.

Механические и хирургические методы контрацепции

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1980
Скачать документ

Aaaaeaiea

20-e aae iciaiaiiaaeny iiyaeaieai oeie/aneeo, iaoaie/aneeo e
oe?o?ae/aneeo iaoiaeia eiio?aoeaioeee , iaeaaeathueo aieueoie
yooaeoeaiinoueth. Auai? iaoiaea i?aaeio?aiaiey iaiyeny n iiyaeaieai
ana aieaa yooaeoeaiuo e aaciianiuo aeey caei?iauey aeaiueiu
iaoiaeee , n?aaee eioi?uo naaiaeiy iaeiie ec iaeaieaa niaa?oaiiuo
yaeyaony i?aeueiay ai?iiiaeueiay eiio?aoeaioeey .

Oaeo , /oi ?inney caieiaao 2-a ianoi ii /anoioa eneonnoaaiiuo
aai?oia , aiai?eo ia ionoonoaee nenoaiu naenoaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey ,
aeinoaoi/iie eioi?iaoeee i eiio?aoeaioeee e neoaeaa ieaie?iaaiey
naiuee . Aai?o yaeyeny aeey aeaiueiu iaeaieaa aeinooiiui iaoiaeii
?aaoee?iaaiey ?iaeaeaaiinoe .Iiyoiio aieaa iieiaeiu neo/aaa aeaaee
aeaiuei a nayce n aa?aiaiiinoueth e ?iaeaie ninoaaeytho
ineiaeiaiey , naycaiiua n aai?oaie .Iaaethaeaaony cia/eoaeueiay
/anoioa aeiaeieiae/aneeo caaieaaaiee, ?acaeoea eioi?uo eiaao
i?yioth naycue n ia?aianaiiuie aai?oaie .

Iiuo ?yaea aeeaeiaainoi/iuo e aa?iiaeneeo no?ai iieacuaaao ,
/oi iaee/ea neeueiie i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie aeanoe iiaeao na?ueacii
aeeyoue ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea eiio?aoeaioeee . Iniaaiii yoi au?aaeaii
i?e iaee/ee io?eoeaoaeueiiai ioiioaiey e yoiio aeiieie?othuae a
no?aia ?aeeaee . Ae?oaei aaaeiui oaeoi?ii ioiioaiey e
eiio?aoeaioeee neoaeeo yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea i?aaeoaeuenoaa a
oneiaeyo ia?aianaeaiey eee aea a oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneiai niaaea .

II. E?eoa?ee auai?a iaoiaea eiio?aoeaioeee

Niaeo? nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia eiio?aoeaioeee aeeth/aao ?acee/iua
ai?iiiaeueiua eiio?aoeaioeau (eiiaeie?iaaiiua yno?iaai-aanoaaaiiua e
oieueei i?iaanoaaaiiua n?aaenoaa), aioo?eiaoi/ioth, oe?o?ae/aneoth,
aa?uea?ioth eiio?aoeaioeeth, nia?ieoeeaeu e anoanoaaiiua iaoiaeu
ieaie?iaaiey naiuee.

A ninoaa eiiaeie?iaaiiuo i?aeueiuo eiio?aoeaioeaia (EIE) aoiaeyo
neioaoe/aneea aiaeiae aeaineeo iieiauo ai?iiiia — yno?iaaiia e
i?iaanoa?iia. Nia?aiaiiua EIE — yoi ieceiaeice?iaaiiua i?aia?aou,
niaea?aeauea ia aieaa 35 iea yoeieeyno?aaeeiea. I?eiaiyaoeany ?aiaa
n?aaenoaa n aunieei niaea?aeaieai yoeieeyno?aaeeiea, cia/eoaeueii
iiauoaaoea ?ene o?iiaiyiaiee/aneeo ineiaeiaiee, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy n
oeaeueth i?aaeio?aiaiey io aa?aiaiiinoe ia eniieuecothony. E oieueei
i?iaanoaaaiiui eiio?aoeaioeaai ioiinyony: i?aeueiua i?iaanoaaaiiua
eiio?aoeaioeau (ieie-ieee), eiuaeoeeiiiua i?aia?aou e eainoeu aeey
iiaeeiaeiiai aaaaeaiey Ii?ieaio. Ana yoe n?aaenoaa ia niaea?aeao
yno?iaaiiiai eiiiiiaioa.

Aeey aioo?eiaoi/iie eiio?aoeaioeee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aeiouanoaaiii
i?eiaiythony iaaeueniaea?aeauea aioo?eiaoi/iua n?aaenoaa (AIN). Oaeaea
nouanoaotho ai?iiiiauaeaeythuea aioo?eiaoi/iua eiio?aoeaioeau n
eaaiii?aano?aeii. Noa?eeecaoeey ioiineony e iaia?aoeiui iaoiaeai
oe?o?ae/aneie eiio?aoeaioeee. Aeia?iaieueiay noa?eeecaoeey, i?e
niioaaonoaothueo oneiaeyo, ?ac?aoaia a iaoae no?aia n 1993a. N?aaenoaaie
aa?uea?iie eiio?aoeaioeee, i?aaeio?aiythueie ia oieueei io
iaaeaeaoaeueiie aa?aiaiiinoe, ii e io caaieaaaiee, ia?aaeathueony
iieiaui iooai (CIII), yaeythony ioaeneea e aeaineea i?aca?aaoeau,
aeaaaeeuiua aeeao?aaiu. Iaeioi?oth caueoo io CIII iaania/eaatho oaeaea
nia?ieoeeaeu, a ninoaa eioi?uo aoiaeyo aauanoaa, eiaeoeae?othuea
nia?iaoicieaeu. Anoanoaaiiua iaoiaeu ieaie?iaaiey naiuee (AIIN)
aeeth/atho eaeaiaea?iue, neiioioa?iaeueiue, iaoiae eaeoaoeeiiiie
aiaii?ae e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea.

I?e iiaeai?a niiniaa eiio?aoeaioeee o/eouaathony iiiaea e?eoa?ee:

yooaeoeaiinoue, aaciianiinoue aeey eiie?aoiie iaoeeaioee, iiai/iua
aeaenoaey, iaeiio?aoeaioeaiun yooaeou, ia?aoeiinoue iaoiaea,
aeinooiiinoue, noieiinoue e ae?oaea e?eoa?ee, a oii /enea, nioeeaeueiiai
e ee/iiai oa?aeoa?a.

Aaaeouei e?eoa?eai auai?a iaoiaea eiio?aoeaioeee yaeyaony
yooaeoeaiinoue. Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee yooaeoeaiinoe iaoiaea i?eiyoi
eniieueciaaoue eiaeaen Ia?ey, iieacuaathuee i?ioeaio eiio?aoeaioeaiuo
iaoaea/ i?e eniieueciaaiee iaoiaea a oa/aiea iaeiiai aiaea. Ia ?enoiea
i?aaenoaaeaiu eiaeaenu Ia?ey aeey ?acee/iuo iaoiaeia eiio?aoeaioeee.

Aeey iaeioi?uo iaoiaeia iaeeaeaaiay e ?aaeueiay yooaeoeaiinoue
nouanoaaiii ?acee/aaony, /oi naycaii n niaethaeaieai i?aaee
eniieueciaaiey iaoiaea. Iaeaieueoea ?acee/ey iaaeaeo iaeeaeaaiie e
?aaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoueth eiatho aa?uea?iua n?aaenoaa, nia?ieoeeaeu e
AIIN.

Iaeeaeaiue e ?aaeueiue eiaeaen Ia?ey i?e i?eiaiaiee ?aciuo iaoiaeia
eiio?aoeaioeee

Aunieoth iaaeaaeiinoue iaania/eaatho ai?iiiaeueiay, aioo?eiaoi/iay
eiio?aoeaioeey, noa?eeecaoeey. ?aaeueiay e iaeeaeaaiay yooaeoeaiinoue
iieiinoueth niaiaaeatho i?e eniieueciaaiee Aeaii-I?iaa?a e Ii?ieaioa .

I?e auai?a iaoiaea eiio?aoeaioeee neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi a caaeneiinoe
io iaoaiecia aeaenoaey iaaeaaeiinoue i?aaeio?aiaiey io aiaiaoi/iie
aa?aiaiiinoe iiaeao ia niaiaaeaoue n yooaeoeaiinoueth i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey
iaoi/iie aa?aiaiiinoe. Ec ia?aoeiuo iaoiaeia eiio?aoeaioeee caueoo io
aiaiaoi/iie aa?aiaiiinoe iaeaieaa iaaeaaeii iaania/eaatho n?aaenoaa,
eioi?ua iiaeaaeytho iaoeyoeeth, a eiaiii — EIE eee eiuaeoeeiiiue
eiio?aoeaioea Aeaii-I?iaa?a. Iai?ioea, iaai?iiiaeueiua AIN e iaeioi?ua
/enoi i?iaanoaaaiiua i?aia?aou, (ieie-ieee e Ii?ieaio) a iaiueoae
noaiaie caueuatho io aiaiaoi/iie aa?aiaiiinoe.

Aaciianiinoue eiio?aoeaioeaa yaeyaony neaaeothuei aaaeiui e?eoa?eai
auai?a. Aeey aa ioeaiee iaiaoiaeeii auynieoue iaee/ea aaniethoiuo
i?ioeaiiieacaiee aeey eniieueciaaiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai iaoiaea, a oaeaea
ninoiyiee, o?aaothueo aeiiieieoaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee ia?aae iacia/aieai
eee a i?ioeanna i?eiaiaiey eiio?aoeaioeaiiai n?aaenoaa.

I?e ionoonoaee eaeeo-eeai niaoeeoe/aneeo i?iaeai, nia?aiaiiua
eiio?aoeaioeaiua iaoiaeu, ca eneeth/aieai AIN e aeia?iaieueiie
noa?eeecaoeee, ia o?aaotho aeiiieieoaeueiiai ianeaaeiaaiey iaoeeaioee
ia?aae ia/aeii eo eniieueciaaiey. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi nia?aiaiiua
ieceiaeice?iaaiiua EIE e i?iaanoaaaiiua eiio?aoeaioeau ia aucuaatho
na?ueaciuo ineiaeiaiee e iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny caei?iauie aeaiueiaie
aieioue aei ianooieaiey iaiiiaocu.

Ca iineaaeiea aiaeu aeaoaeueii eco/aii aeeyiea ieceiaeice?iaaiiuo EIE ia
o?iiaioe/aneee e aoa?ineea?ioe/aneee iaoaieciu ?acaeoey
na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie iaoieiaee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi yoe i?aia?aou ia
i?eaiaeyo e na?ueaciui ia?ooaieyi a nenoaia aaiinoaca, oae eae
aicieeathuaa iiauoaiea iaeioi?uo oaeoi?ia naa?ouaaiey (oea?eiiaaia,
o?iiaeia, oaeoi?ia 7 e 10) iieiinoueth eiiiaine?oaony onei?aiiui
oea?eiieecii .

Nia?aiaiiua ai?iiiaeueiua eiio?aoeaioeau a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ia
ieacuaatho au?aaeaiiiai aeeyiey ia eeieaeiue i?ioeeue, a
ieceiaeice?iaaiiua EIE n i?iaanoaaaiaie o?aoueaai iieieaiey iiaoo aeaaea
nieaeaoue aai aoa?iaaiiinoue, /oi iauyniyaony ieceie aiae?iaaiiie
aeoeaiinoueth i?iaanoaaaiia e /anoe/iui i?aiaeaaeaieai yno?iaaiiuo
yooaeoia yoeo i?aia?aoia.

Ia neaaeoao caauaaoue, /oi aeaiueiu n niiaoe/aneeie i?iaeaiaie iniai
ioaeaeathony a eiio?aoeaioeee. E oioy i?e yoii iiaoo auoue ia?aie/aiey a
auai?a iaoiaeia eiio?aoeaioeee, iaiaoiaeeii iiiieoue, /oi ?ene,
naycaiiue n eniieueciaaieai ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiio?aoeaioeaa, aeieaeai
auoue niioianai n ?eneii aa?aiaiiinoe. Aeey iaoeeaioee n
yeno?aaaieoaeueiie iaoieiaeae ianooieaiea iacaieaie?iaaiiie aa?aiaiiinoe
iiaeao yaeoueny aieaa iianiui aeey caei?iauey e aeecie.

Aeey iaoeeaioee n yeno?aaaieoaeueiie iaoieiaeae ianooieaiea
iacaieaie?iaaiiie aa?aiaiiinoe iiaeao yaeoueny aieaa iianiui aeey
caei?iauey e aeecie.Iiai/iua aeaenoaey eiio?aoeaioeaia, eae i?aaeei, ia
i?aaenoaaeytho iianiinoe aeey caei?iauey aeaiueiu. I?e i?eiaiaiee
nia?aiaiiuo ieceiaeice?iaaiiuo EIE iiai/iua aeaenoaey (oioiioa,
iaa?oaaiea iiei/iuo aeaeac, eciaiaiea iano?iaiey, ia?ooaiea
iaino?oaeueiiai oeeeea) ano?a/athony ia/anoi e, eae i?aaeei, i?ioiaeyo a
oa/aiea ia?auo o?ao oeeeeia i?eaia i?aia?aoa. Iaeiaei iie iiaoo
nouanoaaiii aeeyoue ia ioiioaiea iaoeeaioee e iaoiaeo.

I?eiaiaiea i?iaanoaaaiiuo n?aaenoa nii?iaiaeaeaaony aieaa cia/eoaeueiie
/anoioie iiai/iuo yooaeoia a aeaea ia?ooaiee iaino?oaeueiiai oeeeea
(i?iaeieaeeoaeueiua eee iaeeueiua e?iayienoua auaeaeaiey, aiaii?ay). Ana
iie naycaiu n iaoaieciii aeaenoaey i?iaanoaaaiiuo i?aia?aoia, yaeythony
ia?aoeiuie e ia iianiu aeey caei?iauey aeaiueiu.

I?e iiaeai?a iaoiaea eiio?aoeaioeee aaaeii o/eouaaoue iieiaeeoaeueiua
ineiio?aoeaioeaiua yooaeou. Iaeaieaa oe?ieei niaeo?ii ineiio?aoenioeaiuo
yooaeoia iaeaaeatho n?aaenoaa ai?iiiaeueiie eiio?aoeaioeee. I?e
aeeeoaeueiii i?eaia i?aia?aoia nieaeaaony ioiineoaeueiue ?ene ?aea
yiaeiiao?ey, aeia?iea/anoaaiiuo e ceiea/anoaaiiuo iiaiia?aciaaiee
ye/ieeia, aeia?iea/anoaaiiuo caaieaaaiee iiei/iuo aeaeac, ieiiu iaoee,
yiaeiiao?eica. Eniieueciaaiea ai?iiiaeueiuo eiio?aoeaioeaia
i?aaeio?aiyao aeaiueio io aicieeiiaaiey ino?uo ainiaeeoaeueiuo
caaieaaaiee i?aaiia iaeiai oaca. E?iia i?ioeeaeoe/aneiai yooaeoa, yoe
i?aia?aou eiatho ea/aaiia aeaenoaea i?e aiaiee, i?aaeiaino?oaeueiii
neiae?iia, aeenooieoeeiiaeueiuo iaoi/iuo e?iaioa/aieyo.

Aaaeiui iaeiio?aoeaioeaiui yooaeoii aa?uea?iuo iaoiaeia yaeyaony caueoa
io CIII, a oii /enea, io aiii?ae, oeaieaeeica, ieeiieaciica,
o?eoiiiieaca, aa?iaoe/nneie e oeeoiiaaaeiae?oniie eioaeoeee, aaiaoeoa A,
NIEAea. Aa?uea?iua iaoiaeu eiio?aoeaioeee iaania/eaatho i?ioeeaeoeeo
caaieaaaiee oaeee iaoee, a oii /enea, ceiea/anoaaiiuo iiaiia?aciaaiee, a
?acaeoee eioi?uo aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao ae?oniay eiuaeoeey.

Ia?aoeiinoue iaoiaea o/eouaaaony a nayce n ?ai?iaeoeoeaiuie ieaiaie
noi?oaeaneie ia?u. Iaia?aoeiuie iaoiaeaie eiio?aoeaioeee yaeythony
oe?o?ae/aneea. Ana inoaeueiua iaoiaeu ia?aoeiu, i?e/ai oa?oeeueiinoue
iinea ioiaiu i?aia?aoa ainnoaiaaeeaaaony, eae i?aaeei, auno?i.
Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyao eiuaeoeeiiiue i?aia?ao Aeaii-I?iaa?a, iinea
i?eiaiaiey eioi?iai iau/ii iaaethaeaaony caaea?aeea ainnoaiiaeaiey
oa?oeeueiinoe n?ieii io 6 ianyoeaa aei 1,5 eao.

Ia?yaeo n iaaeeoeeineeie, ii?aaeaeaiiia cia/aiea eiatho e?eoa?ee,
aeeythuea ia ee/iia ioiioaiea iaoeeaioee e iaoiaeo eiio?aoeaioeee,
oaeea, eae eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoue, oeaia, ioiioaiea iieiaiai ia?oia?a,
oaeianoai eniieueciaaiey. Eo oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue i?e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii iiaeai?a iaoiaea eiio?aoeaioeee.

III. Eiiaeie?iaaiiay i?aeueiay eiio?aoeaioeey

N oeaeueth ai?iiiaeueiie eiio?aoeaioeee eniieuecothony neioaoe/aneea
aiaeiae aeaineeo iieiauo ai?iiiia — yno?iaaiia e i?iaanoa?iia, no?oeoo?a
eioi?uo aeecea e iaoo?aeueiui, a aeoeaiinoue cia/eoaeueii auoa. Yoi
iicaieyao iieo/eoue eiio?aoeaioeaiue yooaeo i?e i?eiaiaiee eo a i/aiue
ieceeo aeicao. A caaeneiinoe io ninoaaa e iaoiaea i?eiaiaiey ?acee/atho
neaaeothuea ai?iiiaeueiua n?aaenoaa:

eiiaeie?iaaiiua i?aeueiua eiio?aoeaioeau (EIE) e i?aia?aou, niaea?aeauea
oieueei i?iaanoaaaiu (i?aeueiua i?iaanoaaaiiua eiio?aoeaioeau,
i?ieiiae?iaaiiue eiuaeoeeiiiue eiio?aoeaioea Aeaii-I?iaa?a, iiaeeiaeiue
eiieaio Ii?ieaio). Ai?iiiaeueiua i?aia?aou aoiaeyo oaeaea a ninoaa
ai?iiiiauaeayythueo aioo?eiaoi/iuo eiio?aoeaioeaia e iaeioi?uo n?aaenoa
aa?uea?iie eiio?aoeaioeee.

Aeaaiaea?y naiae yooaeoeaiinoe e oaeianoao eniieueciaaiey ai?iiiaeueiay
eiio?aoeaioeey oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia ai anai ie?a. Ii aeaiiui AIC, aa
aaeaaiaeii i?eiaiytho io 100 aei 120 iei. aeaiuei. Eiiaeie?iaaiiua
i?aeueiua eiio?aoeaioeau yaeythony aunieiyooaeoeaiuie e ia?aoeiuie
n?aaenoaaie i?aaeio?aiaiey io aa?aiaiiinoe. Eiaeaen Ia?ey nia?aiaiiuo
EIE ninoaaeyao 0,05—1,0 ia 100 aeaiuei/eao e caaeneo, aeaaiui ia?acii,
io niaethaeaiey i?aaee i?eaia i?aia?aoa.

1. I?aeiouanoaa iaoiaea

Aeinoieinoaaie EIE yaeythony aunieay yooaeoeaiinoue, i?inoioa
i?eiaiaiey, ia?aoeiinoue, iaee/ea aeaaii?eyoiuo iaeiio?aoeaioeaiuo
yooaeoia. Ii aeaiiui iiiaieaoieo yieaeaieieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee
ioia/aii, /oi i?eai EIE aaaeao e cia/eoaeueiiio nieaeaieth /enea
aeiaeieiae/aneeo e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo caaieaaaiee. A /anoiinoe,
oiaiueoaaony ioiineoaeueiue ?ene ?acaeoey ?aea yiaeiiao?ey (a n?aaeiai
ia 60%), ?aea ye/ieeia (a n?aaeiai ia 40%), aeia?iea/anoaaiiuo
iiaiia?aciaaiee ye/ieeia, yeoiie/aneie aa?aiaiiinoe, ieii iaoee,
yiaeiino?eica, aeueaiaeeniaii?ae, i?aaeiaino?o-aeueiiai neiae?iia,
ainiaeeoaeueiuo caaieaaaiee i?aaiia iaeiai oaca, ianoiiaoee,
aeaeaciaeaoeoeeoiie aiaiee. Eiathony aeaiiua i nieaeaiee ?enea
?aaiaoieaeiiai a?o?eoa, iaioe/aneie ycau aeaeoaeea e
iinoiaiiiaocaeueiiai inoaiii?ica .

