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История медицины (Значение Канона врачебной науки для развития медицины)

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12

Yoio oaee acyo ec eieeaeoeee Medinfo

http://www.doktor.ru/medinfo

http://medinfo.home.ml.org

E-mail: [email protected]

or [email protected]

or [email protected]

FidoNet 2:5030/434 Andrey Novicov

Ieoai ?aoa?aou ia caeac – e-mail: [email protected]

A Medinfo aeey aan naiay aieueoay ?onneay eieeaeoeey iaaeeoeeineeo

?aoa?aoia, enoi?ee aieacie, eeoa?aoo?u, iao/athueo i?ia?aii, oanoia.

Caoiaeeoa ia http://www.doktor.ru – ?onneee iaaeeoeeineee na?aa? aeey
anao!

No?aooneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao

iaaeeei-aeieiae/aneee oaeoeueoao

(eo?n enoi?ee iaaeeoeeiu)

?aoa?ao

ia oaio:

Cia/aiea “Eaiiia a?a/aaiie iaoee” aeey ?acaeoey

iaaeeoeeiu.

Auiieiee nooaeaio_______________

______________________________

I?iaa?ee______________________

______________________________

Iiaeienue__________Aeaoa_________

No?aoo 1997

IEAI:

1. Aeia?aoey Eai Neiu.

2. Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea yiioe.

3. Cia/aiea “Eaiiia a?a/aaiie iaoee”.

Ia?iiioth ?ieue a ?acaeoee iaaeeoeeiu nua?aea iao/iay e i?aeoe/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue Eai Neiu.

Eai Neia i?eiaaeeaaeeo e /eneo aaee/aeoeo o/aiuo N?aaeiae Acee,
iaiaaoeaoeo ie?iaoth iaoeo aeinoeaeaieyie ia?ainoaiaiiie aaaeiinoe.
O?oaeu Eai Neiu e aai aaeeeiai nia?aiaiieea Aao ?aeoaia Aa?oie
ciaiaiiaaee iaeaunooth nooiaiue ?acaeoey iaoee ia n?aaeiaaaeiaii
Ainoiea.

Ioaoe Eai Neiu, Aaaeaeeao, aue ?iaeii ec Aaeoa. A ia?eiae i?aaeaiey
naiaieaeneiai yie?a Iooa eai Iaino?a (976-997) Aaaeaeeao ia?aaoae a
Aooa?o, aaea aue iacia/ai ia/aeueieeii nai?a iaeiaia n naeaiey Oo?ieoai,
iaaeaeaei io ai?iaea Aooa?u. Caoai ii iaeioi?ia a?aiy aeee a naeaiee
Aaoaia, oai aeaieeny ia aeaaooea ii eiaie Neoi?a. A ia/aea ianyoea naoa?
370 a. oeaeae?u (aoi?ay iieiaeia aaaonoa 980 a.) o ieo ?iaeeeny nui
Oonaei (oaeiai nianoaaiiia eiy Eai Neiu). Oonaeio auei ieiei 5 eao,
eiaaea naiuey ia?aneeeeanue a noiee/iue ai?iae Aooa?o, yaeyaoothny
oiaaea iaeiei ec e?oiiaeoeo oeaio?ia Ainoiea. Iaeue/eea ioaeaee a oeieo.

N ?aiiaai aeaonoaa Eai Neia iao/aeny ei?aio e aaeaao (nthaea aoiaeeee
a?aiiaoeea, noeeenoeea e iiyoeea) e 10 aiaeai aeecie a iaaeo iaeanoyo
aeinoea niaa?oainoaa. E?iia oiai, ii eco/ae a?eoiaoeeo e aeaaa?o, a
iioii iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii naiaai aeiiaoiaai o/eoaey Aao Aaaeaeeaoa
ai-Iaoeee ia/ae eco/aoue eiaeeo, Aaeeeaeiao aaiiao?eth e “Aeueiaaano”
Ioieaiay. Iaeiaei nei?i ai-Iaoeee auioaeaeai aue i?eciaoue, /oi en/a?iae
naie o/aaiue iaoa?eae e oaea ia a ninoiyiee oaeiaeaoai?eoue
iiciaaaoaeueiue eioa?an iaeue/eea, e Eai Neia naiinoiyoaeueii
i?iaeieaeae naia o/aiea. Ii n oaea/aieai caiyeny eco/aieai anoanoaaiiuo
iaoe, e i?aaeaea anaai iaaeeoeeiu. Iaeiia?aiaiii caieiaeny a?a/aaiie
i?aeoeeie – aanieaoii ea/ee aieueiuo. A aic?anoe 17 eao Eai Neia, eae
a?a/, iieueciaaeny a Aooa?a oaeie neaaie, /oi aue i?eaeaoai ei aeai?o
Iooa eai Iaino?a, eioi?ue aeieaia a?aiy aieae, e ea/eaoea aai
i?eaeai?iua a?a/e ie/ai ia iiaee aio iiii/ue. Eai Neia oaeaeinue a
ei?ioeee n?ie auea/eoue i?aaeoaey, e a aeaaiaea?iinoue ca yoi iieiaeie
o/aiue iieo/ee ?ac?aoaiea iieueciaaoueny aeai?oeiaie aeaeeioaeie,
eioi?ay auea iaeiie ec eo/oeo e aiaaoaeoeo aeaeeioae ia anai Aeeaeiai
Ainoiea. A ?acoeueoaoa ii ?anoe?ee naie iao/iua iiciaiey aei
a?aiaeeiciuo ianooaaia.

