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AAe?AIY?AE*ANEEA EAEA?NOAAIIUA N?AAeNOAA (4)

Ii?aaeaeaiea: aae?aiy?ae/aneea i?aia?aou – yoi eaea?noaaiiua
aauanoaa, eioi?ua i?aiyonoaotho eee aini?iecaiaeyo yooaeou
eaoaoieaieiia. Aeaaiay ?ieue aae?aiy?ae/aneie nenoaiu – a ?aaoeyoeee
na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu.

Aae?aiaeei auaeaeyaony:

1. Iinoaaiaeeiia?iua ieii/aiey neiiaoe/aneiai ia?aa.

2. Iicaiaie neie iaaeii/a/ieeia.

=> ii auiieiyao (1) iae?iiaaeeaoi?ioth e (2) iae?iiiaeoeyoi?ioth
(aoii?aeueioth) ooieoeee. Aae?aiaeei auiieiyao ooieoeee 1 e 2 a OeIN.
Ia?aneiiaoe/aneay IN i?aiaeaaeaao a ioiioaiee ooieoeee anao i?aaiia,
e?iia e?iaaiiniuo ninoaeia. A ieo aeaaiia cia/aiea – neiiaoe/aneay IN.
=> Ooieoeee aioo?aiieo i?aaiia yooaeoeaiaa ea/eoue oieeiy?ae/aneeie
n?aaenoaaie, a oiion ninoaeia – aae?aiy?ae/aneeie.

Ia?aaea/a aicaoaeaeaiey a aae?aiy?ae/aneeo neiainao.

1)Ia?aciaaiea iaaeeaoi?a: oaieeaeaiei ->oe?icei
->aeeieneoaieeaeaiei (AeIOA) ->aeioaiei (1-e iaaeeaoi?,eaoaoieaiei)
->ii?aae?aiaeei (ae.?ieue a ia?aaea/a aicaoaeaeaiey a aae?aiy?ae/aneeo
neiainao). Ii?aae?aiaeei a neiainao e iaaeii/a/ieeao iiaeao
ia?aoiaeeoue a aae?aiaeei e iaiai?io).

Ia/eiay n o?aoueae ?aaeoeee i?ienoiaeyo a ia?aiuo eeaoie
(ia?aua ?aaeoeee – a ia/aie). Iaaeeaoi?u nioneathony ii aeniio a
aaceeoeao a i?aneiiaoe/aneea ieii/aiey. A i?ioeann o?ainiioa aaceeoe
i?eieiatho o/anoea eiiu iaaiey. Iaaeeaoi?u iiaoo ?ac?o-

oaoueny IAI (iiiiaieiiieneaeacie) oei A (?ac?ooaao ii?aae?aiaeei,
aae?aiieei e na?ioiiei). Ii?aae?aiaeei e aae?aiieei aeey caueou io IAI
niaaeeiythony ni niaoeeaeueiuie aaeeaie e AOO (ia?acoaony aeaii). Yoi
– noaaeeueiua a?aioeu (noaaeeueiay o?aeoeey). Eaaeeueiay o?aeoeey
i?aaenoaaeaia ianaycaiiui iaaeeaoi?ii a aaceeoeao. E?iia

oiai eiaaony iaaieueoia eiee/anoai naiaiaeiiai aae?aiaeeia a
oeeoiieacia, ii ii eaaei ?ac?ooaaony oa?iaioaie.

Iinea auoiaea iaaeeaoi?a a neiaioe/aneoth uaeue aai eceeoee
iiaoo ?ac?ooaoueny eaoaoiei?oiiaoeeo?ainoa?acie (nie?auaiii – EIIO).
Iiaeao auoue ia?aoiue caoaao /anoe iaaeeaoi?a i?aneiaioe/aneie
iaia?aiie.

Aeaeu aae?aii?aoeaioi?ia. _.

Aae?aii?aoeaioi?u auaatho /aou?ao aeaeia: aeueoa- aae?aii?aoeaioi?u (2
oeia – aeueoa1 e aeueoa2) e aaoaaae?aii?aoeaioi?u (aaoa1 e aaoa2).
Niune ?acaeaeaiey: aeueoa – ?aoeaioi?u aeiee?othony aaaaeaieai
aeeaeieaeia nii?uiuee, a aaoa – ?aoeaioi?u – ia aeiee?othony.
?aoeaioi?u aeaeyony oaeaea ia i?aneiaioe/aneea e iinoneiaioe/aneea.
Iinoneiaioe/aneea aeueoa – aae?aii?aoeaioi?u eae i?aaeei aucuaatho
aeoeaaoeeth (ii aeey aeaaeeeo iuooe

