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Качество жизни больных с имплантированным электрокардиостимулятором

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Качество жизни больных с имплантированным электрокардиостимулятором

Язык: русский
Формат: курсова
Тип документа: Word Doc
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2

sseooneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. I.E. Aiiiniaa

Iaaeeoeeineee einoeooo

Eaoaae?a oa?aiee

Auioneiay ?aaioa

oaia: “Ea/anoai aeecie aieueiuo n eiieaioe?iaaiiui
yeaeo?iea?aeeinoeioeyoi?ii”.

Auiieiee: nooaeaio EO-93 O-9

?oeiaiaeeoaeue: aeioeaio

A?oaiiiiaa O.N.

?aoeaicaio:

Iao?ia E.E

A. sseoone – 1999 aiae.

Niaea?aeaiea:

1. Nienie nie?auaiee

2. Aaaaeaiea

3. Eeoa?aoo?iue iaci?

4. Iaoa?eaeu e iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey

5. Aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiey

6. Caeeth/aiea

7. Auaiaeu

8. I?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee

9. Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

Nienie nie?auaiee.

ONI – o?iie/aneay na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue

YEA – yeaeo?iea?aeeia?aoey

YEN – yeaeo?iea?aeeinoeioeyoeey

Yoi EO – yoiea?aeeia?aoey

Aaaaeaiea

Auaeeaaaiinoue aieueiuo n iieiie ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iie aeieaaeie ana aua
inoaaony iaaunieie. *a?ac aiae iinea aa aicieeiiaaiey auaeeaaao 60 %
aieueiuo, a /a?ac 5 eao oieueei 20 % aieueiuo.

Aiaae?aiea a ea/aaioth i?aeoeeo iaoiaea YEN yaeeinue nouanoaaiiui
aeinoeaeaieai a ea/aiee iieiie ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iie aeieaaeu. Iia
iicaieeea cia/eoaeueii oeo/oeoue i?iaiic aeecie aieueiuo, iiauneoue
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue e ea/anoai aeecie. I?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue ea/anoai aeecie aieueiuo n eiieaioe?iaaiiui YEN,
iaoiaeyueony ia ea/aiee a ea?aeeieiae/aneii ioaeaeaiee sseooneie
ai?iaeneie aieueieoeu.

Oeaeue ianoiyuaai enneaaeiaaiey – i?iaanoe aiaeec ea/anoaa aeecie
aieueiuo n eiieaioe?iaaiiui YEN.

Aeey auiieiaiey yoie oeaee iinoaaeaiu neaaeothuea caaea/e.

I?iaanoe aiaeec:

1.eeeie/aneeo neiioiiia e oa/aiey iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey aei eiieaioaoeee
YEN.

2.aeeiaieee eeeie/aneeo neiioiiia e eeeie/aneeo oa/aiey iniiaiiai
caaieaaaiey iinea eiieaioaoeee YEN.

3.ea/anoai aeecie aieueiuo iinea eiieaioaoeee YEN

4.oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia ea/anoai aeecie yoeo aieueiuo

Eeoa?aoo?iue iaci?.

Ea/anoai aeecie – ioeaiea /aeiaaeii naiaai oece/aneiai, ineoe/aneiai e
nioeeaeueiiai aeaaiiieo/ey.

Ii eeoa?aoo?iui aeaiiui, aic?ano aieueiuo ninoaaeyao io 25 aei 81 aiaea
e n?aaeiee aic?ano ?aaai 62,4 aiaeai.

Anai aieueiui auea i?iecaaaeaia eiieaioaoeey YEN. I?e/eiie yoiai
iineoaeeea iieiay ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iay aeieaaea na?aeoea. *oiau ioeaieoue
ea/anoai aeecie e ?acoeueoaou iia?aoeaiiai ea/aiey ioaeiu aeaiiua YEA,
iieacaoaee aaiiaeeiaieee, iauaeeeie/aneea iaaethaeaiey. Ioeaiea
i?iecaiaeeeanue ii 3-o aaeueiie nenoaia – “oi?ioi”,
“oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii”, “iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii”.

“Oi?ioi” – ii?iaeecaoeey ninoiyiey aieueiiai aei iaaiaeiiai, o.a. aei
aicieeiiaaiey ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iie aeieaaeu, ainnoaiiaeaiey
o?oaeiniiniaiinoe.

“Oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia” – ia iieiay ii?iaeecaoeey aaiiaeeiaieee e ae?.
ineiaeiaiey.

“Iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia” – oyaeaeua iineaiia?aoeeiiiua ineiaeiaiey,
iaaiiaiea eiaea YEN, nio?aiaiea e i?ia?anne?iaaiea iaaeinoaoi/iinoe
e?iaiia?auaiey, nainen, nia?oue aieueiiai a ioaeaeaiiii
iineaiia?aoeeiiiii ia?eiaea.

Iinea eiieaioaoeee o anao aieueiuo nianai en/acee neiae?ii
Ii?naeuee-Aaeaina-Noiena aenoieiae/aneay aeia?oiiey e oiaiueoeeenue
noaiiea?aeey, iaaeinoaoi/iinoue e?iaiia?auaiey. Nie?aoeaoaa neiioiiu
noaiiea?aeee, iaaeinoaoi/iinoe e?iaiia?auaiey naycaiu n iaee/eai
iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey, nieaeaiea eiiiainaoi?iuo aiciiaeiinoae.

Auno?ia e noieeia oeo/oaiea ninoiyiea aaoi?u noaouee ioia/atho o eeoe
n?aaeiaai e iieiaeiai aic?anoa.

Ca ia?eiae iaaethaeaiey ninoiyiea eae oi?ioaa ioeaiaii a 71,8 % neo/aaa.
Oaeea aieueiua aaee aeiiaoiaa oicyenoai, eae oi: noe?ea, oai?ea,
i?eaioiaeaiea ieue, iiaeuai ii eanoieoea aei 5 yoaaea, aiaeaeaiea
aaoiiiaeeae, acaea ia aaeineiaaea. 26,9 % aa?ioeenue e ?aaioa, ec ieo
4,6% nio?aieee eaaeeoeeaoeeth, inoaeueiua eiaaeeaeu III a?oiiu,
o?aaothuea nicaeaiey niaoeeaeueiuo oneiaee o?oaea.