Iniiaaoaeueii onaiea eiaeeo, anoanoaiciaiea, iaaeeoeeio e ae?. iaoee Eai
Neia ia?aoae e iaoaoeceea, n/eoaaoaeny oiaaea iaeiei ec iniiaiuo
?acaeaeia oeeinioee.

Caaiaaaiea Aooa?u Ea?aoaieaeaie, iaaeaiea aeeianoee Naiaieaeia (999 a.)
e iineaaeiaaaoea ca yoeie niauoeyie oaiaeaeueiua iaaeaeioniaeoeu ia
iicaieeee Eai Neia i?iaeieaeeoue naie iao/iua caiyoey a Aooa?a. A 1002
a. oia? aai ioaoe. Ana yoi iiaoaeeei Eai Neio iieeiooue ?iaeiie ai?iae e
ioi?aaeoueny a Oi?aci, a O?aai/, aaea iieeoe/aneay ianoaiiaea auea aieaa
aeaaii?eyoiie.

AEanoieee i?aaeoaeue Aanie noeoai Iaoioae (998-1030), eioi?ue iie?aeny a
naiae iieeoeea ia ?aaeoeeiiiia aeooiaainoai e iiaeaaeye anyeia
i?iyaeaiea iao/iiai naiaiaeiiuneey, no?aieeny aeea/eoue aiaaoua caiee
Oi?acia a ninoaa naiaai ainoaea?noaa. Ia aeaeay iiianoue a iiae/eiaiea
yoiio i?aaeoaeth, Eai Neia i?eia?ii 1010 – 1011 aa. oaeii iieeioe Oi?aci
e ioi?aaeeny a Oi?anai. Ii i?eaue a Ao?aai, oaiaeaeueiia eiyaeanoai ia
thai-ainoi/iii iiaa?aaeuea Eanieeneiai ii?y. Caeanue Eai Neia
iiciaeiieeny n Aao Oaaeaeii Aeaeocaeaeaie, eioi?ue noae aai aa?iui
o/aieeii, niioonoaiaaaoei aio aei eiioea aai aeecie. Aeaeocaeaeaie
caienae ni neia Eai Neiu aai aaoiaeia?aoeth, aeiaaaeaiioth aei i?eauoey
o/aiiai a Ao?aai. Ii inoaaee iai e iienaiea aeieueiaeoeo niauoee aeecie
naiaai o/eoaey. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio iu ?aniieiaaai aeinoiaa?iuie
naaaeaieyie i aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe Eai Neiu.

A Ao?aaia Eai Neia aiciaiiaee iao/ioth ?aaioo e a?a/aaioth i?aeoeeo. Ii
i?enooiee Ia?aie eieae naiaai aeaaiiai o?oaea ii iaaeeoeeia – “Eaiiia
a?a/aaiie iaoee” e ae?. ni/eiaiee. A 1014 a. Eai Neia iieeaeaao Ao?aai e
iaeioi?ia a?aiy aeeaao a ?aa e Eacaeia. Caoai i?eauaaao a Oaiaaeai e
iinooiaao ia neoaeao e aoeaeneiio i?aaeoaeth Oain aae-aeaoea (997-1021)
n ia/aea a ea/anoaa i?eaeai?iiai a?a/a, a ca oai e aece?a. Caeanue ii
iaienae iiiaea naie i?iecaaaeaiey, ia/ae ?aaioo iaae iiiaioiiiie
oeeinioneie yioeeeeiiaaeeae “Eeoaa ao-oeoa” (“Eieaa enoeaeaiey”).

A 1023 a. Eai Neia ia?aacaeaao a Enoaaai e caaa?oaao oai “Eeoaa
ao-oeoa”, nicaeaao ae?oaea o?oaeu a oii /enea naith e?aoeoth
oeeinioneoth yioeeeeiiaaeeth ia ia?neaeneii ycuea “Aeaieo-iaia” (“Eieaa
ciaiey”).

Ii/oe iai?a?uaiua neeoaiey ii ai?iaeai Iaaa?aiiao?a e E?aia, iinoiyiiue
iai?yaeaiiue o?oae, aanniiiue ii/e, iaiaeiae?aoiua oth?aiiua caeeth/aiey
iaaeeiieee i?aaieci o/aiiai. Ii no?aaeae eieeoii, io eioi?iai ii e oia?
a ?aiacaia 428 a. (a ethia 1037 a.) a aic?anoa 57 eao. Eai Neia aue
iioi?iiai a Oaiaaeaia, aai iiaeea nio?aieeanue aei iaoeo aeiae.

Eae iiaeeeiiue o/aiue – yioeeeeiiaaeeno Eai Neia n aieueoei oniaoii
?aaioae ii/oe ai anao iaeanoyo ciaiey. A enoi/ieeao oiiieiaaony nauoa
450 iacaaiee aai ni/eiaiee, a /enei aeioaaeoeo aei ian o?oaeia ieiei
240. Iie ioaaouaatho oaeea iaeanoe iaoee, eae oeeinioey, iaaeeoeeia,
eiaeea, ineoieiaey, “oeceea” (o. a. anoanoaiciaiea), ano?iiiiey,
iaoaiaoeea, iocuea, oeiey, yoeea, eeoa?aoo?a, ycueiciaiea e ae?.