eeoa/ieea – iaiai?io, ?anneaaeaiea). *a?ac iinoneiaioe/aneea aaoa-
?aoeaioi?u ieacuaaaony a iniiaiii oi?iiciia aeeyiea (ii aeey
na?aeoea – eneeth/aiea – aicaoaeaeathuee yooaeo). I?aneiaioe/aneea
aeueoa2-aae?aii?aoeaioi?u oiaiueoatho neioac e aua?in iaaeea

oi?ia, a i?aneiaioe/aneea aaoa2- aae?aii?aoeaioi?u oaaee/eaatho e oi e
ae?oaia.

I?e aeaenoaee ia aeueoa1-aae?aii?aoeaioi?u a eeaoeo ia/eiatho
iinooiaoue eiiu eaeueoeey, ieacuaay i?yiia aicaoaeaeathuaa aeaenoaea.
E?iia oiai, aeoeae?oaony oinoieeiaca N(Oea). Iia ?anuaieyao
iaia?aiiue oinoieeieae ia aeaa aeoeaiuo aauanoaa: eii-

ceo-3-oinoao, eioi?ue noeioee?oao aua?in eaeueoeey ec aioo?eeeaoi/iuo
aeaii a oeeoiieacia, e aeeaoeeeaeeoea?ie, eioi?ue aeoeae?oao
i?ioaeieeiacu. I?ioaeieeiacu aeoeae?otho oinoi?eeacu, eioi?ua
oinoi?eee?otho aaeee. I?e aeaenoaee ia aaoa-?aoeaioi?u _./a?ac
?aaoeyoi?iue aaeie Gs aeoeae?oaony aaeaieeaooeeeeaca, a i?iaeoeo aa

?aaiou – oeeeee/aneay AIO aeoeae?oao i?ioaeieeiacu. I?e aeaenoaee ia
aeueoa2-?aoeaioiu _./a?ac aaeie Gi aaeaieeaooeeeeaca eiaeae?oaony.

E Gs e Gi aeey naiae ?aaiou o?aaotho AOO.

Oeceieiaey aae?aii?aoeaioi?ia a eiie?aoiuo i?aaiao.

?aoeaioi?u Aaea ?aniieiaeaiu ?aaeoeey ia aeoeaaoeeth

Aeueoa1 Ninoaeu eiaee, neecenouo iaiei/ae, i?aaiia a?thoiie ii einoe.
Niaci, oaaee/aiea iauaai ia?eoa?e/aneiai nii?ioeaeaiey ninoaeia e
n?aaeiaai AAe.

Noeieoa?u aeaaeeiiuoa/iuo i?aaiia, iaoea Niaci, nie?auaiea

?aaeeaeueiay iuooea aeaca Nie?auaiea, ieae?eac (?anoe?aiea c?a/ea)

Ieeiiioi?u Ieeiy?aeoeey (iiaeuai aiein)

Ia/aiue Oaaee/aiea aeeeiaaiieeca

Aaoa1 Na?aeoea Oaoeea?aeey, oaaee/aiea nie?aoeiinoe

Eeoa/iee ?anneaaeaiea (oaaee/eaaaony aioo?eeeaoi/iay eiioeaio?aoeey
eaeey)

Aaoa2 A?iioe ?anneaaeaiea

Ninoaeu neaeaoiuo iuooe Niaci, oaaee/aiea AAe

Iaoea Ineaaeaiea nie?auaiee

Aeueoa2 Iinoneiaioe/aneea ?aoeaioi?u OeIN Oi?iiaeaiea aeoeaiinoe
iae?iiia iaeanoe nieeoa?iiai o?aeoa

Oieeia?ae/aneea e aae?aiai?ae/aneea ia?aiua ieii/aiey
(i?aneiaioe/aneea) Oiaiueoaiea aua?ina ieaeeaoi?ia.

Aia- eee iinoneiaioe/aneea ?aoeaioi?u ninoaeia Niaci (oaaee/aiea aoiaea
eaeueoeey)

Iaie?aaoe/aneea (- eeaoee Nieaeaiea nae?aoeee einoeeia, oi?iiaeaiea
aaeaieeaooeeeeacu, aeoeaaoeey eaeeaauo eaiaeia

O?iiaioeeou Aa?aaaoeey

AEe?iaay oeaiue Oi?iiaeaiea eeiieeca

E?iia oiai, ( e ( ?aoeaioi?u eiathony a OeIN. Oai iie ieacuaatho
aicaoaeaeathuea e oi?iiciua yooaeou (oi?iiciua i?aiaeaaeatho).

