa n ae?oaeie
i?aia?aoaie,

iioaioee?othueie yooaeo.

2) Ino?ua iieaoiua io?aaeaiey iau/ii iaaethaeatho i?e ieceie

oiea?aioiinoe e iieaoai ia ia/aeueiie noaaeee eaea?noaaiiie

caaeneiinoe, eee, /aua, iinea ia?eiaea aanoeiaioeee a
oa/aiea

aeaoieneeaoeeiiiie oa?aiee.

3) Iaeaieaa /anoua i?e/eiu ia?aaeice?iaee iieaoia
neaaeothuea:

Oiio?aaeaiea “oee/iuo” ia?eioeeia n aieaa aunieie
eiioeaio?aoeeae

aa?ieia, /ai iau/ii ?ani?ino?aiaiiay;

I?eai iieaoia iinea iaeioi?iai ia?eiaea aicaea?aeaiey a
aeica,

?aaiie iineaaeiae i?eiyoie aeica, ia oiia iaoneiaeaiiiai

aanoeiaioeeae nieaeaiey oiea?aioiinoe;

Niaianoiue i?eai iieaoia n ineoio?iiiuie noanoaioeeyie,
iniaaiii

oaeeie, eae aeeiaieue, aa?aeoo?aou, aaiciaeeacaieiu,
iae?ieaioeee

(e eeiieaeei – i?ei. N.A.);

I?eiaiaiea oee/iiai aa?ieia n oiene/iuie i?eianyie

Noiie?iaaiea yooaeoia aa?ieia e iaoaaeiia o noauaeoa,
eioi?ue ia

eiaao aaeaeaaoiie iieaoiie oiea?aioiinoe (caeanue e a
neaaeothuai

ioieoa: i?e iiaeaea?aeeaathuai ea/aiee iaoaaeiiii –
i?ei. N.A.);

I?eai aunieie aeicu iaoaaeiia noauaeoii, eoi ia eiaao
aaeaeaaoiie

iieaoiie oiea?aioiinoe;

Ia/ayiiue i?eai iieaoia aeaoueie (ne?ii iaoaaeiia e
o.i.).

4) Eeanne/aneay o?eaaea neiioiiia i?e ino?ii io?aaeaiee
iieaoaie

aeeth/aao ieic, oaiaoaiea aeuoaiey e ia?anoathuaa iii?a/aiea
niciaiey,

ia?aoiaeyuaa a eiio. Oaeaea ano?a/athony aoi?e/iua neiioiiu
e i?eciaee

(iai?eia?, aeaaeiua, nooea e oieiaeiua iie?iau e neecenoua –
i?ei.

N.A.). Ineiaeiaiey iiaoo auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu ino?ui ioaeii
eaaeeo.

a) Oaiaoaiea aeuoaiey: iiaeao iaaethaeaoueny 5-6 aaeioia a
ieiooo. Aieaa

neeueiue ?anie?aoi?iue aeeno?ann iiaeao i?eaanoe e aiiia.
Iaoeeaio

noaiiaeony aeaaeiui eee neithoiui, ?acaeaaaony ?anie?aoi?iue
aoeeaeic.

Oaiaoaiea aeuoaiey – iaeaieaa na?ueaciue oiene/aneee yooaeo

ii?oeiiiiaeiaiuo aauanoa e o?aaoao iaioeiaeiie oa?aiee.

a) Iii?a/aiea niciaiey i?aaenoaaeaii iau/ii i?aeiiie e
oieueei a

?aaeeeo neo/ayo ?acaeaaaony aeoaieay eiia.

a) Ieic c?a/ea: a oyaeaeuo neo/ayo c?a/ee i?aaeaeueii
noaeaiu, ia

?aaae?otho ia naao, /oi yaeyaony oa?aeoa?iui
aeeaaiinoe/aneei

i?eciaeii ia?aaeice?iaee iieaoia (e i?inoi i?eciaeii eo
oiio?aaeaiey

– i?ei. N.A.). Oeacaiiua i?eciaee iiaoo auoue iaei au?aaeaiu
eee

ionoonoaiaaoue a neaaeothueo neo/ayo:

i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii i?eaia aauanoaa n ieae?eaoe/aneei
aeaenoaeai

(ao?iieiiiiaeiaiua, o?eoeeeee/aneea aioeaeai?annaiou,

aioeaenoaieiiua, aioaoaieiu, eieaei e o.ae.),

i?e ino?ie eioieneeaoeee iaia?eaeeiii,

a iineaaeiae noaaeee eiiu.

a) Ino?ue ioae eaaeeo: yoi ineiaeiaiea eiaao ieioie i?iaiic
e iiaeao

i?eaanoe e eaoaeueiiio enoiaeo.

5) I?aia?aoii auai?a a ea/aiee ino?ie iieaoiie eioieneeaoeee
yaeyaony

iaeienii, aioaaiieno iieaoia. Ii eiieo?aioii auoaniyao
iieaou ec

iieaoiuo ?aoeaioi?ia, ono?aiyy oiene/aneia aeaenoaea
iieaoia.

6) I?aaeii/oeoaeueii aioo?eaaiiia aaaaeaiea aioaaiienoa, ii
anee

aaaaeaiea a ia?eoa?e/aneea aaiu cao?oaeiaii, oi aaiaeyo a
aaae?aiioth eee

ia?oaeioth y?aiioth aaio. Aiciiaeii oaeaea aioo?eiuoa/iia
eee iiaeeiaeiia

aaaaeaiea, ii aeaenoaea i?aia?aoa ianooieo eeoue /a?ac 15-20
ieioo.

7) Iaeienii nouanoaoao iiae oi?aiaie ia?eie Ia?eai 2 ie ai
oeaeiia

(0,4 ia) (a Iaoa?ao?aa ano?a/aaony e a ae?oaeo aeaeao,
i?e/ai iieueneee

– naiue aeaoaaue – i?ei. N.A.). *oiau ono?aieoue oaiaoaiea
aeuoaiey o

iiai?iaeaeaiiiai, ?iaeaeaiiiai io iaoa?e, no?aaeathuae
iieaoiie

caaeneiinoueth, a iaiiaoaeueiii ia?eiaea eniieuecotho
oieueei Ia?eai

(aeaeeii, oieueei a Eoaeee – i?ei. N.A.). A yoii neo/aa
ia/aeueiay aeica

ninoaaeyao 0,01 ia/ea. N?aaeiyy ia/aeueiay aeica aeey
ac?ineuo 0,4 ia

aioo?eaaiii.

8) A neo/aa, anee ac?ineue ia ?aaae?oao ia aeico 0,4 ia
iaeieniia

/a?ac 2-3 ieioou, aaiaeeony aioo?eaaiii aua iaeia aeica 0,4
ia

iaeieniia. Anee e ia yoio ?ac ?aaeoeee ia iineaaeoao
iaiaoiaeeii

ia?aiaieoue ea/aiea, oae eae aaaaeaiea iaeieniia yaeyaony
iaeiia?aiaiii

e aeeaaiinoeeie ex juvantibus. I?e iaee/ee ?aaeoeee ia
iaeieniiiaoth

oa?aieth auno?i iaeeaeythony ?aoeaenu, ?anoe?yaony c?a/ie,

ainnoaiaaeeaaaony aeuoaiea. A neo/aa ino?iai aeeiaieueiiai
io?aaeaiey

eee io?aaeaiey ae?oaeie aeai?annaioaie oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie
nenoaiu

yooaeo iaeieniia neaaue.

9) Iaoeeaiou, auaaaeaiiua ec eiiu, aeieaeiu iaoiaeeony iiae
iaaethaeaieai a

neo/aa eioieneeaoeee aa?ieiii 3-6 /ania, a neo/aa
eioieneeaoeee

iaoaaeiiii 24-48 /ania. Eiieo?aioiue aioaaiienoe/aneee
yooaeo

iaeieniia e?aoeia?aiaiiue (20-30 ieioo iinea aioo?eaaiiie
eiuaeoeee e

2-3 /ana iinea aioo?eiuoa/iie eiuaeoeee). Iaoeeaio iiaeao
iiaoi?ii

aianoue a eiio eee ?anie?aoi?ioth aeai?anneth ec-ca
ia?nenoe?othuaai

aaiienoe/aneiai yooaeoa, iiyoiio iiaeao iio?aaiaaoueny
aeiiieieoaeueiia

aaaaeaiea iaeieniia. (Ae?oaea enoi/ieee ?aeiiaiaeotho
iinoiyiioth eiooceth

iaeieniia ia i?ioyaeaiee ~12 /ania. Iiuo oieneeieiaia
“Nei?ie iiiiue”

Iaoa?ao?aa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi aeiionoeia a/iuoa/iay

“iaeieniiecaoeey” aei iiyaeaiey noieeiai ieae?eaca – i?ei.
N.A..)

10) Iieiaeeoaeueiay ?aaeoeey ia iaeienii iiaeao niaieoueny
aanoeiaioiui

neiae?iiii. A yoii neo/aa aaaaeaiea iaoaaeiia ia iieacaii (a
a ?innee –

eaoaai?e/anee cai?auaii e i?aneaaeoaony a oaieiaiii ii?yaeea
a ethaii

neo/aa – i?ei. N.A.).

11) Iinea i?iaaaeaiey iaioeiaeiuo ia?ii?eyoee iaoeeaio
aeieaeai auoue

aeinoaaeai a noaoeeiia? ia oieueei ii i?e/eiai, eceiaeaiiui
a i. 9, ii e

aeey ea/aiey ae?oaeo aiciiaeiuo ineiaeiaiee, ia eioi?ua
aeaenoaea

iaeieniia ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony (ioae eaaeeo, ia?ooaiey
oee?eoeyoeee,

oiene/aneea yooaeou ae?oaeo iaeiia?aiaiii i?eiyouo aauanoa,
ooyaeaeaiea

nouanoaothuae iaoieiaee e o.ae.).

12) Aeia?iaieueoeu, ?aaioathuea a n?aaea ia?eiiaiia,
aeieaeiu ia?eiaee/anee

eioi?ie?iaaoue eo i aiciiaeiuo i?e/eiao ia?aaeice?iaee,
iienaiiuo a

ioieoa 3, iniaaiii aicieeathueo a ia/aea e eiioea
aeaoieneeaoeee.

IIEAOIAss AeAOIENEEAOeEss EEIIEAeEIII,
EEIIEAeEIII/IAEIENIIII E

EEIIEAeEIII/IAEO?AENIIII.

Aiia Oa??a?e, Yieeei Noa?iea?e

Ioaeae oieneeieiaee e eeeie/aneie oa?iaeieiaee Oieaa?neoaoa
a. Iiaeaiu

1.Aaaaeaiea

Oa?aiey, i?aaenoaaeaiiay a yoie aeaaa, o?aaoao ouaoaeueiiai
ioai?a

aieueiuo e no?iaiai iaaeeoeeineiai eiio?iey ca ieie. Yoio
iaoiae ea/aiey

ia yaeyaony i?inoie aeueoa?iaoeaie ea/aieth iaoaaeiiii
(eiaaony a aeaeo

ae?iaiay aeaii?oeiecaoeey iaoaaeiiii, cai?auaiiay a ?innee –
i?ei.

N.A.), ii eiaeeaeaeoaeai e aeieaeai oaeiaeaoai?youe anai
iio?aaiinoyi

ioaeaeueiiai aieueiiai.

I?e auai?a i?ioieiea [aeaoieneeaoeee] iu ?anniao?eaaai:
aieueiiai

(oieneeieiae/aneee aiaiiac, iauaa ninoiyiea, iaiaoiaeeiinoue
ea/aiey,

?ano?nu, iioeaaoeey, ieaiu ia aoaeouaa), i?aia?aou
(niioiioaiea

?ene/yooaeoeaiinoue a oa/aiea ei?ioeiai e aeeeoaeueiiai
ia?eiaea),

oneiaey ea/aiey (iieeeeeieea, aeiaaiie noaoeeiia?, eeeieea,
o/anoeiaue

a?a/, nio?oaeie/anoai /eaiia naiuee).

2. Iaoiaeeea

2.1. Eeiieaeei

Eeiieaeei, i?iecaiaeiia eieaeaciea, yaeyaony naeaeoeaiui

a-2-aae?aiiieiaoeeii, aai i?yiia iacia/aiea – ea/aiea
a?oa?eaeueiie

aeia?oiiee. Iin?aaenoaii noeioeyoeee a -2
aae?aii?aii?aoeaioi?ia

(ia?aoiue caoaao ii?aae?aiaeeia) ii nieaeaao neiiaoe/aneoth

aeia?noeioeyoeeth, i?enouoth iieaoiiio neiae?iio ioiaiu.
Eeiieaeei

eniieuecoaony a aeaea iiiioa?aiee eee a eiiaeiaoeee n

iaeieniiii/iaeo?aeniiii aeey aeaoieneeaoeee eae iaoaaeii-,
oae e

aa?ieicaaeneiuo aieueiuo, oioy a Eoaeee yoe iieacaiey
eeiieaeeia ia

ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu Ieienoa?noaii cae?aaiio?aiaiey (a ?innee

aeaoieneeaoeey eeiieaeeiii ?aeiiaiaeiaaia Iei.cae?aaii).

Iu iiae/a?eeaaai, /oi eeiieaeei ia noieue yooaeoeaai a
eoie?iaaiee

neiae?iia ioiaiu, eae ii?oei eee iaoaaeii (eoie?iaaiea
iieaoiie

aanoeiaioeee iieaoaie – naiia yooaeoeaiia ea/aiea eci anao
aiciiaeiuo!

– i?ei. N.A.:). Ii ia aicaeaenoaoao ia iieaoiua ?aoeaioi?u,
a oieueei

ia oeaio?aeueioth aae?aia?ae/aneoth nenoaio, eioi?ay
iaoiaeeony a oaniii

acaeiiaeaenoaee n yiaei?oeia?ae/aneie nenoaiie. Ii ia
aucuaaao

aanniiieoeo (iai?ioea, a ia/aea ea/aiey aucuaaao
au?aaeaiioth

niieeainoue i?e eniieueciaaiee aaeaeaaoiuo aeic – i?ei.
N.A.) e

i?eno?anoea, ii nieaeaao /oanoai o?aaiae, aaeeoaoeeth,
iuoa/iua aiee. Ii

iieiinoueth ono?aiyao oioiioo, ?aioo, aeea?ath.