Eae oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia ioeaiaii a 14,5 %. O ieo auee neaaeothuea
ineiaeiaiey: iaaiiaiea eiaea YEN, iaiia?aoeey a nayce n aeeneieaoeeae
yeaeo?iaea YEN. Aieueiua niaa?oaee iaaieueoea iaoea i?iaoeee, iiaeuai
aei 1-2 yoaaea. Ec neiioiiia inoaeenue iauay neaainoue, auno?ay
ooiieyaiinoue. Aieueiui i?iaiaeeeinue ea?aeeaeueiay oa?aiey, iinoiyiii
oeo/oathuay ninoiyiea, ii iieiie ii?iaeecaoeee aaiiaeeiaieee ia auei
aeinoeaiooi.

Eae iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia ioeaiaii a 13,6 % neo/aaa, 10% oia?ei a
?aciua n?iee. I?e/eiie auee oyaeaeia enoiaeiia ninoiyiea ec-ca iniiaiiai
caaieaaaiey, iaaeinoaoi/iinoe e?iaiia?auaiey e aic?anoa. Ineiaeiaieyie
auea ?aeiaay eioaeoeey nainen. O aieueiuo ia oiaiueoaeanue
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue e?iaiia?auaiey, iie ioaeaeaeenue a iinoiyiiii ooiaea.

N?aaeiaaiaee/iay eaoaeueiinoue a ia?aua 12 ianyoeaa ninoaaeea 0,9 %,
/a?ac 36 ianyoeaa – 5,7 %. I?e/eiaie nia?oe auee iiaoi?iua eioa?eou
ieiea?aea e i?ia?anne?othuay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue e?iaiia?auaiey.

A auaeeaaaiinoe aieueiuo aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao iaaeinoaoi/iinoue
e?iaiia?auaiey, aic?ano aieueiuo, i?e/eia ea?aeeineea?ica.

Oae, iaee/ea iaaeinoaoi/iinoe e?iaiia?auaiey nieaeaao auaeeaaaiinoue
aieueiuo. *a?ac 5 eao iaaethaeaiey aieueiuo n iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth
e?iaiia?auaiey auei 70,9 %, a aac iaaeinoaoi/iinoe e?iaiia?auaiey 91,2%.

Auaeeaaaiinoue aieueiuo a iieiaeii e n?aaeiai aic?anoa iaeaieaa aunieay,
iaeaieaa ieceay 60-69 eao.

Aeaaii?eyoiue i?iaiic ioia/ai o eeoe n iinoieiea?aee/iui
ea?aeeineea?icii. Auaeeaaaiinoue /a?ac 9 eao ninoaaeea 74,4 %. Iaeiaiaa
aeaaii?eyoiue i?iaiic o eeoe n iinoeioa?eoiui ea?aeeineea?icii – 61,3 %
ca oio aea n?ie.

Oaeaea aaoi?u noaouee ioia/atho aunieoth auaeeaaaiinoue aieueiuo,
iaoiaeyueony ia aeeniaina?iii iaaethaeaiee. A oa/aiee 9 eao iia
ninoaaeea 78,9 % ( A.A. Ieueoei e niaaoi?u, 1996 a.).

Ii anee iaeioi?ua n/eoath YEN yooaeoeaiui iaoiaeii ea/aiey, oi A.A.
Eneaiaea?ia n/eoaao iaoiae YEN eeoue yoaiii a ea/aiee iniiaiiai
caaieaaaiey, iineieueeo YEN ii?iaeecoao ?eoi e oeo/oaao aaiiaeeiaieeo,
ii ia ono?aiyao naii caaieaaaiea. Eneaiaea?ia iauyniyao yoi oai, /oi
eaoaeueiinoue io ea?aeeaeueiie iaoieiaee ninoaaeyao 71,3 %, a
eaoaeueiinoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii io ineiaeiaiee YEN ninoaaeea eeoue 07%.

Iaoa?eaeu e iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey.

Iaoa?eaeii aeey enneaaeiaaiey iineoaeeee 5 enoi?ee aieacie aieueiuo n
iieiie ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iie aeieaaeie, eioi?ui aue eiieaioe?iaai YEN,
iinooieaoeo ia ea/aiea a ea?aeeieiae/aneia ioaeaeaiea sseooneie
ai?iaeneie aieueieoeu.

Ec 5 aieueiuo – 2-a ioae/ei e 3-a aeaiuei (oaae. 1).

Ii aic?anoiui a?oiiai iie ?ani?aaeaeeeenue neaaeothuei ia?acii: io 50
aei 59 eao – 2-a aieueiuo, io 60 aei 69 eao– 1 aieueiie, io 70 aei 79
eao – 1 aieueiie, io 80 aei 89 eao – 1 aieueiay (oaae. 2).

Anee a?aoue n?aaeiee aic?ano, oi ii ninoaaeyao 66,8 eao.

Ii iaoeeiiaeueiinoe ec 5 aieueiuo – 4 yeooia, 1 ?onneay (oaae. 3).

O 4-o aieueiuo aue eiieaioe?iaai 1-eaia?iue YEN, o 1-ai aieueiiai 2-o
eaia?iue YEN.

Aeeeoaeueiinoue YEN ninoaaeea io 2 aei 16 eao.

Anai aieueiui i?iaiaeeeenue neaaeothuea eeeie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey: iauee
aiaeec e?iae, iauee aiaeec ii/e, aeioeie/aneee aiaeec e?iae ia
oieanoa?ei, – eeiii?ioaeaeu, i?io?iiaeeiaue eiaeaen e?iae, a oaeaea
oaeea eino?oiaioaeueiua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey eae YEA, YoiEA,
?aioaaiia?aoey a?oaeiie eeaoee.

