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Глазные болезни и Миопия

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Eoaaineee Ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao

?AOA?AO

“Caaieaaaiey aeac. Ieiiey”

Auiieieea: Aeaenaaaa THeey Aaea?ueaaia

iaoaiaoe/aneee oaeoeueoao

21 a?oiia

E?aniiaea?

1999

Ieai:

Aaaaeaiea

Ieiiey

I?e/eiu ieiiee

Ei??aeoeey ieiiee

Ea/aiea ieiiee

Oe?o?ae/aneea aiaoaoaeuenoaa i?e ieiiee

Caiyoey oece/aneie eoeueoo?ie e nii?oii i?e aeeci?oeinoe.

Ia?aie/aiey e caiyoeyi oeceoeueoo?ie oeieueieeia e nooaeaioia

ii ninoiyieth i?aaia c?aiey

Iniiaiua i?ioeaiiieacaiey e caiyoeyi nii?oii aeey eeoe n aeeci?oeinoueth

Oece/aneay eoeueoo?a aeey nooaeaioia n aeeci?oeinoueth

Ia?aia oiiieiaiea i aeeci?oeinoe ano?a/aaony o A?enoioaey (384-322 aa.
aei i. y.). Ii ioiaoee, /oi i?e neaainoe uo?yuaainy aeaca e iaio
iiaeiinyo aeecei oi, /oi oioyo oaeaeaoue. O A?enoioaey aia?aua
ano?a/aaony e neiai “ieiin”, icia/aaoaa: cae?uaaoue aeaca ieaay, io
eioi?iai i?iecioae nia?aiaiiue oa?iei “ieiiey”.

Ieiiey

Ieiiey (aeeci?oeinoue) yaeyaony neeueiie neeueiie ?ao?aeoeeae, iiyoiio
iai?yaeaiea aeeiiiaeaoeee a oaeeo aeacao ia iiaeao oeo/oeoue
ecia?aaeaiey ioaeaeaiiuo i?aaeiaoia e ieiiu ieioi aeaeyo aaeaeue e
oi?ioi – ia aeeceii ?annoiyiee.

I?eiyoi auaeaeyoue o?e noaiaie ieiiee: neaaoth – aei 3.0 aeio?,
n?aaeithth – 6.0 aeio?, aunieoth – nauoa 6.0 aeio?.

Ii eeeie/aneiio oa/aieth ?acee/atho ieiieth iai?ia?anne?othuoth e
i?ia?anne?othuoth.

I?ia?anne?iaaiea ieiiee iiaeao i?ioaeaoue iaaeeaiii e caeii/eoueny n
caaa?oaieai ?inoa i?aaiecia. Eiiaaea ieiiey i?ia?anne?oao iai?a?uaii.
aeinoeaaao aunieeo noaiaiae (aei 30.0-40.0 aeio?.), nii?iaiaeaeaaony
?yaeii ineiaeiaiee e cia/eoaeueiui nieaeaieai c?aiey. Oaeay ieiiey
iacuaaaony ceaea/anoaaiiie – ieiie/aneie aieaciueth. Iai?ia?anne?othuay
ieiiey yaeyaony aiiiaeeae ?ao?aeoeee. Eeeie/anee iia i?iyaeyaony
nieaeaieai c?aiey aaeaeue, oi?ioi ei??eae?oaony e ia o?aaoao ea/aiey.
Aeaaii?eyoii i?ioaeaao e a?aiaiii i?ia?anne?othuay ieiiey . Iinoiyiii
i?ia?anne?othuay ieiiey – anaaaea na?ueaciia caaieaaaiea, yaeythuayny
iniiaiie i?e/eiie eiaaeeaeiinoe. naycaiiie n iaoieiaeae i?aaia c?aiey.

Eeeie/aneay ea?oeia ieiiee naycaia n iaee/eai ia?ae/iie neaainoe
aeeiiiaeaoeee, ia?aiai?yaeaieai eiiaa?aaioeee e ?anoyaeaieai caaeiaai
naaiaioa aeaca, i?ienoiaeyuei iinea inoaiiaee ?inoa aeaca.

Aeeiiiaeaoeaiay iuooea a ieiie/aneeo aeacao ?acaeoa neaai, ii oae eae
i?e ?anniao?eaaiee aeecei ?anniieiaeaiiuo i?aaeiaoia iai?yaeaiey
aeeiiiaeaoeee ia o?aaoaony. eeeie/anee yoi iau/ii ia i?iyaeyaony,
iaeiaei ii aeaiiui, niinianoaoao eiiiainaoi?iiio ?anoyaeaieth aeaciiai
yaeiea e oaaee/aieth aeeci?oeinoe.

Ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoue neaaie aeeiiiaeaoeee ni cia/eoaeueiui iai?yaeaieai
eiiaa?aaioeee iiaeao i?eaanoe e niacio ?anie/iie iuooeu, ?acaeoeth
eiaeiie aeeci?oeinoe, eioi?ay ni a?aiaiai ia?aoiaeeo a enoeiioth. I?e
ieiiee auoa 6.0 aeio? iinoiyiiia iai?yaeaiea eiiaa?aaioeee,
iaoneiaeaiiia aeeceei ?aniieiaeaieai aeaeueiaeoae oi/ee yniiai c?aiey,
yaeyaony aieueoie iaa?oceie aeey aioo?aiieo i?yiuo iuooe, a ?acoeueoaoa
/aai aicieeaao c?eoaeueiia ooiieaiea – iuoa/iay anoaiiiey.

?anoyaeaiea caaeiaai naaiaioa aeaciiai yaeiea i?eaiaeeo e aiaoiie/aneei
e oeceieiae/aneei eciaiaieyi. Iniaaiii ?acei ia c?eoaeueiie ooieoeee
neacuaathony ia?ooaiey a ninoaeenoie e nao/aoie iaiei/eao. Neaaenoaeai
yoeo ia?ooaiee yaeythony oeie/iua aeey ieiiee eciaiaiey aeaciiai aeia. A
ia/aeueiuo noaaeeyo iaaethaeaaony ieiie/aneee eiion. Caoai aeeno?ioey
ninoaeenoie e nao/aoie iaiei/ae iiaeao caoaaoeoue anth ie?oaeiinoue
aeenea c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa, ia?acoy eiaeioth caaeithth noaoeeiio,
?ani?ino?aiyynue ia iaeanoue aeaeoiai iyoia, iia i?eaiaeeo e ?aceiio
nieaeaieth c?aiey. A i/aiue oyaeaeuo neo/ayo aunieie ieiiee ?anoyaeaiea
caaeiaai naaiaioa neea?u aaeece c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa aucuaaao ia?aciaaiea
ia?aie/aiiiai auiy/eaaiey aeaciiai yaeiea.

?anoyaeaiea iaiei/ae aeaca nii?iaiaeaeaaony iiauoaiiie eiieinoueth
ninoaeia n iiaoi?iuie e?iaieceeyieyie a nao/aoeo e noaeeiaeaeiia oaei.
Iaaeeaiii ?annanuaathueany e?iaieceeyiey i?eaiaeyo e iiiooiaieth
noaeeiaeaeiiai oaea e ia?aciaaieth oi?ei?aoeiaeueiuo i/aaia ia aeaciii
aeia. Iniaia cia/aiea eiaao ia?aciaaiea a?oaiai ieaiaioiiai i/aaa,
eioi?ia neeueii nieaeaao ino?ioo c?aiey. Oooaeoaiea c?aiey iiaeao
ianooieoue e a nayce n i?ia?anne?othuei iiiooiaieai noaeeiaeaeiiai oaea,
aai ioneieeie e ?acaeoeai ineiaeiaiiie eaoa?aeou. I/aiue oyaeaeui
ineiaeiaieai aunieie aeeci?oeinoe yaeyaony ioneieea nao/aoee,
?acaeaathuayny a nayce n ?ac?uaii aa a ?acee/iuo o/anoeao aeaciiai aeia.

I?e/eiu ieiiee

A ?acaeoee aeeci?oeinoe neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue neaaeothuea oaeoi?u.

1. Aaiaoe/aneee, ianiiiaiii eiathuee aieueoia cia/aiea, oae eae o
aeeci?oeeo ?iaeeoaeae /anoi auaatho aeeci?oeea aeaoe. Iniaaiii iaaeyaeii
yoi i?iyaeyaony a aieueoeo a?oiiao ianaeaiey. Oae, a Aa?iia /enei ieiiia
n?aaee nooaeaioia aeinoeaaao 15%, a a ssiiiee – 85%.

2. Iaaeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aiaoiae N?aaeu, iniaaiii i?e aeeeoaeueiie
?aaioa ia aeeceii ?annoiyiee. Yoi i?ioanneiiaeueiay e oeieueiay ieiiey,
iniaaiii eaaei oi?ie?othuayny, eiaaea ?acaeoea i?aaiecia ia caaa?oaii.

3. Ia?ae/iay neaainoue aeeiiiaeaoeee, i?eaiaeyuay e eiiiainaoi?iiio
?anoyaeaieth aeaciiai yaeiea .

4. Ianaaeaine?iaaiiia iai?yaeaiea aeeiiiaeaoeee e eiiaa?aaioeee,
aucuaathuaa niaci aeeiiiaeaoeee e ?acaeoea eiaeiie, a caoai e enoeiiie
ieiiee .