Iaeiie ec i?aaeiieaaaaiuo i?e/ei ?acaeoey ?aea ye/ieeia yaeyaony oae
iacuaaaiay “iai?a?uaiay iaoeyoeey”, o.a. ninoiyiea, io?aaeathuaa
aunieoth ooieoeeiiaeueioth aeoeaiinoue ye/ieeia. Iinoiyiiua eciaiaiey a
yieoaeee, ?ino oieeeeoeia, i?ienoiaeyuea a aeoeaii “?aaioathueo”
ye/ieeao, iiaoo i?eaanoe e iaeiio?iee?oaiiio ?inoo yieoaeey e, a
eiia/iii eoiaa, e ?acaeoeth ?aea. EIE iiaeaaeytho aeoeaiinoue ye/ieeia,
i?aaeioa?auay ?acaeoea ceiea/anoaaiiuo iiaiia?aciaaiee a oa/aiea 10 e
aieaa eao iinea ieii/aiey i?eaia i?aia?aoa. Oneiaeai aeey aeeeoaeueiie
caueou io ?aea ye/ieeia yaeyaony i?eai i?aia?aoa a oa/aiea iaeiiai-aeaoo
eao. A ?yaea neo/aaa caueoiue yooaeo EIE iaaethaeaaony o aeaiuei,
i?eieiaaoeo i?aia?ao anaai a oa/aiea 6 ianyoeaa . ?ae ye/ieeia yaeyaony
aaaeouae i?e/eiie nia?oiinoe o aeaiuei io ceiea/anoaaiiuo
iiaiia?aciaaiee aaieoaeee, a nayce n /ai eniieueciaaiea EIE o aeaiuei n
aunieei ?eneii yoiai caaieaaaiey ioe?uaaao oe?ieea ia?niaeoeau aeey
nieaeaiey /anoiou ?aea ye/ieeia.

I?e i?eiaiaiee ieceiaeice?iaaiiuo EIE yiaeiiao?ee iaoiaeeony a
ioiineoaeueii iaaeoeaiii ninoiyiee, iiyoiio o aeaiuei, i?eieiathueo
eiio?aoeaioeaiua i?aia?aou, ?ene ?aea yiaeiiao?ey cia/eoaeueii nieaeai.
I?eai EIE aeaaea a oa/aiea iaeiiai aiaea caueuaao io ?aea yiaeiiao?ey ia
i?ioyaeaiee 15 eao iinea ieii/aiey eniieueciaaiey iaoiaea.

Aieueoeinoai aeia?iea/anoaaiiuo ia?aciaaiee ye/ieeia o aeaiuei iieiaeiai
aic?anoa yaeythony ooieoeeiiaeueiuie (oieeeeoey?iua eenou eee eenou
aeaeoiai oaea). I?eiaiaiea EIE aaaeao e nieaeaieth aeoeaiinoe ye/ieeia,
a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e e oiaiueoaieth /enea ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iaa?eaeueiuo
ia?aciaaiee.

?aiaa nouanoaiaaea oi/ea c?aiey, /oi EIE ca n/ao yno?iaaiiiai eiiiiiaioa
iiaoo noeioee?iaaoue ?ino ieiiaoiciuo oceia. Iaeiaei, aeinoaoi/ii
aunieee o?iaaiue yiaeiaaiiuo yno?iaaiia, i?iaeooee?oaiuo ye/ieeaie a
oa/aiea iau/iiai iaino?oaeueiiai oeeeea, aieaa nouanoaaiii aeeyao ia
?ino ieiiu iaoee, /ai ieceea aeicu ai?iiia, aoiaeyuaai a ninoaa EIE. Ii
?aeiiaiaeaoeeyi AIC (1996), ieiia iaoee ia yaeyaony oaeoi?ii,
ia?aie/eaathuei i?eiaiaiea ieceiaeice?iaaiiuo EIE.

Neiioiiu aeueaiaeeniaii?ae a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iaoneiaeaiu
nie?auaieai iaoi/iie ioneoeaoo?u a ioaao ia oaaee/eaathueeny o?iaaiue
i?inoaaeaiaeeiia, au?aaaouaaaiuo a yiaeiiao?ee ia?aae ia/aeii
iaino?oaoeee. I?e i?eiaiaiee EIE o?iaaiue i?inoaaeaiaeeiia iiauoaaony
iacia/eoaeueii e iiyoiio o 40—50% iieueciaaoaeae EIE ianooiaao
iaeaa/aiea neiioiiia aeueaiaeeniaii?ae .

A ?acaeoee i?aaeiaino?oaeueiiai neiae?iia eiatho cia/aiea ecaiaiaaea
o?iaiae yiaeiaaiiuo yno?iaaiia e i?iaanoa?iia, ?aaeoeey ia iaoi/iua
nie?auaiey e, aiciiaeii, oaaee/aiea o?iaiy i?inoaaeaiaeeiia,
iinooiathueo ec yiaeiiao?ey a e?iayiia ?onei. I?eiaiaiea EIE iaeaa/aao
oa/aiea i?aaeiaino?oaeueiiai neiae?iia ca n/ao nieaeaiey au?aaioee
yiaeiaaiiuo iieiauo noa?ieaeia e oiaiueoaiey ianoiie i?iaeoeoeee
i?inoaaeaiaeeiia a yiaeiiao?ee.

Aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie ia auyaeaii io?eoeaoaeueiiai eee iieiaeeoaeueiiai
aicaeaenoaey EIE ia ?ene ?acaeoey ?aea iiei/iuo aeaeac.

Oieioiaiea oea?aeeaeueiie neece, naycaiiia n aeeyieai i?iaanoaaaiiiai
eiiiiiaioa EIE, nieaeaao ?ene ?acaeoey ino?uo aaeoa?eaeueiuo caaieaaaiee
i?aaiia iaeiai oaca ia 50% .Yoio yooaeo iaiaa au?aaeai a ioiioaiee
oeaieaeeeiie eioaeoeee. Iaeiaei, aicaeaenoaea ia oea?aeeaeueioth neecue
aea?aeeony iaaeieai, iiyoiio caueoiia aeaenoaea a ioiioaiee
ainiaeeoaeueiuo caaieaaaiee i?aaiia iaeiai oaca caeai/eaaaony aianoa n
i?ae?auaieai i?eaia EIE.

Aiaiaoi/iay aa?aiaiiinoue aei neo ii? inoaaony iaeiie ec i?e/ei
iaoa?eineie nia?oiinoe. Eniieueciaaiea EIE aaaeao e nieaeaieth ?enea
?acaeoey yoiai ninoiyiey ia 90% ii n?aaiaieth n aeaiueiaie, ia
eniieuecothueie eiio?aoeaioeaiuo n?aaenoa .

EIE n i?iaanoaaaiaie o?aoueaai iieieaiey iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny aeey
ea/aiey aeia. Aeoeaiinoue naeueiuo aeaeac noeioee?oaony aiae?iaaiaie e
iiaeaaeyaony yno?iaaiaie. Iiyaeaiea aeia niaiaaeaao n oaaee/aieai o?iaiy
aiae?iaaiia a e?iae o iiae?inoeia. Iaeiaei, en/aciiaaiea aeia a
iinoioan?oaoiii aic?anoa ia niioaaonoaoao i?ioeaiiieiaeiui eciaiaieyi a
ai?iiiaeueiii noaoona. Aieueoeinoai aieueiuo n aeia eiatho ii?iaeueiue
o?iaaiue oee?eoee?othueo aiae?iaaiia. O aeaiuei n oyaeaeui oa/aieai aeia
ioia/aaony ieceee o?iaaiue oee?eoee?othuaai ANIN (aeiaoeeia,
naycuaathuaai iieiaua noa?ieaeu). Oae eae aeia iaaethaeathony oieueei o
ioaeaeueiuo eiaeeaeaeooiia, ?aciiii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi eiaao ianoi
iiauoaiiay ianoiay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue naeueiuo aeaeac e aiae?iaaiai.
Ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue a ?acaeoee aeaiiiai caaieaaaiey ea?aao oaeaea
onei?aiiue ia?eoa?e/aneee ia?aoiae oanoinoa?iia a aieaa aeoeaioth oi?io
— aeeaeae?ioanoinoa?ii. A nayce n oai, /oi iiauoaiiay aiae?iaaiiay
aeoeaiinoue (eee /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e aiae?iaaiai) yaeyaony iaeiei ec
yoeieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia, niaa?oaiii caeiiiia?ii eniieueciaaiea
aioeaiae?ianiiuo i?aia?aoia aeey ea/aiey aeia.

Aioeaiae?iaaiiue yooaeo EIE, niaea?aeaueo i?iaanoaaaiu o?aoueaai
iieieaiey, iauyniyaony nieaeaieai neioaca aiae?iaaiia ec-ca eiaeaeoeee
iaoeyoeee, a oaeaea i?aaaee?iaaieai yno?iaaiiuo yooaeoia
yoeieeyno?aaeeiea iaae aiae?iaaiiuie (aioeyno?i-aaiiuie) yooaeoaie
i?iaanoaaaiia. Aeaenoaea i?aia?aoia naycaii n yno?iaaiiaoneiaeaiiui
iiauoaieai o?iaiy aeiaoeeia, naycuaathuaai iieiaua noa?ieaeu, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai i?ienoiaeeo nieaeaiea o?iaiy naiaiaeiiai oanoinoa?iia a
e?iae.

Iiyoiio, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi aeia ia yaeyaony iieacaieai e iacia/aieth
EIE, i?aaenoaaeyaony ?aciiiui ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue EIE aeaiueiai,
no?aaeathuei aeia, iniaaiii anee ei o?aaoaony eiio?aoeaioeey.

2. Aaciianiinoue IAE

Iaeiei ec aaaeiuo o?aaoaiuo aeey IAE iieacaoaeae yaeyaony aaciianiinoue
— iiae aaciianiinoueth IAE iiae?acoiaaaaony noaiaiue eo aeeyiey ia ?yae
i?aaiia e nenoai i?aaiecia. Eaeiau aea yoe iaeaieaa aaaeiua i?aaiu e
nenoaiu? Eo iiaeii ia?a/eneeoue a neaaeothuai ii?yaeea:

( eeieaeiue iaoaaieeci;

— ea?aiaeae?aoiue iaoaaieeci;

— nenoaia aaiinoaca;

( nenoaia ?aaoeyoeee a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey.

I?enoaeueiiai aieiaiey aeey ioeaiee aaciianiinoe i?aia?aoa
caneoaeeaatho ninoaeenoi-oee?eoeyoi?iay nenoaia, ieia?aeueiue iaiai,
eiioiiay e oeaio?aeueiay ia?aiay nenoaiu e ?yae ae?oaeo.

Ioia/aii, /oi o aeaiuei, i?eieiathueo IAE, iaaethaeathony eciaiaiey a
ieacia e?iae oaeeo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iieacaoaeae aeoeaiinoe ueoiaeaeiie
aeaeacu, eae i?ioaeiinaycuaathuee eiaeei (?AI), a oaeaea aeiaoeeia,
naycuaathuaai oe?ienei (OAG), /oi iauyniyaony aicaeaenoaeai yno?iaaiiiai
eiiiiiaioa IAE. Iaeiaei, aeaaea i?e aeeeoaeueiii i?eaia nia?aiaiiuo
ieceiaeiciuo eiiaeiaoeee ia ioia/aii iiyaeaiey neiioiiia aeii- eee
aeia?oe?aeiaeecia.

A ia?aua 2—3 ianyoea i?eaia IAE aiciiaeiu eciaiaiey a noi?iio iiauoaiey
ieaciaiiiai o?iaiy ai?iiiia ei?u iaaeii/a/ieeia, ii nionoy 4—5 ianyoeaa
iinea ia/aea i?eaia ainnoaiaaeeaaaony eo ecia/aeueiue .o?iaaiue.
I?iniaeoeaiua eeeie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey, iinayuaiiua aeeyieth IAE ia
ooieoeeth ei?u iaaeii/a/ieeia, iicaieytho naeaeaoue caeeth/aiea i
i?aeoe/aneii ionaonoaee oaeiaiai aeeyiey i?e aeeeoaeueiii i?eaia
nia?aiaiiuo IAE .

Eciaiaiey ea?aiaeae?aoiiai iaoaaieecia i?e i?eaia IAE eiatho aanueia
aaaeiia cia/aiea. A eeoa?aoo?a oaeaea iiaeii ano?aoeoue oeacaiey ia
eciaiaiea i?e i?eaia IAE oaeeo aeioeie/aneeo iieacaoaeae
ea?aiaeae?aoiiai iaoaaieecia, eae aeia?aeeoea?eaeaiey, aeia?ie?oaaoaiey,
aeia?einoeeieci, oaaee/aiea o?iaiae iaaee, oeeiea e aeaeaca a nuai?ioea
e?iae, a oaeaea iiauoaiea niiniaiinoe nuai?ioee e?iae naycuaaoue aeaeaci
e ae?. Ecaanoii, /oi i?eai yno?iaaiia, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa noa?ieaeiuo
i?ioeaica/aoi/iuo eiiaeiaoeee iiauoaao o?iaaiue aetheicu e,
niioaaonoaaiii, einoeeia a e?iae e nieaeaao oiea?aioiinoue e iae, /oi, a
?yaea neo/aaa iiaeao i?eaanoe e ?acenoaioiinoe e einoeeio — oaeoi?o
aunieiai ?enea na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo ineiaeiaiee. Iiiai/eneaiiua
enneaaeiaaiey, i?iaaaeaiiua ioa/anoaaiiuie e ca?oaaaeiuie aaoi?aie
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee, /oi i?e iacia/aiee IAE, niaea?aeaueo iaiaa 35 iea
AA, i?aeoe/aneia ionoonoaea eciaiaiee naoa?iie e?eaie.

Ianiio?y ia iaeioi?ia oaaee/aiea iauaai o?iaiy aetheicu e?iae i?e i?eaia
IAE, iaoaaiee/aneee aa i?ioeeue ia eciaiyaony, aeaiiino?e?oy iau/ioth
naoa?ioth e?eaoth. I?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea yoiai ninoieo a oii, /oi
naaiaeiy naoa?iue aeeaaao, eioi?ue aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie yaeyeny
aaniethoiui i?ioeaiiieacaieai e iacia/aieth IAE, ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo i
i?aeoe/aneii ionoonoaee aeeyiey nia?aiaiiuo ieceiaeiciuo i?aia?aoia ia
ea?aiaeae?aoiue iaoaaieeci, iiaeao auoue ia?aaaaeai ec ?ac?yaea
aaniethoiuo a ?ac?yae ioiineoaeueiuo i?ioeaiiieacaiee.

A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yno?iaaiai, i?iaanoaaaiu iiauoatho oiea?aioiinoue
e aetheica, i?e/ai noaiaiue yoiai iiauoaiey caaeneo e io oeia aanoaaaia,
e io aai aeicu — iaeaieueoaa oaaee/aiea i?eoiaeeony ia aeieth noa?ieaeia
n iiauoaiiie aiae?iaaie/iinoueth — iai?eia?, aea?eaaoia iaiae?ieiia, a
/anoiinoe, ia iaae?ienei?iaanoa?iia aoeaoao. Iiaeiaiua eiiaeiaoeee a
?yaea neo/aaa niiniaiu i?iaioee?iaaoue eeeie/aneia ?acaeoea ?aiaa
eaoaioii i?ioaeaaoaai naoa?iiai aeeaaaoa, /oi a aeaa ?aca oaaee/eaaao
?ene eioa?eoa ieiea?aea. I?aia?aou, niaea?aeauea aanoaaaiu o?aoueaai
iieieaiey, iaeaaeatho ieieiaeueiui (ii iiaiee) iaeioi?uo aaoi?ia ia
iaeaaeatho aiana) aeeyieai ia ea?aiaeae?aoiue iaoaaieeci, o.a. ia o?iaie
aetheicu e?iae, einoeeia, aaiiaeiaeia A1N.. Iaeiaei neaaeoao o/eouaaoue
e oi, /oi yoe i?aia?aou niinianoaotho iiauoaieth iio?aaiinoe a einoeeia
o aeaiuei n naoa?iui aeeaaaoii. Oai ia iaiaa, iaiaoiaeeiinoue
iaaieueoiai oaaee/aiey aeicu einoeeia yaeyaony iaeie oeaiie aeey
aeaiuei, eioi?ui aa?aiaiiinoue iau/ii i?ioeaiiieacaia.

Iaeioi?ua eciaiaiey ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iieacaoaeae ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu
oaeaea iiaoo eiaoue ianoi i?e i?eaia IAE — iau/ii yoi iiauoaiea o?iaiae
eiaeinaycuaathuaai i?ioaeia (?AI) e oe?ieneiinaycuaathuaai aeiaoeeia a
ieacia e?iae — iineaaeiaa iai?yioth naycaii n aeaenoaeai yno?iaaiiiai
eiiiiiaioa IAE. Oai ia iaiaa, ia nouanoaoao aeieacaoaeuenoa ?acaeoey
aeii- eee aeia?-oe?aeiaeecia i?e eniieueciaaiee aeaiiiai iaoiaea
eiio?aoeaioeee.

Eae oaea oeacuaaeinue auoa, aaaeiui a ioeaiea noaiaie aaciianiinoe IAE
yaeyaony e ii?aaeaeaiea eciaiaiee aaee/eiu a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey.
Ecaanoii, /oi a oa/aiea ia?auo 3 ianyoeaa i?eaia aiciiaeii oaaee/aiea
eiioeaio?aoeee aeueaeinoa?iia a ieacia e?iae e ioaeaeueiua neo/ae
iiauoaiey a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey ca n/ao aeoeaaoeee nenoaiu
?aiei-aiaeioacei-aeueaeinoa?ii. Iaeiaei, a aeaeueiaeoai, o?iaaiue
aeueaeinoa?iia ii?iaeecoaony e i?e i?eaia ieceiaeiciuo i?aia?aoia,
iniaaiii o?aoueaai iieieaiey, aaee/eia AAe i?aeoe/anee ia eciaiyaony,
/oi iicaieeei ia?aaanoe aeia?oiieth 1 no. ec ?ac?yaea aaniethoiuo
i?ioeaiiieacaiee e i?eaio IAE a ?ac?yae ioiineoaeueiuo.

Iaeioi?ua ec aanoaaaiia o?aoueaai iieieaiey ec-ca
aioeieia?aeiei?oeeieaeiiai aeaenoaey ia iaeaaeatho iiaeiaiui yooaeoii e
iiaoo nieaeaoue ?ene ?acaeoey a?oa?eaeueiie aeia?oiiee. I?e iaaethaeaiee
ca aeaiueiie a oa/aiea ia?auo o?ao ianyoeaa i?eaia IAE, a
aaeaioaoeeiiioth oaco, iiaeii auyaeoue iaoeeaioie n iiaeiaiie
neeiiiinoueth e aeia?oaiceaiui yieciaeai e aia?aiy niaieoue ei iaoiae
eiio?aoeaioeee, oai aieaa, /oi aeaiiay neeiiiinoue anaaaea yaeyaony
ia?aoeiie.

Eioa?aniua iaoiaeee auee iaia?oaeaiu i?e enneaaeiaaiee aeeyiey IAE ia
no?oeoo?o yiaeiiao?ey i?e i?eaia ieceiaeiciuo IAE. I?e
yeaeo?iiiiiee?ineiie/aneii enneaaeiaaiee aeiinee yiaeiiao?ey i?e i?eaia
eaaiii?aano?aeniaea?aeaueo i?aia?aoia auei iaia?oaeaii iaee/ea
cia/eoaeueiiai ioaea no?iiu, iaoiieacee, e?iaieceeyiee, oi?ie?iaaiey
o?iiaia, aeano?oeoeee yieoaeeaeueiuo e no?iiaeueiuo eeaoi/iuo yeaiaioia,
iiauoaiiie i?iaeoeoeee ea?aiaeae?aoia. Yoi aeaiiino?e?oao ionoonoaea
eiiiainaoi?iiai aicaeaenoaey yno?iaaiia ia iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea
eaaiii?aano?aea ia yiaeiiao?ee. I?e enneaaeiaaiee ia?acoeia oeaie io
iaoeeaioie, i?eieiaaoeo aeaciaano?ae- eee ii?aanoeiaoniaea?aeauea IAE
ea?oeia auea ianeieueei eiie: iacia/eoaeueiue ioae no?iiu, e?iaieceeyiey
e o?iiau i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaiaaee, a oi?ie?iaaiey iee?iiieeiia ia
ioia/aeinue.