Eeanneoeeaoeey eaea?noaaiiuo aauanoa.

Ii ianoo aeaenoaey Iai?aaeaiiinoue Ecae?aoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey

i?aneiaioe/aneea e iinoneiaioe/aneea aeaenoaey (( – eee ( , 1 eee 2,
ieiaoeee eee eeoeee Oieueei ( eee ( e (

I?AIA?AOU

1. Oneeeaathuea aae?aiy?ae/aneoth ia?aaea/o ia?aiuo eiioeuenia.

1.1 Aae?aiiieiaoeee i?yiiai aeaenoaey.

1.1.1 Aeueoa, aaoa – aae?aiiieiaoeee. Aae?aiaeei (ana
aae?aii?aoeaioi?u)

1.1.2 Aeueoa – aae?aiiieiaoeee. Ii?aae?aiaeei (( 1, ( 2, /anoe/ii –
e () Iacaoii (( 1 – ?aoeaioi?u) Iaooecei (( 2 – ?aoeaioi?u ia ia?eoa?ee)
Aaeacieei (( 2 – ?aoeaioi?u ia ia?eoa?ee)
Eeiieaeei (eeioaeei) (aeueoa2 – ?aoeaioi?u OeIN) Aoaioaoeei (aeueoa2 –
?aoeaioi?u OeIN)

1.1.3 Aaoa – aae?aiiieiaoeee. Ecaae?ei (aaoa1 e aaoa2 –
?aoeaioi?u) Aeiaooaiei (aaoa1 – ?aoeaioi?u), Aeioaiei (aaoa1, /anoe/ii
– (), I?oeei?aiaeei, Oaiioa?ie ( 2- ?aoeaioi?u Naeaooaiie

1.2 Neiiaoiieiaoeee (iai?yiia aeaenoaea). Yoaae?ei, Oaiaiei,
Oe?aiei, Eieaei + iaeioi?ua o?eoeeeee/aneea aioeaeai?annaiou

2 Ineaaeythuea aae?aiy?ae/aneea yooaeou.

2.1 Aae?aiieeoeee i?yiiai aeaenoaey.

2.1.1 Aeueoa, aaoa – aae?aiieeoeee. Eaaaoaeie

2.1.2 Aeueoa – aae?aiieeoeee.

Oaioieaiei, Ie??ienai, Aeeaeae?iy?aioaiei,
Aeeaeae?iy?aioienei: ( 1 e (2

I?acicei (oieueei ( 1)

2.1.3 Aaoa – aeieaoi?u.

I?ii?aiieie, Ieni?aiaeie, Ieiaeieie – ( 1 e ( 2

Oaeeiieie – ea?aeeinaeaeoeaiua ( 1, Iaoii?ieie e Aoaiieie –
( 1

2.2 Aae?aiieeoeee iai?yiiai aeaenoaey (neiiaoieeoeee)

?aca?iei Ieoaaeei I?ieae Iaoee-AeIOA

Aeeyiea aae?aiaeeia ia a?oa?eaeueiia aeaaeaiea.

1 oaca – aeoeaaoeey aaoa1- aae?aii?aoeaioi?ia ieiea?aea.
Oaaee/eaaaony na?aea/iue aua?in.

2 oaca – caaea?aeea iiaeuaia aeaaeaiey (aaaiaeai?anni?iue ?aoeaeoi?iue
yooaeo).

3 oaca – aeeyiea aae?aiaeeia ia aeueoa (iiaeuai) e aaoa (niaae)
?aoeaioi?u ninoaeia.

4 oaca – neaaeiaay aeiioaicey. Auno?ue iae?iiaeueiue caoaao
aae?aiaeeia, eiaeoeaaoeey aai ecauoea oa?iaioii EIIO (niio?e
auoa).

Iieacaiey e i?eiaiaieth:

1. Aeiioiiey (eieeain, oie) – eaiaeueiia aaaaeaiea.

2. Inoaiiaea na?aeoea – aioo?ena?aea/iia aaaaeaiea.

3. A?iioeaeueiay anoia (aeey eoie?iaaiey i?enooiia) – iiaeeiaeii
eee aioo?eiuoa/ii. Ia i?aia?ao auai?a (ianiaoeeoe/ai).

4. Ainiaeeoaeueiua caaieaaaiey neecenouo iaiei/ae (i?eiaiyaony
ianoii).

5. Aeey i?ieiiae?iaaiey yooaeoa ianoiuo aianoaoeeia.

6. Aeiiaeeeaie/aneia ninoiyiea i?e ia?aaeice?iaea einoeeia.

Aae?aiaeei – iaaeeeiceaeiue ea?aeeinoeioeyoi?. Ii iiauoaao
iio?aaiinoue na?aeoea a eenei?iaea, oneeeaaao aai ?aaioo, ii nieaeaao
eiyooeoeeaio iieaciiai aeaenoaey. Oiaiueoaaony caian aeeeiaaia,
iaeaieeaaaony iiei/iay eeneioa, nieaeaaony niaea?aeaiea iae?iy?ae/aneeo
oinoaoia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aae?aiaeei ia iiaeao i?eiaiyoueny aeey
ea/aiey na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.