Aeaoieneeaoeey eeiieaeeiii, ii n?aaiaieth n iaoaaeiiii,
aeaao aieaa

au?aaeaiiue neiae?ii ioiaiu ia aieaa aeeeoaeueiue n?ie, e
iniaaiii a

ia?aoth iaaeaeth ea/aiey (iiyoiio ioeacu io ea/aiey a ia/aea
oa?aiee

ano?a/athony /aua, /ai i?e ea/aiee iaoaaeiiii; neiae?ii
ioiaiu e ioeac

io ea/aiey iaaethaeathony iau/ii iinea ia?auo aeiae ea/aiey,
eiaaea aeica

nie?auaaony aei 10 ia/noo. e ieaea. Eniieueciaaiea
eeiieaeeia a

aeaoieneeaoeee ia icia/aao nie?auaiea aeicu iaoaaeiia e
/enea

nii?aaee/aneeo neo/aaa oiio?aaeaiey aa?ieia iaoeeaioaie,
eiathueie

oia?aiioth oece/aneoth caaeneiinoue, eee ia eiathueo aa
aiana (a

iineaaeiai i?aaeeiaeaiee, aeaeeii, iiae?acoiaaaaony, /oi
eeiieaeei ia

i?aaeioa?auaao aiciiaeiuo ia?eioe/aneeo yenoeannia,
iineieueeo ia

nieaeaao aea/aiey e ia?eioeeo – i?ei. N.A.).

2.2.Iaoiaeeea auno?ie aeaoieneeaoeee eeiieaeeiii/iaeieniiii
e

eeiieaeeiii/iaeo?aeniiii.

Iaoiaeeea aace?oaony ia aeaoo eiioeaioeeyo:

1. Caiauaiea yeciaaiiuo iieaoia a niaoeeoe/aneeo ?aoeaioi?ao

yeciaaiiuie iaeieniiii eee iaeo?aeniiii

2. Ea/aiea neiae?iia ioiaiu eeiieaeeiii n iaeiia?aiaiiui
nie?auaieai

aai i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe iaeieniiii/iaeo?aeniiii.

Yoe niiniau ea/aiey i?aaeeiaeaiu aeey aeaoieneeaoeee eae
aa?iei-, oae e

iaoaaeiicaaeneiuo aieueiuo. Ii n?aaiaieth n iiiioa?aieae
eeiieaeeiii,

iie oei?a/eaatho ia?eiae ioiaiu e ia iaino?ytho aai. A
n?aaiaiee n

aeaoieneeaoeeae iaoaaeiiii, yoe iaoiaeu ea/aiey oei?a/eaatho
ia?eiae

aeeneiioi?oa neiae?iia ioiaiu, oioy iee yoiai aeeneiioi?oa
iiaeao auoue e

auoa. (Iie eiatho caaaaioth aiaeeeneoth aaa?aaeaoo?o UROD –
“Ultra

Rapid Opiate Detoxication” e iiaeoiaeyo aeey naiuo
ineoiiaoece?iaaiiuo

ia?eiiaiia. I?aaaea, aeey ianoiyuaai URODa o?aaoaony aua e

aeiiieieoaeueiay eioaineaiay naaeaoeey aa?aeoo?aoaie eee

aaiciaeeacaieiaie – i?ei. N.A.:). Yoe iaoiaeu i?eiaieiu
oaeaea a ia/aea

[i?ioeai?aoeeaeeaiiai] ea/aiey iaeo?aeniiii. Eeiieaeei ia
ono?aiyao

inoaoi/iua yaeaiey neiae?iia ioiaiu, iiyoiio iaoeeaio iiaeao
i?eaaaiooue

e oiio?aaeaieth aa?ieia. I?e ia?i?aeueiii i?eaia iaeo?aeniia
n aieaa

i?iaeieaeeoaeueiui aeaenoaeai aianoi iaeieniia aeieaaea
iieaoiuo

?aoeaioi?ia aieaa aeeeoaeueiay, e aieueiie [n aieueoae
aa?iyoiinoueth]

iiaeao ioeacaoueny io oiio?aaeaiey iieaoia.

Aeaoieneeaoeey eeiieaeeiii e iaeieniiii eiaao oio
iaaeinoaoie, /oi

aucuaaaiue iaeieniiii neiae?ii ioiaiu eeoue /anoe/ii
ono?aiyaony

eeiieaeeiii e aieueiie iiaeao ioeacaoueny io ea/aiey. I?e
eniieueciaaiee

iaeo?aeniia aianoi iaeieniia, neiioiiu ioiaiu eioaineaiu e

i?iaeieaeeoaeueiu e iiaoo iiaea/ue aeaeaiea i?aiaeieaoue
aeieaaeo aaaaeaieai

aieaa aunieeo aeic iieaoia. Iaa auno?ua iaoiaeeee
aeaoieneeaoeee

eeiieaeeiii/iaeieniiii e eeiieaeeiii/iaeo?aeniiii ia iiaoo

eniieueciaaoueny aeey aeinoeaeaiey ninoiyiey naiaiaeiiai io
ia?eioeea

(eiaaony a aeaeo aieaa-iaiaa noieeay ?aienney – i?ei. N.A.),
a

yaeythony eeoue i?iiaaeaaoe/aneeie aeey aaaaeaiey a eo?n
ea/aiey

aioaaiienoaie eee a eo?n ineoioa?aiee.

3.Oeaee

3.1. Aeaoieneeaoeey eeiieaeeiii

A. Iicaieyao i?iaanoe eo?n aeaoieneeaoeee iieaocaaeneiui
aieueiui aac

au?aaeaiiie oece/aneie caaeneiinoe iooai nie?auaiey
neiae?iia ioiaiu

A. Aeaao aiciiaeiinoue i?iaanoe eo?n aeaoieneeaoeee
iieaocaaeneiui

aieueiui n au?aaeaiiie oece/aneie caaeneiinoueth, eiaaea
caianoeoaeueiay

oa?aiey [iaoaaeiiii] ia iieacaia e ia iiaeao auoue
eniieueciaaia aeey

eoie?iaaiey neiae?iia ioiaiu.

3.2. Aeaoieneeaoeey eeiieaeeiii/iaeieniiii

Aeaoieneeaoeey i?ioiaeeo a oa/aiea ei?ioeiai ia?eiaea
a?aiaie, eo/oa a

oneiaeyo

noaoeeiia?a, auno?i ono?aiyaony aeeneiioi?o o
caeioa?aniaaiiuo a

ea/aiee aieueiuo,

nicaeathony oneiaey aeey ia?aoiaea e ea/aieth iaeo?aeniiii e

ineoioa?aiee.

3.3.Aeaoieneeaoeey eeiieaeeiii/iaeo?aeniiii

Nie?auaaony a?aiy, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey ia?aoiaea e ea/aieth
iaeo?aeniiii

caeioa?aniaaiiuo aieueiuo, auno?aa ono?aiyaony aeeneiioi?o
neiae?iia

ioiaiu.

4. E?eoa?ee iacia/aiey

Yoe niiniau ea/aiey iiaoo i?eiaiyony o anao iieaocaaeneiuo
aieueiuo,

oae eae ia aucuaatho caaeneiinoe. Iaeeo/oea ?acoeueoaou
ioia/aee o

aieueiuo n iieiaeeoaeueiie onoaiiaeie ia ea/aiea e
aucaei?iaeaiea ec

oao, eoi aei ia/aea aeaoieneeaoeee iieo/ae caianoeoaeueioth
oa?aieth

iaoaaeiiii a aeica, ia i?aauoathuae 20 ia. Iaoiaeeea auno?ie

aeaoieneeaoeee iaeo?aeniiii i?eiaiyeanue o ia?aie/aiiiai
/enea aieueiuo,

iienaiiua ?aaeeiu aeaoieneeaoeee o?aaotho iinoiyiiiai
iaaeeoeeineiai

iaaethaeaiey e oi?ioae eiiiaoaioiinoe niaoeeaeenoia.

5. Eiio?aeo ia ea/aiea

Aieueiie aeaao niaeanea ia ea/aiea iinea iieo/aiey
en/a?iuaathuae

eioi?iaoeee i oeaeyo aeaoieneeaoeee aac i?eiaiaiey ae?iaiie

aeaii?oeiecaoeee, i niioiioaiee iieueca/?ene aeaiiie
iaoiaeeee, a oaeaea

ia i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo iiiaioao i?iaiaeeiiai ea/aiey.

6.Iaoiaeeea ea/aiey

I/aaeaeii, /oi auno?ay aeaoieneeaoeey eeiieaeeiii e
aioaaiienoaie

ii?oeia i?iaiaeeony a oneiaeyo noaoeeiia?a. I?iaiaeeeenue
oaeaea

yenia?eiaioaeueiua eo?nu ea/aiey a aeiaaiiai noaoeeiia?a,
aaea aieueiua

aeieaeiu auee iaoiaeeony iiae iaaeeoeeineei iaaethaeaieai ii
e?aeiae ia?a 12

/ania a oa/aiea 2-o ia?auo aeiae ea/aiey. Iau/ii i?eiaiaiea

iiiioa?aiee eeiieaeeiii eee a eiiaeiaoeee n iaeieniiii eee

iaeo?aeniiii o?aaoao no?iaiai iaaeeoeeineiai eiio?iey.
Neaaeoao i?eiyoue

ai aieiaiea oaeaea:

1. Aeiioaiceaiue yooaeo eeiieaeeia o?aaoao iiieoi?eiaa
e?iayiiai

aeaaeaiey a oa/aiea 2 /ania iinea i?eaia aeicu. Anee ia
iiiaio i?eaia

neaaeothuae aeicu aeaaeaiea ieaea 90/60 ii ?o. no., oi aa
neaaeoao

ioeiaeeoue aei iiaeuaia aeaaeaiey.

2. Oae eae i?eai eeiieaeeia aucuaaao oaeaea naaeaoeaiue
yooaeo, oi

aieueiie ioaeaeaaony a nii?iaiaeaeathueo ia iooe a oeaio?
aeaoieneeaoeee;

3. Aieueiie aeieaeai auoue i?ieioi?ie?iaai, /oi
aeai?anneaiia aeaenoaea ia

OeIN naaeaoeaiuo, niioai?iuo n?aaenoa e aeeiaiey iiaeao
auoue oneeaii

iineaaeothuei i?eaiii eeiieaeeia. Eiio?ieue ca oiio?aaeaieai
iaeaaaeueiuo

noanoaioeee e aeeiaiey i?iaiaeeony aaeaaeiaaii ii aiaeecai
ii/e;

4. A neo/aa aeaoieneeaoeee a aiaoeaoi?iuo oneiaeyo eo/oa
ca?o/eoueny

iiaeaea?aeeie aeiaa?aiiiai eeoea [?iaenoaaiieea], eoi aoaeao
eiio?iee?iaaoue

i?eai aeiaaiie aeicu a niioaaonoaee n ninoiyieai, a?aiaiai
i?eaia,

niaethaeaieai iacia/aiiuo aeic (/oi iaiaeiaaaeii aeey
aioaaiienoia –

i?ei. N.A.). Aieaa oiai, aieueiie aeieaeai auoue
i?ieioi?ie?iaai i

iiai/iuo yooaeoao e iaiaoiaeeiuo aeaenoaeyo i?e eo
iiyaeaiee. A

/anoiinoe, aieueiie aeieaeai auoue i?ieioi?ie?iaai, /oi a
neo/aa

aicieeiiaaiey aeiioiiee e niieeainoe neaaeoao ioeiaeeoue
i?eai

eeiieaeeia; (Aieiaiea! Aaaeii! Eeiieaeei ia?aaeei
iioaioee?oao iieaoioth

aeieaaeo aeuoaoaeueiiai oeaio?a; i?eai
ii?oeia/aa?ieia/iaoaaeiia ia oiia

aaeaeaaoiuo aeic eeiieaeeia iiaeao noaoue ?aaeueiie oa?icie
aeey aeecie

aieueiiai – i?ei. N.A.).

5. Iniaia aieiaiea aeieaeii auoue oaeaeaii iiaeai?o
ia/aeueiie aeicu

eeiieaeeia

(iniaaiii a neo/aa aeaoieneeaoeee aa?ieicaaeneiiai
aieueiiai), oae eae

eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay ?aaeoeey neeueii aa?uee?oao. Iiaeae?aaony
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay

yooaeoeaiay aeica, niiniaiay aeiee?iaaoue neiae?ii ioiaiu e
aucaaoue

ieieioi iiai/iuo ?aaeoeee (a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue neaaeoao
ecaaaaoue

aieiaie?oaeaiey, aeiioiiee e ieanoaiee – i?ei. N.A.).

Eanaoaeueii i?eiaiaiey iaeieniia eee iaeo?aeniia aeey
auno?ie

aeaoieneeaoeee: iieacaiey, i?ioeaiiieacaiey,
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey iienaiu

aeey iaeieniia a aeaaa 1 a ?acaeaea “Nenoaiiue iaeieniiiaue
oano”, aeey

iaeo?aeniia – a aeaaa 6 a ?acaeaea “Ea/aiea iaeo?aeniiii”.
Iu

ioia/aee iiyaeaiea neiae?iia ioiaiu nionoy ianeieueei ieioo
iinea

aaaaeaiey iaeieniia e nionoy 5-45 ieioo iinea aaaaeaiey
iaeo?aeniia a

noaiaie, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie o?iaith caaeneiinoe.
Aeeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey

iaeieniia caaenaea io niiniaa aaaaeaiey: i?e aioo?eaaiiii
aaaaeaiee –

aei 30 ieioo, i?e aioo?eiuoa/iii e iiaeeiaeiii aaaaeaiee –
aei 2-3 /ania.

A neo/aa iaeo?aeniia neiioiiu ioiaiu iaaethaeaeenue aeaaea
/a?ac 72 /ana

iinea i?eaia i?aia?aoa. *oiau iioeiece?iaaoue aeico
eeiieaeeia,

iaiaoiaeei iiieoi?eia oyaeanoe neiae?iia ioiaiu aei e iinea
aaaaeaiey

aioaaiienoia ii?oeia, n eniieueciaaieai oeaeo Alanhlo eee
Wang (aeaaa

1, “Nenoaiiue iaeieniiiaue oano”). I?ioieieu aeaoieneeaoeee,
eioi?ua

i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoeao 1,2,3,4 e 5, aeieaeiu auoue
aaeaioe?iaaiu e

eiie?aoiiio aieueiiio e aai ?aaeoeee ia ea/aiea. Iieacii
aaanoe a

noaio ea/aiey aaiciaeeacaieiu, /oiau ono?aieoue aanniiieoeo
e iuoa/iue

aeeneiioi?o.