?acoeueoaou iia?aoeaiiai ea/aiey e ea/anoaa aeecie aieueiuo
ioeaieaaeenue ii 3 aaeueiie nenoaia, ?ac?aaioaiiie A.A. Ieueoeiui, E.A.
Ieaeieeiaie (1996 a.). Iia iicaieyea ioeaieoue ?acoeueoaou eae
“oi?ioi”, “oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii” e “iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii”. Eae
“oi?ioi”, anee ninoiyiea aieueiiai iicaieyao aa?iooueny e o?oaeo eee
aeinoeaaao o?iaiy, eioi?ue aue aei aeieaaeu na?aeoea.
“Oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia”, anee ii?aaeaeyeinue iaiieiay ii?iaeecaoeey
aaiiaeeiaieee e iaee/ea ineiaeiaiee. “Iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia” – anee
eiaeenue oyaeaeua iineaiia?aoeeiiiua ineiaeiaiey (nainen, iaaiiaiea
eiaea YEN), nio?aiyeinue iaaeinoaoi/iinoue e?iaiia?auaiey, a oaeaea a
neo/aa nia?oe aieueiiai.

?ani?aaeaeaiea ii iieo Oaaeeoea 1

IieEiee/anoai aieueiuoAEaiueiu

Ioae/eiu3 /aeiaaea

2 /aeiaaea

?ani?aaeaeaiea ii aic?anoiui a?oiiai Oaaeeoea 2

Aic?anoEiee/anoai aieueiuo50-59 eao

60-69 eao

70-79 eao

80-89 eao2-a aieueiuo

1 aieueiie

1 aieueiie

1 aieueiie

?ani?aaeaeaiea ii iaoeeiiaeueiinoe Oaaeeoea 3

Iaoeeiiaeueiinoue?onneeasseooueiee/anoai14

Aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiey

Ana iaaethaeaaiua aieueiua iiae?acaeaeaiu ii iniiaiiio caaieaaaieth ia
a?oiiu aieueiuo: EAN n iinoeioa?eoiui ea?aeeineea?icii – 2 aieueiuo, EAN
n aoa?ineea?ioe/aneei ea?aeeineea?icii – 2 aieueiuo e n aeeciaa?eaeueiie
ieiea?aeeiaeeno?ioeae – 1 aieueiay. O anao aieueiuo iaaethaeaeanue
iieiay ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iay aeieaaea n *NN = 40-44 oaea?ia a ieiooo.

O anao aieueiuo aei eiieaioaoeee YEN ioia/aeenue ineiaeiaiey iniiaiiai
caaieaaaiey. O 4 aieueiuo iaaethaeaeanue ONI: I noaaeee o 3 aieueiuo, II
noaaeee o 1 aieueiiai, III noaaeee o 1 aieueiie.

O 4 aieueiuo ioia/aeenue ia?ooaiey ?eoia a aeaea: ia?oeaoaeueiie a?eoiee
2 aieueiuo, aeaeoaei/eiaie yeno?anenoiiee 2 aieueiuo, a o 1 aieueiie
ia?ooaiea i?iaiaeeiinoe a aeaea iieiie aeieaaeu eaaie iiaeee io/ea Aenna
(oaae. 4)

Aeaeu ineiaeiaiee iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey

o iaaethaeaaiuo aieueiuo Oaaeeoea 4

ONIIa?ooaiea ?eoiaIa?ooaiea i?iaiaeeiinoe iieiie aeieaaeu eaaie iiaeee
io/ea AennaI noaaeeeII noaaeeeIII noaaeeeIa?oeaoaeueiay
a?eoieyAEaeoaei/eiaay yeno?anenoiiey3 aieueiuo1 aieueiie1 aieueiay2
aieueiuo2 aieueiuo1 aieueiay

I?e ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia iia?aoeee eiieaioaoeee YEN auyeaia a iaeiii
neo/aa aeenooieoeey YEN, eioi?ay i?iyaeyeanue a ia?eiaee/aneii aai
ioeeth/aiee e a yoio ia?eiae ia YEA ?aaeno?e?iaaeny nianoaaiiue
i?aaena?aeiue ?eoi na?aeoea (YEA ?1). O inoaeueiuo aieueiuo YEN aue
eni?aaai. O anao aieueiuo nio?aiyeenue ia?ooaiey ?eoia a aeaea
ia?oeaoaeueiie a?eoiee – 2 aieueiuo, AEaeoaei/eiaay yeno?anenoiiey – 2
aieueiuo (YEA ?2), ia?ooaiea i?iaiaeeiinoe a aeaea iieiie aeieaaeu eaaie
iiaeee io/ea Aenna – o 1 aieueiie e neiioiiu ONI I noaaeee o 3 aieueiuo,
II noaaeee o 1 aieueiiai, III noaaeee o 1 aieueiie.

4 aieueiuo auiieiyee eaaeoth aeiiaoithth ?aaioo, ei?ioeea i?iaoeee ia
naaaeai aicaeooa, iiaeuai ii eanoieoea aieaa /ai ia 2 yoaaea. I?e/ai 2-
eiaee eiaaeeaeiinoue 2 a?oiiu.

Ianoaeaeaiea.

I?e/eiie aeey i?iaaaeaiey YEN o iaaethaeaaiuo aieueiuo iineoaeeea iieiay
ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iay aeieaaea, iaoneiaeaiiay EAN o 4 aieueiuo e o 1
aieueiie, naycaiiie n aeeciaaciaeueiie ieiea?aeeiaeeno?ioeae. A aiaeeca
o aieueiuo aei eiieaioaoeee YEN aaaeoueie neiioiiaie auee cia/eoaeueiay
a?aaeeea?aeey 40-44 oaea?ia a ieiooo e o?iie/aneay na?aea/iay
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue I-III noaaeee.

Oaoie/anee oniaoiie eiieaioaoeey YEN auea o 4 aieueiuo, a o 1 aieueiie
/a?ac 5 eao ioia/aaony aeenooieoeey YEN a aeaea eiieo?aioeee ?eoia
na?aeoea e YEN. Ii eeoa?aoo?iui aeaiiui eiieo?aioeey eneonnoaaiiiai e
nianoaaiiiai ?eoia ioia/aaony a 30 % neo/aaa (A.A. Eaeeoeeiaa, 1994a.).

Ia?ooaiea ?eoia e i?iaiaeeiinoe nio?aieeenue o anao iaaethaeaaiuo
aieueiuo. Neiioiiu ONI nio?aieeenue o anao iaaethaeaaiuo aieueiuo.