Iaeiaei Eai Neia i?ineaaeeny aeaaiui ia?acii aeaaiaea?y naiei o?oaeai ii
oeeinioee e iaaeeoeeia.Ec /enea aeioaaeoeo aei ian oeeinianeeo o?oaeia
o/aiiai oiiiyiai “Eieao enoeaeaiey” (“Eeoaa ao-oeoa”) , “Eieao nianaiey”
(“Eeoaa ai-iaaeaeao”), “Oeacaiey e ianoaaeaiey” (“Ae-eoa?ao
aa-o-oaiaeoao”) e “Eieao ciaiey” (“Aea-ieo-iaia”).

Eai Neia eniieueciaae ana oeaiiia, /oi auei au?aaioaii aai
i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie a iaeanoe anoanoaiciaiey e oeeinioee e nicaeae
oeeinioeth, noaaooth aa?oeiie ?acaeoey oai?aoe/aneie iunee a no?aiao
Aeeaeiaai e N?aaeiaai Ainoiea a yiioo ?aiiaai n?aaeiaaaeiauey. Ianiio?y
ia i?ioeai?a/eainoue ioaeaeueiuo iieiaeaiee, oeeinioneia o/aiea Eai Neiu
a oneiaeyo oaiaeaeecia nua?aei i?ia?anneaioth ?ieue. A iai io/aoeeai
aunooiaao iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay oaiaeaioeey, no?aieaiea i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue
?aeeaee iao/iua iiciaiey, iniiaaiiua ia iiuoa e eiae/aneeo
aeieacaoaeuenoaao.

Ii?aaeaeaiiue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho ?aaiou Eai Neiu ii ineoieiaee. A
yoii aii?ina ii naeaeae aieueoie oaa e iaoa?eaeecio, eai aia?aua iuoaeny
oaycaoue ioaeaeueiua aeaeu ineoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea n
ii?aaeaeaiiuie /anoyie aieiaiiai iicaa.

Iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneea acaeyaeu aaeeeiai oeeinioa naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i
oii, /oi e a yoie iaeanoe ii i?eaea?aeeaaeny i?ia?anneaiuo eaeaaeia. Eai
Neia aunooiae ca eaeaaeueiia ainoaea?noai, ianaeaiea eioi?iai aeieaeii
ninoiyoue ec i?aaeoaeae, i?iecaiaeeoaeae e aienea, e eaaeaeue aeieaeai
caieiaoueny iieaciie ?aaioie.

Eai Neia n oniaoii caieiaeny e ae?oaeie iaoeaie. Ii iaeaaeae oe?ieeie
aeey naiaai a?aiaie iiciaieyie a iaeanoe oeiee, e aio i?eienuaathony
ianeieueei oeie/aneeo ?aaio. Eai Neia ai iiiaii niaeaenoaiaae
iineaaeothuaio ?acaeoeth oeiee, aeaaiui ia?acii aeaaiaea?y e?eoeea
iniiaiiai i?eioeeia aeoeiee, a eiaiii, aiciiaeiinoe i?aa?auaiey
iaaeaai?iaeiuo iaoaeeia a aeaai?iaeiua.

A iaeanoe aaieiaee ii auneacae i?eaeiaeueioth, aeeceoth nia?aiaiiie
iao/iie oai?ee oi/eo c?aiey ia ai?iia?aciaaiea. Ii aai iiaieth, ai?u
ia?aciaaeenue a ?acoeueoaoa 2 oaeoi?ia: 1- iiaeiyoea caiiie ei?u ai
a?aiy neeueiuo caieao?ynaiee, 2 – aeaenoaea iioiea aiaeu, eioi?ay a
iieneao iooe aeaeaao aieueoea oaeoaeaiey a aeieeiao e yoei naiui
iaoneiaeeaaao ia?aciaaiea aieueoeo aicauoaiiinoae.

Eai Neia iiiai caieiaeny e aii?inaie aioaieee, eai eae a?a/, ii ia iia
ia oaeaeyoue aeieaeiiai aieiaiey eco/aieth ?anoaiee, eiathueo oeaeaaiua
naienoaa. Ea?e Eeiiae (1707-17078), o/eouaay caneoae Eai Neiu a iaeanoe
yoie iaoee, iacaae aa/iicaeaiia o?iie/aneia ?anoaiea aai eiaiai –
Aaeoeaiiey.

Cia/eoaeueiue neaae inoaaee Eai Neia e a iaeanoe iiycee. Iiiaea naie
iao/iua o?aeoaou ii iaienae noeoaie a ?acia?a ?aaeaeac. E?iia oiai ei
iaienaii ianeieueei i?iecaaaeaiee, eioi?ua ieacaee caiaoiia aeeyiea ia
iineaaeothuoth ia?niycu/ioth eeoa?aoo?o. Nouanoaoao naycue iaaeaeo
iineaieai Eai Neiu “Ao-oae?” (“Ioeoea”) e ecaanoiie iiyiie
“Oa?eaeaaeaeeia Aooa?a” (12 aae) “Iaioee ao-oae?” (“?acaiai? ioeoe”).
Yoa oaia aaiaeeony a ocaaeneoth eeoa?aoo?o Aeeoa?ii Iaaie (1414-1492).
Nouanoaoao aua ianeieueei eeo’a e aacaeae ieiei 40 /aoaa?inoeoae Eai
Neiu ia ia?neaeneii ycuea.