Ii?aae?aiaeei. _.Aieaa neeueii aeaenoaoao ia aeueoa – ?aoeaioi?u
ninoaeia. I?eiaiyaony i?e ninoaeenouo eieeainao (aioo?eaaiii,
eaiaeueii). Iaeuecy aaiaeeoue iiaeeiaeii. Ii?aae?aiaeei eiaeoeae?oaony
oa?iaioaie IAI e EIIO.

Yooaeou: oiaiueoaaony /anoioa na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee (aaaoniay
a?aaeeea?aeey), oaaee/eaaaony a?oa?eaeueiia aeaaeaiea, aic?anoaao iauaa
ia?eoa?e/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea ninoaeia.

Iacaoii. _.Ia eaoaoieaiei. Ia ?ac?ooaaony oa?iaioaie IAI e EIIO.
Iiaeao aaiaeeoueny yioa?aeueii, anoue eiueaeoeee. I?eiaiyaony i?e
eieeaioieaeiuo ?aaeoeeyo (aioo?eaaiii e aioo?eiuoa/ii), i?e
aeiioaicee. Eiaao i?ieiiae?iaaiiue yooaeo.

Iaooecei e aaeacieei. _.Aeaenoaotho ia aianeiaioe/aneea aeueoa2-
aae?aii?aoeaioi?u. I?eiaiythony ianoii, i?e ?eieoao. A aeaoneie
i?aeoeea iiaoo aucuaaoue oaoeea?aeeth, iiauoaiea aeaaeaiey.

Ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony aeeeoaeueiia i?eiaiaiea i?e o?iie/aneeo ?eieoao,
oae eae aiciiaeia ao?ioey neecenoie iina eee aicieeiiaaiea
oiea?aioiinoe e yoei i?aia?aoai.

Eeioaeei. _.Aioeaeia?oaiceaiia n?aaenoai – oaaeaoee. Eoie?iaaiea
aeia?oiie/aneeo e?ecia aioo?eaaiii. Eeioaeei eoie?oao iieaoiue
aanoeiaioiue neiae?ii. Ii ii ia i?aia?ao auai?a, oae eae i?e
i?ae?auaiee i?eaia aicieeaao aeia?oaicey (yoi iacuaaaony oaiiiai
ioaea/e). Eeioaeei i?eiaiyaony aeey ea/aiey ioe?uoioaieueiie oi?iu
aeaoeiiu. Ii aucuaaao ieae?eac (?anoe?aiea c?a/ea).

Iiai/iua yooaeou: naaeaoeaiue (aei niioai?iiai), nooinoue ai ?oo,
?anno?ienoaa iieiaie noa?u o ioae/ei (ia?aoeiay eiiioaioeey),
oiaiueoaiea ii/a/iie oeeueo?aoeee (caaea?aeea iao?ey e aiaeu).

Aoaioaoeei. _.Eiaao aieaa i?ieiiae?iaaiiue yooaeo ii n?aaiaieth n
eeioaeeiii. Ia aucuaaao oaiiiaia ioaea/e.

Ecaae?ei. _.Iiauoaao nenoiee/aneia AAe, nieaeaao aeeanoiee/aneia e
n?aaeiaa AAe.

Aoiaeeo a ninoaa ay?icieae aeey eoie?iaaiey a?iioiniacia.
Ia?aie/eaathuee yooaeo – aucuaaao oaoeea?aeeth. I?eiaiyaony aeey
ea/aiey na?aea/iuo aeieaae 1,2 noaiaie.

I?oeei?aiaeei, oaiioa?ie e naeaooaiie. _.Aeice?iaaiiua ay?iciee
(naeaooaiie auioneaaony e a oaaeaoeao). Ia aeaenoaotho ia na?aeoea
a oa?aiaaoe/aneeo aeicao. Eiatho oieieeoe/aneee yooaeo – nieaeatho
aicaoaeeiinoue ieiiao?ey (i?eiaiythony aeey i?ioeeaeoeee aueeaeuoae).
I?eiaiythony eiaaeyoeeiiii aeey eoie?iaaiey i?enooiia a?iioeaeueiie
anoiu.