I?e nia?aiaiiii o?iaia ?acaeoey iooaeueiieiaee iao aaeeiie, aeinoaoi/ii
iainiiaaiiie iao/iie eiioeaioeee ?acaeoey ieiiee. O/anoea i?eaaaeaiiuo
auoa oaeoi?ia neaaeoao n/eoaoue aeinoaoi/ii aa?iyoiui, ii oaaaeeoaeueiuo
aeaiiuo i i?eeiouanoaaiiii cia/aiee eaeiai eeai ec ieo iao.
Ii-aeaeeiiio, ?aciua aeaeu ieiiee eiatho ?acee/iia i?ienoiaeaeaiea, a eo
?acaeoea iaoneiaeaii iaeiei ec oaeoi?ia eee eiaao neiaeiue aaiac.

Ei??aeoeey ieiiee

Ei??aeoeeth ieiiee inouanoaeytho ?annaeaathueie noaeeaie. I?e iacia/aiee
i/eia ca iniiao i?eieiatho noaiaiue ieiiee, eioi?oth oa?aeoa?ecoao naiia
neaaia ?annaeaathuaa noaeei, aeathuaa iaeeo/ooth ino?ioo c?aiey. Ai
ecaaaeaiee iacia/aiey ieioniauo noaeie i?e eiaeiie ieiiee ?ao?aeoeeth a
aeaoneii e thiioaneii aic?anoaii?aaeaeytho a ninoiyiee iaaeeeaiaioiciie
oeeeeiieaaee.

I?e ieiiee neaaie noaiaie, eae i?aaeei, ?aeiiaiaeoaony iieiay
ei??aeoeey, ?aaiay noaiaie ieiiee. Iineoue oaeea i/ee iiaeii ia
iinoiyiii, a oieueei a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe. I?e ieiiee n?aaeiae e
iniaaiii aunieie noaiaie iieiay ei??aeoeey i?e ?aaioa ia aeeceii
?annoiyiee aucuaaao ia?aa?oceo ineaaeaiiie o ieiiia ?anie/iie iuooeu,
/oi i?iyaeyaony c?eoaeueiui aeeneiioi?oii i?e /oaiee. A oaeeo neo/ayo,
iniaaiii a aeaoneii aic?anoa, iacia/atho aeaa ia?u i/eia(aeey aeaee –
iieiay ei??aeoeey ieiiee, aeey ?aaiou ia aeeceii ?annoiyiee n eeicaie ia
1.0-3.0 aeio? neaaaa) eee aeey iinoiyiiiai iioaiey aeoieaeueiua i/ee, o
eioi?uo aa?oiyy /anoue noaeea neoaeeo aeey c?aiey aaeaeue, a ieaeiyy –
aaeece.

Ea/aiea ieiiee

A ia?eiae ?inoa i?aaiecia ieiiey i?ia?anne?oao /aua, iiyoiio iniaaiii
ouaoaeueii neaaeoao i?iaiaeeoue aa ea/aiea a aeaoneii e thiioaneii
aic?anoa. Iaycaoaeueiu ?aoeeiiaeueiay ei??aeoeey, ono?aiaiea niaciia
?anie/iie iuooeu e yaeaiee anoaiiiee. ?aeiiaiaeothony niaoeeaeueiua
oi?aaeiaiey aeey o?aie?iaee ?anie/iie iuooeu.

I?e aunieie ineiaeiaiiie ieiiee, e?iia oiai, iieacai iauee uaaeyuee
?aaeei: eneth/atho oece/aneea iai?yaeaiey (iiaeuai oyaeanoae, i?uaeee e
o. i.)e c?eoaeueiua ia?aa?ocee. Iacia/atho iauaoe?aieythuaa ea/aiea e
niaoeeaeueioth oa?aieth. Oaeea ineiaeiaiey, eae ioneieea nao/aoee e
ineiaeiaiiay eaoa?aeoa, o?aaotho oe?o?ae/aneiai ea/aiey. Iaeiaei yoe
i?aaeeiaeaiiua ea/aaiua ia?ii?eyoey auaatho iaaeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaiuie,
e, ianiio?y ia ouaoaeueiia ea/aiea, ieiiey /anoi i?ia?anne?oao e
i?eaiaeeo e oyaeaeui ineiaeiaieyi.

Oe?o?ae/aneea aiaoaoaeuenoaa i?e ieiiee

Oe?o?ae/aneia ea/aiea ieiiee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iieo/eei oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea. Enneaaeiaaiey a yoie iaeanoe i?iaiaeyony a aeaoo
iniiaiuo iai?aaeaieyo: oe?aieaiea ?anoyaeaathuaainy caaeiaai naaiaioa
aeaciiai yaeiea e oiaiueoaiea i?aeiieythuae neeu aeaca.

Oe?o?ae/aneea aiaoaoaeuenoaa i?e ieiiee. Oe?o?ae/aneea aiaoaoaeuenoaa
i?e ieiiee ethaie noaiaie neiaeiinoe i?iecaiaeyo ia o?onoaeeea, ?iaiaie
iaiei/ea e neea?a.