Iniaaiii aaeeee caneoae Eai Neiu a iaeanoe iaaeeoeeiu. Aai ni?aaaaeeeai
n/eoatho iaeiei ec aaee/aeoeo o/aiuo iaaeeeia a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa. Ii
naaaeaieyi ?acee/iuo enoi/ieeia, iauaa /enei iaaeeoeeineeo o?oaeia Eai
Neiu aeioiaeeo aei 50, ii ec ieo nio?aieeinue ieiei 30 a noaiaie 8. Ii
niaea?aeaieth eo iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue (ca eneeth/aieai “Eaiiia”) oneiaii
ia o?e a?oiiu: 1) o?oaeu iauaai oa?aeoa?a, a eioi?uo inaauathony oa eee
eiua ?acaeaeu iaaeeoeeiu e iaeioi?ua aa oai?aoe/aneea aii?inu; 2) o?oaeu
i caaieaaaieyo eaeiai-eeai iaeiiai i?aaia eee ia iaeiie eiie?aoiie
aieacie, iai?eia?, i caaieaaaieyo na?aeoea e n?aaenoaao aai ea/aiey, i
aieacie oienoie eeoee (eoeaiaeae), i ?anno?ienoaao ooieoeee iieiauo
i?aaiia;3) o?oaeu ii eaea?noaiaaaeaieth.

Iaeiaei aeaaiui iaaeeoeeineei o?oaeii Eai Neiu, i?eianoei aio
iiiaiaaeiaoth neaao ai anai eoeueoo?iii ie?a, yaeyaony “Eaiii a?a/aaiie
iaoee”. Yoi iiaeeeiii iaaeeoeeineay yioeeeeiiaaeey, a eioi?ie n
eiae/aneie no?ieiinoueth eceaaaaony ana, /oi ioiineony e i?ioeeaeoeea e
ea/aieth aieaciae. A “Eaiiia a?a/aaiie iaoee”, a oaeaea a ?yaea
niaoeeaeueiuo ?aaio ii eaea?noaiaaaeaieth (“Eieaa i eaea?noaao i?e
na?aea/iuo aieaciyo”, “I naienoaao oeeei?ey”, “I naienoaao oenona –
eeaea” e ae?.). Eai Neia ia oieueei iauaaeeiee ?ac?iciaiiue iiuo
i?ioeiai e aeiiieiee aai ?acoeueoaoaie nianoaaiiuo iaaethaeaiee, ii e
noi?ie?iaae ?yae i?eioeeieaeueiuo iieiaeaiee ?aoeeiiaeueiie oi?iaoeee.
Anee Eai Aaaac (930-994) oeacuaae ia aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey i?iaa?ee
aeaenoaey a aieueieoea, oi Eai Neia i?aaeeaaaao nenoaio eo eniuoaiey,
aeeth/athuoth iaaethaeaiea ca eo aeaenoaeai o iinoaee aieueiiai,
iinoaiiaeo iiuoia ia aeeaioiuo e aeaaea iaeioi?ia iiaeiaea eeeie/aneiai
eniuoaiey. I?e yoii Eai Neia n/eoaao iaeaieaa iaaeaaeiui
yenia?eiaioaeueiue iooue i?iaa?ee aeaenoaey eaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa e
i?aaeeaaaao “oneiaey”, iaania/eaathuea “/enoioo yenia?eiaioa”. A “Eaiiia
a?a/aaiie iaoee” niaea?aeaoueny oeacaiey ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue auyaeaiey
iiai/iiai aeaenoaey eaea?noa, ia iaee/ea acaeiiiai oneeaiey eo e
acaeiiiai ineaaeaiey aeaenoaey eaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa i?e eo niaianoiii
iacia/aiee.

Eai Neia naycuaae ?acaeoea ?aoeeiiaeueiie oa?iaoeee n i?eiaiaieai
eaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa, iieo/aiiuo oeie/aneei iooai. Yoa eaeay, eioi?oth
?acaeaeyee iaeioi?ua a?aaneea e n?aaeiaaceaoneea o/aiua e a?a/e
(Aeaeaae? eai Oaeyi ; ?ace, Ae?oie e ae?.),auea a aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoa
aeoeieeaie n?aaeiaaaeiaie Aa?iiu, a oaeaea a?a/aie yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey e
Iiaiai a?aiaie. Eai Neia iienae iiiai iiauo eaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa
?anoeoaeueiiai, aeeaioiiai e ieia?aeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey.A /anoiinoe,
n aai eiaiai naycuaatho ia?aia i?eiaiaiea ?oooe, eioi?ay a 10 a.
aeiauaaeanue a ie?anoiinoyo Aooa?u, aeey ea/aiey neoeeena. Ei aea eae
iiai/iia aeaenoaea ?oooe iienaiu i?iyaeaiey ?oooiiai noiiaoeoa. Ec
ia?a/iy eaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa, i?eeiaeaiiiai e Eieaa aoi?ie “Eaiiia
a?a/aaiie iaoee”, ieiei 150 cia/eeenue a ia?auo ainueie ecaeaieyo
?onneie oa?iaeiiae.