Iiai/iua yooaeou:

1) Neiae?ii caie?aiey eaaeeo (?anoe?ythony ninoaeu a?iioia – ia?ooaaony
ae?aiaaeiay ooieoeey).

2) Neiae?ii ?eeioaoa. I?e aeeeoaeueiii eniieueciaaiee eo yooaeo
nieaeaaony, a caoai – eca?auaaony (noaiiaeony i?ioeaiiieiaeiui).
Aiciiaeii, /oi i?e aeeeoaeueiie noeioeyoeee aaoa2- ?aoeaioi?u
i?aa?auathony a aeueoa – ?aoeaioi?u.

Aeiaooaiei. _.Iaaeeeiceaeiue ea?aeeinoeioeyoi?. Iiauoaao
na?aea/iue aua?in. I?eiaiyaony i?e na?aea/iie neaainoe. Ia aiaeeony
aeey aeeeoaeueiiai i?eiaiaiey.

Aeioaiei. _.Aiaeiae/ii i?aaeuaeouaio. Iiai/iue yooaeo –
oaoeea?aeey.

NEIIAOIIEIAOEEE.

Iniiaiua – oaiaiei, yoaae?ei e oe?aiei.

Oaiaiei. _.(a?oiia A) ia?eioee, aeiieia. Cia/eoaeueii oneeeaaao
aua?in eaoaoieaieiia ia ia?eoa?ee e a OeIN (a OeIN oneeeaaao aua e
aua?in aeioaieia). *anoe/ii eiaeae?oao IAI e ia?aoiue caoaao.

Aucuaaao oaoeea?aeeth, iiauoaiea AAe. I?e ia?aaeice?iaea –
na?aea/iue ia?aee/, oae eae enoiuathony caianu eaoaoieaieiia. Ia
eniieueciaaoue ai aoi?ie iieiaeia aeiy – iaaethaeaaony “nea/ea
eaeae”, neiaaniay noa?aioeiey, yeoi?ey.

Yoaae?ei. _.Aeiieia. Ieeneaiiay oi?ia (yoaae?ii) – ia?eioee.
Yoaae?ei aeeeoaeueii i?eiaiyeny eae a?iioieeoee, ii ioeacaeenue,
iioiio /oi ianiaoeeoe/ai e iiyoiio iiiai iiai/iuo yooaeoia.

***********************************************

Nie?auaiey a eaeoeee._. AAe – a?oa?eaeueiia aeaaeaiea.

OeIN – oeaio?aeueiay ia?aiay nenoaia.

AIO – aaeaiiceiiiiioinoao.

IAI – iiiiaieiiieneaeaca.

EIIO – eaoaoiei?oiiaoeeo?ainoa?aca.

AOO – aoaiiceio?eoinoao.

I?eia/aiea._. Aacaea, aaea ieoaony aeueoa eee aaoa- ?aoeaioi?u,
iiae?acoiaaaaony aeueoa – aae?aii?aoeaioi?u e aaoa – aae?aii?aoeaioi?u.

AAe?AIIEEOE*ANEEA EAEA?NOAAIIUA N?AAeNOAA (5)

Aeueoa – aae?aiiaeieaoi?u._. Aeueoa1,2 – aae?aiiaeieaoi?u
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aeeaeae?e?iaaiiua aeeaeieaeu nii?uiuee. Nthaea
ioiinyo oaioieaiei, ie??ienai, aeeaeae?iy?aioaiei, aeeaeae?iy?aioienei.

I?eiaiaiea:

1. Aeey ea/aiey ?anno?ienoa ia?aoa?e/aneiai e?iaiia?auaiey.

2. Ea/aiea o?ioe/aneeo yca, ?ai, ioii?iaeaiee.

3. Eoie?iaaiea aeia?oiie/aneeo e?ecia (oaioieaiei aioo?eaaiii). Ia
i?eiaiyaony aeeeoaieueii. Iiai/iue yooaeo – oaoeea?aeey.

4. Aeeaaiinoeea e ea/aiea oaio?iiioeeoii (iiooieue iicaiaiai neiy
iaaeii/a/ieeia). Aae?aiaeei auoiaeeo a e?iaue e ninoiyiea iiaeiaii
aeia?oiie/aneei e?ecai. Ea/aiea – iia?aoeaiia. Iiaeii eniieueciaaoue
ianaeaeoeaiua aae?aiiaeieaoi?u.