Ii aeaiiui YoiEA o yoeo aieueiuo o?aeoeey aua?ina ninoaaeea io 43 aei 59
%. Ionoonoaea iieiaeeoaeueiie aeeiaieee oa/aiey e ineiaeiaiee o aieueiuo
iiaeii iauynieoue oyaeanoueth oa/aiey iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey.

Aiaeec aiaiianoe/aneeo aeaiiuo, iauaai ninoiyiey aieueiuo,
aaiiaeeiaie/aneeo iieacaoaeae iicaieeee ioeaieoue ea/anoai aeecie
aieueiuo ia “oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii” a 4 neo/ayo. Eae
“iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii” ioeaiaii a 1 neo/aa, eioi?ue caeii/eeny
eaoaeueiui enoiaeii.

Oaeoi?aie, iiaeeyaoeie ia ea/anoai aeecie aieueiuo n eiieaioaoeeae YEN
auee au?aaeaiiua eciaiaiey na?aea/iie iuooeu aei eiieaioaoeee YEN, i /ai
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao iaee/ea neiioiiia ONI, ia?ooaiea ?eoia, i?iaiaeeiinoe
o anao aieueiuo. O 1 aieueiie iinea eiieaioaoeee YEN i?ia?anne?iaaea
ONI, inoaeenue ia?ooaiey i?iaiaeeiinoe, ?eoia e i?eniaaeeieeanue
aoi?e/iay aeeeaoaoeeiiiay ea?aeeiieiiaoey n o?iiaii i?aaiai
i?aaena?aeey.

Caeeth/aiea.

Iinoiyiiay YEN i?iecaaaeaia anai aieueiui ii iiaiaeo iieiie
ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iie aeieaaeu, iniiaiie i?e/eiie eioi?ie aaea EAN.
Iinoeioa?eoiue ea?aeeineea?ic e ioa?ineea?ioe/aneee ea?aeeineea?ic.

Eeeieei iieiie ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iie aeieaaeu oa?aeoa?ecoaony
cia/eoaeueiie a?iaeeei?aeee n *NN 40-44 oaea?a a ieiooo e neiioiiaie ONI
I-III noaaeee. Aa oa/aiea caaeneo io oyaeanoe eeeie/aneeo i?iyaeaiee
iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey.

Eiieaioaoeey YEN ieacaeanue yooaeoeaiie o anao aieueiuo. ?acoeueoaou
iia?aoeaiiai ea/aiey e ea/anoaa aeecie auee oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiuie o 4
aieueiuo e o 1 aieueiie – iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui.

Iaiaa aeaaii?eyoiia oa/aiea ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iie aeieaaeu o yoeo aieueiuo
iiaeii iauynieoue iaee/eai o aieueoeinoaa iinoeioa?eoiiai e
ioa?ineea?ioe/aneiai ea?aeeineea?ica, /oi niaeanoaony n eeoa?aoo?iuie
aeaiiuie, ioia/athueie, /oi iaiaa aeaaii?eyoiuie auaatho ioaeaeaiiua
?acoeueoaou o aieueiuo n oa/aiea ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iie aeieaaeie,
iaoneiaeaiiie iinoeioa?eoiui ea?aeeineea?icii (A.A. Ieueoei, 1996 a.).

Ia ?acoeueoaou ea/anoaa aeecie aeeyiea ieacuaaao aic?ano aieueiuo. Ana
iaaethaeaaiua aieueiua auee iiaeeeua a aic?anoa io 55 aei 81 aiaea. Ii
eeoa?aoo?iui aeaiiui iaeaieaa ieceia auaeeaaaiinoue iaaethaeaaony a
a?oiia aieueiuo a aic?anoa io 60 aei 69 eao e e 9 aiaeo iinea
eiieaioaoeee YEN ninoaaeyao 52,6 % (A.A. Ieueoei, 1996 a.).

O.i., oaeoi?aie, oeacaaoeie iaaeaaii?eyoiua aeeyiey ia ea/anoaa aeecie e
iinea eiieaioaoeee YEN yaeythony ONI, aic?ano aieueiuo, oyaeaeia oa/aiea
iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey.

Auaiaeu.

1.Eeeie/aneia oa/aiea iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony
au?aaeaiiinoueth eciaiaiee na?aea/iie iuooeu.

2.Ea/anoai aeecie o 4 aieueiuo oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia e o 1 aieueiie ia
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia.

3.Oaeoi?u, iiaeeyaoea ia i?iaiic aeecie o aieueiuo n eiieaioe?iaaiiui
YEN – yoi au?aaeaiiinoue eeeie/aneeo i?iyaeaiee iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey,
aic?ano aieueiuo.

4.O iaaethaeaaiuo aieueiuo eiieaioaoeey YEN oaaee/eea
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie, ii ia oeo/oeei ea/anoai aeecie.

I?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee.

1.Naiaa?aiaiiia iai?aaeaiea ia iia?aoeaiia ea/aiea.

2.Aeeniaina?iia iaaethaeaiea iinea eiieaioaoeee YEN.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. A.A. Eneaaea?ia, E.A. Oaoa?/aiei “Iaeioi?ua aniaeou ea/aaiie
?aaaeeeoaoeee aieueiuo n eneonnoaaiiui aiaeeoaeai ?eoia”. AEo?iae
“Oa?aiaaoe/aneee a?oea” ?8, 1998a., no?. 60-62.

2. A.A. Eaieoeiaa. “Eeeieei-yeaeo?iea?aeeia?aoe/aneia niiinoaaeaiea i?e
iiiaieaoiae ea?aeeinoeioeyoeeae o eeoe n iinoiyiiie e o?aiceoi?iie
iiia?a/iie aeieaaeie na?aeoea” AEo?iae “Ea?aeeieiaey” ? 9 – 10, 1994,
no?. 12-95

3. A.A. Ieueoei, E.A. Ieaeieeiaa, A.A. Eieiaeiaa, I.O. Ooaooey.
“Ea/anoai aeecie e auaeeaaaiinoue aieueiuo n eiieaioe?iaaiiui
yeaeo?iea?aeeinoeioeyoi?ii”. AEo?iae “Oa?aiaaoe/aneee a?oea” ? 9,
1996a., no? 55-58.