ssaeyynue ii?iaeaeaieai ae?aaiae auniei?acaeoie eoeueoo?u,
n?aaeiaaceaoneay iaaeeoeeia a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ii?aaeaeeea o?iaaiue
e naiaia?acea iaaeeoeeiu a?aaneiai Ainoiea. Iaiauathuea
yioeeeeiiaaee/aneea o?oaeu n?aaeiaaceaoneeo a?a/ae ai iiiaii
niinianoaiaaee nio?aiaieth e ?acaeoeth aeinoeaeaiee iaaeeoeeiu
ae?aaiinoe (aioe/iie, yeeeienoe/aneie, eiaeeeneie, e?aineie,
n?aaeiaaceaoneie), iniuneaieth e neioaco eo aiaaoiai i?aeoe/aneiai iiuoa
e oai?aoe/aneeo eiioeaioeee. Iiaeiaii iaiauathuei o?oaeai a?aaneeo
a?a/ae, iaeioi?ua n?aaeiaaceaoneea iaae. Yioeeeeiiaaee/aneea o?oaeu auee
ia?aaaaeaiu ia aa?iiaeneea ycuee e nua?aee aaaeioth ?ieue a ?acaeoee
iaaeeoeeiu a Aa?iia. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai ioiineony e “Eaiiio a?a/aaiie
iaoee” Eai Neiu, ianiiiaiii, yaeyaoaiony naiie iiioey?iie ec iaae. eiea,
nicaeaiiuo ia Ainoiea. Ia i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo aaeia “Eaiii” neoaeee
iniiaiui o/aaiui iiniaeai a aa?iiaeneeo oieaa?neoaoao, ieacaa ia?iiiia
aeeyiea ia o?iaaiue niaoeeaeueiuo ciaiee a?a/ae n?aaeiaaaeiaie Aa?iiu.
Ia?aaeiaua n?aaeiaaceaoneea o/aiua – oeeiniou, a?a/e, anoanoaieniuoaoaee
yaeeenue i?iaicaanoieeaie ?yaea iiauo eaeae, iieo/eaoeo i?eciaiea e
?acaeoea eeoue ianeieueei aaeia nionoy. E iei ioiinyony iiiuoee
aiaae?aiey yenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoiaea a iaoieiaeth e eaea?noaiaaaeaiea,
ooaa?aeaeaiea anoanoaaiii-iao/iie nouiinoe iaaeeoeeiu eae iaeanoe
iao/iie e i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, eaeae nayce iaaeeoeeiu n oeieae,
acaeiinayce i?aaiecia n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie e ?iee yoie n?aaeu a
iaoieiaee, ia?ac?uaiie nayce ineoe/aneiai e oaeaniiai, i?aaeiieiaeaiea
Eai Neiu i iaaeaeeiuo nouanoaao, iiaoueo aucuaaoue eeoi?aaei/iua
caaieaaaiey e ?ani?ino?aiyoueny /a?ac aicaeoo, aiaeo e ii/ao, e ae?.
Ia?aaeiaua a?a/e e o/aiua N?aaeiae Acee aeoeaii aunooiaee i?ioea
oea?eaoeo a nia?aiaiiie ei iaaeeoeeia noaaa?ee, ioaa?aaee ano?aeueiua
i?aaenoaaeaiey, iaae/aneoth oeeo?ieiaeth, oeaeaaiua naienoaa
ae?aaioeaiiuo eaiiae, caaiai?ia, aioeaoia, i?ioeaiiinoaaeyy
?aoeeiiaeueiua n?aaenoaa aeeaaiinoeee, oa?aiee e aeaeaiu. Iaeiaei ana eo
oneeey inoaeenue ii i?aeiouanoao “aeanii aiiethuaai a ionouia”.
Aieueoeinoai i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaae. i?ioannee ioioii i?eiaiyee, a eiiaaea
e i?aaeii/eoaee iaae/aneea e ienoe/aneea i?eaiu iaoiaeai ?aoeeiiaeueiie
aeeaaiinoeee e oa?aiee, ii aieueoae /anoe i?aaeinoaaeyy noaeueao naieo
iaoeeaioia aiea aeeaoa. *oi aea eanaaony iiauo eaeae, oi iie iaoee iaei
i?eaa?aeaioeaa. ?acoiaaony, e oa ec n?aaeiaaceaoneeo a?a/ae e o/aiuo,
eoi ninoaaee ai?aeinoue iaaeeoeeiu N?aaeiae Acee- Ae?oie,Ianeoe,Eai
Neia, ae-Aeaeo?aeaeaie (ie. 1080-1141), Oao?aaeaeei ?ace, Oia? *aaieie e
ae?.- ia niiaee iieiinoueth i?aiaeieaoue neiauaaaoaai aeeyiey
oaiaeaeueiiai ie?iaicc?aiey. O?oaeu ae?aaieo, ca eneeth/aieai iaeioi?uo
/anoiinoae,iie ii/eoaee aunoei aaoi?eoaoii. Ie iaeei ec ieo ia oniiieeny
a ni?aaaaeeeainoe iaoo?oeeinioneiai o/aiey i /aou?ao nieao. Ana
i?eaea?aeeaaeenue aiaoiii-oeceieiae/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee Aaeaia. Ie
iaeei ec ieo ia caieiaeny aiaoiieae, aac ?acaeoey eioi?ie auei iaiuneeii
iino?iaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiie oeceieiaee e iaoieiaee. I?e/eiu, ia
iicaieyaoea a?a/ai ionoeueiaineiai Ainoiea eco/aoue aiaoiieth /aeiaaea,
oi?ioi ecaanoiu, a aoii?ieenoe/aneea eiioeaioeee, niaea?aeauea yeaiaiou
aeeaeaeoeee e iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia, oioy e yeeaeoe/aneia, iauyniaiea
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe e iaoaieciia ?acaeoey iaoieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia,
iaecia?eii i?ia?anneaiaa “iaaeeoeeiu i?i?iea”. Yiioa ia iicaieeea ei
“ia?aoaaiooue /a?ac naay”. E,anee aeey enoi?ee iaaeeoeeiu iaeaieaa
auaeathueieny aeinoeaeaieyie e?oiiaeoeo a?a/ae N?aaeiae Acee yaeythony
i?aaeaea anaai eo iaioeaiaiiua iiaua eaeae, cia/eoaeueii iia?aaeaaoea
naia a?aiy, oi aeey nia?aiaiieeia e aeeaeaeoeo iioiieia iaeaieaa
nouanoaaiiuie e cia/eiuie auee eo aeinoeaeaiey a iaeanoe i?aeoe/aneie
iaaeeoeeiu- aeeaaiinoeee, eeeieee, ea/aiey, aeaeaiu.