Eaeay i aiciiaeiinoe iiauoaiey iaei??eae?iaaiiie ino?iou c?aiey i?e
aeeci?oeinoe iooai oaeaeaiey i?ic?a/iiai o?onoaeeea auea aia?aua
auneacaia aua a ainaiiaaeoeaoii aaea. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oaeaeaiea
o?onoaeeea i?e ieiiee i?iecaiaeyo oieueei ioaeaeueiua iooaeueiieiae.
Yoio iaoiae eniieuecoaony a iniiaiii i?e iiiooiaiee o?onoaeeea o
aieueiuo n aeeci?oeinoueth aunieie noaiaie. Aai ?aeiiaiaeotho ni/aoaoue
n i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie neea?iieanoeeie, /oi cia/eoaeueii nieaeaao /enei
iia?aoeeiiiuo e iineaiia?aoeeiiiuo ineiaeiaiee e iicaieyao iieo/eoue
aieaa aunieee aecoaeueiue yooaeo.

A iineaaeiea 20 eao iieo/eee ?acaeoea iia?aoeee ia ?iaiaeoea,
auiieiyaiua n oeaeueth eciaieoue aa i?aeiieythuoth niiniaiinoue i?e
aiao?iieyo. I?aaeeiaeaii ianeieueei ?aciiaeaeiinoae oaeeo iia?aoeee i?e
ieiiee, eioi?ua i?iecaiaeyo aeey oiaiueoaiey iioe/aneie neeu ?ia?aeoeu.

Iia?aoeee ia ?iaiaie iaiei/ea i?e ieiiee, anoanoaaiii, ia
i?aaeoi?aaeaeatho aa i?ia?anne?iaaiey e aicieeiiaaiey ineiaeiaiee.

*oi eanaaony aeeci?oeinoe aunieie noaiaie, oi i?e iae iniiaiay caaea/a –
i?aaeoi?aaeeoue aa i?ia?anne?iaaiea e ?acaeoea ineiaeiaiee. Aaaeioth
?ieue a yoii ea?atho neea?iieanoe/aneea iia?aoeee. Niune eo caeeth/aaony
a iaeiaeaiee naiaia?aciiai aaiaeaaea, i?aeiouanoaaiii ia caaeithth
iiaa?oiinoue aeaca, /oiau i?aaeoi?aaeeoue aeaeueiaeoaa ?anoyaeaiea
neea?u a yoii ioaeaea.

Yooaeo neea?iieanoeee i?e aeeci?oeinoe ninoieo a i?ae?auaiee eee ?aceii
caiaaeeaiee i?ia?anne?iaaiey ieiiee, a oaeaea a iaaieueoii oiaiueoaiee
noaiaie ieiiee e iiauoaiee ino?iou c?aiey.

Caiyoey oece/aneie eoeueoo?ie e nii?oii i?e aeeci?oeinoe.

?acoeueoaou eeneaaeiaaiey iineaaeieo eao, iniaaiii eanathueany
iaoaieciia i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeeci?oeinoe, iicaieeee ii-iiaiio ioeaieoue
aiciiaeiinoe oece/aneie eoeueoo?u i?e yoii aeaoaeoa c?aiey.

Ia?aie/aiea oece/aneie aeoeaiinoe eeoe, no?aaeathueo aeeci?oeinoueth,
eae yoi ?aeiiaiaeiaaeinue aua iaaeaaii, i?eciaii iai?aaeeueiui. Iieacaia
aaaeiay ?ieue oece/aneie eoeueoo?u a i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiee ieiiee e aa
i?ia?anne?iaaiey, iineieueeo oece/aneea oi?aaeiaiey niinianoaotho eae
iauaio oe?aieaieth i?aaiecia e aeoeaecaoeee aai ooieoeee, oae e
iiauoaieth ?aaioiniiniaiinoe oeeeea?iie iuooeu e oe?aieaieth
neea?aeueiie iaiei/ee aeaca.