5. Ea/aiea iea?aiae (neeueiay aieiaiay aieue n ?aioie, naycaiiay n
iiauoaieai aiieeooaeu ioeuenaoeee ninoaeia aieiaiiai iicaa.

Aeey ea/aiey a?oa?eaeueiie aeia?oaicee eniieuecothony aauanoaa,
eioi?ua ecae?aoaeueii aeiee?otho_. iinoneiaioe/aneea
aeueoa1-aae?aii?aoeaioi?u._. Iie nieiatho aeeyiea neiiaoe/aneeo ia?aia
ia ninoaeu e ninoaeu ?anoe?ythony. Oaeie i?aia?ao – i?acicei.
Eniieuecoaony ia ethaie noaaeee a?oa?eaeueiie aeia?oaicee, iiaeao auoue
n?aaenoaii iiiioa?aiee. I?eiaiyaony yioa?aeueii. Iiai/iua yooaeou:

– eieeaioieaeiua ?aaeoeee (iiieaeaiea AAe i?e ia?aiaia iieiaeaiey
oaea;

– ianeieueei oooaeoaao iicaiaia e?iaiia?auaiea (iiyaeythony
aieiaiay aieue e aieiaie?oaeaiea);

– iaaeeaiii ?acaeaaaony i?eaueaiea e i?aciceio;

– iiaeao aucuaaoue caaea?aeeo iao?ey e aiaeu a i?aaiecia.

Aaoa – aae?aiiaeieaoi?u._. I?ii?aiieie, ieni?aiaeie, ieiaeieie,
oaeeiieie. N?aaieaatho ii:

1) Aaoa-aae?aiiaeiee?othuay aeoeaiinoue. Ca aaeeieoeo i?eieiatho
i?ii?aiieie. Iaeneiaeueiia aeaenoaea – aeieaaea 60% aaoa1-?aoeaioi?ia
ieiea?aea (aieueoay aeieaaea aucuaaao aeaneiiaoecaoeeth na?aeoea e
na?aea/ioth iaaeinoaoi/iinoue).

2) Ea?aeeinaeaeoeaiinoue. Ath iaeaaeaao oaeeiieie (ecae?aoaeueiay
aeieaaea aaoa1-aae?aii?aoeaioi?ia ieiea?aea). Iaiueoa iiai/iuo
yooaeoia.

3) Aioo?aiiyy neiiaoiieiaoe/aneay aeoeaiinoue. Aac iaa –
aeiee?otho ana aac eneeth/aiey. N iath – eiio?iee?otho noaiaiue
aaoa-aeieaae (iaiueoa oainia ia?aaeice?iaee). Aioo?aiiae
neiiaoiieiaoe/aneie aeoeaiinoueth ia iaeaaeaao oieueei i?ii?aiieie.

Iieacaiey e i?eiaiaieth: eoaie/aneay aieaciue na?aeoea, na?aea/iua
a?eoiee, aeia?oiie/aneay aieaciue (i?e oyaeaeuo oi?iao a eiiaeiaoeee n
aeeo?aoeeaie), iiaoo auoue n?aaenoaii
?iaeinoeioeyoeee.

Iiai/iua yooaeou:

1)A?iioiniaci, oneeaiea nae?aoi?iie aeoeaiinoe a?iioia.

2)I?e ioiaia – iaino?aiey.

Aeueoa,aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?u._. Eaaaoaeie. Ii oa?iaeieiae/aneei
yooaeoai e iiai/iui aeaenoaeyi iiaeii n/eoaoue noiiie i?ica?eia e
i?ii?aiieiea. I?eiaiytho i?e a?oa?eaeueiie aeia?oaicee e aeia?oiie/aneie
aieacie.

Aae?aiieeoeee iai?yiiai aeaenoaey eee neiiaoieeoeee.

_.Aoaieoeaeei (ieoaaeei)._. Iaeaieeaaaony a i?aneiaioe/aneeo
ieii/aieyo e auoaniyao ii?aae?aiaeei. I?ienoiaeeo iionoioaiea caiania.
Ieoaaeei oaeaea eiaeae?oao ia?aoiue caoaao ii?aae?aiaeeia.
I?eiaiyaony i?e oyaeaeuo e ceiea/anoaaiiuo oi?iao aeia?oaicee, anee ia
aeaenoaotho ae?oaea i?aia?aou. “I?aia?ao io/ayiey”.