Oai?/anai Eai Neiu caieiaao iniaia ianoi a enoi?ee eoeueoo?u. E?oiiaeoee
a?a/ e iuneeoaeue naiaai a?aiaie, ii aue i?eciai oaea nia?aiaiieeaie, e
i?enaiaiiue aio aua i?e aeecie ii/aoiue oeooe “oaeo-a?-?aen” (ianoaaiee
o/aiuo) nii?iaiaeaeae aai eiy a oa/aiea iiiaeo aaeia. Oeeinioneea e
anoanoaaiii-iao/iua ni/eiaiey Eai Neiu iieueciaaeenue oe?ieie
ecaanoiinoueth a no?aiao Ainoiea e Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu,ia niio?y ia oi, /oi
iniiaiia aai oeeinioneia i?iecaaaeaiea “Eieaa enoeaeaiey” auei iauyaeaii
a?aoe/aneei e niaeaeaii a Aaaaeaaea a 1160 a. Iaannia?oeaoee aai eiy
“Eaiii a?a/aaiie iaoee” iiiaie?aoii ia?aaiaeeeny ia iiiaea aa?iiaeneea
ycuee, ieiei 30 ?ac ecaeaaaeny ia eaoeineii ycuea e aieaa500 eao neoaeee
iaycaoaeueiui ?oeiaiaenoaii ii iaaeeoeeia aeey aa?iiaeneeo
oieaa?neoaoia e iaae. oeie a?aaneiai Ainoiea.

Ec 274 o?oaeia Eai Neiu iaaeeoeeia iinayuaii oieueei 20. Oai ia iaiaa
i?eiyoi n/eoaoue, /oi ec anao iaeanoae ciaiee, eioi?uie caieiaeny Eai
Neia, iaeaieueoee aeeaae ei aianai a iaaeeoeeio. I?aaeaea anaai “Eaiii
a?a/aaiie iaoee” i?eian aio anaie?ioth neaao e aannia?oea. Eaaeaeay
eieaa, a naith i/a?aaeue, aeaeeony ia /anoe (oai), ioaeaeu (aeaeoiea),
noaouee (iaeaea) e ia?aa?aou (oane).

A Eieaa ia?aie eceaaathony oai?aoe/aneea iniiau iaaeeoeeiu e iauea
iieiaeaiey i?aeoe/aneie iaaeeoeeiu. A iae aeaaony ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey
iaaeeoeeiu, ?ane?uaathony caaea/e yoie iaoee, i?eaiaeyony o/aiea i nieao
e iaoo?a (oaiia?aiaioa), naeaoue aiaoiie/aneee i/a?e oae iacuaaaiuo
“i?inouo” i?aaiia /aeiaa/aneiai oaea – einoae, o?yuae, ia?aia, a?oa?ee,
aai, nooiaeeeee, naycie e iuooe. ?anniao?eaathony i?e/eiu, i?iyaeaiey e
eeanneoeeaoeee aieaciae e iauea i?aaeea eo ea/aiey. Iiae?iaii
eceaaathony o/aiey i ieoaiee, ia?aca aeecie (iauay aeeyoaoeea) e
nio?aiaiee caei?iauey ai ana ia?eiaeu aeecie (iauay e /anoiay aeaeaia).

Eieaa aoi?ay – yoi eaieoaeueiue naiae naaaeaiee i eaea?noaaiiuo
n?aaenoaao, i?eiaiyaoeony a iaaeeoeeineie i?aeoeea oiai a?aiaie. A iae
aeaii nauoa 800 eaea?noaaiiuo aauanoa ?anoeoaeueiiai, aeeaioiiai e
ieia?aeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey n oeacaieai eo ea/aaiuo naienoa e niiniaia
i?eiaiaiey. Iiieii eaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa, i?iecaiaeeaoeony a N?aaeiae
Acee e a ae?oaeo no?aiao Aeeaeiaai e N?aaeiaai Ainoiea, aaoi? oeacuaaao
iaiaei eaea?noa, i?eaiceiuo ec Eiaeee, Eeoay, A?aoeee, Ao?eee, ino?iaia
N?aaeecaiiiai ii?y e ae?. ?aeiiia caiiiai oa?a. Iiiaea ec ieo noaee
ecaanoiu i?yii eee einaaiii n?aaeiaaaeiaie Aa?iia ii ni/eiaieyi Eai
Neiu, /oi naii ii naaa oa?aeoa?ecoao cia/aiea “Eaiiia” a enoi?ee
eaea?noaiaaaeaiey. Yoa eieaa aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iciaeiieoueny ia
oieueei n iao/iie, ii e n auoiaie, ia?iaeiie iaaeeoeeiie a?aiaie Eai
Neiu. Iiiaea eaea?noaa, i?aaeeiaeaiiua Eai Neiie, i?i/ii aioee a
oa?iaeiiath e i?eiaiythony ii naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue.