7.I?ioeaiiieacaiey e niaoeeaeueiua i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey

*oiau naanoe aei ieieioia iiai/iua yooaeou, iaiaoiaeeii
ouaoaeueii

iiaeae?aoue eiioeiaaio aieueiuo, eneeth/eoue niiaoe/aneeo e
ineoe/anee

aieueiuo, aa?aiaiiuo e eaeoe?othueo aeaiuei. A /anoiinoe,
aeieaeiu auoue

eneeth/aiu aieueiua, no?aaeathuea na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouie
caaieaaaieyie,

oecio?aieae, aeai?anneae, yiioeeiiaeueiuie ?anno?ienoaaie;
aieueiua,

iieo/aaoea ea/aiea eiaeaeoi?aie IAI, o?eoeeeee/aneeie

aioeaeai?annaioaie, oaiioeaceiaie a i?aaeoanoaiaaaoea 2
iaaeaee;

aeeiaieeee e ceioiio?aaeythuea niioai?iuie n?aaenoaaie.
Iaeaieaa /anoi

iaaethaeaaiua iiai/iua yooaeou eeiieaeeia: aeiioiiey,
nooinoue ai ?oo

(40%), aieiaie?oaeaiea (16%), caoi?iiaeaiiinoue, caii?u
(10%), anoaiey,

niieeainoue. Iaiaa /anou: aii?aeney, iaaeiiiaaiea, oioiioa e
?aioa,

eioia?u, aaeethoeeiaoeee, aeaee?ee.

Iaeaieaa iai?eyoiie aeey aieueiuo n eaea?noaaiiie
caaeneiinoueth

yaeyaony aanniiieoea (eioi?ay aiana ia yaeyaony iiai/iui
yooaeoii

eeiieaeeia – i?ei. N.A.). Iia o?oaeii ia?aiineony eie,
yaeyaony

i?e/eiie iaino?aiey ae?oaeo neiioiiia a ia?eiae ioiaiu e
o?aaoao

ea/aiey, iai?eia?, aaiciaeeacaieiaie ei?ioeiai aeaenoaey.

Iaiiieiaai, /oi ea/aiea eeiieaeeiii aeieaeii auoue caaa?oaii
a oa/aiea

24 aeiae

iinoaiaiiui nieaeaieai aeicu. ?aceay ioiaia eeiieaeeia
iiaeao aucaaoue

ia?aiciinoue, aaeeoaoeeth, aieiaioth aieue. Ia?aaeice?iaea
eeiieaeeia

i?eaiaeeo e aeiioiiee, a?aaeeea?aeee, oaiaoaieth OeIN e
aeuoaiey,

aeiioa?iee, ieico, aiiieaenee [eoaie/aneiio einoeueoo?],
niieeainoe,

eaoa?aee, a?eoiee.

Ea/aiea ia?aaeice?iaee aeeth/aao: eiooceiiioth iaa?oceo,
ia?aaiae

iaoeeaioa a iieiaeaiea “aieiaa aiec, iiae aaa?o”, aaaaeaiea
aeiiaieia

(io 2 aei 20 iea/ea/iei.) eee oieacieeia. Oieacieei –

a-aae?aiiaeieaoi?, yaeyaony niaoeeoe/aneei aioeaeioii
eeiieaeeia,

aaiaeeony a/a ii 10 ia eaaeaeua 30 ieioo (ieoa?neea
oieneeieiae a oao

aea oeaeyo i?eiaiytho iaoaeeii?aieae (oea?oeae) a
ia?anoathueo aeice?iaeao

io 10 ia aei iieo/aiey yooaeoa – i?ei. N.A.). I?e
ia?aaeice?iaea

iaeieniia eee iaeo?aeniia iaiaoiaeeii neiioiiaoe/aneia
ea/aiea e

iiieoi?eia. Ia?aaeice?iaea iaeo?aeniia iiaeao i?eaanoe
oaeaea e

ia?ooaieyi iaiyoe.

Oaaeeoea 5.1 Aeaoieneeaoeey eeiieaeeiii ia?i?aeueii

(iaoaaeiicaaeneiua aieueiua, Eleber, 1981).

AeieEeiieaeei ia?i?aeueii

8.0016.0023.00

16 iea/ea 6 iea/ea

n 2 ii 107 iea/ea3 iea/ea 7 iea/ea

113 iea/ea2 iea/ea4 iea/ea

122 iea/ea 1 iea/ea 2 iea/ea

13 1 iea/ea 1 iea/ea

Oaaeeoea 5.2 Aeaoieneeaoeey eeiieaeeiii ia?i?aeueii

(aa?ieicaaeneiua aieueiua, iiaeeoeeaoeey Elabar, 1981).

AeieEeiieaeei

n 1 ii III eee IV io 16 aei 20 iea/ea,
?acaeaeaiiuo ia 3

aeicu a 8 , 16 e 23 /ana

n IV eee V ii

VI eee VII aeaiueieaaiia nieaeaiea aeicu aei
i?ae?auaiey

ea/aiey

Oaaeeoea 5.3 Aeaoieneeaoeey eeiieaeeiii e iaeieniiii
(Riordan,

Kleber1980)

AeieI?aia?aou

1-eeeiieaeei 0,1 ia 3 ?aca a aeaiue /eaaeaeua 8
/ania/

2-eeeiieaeei io 0,2 aei 0.Cia 3 ?aca a aeaiue;
iaeienii

0.2ia, caoai 0,3 ia, caoai 0,4 ia 3 ?aca
eaaeaeua 2 /ana.

3-eeeiieaeei io 0,2 aei 0.Cia 3 ?aca a aeaiue.
Iaeienii

0.8ia a/i eaaeaeua 2 /ana 5 ?ac.

4-eiaeienii 0.4ia a/i eae oano-aeica. Anee
neiae?ii ioiaiu

ia iaaethaeaaony, ia/eiatho ea/aiea
iaeo?aeniiii. Anee

iaeo?aenii ia i?aaeoniio?ai, ea/aiea
inoaiaaeeaatho ia 3-e

aeaiue.

Oaaeeoea 4. Aeaoieneeaoeey eeiieaeeiii e iaeo?aeniiii

(iaoaaeiicaaeneiua aieueiua, Nhaa1ao e ae?., 1986).

Aeaiue Eeiieaeei per os a aeaiueIaeo?aenii (NTX) per os a

aeaiue

1 5-10iea/ea (9.00, 15.00, 21.00)

2 5-10iea/ea (eaaeaeua 4 /ana)1ia eaaeaeua 4
/ana (ia iicaea

17.00)

3 5-10iea/ea (eaaeaeua 4 /ana)2 ia eaaeaeua 4
/ana (ia iicaea

17.00)

4 5-10iea/ea (eaaeaeua 8 /an.)10 ia a 9.00,
13.00, 17.00

5 oieueei i?e iio?aaiinoe 50 ia a 9 /ania

6-10 eae a 5 aeaiue eae a 5 aeaiue

Ia?aay aeica eeiieaeeia ninoaaeyao 5 iea/ea, iineaaeothuea
aeicu

iiaeae?atho enoiaey ec o?iaiy ioiaiu e iiai/iuo yooaeoia.
Ii?aaeaeytho

o?iaaiue ioiaiu ia?aae eaaeaeui aaaaeaieai iaeo?aeniia
AEaeaoaeueia

ainieoaeecaoeey ia?aua 3 aeiy, oae neiae?ii ioiaiu eiaao iee
ia 2-3

aeaiue.

Oaaeeoea 5.5 Aeaoieneeaoeey eeiieaeeiii e iaeo?aeniiii

(iaoaaeii- e aa?ieicaaeneiua aieueiua,

Margolin A., Koster T.R, 1991)

1-e aeaiue a) eeiieaeei 0,2 ia ia?i?aeueii a 9 /an, e aeaeaa

eaaeaeua 4 /ana aei aeicu 1,0 ia. Iiieoi?eia AAe
eaaeaeua 15

ieioo a oa/aiea 1 /ana, caoai eaaeaeua 30 ieioo
a oa/aiea

6 /ania.

a) ienacaiai 15-30 ia ia?i?aeueii a 9 /ania,
caoai 15-30

ia eaaeaeua 6 /ania aei aeicu 90 ia. Aieaa
aunieay ia/aeueiay

aeica auaaao iaiaoiaeeia, /oiau eiio?iee?iaaoue
niaciu

iuooe, aucaaiiua iaeo?aeniiii.

a) iaeo?aenii 12,5 ia ia?i?aeueii a 10 /ania.

2-e aeaiue Eae a ia?aue aeaiue, ca eneeth/aieai
iaeo?aeniia,

eioi?ue aaiaeyo a aeica 25 ia.

3-e e 4-e aeieEae a 1-e e 2-e aeie, ca
eneeth/aieai

iaeo?aeniia, eioi?ue aaiaeyo a aeica 50 ia.
Aeica eeiieaeeia

e ienacaiaia aeieaeia iinoaiaiii oiaiueoaoueny
aei

i?ae?auaiey ea/aiey ia 5 aeaiue.

Ia/eiay n 4 aeiy aieueiie iieo/aao aeiee?othuoth
aeico

iaeo?aeniia, /oiau ia?aeoe e ea/aieth yoei
i?aia?aoii.

OA?AIEss IAEO?AENIIII

Aaaaeaiea

Oa?aiey iaeo?aeniiii (eiieo?aioiue aioaaiieno iieaoiuo
?aoeaioi?ia

aeey ia?i?aeueiiai i?eaia n aeeeoaeueiui aeaenoaeai)
eniieuecoaony

iaeiia?aiaiii n ineoioa?aieae aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ioeaca io
aa?ieia

(iaiiaeiaea ea/aiey aeeiaieecia “Ynia?aeai”). A ia?eiae
ea/aiey o

aieueiiai oi?ie?oaony iiceoeaiay yiioeeiiaeueiay, o?oaeiaay
e nioeeaeueiay

iioeaaoeey aeey ia/aea iiaie aeecie. Ea/aiea iaeo?aeniiii ia
aeieaeii

i?iaiaeeoueny eciee?iaaii io anaai eiiieaena
?aaaeeeoaoeeiiiuo

ia?ii?eyoee. Iaeiie ec aeaaiuo i?iaeai oa?aiee iaeo?aeniiii
yaeyaony

niaeaoaiea i ea/aiee. Yoio i?aia?ao ia i?iecaiaeeo
i/aaeaeiiai

yooaeoa, ii aai ioiaia naycaia n iai?eyoiuie iineaaenoaeyi.

Ia?aiineiinoue iaeo?aeniia o aieueiuo n iieaoiie
caaeneiinoueth

cia/eoaeueii ooaea, /ai aaiienoia (iai?eia?, iaoaaeiia). A
ia/aea

ea/aiey iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau ?iaenoaaiieee eee ae?ocuey
aieueiiai

aeiaa?eoaeueii iiaiai?eee n iei n oeaeueth oaaaeeoue aai a
iaiaoiaeeiinoe

ea/aiey iaeo?aeniiii. A caeeth/aiea iaiaoiaeeii neacaoue,
/oi o?oaeii

ii?aaeaeeoue eciee?iaaiioth yooaeoeaiinoue iaeo?aeniia a
i?aiaeieaiee

eaea?noaaiiie caaeneiinoe.

1.Oeaee

a) Iiaeaea?aeea ioeaca io iieaoia n oeaeueth i?aiaeieaiey
oece/aneie

caaeneiinoe;

a) Aeeeoaeueiay iiaeaea?aeea eo?na ineoioa?aiee e
?aaaeeeoaoeee,

a) Oi?ie?iaaiea o aieueiiai onoaiiaee ia iiaoth aeeciue,
naiaiaeioth io

ia?eioeea.

2.E?eoa?ee iacia/aiey

Iacia/aiea iaeo?aeniia aa?ieicaaeneiui aieueiui, eiathuei
oece/aneoth

caaeneiinoue, iiaeao aucaaoue neiae?ii ioiaiu nionoy 1-2
/ana iinea

i?eaia, iiyoiio ea/aiea iaeo?aeniiii aeieaeii ia/eiaoueny
oieueei iinea

caaa?oaiey aeaoieneeaoeee. Oioy oa?aiey iaeo?aeniiii iiaeao
auoue

iacia/aia ethaiio iieaocaaeneiiio aieueiiio, eo/oea
?acoeueoaou

aeinoeaathony o caeioa?aniaaiiuo a ea/aiee iaoeeaioia n
aunieei

eoeueoo?iui e i?ioanneiiaeueiui o?iaiai, eiaaea ea/aiea
iaeo?aeniiii

inouanoaeyaony a eiiieaena n ineoioa?aieae e
?aaaeeeoaoeeiiiuie

ia?ii?eyoeyie e a nio?oaeie/anoaa n ?iaenoaaiieeaie
aieueiiai.

3.Niaeaoaiea i ea/aiee

Aieueiie aeieaeai aeaoue niaeanea ia ea/aiea iinea oiai, eae
ii aoaeao

iieiinoueth i?ieioi?ie?iaai i oeaeyo ea/aiey, i iieueca e
?enea aeaiiiai

iaoiaea ea/aiey. Anee e ea/aieth i?eaeaeathony ?iaenoaaiieee
eee

aeiaa?aiiua eeoea aieueiiai, oi iie oaeaea aeieaeiu aeaoue
niaeanea

o/anoaiaaoue a i?iaaaeaiee ea/aiey. Aieaa oiai, eae
aieueiie, oae e

?iaenoaaiieee i?eieiatho ia naay iaycaoaeuenoai no?iai
neaaeiaaoue

iaiai?aiiie i?ioeaaeo?a ea/aiey.

3.1.Noaia niaeaoaiey i ea/aiee.

Aeieaeiu auoue inaauaiu neaaeothuea ioieou:

Oeaee ea/aiey

Eiio?ieue ca i?ioeaaeo?ie i?eaia iaeo?aeniia

I?e/eiu, eioi?ua iiaoo i?eaanoe e eciaiaieth ea/aiey eee
ioeaco

io ea/aiey,

Ieieiaeueiay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue eo?na ea/aiey,

Aeeeoaeueiinoue e oneiaey eiio?iey oiea?aioiinoe e
iaeo?aeniio

(eeeie/aneea e eaai?aoi?iua oanou)

Iaoiaeeea eiio?iey ii/e (aeey auyaeaiey neo/aaa
oiio?aaeaiey

ia?eioeeia – i?ei. N.A.)

Iienaiea e oneiaey i?iaaaeaiey ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneie e

?aaaeeeoaoeeiiiie i?ia?aii iaeiia?aiaiii n ea/aieai
iaeo?aeniiii

Eiio?ieue ?iaenoaaiieeia eee ae?oaeo aeiaa?aiiuo eeoe ca
auiieiaieai

aeinoeaiooiai niaeaoaiey i ea/aiee.

Ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia oa?iaeieiae/aneie,
ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneie e

?aaaeeeoaoeeiiiie i?ia?aii

Caaa?oaiea oa?aiee iaeo?aeniiii.

3.2.Ioeaee e i?ae?auaiea ea/aiey aac aeinoeaeaiey oeaee.

I?ae?auaiea ea/aiey iiaeao noaoue iaiaoiaeeiui i?e
neaaeothueo

ianoiyoaeuenoaao:

a) Aieueiie iuoaaony i?aiaeieaoue aeieaaeo iieaoiuo
?aoeaioi?ia, iiaoi?ii

ceioiio?aaeyao eieaeiii, aeeiaieai, niioai?iuie, ae?oaeie

i?aia?aoaie, aieaa ia nio?oaeie/aao n a?a/ii a i?iaaaeaiee

ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneie e ?aaaeeeoaoeeiiiie i?ia?aii. Ea/aiea
iiaeao auoue

ia/aoi caiiai oieueei i?e iiaoi?iie iieiie ia?aioeaiea
neooaoeee n

aeaaii?eyoiuie auaiaeaie.

a) Ino?ue aaiaoeo eee aa?aiaiiinoue.

a) Iiyaeaiea iiai/iuo yooaeoia i?aia?aoa, eioi?ua ia
ia?aiinyony

aieueiui eee i?aaenoaaeytho oa?ico aai caei?iaueth ii
iiaieth a?a/a.

4.Iaoiaeeea ea/aiey

Ea/aiea iaeo?aeniiii aeieaeii i?iaiaeeoueny iiae
i?enoaeueiui

eiio?ieai a?a/a.

Iaiaoiaeeii ecaanoeoue o/anoeiaiai a?a/a i i?iaiaeeiii
ea/aiee.

Ea/aiea aeieaeii auoue ia/aoi a noaoeeiia?a, iniaaiii
anee aio

i?aaeoanoaiaaea auno?ay aeaoieneeaoeey
eeiieaeeiii/iaeieniiii eee

eeiieaeeiii/iaeo?aeniiii.

*oiau ecaaaeaoue ino?iai neiae?iia ioiaiu, ea/aiea
aeieaeii

ia/eiaoueny iinea ieieiaeueiiai eioa?aaea (7aeiae nionoy
iineaaeiaai

i?eaia aa?ieia e 10 aeiae nionoy iineaaeiaai i?eaia
iaoaaeiia, a

oaeaea iinea iieo/aiey iaaaoeaiiai ?acoeueoaoa ia
iaee/ea iieaoia

e iaoaaeiia a ii/a). Iaiaoiaeeii oaaaeeoueny, /oi
aieueiie ia oieueei

aeaoieneoee?iaai (ionoonoaea ii?oeia a ii/a), ii e
i?iaanoe

iaeieniiiaoth i?iao ia ionoonoaea oece/aneie
caaeneiinoe.

Ea/aiea iaeo?aeniiii ia/eiatho oieueei anee iaeieniiiaay
i?iaa

io?eoeaoaeueiay.

4.1. Ia/aei aaaaeaiey iaeo?aeniia.

Iinea aeaoieneeaoeee eeiieaeeiii, iienaiiie a aeaaa 5,
ia/eiatho

aaaaeaiea iaeo?aeniia ii iaeiie ec neaaeothueo iaoiaeee:

Aaiaeyo 10 ia iaeo?aeniia a ia?aue aeaiue, a
iineaaeothuea 5-7 aeiae

iiauoatho aeico aaeaaeiaaii ia 10 ia aei aeinoeaeaiey
yooaeoeaiie

nooi/iie aeicu 50 ia/aeaiue, niiniaiie aeiee?iaaoue 25
ia aa?ieia ia

24 /ana i?e aioo?eaaiiii aaaaeaiee;

Aaiaeyo 25 ia iaeo?aeniia a ia?aue aeaiue iiae eiio?ieai
a?a/a a

oa/aiea 1 /ana, i?e ionoonoaee i?eciaeia neiae?iia
ioiaiu aaiaeyo

inoaaoothny /anoue yooaeoeaiie aeicu.

4.2.Noaia iiaeaea?aeeaathuaai ea/aiey iaeo?aeniiii

Aiciiaeiia aaaaeaiea:

-50 ia/aeaiue;

-50 ia/aeaiue n iiiaaeaeueieea aei iyoieoeu e 100
ia/aeaiue a

aine?anaiuea,

-100 ia /a?ac aeaiue;

-100 ia a iiiaaeaeueiee e n?aaeo e 150 ia a iyoieoeo.

Noaia aaaaeaiey, aua?aiiay a?a/ii, aeieaeia aa?aioe?iaaoue
aeieaaeo

?aoeaioi?ia a eioa?aaeao iaaeaeo aaaaeaieyie e
niioaaonoaiaaoue

aeinoeaiooiio niaeaoaieth i ea/aiee. Aaoi?u ia ?aniieaaatho
naaaeaieyie

i eiio?iee?oaiuo enneaaeiaaieyo n i?eiaiaieai ae?oaeo aeic.
Ia?aae

ia/aeii ea/aiey iaiaoiaeeii i?iaaaeaiea 6-oeiany/iiai
aeioeie/aneiai e

eeeie/aneiai eaai?aoi?iuo enneaaeiaaiee, n aeoeaioii ia
iieacaoaee

ooieoeee ia/aie (ca yoi a?aiy ia?eiiai iiaeao oia?aoue io
ia?aaeice?iaee

eee io/ayiey, a ?iaenoaaiieee i?aaeaaeoo Aan noaeo Eei/a –
i?ei. N.A.),

Ia i?ioyaeaiee ea/aiey iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue eaai?aoi?iue
eiio?ieue

ii/e, /oiau iiaeoaa?aeeoue ioeac io ceioiio?aaeaiey
aa?ieiii,

aeeiaieai, eieaeiii.

5.I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ea/aiey

I/aaeaeii, /oi onoaiiaeoue iioeiaeueiue ia?eiae ea/aiey aeey
anao aieueiuo

neiaeii. Ieieiaeueiay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ea/aiey,
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiay

eeeie/aneeie enneaaeiaaieyie, 6 ianyoeaa. Ieii/aiea ea/aiey,
i?e

ionoonoaee i?iaeai ni caei?iaueai iaoeeaioa, aeieaeii auoue
ianoaeaeaii n

iei e aai ?iaenoaaiieeaie eee aeiaa?aiiui eeoeii.

6.I?ioeaiiieacaiey e niaoeeaeueiua i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey

I?eiaiaiea iaeo?aeniia i?ioeaiiieacaii a neaaeothueo
neooaoeeyo:

Iieaocaaeneiua aieueiua i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ia
aeaoieneoee?iaaiu;

Ai a?aiy neiae?iia ioiaiu;

O aieueiuo, ia i?ioaaeoeo iaeieniiiaoth i?iao,

I?e iaee/ee i?iecaiaeiuo ii?oeia a ii/a aieueiiai;

Ino?ue aaiaoeo e ae?oaea caaieaaaiey ia/aie;

Aeia?/oanoaeoaeueiinoue e iaeo?aeniio a aiaiiaca;

Aa?aiaiiinoue.

A ae?oaeo neooaoeeyo, e?iia oiiiyioouo auoa, ia?aiineiinoue
iaeo?aeniia

oi?ioay.

Iaeaieaa /anouie iiai/iuie yooaeoaie i?e i?eiaiaiee
iaeo?aeniia

yaeythony ia?ooaiea nia, o?aaiaa, aieiaiua aiee, aiee a
iaeanoe

aeeaioa. Ioia/aiu neo/ae i?aoiaeyuaai ia?ooaiey ia/aii/iuo
ooieoeee i?e

i?aauoaiee aeic, aeinoaoi/iuo aeey aeieaaeu iieaoiuo
?aoeaioi?ia.

Iaeo?aenii yaeyaony eiieo?aioiui aioaaiienoii iieaoiuo
?aoeaioi?ia.

Iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeoi?aaeeoue aieueiiai, /oi iiiuoea
i?aiaeieaoue aeieaaeo

aaaaeaieai aieaa aunieeo aeic ii?oeia iiaeao i?eaanoe a
eaoaeueiiio

enoiaeo. Aieueiiai neaaeoao niaaaeeoue aeieoiaioii,
eioi?ie?othuei, /oi ii

iaoiaeeony ia ea/aiee iaeo?aeniiii (ia neo/ae n?i/iie
ainieoaeecaoeee

e iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?eiaiaiey iieaoiuo aiaeueaaoeeia).
Aeieoiaio n

iienaieai oa?aiee iaeo?aeniiii aeieaeai iaoiaeeony i?e
aieueiii

iinoiyiii.

Oaeaea aieueiie aeieaeai auoue i?ieioi?ie?iaai ia oaaee/aiee

/oanoaeoaeueiinoe e i?iecaiaeiui ii?oeia, ia neo/ae, anee ii
?aoeo

i?a?aaoue ea/aiea iaeo?aeniiii e aiiaue aa?iooueny e i?eaio
iieaoia.

Ea/aiea iaeioi?uo yeno?aiiuo ninoiyiee

A. Iniiaiua ?aaieiaoeeiiiua ia?ii?eyoey. I?eciaee
eeeie/aneie nia?oe

(inoaiiaee aeuoaiey e e?iaiia?auaiey) – ionoonoaea
aeuoaoaeueiuo

aeaeaeaiee e ioeuena ia e?oiiuo a?oa?eyo. Iniiaiua
?aaieiaoeeiiiua

ia?ii?eyoey iicaieytho eneonnoaaiii iiaeaea?aeeaaoue
e?iaiia?auaiea e

aaioeeyoeeth eaaeeo. Yoe ia?ii?eyoey aeaeyo ia 10 yoaiia,
eioi?ua iiaeii

iauaaeeieoue a 3 a?oiiu – iiaeaea?aeaiea i?ioiaeeiinoe
aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae,

aeuoaiey e e?iaiia?auaiey.

1. Iiaeaea?aeaiea i?ioiaeeiinoe aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae

a. Oaaaeeoueny a oii, /oi aieueiie aac niciaiey, aeey /aai
inoi?iaeii

iio?ynoe aai.

a. Anee niciaiea ionoonoaoao, oi aucaaoue ?aaieiaoeeiiioth
a?eaaaeo.

a. Iieiaeaiea ?aaieie?oaiiai – eaaea ia nieia, ia oaa?aeie
ieineie

iiaa?oiinoe (anee a e?iaaoe – oi ia ueoa).

a. Iieiaeaiea ?aaieiaoi?a – ia eieaiyo eee noiy naieo io

?aaieie?oaiiai, ia o?iaia aai iea/: oae oaeiaiaa i?iaiaeeoue
EAE ?io a

?io e iai?yiie iannaae na?aeoea.

ae. Iaania/aiea i?ioiaeeiinoe aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae. A
ionoonoaea o?aaiu

oaeiiai ioaeaea iicaiii/ieea – ia?a?aciaiooue aieiao. I?e
iiaeic?aiee

ia o?aaio oaeiiai ioaeaea iicaiii/ieea – auaeaeiooue aia?aae
ieaeithth

/aethnoue, aieiao ia cai?ieeaeuaaoue.

2. Iiaeaea?aeaiea aeuoaiey

a. Oaaaeeoueny a oii, /oi naiinoiyoaeueiiai aeuoaiey iao.
I?eciaee

naiinoiyoaeueiiai aeuoaiey – aeuoaoaeueiua aeaeaeaiey e
auaeuoaiea aicaeooa,

eioi?ia iiaeii oneuoaoue eee ii/oanoaiaaoue eaaeiiueth.

6. EAE i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa i?iaiaeeoue n iiiiuueth ianee, ii
aiciiaeii e

iaoiaeii ?io a ?io e ?io a iin. Nia/aea aeaeatho aeaa
aeoaieeo aaeoaaiey

(i?iaeieaeay iiaeaea?aeeaaoue i?ioiaeeiinoue aeuoaoaeueiuo
iooae), i?e yoii

aeieaeiu iiyaeoueny ianneaiua aeaeaeaiey a?oaeiie noaiee.

3. Iiaeaea?aeaiea e?iaiia?auaiey

a. Oaaaeeoueny a oii, /oi ioeuena iao, iooai iaeueiaoeee
niiiuo a?oa?ee a

oa/aiea 5 n.

a. Aucaaoue ?aaieiaoeeiiioth a?eaaaeo.

a. Iai?yiie iannaae na?aeoea. Anee ?aaieiaoi? iaeei, oi ia
eaaeaeua 15

iaaeaaeeaaiee ia a?oaeioth eeaoeo aeieaeii i?eoiaeeoueny 2
aaeoaaiey, anee

?aaieiaoi?ia aeaia, oi niioiioaiea – 5:1.

A. Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ?aaieiaoeeiiiua ia?ii?eyoey
(iaiaoiaeeii auoue a

eo?na iineaaeieo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee).

A. Eiia

1. I?e/eiu eiiu e ae?oaeo ino?uo ia?ooaiee niciaiey iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue

ia 2 a?oiiu: aeeooociia oiene/aneia eee iaoaaiee/aneia
ii?aaeaiea OeIN

e i/aaiaia i?aaie/aneia ii?aaeaiea OeIN. Onoaiiaeoue
yoeieiaeth eiiu

iaaei aac i?iiaaeeaiey, oae eae oiene/aneia eee
iaoaaiee/aneia

ii?aaeaiea OeIN ea/ao oa?aiaaoe/anee, a i/aaiaia ii?aaeaiea
iiaeao

iio?aaiaaoue iae?ioe?o?ae/aneiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa.

2. Ia?aii/a?aaeiua ia?u – yoi iniiaiua ?aaieiaoeeiiiua
ia?ii?eyoey e

noaaeeecaoeey aeeciaiii aaaeiuo ooieoeee. N ia?auo ieioo
iaiaoiaeeii

neaaeeoue ca oaiia?aoo?ie, /anoioie aeuoaiey, *NN e
na?aea/iui ?eoiii,

aiciiaeiui iiyaeaieai i?eciaeia oiea. I?e iiaeic?aiee ia
o?aaio

oaeiiai ioaeaea iicaiii/ieea eiiiaeeece?otho oath. Iinea
oiai eae

iaania/aiu i?ioiaeeiinoue aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae, aaioeeyoeey
eaaeeo e .

ieneaaiaoeey e?iae, onoaiaaeeaatho aaiiciue eaoaoa? e aa?oo
e?iaue ia

iauee, aeioeie/aneee (aetheica, yeaeo?ieeou, AIE, e?aaoeiei,
aaciaue

ninoaa) e oieneeieiae/aneee aiaeec, a oii /enea ia
aeeiaieue.