Nae?aoi?iay o?ainoi?iaoeey yiaeiiao?ee ia ia?ooaeanue, ionoonoaiaaee
iiaa?oiinoiua iia?aaeaeaiey e aeaoaeou oi?ie?iaaiey iee?ininoaeia.
Aenoioeie/aneee aiaeec iiaeoaa?aeee iaee/ea ieieiaeueiuo iia?aaeaeaiee
eeaoi/iuo nae?aoi?iuo yeaiaioia e eieeaaaiiauo oea?eee no?iiu. Oaeaea a
iiea c?aiey ionoonoaiaaee ao?ioe/anee eciaiaiiua yiaeiiao?eaeueiua
aeaeacu. Auoaeceiaeaiiia aeaiiino?e?oao oieeaeueiue eeeie/aneee yooaeo
i?aia?aoia, niaea?aeaueo i?iaanoaaaiu o?aoueaai iieieaiey ia
yiaeiiao?ee, ii iiaeao neoaeeoue iauyniaieai ieceie /anoiou ?acaeoey
aiaii??ae i?e i?eaia aeaiiuo ai?iiiaeueiuo eiiaeiaoeee. Aiciiaeiu i?e
i?eaia IAE:

– aeia?o?eaeeoea?eaeaiey;

– iiauoaiea nae?aoeee ai?iiia ?inoa;

– oaaee/aiea o?iaiae ieaciaiiie iaaee, oeeiea e aeaeaca,

a oaeaea aeaeacinaycuaathuae niiniaiinoe ieaciu;

– iiauoaiea o?iaiae iae?iaeiaoeeiia, o?ainoa??eia, aeueaoieia e
eiioiiaeiaoeeiia.

3. I?ioeaiiieacaiey e i?eiaiaieth.

Aaniethoiua i?ioeaiiieacaiey e IAE

Ia?eiae eaeoaoeee iaiaa 6 iaaeaeue iinea ?iaeia ( aeey
eiiaeie?iaaiiuo IAE )

Iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiay eee i?aaeiieaaaaiay aa?aiaiiinoue ( Ianiio?y ia
oi, /oi iaeioi?ua aaoi?u n/eoatho , /oi aa?aiaiiinoue , ianooieaoay
ia oiia i?eaia IAE, aeieaeia auoue i?a?aaia , anee aeaiueia
iieiaea 30 eao , i?eai IAE ia oiia aa?aiaiiinoe , ii iiaieth
aieueoeinoaa , ieeae ia iiaeao neoaeeoue iieacaieai aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa aai?oa )

Na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoua caaieaaaiey ( a oii /enea caaieaaaiey
eeaiaiiiai aiia?aoa na?aeoea , eaai/iay aeia?oaicey , EAN ,
noaiiea?aeey , aoa?iaaiiua ia?ooaiey eeieaeiiai iaiaia ,
a?oa?eaeueiue e aaiiciue o?iiaic , iniaaiii o?iiaic aeoaieeo aai
ieaeieo eiia/iinoae )

Ii?aaeaiey ninoaeia aieiaiiai iicaa , iniaaiii ninoaeia Aeeeceaaa
e?oaa ec-ca oaaee/aiey ?enea einoeueoa .

Caaieaaaiey ia/aie ( neiioiiaoe/aneay aeaeoooa , ae?oniue aaiaoeo ,
neiae?ii Aethaeia-Aeaeiiniia , neiae?ii ?ioi?a )

Iiooiee ia/aie ( aaiaoioeaeethey?iay aaeaiiia , aaiaoiia e o.ae. )

Iea?aie iayniie yoeieiaee e i/aaiaua iaa?ieiae/aneea neiioiiu .

E?iaioa/aiey ec iieiauo iooae iayniie yoeieiaee aei auyniaiey eo
i?e/eiu .

Aeia?oiie/aneay aieaciue 2A-3 noaiaie .

Caaieaaaiey ii/ae ( aeiia?oeiiao?eo , ieaeiiao?eo )

Ceiea/anoaaiiua iiaiia?aciaaiey iieiauo e yiaeie?eiiuo i?aaiia .

Aeeeoaeueiay eiiiaeeecaoeey .

4 iaaeaee aei e 4 iaaeaee iinea ea/aiey ( oe?o?ae/aneiai ,
neea?ioa?aiee ) i?e aa?eeiciii ?anoe?aiee aai ieaeieo eiia/iinoae
.

4 iaaeaee aei i?aaenoiyuaai iieinoiiai iia?aoeaiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa
.

Iaee/ea o?iiaioe/aneiai aiaiiaca eee caaieaaaiee nenoaiu aaiinoaca
, a?iaeaeaiiay aaiioeeey , iaee/ea aie/aii/iiai aioeeiaaoeyioa ,
ninoiyiea iinea nieaiyeoiiee , o?iiaioeeoiiaiey .

Aaiieeei-o?aie/aneee neiae?ii .

Caaieaaaiey , i?aae?aniieaaathuea e o?iiaicai .

Ecauoi/iay ianna oaea ( io 30 % ) .

I?ia?anne?othuee eee aeeeoaeueii i?ioaeathuee ( aieaa 20 eao )
naoa?iue aeeaaao n iaa?ieiae/aneeie e ninoaeenouie ineiaeiaieyie ,
a oaeaea ?eiiiaoeae .

Eo?aiea a aic?anoa 35 eao e noa?oa ( o.e. eo?yuea aieaa 15
neaa?ao a aeaiue aeaiueiu ioiinyony e a?oiia iiauoaiiiai ?enea
na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo caaieaaaiee ) .

A oaeaea : ?annayiiue neea?ic , oi?ay , ioineea?ic , ii?oe?ey ,
aanoaoeeiiiue aa?ian

Aieueoeinoai aaoi?ia n/eoatho aieaa oeaeaniia?aciui n/eoaoue
aaniethoiuie : oyaeaeoth noaiaiue ?aaiaoieaeiiai a?o?eoa ,
aie/aii/iue y?eo?ioeeoic , aiaeiiu , oyaeaeua eiioiiua caaieaaaiey ,
?ino iaiaa 150 ni .

Ioiineoaeueiua i?ioeaiiieacaiey e IAE

O?ioe/aneea ycau aieaiae.

Iaineiaeiaiiue naoa?iue aeeaaao .

Aeia?oiie/aneay aieaciue 1no. (AIC eeann 2) .

Caaieaaaiey ia/aie , iinea eioi?uo ia i?iecioei ii?iaeecaoeee
ia?aiao?ia aa ooieoeee (ia?nenoe?othuee aaiaoeo A e o.i. ).

yno?iaaiicaaeneiua aeia?iea/anoaaiiua iiooiee .

Ia?aianaiiue 5 e aieaa eao iacaae ?ae iiei/iie aeaeacu aac
i?eciaeia ?aoeeaee?iaaiey .

Aeia?oieenoa?eiaiey .

Aeia?i?ieaeoeiaiey .

Yieeainey .

Caaieaaaiey ii/ae ni nieaeaieai oeeueo?e?othuae eo niiniaiinoe .

AEae/ii-eaiaiiay aieaciue a ino?ii ia?eiaea eee aea ia?eiaea
iaaeeeaiaioiciie oa?aiee .

Ecauoi/iay ianna oaea (10-30%).

Iaaeaaii ia?aianaiiia o?ioiaeanoe/aneia caaieaaaiea .

Oiio?aaeaiea ?yaea ia?eioe/aneeo aauanoa .

Ninoiyiey, i?e eioi?uo iaoeeaioea ia niiniaia aaeaeaaoii
aini?eiyoue e neaaeiaaoue ii?yaeeo i?eaia IAE ( ieeaio?aiey ,
ineoe/aneea caaieaaaiey a ia?eiaea iaino?aiey ,aeeiaieeci ).

Caaieaaaiey , iaee/ea eioi?uo o?aaoaony iniaiai aieiaiey , i?e
iacia/aiee iaoiaea eiio?aoeaioeee

a?iioeaeueiay anoia ;

aieaciue Aeaeeeueaa?oa ( a?iaeaeaiiay aeia?aeee?oaeiaiey );

aieaciue Oiaeaeeeia ;

?annayiiue neea?ic ;

ieanoaiey ;

ieaiaioiue ?aoeieo ;

?aaiaoieaeiue a?o?eo ;

ii/a/iue aeeaeec;

oe?aioieneeic;

na?eieaeic;

oaeannaiey.

4. Ineiaeiaiey i?e i?eaia IAE

Iaeaieaa na?ueaciuie ineiaeiaieyie i?e i?eaia IAE i?eiyoi n/eoaoue
?acaeoea ia?ooaiee oee?eoeyoi?iie e eiaaoeyoeeiiiie nenoai i?aaiecia
(aaiiciue o?iiaic e o?iiaiyiaieey, noaa?aoiieaeaeueiua e?iaieceeyiey,
eioa?eo ieiea?aea e o.ae.), a oaeaea ii?aaeaiea ia/aie (aaeaiiia).
Nionoy 4 aiaea iinea ia/aea oe?ieiai i?eiaiaiey IAE auee iioaeeeiaaiu
aeaiiua enneaaeiaaiee ia eciaiaiee o?iaiae eiaaoeyoeeiiiuo oaeoi?ia i?e
iacia/aiee i?iauoaiea o?iaiae oanoinoa?iia iiaeao yaeoueny i?e/eiie o.
i. «aiacaiiie nia?oe»,, a oi a?aiy, eae iacia/aiea iaaunieeo aeic
yno?iaaiia (yno?aaeeiea aaea?eaoa) ieacuaaao aioeo?iiaioe/aneia e
ninoaeii?ioaeoeaiia aeaenoaea. Iiiai/eneaiiuie yieaeaieieiae/aneeie
enneaaeiaaieyie auea aeieacaia naycue iaaeaeo i?eaiii i?ioeaica/aoi/iuo
i?aia?aoia e iiauoaiiui ?eneii o?iiaiyiaiee/aneeo ineiaeiaiee. Iaeiaei,
neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi ethaia yieaeaieieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea a
ninoiyiee onoaiiaeoue eeoue naycue iaaeaeo aeaoiy niauoeyie, ii ia
i?yioth i?e/eiioth caaeneiinoue.

Iiiyoea «na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoua ineiaeiaiey» i?e i?eaia IAE aeeth/aao a
naay aeiaieueii oe?ieee niaeo? caaieaaaiee na?aeoea e ninoaeia — oai ia
iaiaa, iiiaea aaoi?u aeeth/atho «o?iiai-yiaiee/aneea ineiaeiaiey» a yoo
iiaea?oiio

Oaeaea nieceeny e ?ene oea?aa?iaaneoey?iuo ii?aaeaiee, eioi?ua noaee
i?ioaeaoue a aeaea noaa?aoiieaeaeueiuo e?iaieceeyiee.

Aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie neiaeiie inoaaony naiaa?aiaiiay eeeie/aneay
aeeaaiinoeea aaiiciiai o?iiaica eee eaai/iie o?iiaiyiaieee — a neeo
naiae ianiaoeeoe/iinoe, oieueei ieiei 1% anao aaiiciuo o?iiaicia
aeeaaiinoe?othony ia ?aiiae noaaeee naiaai ?acaeoey. Iiyoiio iau/ii
iaia?oaeeaaaony naycue iaaeaeo i?eaiii IAE e oaoaeueiuie
o?iiaiyiaiee/aneeie ineiaeiaieyie.

Aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie n/eoaeinue, /oi i?e i?eaia IAE o?aoueaai
iieieaiey ?ene ?acaeoey eae a?oa?eaeueiuo, oae e aaiiciuo o?iiaioe/aneeo
ineiaeiaiee eneeth/eoaeueii ieceee aeaaea ii n?aaiaieth ni noa?ieaeiuie
eiiaeiaoeeyie i?aaeuaeoueo iieieaiee. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyee eo?yuea
aeaiueiu noa?oa 35 eao. Auei ii?aaeaeaii, /oi eniieueciaaiea
ieceiaeiciuo IAE eiaao eeoue aanueia ei?ioeia iiauoaiea ?enea
ninoaeenouo ineiaeiaiee (iniaaiii eioa?eoa ieiea?aea), iauyniyaiia
iioaioeeaeueiui i?ia?anne?iaaieai aoa?ineea?ioe/aneeo eciaiaiee
ninoaeenouo noaiie. Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiie i?e/eiie ?acaeoey
o?iiaioe/aneeo ineiaeiaiee n/eoaeanue iiauoaiiay aeica yno?iaaiiiai

eiiiiiaioa IAE.

A 1988 aiaeo iiyaeeenue aeaiiua i oii, /oi aeica yno?iaaiia ia yaeyaony
aaeeinoaaiiui ii?aaeaeythuei iiauoaiiue ?ene aaiiciiai o?iiaica e
na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo ineiaeiaiee oaeoi?ii — ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue iiaeao
ea?aoue e i?iaanoaaai . Yoe aeaiiua aeeth/aee a naay auaiaeu i oii, /oi
anee yno?iaaiu aucuaatho iiauoaiea eiaaoeyoeee, oi aanoaaaiu niiniaiu
iaaeaaii?eyoii aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia iaoaaieeci eeieaeia.

Iiyaeaoeany a 1995 aiaeo aeaiiua iaeioi?uo yieaeaieieiae/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee auee ia?auaiu e ?iee i?iaanoaaaiia ai aeeyiee ia ?ene
ninoaeenouo ineiaeiaiee o aeaiuei, i?eiaiythueo i?aeueiua
eiio?aoeaioeau. Yoe eciaiaiey aeeth/aee a naay iiaeuai o?iaiy
i?io?iiaeia ieaciu e?iae, i?ieiiaa?oeia (oaeoi? VII), aeaenoaothuaai a
i?aoaca eiaaoeyoeee aioeaaiioeeueiiai aeiaoeeia (oaeoi? VIII), a oaeaea
oaeoi?ia E?enoiana e Notha?o-I?iaa?a (IX e O niioaaonoaaiii).
I?iaaaeaiiua a Aaeeeia?eoaiee ioeueoeoeaioa?iua enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee
noaoenoe/anee aeinoiaa?ioth caaeneiinoue /anoiou ?acaeoey aaiiciiai
o?iiaica, ioeueiiiaeueiie o?iiaiyiaieee, oea?aa?aeueiiai e ei?iiaeueiiai
o?iiaicia io i?eaia IAE .

Auee iioaeeeiaaiu aeaiiua i oii, /oi ?ene ?acaeoey oea?aa?aeueiie eoaiee
e einoeueoa o aeaiuei, i?eieiathueo IAE a 9 ?ac auoa oaeiaiai o aeaiuei,
ia i?eiaiythueo ai?iiiaeueiuo i?aia?aoia. Auei aeieacaii, /oi iniiaioth
?ieue a ?acaeoee iiaeiaiuo ineiaeiaiee ea?aao eiee/anoaaiiue oaeoi?
aoiaeyueo a ninoaa IAE yno?iaaiia. I?e/ai eiee/anoai yoeo ineiaeiaiee
nieaeaeinue iaeiia?aiaiii ni nieaeaieai aeicu yno?iaaiia ni 150 iea
yoeieeyno?aaee-iea eee iano?aiiea aei 50 iea. Aeaeueiaeoaa nieaeaiea
aeicu yno?iaaiiiai eiiiiiaioa aei i?eiyouo naaiaeiy 30—35 iea naaei ?ene
?acaeoey o?iiaioe/aneeo ineiaeiaiee aei ieieioia. Iieacaii, /oi ?ene
nia?oe io auoaiacaaiiie i?e/eiu i?e i?eaia IAE nouanoaaiii caaeneo e io
aic?anoa iaoeeaioee: oae, anee a aic?anoa 15—25 eao yoio ?ene
ioeaieaaaony a 1,3, oi o 35-eaoieo ii oaea ?aaai 6,9, a a 40—44 aiaea
ninoaaeyao 24,5.Eioa?aniie iaoiaeeie yaeeny oaeaea e oio oaeo, /oi
aeaiueiu n I(0) a?oiiie e?iae eiatho a o?e ?aca aieueoa oainia
ecaaaeaoue o?iiaioe/aneeo ineiaeiaiee i?e i?eaia IAE, /ai iaoeeaioee n
ae?oaeie a?oiiaie.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?ene ?acaeoey o?iiaioe/aneeo ineiaeiaiee i?e i?eaia IAE
caaeneo, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, io aeicu aoiaeyueo a eo ninoaa ai?iiiia (a
iniiaiii yno?iaaiia), a oaeaea io iaee/ey ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia ?enea
(eo?aiea a aic?anoa noa?oa 35 eao, aeia?eeieaeaiey, iiauoaiea
a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey e o.ae.).

Iaaaoeaiay ?ieue oanoinoa?iia a ?acaeoee na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo
caaieaaaiee e aunieii o?iaia naycaiiie n ieie nia?oiinoe aia?aua auea
iienaia a 1948 a.. Iicaea auee i?eaaaeaiu aeieacaoaeuenoaa oiai, /oi
iiaeao enneaaeiaaoaeueneie a?oiiu AIC, naeaeaiiuo ia canaaeaiee a iiya?a
1997 aiaea. A i?eaaaeaiiuo ieaea auaiaeao niaea?aeeony inoi?iaeiay e,
iiaeii neacaoue, i?ioeai?a/eaay ioeaiea, io?aaeathuay aea?eea nii?u
o/aiuo ii yoiio aii?ino. Oioy a auaiaeao ioia/aaony, /oi i?eai IAE n
i?iaanoaaaiaie o?aoueaai iieieaiey iiaeao auoue naycai n ianeieueei
aieaa aunieei ?eneii aaiiciiai o?iiaica, oae aea ioia/aaony, /oi
oiio?aaeaiea IAE i?aeoe/anee ia nicaeaao aeiiieieoaeueiie oa?icu aeey
iaeo?yueo aeaiuei e oao, eoi ia iiaeaa?aaaony aicaeaenoaeth ae?oaeo
oaeoi?ia ?enea aicieeiiaaiey na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo caaieaaaiee .
Iineaaeiea enneaaeiaaiey ia iiaeoaa?aeeee ia?aiia/aeueiia iiaiea i yeiau
aieaa aunieii ?enea aaiiciiai o?iiaica aeey i?iaanoaaaiia 3-ai iieieaiey
.

5. IAE e aaiinoac.

Yieaeaieieiae/aneay naycue iaaeaeo IAE, iniaaiii ?aiieo iieieaiee e
o?iiaiyiaiee/aneeie ii?aaeaieyie auea iiaeoaa?iaeaeaia iiiai/eneaiiuie
eeeie/aneeie e yenia?eiaioaeueiuie ?aaioaie, iinayuaiiuie aeyieth
iineaaeieo ia nenoaio aaiinoaca.

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue auyniaia i?e?iaea a?oa?eaeueiuo iia?aaeaeaiee —
iia naycaia n ia?aciaaieai e?iayiuo aa?aaaoeee a ?acoeueoaoa
iia?aaeaeaiey noaiee ninoaea. Aieaa /anoie i?e/eiie o?iiaiyiaiee/aneeo
ii?aaeaiee yaeyaony, aannii?ii, aoa?ineea?ic. O?iiaic aai, iniaaiii
ieaeieo eiia/iinoae, aaea /aua eiaaony caiaaeeaiea e?iaioiea, a iniiaiii
naycai n ia?ooaieyie a nenoaia aaiinoaca, oioy neea?ioe/aneea aeyoee
oaeaea ea?atho ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue a aai ?acaeoee. A eeoa?aoo?a
eiathony oeacaiey ia ?acee/iua oaeoi?u, ii?aaeaeythuea
aeia?eiaaoeyoeeth, eioi?ua iiaoo o/anoaiaaoue a ?acaeoee eae
a?oa?eaeueiiai, oae e aaiiciiai o?iiaicia. Iai?eia?, nieaeaiea o?iaiae
aioeo?iiaeia III iiaeao auoue iaeiie ec i?e/ei ?acaeoey eae aaiiciiai,
oae e a?oa?eaeueiiai o?iiaica. Oai ia iaiaa, ecaanoii, /oi a?oa?eaeueiue
o?iiaic /?acau/aeii ?aaeie o iaoeeaioie n eiiaaieoaeueiui aeaoeoeeoii
aioeo?iiaeia III . Oaeei ia?acii, aeaenoaea yno?iaaiia e aanoaaaiia
aeieaeii auoue iniiaaii ia aicaeaenoaee, eae ia yiaeioaeee eee
oi?ie?iaaiea ninoaeenouo aeyoae, oae e ia nenoaio eiaaoeyoeee a oeaeii
aeey iauyniaiey aiciiaeiie i?e/eiu ?acaeoey na?aea/iininoaeenouo
ineiaeiaiee i?e i?eaia IAE. Iaeiaei auei aeieacaii, /oi i?yiay ?ieue IAE
a oi?ie?iaaiee aoa?ineea?ioe/aneeo aeyoae aanueia iaea. Aua a 70-o
aiaeao auei iieacaii, /oi a e?aeia ?aaeeeo neo/ayo yeciaaiiia aaaaeaiea
yno?iaaiia niiniaii aucaaoue i?ieeoa?aoeeth yiaeioaeey aac ia?aciaaiey
o?iiaia, iaeiaei ec-ca aaeeie/iinoe iiaeiaiuo iaaethaeaiee oai?ey
i?yiiai aeaenoaey iieiauo noa?ieaeia auea ioaa?aiooa. Iicaea auea
ii?aaeaeaia aanueia nouanoaaiiay ?ieue eeaoie yiaeioaeey ninoaeia a
ianoiie ?aaoeyoeee aaiinoaca. Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue ecaanoii, /oi
iiaa?oiinoue iaiia?aaeaeaiiiai ninoaeenoiai yieoaeey eiaao
aioeeiaaoeyoeeiiiue iioaioeeae, iaoneiaeaiiue iaee/eai o?iiaiiiaeoeeia
eee aaia?eiiiiaeiaiuo iieaeoe. I?e iia?aaeaeaiee aioeeiaaoeyoeeiiiue
iioaioeeae yieoaeey iaiyaony ia i?ieiaaoeyoeeiiiue n aunaiaiaeaeaieai
?yaea oeaiaauo oaeoi?ia, aiciiaeii aeeythueo ia aaeee iaaeeeaoi/iiai
i?ino?ainoaa, eioi?ua ea?atho ?ieue a eeaoi/iie aaeaacee e oi?ie?iaaiee
o?iiaia. Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue aii?in — eaeiai aeeyiea yno?iaaiia eee
aanoaaaiia (a oii /enea ?yaea oaeiauo o?aoueaai iieieaiey) ia aeaiiue
iaoaieci ?aaoeyoeee aaiinoaca — inoaaony iaaeinoaoi/ii auyniaiiui e
o?aaoao aeaeueiaeoaai eco/aiey.