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2

sseooneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. I.E. Aiiiniaa

Iaaeeoeeineee einoeooo

Eaoaae?a oa?aiee

Auioneiay ?aaioa

oaia: “Ea/anoai aeecie aieueiuo n eiieaioe?iaaiiui
yeaeo?iea?aeeinoeioeyoi?ii”.

Auiieiee: nooaeaio EO-93 O-9

?oeiaiaeeoaeue: aeioeaio

A?oaiiiiaa O.N.

?aoeaicaio:

Iao?ia E.E

A. sseoone – 1999 aiae.

Niaea?aeaiea:

1. Nienie nie?auaiee

2. Aaaaeaiea

3. Eeoa?aoo?iue iaci?

4. Iaoa?eaeu e iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey

5. Aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiey

6. Caeeth/aiea

7. Auaiaeu

8. I?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee

9. Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

Nienie nie?auaiee.

ONI – o?iie/aneay na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue

YEA – yeaeo?iea?aeeia?aoey

YEN – yeaeo?iea?aeeinoeioeyoeey

Yoi EO – yoiea?aeeia?aoey

Aaaaeaiea

Auaeeaaaiinoue aieueiuo n iieiie ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iie aeieaaeie ana aua
inoaaony iaaunieie. *a?ac aiae iinea aa aicieeiiaaiey auaeeaaao 60 %
aieueiuo, a /a?ac 5 eao oieueei 20 % aieueiuo.

Aiaae?aiea a ea/aaioth i?aeoeeo iaoiaea YEN yaeeinue nouanoaaiiui
aeinoeaeaieai a ea/aiee iieiie ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iie aeieaaeu. Iia
iicaieeea cia/eoaeueii oeo/oeoue i?iaiic aeecie aieueiuo, iiauneoue
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue e ea/anoai aeecie. I?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue ea/anoai aeecie aieueiuo n eiieaioe?iaaiiui YEN,
iaoiaeyueony ia ea/aiee a ea?aeeieiae/aneii ioaeaeaiee sseooneie
ai?iaeneie aieueieoeu.

Oeaeue ianoiyuaai enneaaeiaaiey – i?iaanoe aiaeec ea/anoaa aeecie
aieueiuo n eiieaioe?iaaiiui YEN.

Aeey auiieiaiey yoie oeaee iinoaaeaiu neaaeothuea caaea/e.

I?iaanoe aiaeec:

1.eeeie/aneeo neiioiiia e oa/aiey iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey aei eiieaioaoeee
YEN.

2.aeeiaieee eeeie/aneeo neiioiiia e eeeie/aneeo oa/aiey iniiaiiai
caaieaaaiey iinea eiieaioaoeee YEN.

3.ea/anoai aeecie aieueiuo iinea eiieaioaoeee YEN

4.oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia ea/anoai aeecie yoeo aieueiuo

Eeoa?aoo?iue iaci?.

Ea/anoai aeecie – ioeaiea /aeiaaeii naiaai oece/aneiai, ineoe/aneiai e
nioeeaeueiiai aeaaiiieo/ey.

Ii eeoa?aoo?iui aeaiiui, aic?ano aieueiuo ninoaaeyao io 25 aei 81 aiaea
e n?aaeiee aic?ano ?aaai 62,4 aiaeai.

Anai aieueiui auea i?iecaaaeaia eiieaioaoeey YEN. I?e/eiie yoiai
iineoaeeea iieiay ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iay aeieaaea na?aeoea. *oiau ioeaieoue
ea/anoai aeecie e ?acoeueoaou iia?aoeaiiai ea/aiey ioaeiu aeaiiua YEA,
iieacaoaee aaiiaeeiaieee, iauaeeeie/aneea iaaethaeaiey. Ioeaiea
i?iecaiaeeeanue ii 3-o aaeueiie nenoaia – “oi?ioi”,
“oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii”, “iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii”.

“Oi?ioi” – ii?iaeecaoeey ninoiyiey aieueiiai aei iaaiaeiiai, o.a. aei
aicieeiiaaiey ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iie aeieaaeu, ainnoaiiaeaiey
o?oaeiniiniaiinoe.

“Oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia” – ia iieiay ii?iaeecaoeey aaiiaeeiaieee e ae?.
ineiaeiaiey.

“Iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia” – oyaeaeua iineaiia?aoeeiiiua ineiaeiaiey,
iaaiiaiea eiaea YEN, nio?aiaiea e i?ia?anne?iaaiea iaaeinoaoi/iinoe
e?iaiia?auaiey, nainen, nia?oue aieueiiai a ioaeaeaiiii
iineaiia?aoeeiiiii ia?eiaea.

Iinea eiieaioaoeee o anao aieueiuo nianai en/acee neiae?ii
Ii?naeuee-Aaeaina-Noiena aenoieiae/aneay aeia?oiiey e oiaiueoeeenue
noaiiea?aeey, iaaeinoaoi/iinoue e?iaiia?auaiey. Nie?aoeaoaa neiioiiu
noaiiea?aeee, iaaeinoaoi/iinoe e?iaiia?auaiey naycaiu n iaee/eai
iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey, nieaeaiea eiiiainaoi?iuo aiciiaeiinoae.

Auno?ia e noieeia oeo/oaiea ninoiyiea aaoi?u noaouee ioia/atho o eeoe
n?aaeiaai e iieiaeiai aic?anoa.

Ca ia?eiae iaaethaeaiey ninoiyiea eae oi?ioaa ioeaiaii a 71,8 % neo/aaa.
Oaeea aieueiua aaee aeiiaoiaa oicyenoai, eae oi: noe?ea, oai?ea,
i?eaioiaeaiea ieue, iiaeuai ii eanoieoea aei 5 yoaaea, aiaeaeaiea
aaoiiiaeeae, acaea ia aaeineiaaea. 26,9 % aa?ioeenue e ?aaioa, ec ieo
4,6% nio?aieee eaaeeoeeaoeeth, inoaeueiua eiaaeeaeu III a?oiiu,
o?aaothuea nicaeaiey niaoeeaeueiuo oneiaee o?oaea.