2.I?ieae (a?aoeeee)._. Oieioiyao i?aneiaioe/aneoth iaia?aio.
Aeieaaea eaeeaauo eaiaeia a na?aeoea. Oaaee/aiea aeeeoaeueiinoe
iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey e ia?eiaea ?ao?aeoa?iinoe.

Iieacaiey:

– eoie?iaaiea aeia?oiie/aneiai e?eca, aioo?eaaiii,

– ea/aiea na?aea/iuo a?eoiee,

– i?ioeeaeoeea oea?eeyoeee aeaeoaei/eia iinea eioa?eoa ieiea?aea.

3.AeueoaiaoeeAeIOA (aeiiaoeo,aeueaeiiao)._. I?aeiouanoaaiii
oeaio?aeueiia aeaenoaea. Eiaeiue i?aaeoanoaaiiee iaaeeaoi?ia.
Caoaaouaaaony, aeeth/aaony a oeaiue oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee. Ec iaai
ia?acoaony aeueoa-iaoeeii?aae?aiaeei, iaeaaeathuee aunieei n?iaenoaii e
oi?iiciui aeueoa2-aae?aii?aoeaioi?ai ninoaeiaeaeaaoaeueiiai oeaio?a =>
nie-

aeaaony a?oa?eaeueiia aeaaeaiea. Aeaenoaoao ia aoi?ua-o?aouee nooee. I?e
a?oa?eaeueiie aeia?oaicee eaaeie e n?aaeiae oyaeanoe. Iiai/iua yooaeou:
naaeaoeaiue (niieeainoue,ayeinoue) -caaea?aeea iao?ey e aiaeu. Ioaee.

4.?aca?iei._. Oeaio?aeueiia e ia?eoa?e/aneia aeaenoaea. Naycuaaao
eiiu iaaiey a i?aneiaioe/aneii ieii/aiee, ia?ooaaony o?ainii?o
ii?aae?aiaeeia a a?aioeu, iaaeeaoi? ia?aoiaeeo a naiaiaeioth
o?aeoeeth e eaaei ?ac?ooaaony oa?iaioii IAI. Nieaeaaony iauaa
ia?eoa?e/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea ninoaeia, iaathaeaaony a?aaeeea?aeey.
Iieacaiey:

1) Aeia?oiie/aneay aieaciue. I?eiaiyaony a eiiaeiaoeee n ae?oaeie: n
aeeo?aoeeaie, ia?eoa?e/aneeie aaciaeeeyoaoi?aie.

2) Neaaua aioeineoioe/aneea naienoaa (iae?ieaioee).

3) Neiioiiaoe/aneia ea/aiea oe?aioieneeica.

Iiai/iua yooaeou:a)oaaee/aiea oiiona ia?aneiiaoe/aneie ia?aiie
nenoaiu (a?aaeeea?aeey, a?iioiniaci, oneeaiea iioi?eee
aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai o?aeoa e aeaeoaei/iie nae?aoeee). a)
naaeaoeaiia aeaenoaea, niioai?iia. a) i?e aeeeoaeueiii i?eiaiaiee –
?aca?ieiiaay aeai?anney.

AIOEAENOAIEIIUA N?AAeNOAA.

Aenoaiei ea?aao aaaeioth ?ieue a aeea?ae/aneeo ?aaeoeeyo, yaeyaony
iaaeeaoi?ii (aicaoaeaeaiey) a OeIN.

Aenoaieiiaua ?aoeaioi?u [aoeau I1 e o.ae. eaoeineea – “ao”]:

I1-?aoeaioi?u.

1. A aeaaeeeo iuooeao, a oii /enea a a?iioao. Aicaoaeaeaiea aucuaaao
niaci: oaaee/eaaaony eiioeaio?aoeey eiiceoo?eoinoaoa, neaaeiaaoaeueii –
oaaee/eaaaony eiioeaio?aoeey eaeueoeey.

2. A ia?eoa?e/aneeo ninoaeao. Aucuaaao eo ?anoe?aiea e iiauoaiea
i?iieoeaaiinoe.

I2-?aoeaioi?u.

1. Iaeeaaei/iua eeaoee aeaeoaei/iuo aeaeac. I?e aicaeaenoaee
ia?acoaony oeeeee/aneay AIO (oeAIO). Iia aeoeae?oao i?ioaeieeiacu,
eioi?ua oinoi?eee?otho (aeoeae?otho) aaeee, niinianoaothuea nae?aoeee
H+(eiiu aiaei?iaea) e Cl-(eiiu oei?a).