?aaeno?e?otho YEA aeey auyaeaiey ia?ooaiee ?eoia e
i?iaiaeeiinoe

na?aeoea. Ii aiciiaeiinoe ii?aaeaeytho o?iaaiue aetheicu n
iiiiuueth

oano-iieinie. Anee o?iaaiue aetheicu iaecaanoai eee auyaeaia

aeiiaeeeaiey, aaiaeyo 50 ie 50% aetheicu a/a. I?e
iiieaeaiiii ieoaiee

(i?e aeeiaieecia, aeeiaioa?iuo aeeno?ioeyo) aeey
i?ioeeaeoeee

yioeaoaeiiaoee Aa?ieea aaiaeyo 100 ia oeaieia a/i eee a/a
(ni.

Aeeiaieueiue aanoeiaioiue neiae?ii). Aaiaeyo oaeaea
iaeienii, 2 ia a/a,

a i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe (io?aaeaiea aaiciaeeacaieiaie) –
aioaaiieno

aaiciaeeacaieiia oeoiacaiee (ni. i. V.A.3).

3. Niae?atho aiaiiac o ?iaenoaaiieeia, ae?ocae, a?a/ae
nei?ie iiiiue,

ea/auaai a?a/a. Iaeaaeaeo, aaue, iiiauaiea iniao?eaatho ia
i?aaeiao aiioe

n eaea?noaaiiuie i?aia?aoaie. Anee eino?oeoeey ii
i?eiaiaieth

i?aia?aoa iaienaia ia iieiinoueth eee ia?acai?/eai,
iaiaoiaeeii

naycaoueny n aioaeie e oi/ii auynieoue niaea?aeaiea yoie
eino?oeoeee.

Auyniytho, ia auei ee o aieueiiai iaanoanoaaiiuo aeaeaeaiee,
noaei?ia,

o?aai, eaeea eaea?noaaiiua n?aaenoaa e ieuo ii i?eieiae,
eaeeie

o?iie/aneeie caaieaaaieyie no?aaeaao (naoa?iue aeeaaao e o.
i.).

4. A i?ioeanna oeceeaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey iaeaaeeaatho
iiieoi?eia

iniiaiuo oeceieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeae, eoie?otho ia?ooaiey
?eoia

na?aeoea, noaaeeece?otho aaioeeyoeeth eaaeeo. Iniiaiua yoaiu
oeceeaeueiiai

enneaaeiaaiey:

a. Ia?oaeiue iniio?: i?eciaee o?aaiu (nnaaeeiu, ooeau, ?aiu,

ia?aeiiu), neaaeu eiuaeoeee eee ae?oaeo niiniaia aaaaeaiey
i?aia?aoia.

Aeia?aiey eiaee, iocu?e ?aciuo ?acia?ia aiciiaeiu i?e
io?aaeaiee

aa?aeoo?aoaie e oaa?iui aacii, a oaeaea a ?acoeueoaoa
aeeeoaeueiiai

naeaaeaiey. I?iaiaeyo iniio? aa?aaaiiuo ia?aiiiie (i?e
ia?aeiia

iniiaaiey /a?aia aiciiaeii neiieaiea e?iae a n?aaeiai ooa).

a. Aeeaaiic aeeiaieueiie eiiu iaeuecy noaaeoue ia iniiaaiee
iaeiiai

oieueei caiaoa aeeiaiey eci ?oa.

a. Na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoay nenoaia. A?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oiiey
iiaeao auoue

eae naiinoiyoaeueiui caaieaaaieai, oae e neiioiiii
aioo?e/a?aiiie

aeia?oaicee (iai?eia?, i?e aioo?e/a?aiiii e?iaieceeyiee) eee

ia?aaeice?iaee aae?a-ia?ae/aneeo n?aaenoa. ?anno?ienoaa
niciaiey

aiciiaeiu i?e oaoe- e a?aaeea?eoieyo, eiaaea iaaeaao
na?aea/iue aua?in.

I?e o?iiaica eaaiai aeaeoaei/ea aiciiaeia yiaieey iicaiauo
ninoaeia.

a. I?e aaiaoiiaaaeee e anoeeoa neaaeoao caiiaeic?eoue
ia/aii/ioth

cioeaoaeiiaoeth.

ae. Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea aeiaeieiae/aneia e ?aeoaeueiia
enneaaeiaaiea (ia

i?aaeiao e?iaioa/aiey, eii?iaeiuo oae, iauaiiuo ia?aciaaiee,

ainiaeaiey).

5. Iaa?ieiae/aneia ianeaaeiaaiea. Ii?aaeaeytho o?iaaiue
niciaiey,

aeoaeio e ?eoi aeuoaiey, aeeaiao?, neiiao?e/iinoue, oi?io e
?aaeoeee

c?a/eia, ieoeiaanoeaoey?iua ?aoeaenu, aeaeaaoaeueiua
?aoeaenu e

niiioaiiua aeaeaeaiey. Oaeia ianeaaeiaaiea iicaieyao
aeiaieueii oi/ii

ioeaieoue ninoiyiea OeIN, a eiiaaea e caiiaeic?eoue iauaiiia
ia?aciaaiea.

I?e iaoaaiee/aneie eiia c?a/ee iau/ii oceea eee n?aaeieo
?acia?ia, ia

naao ?aaae?otho. Aieciei?ey e aneiiao?e/iinoue c?a/eiauo
?aaeoeee

aiciiaeiu a neaaeothueo neo/ayo: 1) o?aaia aeaca; 2)
caeaiuaaiea

i?aia?aoia, aeeythueo ia aeeaiao? c?a/ea; 3)ninoiyiea iinea
iia?aoeee

ia aeaciii yaeiea; 4) iauaiiia ia?aciaaiea OeIN.
Iaeiinoi?iiiee

iinoiyiiue ieae?eac a ni/aoaiee n oaiaoaieai niciaiey –
i?eciae

aioo?e/a?aiiiai iauaiiiai ia?aciaaiey. Oi/a/iua c?a/ee
oa?aeoa?iu

aeey io?aaeaiey iieieaeaie; a yoii neo/aa c?a/ee i?e
aaaaeaiee

iaeieniia aeieaeiu noaoue oe?a.

6. Ieai aeiiieieoaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey au?aaaouaatho n
o/aoii aeaiiuo

aiaiiaca, iauaai e iaa?ieiae/aneiai ianeaaeiaaiee. Iaoiae
auai?a i?e

eiia – EO aieiaiiai iicaa, oae eae eiiiuethoa?iua oiiia?aou
eiathony

ii/oe ai anao aieueieoeao. EO iicaieyao auno?i auyaeyoue
aieueiuo,

eioi?ui o?aaoaony yeno?aiiia iae?ioe?o?ae/aneia
aiaoaoaeuenoai. Anee

iieacaia ethiaaeueiay ioieoeey, oi EO iau/ii aeaeatho aei
iaa. Iaeiaei i?e

iiaeic?aiee ia iaieiaeo ethiaaeueiay ioieoeey e aaaaeaiea
aioeaeioeeia

aeieaeiu auoue i?iaaaeaiu iacaiaaeeeoaeueii;

a yoeo neo/ayo (anee iao i/aaiaie iaa?ieiae/aneie
neiioiiaoeee)

iiaeii e ia aeiaeeaeaoueny EO.

A. Ino?ua eioaeoeeiiiua caaieaaaiey. Iineieueeo
aioeiee?iaiuo n?aaenoa

i/aiue iiiai, a /oanoaeoaeueiinoue iee?ii?aaieciia iinoiyiii
iaiyaony,

iu ia?aie/einy eeoue iaueie ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie.

1. Iiaaiiiey. I?iaiaeyo aaeoa?eieiae/aneia e na?ieiae/aneia

enneaaeiaaiey aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aicaoaeeoaey e aai
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe e

aioeaeioeeai. Iiea ?acoeueoaou ia iieo/aiu,
aioeaeioeeioa?aieth

iacia/atho i?ioea iaeaieaa aa?iyoiuo aicaoaeeoaeae.
O/eouaatho aic?ano

e ninoiyiea eiioieoaoa (ia iaai aeeytho naoa?iue aeeaaao,

ceiea/anoaaiiua iiaiia?aciaaiey, AE*-eioaeoeey, i?eai

eiioiiaeai?annaioia), a?aiy aiaea (iai?eia?, ceiie e aaniie
iiaaiiiey

/aua aicieeaao ia oiia a?eiia), aiciiaeiia ianoi ca?aaeaiey
(aeiia, a

aieueieoea. a eioa?iaoa). Neaaeoao eneeth/eoue
anie?aoeeiiioth iiaaiiieth.

Iiaeoaa?aeeoue aeeaaiic iiaaiiiee iiaeii ?aioaaiieiae/anee.

2. Eioaeoeee ii/aauo iooae. Ea/aiea caaeneo io iiiaeo
oaeoi?ia: I)

au?aaeaiiinoe ainiaeaiey, aai eieaeecaoeee e
?ani?ino?aiaiiinoe

(oeenoeo, ieaeiiao?eo); 2) iiea e aic?anoa: 3)
niioonoaothueo

caaieaaaiee; 4) iaaeaaieo aeeaaiinoe/aneeo e ea/aaiuo
aiaoaoaeuenoa ia

ii/aauo iooyo. A iaeieo neo/ayo iiaeii ia?aie/eoueny
ei?ioeei eo?nii

aioeaaeoa?eaeueiie oa?aiee aioo?ue, a ae?oaeo iaiaoiaeeia
ainieoaeecaoeey

aeey aaaaeaiey aioeaeioeeia a/a. Oa?aiey aeieaeia auoue
iai?aaeaia i?ioea

oiai aicaoaeeoaey, eioi?ue /aua anaai aucuaaao ii/aaua
eioaeoeee a

aeaiiie nioeeaeueiie a?oiia eee a aeaiiii ioaeaeaiee:
iaiaoiaeeii

o/eouaaoue oaeaea /oanoaeoaeueiinoue ianoiuo ooaiiia e
aioeaeioeeai.

3. Iaieiaeo e yioeaoaeeo. I?e iiaeic?aiee ia aaeoa?eaeueiue
iaieiaeo

iaiaaeeaiii ia/eiatho aioeaaeoa?eaeueioth oa?aieth. Ea/aiea
iaieiaeoa e

yioeaoaeeoa caaeneo io ninoiyiey ia iiiaio iniio?a e aei
ia/aea

caaieaaaiey, io aic?anoa, aeaiiuo aiaiiaca (iiacaeee a
yiaeaie/aneea

ciiu, ae?oaea aiciiaeiua iooe ca?aaeaiey, iaaeaaiea o?aaiu e

oe?o?ae/aneea aiaoaoaeuenoaa) e niiaoe/aneiai noaoona.
Aaaeiua

?acoeueoaou aeaao enneaaeiaaiea NIAE.

IIIssOEA “CAeI?IAUeA” E “AIEACIUe” A EEEIEEA IA?EIIAIEE.

Ia?eiiaiey yaeyaony ia oieueei ino?aeoae
iaaeeei-nioeeaeueiie i?iaeaiie,

ii e ioiineoaeueii neaai eco/aiiui iauaaeieiae/aneei
yaeaieai,

cao?aaeaathuei aeoaeiiua i?ioeannu, eaaeauea a iniiaa
oi?ie?iaaiey

neiaeiuo nioeeaeueii-iiin?aaeiaaiiuo iiaaaeai/aneeo
?aaeoeee. Anee iau/iua

oeceieiae/aneea iioeaaoeee, ii?aaeaeythuea iiaaaeaiea
eiaeeaeaea, eae

i?aaeei, acaeiiaeaenoaotho, ia?acoy iaeoth aa?iiieth
ee/iinoe e aa

ie?oaeaiey, oi iaoieiae/aneay iioeaaoeey iienea e
oiio?aaeaiey

ia?eioeea yoo aa?iiieth ?ac?ooaao. A ninoiyiee ia?eioe/aneie

caaeneiinoe eiioeaio?aoeey aieaaiai oneeey, iai?aaeaiiiai ia
iiene

ia?eioeea aeinoeaaao oaeie noaiaie, /oi a eiia/iii eoiaa
iiaeaaeyao e

iiae/eiyao naaa anoanoaaiiua iiaoaeeoaeueiua iioeau. Yoe e
ae?oaea

ianoiyoaeuenoaa aicaiaeyo ia?eiiaieth a ?ac?yae oieeaeueiie
iaoieiaee,

?aaeeciaaiiie ia oeceieiae/aneii, ee/iinoiii, iee?i- e

iae?i-nioeeaeueiuo o?iaiyo.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu a ioa/anoaaiiie e ca?oaaaeiie eeoa?aoo?a
iiyaeeenue

iaiauathuea ?aaiou ii aeieiae/aneei aniaeoai ia?eiiaiee,
iieaeoey?iui

e iae?ioeie/aneei iaoaieciai eo iaoiaaiaca, ineoieiae/aneei
e

iaaeeei-i?aaiaui aniaeoai ia?eiiaiee. Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia
oe?ieea

ioeueoeaeenoeeieeia?iua enneaaeiaaiey, i?iaiaeeiua
i?aeoe/anee ai anao

no?aiao ie?a, cia/eoaeueiiai i?ia?anna a yooaeoeaiinoe
ea/aiey

aieueiuo ia?eiiaieyie iiea ia iieo/aii. Iaaeaeo oai, /anoioa

oiio?aaeaiey ia?eioeeia ia?anoaao ec aiaea a aiae e
aeinoeaea, ii

iiaieth yenia?oia, oa?aeoa?a iaiaeaiee, ioaaoeaoae
cia/eoaeueiue

i?ioeaio iiioeyoeee /aeiaa/anoaa.

Iayooaeoeaiinoue oa?aiee aaeaeeeoeaiie iaoieiaee ai iiiaii
ii?aaeaeyaony

ia?ac?aaioaiiinoueth iiiyoee “aieaciue”, “caei?iauea” e
“aucaei?iaeaiea”

i?e oieneeiiaieyo. Ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy,
e

niaeaeaieth, ionoonoaoao /aoeay, aeieiae/anee iainiiaaiiay

no?aoaae/aneay oeaeue oa?aiee ia?eiiaiee. Oaeoeea ea/aiey
?acaeaaaony

ia na?eth iaaeeoeeineeo ia?ii?eyoee ii ii?iaeecaoeee
oece/aneiai e

ineoe/aneiai ninoiyiey iaoeeaioa a ioaeaeueii acyoue iiiaio
a?aiaie,

iai?eia? a aeeiaieea ?acaa?ouaaiey aanoeiaioiiai neiae?iia.
Aianoa n

oai, ecaanoii, /oi ana, aeaaea naiua ino?ua i?iyaeaiey
aanoeiaioiiai

neiae?iia, “nieiathony” i?inoui aaaaeaieai aaeaeaaoiie aeicu
ia?eioeea.