A Eieaa o?aoueae o?aeoothony “/anoiua” eee “ianoiua” aieacie i?aaiia
/aeiaaea, ia/eiay n aieiau e eii/ay iyoeaie, eiuie neiaaie iia iinayuaia
/anoiie iaoieiaee e oa?aiee. A iaa aoiaeyo iienaiey aieaciae aieiau e
iicaa (a oii /enea ia?aiuo e ineoe/aneeo aieaciae), aeaca, ooi, iina,
iieinoe ?oa, ycuea, coaia, aeanai, aoa, ai?ea, eaaeeo, na?aeoea, a?oaee,
ieuaaiaea, aeaeoaeea, ia/aie, aeae/iiai iocu?y, naeacaiee, eeoa/ieea,
caaeiaai i?ioiaea, ii/ae, ii/aaiai iocu?y, iieiauo i?aaiia. Eaaeaeue
?acaeae ia/eiaaony n iiae?iaiiai aiaoiie/aneiai iienaiey
niioaaonoaothuaai i?aaia.

A Eieaa /aoaa?oie ?anniao?eaathony “iauea” aieacie oaea, ia i?enouea
eeoue iaeiiio i?aaio. E /eneo oaeiauo ioianaiu ?acee/iua eeoi?aaeee
(e?ecenu i?e aieaciyo), iiooiee (a oii /enea ?ae), i?uue, ?aiu, ycau,
iaeiae, ia?aeiiu e auaeoe einoae, ?aiaiey e i?i/ea ii?aaeaiey ia?aia,
iia?aaeaeaiey /a?aia, a?oaee, iicaiii/ieea, eiia/iinoae. A yoie Eieaa
aiai?eony oaeaea i o?iie/aneeo e ino?uo ca?aciuo aieaciyo: inia, ei?e,
i?ieaca, /oia e aaoainoaa; inaauaiu iniiaiua aii?inu o/aiey i yaeao
(oieneeieiaey). Niaoeeaeueiue ?acaeae eieae iinayuai aii?inai nio?aiaiey
e?aniou oaea (einiaoeea).

Eieaa iyoay “Eaiiia” i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oa?iaeiiath. A iae eceaaathony
niiniau ecaioiaeaiey e i?eiaiaiey ?acee/iuo oi?i eaea?noa neiaeiiai
ninoaaa. A ia?aie /anoe Eieae iienuaathony ?acee/iua i?ioeaiyaeey
(oa?ueyee), eaea?noaaiiua eaoee, ieethee, oaaeaoee, ii?ioee, ne?iiu,
ioaa?u, ianoie, aeia, ieanou?e e o. ae., a ai aoi?ie /anoe oeacuaathony
eniuoaiiua n?aaenoaa, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ea/aiey eiie?aoiuo
caaieaaaiee i?aaiia aieiau, aeac, ooa, coaia, ai?ea, i?aaiia a?oaeiie e
a?thoiie iieinoe, nonoaaia e eiaee.

Oece/aneea oi?aaeiaiey ii iacuaae “naiui aeaaiui oneiaeai” nio?aiaiey
caei?iauey, ia neaaeothuaa ianoi ii noaaee ?aaeei ieoaiey e ?aaeei nia.
Iniaua aeaau “Eaiiia a?a/aaiie iaoee” Eai Neia iinayoee ainieoaieth e
ooiaeo ca ?aaaieii. A ieo niaea?aeeony iiiai oiieeo iaaethaeaiee e
?acoiiuo niaaoia. Ae?oaie neeueiie noi?iiie “Eaiiia a?a/aaiie iaoee”
ssaeyaony oi/iia iienaiea eeeie/aneie ea?oeiu aieaciae, oiieinoe
aeeaaiinoeee. Ia?aua iienaiey ?yaea eeeie/aneeo yaeaiee, eo iauyniaiey
aiai?yo i iaiau/aeiie iaaethaeaoaeueiinoe Eai Neiu, aai oaeaioa e iiuoa.
A aeeaaiinoeea Eai Neia iieueciaaeny iuoiuaaieai iaaethaeaieai iaae
ioeuenii, ii?aaeaeaieai aeaaeiinoe eee nooinoe eiaee, iniio?ii ii/e e
eni?aaeiaiee.