Eae oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia ioeaiaii a 14,5 %. O ieo auee neaaeothuea
ineiaeiaiey: iaaiiaiea eiaea YEN, iaiia?aoeey a nayce n aeeneieaoeeae
yeaeo?iaea YEN. Aieueiua niaa?oaee iaaieueoea iaoea i?iaoeee, iiaeuai
aei 1-2 yoaaea. Ec neiioiiia inoaeenue iauay neaainoue, auno?ay
ooiieyaiinoue. Aieueiui i?iaiaeeeinue ea?aeeaeueiay oa?aiey, iinoiyiii
oeo/oathuay ninoiyiea, ii iieiie ii?iaeecaoeee aaiiaeeiaieee ia auei
aeinoeaiooi.

Eae iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia ioeaiaii a 13,6 % neo/aaa, 10% oia?ei a
?aciua n?iee. I?e/eiie auee oyaeaeia enoiaeiia ninoiyiea ec-ca iniiaiiai
caaieaaaiey, iaaeinoaoi/iinoe e?iaiia?auaiey e aic?anoa. Ineiaeiaieyie
auea ?aeiaay eioaeoeey nainen. O aieueiuo ia oiaiueoaeanue
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue e?iaiia?auaiey, iie ioaeaeaeenue a iinoiyiiii ooiaea.

N?aaeiaaiaee/iay eaoaeueiinoue a ia?aua 12 ianyoeaa ninoaaeea 0,9 %,
/a?ac 36 ianyoeaa – 5,7 %. I?e/eiaie nia?oe auee iiaoi?iua eioa?eou
ieiea?aea e i?ia?anne?othuay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue e?iaiia?auaiey.

A auaeeaaaiinoe aieueiuo aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao iaaeinoaoi/iinoue
e?iaiia?auaiey, aic?ano aieueiuo, i?e/eia ea?aeeineea?ica.

Oae, iaee/ea iaaeinoaoi/iinoe e?iaiia?auaiey nieaeaao auaeeaaaiinoue
aieueiuo. *a?ac 5 eao iaaethaeaiey aieueiuo n iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth
e?iaiia?auaiey auei 70,9 %, a aac iaaeinoaoi/iinoe e?iaiia?auaiey 91,2%.

Auaeeaaaiinoue aieueiuo a iieiaeii e n?aaeiai aic?anoa iaeaieaa aunieay,
iaeaieaa ieceay 60-69 eao.

Aeaaii?eyoiue i?iaiic ioia/ai o eeoe n iinoieiea?aee/iui
ea?aeeineea?icii. Auaeeaaaiinoue /a?ac 9 eao ninoaaeea 74,4 %. Iaeiaiaa
aeaaii?eyoiue i?iaiic o eeoe n iinoeioa?eoiui ea?aeeineea?icii – 61,3 %
ca oio aea n?ie.

Oaeaea aaoi?u noaouee ioia/atho aunieoth auaeeaaaiinoue aieueiuo,
iaoiaeyueony ia aeeniaina?iii iaaethaeaiee. A oa/aiee 9 eao iia
ninoaaeea 78,9 % ( A.A. Ieueoei e niaaoi?u, 1996 a.).

Ii anee iaeioi?ua n/eoath YEN yooaeoeaiui iaoiaeii ea/aiey, oi A.A.
Eneaiaea?ia n/eoaao iaoiae YEN eeoue yoaiii a ea/aiee iniiaiiai
caaieaaaiey, iineieueeo YEN ii?iaeecoao ?eoi e oeo/oaao aaiiaeeiaieeo,
ii ia ono?aiyao naii caaieaaaiea. Eneaiaea?ia iauyniyao yoi oai, /oi
eaoaeueiinoue io ea?aeeaeueiie iaoieiaee ninoaaeyao 71,3 %, a
eaoaeueiinoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii io ineiaeiaiee YEN ninoaaeea eeoue 07%.

Iaoa?eaeu e iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey.

Iaoa?eaeii aeey enneaaeiaaiey iineoaeeee 5 enoi?ee aieacie aieueiuo n
iieiie ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iie aeieaaeie, eioi?ui aue eiieaioe?iaai YEN,
iinooieaoeo ia ea/aiea a ea?aeeieiae/aneia ioaeaeaiea sseooneie
ai?iaeneie aieueieoeu.

Ec 5 aieueiuo – 2-a ioae/ei e 3-a aeaiuei (oaae. 1).

Ii aic?anoiui a?oiiai iie ?ani?aaeaeeeenue neaaeothuei ia?acii: io 50
aei 59 eao – 2-a aieueiuo, io 60 aei 69 eao– 1 aieueiie, io 70 aei 79
eao – 1 aieueiie, io 80 aei 89 eao – 1 aieueiay (oaae. 2).

Anee a?aoue n?aaeiee aic?ano, oi ii ninoaaeyao 66,8 eao.

Ii iaoeeiiaeueiinoe ec 5 aieueiuo – 4 yeooia, 1 ?onneay (oaae. 3).

O 4-o aieueiuo aue eiieaioe?iaai 1-eaia?iue YEN, o 1-ai aieueiiai 2-o
eaia?iue YEN.

Aeeeoaeueiinoue YEN ninoaaeea io 2 aei 16 eao.

Anai aieueiui i?iaiaeeeenue neaaeothuea eeeie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey: iauee
aiaeec e?iae, iauee aiaeec ii/e, aeioeie/aneee aiaeec e?iae ia
oieanoa?ei, – eeiii?ioaeaeu, i?io?iiaeeiaue eiaeaen e?iae, a oaeaea
oaeea eino?oiaioaeueiua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey eae YEA, YoiEA,
?aioaaiia?aoey a?oaeiie eeaoee.