I?e yoii, eae yoi ie ia?iaeienaeueii, oi?iaeueiay ioeaiea
ninoiyiey

aieueiiai iinea aaaaeaiey i?aia?aoa aoaeao niioaaonoaiaaoue
ii?aaeaeaieth

“caei?iauey”, aeaiiiio AIC. Aieaa oiai, eae iieacaee
iaaeaaiea

enneaaeiaaiey nioeeaeueiay aaeaioaoeey eiaeeaeaea n

au?aaeaiiie ee/iinoiie eee aooaeoeaiie iaoieiaeae ia oiia
?aaoey?iie

ia?eioecaoeee iiaeao auoue aieaa oniaoiie, /ai a i?aii?aeaea
ia?eiiaiee.

Iaeeoei i?ioeai?a/ea: ninoiyiea iauaeoa ea/aaiiai i?ioeanna

iaeiia?aiaiii oaeiaeaoai?yao iiiyoeyi “caei?iauea” e
“aieaciue”, /oi, a

naith i/a?aaeue, ii?aaeaeyao neiaeiinoe ineoieiae/aneiai e

nioeeaeueii-th?eaee/aneiai ieaia, aicieeathuea i?e ea/aiee

ia?ei-oieneeiiaiee, e yaeyaony ia ianoiyuee iiiaio iaeiei ec
iaeaieaa

aeeneooaaaeueiuo aii?inia eae a ioa/anoaaiiie, oae e a
ie?iaie

ia?eieiaee (Ericksen et al 1990).

Iiyoiio aanueia aeooaeueiui yaeyaony oai?aoe/aneia
iniuneaiea

eiioeaioeee aieacie, caei?iauey e aucaei?iaeaiey a eeeieea
oieneeiiaiee

(ia?eiiaiee), /oi, aiciiaeii, iiiiaeao ?ac?aaioaoue iiaoth,
aieaa

yooaeoeaioth no?aoaaeth oa?aiee aieueiuo aeaiiiai i?ioeey.

1. Ia?eiiaiee – ii?aaeaeaiey, iniiaiua /a?ou e iniaaiiinoe.

Oa?ieiu “ia?eiiaiey” e “oieneeiiaiey” eniieuecotho aeey
iaicia/aiey

ninoiyiey, aucaaiiiai aeinoaoi/ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiui
oiio?aaeaieai n

iaiaaeeoeeineeie oeaeyie ia?eioeeia, eee eiuo, ia ioianaiiuo
e nieneo

ia?eioeeia ineoiaeoeaiuo aauanoa. Oa?aeoa? oiio?aaeaiey
ethauo

ineoiaeoeaiuo aauanoa a iauai aeaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
eiioeiooi, ia

iiethnao eioi?iai iaoiaeyony “iaaeeoeeineia” e
“iaiaaeeoeeineia”

i?eiaiaiea. Iineaaeiaa ioaaouaaao oe?ieee e?oa aa?eaioia
iiaaaeaiey:

io neo/aeiiai i?eaia ia?eioe/aneiai n?aaenoaa aei
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai

iienea e nenoaiaoe/aneiai oiio?aaeaiey. Iaiaaeeoeeineia
i?eiaiaiea

/aua ia/eiaaony eae “yenia?eiaioaeueiia” iiae aeeyieai

iee?i-nioeeaeueiiai ie?oaeaiey, n aeaeueiaeoei ia?anoaieai
/anoiou e aeicu

oiio?aaeaiey i?aia?aoa e a ii?aaeaeaiiuo neo/ayo i?eaiaeeo e

oi?ie?iaaieth caaeneiinoe io ineoiaeoeaiiai aauanoaa.

N iiceoeee iauae oa?iaeieiaee niiniaiinoue
oa?iaeieiae/aneiai n?aaenoaa

aucuaaoue i?eno?anoea yaeyaony iaaeaeaoaeueiui iiai/iui
yooaeoii.

Iaeiaei, yoi iiai/iia aeaenoaea eiaao i?eioeeieaeueiia
ioee/ea io ae?oaeo

aiciiaeiuo iaaeaeaoaeueiuo yooaeoia, eioi?ua iiaoo
auyaeoueny a eeeieea

i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey i?aia?aoa. Ioee/ea ninoieo a oii,
/oi

ineiaeiaiea, naycaiiia n i?eaiii eaea?noaaiiiai n?aaenoaa,
eae

i?aaeei, iiaeao i?aaeoi?aaeaeaoueny eee ono?aiyoueny
eyiaiaieai ?aaeeia

i?eaia, aeice?iaee eee, iaeiiaoe, ioiaiie i?aia?aoa. A
neo/aa

n?aaenoaa, eiathuaai ia?eiaaiiue iioaioeeae, ioiaia
i?aia?aoa oaea ia

yaeyaony niiniaii eoie?iaaiey ineiaeiaiey, iineieueeo
eaea?noaaiiia

n?aaenoai a aeaiiii neo/aa aunooiaao a ?iee eiaeoeoi?a
ninoiyiey,

eioi?ia ia ono?aiyaony, a oneeeaaaony ioiaiie
“yoeieiae/aneiai”

oaeoi?a.

Ae?oaie iniaaiiinoueth ia?eiiaiee yaeyaony aa nioeeaeueiay

iiin?aaeiaaiiinoue. Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee iaiaaeeoeeineiai
i?eiaiaiey

ineoiaeoeaiuo noanoaioeee /anoi eniieuecotho oa?iei
“ceioiio?aaeaiea”,

eioi?ue iiae/a?eeaaao ianiaianoeiinoue i?eaia aeaiiiai
aauanoaa n

nouanoaothueie nioeeaeueiuie ii?iaie. Aianoa n oai, eiaiii
iauanoai a

eiie?aoiuo enoi?e/aneeo oneiaeyo ii?aaeaeyao ia?a/aiue
aauanoa,

cai?auaiiuo aeey eaaaeueiiai oiio?aaeaiey. Iai?eia?, a
iaeioi?uo

no?aiao ionoeueiaineie i?eaioaoeee n ae?aaieo a?aiai
cai?auaaony i?eai

aeeiaiey, ii i?e yoii oiio?aaeaiey iiey eee aaoeoa ia
n/eoaaony

a?oaui iiaaaeai/aneei ioeeiiaieai. Eciaiaiea iieeoe/aneeo e

nioeeaeueiuo oneiaee ia?aaeei i?eaiaeeo e ia?aniio?o
ioeoeeaeueiiai

ioiioaiey e ineoiaeoeaiui aauanoaai. Oae, ianeieueei eao
iacaae

i?aaeoaeuenoai E?aia ia oieueei cai?aoeei ia?yaeo n
aeeiaieai

ia?eioeee, ii e aaaei nia?oioth eaciue ca eo oiio?aaeaiea e

?ani?ino?aiaiea. A ae?oaeo ionoeueiaineeo no?aiao (ni
naaoneie oi?iie

i?aaeaiey) aeeiaieue oaeoe/anee eaaaeeciaai. A Aa?iia e NOA,
ianiio?y

ia iaee/ea aeeeoaeueiuo o?aaeeoeee oiio?aaeaiey nie?oiuo
iaieoeia, a

?acee/iua a?aiaia aeaeaeenue iiiuoee cai?aoeoue eee ?acei
ia?aie/eoue

oiio?aaeaiea aeeiaiey (“nooea caeiiu” a aei?aaiethoeeiiiie
?innee, NOA,

Oeieyiaeee, NNN?). A iaeioi?uo Aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao
o?aaeeoeeiiii

iaaaoeaiia ioiioaiea e oiio?aaeaieth ia?eioeeia
o?ainoi?ie?oaony a

iaania/aiea e iei naiaiaeiiai, eiio?iee?oaiiai ainoaea?noaii
aeinooia

(oae iacuaaaiue “a?eoaineee iiaeoiae”).

O?aoueae ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie ia?eiiaiee yaeyaony
ia/aoeinoue

oi?ioee?iaaiey iniiaiuo iiiyoee, iienuaathueo aa eae
iaoieiaeth. E

i?eia?o, a aiaeiycu/iuo ?aaioao ii aeaiiie oaia aiiaua
ionoonoaoao

oa?iei ia?eiiaiey, eioi?ue caiaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io
neiiaoee e

aioeiaoee aaoi?a ii?aaeaeaieyie abuse (ceioiio?aaeaiea),
addiction

(i?eno?anoea), dependence (caaeneiinoue) a aeaoo i?iyaeaieyo

oece/aneay e ineoe/aneay.

Ceioiio?aaeaiea – i?eiaiaiea ethaiai aauanoaa, a oii /enea
ia?eioeea,

a oi?ia, ioeeiiythuaeny io i?eiyouo a aeaiiie eoeueoo?a
iaaeeoeeineeo e

nioeeaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae (Jaffe 1990).

I?eno?anoea – iiaaaeai/aneee noeeue i?eaia aauanoa,
oa?aeoa?ecothueeny

iai?aiaeieeiui e iaio aea/aieai (eiiioeueneaiia i?eiaiaieaa)
n

oe?uoeai enoi/ieeia aai iieo/aiey e aunieie aa?iyoiinoueth
?aoeeaeeaa

iinea i?ae?auaiey oiio?aaeaiey (Aaeueaeiai e niaao. 1988).

Caaeneiinoue – ninoiyiea, oa?aeoa?ecothuaany ii?aaeaeaiiuie

iiaaaeai/aneeie ?aaeoeeyie, eioi?ua anaaaea aeeth/atho
ianoiyoaeueioth

iio?aaiinoue a iinoiyiiii eee ia?eiaee/aneii aiciaiiaeaiee

oiio?aaeaiey eaeiai-eeai n?aaenoaa aeey oiai, /oiau
eniuoaoue aai

aeaenoaea ia ineoeeo, a eiiaaea aeey oiai, /oiau ecaaaeaoue
iai?eyoiuo

neiioiiia, iaoneiaeaiiuo i?ae?auaieai oiio?aaeaiey yoiai
n?aaenoaa

(Athe. AIC, 1985).

Ineoe/aneay caaeneiinoue – ninoiyiea i?aaiecia,
oa?aeoa?ecothuaany

iaoieiae/aneie iio?aaiinoueth a oiio?aaeaiee eaeiai-eeai

eaea?noaaiiiai n?aaenoaa eee oeie/aneiai aauanoaa aeey
ecaaaeaiey

ia?ooaiee ineoeee eee aeeneiioi?oa, aicieeathueo i?e
i?ae?auaiee

oiio?aaeaiey aauanoaa, aucaaaoaai caaeneiinoue, ii aac
niiaoe/aneeo

yaeaiee aanoeiaioeee (Erickson et al 1990).

Oece/aneay caaeneiinoue – ninoiyiea, oa?aeoa?ecothuaany
?acaeoeai

aanoeiaioeee i?e i?ae?auaiee i?eaia aucaaaoaai caaeneiinoue
aauanoaa

eee iinea aaaaeaiey aai aioaaiienoia (Erickson et al 1990).

Noiie?oy ana ii?aaeaeaiey iiaeii iiae/a?eiooue iauea /a?ou,
i?enouea

anai ei:

1. Iaee/ea eiaeeaeaeooia n ?acaeaoaeny iioeaaoeeae e
iiaoi?iiio

aaaaeaieth ineoiaeoeaiie noanoaioeee, niiniaiie eaeei-eeai
ia?acii

eciaiyoue acaeiiaeaenoaea “n?aaea-i?aaieci”.

2. Iaee/ea ineoiaeoeaiie noanoaioeee, iaeaaeathuae
eiiieaenii naienoa,

niiniaiuo cae?aieyoue iiaaaeaiea, iai?aaeaiiia ia aaaaeaiea
aeaiiie

noanoaioeee a i?aaieci.

Oaeei ia?acii, ai anao ii?aaeaeaieyo ninoiyiee, naycaiiuo n
i?eaiii

ia?eioe/aneeo aauanoa, ioia/aii acaeiiaeaenoaea aeaoo
iniiaiuo

eiiiiiaioia iaoiaaiaca: i?aaiecia e enaiiaeioeea. A oi aea
a?aiy

aieueoeinoai ii?aaeaeaiee i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth
eaii?e?otho o?aoee, ia

iaiaa aaaeiue a iaoiaaiaca ia?eiiaiee oaeoi?, a eiaiii
n?aaeo, a

eioi?ie ?acaeaaaony caaieaaaiea.

Neaaeothuae aanueia aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth, ioee/athuae
ia?eiiaiee io

ae?oaeo caaieaaaiee, yaeyaony i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo
naiiiniciaieai

caaieaaaiey e aai i?iyaeaieyie. Oae, aeaeiau niiaoe/aneiai
aieueiiai,

ii nooe, yaeythony eioi?iaoeeae i noauaeoeaiii aini?eyoee
eciaieaoeony

ia?aiao?ia ooieoeee i?aaiecia a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey
caaieaaaiey.

I/aaeaeii, /oi yoe eciaiaiey iaaaoeaii aini?eieiathony
aieueiui,

iiyoiio, ca ?aaeeei eneeth/aieai, oeaeue aeceoa e a?a/o –
aa?iooue

iaeiaaea oo?a/aiiia anoanoaaiiia eiioi?oiia naii/oanoaea.

Ia?aaeien ia?eiiaiee eae iaoieiaee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi a

ia?eioe/aneie eioieneeaoeee aieueiie /oanoaoao naay
cia/eoaeueii

eiioi?oiaa, /ai aia aa. Yoi yaeaiea iauyniyaony aeaaiui

ioee/eoaeueiui naienoaii ia?eioeeia: aucuaaoue
yiioeeiiaeueii-iiceoeaiua

e iaeo?aeeciaaoue yiioeeiiaeueii-iaaaoeaiua ?aaeoeee
(Aaeueaeiai e niaao.

1988). Iioiio nianoaaiii ninoiyiea ia?eioe/aneie
eioieneeaoeee

noauaeoeaii ia iiaeao aini?eieiaoueny io?eoeaoaeueii, /oi e

iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony ?acoeueoaoaie aiaeeca aeaeia aieueiuo.
Iineaaeiea, eae

i?aaeei, iai?aaeaiu ia o?oaeiinoe a i?eia?aoaiee ia?eioeea,

aanoeiaioiua yaeaiey i?e aiacaiiie ioiaia i?aia?aoia,
nieaeaiea

eioa?ana e aeecie, anoaie/aneea yaeaiey, iaayc/eaia eee
eiiioeueneaiia

aea/aiea e ia?eioeeo, ieioia naii/oanoaea aia ia?eioecaoeee.
Ia?aaeei

ia?auaiea ca iiiiuueth i?ienoiaeeo a ?acoeueoaoa aeaaeaiey
ni noi?iiu

aeeceeo. Caaeneiinoue io ia?eioeeia a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
aieueiuie

iniciaaony, ii a eiioaenoa aeaeia i?yii ia cao/eo.