Eae ecaanoii, aaiinoac ninoieo ec aeaoo acaeiio?aaiiaaoeaathueo ae?oa
ae?oaa eiiiiiaioia — yoi naa?ouaathuay nenoaia, niinianoaothuay
ia?aciaaieth oea?eia e oea?eiieeoe/aneay nenoaia, ?anoai?ythuay yoio
oea?ei. I?eai ai?iiiaeueiuo i?ioeaica/aoi/iuo oaaeaoie iiauoaao
aeoeaiinoue naa?ouaathuae nenoaiu, ii yoi iiauoaiea caaeneo io aeicu
ai?iiiia. ?anniio?ei aeeyiea IAE ia iaa yoe nenoaiu.

Naa?ouaathuay nenoaia e?iae a iniiaiii aeaenoaoao iooai aeoeaaoeee
ia?aoiaea i?io?iiaeia a o?iiaei n iaeiia?aiaiiui i?aa?auaieai
oea?eiiaaia a oea?ei. Aeoeaaoi?aie iiaeiaiiai ia?aoiaea neoaeao ?yae
noaaoeo yiceiaie i?iyiceiia (i?io?iiaei, oaeoi?u X, IX, VII, XI, XII e
i?aeaeeee?aei), a oaeaea eioaeoi?u, ?aaoee?othuea oa?iaioioth
niaoeeoe/iinoue (oaeoi?u V, VIII, oeaiaaie oaeoi?, aunieiiieaeoey?iue
eeieii-aai). A i?ioeaiaan yoei eciaiaieyi iaeiia?aiaiii aeeth/athony
aeaa eiaeae?othueo oaeoi?a — eiaeaeoi? i?ioaeiacu aioeo?iiaei III e
aaeeia N e S. Ia?ooaiea yoiai iaoaiecia ia eaeii-eeai yoaia aaaeao e
?acaeoeth i?i- eee aioeeiaaoeyoeeiiiiai iaoieiae/aneiai ninoiyiey, /oi
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony iiauoaieai ?enea o?iiaica o iaoeeaioie n a?iaeaeaiiui
aeaoeoeeoii aeaiiuo oaeoi?ia .

Aua a ia/aea 70-o aiaeia auei iienaii nieaeaiea o?iaiy aioeo?iiaeia III
o aeaiuei, i?eieiaaoeo IAE, iaeiaei, a aeaeueiaeoai auei aeieacaii, /oi
yoio o?iaaiue aeaaea i?e aeeeoaeueiii i?eaia iieiauo noa?ieaeia ?aaeei
aeinoeaaao 60% io ii?iu . N iiyaeaieai a a?naiaea a?a/a iiauo
ieceiaeiciuo IAE yoe eciaiaiey e aiana noaee eneeth/eoaeueii ?aaeee .

Oaeei ia?acii, ieieiaeueiua eciaiaiey o?iaiae aioeo?iiaeiaIII e
naiaiaeiiai i?ioaeia 8 (aei 10% e 20% niioaaonoaaiii), a oaeaea
ionoonoaea cia/eiuo eciaiaiee oea?eiiiaioeaea A (iaeaieaa eioi?iaoeaiiai
ia?ea?a eiaaoeyoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe) i?e i?eaia i?aia?aoia o?aoueaai
iieieaiey ia aucuaaao oaaee/aiey ?enea o?iiaica — ia iaia?oaeaii
nouanoaaiiuo ?acee/ee ai aeeyiee ia oaeoi?u aaiinoaca iaaeaeo
iineaaeieie .

Oea?eiieeoe/aneay nenoaia yaeyaony aoi?ie ninoaaiie /anoueth
aaiinoaoe/aneiai aaeaina i?aaiecia, a eioi?ie ieacieiiaai i?aa?auaaony a
ieaciei. Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo aeoeaaoi?ia yoiai i?ioeanna yaeyaony yicei
eeaoie yiaeioaeey — aeoeaaoi? oeaiaaiai ieacieiiaaia (O-?A). ?yaeii
enneaaeiaaoaeae auei iaia?oaeaii, /oi nieaeaiea o?iaiae ieacieiiaaia O?A
e iiauoaiea oaeiaiai eiaeaeoi?a aeoeaaoi?a ieacieiiaaia (?AI)
iaoneaaeeaaao oaaee/aiea ?enea ?acaeoey o?iiaiyiaiee/aneeo ineiaeiaiee
i?e i?eaia. Oaeay aeoeaiinoue iiaeao auoue i?ieiio?iee?iaaia iooai
ecia?aiey eiee/anoaa eiia/iiai noano?aoa aaiinoaoe/aneiai i?ioeanna —
i?iaeoeoia aeaa?aaeaoeee oea?eia (FbDPs). A ?aaioao, a eioi?uo yoi
eiee/anoai auei ii?aaeaeaii, aue naeaeai auaiae i oii, /oi o aeaiuei,
i?eieiaaoeo aunieiaeiciua IAE (50 e aieaa iea AA), o?iaaiue FbDPs
iiauoaeny aieaa, /ai ia 100%, /oi iiaeoaa?aeaeaei cayaeaiea i
caaeneiinoe ?enea ?acaeoey o?iiaiyiaiee/aneeo ineiaeiaiee io aeicu
ai?iiiia a IAE .

Oaeei ia?acii, enneaaeiaaiey iineaaeieo eao ia aeatho iniiaaiey
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi i?eai IAE iaoneaaeeaaao aeoeaaoeeth eeoue
naa?ouaathuae nenoaiu. Iaeiaei, oaeay aeoeaaoeey a aieueoae noaiaie
eiaao ianoi i?e iacia/aiee i?aia?aoia, niaea?aeaueo 50 iea AA. A oi aea
a?aiy ia eiaaony aeinoaoi/iuo iauyniaiee yieaeaieieiae/aneie nayce
iaaeaeo eo i?eaiii e oaaee/aieai /enea o?iiaiyiaiee/aneeo ii?aaeaiee,
aeaaea i?e eniieueciaaiee iiaaeoeo ieceiaeiciuo eiiaeiaoeee. Iaeiei ec
i?aaeiieiaeaiee iiaeao neoaeeoue ia?aniiciaiiue a?a/ii aeaoaeo nenoaiu
aaiinoaca, iai?eia? a?iaeaeaiiue aeaoeoeeo aioeo?iiaeia III e i?ioaeiia
N e S, eioi?ue iiaeii auei au i?aaeiieiaeeoue i?e ouaoaeueiii nai?a
aiaiiaca, iniaaiii naiaeiie aai /anoe. A ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyo Aa?iiaeneiai
iauanoaa eiio?aoeaioeee oaeaea aeai niaao aeey ieieiecaoeee ?enea
o?iiaiyiaiee/aneeo ineiaeiaiee iacia/aoue oieueei ieceiaeiciua
nia?aiaiiua i?ioeaica/aoi/iua i?aia?aou, a oaeaea ioiaiyoue i?eai yoeo
eiiaeiaoeee ia?aae i?aaenoiyueie iia?aoeaiuie aiaoaoaeuenoaaie.

6. Ninoaeenoua ineiaeiaiey

Iie, eae i?aaeei, naycuaathony n eciaiaieyie eeieaeiiai iaiaia. ?yae
aanoaaaiia, iniaaiii i?iecaiaeiuo 19-ii?oanoinoa?iia, iiauoatho
niaea?aeaiea a nuai?ioea e?iae o?aeoeee eeiii?ioaeiia ieceie ieioiinoe
(EII) i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii nieaeaiee o?aeoeee eeiii?ioaeiia aunieie
ieioiinoe (EAI), /oi yaeyaony i?eciaiiui oaeoi?ii ?enea ?acaeoey
na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo caaieaaaiee.

?ene ?acaeoey na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo ineiaeiaiee i?e i?eaia IAE iai?yioth
naycuaaaony n eciaiaieyie o?iaiae eeiii?ioaeiia nuai?ioee e?iae — a
iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea auei iioaeeeiaaii aieaa 100 ?aaio, iinayuaiiuo
yoei eciaiaieyi.

A yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaieyo, iinayuaiiuo ?iee eeiii?ioaeiia a
oi?ie?iaaiee ?acee/iuo na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo ineiaeiaiee, auei
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaii, /oi ecauoi/iue o?iaaiue EII iaeaaeaao aoa?iaaiiui
aeaenoaeai ia ninoaeenooth nenoaio, noeioee?oy ia?aciaaiea
aoa?ineea?ioe/aneeo aeyoae eioeiu ninoaeia e, eae neaaenoaea,
o?iiaiia?aciaaiea a iaeanoe ii?aaeaiiuo /anoae ninoaeia, i?eaiaey a
eiia/iii eoiaa e eioa?eoai e einoeueoai. EAI, a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue
ia?aui, iaeaaeatho ninoaeii?ioaeoeaiui, aioeaoa?iaaiiui aeaenoaeai,
niinianoaoy yeeieiaoeee aoa?ineea?ioe/aneeo iaeiaeaiee e nieaeay, oaeei
ia?acii, ?ene auoaoeacaiiuo caaieaaaiee.

Iieo/aiiua aeaiiua i iaaaoeaiii aeaenoaee i?iaanoaaaiia ia eeieaeiue
iaoaaieeci (iiauoaiea o?iaiae EII n iaeiia?aiaiiui nieaeaieai oaeiauo
EAI) auee iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu oeaeui ?yaeii ?aaio, a iniiaiii yoe auaiaeu
ioiineeenue e onoa?aaoei aunieiaeiciui IAE ia?aiai e aoi?iai iieieaiee,
niaea?aeauei aunieiaiae?iaaie/iua i?iaanoaaaiu.

Ii iieo/aiiui a ?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiee aeaiiui neaaeoao, /oi ana
nia?aiaiiua ieceiaeiciua IAE, aia caaeneiinoe io oaciinoe, nieaeatho
o?iaaiue EII, a o?aooaciua ii?aanoeiaoniaea?aeauea eiiaeiaoeee
aeiiieieoaeueii nieaeatho ia 3—4% e niioiioaiea EII/EAI, eioi?ia
yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei oaeoi?ii ?enea ?acaeoey na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo
ineiaeiaiee (/ai ieaea yoi niioiioaiea, oai ieaea ?ene). Oaeaea auei
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaii aeinoiaa?iia nieaeaiea o?iaiae EII e
iacia/eoaeueiia, ii iinoiyiiia iiauoaiea oaeiauo EAI a oa/aiea ia?auo
o?ao oeeeeia i?eaia i?aia?aoia o?aoueaai iieieaiey.

Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo eciaiaieyie eeieaeiiai
iaoaaieecia i?e i?eaia IAE e iiauoaieai ?enea na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo
caaieaaaiee ia yaeyaony i?yiie, o.a. eaaeaeue ec o?ao iniiaiuo eeannia
eeiii?ioaeiia niaea?aeeo oeaeue ?yae ioaeaeueiuo noao?aeoeee,
iaeaaeathueo ?acee/iuie aeieiae/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, a aieueoeinoai
?aaio, iinayuaiiuo eo ?iee a ?acaeoee na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie iaoieiaee,
auei i?iaaaeaii a iniiaiii ia ioae/eiao, ai?acaei /aua, /ai ia iieiaeuo
aeaiueiao. Ecaanoii, /oi yno?iaaiu iaeaaeatho i?yiui caueoiui aeaenoaeai
a ioiioaiee ninoaeenouo noaiie, /oi i?aaeio?aiyao eo io aoa?iiaoiciuo
ii?aaeaiee. I?e aaaaeaiee yno?iaaiia nouanoaaiii oaaee/eaaaony o?iaaiue
EAI, /oi oaeaea yaeyaony caueoiui oaeoi?ii i?ioea na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo
caaieaaaiee. Oaeei ia?acii, iieiaeeoaeueiia aeaenoaea yno?iaaiia ia
iaoaaieeci eeieaeia iiaeao naaeaine?iaaoue iaaeaaii?eyoiia aeaenoaea
aanoaaaiia, iniaaiii iaeaaeathueo aunieie noaiaiueth aiae?iaaie/iinoe.

Nia?aiaiiua ieceiaeiciua IAE nicaeaiu ia iniiaa aaeaina
ninoaeii?ioaeoeaiiai aeaenoaey yno?iaaiia ii ioiioaieth e aeaenoaeth
aanoaaaiiiai eiiiiiaioa IAE — i?aia?aou iineaaeiaai iieieaiey
ioee/athony aunieie noaiaiueth aaciianiinoe a ioiioaiee
na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo caaieaaaiee, iaoneiaeaiiie eo oi?ioae eiiiiiaioiie
naaeaine?iaaiiinoueth.

Eciaiaiey aaee/eiu a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey oaeaea yaeyaony iaeiei ec
aaaeiuo ia?aiao?ia a ioeaiea aaciianiinoe oiai eee eiiai i?aia?aoa. Yoi
iaoneiaeaii oaniie acaeiinaycueth iaaeaeo iiauoaieai AAe e ?acaeoeai
?acee/iuo ninoaeenouo ineiaeiaiee (io e?aoeia?aiaiiie eoaiee oeaie
aieiaiiai iicaa aei oyaeaeuo einoeueoia e noaa?aoiieaeaeueiuo
e?iaieceeyiee). Noieo aniiiieoue, /oi aua ioiineoaeueii iaaeaaii a
?oeiaiaenoaao ii aeiaeieiaee iiauoaiiia a?oa?eaeueiia aeaaeaiea
iienuaaeinue eae aaniethoiia i?ioeaiiieacaiea e i?eiaiaieth IAE. Yoi
i?aaeienaiea auei ii?aaaeaii aunieei niaea?aeaieai noa?ieaeiuo
eiiiiiaioia a i?aia?aoao e iiuoii iaaethaeaiee ca aicieeathueie
ineiaeiaieyie a ia?aua aeanyoeeaoey oe?ieiai eniieueciaaiey
eiiaeie?iaaiiuo i?ioeaica/aoi/iuo i?aia?aoia. Iaeiaei, n iiyaeaieai a
a?naiaea a?a/a IAE, niaea?aeaueo aunieinaeaeoeaiua i?iaanoaaaiu
iineaaeiaai iieieaiey (aanoiaeai, ii?aanoeiao e aeaciaano?ae), a oaeaea
ieceea aeicu yno?iaaiia, iiaeiaiia iaeiicia/iia ioiioaiea e eo
i?eiaiaieth o iaoeeaioie n iiauoaiiui a?oa?eaeueiui aeaaeaieai
eciaieeinue — a ?yaea neo/aaa yoi ninoiyiea ia?aoei ec ?ac?yaea
aaniethoiuo a ?ac?yae ioiineoaeueiuo i?ioeaiiieacaiee. Yoi
iaoneaaeeaaeinue iiyaeaieai aeaiiuo i i?aeoe/aneii ionoonoaee aeeyiey
nia?aiaiiuo IAE ia ia?aiao?u eae nenoiee/aneiai, oae e aeeanoiee/aneiai
a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey .

Aeea?ae/aneea ineiaeiaiey i?e eniieueciaaiee IAE (eae i?aaeei, yoi
yecaia eee o?oeea?iay nuiue) ano?a/athony ia /aua, /ai i?e i?eaia
ae?oaeo iaaeeeaiaioia, e i?aaeioa?auaiea eo iiyaeaiey o?aaoao eeoue
aieiaoaeueiiai nai?a aiaiiaca.

7. Iiai/iua yooaeou i?e i?eaia IAE

Iiai/iua yooaeou — yoi ?acaeaathueany i?e eniieueciaaiee eiio?aoeaioeaia
neiioiiu eee ninoiyiey, eioi?ua, oioy e i?e/eiytho iaoaeianoaa, oai ia
iaiaa, ia niiniaiu oa?iaeaoue caei?iaueth iaoeeaioie. I?iaaaeaiiue iaie
ii?in a?a/ae aeaineeo eiinoeueoaoeee a ?yaea e?oiiuo ai?iaeia ?innee
iieacae, /oi ca/anooth aeaaea iie ia aeaeyo /aoeie ?acieoeu iaaeaeo
ineiaeiaieyie e iiai/iuie yooaeoaie i?e i?eaia IAE. Ia naaiaeiyoiee
aeaiue, e niaeaeaieth, ia nouanoaoao eaeiai-eeai eiio?aoeaioeaa, ia
iaeaaeathuaai oai eee eiui iiai/iui aeaenoaeai e iniiaiui i?eioeeiii
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iiaeai?a IAE yaeyaony iacia/aiea iaoeeaioea
ieieiaeueiie aeicu noa?ieaeia, eioi?ay, a oi aea a?aiy iaania/eaaea au
aunieoth iaaeaaeiinoue e aaciianiinoue iaoiaea.

Ianiio?y ia aanueia nouanoaaiii iiieaeaiioth aeice?iaeo aoiaeyueo a
ninoaa IAE noa?ieaeia, iaoneiaeaooth nieaeaiea /anoiou ?acaeoey iiai/iuo
yooaeoia, ii aeaiiui ?acee/iuo aaoi?ia, a Ainoi/iie Aa?iia /anoioa eo
iiyaeaiey i?e i?eiaiaiee nia?aiaiiuo IAE a n?aaeiai ninoaaeyao io 3% aei
30%.

Ii nouanoaothuae iauai?eiyoie eeanneoeeaoeee iiai/iua yooaeou IAE iiaeii
iiae?acaeaeeoue ia iaeua (ieii?iua) e na?ueaciua (iaaei?iua) ninoiyiey.

Iaeua (ieii?iua) iiai/iua yooaeou IAE

aieiaiua aiee;

e?iayienoua iaaeiaino?oaeueiua auaeaeaiey e e?iaioa/aiey;

iaa?oaaiea iiei/iuo aeaeac;

oioiioa;

aii?aeney;

aiaii?ay;

aieiaie?oaeaiea;

oaaee/aiea iannu oaea;

ae?nooeci;

iaoai?eci;

aeia;

oeiacia,

eiaeiua aunuiaiey;

noaei?iae a ee?iiiaeiuo iuooeao e iuooeao aeeaioa;

eaaeeueiinoue iano?iaiey;

ianoiciinoue eiia/iinoae.

Aeinoiaa?ii /aua ano?a/athony iiai/iua yooaeou aano?iei-oanoeiaeueiie,
ia?aiie e ai?iiiaeueiie i?e?iaeu. Ia oiia iiaeaaeaiey iaoeyoeee IAE ia
aucuaaao oaeeaeaiey oio oaeo, /oi iiiaea aeaeiau iaoeeaioie a ia?auo
oeeeeao eo i?eaia noiaeiu n oaeiauie o aa?aiaiiuo (oioiioa, aii?aeney, a
oaeaea aaaaoaoeaiay neiioiiaoeea — aieiaiay aieue, eaaeeueiinoue
iano?iaiey e i?i/.).

Aiee e noaei?iae a ee?iiiaeiuo iuooeao e iuooeao aeeaioa ano?a/athony
aeiaieueii ?aaeei (2% io anao iiai/iuo yooaeoia).

Aiciiaeiui eiaeiui iiai/iui yooaeoii iiaeao yaeoueny iiyaeaiea
oaeaaiaeiyeoacee, ocaeeiaie y?eoaiu e oioinaineaeeecaoeee. E?aeia ?aaeei
iiaeii iaaethaeaoue aeiiaoeeth. Ana ia?a/eneaiiua ninoiyiey oaeaea
auno?i i?ioiaeyo iinea ioiaiu i?aia?aoa.