Eai Neia iiiai caieiaeny i?iaeaiaie ineoieiaee, e ineoe/aneea
?anno?ienoaa eioa?aniaaee aai ia oieueei n /enoi a?a/aaiuo iiceoeee, ii
e eae iauaeo ineoieiae/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey. Ii-aeaeeiiio, a yoii
e?iaony i?e/eia oiai, /oi i?e iienaiee ineoe/aneeo ?anno?ienoa ii
iiae?iaii eceaaaao naie acaeyaeu ia i?e?iaeo ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia e
i?e/eiu eo ia?ooaiey. A i?aaenoaaeaiee i nouiinoe ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia
iniaaiii iaaeyaeii i?iyaeythony iaoa?eaeenoe/aneea noi?iiu oeeinioee Eai
Neiu: ie o eiai ?aiueoa ia ano?a/aaony noieue /aoeiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i
nayce ioaeaeueiuo ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia n ooieoeeae ii?aaeaeaiiuo
o/anoeia aieiaiiai iicaa. Aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue, iai?eia?, oeacaiey Eai
Neiu i oii, /oi ooeau, ?ac?ooathuea ioaeaeueiua /anoe iicaa
?anno?aeaatho /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e aucuaatho auiaaeaiea iaeioi?uo
ooieoeee. Iieiinoueth ioaa?aay aeaiiiieiae/aneea acaeyaeu ia nouiinoue
ineoe/aneeo aieaciae, Eai Neia n/eoae iaiin?aaenoaaiiie i?e/eiie
ineoe/aneeo ?anno?ienoa eeai aeeyiea oneiaee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, eeai
oaeaniua ?anno?ienoaa. I?e yoii auyniaiea acaeiinaycae e acaeiiaeeyiey
ineoe/aneiai e niiaoe/aneiai, ii-aeaeeiiio, i?aaenoaaeyea aeey Eai Neiu
iniaue eioa?an: a “Eaiiia” niaea?aeaony oeacaiey ia aiciiaeiinoue
aicieeiiaaiey ineoica i?e ino?uo eeoi?aaei/iuo caaieaaaieyo, ia naycue
?anno?ienoa aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai o?aeoa n ineoe/aneeie ia?aaeeaaieyie
(“neeueiui ai?ai”, aiaaii, iai?/aieai e o. i.).

*a?ac noieaoea iinea nia?oe aaoi?a “Eaiii” noaiiaeony ecaanoai e ia
Caiaaea. Oaea a 12 a. ii aue ia?aaaaeai n a?aaneiai ia eaoeineee ycue
Aa?a?aeii E?aiiineei (1114-1187) ,a 13 a. – ia ae?aaiaaa?aeneee e
?acioaeny ai iiiaeanoaa ?oeiienae. Iinea ecia?aoaiey eieaiia/aoaiey a 15
a. a /enea ia?auo ecaeaiee aue e “Eaiii”. I?eia/aoaeueii, /oi aai ia?aia
ecaeaiea iiyaeeinue a 1473 a. a No?anao?aa – iaeiii ec oeaio?ia
aoiaiecia yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey. Iioii ii /anoioa ecaeaiee ii niia?ie/ae n
Aeaeeae – oieueei ca iineaaeiea 27 eao 15 a. “Eaiii” auaea?aeae 16
ecaeaiee, a anaai ii ecaeaaaeny ieiei 40 ?ac iieiinoueth e aan/eneaiiia
iiiaeanoai ?ac a auaea?aeeao. A oa/aiea iyoe noieaoee “Eaiii” neoaeee
ianoieueiie eieaie aeey a?a/ae iiiaeo no?ai Acee eAa?iiu. Ai anao
noa?aeoeo oioaa?neoaoao Aa?iiu aei na?aaeeiu 12 a. eco/aiea e
i?aiiaeaaaiea iaaeeoeeiu iniiauaaeinue ia o?oaea Eai Neiu.

Ioaeaeueiua /anoe “Eaiiia” ia?aaiaeeeenue ia aa?iiaeneea ycuee, ii
iieiiai ia?aaiaea ia auei. Eieeaeoea Einoeoooa ainoieiaaaeaiey AI Oc
NN?, ioeeeeioaoenue ia i?ecua Anaie?iiai Niaaoa Ie?a (1952 a.)
ioiaoeoue ai anai ie?a 1000 – eaoea ni aeiy ?iaeaeaiey (ii eoiiiio
eaeaiaea?th) Eai Neiu, i?enooiee e ia?aaiaeai n a?aaneiai ycuea ia
?onneee e ocaaeneee ycuee aeaaiiai iaaeeoeeineiai ni/eiaiey aaeeeiai
o/aiiai. Yoa a?aiaeeiciay ?aaioa auea oniaoii caaa?oaia a 1961 aiaeo
ioaeeeaoeeae iieiiai oaenoa “Eaiiia” ia iaieo ycueao.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. “Eaiii a?a/aaiie iaoee”. Aao Aee Eai Neia. *anoue 1, Oaoeaio.
Ecaeaoaeuenoai “Oai” aeaaeaiee iaoe ?anioaeeee Ocaaeenoai, 1994. No?.
5-12.

2. “Iaeay iaaeeoeeineay yioeeeeiiaaeey”. ?aaeaeoi? A. O. Aaneeaiei. O.
5. Ecaeaoaeuenoai “Niaaoneay yioeeeeiiaaeey”. Iineaa, 1967. No?. 652.

3. “Iaeay iaaeeoeeoeeineay yioeeeeiiaaeey”. Aeaaiue ?aaeaeoi? aeaaeaiee
?AII A. E. Iie?ianeee, o 3, Iineaa. Iao/iia ecaeaoaeuenoai “Aieueoay
?inneeneay yioeeeeiiaaeey”, 1992. No?. 293-294.

4. I. I. Ioeueoaiianeee. “Enoi?ey iaaeeoeeiu”. Ecaeaoaeuenoai
“Iaaeeoeeia”. Iineaa. 1967. No?. 59-63.

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