O/aiua onoaiiaeee, /oi aeaaooee 15-17 eao, eiathuea aeeci?oeinoue
n?aaeiae noaiaie, cia/eoaeueii ionoatho ii o?iaith oece/aneie
iiaeaioiaeaiiinoe io naa?noieoe. O ieo ioia/aaony nouanoaaiiia nieaeaiea
e?iaioieia a ninoaeao aeaca e ineaaeaiea aeeiiiaeaoeeiiiie niiniaiinoe.
Oeeeee/aneea oece/aneea oi?aaeiaiey (aaa, ieaaaiea, oiaeueaa ia euaeao)
oia?aiiie eioaineaiinoe (ioeuen 100-140 oae./iei.) ieacuaatho
aeaaii?eyoiia aicaeaenoaea ia aaiiaeeiaieeo e aeeiiiaeaoeeiiioth
niiniaiinoue aeaca, aucuaay ?aaeoeaiia oneeaiea e?iaioiea a aeaco /a?ac
iaeioi?ia a?aiy iinea iaa?ocee e iiauoaiey ?aaioiniiniaiinoe oeeeea?iie
iuooeu. Iinea auiieaiaiey oeeeee/aneeo oi?aaeiaiee cia/eoaeueiie
eioaineaiinoe (ioeuen 180 oae./iei.), a oaeaea oi?aaeiaiee ia
aeiianoe/aneeo nia?yaeao, i?uaeeia ni neaeaeeie, ae?iaaoe/aneeo
oi?aaeiaiee ioia/athony au?aaeaiiay eoaiey aeac, nio?aiythuayny
aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy, e oooaeoaiea ?aaioiniiniaiinoe oeeeaa?iie iuooeu.
Ai?iaaoeey iaoiaeeee oece/aneiai ainieoaiey aeaoae n ieiieae n?aaeiae
noaiaie n o/aoii oeacaiiuo auoa yooaeoia aeaenoaey oece/aneeo
oi?aaeiaiee iieacaea, /oi i?eiaiaiea yoie iaoiaeeee niinianoaoao
i?ioeeaeoeea i?ia?anne?iaaiey ieiiee: nionoy aiae a yeniai?eiaioaeueiie
a?oiia ?ao?aeoeey oiaiueoeeanue a 37.2% neo/aaa, inoaeanue ia i?aaeiai
o?iaia a 53.5% e oaaee/eeanue o 9.3%, oiaaea eae a eiio?ieueiie a?oiia
yoi iaaethaeaeinue a 2.4; 7.4 e 90.2% niioaaonoaaiii.

Enneaaeiaaiey o/aiuo iicaieeee onoaiiaeoue, /oi nieaeaiea iauae
aeaeaaoaeueiie aeoeaiinoe nooaeaioia i?e iiauoaiiie c?eoaeueiie iaa?ocea
iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue ?acaeoeth aeeci?oeinoe. Oece/aneea oi?aaeiaiey
iaua?acaeaathuaai oa?aeoa?a a ni/aoaiee ni niaoeeaeueiuie oi?aaeiaieyie
aeey oeeeea?iie iuooeu ieacuaatho iieiaeeoaeueiia aeeyiea ia ooieoeee
ieiie/aneiai aeaca. Ia iniiaa ?acoeueoaoia i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee
?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea ea/aaiie oeceoeueoo?u aeey nooaeaioia e
oeieueieeia n aeeci?oeinoueth e iieacaia aa yooaeoeaiinoue i?e
i?eiaiaiee a eiiieaena ia? ii i?ioeeaeoeea aeeci?oeinoe e aa
i?ia?anne?iaaiey. TH.E.Eo?iai iainiiaae iaoiaeeeo oece/aneiai ainieoaiey
nooaeaioia, no?aaeathueo aeeci?oeinoueth.

Iniaaiiinoue oece/aneiai ainieoaiey oeieueieeia e nooaeaioia,
niinianoaothuaai i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth aeeci?oeinoe e aa i?ia?anne?iaaiey,
ninoieo a oii, /oi a caiyoey, iiieii iaua?acaeaathueo oi?aaeiaiee,
aeeth/atho e niaoeeaeueiua oi?aaeiaiey, oeo/oathuea e?iainiaaaeaiea a
oeaiyo aeaca e aeayoaeueiinoue aeaciuo iuooe, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
oeeeea?iie iuooeu.

Ia?aie/aiey e caiyoeyi oeceoeueoo?ie oeieueieeia e nooaeaioia

ii ninoiyieth i?aaia c?aiey

Oaae.1

A?oiia caiyoee ii oeceoeueoo?a Ino?ioa c?aiey ?ao?aeoeey Ae?oaea
eciaiaiey i?aaia c?aiey

I.Iniiaiay (caiyoey ii iieiie i?ia?aiia, naea/a ii?i AOI, o/anoea a
nii?eoaiuo naeoeeyo e ni?aaiiaaieyo) Ia aeiioneathony o/aueany n
ino?ioie c?aiey aac ei??aeoeee ieaea 0.5 ia eo/oa aeaeyuai aeaco Ia
aeiioneathony o/aueany n aeia?iao?iieae e ieiieae aieaa 3.0 aeio? Ia
aeiioneathony o/aueany n o?iie/aneeie ainiaeeoaeueiuie e
aeaaaia?aoeaiuie caaieaaaieyie aeac

II.Iiaeaioiaeoaeueiay (iniiaiay i?ia?aiia oece/aneiai ainieoaiey
oaeeeiyaony ia 1 -1.5 aiaea; eneeth/athony nii?oeaiua o?aie?iaee,
o/anoea a ni?aaiiaaieyo) Ia aeiioneathony o/aueanny n ei??eae?iaaiiie
ino?ioie c?aiey ieaea 0.5 ia eo/oa aeaeyuai aeaco Ia aeiioneathony
o/aueany n aeia?iao?iieae e ieiieae aieaa 6.0 aeio? iacaaeneii io
ino?iou c?aiey. Ia aeiioneathony o/aueany n o?iie/aneeie
ainiaeeoaeueiuie e aeaaaia?aoeaiuie caaieaaaieyie aeac