A ioiioaiee eioaeoeee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eiaaony i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi
aeaiueiu, i?eiaiythuea ai?iiiaeueiua eiio?aoeaioeau, /aua no?aaeatho io
oaeeo ae?oniuo eioaeoeee, eae aao?yiay inia, eioaeoeee ?anie?aoi?iiai e
ii/aaiai o?aeoa, a oaeaea oaiineiiaeeoaie e iaeioi?uie oi?iaie
aeea?ae/aneiai iieea?o?eoa. Iaeiaei ?aaiou iineaaeieo eao iieacaee
ionoonoaea iiaeiaiuo iiai/iuo yooaeoia ia i?aaiu ii/aaiai o?aeoa. ?aiaa
auneacuaaaoeany i?aaeiieiaeaiey ia oaaee/aiee /anoiou caaieaaaiey
aieaciueth E?iia (iaa?aioeiiaoiciie oi?iu) ia iaoee naiaai
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey. Iaeiei ec iaeiaiaa aeaeaoaeueiuo iaeuo iiai/iuo
yooaeoia a aeacao aeaiueiu yaeyaony eciaiaiey iannu oaea, eae i?aaeei, a
noi?iio aai oaaee/aiey. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi aieueoeinoai
i?iaanoaaaiia ia?aiai e aoi?iai iieieaiee iaeaaeatho aeiaieueii aunieie
aiaaiee/aneie aeoeaiinoueth — iiyaeaiea aanoaaaiia o?aoueaai iieieaiey,
i?aeoe/anee ia iaeaaeathuei oeacaiiui aeaenoaeai, ai iiiaii iiaeao
ii?aaeaeeoue /anoioo nieaeaiey yoiai iiai/iiai yooaeoa. Ioaee e
ianoiciinoe eiia/iinoae oaeaea /anoe/ii eiatho a naiae i?e?iaea
aiaaiee/aneee yooaeo noa?ieaeia ia aiaeii-nieaaie aaeain i?aaiecia,
oaeaea, eae e iaa?oaaiea iiei/iuo aeaeac, aucuaaaiia aeia?yno?iaaiaieae.
Neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi iiaeiaiay neiioiiaoeea iiaeao yaeyoueny e ?aiieie
i?eciaeaie aa?aiaiiinoe. Aeey aaaeaiey oeacaiiuo iiai/iuo yooaeoia
iaiaoiaeeia a ?yaea neo/aaa niaia IAE ia aieaa i?iaanoaaaiaeiieiaioioth
eiiaeiaoeeth, a i?e au?aaeaiiii i?iyaeaiee iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue aii?in i
niaia iaoiaea eiio?aoeaioeee.

Ecaanoii, /oi ?yae aoiaeyueo a ninoaa IAE i?iaanoaaaiia iaeaaeatho e
aeiaieueii au?aaeaiiie aiae?iaaiiie aeoeaiinoueth — iniaaiii yoi
oa?aeoa?ii aeey aunieiaeiciuo IAE ia?aiai e aoi?iai iieieaiee. Oai ia
iaiaa, i?e i?eaia iiaeiaiuo IAE ianeoeeiecaoeey iaaethaeaaony
eneeth/eoaeueii ?aaeei, aieaa /anoui iiai/iui yooaeoii aeaiiie i?e?iaeu
yaeyaony iiyaeaiea oa?aaie nuie. I?aia?aou o?aoueaai iieieaiey, iniaaiii
niaea?aeauea ii?-aanoeiao e aeaciaano?ae, ia oieueei ia aucuaatho
iiaeiaiuo yooaeoia, ii e iaeaaeatho aeaaii?eyoiui aioeaiae?iaaiiui
i?ioeeai.

Iiyaeaiea iaaeoueo iaaeiaino?oaeueiuo auaeaeaiee eee i?i?uaiuo
e?iaioa/aiee oaeaea yaeyaony iaeiei ec /anoi ?acaeaathueony iiai/iuo
yooaeoia. Eiaiii e?iaioa/aiey yaeythony iaeiie ec iaeaieaa /anouo i?e/ei
i?ae?auaiey i?eaia IAE. Iie /aua iaaethaeathony o aeaiuei, i?eieiathueo
ieceiaeiciua IAE, iaeiaei ?aaea, /ai o aeaiuei, ia i?eieiathueo
ai?iiiaeueiuo eiio?aoeaioeaia aiana.

Ecaanoii, /oi ninoiyiea aeai?annee iiaeao io?aaeaoue aeaoeoeeo
naycuaaiey eaoaoieaieiia n aiae?iaaiiuie ?aoeaioi?aie aieiaiiai iicaa. A
aeaiiii neo/aa yoio aeaoeoeeo aiieia iauyniei iiauoaieai aeoeaiinoe
iiiiaieiiieneaeacu a oeaiyo aieiaiiai iicaa. A iaeioi?uo ?aaioao
ioia/aeinue, /oi iiaeiaiia oaaee/aiea aeoeaiinoe iiiiaieiiieneaeacu
aucuaaaony aeeyieai i?iaanoa?iia. A yoeo enneaaeiaaieyo auei iieacaii
aieueoia oaaee/aiea aeoeaiinoe iiiiaieiiieneaeacu ieaciu e?iae i?e
iaeiia?aiaiiii iacia/aiee eae yno?iaaiia, oae e i?iaanoaaaiia o aeaiuei
n aiaii?aae, ii n?aaiaieth n oaeiaui i?e i?eaia iaeieo yno?iaaiia.
Iaeiaei, neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi aeoeaiinoue ieaciaoe/aneie eee
oeaiaaie iiiiaieiiieneaeacu ia anaaaea ei??aee?oao n oaeiaie
oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie nenoaiu. Aieaa oiai, ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue
nouanoaoao iiaiea, /oi oai?ey caaeneiinoe /anoiou ?acaeoey aeai?annee io
noaiaie aiae?iaaie/iinoe i?iaanoaaaiiiai eiiiiiaioa IAE yaeyaony aanueia
aeeneooaaaeueiie e ioaeaeaaony a aeaeueiaeoai oaeoaeaiiii enneaaeiaaiee.

Ae?oaay oai?ey ?acaeoey aeai?annee i?e i?eaia IAE, auaeaeiooay aua a
1973 aiaeo, noaaeo aa iiyaeaiea a caaeneiinoue io nieaeaiey a oeaiyo
OeIN o?iaiy 5-aeae?ieneo?eioaieia. ?yae aaoi?ia ioia/ae au?aaeaiiia
eciaiaiea iaoaaieecia o?eioioaia ia o?iaia i?iaeoeoeee
eeio?aieiaieaoeeia n iiauoaieai ii/a/iie yene?aoeee iaeioi?uo
iaoaaieeoia, a /anoiinoe, enaioeo?eiiaie eeneiou o aeaiuei, i?eieiaaoeo
eiiaeie?iaaiiua IAE. Niioonoaothuei oaeoi?ii yoiio yaeythony eciaiaiey
i?aa?auaiey ie?iaeienaeue oinoaoa ec aeoaieia A6. Ia iniiaaiee
caaeneiinoe ?acaeoey aeai?annee n iaaeinoaoeii aeoaieia A6 auei
i?aaeeiaeaii eiiiaine?iaaoue aeaoeoeeo yoiai aeoaieia aeaiueiai,
eiathuei i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoue e ?acaeoeth yoiai ninoiyiey , a
oaeaea eniieueciaaoue yoio iaoiae eae ea/aaiue oaeoi? a oa?aiee oaea
?acaeaoaeny aeai?annee o iaoeeaioie, i?eieiathueo IAE. A ea/anoaa noaiu
ea/aiey auei i?aaeeiaeaii nieaeaiea aeicu i?iaanoaaaia e iacia/aiea
ie?iaeieneia (A6) ii 50 ia/noo .

Eae e ethaie ae?oaie iiai/iue yooaeo IAE, aeai?anney yaeyaony ia?aoeiui
ninoiyieai, aa neiioiiu en/acatho i?e ioiaia i?aia?aoa, e ia
naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue oi/ii ii?aaeaeaii, /oi i?eai IAE ia naycai n
?acaeoeai o?iie/aneeo ineoicia. Aieaa aa?iyoii, /oi ?acaeoea aeai?annee
i?e i?eaia iiaeaaeythueo iaoeyoeeth iieiauo noa?ieaeia yaeyaony
neaaenoaeai ia oieueei i?yiiai aeeyiey ai?iiiia, ii e iiauoaiiie
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe iaoeeaioee e caaeneo io aeicu
ai?iiiia (iniaaiii i?i-aanoaaaiia), aoiaeyueo a ninoaa IAE. Nieaeaiea
eeaeaei, ii iiaieth iaeieo aaoi?ia, yaeyaony aoi?e/iui ii ioiioaieth e
?acaeaoaeny aeai?annee. Ii ae?oaie oai?ee, eciaiaiey naenoaeueiiai
aea/aiey yaeythony io?aaeaieai i?yiiai aeaenoaey yeciaaiiuo ai?iiiia
(i?iaanoaaaiia) ia o?iaaiue iiiiaieiieneaeacu OeIN. Oaeaea eiaeenue
auneacuaaiey i oii, /oi nieaeaiea eeaeaei iiaeao auoue iauyniaii
nieaeaieai i?iaeoeoeee aiae?iaaiia a ye/ieeao iiae aicaeaenoaeai
noa?ieaeia. A iaeioi?uo iaaethaeaieyo i?e i?eaia IAE eiaei ia noi ia
nieaeaiea, a oneeaiea eeaeaei, aucaaiiia /oanoaii caueuaiiinoe io
iaaeaeaiiie aa?aiaiiinoe, /oi yaeyaony aeiiieieoaeueiui
aeieacaoaeuenoaii ineoiaaiiie i?e?iaeu yoiai ninoiyiey.

Yoeieiaeae aiaii?ae iinea i?eaia IAE i?eiyoi n/eoaoue ia?ooaiea
oeeeee/aneie nae?aoeee ?aeeceia ai?iiiia aeiioaeaionii e aiiaaeio?iiiuo
ai?iiiia ia?aaeiae aeieae aeiioeca, eioi?ay ?acaeaaaony iiae aeeyieai
ia?aoiie nayce i?e aaaaeaiee yeciaaiiuo noa?ieaeia a ni/aoaiee n
iaeioi?uie yiaeiiao?eaeueiuie oaeoi?aie. E yoei oaeoi?ai ioiineony e
enoii/aiea yiaeiiao?ey i?e aeeeoaeueiii i?eaia iaeioi?uo IAE.

Ioia/aii, /oi yoe iiai/iua yooaeou /aua anaai ano?a/athony a ia?aua
ianyoeu i?eaia i?aia?aoa e yaeythony aaeaioaoeeiiiie ?aaeoeeae i?aaiecia
ia aaaaeaiea noa?ieaeia. I?e ?acaeoee ieii?iuo iiai/iuo yooaeoia
i?ae?auaiey i?eaia IAE, eae i?aaeei, ia o?aaoaony. Iaeiaei, a neo/aa
iaee/ey oao eee eiuo neiioiiia, aeinoaaeythueo iaoaeianoaa e aaniieiyueo
iaoeeaioeo nauoa 3 ianyoeaa, iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue aii?in i
oeaeaniia?aciinoe i?eiaiaiey aeaiiie ai?iiiaeueiie eiiaeiaoeee, caiaiea
aa ae?oaie eee aea i?aaeeiaeeoue ae?oaie iaoiae eiio?aoeaioeee.

Iiiai/eneaiiua i?iaaaeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee i?yioth
caaeneiinoue /anoiou ?acaeoey iiai/iuo yooaeoia io aeicu e oeia
niaea?aeaueony a IAE ai?iiiia. A oaaeeoea i?aaenoaaeaia caaeneiinoue
/anoiou ?acaeoey iiai/iuo yooaeoia io aeicu noa?ieaeia.

*anoioa ?acaeoey iiai/iuo yooaeoia a caaeneiinoe io aeicu

noa?ieaeia a IAE

Aanoaaai, Yno?iaai Oioiioa I?eaaaea E?iaioa/aiey Aiaii?ay

iea iea

aana

500 150 +++++ +++++ ++ +++++

250 75 +++ +++ +++ +++

150 50 ++ + ++ +

150 35 + + ++ +

Ec i?eaaaeaiiuo aeaiiuo neaaeoao, /oi i?e nieaeaiee aeicu ai?iiiaeueiuo
eiiiiiaioia iaaethaeaaony i?ia?anne?othuaa nieaeaiea ?acaeoey iiai/iuo
yooaeoia, eiathueo eae yno?iaaiioth, oae e i?iaanoaaaiioth i?e?iaeo.

Ia iaiaa iieacaoaeueiui yaeyaony e nieaeaiea eo /anoiou ?acaeoey e
eioaineaiinoe i?e i?eiaiaiee nia?aiaiiuo ieceiaeiciuo i?aia?aoia,
niaea?aeaueo i?iaanoaaaiu o?aoueaai iieieaiey, iniaaiii a ioiioaiee
aiae?iaaiicaaeneiuo iiai/iuo yooaeoia, eioi?ua, ii iaeioi?ui aeaiiui
yaeythony i?e/eiie ioeaca io i?iaeieaeaiey i?eaia IAE a 20—25% neo/aaa.

Ecaanoii, /oi iieacaoaeue eciaiaiey o?iaiae aeiaoeeia, naycuaathuaai
iieiaua noa?ieaeu (SHBG) yaeyaony eiaeeeaoi?ii noaiaie aiae?iaaiiinoe
oiai eee eiiai i?iaanoaaaia e iai?yioth naycai n o?iaiai naiaiaeiiai
oanoinoa?iia, io aaee/eiu eioi?iai, a naith i/a?aaeue, caaeneo
i?iyaeaiea ?yaea iiai/iuo yooaeoia (oaaee/aiea iannu oaea, iiyaeaiea
aeia e o.i.).

I?iaanoaaaiu n aieueoae aiae?iaaiiinoueth iiaeaaeytho eiaeooee?iaaiiia
yno?iaaiaie oaaee/aiea o?iaiy SHBG. Eiiaeiaoeee, niaea?aeauea
i?iaanoaaaiu o?aoueaai iieieaiey (aanoiaeai, aeaciaano?ae e
ii?aanoeiao), eioi?ua iaeaaeatho ieieiaeueiie aiae?iaaiiinoueth,
iai?ioea, iaoneaaeeaatho oaaee/aiea o?iaiae iineaaeiaai. I?aeiouanoai
IAE, niaea?aeaueo eiaiii i?iaanoaaaiu o?aoueaai iieieaiey i/aaeaeii
au?aaeaaony ia i?eia?a nieaeaiey i?iyaeaiee aeia?aiae?iaaiee (aeia,
naai?ay), /oi iaoneaaeeaaaony auoaiacaaiiui oa?aeoa?iui eiaiii aeey yoeo
i?iaanoaaaiia ieieiaeueiui aiae?iaaiiui aeaenoaeai.

Na?ueaciua (iaaei?iua) iiai/iua yooaeou

iaeiinoi?iiiea aieaaua iuouaiey e ioae ee?iiiaeiie iaeanoe;

ino?ua aieaaua iuouaiey a iaeanoe a?oaeeiu;

aiee a iaciaano?aeueiie iaeanoe;

neeueiua e aeeeoaeueiua aieiaiua aiee ii oeio iea?aie, aaiee?aiey;

cao?oaeiaiea aeuoaiey, eaoaeue n iie?ioie, niaea?aeauae i?iaeeeee e?iae;

eieeaioieaeiua ninoiyiey;

auiaaeaiea iieae c?aiey;

iaeeueiua e aieaciaiiua aunuiaiey ia eiaea;

cao?oaeiaiea ?a/e;

aeaeoooa;

?aceea iiauoaiey a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey.

Eiathony naaaeaiey, /oi i?eai IAE iiauoaao /anoioo ?acaeoey iea?aiae —
yoi aeaenoaea naycuaatho n eciaiaieyie o?iaiae iieiauo noa?ieaeia i?e
i?eaia i?ioeaica/aoi/iuo oaaeaoie. Yoe eciaiaiey iiaoo ieacuaaoue
nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia neiiaoe/aneee eiio?ieue oiiona iicaiauo
ninoaeia. Iniai iianiuie yaeythony iea?aie ia?aie/aiiie
(oieaeueiie) eieaeecaoeee, aaiee?aiee n i?eciaeaie eoaiee oeaie
aieiaiiai iicaa.

Ianoi?aaeeaaoue aeieaeii oaea iiyaeaiea ia?aiai na?ueaciiai i?enooia
iea?aie, iniaaiii i?ioaeathuae ii oeio «e?auaiaei» (o.a. oneeeaathueany
ii a?aiaie). Aeiaieueii /anoi iiaeiaiua iea?aie nii?iaiaeaeathony
iaeiinoi?iiiae iioa?ae aieaaie e oaeoeeueiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe,
noaeaieai iieae c?aiey, aeenoaaeae. Naii ii naaa iiyaeaiea aieae ii oeio
iea?aie, iaoneaaeeaaaiia noaeaieai iicaiauo ninoaeia, oaea yaeyaony
oaeoi?ii ?enea ?acaeoey o?iiaioe/aneiai eee aaii??aae/aneiai einoeueoa
oeaiae aieiaiiai iicaa.

AEaiueiu, aiaiianoe/anee i?aae?aniieiaeaiiua e iea?aiyi, i?e
eiinoeueoe?iaaiee aeieaeiu iieo/aoue IAE n iaeiaiueoae aeicie
yno?iaaiiiai eiiiiiaioa, a oaeaea aeieaeiu auoue i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiu, /oi
iaeioi?ua IAE, niaea?aeauea aeaciaano?ae e aanoiaeai, ii iaeioi?ui
aeaiiui, eiatho iiauoaiiue ?ene ?acaeoey auoaiienaiiuo ineiaeiaiee.

Ecaanoii, /oi i?eiaiaiea eiaeaeoi?ia iaoeyoeee, eiathueo a no?oeoo?a
aoii oaea?iaea a iiceoeee 17 a ?yaea neo/aaa niiniaii ieacuaaoue
aaiaoioiene/aneee yooaeo, /oi iiaeao auoue eeeie/anee ii?aaeaeaii
aeaeoooie, eiaeiui coaeii, a oaeaea eciaiaieai eaai?aoi?iuo iieacaoaeae
o?iaiae ia/aii/iuo o?ainaieiac e oinoaoac. Ii?aaeaiey ia/aie i?e i?eaia
IAE eae i?aaeei, iaieoanoe?oaony iiyaeaieai aeaeoooe (noa?ieaeiay
eeoa?e/iinoue), iaeiaei yoi iiai/iia aeaenoaea IAE yaeyaony aeiaieueii
?aaeeei niauoeai.. O/eouaay caaeneiinoue ooieoeee ia/aie io iaoaaieecia
ai?iiiia a i?aaieci, neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi iaee/ea iaoieiaee ia/aie a
aiaiiaca iaoeeaioee oaeie, eae eaeeiiaoe/aneay aeaeoooa, eiaeiue coae
i?e aa?aiaiiinoe, neiae?iiu ?ioi?a eee Aethaei-Aeaeiiniia, iaee/ea
o?iie/aneiai ia?nenoe?othuaai aaiaoeoa A iiaoo ni?iaioee?iaaoue
iaieoanoaoeeth aeaiiiai iiai/iiai yooaeoa e eo iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue a
i?ioeanna eiinoeueoe?iaaiey ii aii?inai iacia/aiey IAE.

Neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi iiyaeaiea aeaaea iaeiiai ec iaaei?iuo iiai/iuo
yooaeoia o?aaoao iaiaaeeaiiiai i?ae?auaiey i?eaia IAE e ouaoaeueiiai
ianeaaeiaaiey iaoeeaioee. ?aeiiaiaeoaony enneaaeiaaoue a iaycaoaeueiii
ii?yaeea o?iaie aeee?oaeia nuai?ioee e?iae, ia/aii/iuo o?ainaieiac,
oieanoa?eia e aai o?aeoeee, aeoeaiinoe aioeo?iiaeia III, a oaeaea
i?iaanoe oanou e?iae n iaa?oceie iaioieii, aeaieiie naoa?iie iaa?oceie.
I?e aiciiaeiinoe aeaeaoaeueii e ii?aaeaeaiea oeiieiaie i?iau, iauaai
aiaeeca e?iae e ii/e.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ia?a/eneaiiua ieii?iua iiai/iua yooaeou (a ioee/ea
io iaaei?iuo) ia i?aaenoaaeytho oa?icu caei?iaueth aeaiueiu, oai ia
iaiaa iie, ia?yaeo n eaioea?ioiaeae, yaeythony iaeaieaa /anoi
ano?aaathuaeny i?e/eiie ioeaca io aua?aiiiai iaoiaea i?aaeio?aiaiey. Ia
neaaeoao caauaaoue e oi, /oi aeiaieueii /anoi iaeioi?ua iiai/iua yooaeou
i?e i?eaia IAE eiatho /enoi ineoe/aneoth i?e?iaeo, naycaiioth n
iieo/aieai iaaaeaeaaoiie eioi?iaoeee i nouiinoe e iniaaiiinoyo iaoiaea.
I?aeueiay ai?iiiaeueiay eiio?aoeaioeey yaeyaony ioiineoaeueii iiaui
iaoiaeii eiio?iey ?iaeaeaaiinoe e, eae ana iiaia, ia?aaeei iiaeaa?aeaia
iaiaaeeai eae ni noi?iiu o/aiuo e a?a/ae, oae e ni noi?iiu iauaaoaeae.