?acoeueoaou iia?aoeaiiai ea/aiey e ea/anoaa aeecie aieueiuo
ioeaieaaeenue ii 3 aaeueiie nenoaia, ?ac?aaioaiiie A.A. Ieueoeiui, E.A.
Ieaeieeiaie (1996 a.). Iia iicaieyea ioeaieoue ?acoeueoaou eae
“oi?ioi”, “oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii” e “iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii”. Eae
“oi?ioi”, anee ninoiyiea aieueiiai iicaieyao aa?iooueny e o?oaeo eee
aeinoeaaao o?iaiy, eioi?ue aue aei aeieaaeu na?aeoea.
“Oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia”, anee ii?aaeaeyeinue iaiieiay ii?iaeecaoeey
aaiiaeeiaieee e iaee/ea ineiaeiaiee. “Iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia” – anee
eiaeenue oyaeaeua iineaiia?aoeeiiiua ineiaeiaiey (nainen, iaaiiaiea
eiaea YEN), nio?aiyeinue iaaeinoaoi/iinoue e?iaiia?auaiey, a oaeaea a
neo/aa nia?oe aieueiiai.

?ani?aaeaeaiea ii iieo Oaaeeoea 1

IieEiee/anoai aieueiuoAEaiueiu

Ioae/eiu3 /aeiaaea

2 /aeiaaea

?ani?aaeaeaiea ii aic?anoiui a?oiiai Oaaeeoea 2

Aic?anoEiee/anoai aieueiuo50-59 eao

60-69 eao

70-79 eao

80-89 eao2-a aieueiuo

1 aieueiie

1 aieueiie

1 aieueiie

?ani?aaeaeaiea ii iaoeeiiaeueiinoe Oaaeeoea 3

Iaoeeiiaeueiinoue?onneeasseooueiee/anoai14

Aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiey

Ana iaaethaeaaiua aieueiua iiae?acaeaeaiu ii iniiaiiio caaieaaaieth ia
a?oiiu aieueiuo: EAN n iinoeioa?eoiui ea?aeeineea?icii – 2 aieueiuo, EAN
n aoa?ineea?ioe/aneei ea?aeeineea?icii – 2 aieueiuo e n aeeciaa?eaeueiie
ieiea?aeeiaeeno?ioeae – 1 aieueiay. O anao aieueiuo iaaethaeaeanue
iieiay ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iay aeieaaea n *NN = 40-44 oaea?ia a ieiooo.

O anao aieueiuo aei eiieaioaoeee YEN ioia/aeenue ineiaeiaiey iniiaiiai
caaieaaaiey. O 4 aieueiuo iaaethaeaeanue ONI: I noaaeee o 3 aieueiuo, II
noaaeee o 1 aieueiiai, III noaaeee o 1 aieueiie.

O 4 aieueiuo ioia/aeenue ia?ooaiey ?eoia a aeaea: ia?oeaoaeueiie a?eoiee
2 aieueiuo, aeaeoaei/eiaie yeno?anenoiiee 2 aieueiuo, a o 1 aieueiie
ia?ooaiea i?iaiaeeiinoe a aeaea iieiie aeieaaeu eaaie iiaeee io/ea Aenna
(oaae. 4)

Aeaeu ineiaeiaiee iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey

o iaaethaeaaiuo aieueiuo Oaaeeoea 4

ONIIa?ooaiea ?eoiaIa?ooaiea i?iaiaeeiinoe iieiie aeieaaeu eaaie iiaeee
io/ea AennaI noaaeeeII noaaeeeIII noaaeeeIa?oeaoaeueiay
a?eoieyAEaeoaei/eiaay yeno?anenoiiey3 aieueiuo1 aieueiie1 aieueiay2
aieueiuo2 aieueiuo1 aieueiay

I?e ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia iia?aoeee eiieaioaoeee YEN auyeaia a iaeiii
neo/aa aeenooieoeey YEN, eioi?ay i?iyaeyeanue a ia?eiaee/aneii aai
ioeeth/aiee e a yoio ia?eiae ia YEA ?aaeno?e?iaaeny nianoaaiiue
i?aaena?aeiue ?eoi na?aeoea (YEA ?1). O inoaeueiuo aieueiuo YEN aue
eni?aaai. O anao aieueiuo nio?aiyeenue ia?ooaiey ?eoia a aeaea
ia?oeaoaeueiie a?eoiee – 2 aieueiuo, AEaeoaei/eiaay yeno?anenoiiey – 2
aieueiuo (YEA ?2), ia?ooaiea i?iaiaeeiinoe a aeaea iieiie aeieaaeu eaaie
iiaeee io/ea Aenna – o 1 aieueiie e neiioiiu ONI I noaaeee o 3 aieueiuo,
II noaaeee o 1 aieueiiai, III noaaeee o 1 aieueiie.

4 aieueiuo auiieiyee eaaeoth aeiiaoithth ?aaioo, ei?ioeea i?iaoeee ia
naaaeai aicaeooa, iiaeuai ii eanoieoea aieaa /ai ia 2 yoaaea. I?e/ai 2-
eiaee eiaaeeaeiinoue 2 a?oiiu.

Ianoaeaeaiea.

I?e/eiie aeey i?iaaaeaiey YEN o iaaethaeaaiuo aieueiuo iineoaeeea iieiay
ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iay aeieaaea, iaoneiaeaiiay EAN o 4 aieueiuo e o 1
aieueiie, naycaiiie n aeeciaaciaeueiie ieiea?aeeiaeeno?ioeae. A aiaeeca
o aieueiuo aei eiieaioaoeee YEN aaaeoueie neiioiiaie auee cia/eoaeueiay
a?aaeeea?aeey 40-44 oaea?ia a ieiooo e o?iie/aneay na?aea/iay
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue I-III noaaeee.

Oaoie/anee oniaoiie eiieaioaoeey YEN auea o 4 aieueiuo, a o 1 aieueiie
/a?ac 5 eao ioia/aaony aeenooieoeey YEN a aeaea eiieo?aioeee ?eoia
na?aeoea e YEN. Ii eeoa?aoo?iui aeaiiui eiieo?aioeey eneonnoaaiiiai e
nianoaaiiiai ?eoia ioia/aaony a 30 % neo/aaa (A.A. Eaeeoeeiaa, 1994a.).

Ia?ooaiea ?eoia e i?iaiaeeiinoe nio?aieeenue o anao iaaethaeaaiuo
aieueiuo. Neiioiiu ONI nio?aieeenue o anao iaaethaeaaiuo aieueiuo.