A oiaea ea/aiey eee auioaeaeaiiiai i?ae?auaiey ia?eioecaoeee
ia?aaeei

oaeaaony aeinoeaiooue ninoiyiey, iaania/eaathuaai
ii?iaeueioth aaeaioaoeeth

aeaaea a oyaeaeuo, iai?eau/iuo oneiaeyo (iai?eia? a
o/?aaeaeaieyo n

?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiui ?aaeeiii). Oai ia iaiaa, a aaniethoiii
aieueoeinoaa

neo/aaa caaieaaaiea ?aoeeaeeae?oao. Ae?oaeie neiaaie,
ia?eiiaiu

i?aaeii/eoatho acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie ec

eneonnoaaiiiai, iaoieiae/aneiai ninoiyiey ia?eioe/aneie

eioieneeaoeee. I?e yoii, eae oaea ioia/aeinue auoa,
aaeaioaoeeiiiay

niiniaiinoue aieueiiai ia oiia ?aaoey?iie ia?eioecaoeee
iiaeao auoue

eo/oa, /ai a i?aii?aeaea ia?eiiaiee, oiaaea eae ioiaia
ia?eioeea aaaeao

e iaiaaeaieth “ia?eiiaie/aneiai aeaoaeoa ee/iinoe” eee
i?aii?aeaeiuo

ee/iinoiuo aiiiaeee, i?aoa?iaaoeo aeaeiiiainaoeeth. A yoeo
neo/ayo

aiai?eoue i noaaeeecaoeee ninoiyiey, niioaaonoaothuaai
i?aii?aeaeiiio

o?iaith, aiiaua ia i?eoiaeeony.

Oaeei ia?acii, niioiioaiea iiiyoee ec iauae iaoieiaee
“caei?iauea –

aieaciue” eae “aaeaioaoeey – aeacaaeaioaoeey” a eeeieea
ia?eiiaiee

auaeyaeeo eia/a: “caei?iauea – aieaciue” eae “aaeaioaoeey –
aoi?e/iay

aaeaioaoeey” (eneonnoaaiiay e iaoieiae/aneay ii naiae nooe).
Yoi

ianoiyoaeuenoai nicaeaao o?oaeiinoe a yeno?aiieyoeee
no?aoaae/aneie oeaee

ea/aiey: iaania/eoue “aucaei?iaeaiea”, oi anoue aica?ao e
ninoiyieth

“caei?iauea”, eiaaoaio ianoi aei iaieoanoe?iaaiey
caaieaaaiey a neo/aa

ia?eiiaiee.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi oaiiiai iiauoaiey aaeaioaoeeiiiie
niiniaiinoe a

i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee iaoieiaee ecaanoai e i?e ae?oaeo
caaieaaaieyo.

I?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue aeiiiaieaeaeueiia ninoiyiea,
yaeythuaany yoaiii

a ?acaeoee iaieaeaeueiie oacu iaieaeaeueii-aeai?anneaiiai
ineoica

(IAeI). Ia neo/aeii a nia?aiaiiuo ?aaioao, iinayuaiiuo
iieaeoey?iui

eiioeaioeeyi iaoiaaiaca ineoe/aneeo caaieaaaiee e ia?eiiaiee
(Wachtel

1990, Terwilliger et al 1991), iai?yioth noaaeony aii?in ia

eaeaioe/iinoe iieaeoey?iuo iaoaieciia IAeI e ia?eiiaiee.
Ae?oaea aaoi?u

noaayo iiae niiiaiea nai oaeo iaee/ey “caei?iauey” a
i?aii?aeaea

ia?eiiaiee, n/eoay iineaaeithth eeoue aa?eaioii ?aaeecaoeee
eiathuaeny

enoiaeiie aooaeoeaiie iaoieiaee (Dackis and Gold 1987).

I?ineaaeeaathony e iaeioi?ua iauea i?eioeeiu a ea/aiee
aeaiiuo

caaieaaaiee. Oae, iaeo?aenii i?e ?aaoey?iii i?eaia
i?aaeioa?auaao

iiyaeaiea oeaio?aeueiuo yooaeoia iieaoia i?e neo/aeiii
oiio?aaeaiee

ia?eioeea a ?aiennee iieeiie ia?eiiaiee; niee eeoey –
i?aaeioa?auatho

?acaeoea oac i?e IAeI. Eioa?anii, /oi o aieueoiai /enea
ia?eiiaiia

iaeo?aenii ia iieuecoaony iiioey?iinoueth, ?aaii eae e
iaoeeaiou,

no?aaeathuea IAeI n i?aeiouanoaaiii oieiiey?iuie
aeiiiaieaeaeueiuie

oacaie, iaioioii i?eieiatho niee eeoey.

Noiie?oy auoaeceiaeaiiia iiaeii naeaeaoue neaaeothuea
auaiaeu:

1. Ia?eiiaiee ioee/athony io inoaeueiuo niiaoe/aneeo e
ineoe/aneeo

caaieaaaiee eiiieaenii oaeoi?ia, i?eaiaeyueo e
iaaiciiaeiinoe

eniieueciaaiey a ea/aiee aeaiiie oi?iu iaoieiaee
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo

eiioeaioeee “caei?iauea-aieaciue” e iauai?eiyouo
iaoiaeieiae/aneeo

iiaeoiaeia e no?aoaaee e oaeoeea ea/aaiiai i?ioeanna.

2. Niaoeeoeea ia?eiiaiee aaaeao e aaconeiaiiio
aeiieie?iaaieth /anoiiai

iaae iauei, a eiaiii e iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?anniio?aiey eaaeaeiai
eiie?aoiiai

neo/ay a eiioaenoa acaeiiaeaenoaey
“i?aia?ao-iaoeeaio-n?aaea” e

iaaiciiaeiinoe nicaeaiey oieoeoee?iaaiiuo iaoiaeia ea/aiey
aeaiiie oi?iu

iaoieiaee.

3. Ia?eiiaiee yaeythony iaoieiaeae, eiathuae ia oieueei
iaaeeoeeineee, ii

e nioeeaeueiue aniaeo. Iiyoiio yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaiou ii
ai?ueaa n aeaiiie

iaoieiaeae ii?aaeaeyaony a aieueoie noaiaie
niaeaniaaiiinoueth

iaaeeoeeineeo e iaiaaeeoeeineeo (nioeeaeueiuo, i?aaiauo,
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo e

o.ae.) aicaeaenoaee. Aieaa oiai, i?aoaaee/aiea ?iee iaeiie
ec noi?ii

i?eaiaeeo e ?aceiio nieaeaieth yooaeoeaiinoe ai?ueau n
ia?eiiaieyie

(i?eia? – i?iaae aioeaeeiaieueiie eaiiaiee 1985-1986
aiaeia).

2. Iiiyoey “aieaciue”, “caei?iauea” e “ea/aiea” a eeeieea
ia?eiiaiee.

?anniio?ei oaia?ue iiiyoey “aieaciue”, “caei?iauea” e
“ea/aiea”

i?eiaieoaeueii e eeeieea ia?eiiaiee. Aaconeiaii ninoiyiea
caaeneiinoe

io ineoiaeoeaiuo noanoaioeee nouanoaaiii ia?aie/eaaao
naiaiaeo

acaeiiaeaenoaey /aeiaaea ni n?aaeie iaeoaiey. Iaeiaei niiaa
neaaeoao

iiae/a?eiooue, /oi aeaiiia ia?aie/aiea naiaiaeu ai-iiiaii

aeaoa?ieie?oaony ia noieueei aeieiae/aneeie e
ineoieiae/aneeie

oaeoi?aie, neieueei nioeeaeueii-i?aaiauie. Iniiaiie oi/eie
eiioeeeoiiai

acaeiiaeaenoaey yaeyaony oi, /oi aieueoeinoai i?aia?aoia,
aucuaathueo

i?eno?anoea, yaeythony eiio?iee?oaiuie noanoaioeeyie eee
aianaiu a

nienee ia?eioeeia. Iiyoiio nenoaiaoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea
aeaiiuo

i?aia?aoia iaecaaaeii aaaeao e ia?ooaieth niioaaonoaothueo
i?aaiauo

ii?iaoeaia e, eae neaaenoaea yoiai, /enoi aeieiae/aneia

acaeiiaeaenoaea “i?aia?ao-eiaeeaeae” ia?a?anoaao ai
acaeiiaeaenoaea

“nioeeaeueiay n?aaea-eiaeeaeae”, /oi aea/ao ca niaie
iiaeeeth/aiea e

aeaiiiio acaeiiaeaenoaeth ia oieueei iaaeeoeeineeo, ii e

i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia (ia?aie/aiea aeaaniiniaiinoe

ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo ia?eiiaiia, oaieiaiua iaeacaiey ca
o?aiaiea

ia?eioeeia, i?eioaeeoaeueiia ea/aiea e o.i.).

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi auoothuay a oe?ieeo e?oaao
eioi?iaoeey i

?ac?ooeoaeueiii aeaenoaee ia?eioeeia ia i?aaieci neeueii
i?aoaaee/aia.

A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?e oiio?aaeaiee aunieiea/anoaaiiuo
anoanoaaiiuo

ia?eioeeia ?anoeoaeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey (iieaou,
eaiiaaeiieaeu, eao

i?e ia?i?aeueiii oiio?aaeaiee) eo ?ac?ooeoaeueiia aeaenoaea
ia i?aaieci

ia i?aauoaao oaeiaia i?e i?eiaiaiee aeeiaiey eee ieeioeia.
Neaaeoao

ca?aiaa iaiai?eoueny, /oi a aeaiiii neo/aa ?a/ue ia eaeao i
iiauo

neioaoe/aneeo oee/iuo ia?eioeeao, oae iacuaaaiuo “auno?uo
oaeeoeao”

(quick killers), naii iiyaeaiea eioi?uo ia ?uiea naycaii n

cao?oaeiaiiinoueth aeinooia e “eeanne/aneei” ia?eioeeai.

Oaeei ia?acii, aiai?y i ia?ooaiee acaeiiaeaenoaey
“eiaeeaeae-n?aaea” a

neo/aa ia?eiiaiee, neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo i?aaeaea anaai ia

iaaeeei-aeieiae/aneea, a /enoi nioeeaeueiua aniaeou.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii,

iiuo iieiiai caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ?ac?aoaiey oiio?aaeaiey
ia?eooaiu e

i?iaeaaea iineaaeiae ii aeinooiiui oeaiai anai aeaeathuei
(iiuo Aieeaiaeee n

1989 aiaea) ia i?eaae e ?anoe?aieth eiioeiaaioa eeoe,
ceioiio?aaeythueo

aeaiiui ia?eioeeii. Iai?ioea, ioia/aii ?aceia oiaiueoaiea
eiee/anoaa

i?anooieaiee, naycaiiuo n ia?eioeeaie, iinea aaaaeaiey
aeaiiiai

?ac?aoaiey e, /oi naiia aeaaiia, ?aceia iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe

ea/aiey aieueiuo ia?eieiae/aneiai i?ioeey. E yoi ia
oaeeaeoaeueii,

iineieueeo ia?auaiea aieueiuo e a?a/o aieueoa ia naycaii n
aiciiaeiinoueth

eee iaaiciiaeiinoueth aeinoaaaiey ia?eioeea, a oeaeeeii
ii?aaeaeyaony

iioeaaoeeae ia i?ae?auaiea ia?eioecaoeee.

I?e ?anniio?aiee aii?ina ia?eiiaiee aaconeiaiue eioa?an
i?aaenoaaeyao

aiaeec aeaiiie oi?iu ioeeiiaiey n oi/ee c?aiey
aiiainoaoe/aneie

oai?ee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy anaie aac eneeth/aiey i?eciaaony oaeo
aiaoaoaeuenoaa

ia?eioe/aneeo aauanoa a aiiainoac i?aaiecia. I?e/ai
aeieacaiu eae

ino?ua, oae e o?iie/aneea aeeyiey i?aia?aoia ia oiieea
ooieoeee

?aaoeyoeee iniiaiuo aeeciaiiuo eiinoaio i?aaiecia. Iaeiaei
aeaiiua

aiaoaoaeuenoaa ia?eioeeia i?ienoiaeyo ia ii eeiee
iiaeeoeeaoeee

eiinoaio, a ii oeio ano?aeaaiey i?aia?aoia a
aiiainoaoe/aneea

oeaii/ee. I?e yoii, aiciiaeii, iaiaoiaeeia ecia/aeueiay

i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoue i?aaiecia, neaainoue iaoaaiee/aneie
oeaie a

aeinoaoi/ii oceii caaia, aeey ano?aeaaiey a iaa ia?eioeea
eee, eia/a

aiai?y, aeey ?aaeecaoeee ia?eiaaiiiai iioaioeeaea ia?eioeea
e

oi?ie?iaaiey ia?eiiaiee. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aeaaea
oaeea

iauaecaanoiua ia?eioeee n /?acau/aeii aunieei aaeaeeeoeaiui

iioaioeeaeii, eae aa?iei e eieaei, ia niiniaiu aucuaaoue
ninoiyiea

caaeneiinoe o anao 100% /aeiaa/aneie iiioeyoeee. Aiaeiae/iua
aeaiiua

iieo/aiu e a yenia?eiaioao ia aeeaioiuo (aeaiiua ii
Addiction

Potential of Abused Drugs 1990).

Oaeei ia?acii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia aucuaaao aic?aaeaiee
iinooeao i

iaee/ee i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoe e aicieeiiaaieth ia?eiiaiee,
i?e/ai

aeaiiay i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoue ia iaycaoaeueii yaeyaony
ianeaaenoaaiiie.