Iniaie i?iaeaiie yaeyaony eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiia eiinoeueoe?iaaiea a
eeeieeao ieaie?iaaiey naiuee e aeaineeo eiinoeueoaoeeyo ii aii?ino
iiai/iuo yooaeoia. Ia?niiae, aeaaea aoaeo/e ciaeii n iaoiaeaie
eiio?aoeaioeee, ca/anooth iaaeinoaoi/ii eiiiaoaioai a aii?ina oa?aiee
iiai/iuo yooaeoia, aucaaiiuo i?eiaiaieai yoeo iaoiaeia. Yoi i?eaiaeeo
eae e iaaeiioeaiea cia/aiey iiai/iuo yooaeoia aeey iaoeeaioee, oae e e
/a?an/o? ?aaeeeaeueiui iaoiaeai ea/aiey (eth?aoaae i?e e?iayienouo
auaeaeaieyo e e?iaioa/aieyo, ioiaia i?aia?aoia). Iaiaoiaeeiuie yaeythony
ciaiey iniaaiiinoae i?iyaeaiey iiai/iuo yooaeoia IAE, eai
ianaiaa?aiaiiay e iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiay iiiiuue noaaeo ia oieueei

iiae oa?ico caei?iauea iaoeeaioee, ii e ?aiooaoeeth a?a/a, ea/aaiiai
o/?aaeaeaiey e i?ia?aiio ieaie?iaaiey naiuee a oeaeii.

Iaycaoaeueiui yaeyaony eioi?ie?iaaiea iaoeeaioee a i?ioeanna
?aeiiaiaeaoeee oiai eee eiiai iaoiaea eiio?aoeaioeee ia oieueei i aai
i?aeiouanoaao, ii e i iiai/iuo yooaeoao, i?e/ai iaiaoiaeeiui yaeyaony
iauyniaiea eo i?e?iaeu e ?aeiiaiaeoaiia i?e ?acaeoee aeaiiuo yooaeoia
iiaaaeaiea. ?yae aaoi?ia iieacaee, /oi aeaiueiu, eioi?ie?iaaiiua i
aiciiaeiuo iiai/iuo yooaeoao, a 3 ?aca ?aaea ioeacuaaeenue io i?eiaiaiey
iaoiaea, /ai oa, eoi ia aue iinoaaeai i ieo a ecaanoiinoue.
Iieiaeeoaeueiia aeeyiea ia aeeeoaeueiinoue i?eiaiaiey aua?aiiiai iaoiaea
eiio?aoeaioeee iiaeao eiaoue ?aeiiaiaeaoeey i?inouo ?aoaiee aeey ea/aiey
iiai/iuo yooaeoia, iai?eia?, i?eai aiaeueaaoeeia i?e aieiaiuo aieyo eee
oaieue eiii?ann i?e iaino?oaeueiuo aieyo. E?iia oiai, neaaeoao
iauynieoue, a eaeeo neo/ayo neaaeoao ia?aoeoueny ca eiinoeueoaoeeae e
a?a/o (iaee/ea neiioiiia iiai/iuo yooaeoia nauoa 3 ianyoeaa, noieeay
aiaii?ay e o.i.). A i?aeoeea Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie annioeeaoeee ieaie?iaaiey
naiuee i?eiaiyaony 3-o yoaiiue iiaeoiae e oa?aiee iiai/iuo yooaeoia .

Yoai 1. Onoaiiaeaiea aa?iyoiie i?e/eiu neiioiiia. Iaiaoiaeeii
eneeth/eoue ae?oaea ninoiyiey, niiniaiua aucaaoue noiaeioth eeeie/aneoth
ea?oeio (aa?aiaiiinoue, eioaeoeeiiiua e ainiaeeoaeueiua caaieaaaiey
i?aaiia iaeiai oaca). I?e auyaeaiee oaeiai ninoiyiey ‘iaiaoiaeeii
?aoeoue aii?in i oeaeaniia?aciinoe aeaeueiaeoaai i?eaia IAE e iacia/eoue
niioaaonoaothuee eo?n ea/aiey.

E i?eia?o, a neo/aa ?acaeoey aiaii?ae, oioiiou e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiie
aa?aiaiiinoe, neaaeoao iauynieoue, /oi iiaeiaiia aiciiaeii,
i?ieioi?ie?iaaoue ia ionoonoaee a?aaea aeey ieiaea, i?ae?aoeoue i?eai
IAE e ?aoaoue aii?in i i?ieiiae?iaaiee aa?aiaiiinoe. Anee oanou ia
aa?aiaiiinoue ieacaeenue io?eoeaoaeueiuie, a oioiioa aaniieieo aeaiueio,
ae neaaeoao iauynieoue, /oi oioiioa aiciiaeia a oa/aiea ia?auo 3-o
ianyoeaa i?eaia ec-ca aaeaioaoeee i?aaiecia e ai?iiiai, niaea?aeaueiny a
IAE e aeaoue niaao i?eieiaoue oaaeaoee iinea aaeu eee ia?aae niii,
eiaaea iaea aa?iyoiinoue, /oi iia caiaoeo oioiioo. Anee a aiaiiaca
iaoeeaioee, aeaeothuaeny ia oioiioo, eiathony oeacaiey ia caaieaaaiey
aeaeoaeea, aeae/iuo iooae eee ia/aie, neaaeoao i?iaanoe eeeie/aneia
ianeaaeiaaiea yoeo nenoai aeey eneeth/aiey eo aeeyiey ia aaiac neiioiia.
Oaeaea i?e iiyaeaiee oioiiou neaaeoao iieioa?aniaaoueny ninoaaii
i?eieiaaiuo IAE — i?aia?aou, niaea?aeauea aieaa 35 iea
yoeieeyno?aaeeiea, aeinoiaa?ii /aua aucuaatho oioiioo ii n?aaiaieth n
ieceiaeiciuie eiiaeiaoeeyie. I?e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee i?eaia aunieiaeiciiai
i?aia?aoa ?aeiiaiaeoaony ia?aoiae ia IAE n aieaa ieceie aeicie ai?iiiia
eee ia /enoue i?iaanoaaai.

Yoai 2. I?e ooi/iaiee i?e?iaeu neiioiiia e ieii/aoaeueiii ?aoaiee ia eo
nayce n IAE, iaiaoiaeeii ouaoaeueii ?acuynieoue iaoeeaioea i?e/eio
?acaeoey oiai eee eiiai neiioiia (iai?eia?, aaeaioaoeey e yeciaaiiui
noa?ieaeai), aiciiaeioth aeeeoaeueiinoue aai i?iyaeaiey e iiiuoaoueny
niaianoii iaeoe niinia oiaiueoeoue ineoieiae/aneia e i?i/aa
aaniieienoai. Iniaaiii aaaeiui yaeyaony iauynieoue aeaiueia
iaoeaeaniia?aciinoue i?ae?auaiey i?eaia i?aia?aoa. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
iiaeii ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue eo?n neiioiiaoe/aneie oa?aiee n iiiiuueth
eaea?noa.

Yoai 3. Anee aeaiueia i?iaeieaeaao i?aaeuyaeyoue aeaeiau ia iiai/iua
yooaeou eee ianoaeaaao ia i?ae?auaiee i?eiaiaiey IAE, iaiaoiaeeii aeaoue
ae iieioth eioi?iaoeeth i aeinooiiuo aeueoa?iaoeaiuo iaoiaeao
eiio?aoeaioeee (yooaeoeaiinoue, iaoaieci aeaenoaey, iiai/iua yooaeou),
/oiau oai naiui iiii/ue ae naeaeaoue iniciaiiue auai?.

A iianaaeiaaiie eeeie/aneie i?aeoeea oa?aiee iiai/iuo yooaeoia,
naycaiiuo n i?eaiii IAE, iaiaoiaeeii i?eaioe?iaaoueny eae a i?e/eia
?acaeoey oiai eee eiiai neiioiia a caaeneiinoe io aai ai?iiiaeueiie
i?e?iaeu, oae e a iooyo ieaaee?iaaiey iaaeaeaoaeueiiai yooaeoa. O/eouaay
iniaaiiinoe ?innee (cia/eiua aaia?aoe/aneea, yeieiae/aneea e i?i/.
oa??eoi?eaeueiua) ?acee/ey, a ?yaea neo/aaa i?e ?acaeoee iiai/iuo
yooaeoia iieacaii eciaiaiea ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiiai IAE a caaeneiinoe io
ai?iiiaeueiiai aaiaca neiioiiia.

8. Oa?aiey iiai/iuo yooaeoia IAE a caaeneiinoe io i?e/eiu eo
?acaeoey

Iiai/iue yooaeo Aiciiaeiay i?e/eia ?acaeoey Ea/aiea

aeai?anney aeaenoaea aanoaaaiia IAE n ieceie aei-

cie aanoaaaiia, ie-

?iaeienei (A6) ii 50

ia a oa/aiea 2 ian.

i?eaaaea aana

auno?ay, aeaenoaea yno?iaaiia ieaeiaeiciua IAE

iacia/eoaeueiay

(3 iieieaiea)

oia?aiiay, ii aeaenoaea aiae?iaaiia IAE n ieceie

nouanoaaiiay

aeicie aanoaaaiia

aeia aeaenoaea aiae?iaaiia IAE n ieceie

aiae?iaaiiinoueth

aanoaaaia (3 iiei-

eaiea)

oioiioa aeaenoaea yno?iaaiia ieceiaeiciua IAE

(3 iieieaiea)

i?eeeau aeaoeoeeo yno?iaaiia, IAE n aieueoei

aunieay aeica aanoaaaiia niaea?aeaieai

yno?iaaiia e

iiieaeaiiie aeicie

aanoaaaiia

iea?aiue aunieay aeica yno?iaaiia ieceiaeiciua IAE

(3 iieieaiea)

nooinoue aeaaaeeua aeaoeoeeo yno?iaaiia aunieiaeiciua IAE

iaa?oaaiea iiei/iuo ecauoie yno?iaaiia ieceiaeiciua IAE

aeaeac

(3 iieieaiea)

aeia?o?eoic aeaenoaea aiae?iaaiia i?aia?aou n

ieceie aiae?iaai-

iinoueth aanoaaaiia

(3 iieieaiea)

ooiieyaiinoue aeaenoaea aanoaaaiia IAE n ieceei

niaea?aeaieai

aanoaaaiia

IV. I?iaanoaaaiiua n?aaenoaa eiio?aoeaioeee

I?iaanoaaaiiua n?aaenoaa i?aaeio?aiaiey io aa?aiaiiinoe iauaaeeiytho
ai?iiiaeueiua eiio?aoeaioeau, a ninoaa eioi?uo aoiaeyo oieueei
i?iaanoaaaiu. E yoie a?oiia ioiinyony:

— i?aeueiua I?iaanoaaaiiua eiio?aoeaioeau (IIE), iacuaaaiua ieie-ieee;

— eiuaeoeeiiiua i?aia?aou (a ?innee ca?aaeno?e?iaai i?aia?ao
Aeaii-I?iaa?a);

— iiaeeiaeiue eiieaio Ii?ieaio.

I?iaanoaaaiiua eiio?aoeaioeau ioiinyony e nia?aiaiiui, aunieiyooaeoeaiui
e aaciianiui n?aaenoaai i?aaeio?aiaiey io aa?aiaiiinoe.

Ninoaa i?aia?aoia ii?aaeaeyao ?yae i?aeiouanoa yoie a?oiiu
eiio?aoeaioeaia:

— aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey i?e iaee/ee i?ioeaiiieacaiee e
i?eiaiaieth yno?ianiia;

— aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey a ia?eiae eaeoaoeee;

— iaee/ea iaeiio?aoeaioeaiuo yooaeoia, iaeaieaa aaaeiuie ec eioi?uo
yaeythony i?ioeeaeoeea iaoieiaee yiaeiiao?ey, a o./. ?aea yiaeiiao?ey;
nieaeaiea ?enea ainiaeeoaeueiuo caaieaaaiee i?aaiia iaeiai oaca,
aeia?iea/anoaaiiuo caaieaaaiee iiei/iuo aeaeac; I?iaanoaaaiiua
eiio?aoeaioeau iiaoo oiaiueoaoue aiee a ia?eiae iaino?oaoeee, a oaeaea
eiatho cia/aiea a i?ioeeaeoeea e ea/aiee aeaea-ciaeaoeoeeoiie aiaiee;

— eniieueciaaiea eiuaeoeeiiiuo eiio?aoeaioeaia e Ii?ieaioa aeey
i?ieiiae?iaaiiie eiio?aoeaioeee.

V. Aioo?eiaoi/iua n?aaenoaa eiio?aoeaioeee

Aioo?eiaoi/iay eiio?aoeaioeey — yoi iaoiae i?ieiiae?iaaiiia ai e
ia?aoeiiai i?aaeio?aiaiey io aa?aiaiiinoe n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo
n?aaenoa, aaaaeaiiuo a iaoeo. Ca n/ao aunieiai eiio?aoeaioeaiiai
y4)oaeoa (eiaeaen Ia?ey ninoaaeyao iaiaa 1,0 ia 100 aeaiuei) e
aiciiaeiinoe eo eniieueciaaiey io 2—5 aei 10 eao, a caaeneiinoe io
iiaeaee, iaaeueniaea?aeauea aioo?eiaoi/iua n?aaenoaa (AIN) yaeythony
iaeiei ec iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia eiio?aoeaioeee. AIN
eniieuecotho aieaa 100 ieeeeiiia aeaiuei, i?e/ai 70% ec ieo i?iaeeaatho
a Eeoaa. Iaoiae oaeaea ?ani?ino?aiai a no?aiao Acee, iaeioi?uo
neaiaeeiaaneeo no?aiao, a ?innee.

Ia?aia oiiieiaiea ia eniieueciaaiee AIN n oeaeueth i?aaeio?aiaiey io
aa?aiaiiinoe ioiineony e aioe/iui a?aiaiai. A 1909 aiaeo iaiaoeeei
aeiaeieiaii ?eooa?ii aia?aua iienaii AIN a aeaea eieueoea ec eeoee
oaeeiaenoiai /a?ay. A iineaaeothuai oi?ia AIN auea naiie ?aciie: a aeaea
eieaoe, iaoaeue, ciioeea, nie?aee, aoeau “O” e o.ae. Iaoa?eaeu, ec
eioi?uo ecaioaaeeaaee AIN, auee oaeaea ?acee/iu — io noaee aei
ieanoiannu. A 1965 aiaeo Eeiin i?eiaiee aeey AIN aeaeoth ieanoianno, /oi
iicaieeei aaiaeeoue eiio?aoeaioea aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ?anoe?aiey
oen?aeeaeueiiai eaiaea. A aeaeueiaeoai yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey
iieacaee, /oi aeiaaaeaiea iaaee a AIN iaania/eaaao aeiiieieoaeueiue
eiio?aoeaioeaiue yooaeo. Yoi i?eaaei e nicaeaieth oeaeie na?ee
iaaeueniaea?aeaueo AIN: NeO-200 e NeO-380, Ioeueoeeioae Ne-375, Iiaa-O.
Oeeo?a, aoiaeyuay a iaicia/aiea AIN, oeacuaaao ieiuaaeue iaaee a ea.ii.
*ai aieueoa ieiuaaeue iaaee, oai aeeeoaeueiaa n?ie eniieueciaaiey AIN.
Aaaaeaiea iaaee iicaieeei oiaiueoeoue ?acia?u AIN, /oi iiaeaeei
nieaeaiea /anoiou aieaaiai neiioiia e ia?ooaiee iaino?oaeueiie ooieoeee.
N 1989 aiaea, niaeanii ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyi AIC, i?eiaiaiea “iaoaeue” Eei ina
e ae?oaeo eia?oiuo AIN ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony a nayce n aieaa iec eie
yooaeoeaiinoueth e aunieie /anoioie ?acee/iuo ineiaeiaiee i?a. eo
aaaaeaiee e eniieueciaaiee. A 1970 aiaeo aicieeea eaeay aioo?eiaoi/iiai
aaaaeaiey i?iaanon?iia, /oi yaeeinue i?aaeiinueeie aeey eiiaeiaoeee
aeaoo aeaeia eiio?aoeaioeee — aioo?eiaoi/iie e ai?iiiaeue iie, n
oeaeueth oiaiueoaiey iaaeinoaoeia e oaaee/aiey i?aeiouanoaa

eaaeaeiai ec ieo. Oae iiyaeeanue AIN “I?iaanoana?o”. Yoa AIN ia iieo/eea
?ani?ino?aiaiey ec-ca e?aoeia?aiaiiinoe eniieueciaaiey (1 aiae) e
aeinoaoi/ii aei?iaie oeaiu. N 1975 ii 1990 aiae ?ac?aaaouaaeanue iiaay
ai?iiiaeueiay neeeeiiiaay nie?aeue, iacaaiiay “Eaai-iiaa”, auaeaeythuay
20 iea eaaiii?aano?aea a nooee, /oi iaania/eaaao iaeneiaeueiue
eiio?aoeaioeaiue yooaeo a oa/aiea 5 eao e ono?aiyao iiiaea
iaaeaeaoaeueiua iiai/iua yooaeou eia?oiuo e iaaeueniaea?aeaueo AIN.

I?aeiouanoaaie aioo?eiaoi/iie eiio?aoeaioeee yaeythony:

— aunieay yooaeoeaiinoue,

— iaiaaeeaiiue eiio?aoeaioeaiue yooaeo,

—aeieaia?aiaiiia eniieueciaaiea (aeey Ni??na-O380A — 10 eao),

— auno?ia ainnoaiiaeaiea on?oeeueiinoe iinea ecaea/aiey AIN,

— ionoonoaea nayce n iieiaui aeoii,

— aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey a ia?eiae eaeoaoeee,

— eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoue iaoiaea,

— ieceay noieiinoue iaoiaea,

Iaoaieci aeaenoaey AIN

Aieueoeinoai enneaaeiaaoaeae n/eoatho, /oi AIN i?aaeioa?auatho
iieiaeioai?aiea, i?aiyonoaoy niaaeeiaieth yeoeaeeaoee ni
nia?iaoicieaeaie ca n/ao oiaiueoaiey /enea e aeoeaiinoe nia?iaoicieaeia,
aeinoeaathueo iaoi/iuo o?oa. Noiie?oy i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueiua iaoaieciu
aeaenoaey AIN, iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi aei ianooieaiey iieiaeioai?aiey
AIN ieacuaaao neaaeothuea eiio?aoeaioeaiua yooaeou:

— oiaiueoaao aeoeaiinoue e auaeeaaaiinoue nia?iaoicieaeia, i?e/ai
aeiaaaeaiea iaaee oneeeaaao nia?iaoioiene/aneee yooaeo;

— oneeeaaao nia?ieoeeaeiue yooaeo neece yiaeiiao?ey ca n/ao oaaee/aiey
eiee/anoaa eecioeeia e i?iaeoeoia aai ?aniaaea, /oi i?ienoiaeeo a nayce
n iieeii?oiiyaea?iie eaeeioeeoa?iie eioeeueo?aoeeae yiaeiiao?ey a ioaao
ia eii?iaeiia oaei;

— oiaiueoaao n?ie aeecie yeoeaeeaoee. A neo/aa iieiaeioai?aiey
yeoeaeeaoee ianooieaieth aa?aiaiiinoe i?aiyonoaotho neaaeothuea
iaoaieciu:

— AIN aucuaaao oneeaiea ia?enoaeueoeee iaoi/iuo o?oa, /oi aaaeao e
onei?aiiiio iiiaaeaieth yeoeaeeaoee a iaoeo, eiaaea aua iao aioiaiinoe
o?i4thaeanoa e neecenoie iaoee e eiieaioaoeee.

— AIN aucuaaao anaioe/aneia ainiaeaiea, i?eaiaeyuaa e aeoeaaoeee
oinoaoac, eciaiaieth eiioeaio?aoeee aeeeiaaia e ia?ooaieth eiieaioaoeee
yeoeaeeaoee.