III. Niaoeeaeueiay Caieiathony ii niaoeeaeueiie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie
i?ia?aiia o/aueany n aeia?iao?iieae e ieiieae aieaa 6.0 aeio? iacaaeneii
io ino?iou c?aiey, a oaeaea n o?iie/aneeie ainiaeeoaeueiuie e
aeaaaia?aoeaiuie caaieaaaieyie aeac

Iniiaiua i?ioeaiiieacaiey e caiyoeyi nii?oii aeey eeoe n
aeeci?oeinoueth

Oaae.2

Aeae nii?oa I?ioeaiiieacaiey a caaeneiinoe io noaiaie
aeeci?oeinoe e ninoiyiey aeac ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ia eniieueciaaiee
iioe/aneie ei??aeoeee

Aien Ethaay noaiaiue aeeci?oeinoe Eiioaeoiay

Ai?ueaa Ethaay noaiaiue aeeci?oeinoe Eiioaeoiay

Oyaeaeay aoeaoeea Ethaay noaiaiue aeeci?oeinoe Eiioaeoiay

Aaeiaiiea ia o?aea Aeeci?oeinoue aueie noaiaie, a oaeaea ethaay noaiaiue
aeeci?oeinoe n ineiaeiaieyie ia aeaciii aeia Eiioaeoiay

Aaeiaiiea ia oinna Aeeci?oeinoue aueie noaiaie, a oaeaea ethaay noaiaiue
aeeci?oeinoe n ineiaeiaieyie ia aeaciii aeia Eiioaeoiay

Aeiianoeea nii?oeaiay Ethaay noaiaiue aeeci?oeinoe, e?iia noaoeeiia?ie
aeeci?oeinoe neaaie noaiaie Aac ei??aeoeee

Aeiianoeea ooaeiaeanoaaiiay Aeeci?oeinoue aueie noaiaie, a oaeaea ethaay
noaiaiue aeeci?oeinoe n ineiaeiaieyie ia aeaciii aeia I?e cia/eoaeueiii
iiieaeaiee c?aiey – eiioaeoiay ei??aeoeey

No?aeueaa noaiaeiaay, ioeaaay, ec eoea I?ioeaiiieacaiee iao I/eiaay eee
eiioaeoiay

Nia?aiaiiia iyoeai?uea Ethaay noaiaiue aeeci?oeinoe, e?iia noaoeeiia?ie
aeeci?oeinoe neaaie noaiaie Ni. niioaaonoaothuea aeaeu nii?oa

Eiiiue nii?o Aeeci?oeinoue aueie noaiaie, a oaeaea ethaay noaiaiue
aeeci?oeinoe n ineiaeiaieyie ia aeaciii aeia Aac ei??aeoeee

Oaooiaaiea Ineiaeiaiiay aeeci?oeinoue I/eiaay eee eiioaeoiay

Ieaaaiea Ineiaeiaiiay aeeci?oeinoue Aac ei??aeoeee

Aiaeiia iiei Aeeci?oeinoue aueie noaiaie, a oaeaea ethaay noaiaiue
aeeci?oeinoe n ineiaeiaieyie ia aeaciii aeia Aac ei??aeoeee

I?uaeee a aiaeo Ethaay noaiaiue aeeci?oeinoe, e?iia noaoeeiia?ie
aeeci?oeinoe neaaie noaiaie Aac ei??aeoeee

A?aaey Ineiaeiaiiay aeeci?oeinoue I/eiaay

Ia?oniue nii?o Ineiaeiaiiay aeeci?oeinoue Aac ei??aeoeee

Euaeiua aiiee Ineiaeiaiiay aeeci?oeinoue Aac ei??aeoeee

Aeaoeii Ineiaeiaiiay aeeci?oeinoue I/eiaay eee eiioaeoiay

Ai?iieuaeiue nii?o Ethaay noaiaiue aeeci?oeinoe, e?iia noaoeeiia?ie
aeeci?oeinoe neaaie noaiaie Aac ei??aeoeee

I?uaeee ia euaeao n o?aiieeia Ethaay noaiaiue aeeci?oeinoe Aac
ei??aeoeee

Euaeiia aeaiaai?uea Ethaay noaiaiue aeeci?oeinoe Aac ei??aeoeee

Nei?inoiie aaa ia eiiueeao Aeeci?oeinoue aueie noaiaie, a oaeaea ethaay
noaiaiue aeeci?oeinoe n ineiaeiaieyie ia aeaciii aeia Aac ei??aeoeee

Oeao?iia eaoaiea Aeeci?oeinoue aueie noaiaie, a oaeaea ethaay noaiaiue
aeeci?oeinoe n ineiaeiaieyie ia aeaciii aeia Eiioaeoiay