Ii aeaiiui YoiEA o yoeo aieueiuo o?aeoeey aua?ina ninoaaeea io 43 aei 59
%. Ionoonoaea iieiaeeoaeueiie aeeiaieee oa/aiey e ineiaeiaiee o aieueiuo
iiaeii iauynieoue oyaeanoueth oa/aiey iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey.

Aiaeec aiaiianoe/aneeo aeaiiuo, iauaai ninoiyiey aieueiuo,
aaiiaeeiaie/aneeo iieacaoaeae iicaieeee ioeaieoue ea/anoai aeecie
aieueiuo ia “oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii” a 4 neo/ayo. Eae
“iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii” ioeaiaii a 1 neo/aa, eioi?ue caeii/eeny
eaoaeueiui enoiaeii.

Oaeoi?aie, iiaeeyaoeie ia ea/anoai aeecie aieueiuo n eiieaioaoeeae YEN
auee au?aaeaiiua eciaiaiey na?aea/iie iuooeu aei eiieaioaoeee YEN, i /ai
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao iaee/ea neiioiiia ONI, ia?ooaiea ?eoia, i?iaiaeeiinoe
o anao aieueiuo. O 1 aieueiie iinea eiieaioaoeee YEN i?ia?anne?iaaea
ONI, inoaeenue ia?ooaiey i?iaiaeeiinoe, ?eoia e i?eniaaeeieeanue
aoi?e/iay aeeeaoaoeeiiiay ea?aeeiieiiaoey n o?iiaii i?aaiai
i?aaena?aeey.

Caeeth/aiea.

Iinoiyiiay YEN i?iecaaaeaia anai aieueiui ii iiaiaeo iieiie
ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iie aeieaaeu, iniiaiie i?e/eiie eioi?ie aaea EAN.
Iinoeioa?eoiue ea?aeeineea?ic e ioa?ineea?ioe/aneee ea?aeeineea?ic.

Eeeieei iieiie ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iie aeieaaeu oa?aeoa?ecoaony
cia/eoaeueiie a?iaeeei?aeee n *NN 40-44 oaea?a a ieiooo e neiioiiaie ONI
I-III noaaeee. Aa oa/aiea caaeneo io oyaeanoe eeeie/aneeo i?iyaeaiee
iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey.

Eiieaioaoeey YEN ieacaeanue yooaeoeaiie o anao aieueiuo. ?acoeueoaou
iia?aoeaiiai ea/aiey e ea/anoaa aeecie auee oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiuie o 4
aieueiuo e o 1 aieueiie – iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui.

Iaiaa aeaaii?eyoiia oa/aiea ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iie aeieaaeu o yoeo aieueiuo
iiaeii iauynieoue iaee/eai o aieueoeinoaa iinoeioa?eoiiai e
ioa?ineea?ioe/aneiai ea?aeeineea?ica, /oi niaeanoaony n eeoa?aoo?iuie
aeaiiuie, ioia/athueie, /oi iaiaa aeaaii?eyoiuie auaatho ioaeaeaiiua
?acoeueoaou o aieueiuo n oa/aiea ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iie aeieaaeie,
iaoneiaeaiiie iinoeioa?eoiui ea?aeeineea?icii (A.A. Ieueoei, 1996 a.).

Ia ?acoeueoaou ea/anoaa aeecie aeeyiea ieacuaaao aic?ano aieueiuo. Ana
iaaethaeaaiua aieueiua auee iiaeeeua a aic?anoa io 55 aei 81 aiaea. Ii
eeoa?aoo?iui aeaiiui iaeaieaa ieceia auaeeaaaiinoue iaaethaeaaony a
a?oiia aieueiuo a aic?anoa io 60 aei 69 eao e e 9 aiaeo iinea
eiieaioaoeee YEN ninoaaeyao 52,6 % (A.A. Ieueoei, 1996 a.).

O.i., oaeoi?aie, oeacaaoeie iaaeaaii?eyoiua aeeyiey ia ea/anoaa aeecie e
iinea eiieaioaoeee YEN yaeythony ONI, aic?ano aieueiuo, oyaeaeia oa/aiea
iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey.

Auaiaeu.

1.Eeeie/aneia oa/aiea iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony
au?aaeaiiinoueth eciaiaiee na?aea/iie iuooeu.

2.Ea/anoai aeecie o 4 aieueiuo oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia e o 1 aieueiie ia
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia.

3.Oaeoi?u, iiaeeyaoea ia i?iaiic aeecie o aieueiuo n eiieaioe?iaaiiui
YEN – yoi au?aaeaiiinoue eeeie/aneeo i?iyaeaiee iniiaiiai caaieaaaiey,
aic?ano aieueiuo.

4.O iaaethaeaaiuo aieueiuo eiieaioaoeey YEN oaaee/eea
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie, ii ia oeo/oeei ea/anoai aeecie.

I?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee.

1.Naiaa?aiaiiia iai?aaeaiea ia iia?aoeaiia ea/aiea.

2.Aeeniaina?iia iaaethaeaiea iinea eiieaioaoeee YEN.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. A.A. Eneaaea?ia, E.A. Oaoa?/aiei “Iaeioi?ua aniaeou ea/aaiie
?aaaeeeoaoeee aieueiuo n eneonnoaaiiui aiaeeoaeai ?eoia”. AEo?iae
“Oa?aiaaoe/aneee a?oea” ?8, 1998a., no?. 60-62.

2. A.A. Eaieoeiaa. “Eeeieei-yeaeo?iea?aeeia?aoe/aneia niiinoaaeaiea i?e
iiiaieaoiae ea?aeeinoeioeyoeeae o eeoe n iinoiyiiie e o?aiceoi?iie
iiia?a/iie aeieaaeie na?aeoea” AEo?iae “Ea?aeeieiaey” ? 9 – 10, 1994,
no?. 12-95

3. A.A. Ieueoei, E.A. Ieaeieeiaa, A.A. Eieiaeiaa, I.O. Ooaooey.
“Ea/anoai aeecie e auaeeaaaiinoue aieueiuo n eiieaioe?iaaiiui
yeaeo?iea?aeeinoeioeyoi?ii”. AEo?iae “Oa?aiaaoe/aneee a?oea” ? 9,
1996a., no? 55-58.

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