Eiio?aoeaioeaiia aeaenoaea ai?iiiiniaen?aeaueo AIN iaoneiaeaii
iinoiyiiui auaeaeaieai annoaaniia, /oi aaaeao e oaiaoaieth
i?iee4)a?aoeaiuo i?ioeannia a yiaeiiao?ee aieioue aei ao?ioee.
Noi-?anney yiaeiiao?ey aucuaaao oiaiueoaiea iaino?oaeueiie e?iaiiioa?e
io 60 aei 80 %, ay 15 % aeaiuei aeaaea ?acaeaaaony aiaii?ay, i?ioiaeyuay
iinea oaeaeaiey AIN. Nieaeaiea iaino?oaeueiie e?iaiiioa?e i?eaiaeeo e
oeo/oaieth aaeaina aeaeaca e iiauoaieth aaiiaeiaeia. Nieaeaiea
e?iaiiioa?e, “iaaeoeaiia” ninoiyiea yiaeiiao?ey, oaaee/aiea ayceinoe
neece iiae aeaenoaeai annoaaniia iaania/eaatho nieaeaiea ?enea
ainiaeeoaeueiuo caaieaaaiee i?aaiia iaeiai oaca. Eiaeae?othuna aeeyiea
eaaiii?aano?nea ia yiaeiiao?ee e i?iaeoeoeeth i?inoaaeaiaeeiia iauyniyao
oiaiueoaiea neiioiiia aeueaiaeeniaii?ae. E?iia oiai, iniaaiii a ia?aue
aiae i?eiaiaiey, ia?ooaaony iaoeyoeey, iiyoiio /anoioa ianooieaiey
aa?aiaiiinoe i?e i?eiaiaiee ai?iiiiauaeaeythueo AIN aua ieaea, /ai o
iaaeueniaea?aeaueo (Luukkainen O. 1993).

Iaaeinoaoee iaoiaea

— oaaee/aiea iaino?oaeueiie e?iaiiioa?e, a eiiaaea e aieae (aeey
iaai?iiiaeueiuo AIN) a ia?aua ianyoeu iinea aaaaeaiey AIN,

— aiciiaeiu iaaeouea e?iayienoua auaeaeaiey aei e iinea iany/iuo,

— o aeaiuei a?oiiu ?enea ii CIII aiciiaeii aicieeiiaaiea

acio,

— iaaeinoaoi/iia i?aaeio?aiaiea io aiaiaoi/iie aa?aiaiiinoe (e?iia
ai?iiiiniaea?aeaueo AIN),

— aiciiaeia ia?oi?aoeey iaoee (1—1,5 ia 1000 aaaaeaiee),

— aiciiaeia yenioeueney AIN,

— o?aaoaony iniio? aeiaeieiaa e ianeaaeiaaiea ia eioaeoeeth ia?aae
aaaaeaieai AIN,

— o?aaoaony i?ioeaaeo?a aaaaeaiey e oaeaeaiey AIN a oneiaeyo
aeiaeieiae/aneiai eaaeiaoa –

Auaiaeu

A nayce n iniaaiiinoyie iaoaiecia aeaenoaey ai?iiiaeueiuo
eiio?aoeaioeaia , aeey aeeeoaeueiiai i?eiaiaiey , ?aeiiaiaeoaony
ianeaaeiaaiea ai?iiiaeueiie e eiioiiie nenoaiu aeaiueiu , a oaeaea
ouaoaeueiia eco/aiea aiaiiaca .

N oi/ee c?aiey yooaeoeaiinoe eiiaeie?iaaiiua i?aeueiua
eiio?aoeaioeau yaeythony iaoiaeii auai?a a iiae?inoeiaii aic?anoa
, iaeiaei o/eouaay aaciianiinoue , ia?aiineiinoue e aeinooiiinoue
iaoiaea iaeaieueoaa i?aaeii/oaiey aeieaeii ioaeaaaoueny aa?uea?iui
iaoiaeai eiio?aoeaioeee a ni/aoaiee ni nia?ieoeeaeaie . Aeey
aeaiuei noa?oaai ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai aic?anoa nouanoaoao aeinoaoi/ii
oe?ieee auai? iaoiaeia e n?aaenoa eiio?aoeaioeee , iicaieythuee
iioeiaeueii oaeiaeaoai?eoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua iio?aaiinoe eaaeaeie
aeaiueiu , a oaeaea inouanoaeoue i?ioeeaeoeeo iaeioi?uo aeaeia
aic?anoiie iaoieiaee , iaoneiaeaiiie ai?iiiaeueiuie eciaiaieyie .

3. *enei eeoe aic?anoa i/aiue iecee. A yoii aea ieaia oiio?aaeaiea
i?aeueiuo eiio?aoeaioeaia i?aeoe/anee ia nicaeaao aei
iieieoaeueiie, no?aaeathueo na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouie caaieaaaieyie, e
nia?oiinoue io ieo n?aaee aeaiuei ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai oa?icu aeey iaeo?yueo
aeaiuei e oao, eoi ia iiaeaa?aaaony aicaeaenoaeth ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia ?enea
aicieeiiaaiey na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo caaieaaaiee. A yoie a?oiia aeaiuei,
iieuecothueony i?aeueiuie eiio?aoeaioeaaie, noaiaiue ?enea aicieeiiaaiey
eioa?eoa ieiea?aea ia iiauoaaony iacaaeneii io aic?anoa. Eiathueany
aeaiiua eneeth/atho auaiae i oii, /oi ?ene ?acaeoey eioa?eoa ieiea?aea
naycai n oeiii i?iaanoaaaia a eiiaeie?iaaiiuo i?aeueiuo eiio?aoeaioeaao.

N?aaee iaeo?yueo aeaiuei, ia no?aaeathueo aeia?oiieae, ioiineoaeueiue
?ene aicieeiiaaiey eoaiee e einoeueoa, niioonoaothuee i?eiaiaieth
i?aeueiuo eiio?aoeaioeaia, a iieoi?a ?aca auoa, /ai n?aaee aeaiuei, ia
iieuecothueony eie.

N?aaee ia no?aaeathueo aeia?oiieae iaeo?yueo aeaiuei a aic?anoa aei 35
eao aa?iyoiinoue caaieaaaiey einoeueoii ia aic?inea;i?eiaiaiea i?aeueiuo
eiio?aoeaioeaia iiauoaao noaiaiue aa?iyoiinoe einoeueoa n aic?anoii.

N?aaee aeaiuei, iieuecothueony i?ioeaica/aoi/iuie oaaeaoeaie, ?ene
caaieaoue AOY iaaunie, ii ana aea ii a 3—6 ?ac auoa, /ai o oao, eoi eie
ia iieuecoaony. Noaiaiue ?enea yaeyaony iaeaunoae a ia?aue aiae
i?eiaiaiey i?aeueiuo eiio?aoeaioeaia e inoaaony aunieie iinea
i?ae?auaiey eo i?eiaiaiey.

Enneaaeiaaiey iineaaeieo eao ia aeatho iniiaaiey i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi
i?eai IAE iaoneaaeeaaao aeoeaaoeeth eeoue naa?ouaathuae nenoaiu.
Iaeiaei, oaeay aeoeaaoeey a aieueoae noaiaie eiaao ianoi i?e iacia/aiee
i?aia?aoia, niaea?aeaueo 50 iea AA.

A ?aaioao, iinayuaiiuo iiaaeoei ai?iiiaeueiui eiiaeiaoeeyi, ioia/aeinue,
/oi eo i?eai ia aeeyao ia niaea?aeaiea iauaai oieanoa?eia e?iae, ii
iiauoaao eiioeaio?aoeeth o?eaeeoea?eaeia e o?iaaiue EAI.

Yno?iaaiu iaeaaeatho ninoaeii?ioaeoeaiui aeaenoaeai a ioiioaiee
aoa?ineea?ioe/aneeo eciaiaiee e?iayiiai ?onea.

Ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo iiaeii naeaeaoue caeeth/aiea ia ionoonoaee aeeyiey
nia?aiaiiuo IAE ia aaee/eio a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey, /oi cia/eoaeueii
?anoe?yao a?oiio iaoeeaioie, aeey eioi?uo iiaeao auoue ?aeiiaiaeiaai eo
i?eai.

4. Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue, e niaeaeaieth, ia nouanoaoao eaeiai-eeai
eiio?aoeaioeaa, ia iaeaaeathuaai oai eee eiui iiai/iui aeaenoaeai e
iniiaiui i?eioeeiii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iiaeai?a IAE yaeyaony iacia/aiea
iaoeeaioea ieieiaeueiie aeicu noa?ieaeia, eioi?ay, a oi aea a?aiy
iaania/eaaea au aunieoth iaaeaaeiinoue e aaciianiinoue iaoiaea.
Ecaanoii, /oi iiai/iua yooaeou ieacuaatho au?aaeaiiia aeeyiea ia auai?
iaoeeaioeaie iaoiaea eiio?aoeaioeee, oioy au?aaeaiiinoue eo i?iyaeaiey
ai iiiaii caaeneo io eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe. Iaeiei ec
iniiaiuo iauyniaiee i?ae?auaiey i?eaia i?aia?aoa yaeyaony eiaiii iaee/ea
aaniieiyuaai aeaiueio oiai eee eiiai iiai/iiai yooaeoa. Eniieueciaaiea
eiio?aoeaioeaia o?aaoao ?aaoey?iiai a?a/aaiiai eiio?iey .

.

.

Eciaiaiea iano?iaiey iaaethaeaaony /aua i?e i?eaia
aunieiaei-ce?iaaiiuo EIE. Yoa aeaeiaa iiaeao auoue iauyniaia eciaiaieyie
iaoaaieecia o?eioioaia. A yoeo neo/ayo iieacaii i?eiaiaiea ie-?eaeieneia
a n?aaeieo oa?aiaaoe/aneeo aeicao. I?eiaiaiea ieceiaeice?iaaiiuo EIE
cia/eoaeueii ?aaea aucuaaao ?acaeoea aeai?anneaiuo ninoiyiee. Aieaa
oiai, iaeioi?ua aeaiueiu n aeai?anneae /oanoaotho iaeaa/aiea i?e i?eaia
EIE, o.e. o ieo en/acaao no?ao iaaeaeaoaeueiie aa?aiaiiinoe.

O?aiceoi?iay a?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oaicey aicieeaao i?eia?ii o 5% aeaiuei.
Iinea ioiaiu i?aia?aoa aeaaeaiea, eae i?aaeei, auno?i nieaeaaony.
Iaoiaaiac aeia?oaicee naycai n aicaeaenoaeai yno?i-aniia ia nenoaio
?aiei-aiaeioaicei-aeueaeinoa?ii.

Iiauoaiea niaea?aeaiey aeee?oaeia e uaei/iie oinoioacu ia oiia i?eaia
EIE aicieeaao ia aieaa /ai o 2% aeaiuei. I?e eniieueciaaiee EIE
ano?a/athony a?aiaiiua ia?ooaiey oiea?aioiinoe e aetheica. Yoe eciaiaiey
ia?aoeiu e auno?i en/acatho iinea ioiaiu EIE.

EIE e oaeoi?u ?enea na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo caaieaaaiee

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia aucuaaao niiiaiee, /oi aicaeaenoaea EIE ia
na?aea/ii-ninoaeenooth nenoaio caaeneo io aeic noa?ieaeiuo ai?iiiia,
aoiaeyueo a eo ninoaa (5,20,41). ?acoeueoaou ia?auo enneaaeiaaiee,
auiieiaiiuo a eiioea 60-o — ia/aea 70-o aiaeia, iieacaee, /oi i?eiaiaiea
aunieiaeice?iaaiiuo EIE a 2—5 ?ac oaaee/eaaao ioiineoaeueiue ?ene
?acaeoey na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo caaieaaaiee (4, 53, 56). Auyaeaiiia
iiauoaiea /anoiou na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie iaoieiaee ecia/aeueii naycuaaee
n io?eoeaoaeueiui aicaeaenoaeai aunieie aeicu yno?iaaiiiai eiiiiiaioa ia
iieacaoaee aaiinoaca (10, 53).

I?e eco/aiee ei?iia?iuo aiaeia?aii o aeaiuei, ia?aianoeo eioa?eo
ieiea?aea, Engel e niaao. (31) iaoee ?ani?ino?aiaiiue aoa?ineea?ic o 36%
aeaiuei, eniieueciaaaoeo EIE. A oi aea a?aiy o aeaiuei, ia i?eiaiyaoeo
ai?iiiaeueioth eiio?aoeaioeeth, aoa?ineea?ic iaaethaeaeny a 80% neo/aaa
(oi anoue a 2 ?aca /aua). Yoe aeaiiua iiaeoaa?aeaeatho aaaeouoth ?ieue
o?iiaioe/aneiai oaeoi?a a ?ac

aeoee eioa?eoa ieiea?aea o aeaiuei, iieo/aaoeo aunieiaeice?iaai-iua EIE.
Iiaiea i oii, /oi iaoieiaey na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu i?e i?eiaiaiee
aunieiaeice?iaaiiuo EIE eiaao nei?aa o?ii-aioe/aneee, /ai
aoa?ineea?ioe/aneee aaiac, iiaeaea?aeeaaao aieueoeinoai enneaaeiaaoaeae
(20, 44, 60).

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy n eiio?aoeaioeaiie oeaeueth eniieuecothony oieueei
ieceiaeice?iaaiiua EIE, a eioi?uo niaea?aeaiea yoeieeyno?aaee-iea ia
i?aauoaao 35 iea. Aeeyieth yoeo i?aia?aoia ia o?iiaioe-/aneee e
aoa?ineea?ioe/aneee oaeoi?u ?enea ?acaeoey iaoieiaee
na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu iinayuaii aieueoia /enei enneaaeiaaiee,
?acoeueoaou eioi?uo i?aaenoaaeaiu ieaea.

Eae ecaanoii, aaiinoac, o.a. inoaiiaea e?iaioa/aiey i?e iia?aaeaeaiee
e?iaaiiniiai ninoaea, aeinoeaaaony, aeaaiui ia?acii, aeaaiaea?y
ia?aciaaieth e?iayiiai o?iiaa a ?acoeueoaoa acaeiiaeaenoaey eiiiiiaioia
ieaciu, o?iiaioeeoia e ninoaeenoie noaiee. E iniiaiui eiiiiiaioai,
aaaeouei e ia?aciaaieth o?iiaa, ioiinyony 13 oaeoi?ia naa?ouaaiey e?iae,
a oii /enea, oea?eiiaai e o?iiaei, yaeythueeny iniiaiui oa?iaioii a
?anuaieaiee oea?eiiaaia e i?aa?auaiee aai a ia?anoai?eiue oea?ei —
iniiao e?iayiiai o?iiaa (2, 34).

Ia?aciaaiea o?iiaa e aiciiaeiinoue aai niiioaiiiai eecena caaenyo ia
oieueei io aeoeaiinoe oaeoi?ia naa?ouaaiey, ii e io ninoiyiey
oea?eiieeoe/aneie nenoaiu e niaea?aeaiey anoanoaaiiuo aioeeiaaoeyioia.
Oeaio?aeueiui a caaia oa?iaioaoeaiiai oea?eiiee-ca yaeyaony i?ioeann
aeoeaaoeee ieacieiiaaia n ia?aciaaieai aeoeaiiai ieacieia, eioi?ue, a
naith i/a?aaeue, aucuaaao aeaa?aaeaoeeth oea?eia. Iniiaiui eiaeoeoi?ii
yoiai i?ioeanna neoaeeo oeaiaaie aeoeaaoi? ieacieiiaaia (OAI), a
iniiaiui eiaeaeoi?ii — a2aioeieaciei, eioi?ue auno?i e iaia?aoeii
iaeo?aeecoao oee?eoee?othuee ieaciei. E anoanoaaiiui aioeeiaaoeyioai
ioiinyony:

aioeo?iiaei-O, aeaaiie caaea/ae eioi?iai yaeyaony eiaeoeaaoeey o?iiaeia,
a oaeaea nenoaia i?ioaei N — i?ioaei S. Aeaa nenoaiu — eiaaoeyoeey e
oea?eiieec — aeaenoaotho naaeaine?iaaiea, iiaeaea?aeeaay ii?iaeueiue
e?iaioie a i?aaiao e oeaiyo.

A ?yaea enneaaeiaaiee, auiieiaiiuo a ia/aea 90-o aiaeia, auei iieacaii,
/oi i?e i?eiaiaiee ieceiaeice?iaaiiuo EIE oaaee/eaaaony niaea?aeaiea
oea?eiiaaia (ii aeaiiui ?aciuo aaoi?ia, io 10%

aei 20%), o?iiaeia, oaeoi?ia VII e O . Auei onoaiiaeeaii, /oi
aic?anoaao ia oieueei eiee/anoai oaeoi?a VII, ii e aai ooieoeeiiaeueiay
aeoeaiinoue. Yoe eciaiaiey, aa?iyoii, yaeythony ?acoeueoaoii
noeioee?othuaai aeaenoaey yno?iaaiia ia neioac i?ioaeiia a ia/aie .
Oaaee/aiea eiaaoeyoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe e?iae ca n/ao iiauoaiey o?iaiae
oea?eiiaaia, o?iiaeia, oaeoi?ia VII e O aeeyao ia ioiineoaeueiue ?ene
?acaeoey na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo caaieaaaiee.

A oi aea a?aiy eiathony naaaeaiey, oeacuaathuea ia oi, /oi i?e
i?eiaiaiee ieceiaeice?iaaiiuo EIE aic?anoaao aeoeaiinoue OAE, iniiaiiai
eiaeoeoi?a oea?eiieeca . Yoi iauyniyaony cia/eoaeueiui nieaeaieai
aeoeaiinoe e eiee/anoaa eiaeaeoi?a aeoeaaoi?a ieacieiiaaia (EAI) .
Aaeain iaaeaeo aeoeaiinoueth OAE e aai niaoeeoe/aneiai eiaeaeoi?a
neeiiyaony a iieueco onei?aiey oea?eiieeca.

Oaeei ia?acii, ieceiaeice?iaaiiua EIE aeeytho ia oaaee/aiea o?iaiae
oea?eiiaaia, o?iiaeia, oaeoi?ia VII e X. I?eioeeieaeueii aaaeii, /oi
iaaethaeathueany eciaiaiey eiiiaine?othony onei?aiiui oea?eiieecii.
Aeaiiua nia?aiaiiie eeoa?aoo?u i aeeyiee EIE ia niaea?aeaiea
anoanoaaiiuo aioeeiaaoeyioia aeinoaoi/ii i?ioeai?a/eau. Aioeo?iiaei III
iaania/eaaao iieiaeio aioeeiaaoeyoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe e?iae. Ni
nieaeaieai aai o?iaiy ia iaiaa, /ai ia 50% naycuaatho aiciiaeiinoue
?acaeoey o?iiaioe/aneeo ineiaeiaiee .Ii aeaiiui iaeioi?uo
enneaaeiaaoaeae, i?eiaiaiea aunieiaeice?iaaiiuo EIE i?eaiaeeo e
nieaeaieth aeoeaiinoe aioeo?iiaeia III ia 80 %, oai naiui cia/eoaeueii
oaaee/eaay ?ene ?acaeoey o?iiaica. I?e eniieueciaaiee ieceiaeice?iaaiiuo
EIE niaea?aeaiea aioeo?iiaeia III nieaeaaony ia aieaa, /ai ia 10% . EIE,
a ninoaa eioi?uo aoiaeyo i?iaanoaaaiu o?aoueaai iieieaiey, i?aeoe/anee
ia aucuaatho eciaiaiee o?iaiy aioeo?iiaeia III . Ia?yaeo n yoei
iaeioi?ua aaoi?u a oiaea i?eaia ieceiaeice?iaaiiuo EIE ioiaoeee
oaaee/aiea niaea?aeaiey aioeo?iiaeia III e i?ioaeia N. Oaeei ia?acii,
iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi ieceiaeice?iaaiiua EIE n i?iaanoaaaiaie
o?aoueaai iieieaiey ia ieacuaatho cia/eiiai aeeyiey ia niaea?aeaiea
anoanoaaiiuo aioeeiaaoeyioia, eeai aeaaea oaaee/eaatho eo
eiioeaio?aoeeth, /ai aeinoeaaaony eiiiainaoeey iiauoaiiie
eiaaoeyoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe e?iae.

Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi eciaiaiey iieacaoaeae naa?ouaathuae nenoaiu
e?iae aicieeatho, a iniiaiii, a ia?aue ianyoe i?eaia EIE, e inoathony ia
yoii o?iaia iacaaeneii io aeeeoaeueiinoe i?eiaiaiey i?aia?aoa .
Iieacaoaee naa?ouaathuae nenoaiu e?iae aica?auathony e naiaio
ia?aiia/aeueiiio o?iaith /a?ac aeaa ianyoea iinea ioiaiu eiio?aoeaioeaa.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yaeyaony iauai?eciaiiui iiaiea i oii, /oi eciaiaiey a
nenoaia aaiinoaca, aicieeathuea iiae aicaeaenoaeai ieceiaeice?iaaiiuo
EIE, ia eiatho eeeie/aneiai cia/aiey aeey caei?iauo aeaiuei.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iiyaeeenue naaaeaiey i iaeiecaanoiuo oaeoi?ao ?enea.
E iei ioiinyony a?iaeaeaiiua aiiiaeee nenoaiu aaiinoaca: aeaoeoeeo
eiaeaeoi?ia eiaaoeyoeee (aioeo?iiaeia III, i?ioaeiia N e S), a oaeaea
iooaoeey aaia, ioaaonoaaiiiai ca neioac oaeoi?a V . I?e ni/aoaiee
a?iaeaeaiiuo aiiiaeee nenoaiu aaiinoaca n iacia/aieai EIE ioiineoaeueiue
?ene o?iiaioe/aneeo ineiaeiaiee, ii aeaiiui iaeioi?uo aaoi?ia ,
oaaee/eaaaony a 8 ?ac. A yoeo neo/ayo i?eai EIE i?iaioee?oao i?iyaeaiey
ne?uoiai aeaoeoeeoa eiaeaeoi?ia eiaaoeyoeee. I?aaeeiaeaiey i i?iaaaeaiee
ne?eieiaa a?iaeaeaiiuo aiiiaeee nenoaiu aaiinoaca ia iaoee i?aeoe/aneiai
i?eiaiaiey a nayce n ieceie /anoioie aeaiiie iaoieiaee. A ?acoeueoaoa
i?iaaaeaiiuo noaoenoe/aneeo ?an/aoia auyaeee, /oi ec 5,5 ieeeeiiia
aeeoaeueieoe Aa?iaiee, eniieuecothueo EIE, oieueei o 92 aeaiuei
nouanoaoao aa?iyoiinoue ?acaeoey o?iiaioe/aneeo ineiaeiaiee a nayce n
a?iaeaeaiiuie aiiiaeeyie nenoaiu aaiinoaca .

?ieue i?iaanoaaaiiiai eiiiiiaioa EIE a ?acaeoee o?iiaioe/aneeo
ineiaeiaiee aeoeaii ianoaeaeaaony a iineaaeiaa a?aiy. Aii?in i oii,
aeeytho ee i?iaanoaaaiu ia iieacaoaee aaiinoaca, aei neo ii? inoaaony
iayniui. A aeaeaa?a 1995 a. — yiaa?a 1996a. auee iioaeeeiaaiu
?acoeueoaou ianeieueeeo enneaaeiaaiee, iinayuaiiuo aiciiaeiiio aeeyieth
i?iaanoaaaiia o?aoueaai iieieaiey (aanoiaeai, aeaciaa-no?ae) ia ?ene
aaiiciie o?iiaiyiaieee . Aieueoia aieiaiea ianoaeaeaieth aeaiiie
i?iaeaiu auei oaeaeaii ia 4-i Eiia?anna Aa?iiaeneiai iauanoaa
eiio?aoeaioeee (1996 a.). Ioia/aii, /oi i?e eco/aiee caaeneiinoe ?enea
aaiiciie o?iiaiyiaieee io aeaea EIE ia i?eieiaeenue ai aieiaiea
iaeioi?ua iauaeoeaiua oaeoi-

?u, niiniaiua nouanoaaiii iiaeeyoue ia ?acoeueoaou i?iaaaeaiiuo
enneaaeiaaiee . Oae, iai?eia?, iinea iiyaeaiey ia ie?iaii
oa?iaoeaaoe/aneii ?uiea EIE n i?iaanoaaaiaie o?aoueaai iieieaiey,
iaeaaeathueo oeaeui ?yaeii aannii?ii iieiaeeoaeueiuo oa?aeoa?enoee ii
n?aaiaieth ni naieie i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie, yoe i?aia?aou noaee oe?iei
iacia/aoueny aeaiueiai, eiathuei oaeoi?u ?enea caaieaaaiee
na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu. E?iia yoiai, iiiaea aeaiueiu, i?eiaiyaoea
EIE n i?iaanoaaaiaie aoi?iai iieieaiey e eiaaoea a aiaiiaca
o?iiaioe/aneea ineiaeiaiey a nayce n i?eaiii yoeo i?aia?aoia eee a nayce
n aa?aiaiiinoueth, i?ae?aoeee i?eai eiio?aoeaioeaia e, oaeei ia?acii, ia
aioee a noaoenoeeo aeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee.

Aieueoeinoai enneaaeiaaoaeae e a?a/ae ai anai ie?a iaaniieiaiu
inaauaieai a n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee aeaiiuo i nayce EIE, a
ninoaa eioi?uo aoiaeyo i?iaanoaaaiu o?aoueaai iieieaiey, n iiauoaiiui
?eneii o?iiaiyiaiee/aneeo ineiaeiaiee, oae eae ia?aoiae iaoeeaioie io
eniieueciaaiey EIE n i?iaanoaaaiaie o?aoueaai iieieaiey e
eniieueciaaieth EIE n enaiii?aano?aeii iiaeao i?eianoe, ianiiiaiii,
aieueoee a?aae caei?iaueth aeaiuei .

A ?acaeoee na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo caaieaaaiee, ia?yaeo n o?iiaioe-/aneei,
aaaeiui yaeyaony aoa?ineea?ioe/nneee oaeoi?. ?acaeoea
aoa?ineea?ioe/aneiai iia?aaeaeaiey ninoaeia ai iiiaii naycaii n
ia?ooaieai aaeaina eeiii?ioaeaeia ieaciu e?iae, yaeythueony o?ainii?oiie
oi?iie eeieaeia. Auaeaeytho neaaeothuea eeannu eeiii?ioaeaeia:

— eeiii?ioaeaeu aunieie ieioiinoe (EAI), eioi?ua inouanoaeytho o?ainii?o
oieanoa?eia ec oeaiae i?aaiecia, a /anoiinoe, ec noaiee a?oa?ee e
iaeaaeatho aeieacaiiui aioeaoa?iaaiiui yooaeoii;

— eeiii?ioaeaeu ieceie ieioiinoe (EII), eioi?ua ia?aiinyo oieanoa?ei ec
ia/aie a oeaie i?aaiecia, a oii /enea, a noaieo a?oa?ee, e ieacuaatho
cia/eoaeueiia aoa?ianiiin aeaenoaea;

— eeiii?ioaeaeu i/aiue ieceie ieioiinoe (EIII), eiathuea iaeaieueooth
aon?iaaiiinoue.

Aaeeiaua iieaeoeu, i?eieiathuea o/anoea a oi?ie?iaaiee eeiii?ioaeaeia,
iacuaathony aiii?ioaeiaie. Aiii?ioaeiu-Al, yaeythueany iaeaieaa aaaeiui
aaeeiaui eiiiiiaioii EAI, iaeaaeatho aioeaoa?iaaiiui yooaeoii, a
aiii?ioaeiu-A, o/anoaothuea a ii

no?iaiee iieaeoe EII, yaeythony aoa?iaaiiuie oaeoi?aie .

Oaaee/aiea oieanoa?eia EII yaeyaony aaaeouei oaeoi?ii ?acaeoey
aoa?ineea?ica. Ieceee o?iaaiue oieanoa?eia EAI io?aaeaao iiauoaiiue
?ene e, iaiai?io, aunieee aai o?iaaiue naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i ninoiyiee,
i?aiyonoaothuai ?acaeoeth aoa?ineea?ica e EAN. Iaeaieaa iaaeaaii?eyoiui
yaeyaony ni/aoaiea aunieiai o?iaiy EII n ieceei o?iaiai EAI.

Iiiaeie aaoi?aie auei iieacaii, /oi ia eeieaeiue iaiai aeeyao eae aeica
yno?iania, oae aeae e aeica i?iaanoaaaia, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa
ai?iiiaeueiiai eiio?aoeaioeaa . EIE n i?iaanoaaaiaie aoi?iai iieieaiey
iiaoo ieacuaaoue iaaeaaii?eyoiia aicaeaenoaea ia eeieaeiue i?ioeeue,
eioi?ia iaoneiaeaii, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, aeeyieai i?iaanoaaaiiiai
eiiiiiaioa. O aeaiuei, i?eiaiyaoeo EIE n enaiii?aano?aeii a aeica,
i?aauoathuae 0,15 ia, ioia/aeinue aeinoiaa?iia oaaee/aiea EII e
nieaeaiea EAI. Iaoaieci yoeo eciaiaiee, nei?aa anaai, naycai n aunieie
aiae?iaaiiie aeoeaiinoueth aeaiiiai i?iaanoaaaia, aucuaathuaai
aeoeaaoeeth ia/aii/iuo eeiac e caiaaeeaiiue neioac aiii?ioaeia-A1.

Ia?yaeo n yoei auei ioia/aii, /oi yno?iaaiiue eiiiiiaio EIE aeaaii?eyoii
aicaeaenoaoao ia eeieaeiue i?ioeeue, aucuaay nieaeaiea EII e ?ino EAI.
?ieue yno?iaaiia a i?ioeeaeoeea aoa?ineea?ioe/aneeo ineiaeiaiee oe?iei
ianoaeaeaaony a nia?aiaiiie eeoa?aoo?a. A yenia?eiaioa ia aeeaioiuo,
ianiio?y ia io?eoeaoaeueiia aeaenoaea i?iaanoaaaiiiai eiiiiiaioa,
i?iyaeythuaany a nieaeaiee EAI, eniieueciaaiea EIE ia oaaee/eaaao ?ene
?acaeoey aoa?ineea?ica. Eiee/anoai aoa?ineea?ioe/aneeo aeyoae a
ei?iia?iuo ninoaeao o aeeaioiuo, iieo/aaoeo EIE n yoeie-eyno?aaeeieii,
auei a 4 ?aca iaiueoa, /ai o aeeaioiuo, ia iieo/aaoeo EIE, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i i?ioaeoeaiii aeeyiee yoeieeyno?aaeeiea. N/eoaaony,
/oi yno?iaaiu iaeaaeatho au?aaeaiiui noeioee?othuei aeeyieai ia
?aoeaioi?u, naycuaathuea EII a ia/aie. E?iia oiai, iie iaeaaeatho
caueoiui aeaenoaeai ia a?oa?eaeueioth noaieo, i?aaeioa?auay oeenaoeeth
ia iae EII .

I?e eco/aiee aeeyiey nia?aiaiiuo ieceiaeice?iaaiiuo EIE, niaea?aeaueo
i?iaanoaaaiu o?aoueaai iieieaiey (aeaciaano?ae, aanoiaeai, ii?aanoeiao),
auei iieacaii, /oi iie iaeaaeatho ieieiaeueiui

aeeyieai ia iaoaaieeci eeieaeia . Enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi i?e
i?eiaiaiee EIE n i?iaanoaaaiaie o?aoueaai iieieaiey niaea?aeaiea EII ia
eciaiyaony, eeai aeaaea iacia/eoaeueii nieaeaaony (59). A ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue, yoi naycaii n ieceie aiae?iaaiiie aeoeaiinoueth i?iaanoaaaiia
o?aoueaai iieieaiey. E?iia oiai, /anoe/iia i?aiaeaaeaiea yno?iaaiiuo
yooaeoia ieceiaeice?iaaiiuo i?aia?aoia iieiaeeoaeueii aeeyao ia
niaea?aeaiea OEAI.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeaiiua eeoa?aoo?u oaaaeeoaeueii iieacuaatho, /oi
i?eiaiaiea ieceiaeice?iaaiiuo EIE o caei?iauo aeaiuei ia i?eaiaeeo e
eeeie/anee cia/eiui eciaiaieyi a aaiinoaca, oae eae oaaee/aiea
eiaaoeyoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe eiiiaine?oaony onei?aiiui oea?eiieecii. A
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa yoe i?aia?aou ia ieacuaatho au?aaeaiiiai aeeyiey e
ia eeieaeiue i?ioeeue, a EIE n i?iaanoaaaiaie o?aoueaai iieieaiey a
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo aeaaea nieaeatho aai aoa?iaaiiinoue.

I?aeueiua I?iaanoaaaiiua eiio?aoeaioeau (ieie-ieee)

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a aieueoeinoaa ieie-ieee eniieuecothony i?iaanoaaaiu,
yaeythueany i?iecaiaeiuie 19-ii?noa?ieaeia (ii?yoenoa?ii, eeiano?aiie,
yoeiiaeeie aeeaoeaoao, a oaeaea eaaiii?aano?ae). Aeica neioaoe/aneeo
annoaaaiia a ninoaaa aieueoeinoaa ieie-ieee a ianeieueei ?ac iaiueoa,
/ai a eiiaeie?iaaiiuo i?aeueiuo eiio?aoeaioeaao (oaae.7).

64

Oaaeeoea 7 Ninoaa i?aeueiuo i?iaanoaaaiiuo eiio?aoeaioeaia

i?aia?ao oe?ia/no?aia i?iecaiaeeoaeue i?iaanoaaae niaea?aeaiea, ia

Iee?ietho Schering Aa?iaiey eaaiii?aano?ae 0,03

Iee?iii? Cilag Oaaeoea?ey ii?coenoa?ii 0,35

Ia?ao Wyeth-Ledcrle NOA ii?aano?ae 0,075

Yenethoii Organon Ieaea?eaiaeu eeiano?aiie 0,5

I?iaanoaaaiiua i?aeueiua eiio?aoeaioeau ioiinyony e aunieiyooaeoeaiui
n?aaenoaai eiio?aoeaioeee. Eiaeaen Ia?ey aeey ieie-ieee ninoaaeyao
0,9—4,0 ia 100 aeaiuei/eao. A nayce n oai, /oi iaeneiaeueiue
eiio?aoeaioeaiue yooaeo ianooiaao /a?ac 3—4 /ana iinea i?eaia oaaeaoee e
i?ae?auaaony /a?ac 24 /ana, aeey aeinoeaeaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i/aiue
aaaeii niaethaeaiea ?aaeeia i?eaia i?aia?aoa. I?eia?ii iieiaeia
aa?aiaiiinoae ia oiia i?eaia ieie-ieee ianooiaao aneaaenoaea ia?ooaiey
i?aaee eo i?eaia. Ioia/aia caaeneiinoue yooaeoeaiinoe iaoiaea io
aic?anoa aeaiueiu. Eiaeaen In?ey i?e eniieueciaaiee ieie-ieee aeaiueiaie
a aic?anoa 25— 29 eao ninoaaeyao 3,1 ia 100 aeaiuei/eao, a a aic?anoiie
a?oiia 45 eao e noa?oa — 0,3 ia 100 aeaiuei/eao.

Iaoaieci aeaenoaey ieie-ieee aeeth/aao ii?oieiae/aneea eciaiaiey
yiaeiiao?ey, naouaiea oea?aeeaeueiie neece e iiaeaaeaiea iaoeyoeee (6,
12). I?eai ieie-ieee aucuaaao aiiaoeyoeeth i?eia?ii a 60% iaino?oaeueiuo
oeeeeia ca n/ao /anoe/iiai eee iieiiai iiaeaaeaiey ieea EA.
Ii?oieiae/aneea eciaiaiey yiaeiiao?ey nicaeatho iaaeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey
aeey eiieaioaoeee iieiaeioai?aiiie yeoeaeeaoee. Iiae aeeyieai
i?iaanoaaaiia, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa ieie-ieee, i?ienoiaeeo naouaiea
oea?aeeaeueiie neece, i?aiyonoaothuaa i?iieeiiaaieth nia?iaoicieaeia a
iieinoue iaoee. Iaeioi?ua aaoi-

Eciaiaiey aaee/eiu a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey i?e i?eaia IAE, niaea?aeaueo
i?iaanoaaaiu o?aoueaai iieieaiey

A ?yaea neo/aaa aeey oniaoiiai ea/aiey iiai/iuo yooaeoia iaiaoiaeeii
i?iaaaeaiea aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie aeeaaiinoeee n ae?oaeie iaoieiae/aneeie
ninoiyieyie. Iniaaiii yoi aaaeii i?e eiinoeueoe?iaaiee iaoeeaioie n
iaaeiaino?oaeueiuie e?iayienouie auaeaeaieyie ec iieiauo iooae.
Iaiiiiei, /oi iiaeiaiua e?iaioa/aiey iiaoo aucuaaoueny oeaeui ?yaeii
i?e/ei. N?aaee ieo: ioeaea a i?eaia IAE; ia?ooaiea aani?aoeee IAE
(aeea?ay e ?aioa); i?eai i?aia?aoia, nieaeathueo o?iaaiue niaea?aeaueony
a IAE ai?iiiia; aaaaoa?eaineay aeeaoa (ia?ooaiea ?aoeeeea yno?iaaiia)
(5a?1aa I., NioUeoan1 iaa1 nii1aana?1thi. Nii1aana?11ii ain1 5aoea1eo o
Ueaa11.Ue aie (Iaaaaa. InIaaoo I111. Ueiieii., 1990); iaaeinoaoi/iay
aeey eiio?iey oeeeea aeica noa?ieaeia; ia?eiae aaeaioaoeee i?aaiecia e
IAE (ia?aua 3 ianyoea).

Aeaeueiaeooth aeeooa?aioeeaeueioth aeeaaiinoeeo neaaeoao i?iaiaeeoue ni
neaaeothueie caaieaaaieyie: caaieaaaiey ia?oaeiuo iieiauo i?aaiia
(oea?aeoee’., ceiea/anoaaiiua iiooiee); ia?ooaiiay aa?aiaiiinoue
iaoi/iay; yeoiie/aneay aa?aiaiiinoue.

I/aaeaeii, /oi ai iiiaeo neo/ayo aeueoa?iaoeaie ioiaia IAE e caiaia aai
ae?oaei iaoiaeii eiio?aoeaioeee i?e ?acaeoee iiai/iuo yooaeoia yaeyaony
iacia/aiea nia?aiaiiuo ieceiaeic-iuo i?aia?aoia (aeica yoeieeyno?aaeeiea
30—35 iea), niaea?aeaueo aanoaaaiu n ieceie aiae?iaaiiinoui
(ii?aanoeiao, aanoiaeai, aeaciaano?ae). Iau/ii iacia/aiea yoeo
i?aia?aoia eae aeueoa?iaoeaa ?aiaa ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiui IAE aoi?iai
iieieaiey iicaieyao eoie?iaaoue aaniieithuoth iaoeeaioeo neiioiiaoeeo e
nio?aieoue aa eae iio?aaeoaey i?aeueiie ai?iiiaeueiie eiio?aoeaioeee.
I?eia?ii yoiai iiaeao yaeyoueny nieaeaiea /anoiou iiyaeaiey oaeiai
eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiiai aeey ethaie iaoeeaioee i?iaanoaaaiicaaeneiiai
iiai/iiai yooaeoa, eae iinoiyiiia oaaee/aiea iannu oaea. Eiaiii yoio
neiioii ieacuaaao aanueia nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia i?eaieaiinoue
ai?iiiaeueiie eiio?aoeaioeee ia auoiaii o?iaia e ia/aeueiue iiuo aieaa
noa?oeo aeaiuei, i?eiaiyaoeo a naia a?aiy aunieiaiae?iaaie/iua IAE
(ei-oaeoiaeei, ii?eieoo e ae?.) i?aaeinoa?aaaao nia?aiaiiuo
iioaioeeaeueiuo iaoeeaioie (iniaaiii thiuo) io eniieueciaaiey
ai?iiiaeueiuo i?aia?aoia aiiaua. Iiuo ?aaiou n IAE, niaea?aeaueie
aanoiaeai, aeaciaano?ae e ii?aanoeiao, aeey eioi?uo ?acaeoea
aiae?iaaiicaaeneiuo iiai/iuo yooaeoia ia oa?aeoa?ii, aeaiiino?e?oao
i?aeoe/aneia ionoonoaea aeeyiey ia iieacaoaee iannu oaea (?en. 6).

Ionoonoaea eciaiaiey iannu oaea eiaao eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeioth ?ieue a
i?iiaaaiaee?iaaiee nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia eiio?iey ?iaeaeaaiinoe, eai
naaaeaiey i iieiaeeoaeueiii aeeyiee IAE ia o?iaie IUeA, aioeo?iiaeia III
e i?i/. ia eiatho a aeacao iaoeeaioie eeeiee ieaie?iaaiey naiuee noieue
nouanoaaiiiai cia/aiey, eae auoai?eaaaeaiiua oeeo?u a ni/aoaiee n
eioi?ie?iaaieai i eaioea?ii?ioaeoeaiii aeaenoaee e iieiaeeoaeueiii
yooaeoa ia eiaeo. Iieiia eioi?ie?iaaiea eiinoeueoe?oaiuo iaoeeaioie i
ia?a/eneaiiuo ?aiaa aeinoieinoaao nia?aiaiiuo ai?iiiaeueiuo i?aia?aoia
niiniaii cia/eoaeueii iiauneoue i?eaieaiinoue yoiai iaoiaea.

PAGE 44

PAGE 2

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020