Nii?oeaiay oiaeueaa Ineiaeiaiiay aeeci?oeinoue Aac ei??aeoeee

Aaa ia ei?ioeea aeenoaioeee Ethaay noaiaiue aeeci?oeinoe, e?iia
noaoeeiia?ie aeeci?oeinoe neaaie noaiaie Aac ei??aeoeee

Aaa ia n?aaeiea e aeeeiiua aeenoaioeee Ineiaeiaiiay aeeci?oeinoue Aac
ei??aeoeee

Iaoaiea Aunieay e ineiaeiaiiay aeeci?oeinoue Aac ei??aeoeee

I?uaeee Ethaay noaiaiue aeeci?oeinoe Aac ei??aeoeee

Aieaeaie, aaneaoaie Aeeci?oeinoue aueie noaiaie, a oaeaea ethaay
noaiaiue aeeci?oeinoe n ineiaeiaieyie ia aeaciii aeia Aac ei??aeoeee

Oooaie, ?o/iie iy/ Ethaay noaiaiue aeeci?oeinoe, e?iia noaoeeiia?ie
aeeci?oeinoe neaaie noaiaie Aac ei??aeoeee

Oieeae Ethaay noaiaiue aeeci?oeinoe Aac ei??aeoeee

Oaien aieueoie, ianoieueiue, aaaeieioii Aeeci?oeinoue aueie noaiaie, a
oaeaea ethaay noaiaiue aeeci?oeinoe n ineiaeiaieyie ia aeaciii aeia Aac
ei??aeoeee

Naiiue nii?o Ethaay noaiaiue aeeci?oeinoe, e?iia noaoeeiia?ie
aeeci?oeinoe neaaie noaiaie Aac ei??aeoeee

Iioinii?o Ethaay noaiaiue aeeci?oeinoe, e?iia noaoeeiia?ie aeeci?oeinoe
neaaie noaiaie Aac ei??aeoeee

Ai?iaeee Aeeci?oeinoue aueie noaiaie, a oaeaea ethaay noaiaiue
aeeci?oeinoe n ineiaeiaieyie ia aeaciii aeia I/eiaay

Oece/aneay eoeueoo?a aeey nooaeaioia n aeeci?oeinoueth

Aaaeouaa ianoi a nenoaia oece/aneiai ainieoaiey o/aueony
iauaia?aciaaoaeueiuo oeie e AOCia caieiatho o?iee oece/aneie eoeueoo?u.

Iaycaoaeueiua caiyoey nooaeaioia e oeieueieeia oeceoeueoo?ie i?iaiaeyo a
o?ao a?oiiao: iniiaiie, iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie e niaoeeaeueiie.

A iniiaioth a?oiio ia aeiioneathony o/aueany n ino?ioie c?aiey aac
ei??aeoeee ieaea 0.5 ia eo/oa aeaeyuai aeaco, n aeia?iao?iie/aneie eee
ieiie/aneie ?ao?aeoeeae aieaa 3 aeio?.

A iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie a?oiia nii?oeaiua o?aie?iaee e ni?aaiiaaiey
eneeth/aiu. O/aueany n aeia?iao?iieae e ieiieae aieaa 6.0 aeio?
iacaaeneii io ino?iou c?aiey ia aeiioneathony e caiyoeyi a yoie a?oiia.

O/aueany n aeia?iao?iieae e ieiieae aieaa 6.0 aeio? iacaaeneii io
ino?iou c?aiey, a oaeaea n o?iie/aneeie e aeaaa?aoeaiuie caaieaaaieyie
aeac caieiathony a niaoeeaeueiie a?oiia ii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie i?ia?aiia.

Ioai? oeieueieeia e nooaeaioia a eaaeaeoth ec yoeo a?oii ii ninoiyieth
i?aaia c?aiey inouanoaeytho a niioaaonoaee n eino?oeoeeae, i?eaaaeaiiie
a oaaeeoea aeaeaa (oaae.1).

Aeey oeieueieeia e nooaeaioia, no?aaeathueo aeeci?oeinoueth e
aeeth/aiiuo a niaoeeaeueioth a?oiio, ?ac?aaioaiu niaoeeaeueiua
oi?aaeiaiey oeia ea/aaiie oeceoeueoo?u.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue auoa, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue nooaeaioia no?aaeatho
aeeci?oeinoueth. Ii ia?a ia?aoiaea ia noa?oea eo?nu ioia/aaony
oaiaeaioeey e aa i?ia?anne?iaaieth. Yoi aucaaii , i/aaeaeii, aieueoie
c?eoaeueiie iaa?oceie, iaaeinoaoi/iie aeaeaaoaeueiie aeoeaiinoueth,
ia?ooaieai aeaeaie/aneeo ia?ooaiee o?oaea e auoa.