Yoa i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoue nei?aa anaai ii?aaeaeyaony ia
iaee/eai

“ionoiai” ianoa aeey ia?eioeea a i?aaiecia, a iaaeinoaoeii
(/aua anaai

iaaeinoaoi/iuie ?aca?aiuie aiciiaeiinoyie) a enoiaeiii
iaoaaiee/aneii

i?ioeanna. Ni/aoaiea ii?aaeaeaiiie neooaoeee, o?aaothuae
?aaeecaoeee

?aca?aiuo aiciiaeiinoae iaoaaiee/aneiai i?ioeanna, n
aaaaeaieai

ia?eioeea, aeoeae?othuaai aeaiiue i?ioeann, eae i?aaeei,
cae?aieyaony a

niciaiee e oi?ie?oao iioeaaoeeth e iiaoi?iiio oiio?aaeaieth
i?aia?aoa

iiia/aeo a neooaoeeyo, aiaeiae/iuo enoiaeiie, a caoai e a
ae?oaeo

neooaoeeyo. Noeioee?iaaiea ia?eioeeii n?aaieoaeueii auno?i
en/a?iuaaao

e aac oiai ia?aie/aiiua aiciiaeiinoe iaoaaiee/aneie oeaii/ee
e

i?eaiaeeo e neooaoeee, eiaaea aaaaeaiea ia?eioeea oaea ia
iiaenoaaeaaao

i?ioeann, a i?inoi iaania/eaaao ii?iaeueiue o?iaaiue
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

A aeaiiii neo/aa ?a/ue eaeao oaea i aicieeiiaaiee oece/aneie

caaeneiinoe. Oae, a yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaieyo
iieacaii, /oi

iiiaea iaoeeaiou, ceioiio?aaeythuea ineoinoeioeyoi?aie, a
enoiaeiii

ninoiyiee aeaiiino?e?iaaee iiauoaiioth aeai?anneaioth
aioiaiinoue e

ooiieyaiinoue, a a aeioeie/aneeo oanoao iieacuaaee
iiauoaiioth

aeoeaiinoue nenoai eiaeoeaaoeee iiiiaieiia. A ?acoeueoaoa
oaeia

aa?iyoiinoiia niauoea eae eiioaeo naineoeaiiai eiaeeaeaea a

ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo n i?aia?aoii, iaeaaeathuei
ineoinoeioee?othueie

naienoaaie, ?aaeecoaony a au?aaeaiiii oeo/oaiee naii/oanoaey
eiaeeaeaea

e niioaaonoaothuei (a aieueoae eee iaiueoae noaiaie)
cae?aieaieai

iiaaaeaiey, iai?aaeaiiiai ia iiaoi?iia aaaaeaiea
ineoinoeioeyoi?a.

Oaeei ia?acii, ai iiiaeo neo/ayo ia?ae/iia aaaaeaiea
ia?eioeea a

i?aaieci iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae i?eieoeaii-yiie?e/aneee
iiene

niaoeeoe/aneiai eaea?noaaiiiai n?aaenoaa aeey ea/aiey
eaoaioiiai

aeaoaeoa, eioi?ue iia au auoue eiiiaine?iaai anoanoaaiiuie

aaeaioaoeeiiiuie iaoaieciaie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia?ae/iue
eiioaeo n

ia?eioeeii, niaeanii aeaiiie noaia, i?aaeeueiaa n/eoaoue ia

aicieeiiaaieai caaieaaaiey – ia?eiiaiee, a ia/aeii
niaoeeoe/aneie

oa?aiee nouanoaothuaai aeaoaeoa iae?iiaaeeaoi?iuo
i?ioeannia.

Iaeiaei, a aeaeueiaeoai ia/eiatho i?iyaeyoueny iaoaieciu
aaeaioaoeee

i?aaiecia e iiaoi?iui aaaaeaieyi “eaea?noaa”. *aua anaai yoi

i?iyaeyaony ?aceei onoaoaeaieai enoiaeiie ee/iinoiie eee
aooaeoeaiie

iaoieiaee, /oi o?aaoao a naith i/a?aaeue iiauoaiey
aeice?iaie aaiaeeiiai

i?aia?aoa. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, o eiaeeaeaea i?ienoiaeeo
ineoieiae/aneay

ia?ai?eaioaoeey iiiyoey “ii?ia” a noi?iio ninoiyiey i?e
ia?eioe/aneie

eioieneeaoeee.

Anee oneiaii i?eiyoue enoiaeiia ninoiyiea eiaeeaeaea (aei
eiioaeoa n

ia?eioeeii) ca “0”, oi ninoiyiea, aicieeathuaa iinea i?eaia

i?aia?aoa, iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae “+1”. Iaeiaei
n?aaieoaeueii

auno?i, /oi ii?aaeaeyaony e naineoeaiinoueth i?aaiecia e
nianoaaiiie

aaeaeeeoeaiinoueth i?aia?aoa, aeaiiia ninoiyiea “+1”
ia/eiaao noauaeoeaii

aini?eieiaoueny eae ii?ia, eee eae “0”, a oi aea a?aiy eae
enoiaeiia

ninoiyiea ia/eiaao i?eia?aoaoue aaa?neaiua /a?ou, oi anoue
oneiaii

ioeaieaaaony eae “-1”, /oi canoaaeyao eiaeeaeaea
einoeieoeaii ecaaaaoue

aai. AEeciue aieueiiai i?eia?aoaao aeae iiey?iuo ninoiyiee:
“0” – eee

ia?eioe/aneay ii?ia, e “-1” – eee aeeneiioi?o (iaoieiaey)
i?e

ionoonoaee ia?eioeea. Aeaiiay oeeeee/iinoue iaiiieiaao niaio
ninoiyiee

i?e oeeeeioeiee n oie eeoue ?acieoeae, /oi a neo/aa
ia?eiiaiee

oeeeee/iinoue aucuaaaony nenoaiaoe/aneei aaaaeaieai a
i?aaieci

ineoio?iiiiai aaaioa.

A nouanoaothuae nenoaia iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue aieueiui
ia?eiiaieyie

no?aoaae/aneie oeaeueth yaeyaony aeinoeaeaiea iieiiai ioeaca
aieueiiai io

i?iaeieaeaiey ia?eioecaoeee. I?e yoii oioneaaony ec aeaea
iieiaeaiea, /oi

aeaaea i?e eaeaaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiie oa?aiee a?a/ niiniaai
aa?iooue

aieueiiai oieueei eeoue a ninoiyiea enoiaeiiai “0”, /oi,
aaconeiaii,

aini?eieiaaony iaoeeaioii eae iaaeinoaoie ea/aiey.

E niaeaeaieth, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia nouanoaoao yooaeoeaiuo
i?aia?aoia

iiieii ia?eioeeia, niiniaiuo aeaoue ia?eieiae/aneiio
aieueiiio

ninoiyiea “ia?eioe/aneie ii?iu”. A oi aea a?aiy i?eiyoay a
?yaea

iaaeeoeeineeo oeaio?ia eiioeaioeey caianoeoaeueiie oa?aiee
(iaoaaeiiiaay

i?ia?aiia) oaeaea ia eeoaia na?ueaciuo iaaeinoaoeia.
Ai-ia?auo,

i?eiaiaiea iaoaaeiia ia aa?aioe?oao io ia?aeeaeueiiai
i?eiaiaiey

aa?ieia n oeaeueth aua aieueoae yeoi?ecaoeee, oioy e ?acei
oiaiueoaao

iio?aaiinoue a aa?ieia. Ai-aoi?uo, o?iie/aneia i?eiaiaiea
iaoaaeiia

i?eaiaeeo e oi?ie?iaaieth neeueiie caaeneiinoe io
iineaaeiaai, i?e/ai aei

ianoiyuaai a?aiaie ia iaeaeaii yooaeoeaiuo n?aaenoa ea/aiey
aeaiiie

caaeneiinoe.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu o?iie/aneia i?eiaiaiea aioaaiienoia
(iaeo?aeniiiaay

i?ia?aiia) niiniaii i?eianoe yooaeo oieueei i?e /?acau/aeii
aunieie

iioeaaoeee aieueiiai ia ioeac io ia?eioeeia, /oi ano?a/aaony

aeinoaoi/ii ?aaeei (aea e iaiaoiaeeii ee i?eiaiaiea
eaeie-eeai oa?aiee o

iiaeiaiuo aieueiuo?).

Aica?auaynue e eiioeaiooaeueiiio iiaeoiaeo e no?aoaaee
oa?aiee aieueiuo

ia?eiiaieyie iiaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi a ianoiyuee iiiaio
iniiaiua

ea/aaiua ia?ii?eyoey iai?aaeaiu ia iiaeaea?aeaiea ?aiennee
aac o/aoa

noauaeoeaiiai ninoiyiey iaoeeaioa. Ii iaoaio iiaieth aieaa
i?aaeeueiui

iiaeoiaeii yaeyaony aeoeaaoeey oaeoi?ia eiaeoeoeee ?aiennee
n aeiionoeiui

aica?aoii e ia?eioecaoeee iiae eiio?ieai a?a/a e
iinoaiaiiuie

oaeeeiaieyie ?aiennee ca n/ao iiaeai?a eiiieaeniie oa?aiee
enoiaeiiai

iaoaaiee/aneiai aeaoaeoa.

A caeeth/aiea neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi o?aaeeoeeiiiay
eiioeaioeey

“aieaciue-caei?iauea” i?e ?anniio?aiee ia?eiiaiee ia
auaea?aeeaaao

i?iaa?ee i?aeoeeie e ioaeaeaaony a ia?aniio?a. I?eaioaoeey
oa?aiee i?e

ea/aiee ia?eiiaiee aeieaeia no?aieoueny ia e ioeaco
aieueiiai io

ia?eioeea, a e ainnoaiiaeaieth aaeaeaaoiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey
eiaeeaeaea e

n?aaeu n iinoaiaiiie caiaiie ia?eioeea eaea?noaaiiuie
i?aia?aoaie,

eiiiaine?othueie enoiaeiue e i?eia?aoaiiue aaaeiienoe/aneea
aeaoaeou

iaoeeaioa.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1Eiaaeaa A.A. Ineoeao?ey aeaoneiai aic?anoa. ?oeiaiaenoai
aeey

a?a/ae, I., “Iaaeeoeeia”. 1979

2 Eiaaeaa A.A. Nioeeaeueeueii-ineoieiae/aneee aniaeo
i?iaeaiu

aeaaeaioiiai iiaaaeaiey o aeaoae e iiae?inoeia. A ei.:
Ia?ooaiey

iiaaaeaiey o aeaoae e iiae?inoeia.I.,”Iaaeeoeeia”, 1981,
N. 11-24.

3Eaiiaa?ae E. (Leonhard K.).. Aeoeaiooe?iaaiiua ee/iinoe:
Ia?. n

iaiaoeeiai. Eeaa. “Aunoay oeiea”, 1981.

4Ee/ei A. A. Iiae?inoeiaay ineoeao?ey (?oeiaiaenoai aeey
a?a/ae).

E., “Iaaeeoeeia”, 1985 – 416 n.

5 Ii?icia A.A. Iniaaiiinoe eeeieee oecio?aie/aneiai
i?ioeanna a

iiae?inoeiaii aic?anoa. Aeenn. eaiae.,I., 1950.

6 Ooaeia A.E. Aeaoneay ineoeao?ey. I., “Iaaeeoeeia”, 1973.

7 Ooaeia A.E. Iia?aie/iua ia?aii-ineoe/aneea ?anno?ienoaa.
I.,

“Iaaeeoeeia”, 1978.

8 Michaux L. Psychiatrie infantile. Paris, 1953.

9 Stutte H. Kinder- und Jugendpsychiaatrie. In:
Psychiatrie der

10Gegenwart. Bd II: Klinische Psychiatrie. Berlin,
Gottingen,

1960, s. 678-779

11. Czechowicz D. (1980).Detoxiflcation Treatment Manual.
USUA&AS,

National Institute of Drug Abuse, Washington D.C..(US
Government

Printing Office).

12. Dole V.P., Foldes F.F., Trigg H., Robinson J.W..Blatman
S.(1971)

Methadone poisoning. N.Y.State J.Med., 541-543.

13) Dunlop M.G., Steedman D.J. (1985). Opioid intravenous
drug abuse

a the accident and emergency department. Arch.Emerg.Med.,
2:23-77.

14/Freitas P.M./1982/. Narcotic withdrawal in the emergency

departmenl Am.J.Emerg.Med., 11:562-572.

15. Blumberg, Dayton B., Wolf,P.S.(1967).”Analgetic and
narcotic

antagonist properties

of noroxymorphone derivates”.Toxicol.Appl.Pharmac. 10:406.

16. Ginzburg M., MacDonald, M.G.(1987).The role of
naltrexone in

management of drug abuse. Med.Toxicol”2:83.

17. Gonzales,J.P.,Brodgen,R.N..(1988).”Naltrexone, a review
of its

pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and
therapeutic

efficacy in management of opioid dependence”.Drugs, 35:192.

18. NIDA (1984). Naltrexone: its clinical utility. Treatment
Research

Report. U. S. Government Printing Office.

19. Pini,L.A, Ferretti,C., Trenti T., Ferrari A., Sternieri

E.(1991).Effects of long-term treatment with naltrexone on
hepatic

enzyme activity. Drug Metabolism and Drug Interactions,
9:161-174.

20. Vereby K. (1980). The clinical pharmacology
ofnaltrexone:

pharmacology and pharmacodynamics. In: Naltrexone: Research

Monograph 28. Willette R.E., Barnett G. eds National
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Drug Abuse, 147-148.

21. Youburn B.C., Duttaroy A., Shah S., Davis T.(1994).
Opioid

antagonist -induced receptor upregulation: effects of
concurrent

agonist administration. Brain Research Bulletin, 33

22. Blachy,P.H.(1966).Management of opiate abstinence
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Psychiat. et.cet.

23. Charley,D.S.,Heninger G.R.,Kleber,H.D.(1986).”The
combine use of

clonidine and naltrexone as a rapid, safe and effective
treatment of

abrupt withdrawal from methadone”.Am.J.Psych.,143:831-837.

24. Charley,D.S.,Riordan,C.E. and
Kleber,H.D.(1988).”Clonodine and

Naltrexone: a safe, effective and rapid treatment of abrupt

withdrawal from methadone
therapy”.Arch.Gen.Psych.,39:1327-1332.

25. Gold.M.S..Redmonds.Jr.D.E. and
KleberH.D.(1978).”Clonidine blocks

acute opiate withdrawal symptoms”.Lancet,2:599-602.

26. Gossop,M.(1988).”Clonidine and the treatment of the
opiate

withdrawal syndrome”.Drug and alcohol dependence,
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27. Kleber H.D.(1981)”Detoxification from narcotics”.
ln:Lowinson,

J.H., Ruitz P. eds.:”Substance abuse, clinical problems and

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heroin

withdrawal”. Am.J.Drug Alcohol Abuse, 13:(l&2)l-7.

29. Margolin,A.,Koster,T.R.(1991).”Opioid detoxification and

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