I?e ?ani?aaeaeaiee nooaeaioia n aeeci?oeinoueth a o/aaiua a?oiiu aeey
caiyoey oece/aneie eoeueoo?ie n o/aoii aeaiiuo iaaeeoeeineiai iniio?a
neaaeoao ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny i?eaaaeaiiuie auoa ia?aie/aieyie.

Eniieuecothony neaaeothuea oi?iu oece/aneiai ainieoaiey: iaycaoaeueiua e
oaeoeueoaoeaiua caiyoey; eoeueoo?ii-ianniaua ia?ii?eyoey;
naiinoiyoaeueiua caiyoey, aeeth/athuea oo?aiithth aeaeaie/aneoth
aeiianoeeo e ia?u ii caeaeeaaieth i?aaiecia, a oaeaea niaoeeaeueiua
oi?aaeiaiey aeey oeeeea?iie iuooeu.

Nooaeaiou n aeeci?oeinoueth neaaie noaiaie aoiaeyo a iniiaioth a?oiio e
iiaoo caieiaoueny oece/aneie eoeueoo?ie a iiaeaioiaeoaeueiii ioaeaeaiee
nii?oeaiiai niaa?oainoaiaaieyth Iieaciu caiyoey nii?oeaiuie ea?aie.
Iinoiyiiia ia?aeeth/aiea c?aiey i?e ea?a a aieaeaie, aaneaoaie, oaiien n
aeeceiai ?annoiyiey ia aeaeaeia e ia?aoii niinianoaoao oneeaieth
aeeiiiaeaoeee e i?ioeeaeoeee i?ia?anne?iaaiey aeeci?oeinoe.

I?e iaee/ee aeeci?oeinoe n?aaeiae noaiaie nooaeaioia aeeth/atho a
iiaeaioiaeoaeueioth iaaeeoeeineoth a?oiio, iie aeieaeiu caieiaoueny
oece/aneie eoeueoo?ie a iiaeaioiaeoaeueiii o/aaiii ioaeaeaiee.
I?aeoe/aneea caiyoey n ieie neaaeoao i?iaiaeeoue ioaeaeueii io
nooaeaioia iniiaiie iaaeeoeeineie a?oiiu. A i?ia?aiiiua o?aaiaaiey aeey
ieo oeaeaniia?acii aaanoe iaeioi?ua ia?aie/aiey:eneeth/eoue i?uaeee n
auniou aieaa 1.5 i., oi?aaeiaiey, o?aaothuea aieueoiai e
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai oece/aneiai iai?yaeaiey. Noaiaiue ia?aii-iuoa/iiai
iai?yaeaiey e iauay iaa?ocea i?e caiyoeyo oece/aneie eoeueoo?ie aeieaeiu
auoue ianeieueei ieaea, /ai o nooaeaioia ec iniiaiie iaaeeoeeineie
a?oiiu.

Aeey nooaeaioia iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie iaaeeoeeineie a?oiiu ia?yaeo n
o/aaiuie caiyoeyie iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeoniio?aoue oaeaea naiinoiyoaeueiua
caiyoey, aeeth/athuea niaoeeaeueiua oi?aaeiaiey aeey iuooe aeac eee
caiyoey ea/aaiie oeceoeueoo?ie.

Nooaeaiou n aeeci?oeinoueth aunieie noaiaie (6.0 aeio? e aieaa) aeieaeiu
caieiaoueny oece/aneie eoeueoo?ie oieueei a niaoeeaeueiii iaaeeoeeineii
ioaeaeaiee . Eniieuecothony neaaeothuea oi?iu oece/aneiai ainieoaiey: a)
iaycaoaeueiua e oaeoeueoaoeaiua caiyoey;

a) naiinoiyoaeueiua caiyoey, aeeth/athuea oo?aiithth
aeaeaie/aneoth aeiianoeeo e ia?u ii caeaeeaaieth i?aaiecia, oi?aaeiaiey
aeey iiauoaiey o?iaiy iauae e neeiaie auiineeainoe, a oaeaeao?aie?iaeo
oeeeea?iie iuooeu. E?iia oiai iiaeii ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue e caiyoey ea/aaiie
oeceoeueoo?u.

Oece/aneea oi?aaeiaiey e nii?o – yoi iniiaiua n?aaenoaa oe?aieaiey
caei?iauey e iiaeaea?aeaiey oi?ioae ?aaioiniiniaiinoe a ethaii aic?anoa,
iaeiaei aeey ethaeae no?aaeathueo caaieaaaieyie aeaciiai i?aaia,
iaiaoiaeeiu niaoeeaeueiua eiiieaenu oi?aaeiaiee.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u:

Aaaoenia Y.N. “Aeeci?oeinoue”-I.: Iaaeeoeeia, 1986.

“Aeaciua aieacie”: O/aaiee/Iiae ?aae. O.E.A?ioaaneiai, A.A.
Ai/ea?aaie. – I.: Iaaeeoeeia 1983.

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