2. Ieiea?ae. Oaaee/eaaaony /anoioa e neea na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee.

3. Oo/iua eeaoee. Oi?iicyuea ?aoeaioi?u (io?eoeaoaeueiay ia?aoiay
naycue). Oiaiueoaaony aoiae eaeueoeey.

I1-aenoaieiiaeieaoi?u.

Oiaiueoatho niaci aeaaeeeo iuooe, oi?iicyo ?anoe?aiea ninoaeia e
oaaee/aiea eo i?iieoeaaiinoe (nieaeatho i?iieoeaaiinoue).

Oaaeeoea yooaeoeaiinoe aeaenoaey a oneiaiuo aaeeieoeao.

Aeaenoaea

I?aia?ao I?ioeaiaeea?ae/aneia Naaeaoeaiia I-oieeiieeoe/aneia

Aeeiaae?ie 2 2 2

Aeei?acei 4 3 2

Noi?anoei 2 1 1

Aeeacieei 1 0 0

Eeaianoee 3 1 1

Oaiea?ie 2 0 0

Aeeiaaii 2 0 0

Aeniaiae 3 1 0

Oeei?iaaioaaeei 4 2 1

I?eiaiaiea: ana – i?ioeaiaeea?ae/aneea, iaeioi?ua – naaeaoeaiua
(aeeiaae?ie,aeei?aceae). I1-aeieaoi?u i?eiaiythony i?e a?iioeaeueiie
anoia, aeea?ae/aneii ?eieoa, i?e naiiie eeoi?aaeea.

I2-aenoaieiiaeieaoi?u._. Ea/aiea ycau aeaeoaeea, iaioe/aneiai
ycioaaeoa.

I?aia?ao N?aaeiyy nooi/iay aeica Oiaiueoaiea aacaeueiie nae?aoeee
nieyiie eeneiou Aeeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey

Oeeiaoeaeei 800-1200 ia 80 % aei 6 /ania

?aieoeaeei 300 ia 95 % 8-12 /ania

Oaiioeaeei 40 ia 90 % 12-24 /ana

Caaeeaeyaiinoue ycau a oa/aiee 8 iaaeaeue =90-95% neo/aaa.

Iiai/iua yooaeou (“+” – aucuaaao,”-” – ia aucuaaao, “(” – eiiaaea
aucuaaao):

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea Oeeiaoeaeei ?aieoeaeei Oaiioeaeei

Oaiaoaiea ooieoeee ia/aie + _ _

Ia?aii-ineoe/aneea ?anno?ienoaa + _ _

Ia?ooaiea nae?aoeee aiae?iaaiia e yno?iaaiia + ( _

Aeeniaioe/aneea ?anno?ienoaa (oioiioa) + + +

Oeeiaoeaeei iiaeao oaiaoaoue aeoeaiinoue oeeoio?iia P450 a ia/aie,
aucuaaoue aieiaioth aieue, niooaiiinoue niciaiey. Ae?oaea aiciiaeiua
ineiaeiaiey i?e i?eaia yoiai i?aia?aoa – aeiaeiianoey, aeieaaea
?aoeaioi?ia aiae?iaaiia, ia?ooaiey iieiaie noa?u.

Na?ioiieiy?ae/aneea n?aaenoaa

Na?ioiiei ( 5 – aeae?ieneo?eioaiei ) a i?aaiecia neioace?oaony ec
o?eioioaia.

Ooieoeee :

1.Iaaeeaoi? a OeIN ( oeaio?aeueiia na?ia ieieiaiaeii?iaiaeiia
aauanoai) oi?iiaeaiea iioiea aieaauo eiioeuenia, iiaee?aieaiea
iieiaeeoaeueiuo yooaeoia.

2.Ai?iiiaeueiue iiaeoeyoi? aeoeaiinoe yooaeoi?iuo eeaoie.

3.A o?iiaioeeoao ( ieieiaeueii neioace?oaony,ii iaeaieeaaaony (
aeaii ) )

?aoeaioi?u

n1 n2 n3

N1 – ?aoeaioi?u :

1.OeIN – oi?iiaeaiea eiioeuenia ( ca n/ao oaaee/aiey aoiaea
eaeey a eeaoeo, /oi i?eaiaeeo e aeia?iiey?ecaoeee iaia?aiu ).

2.Ia?eoa?e/aneay ia?aiay nenoaia

Ninoaeu Na?aeoea Iauaa aeaenoaea

Aeiioaiceaiia aeaenoaea Oaoeea?aeey Aeiioa?iey

C2 – ?aoeaioi?u

1.OeIN – aicaoaeaeaiea

2.Ia?eoa?e/aneay ia?aiay nenoaia

Eeoa/iee Ninoaeu A?iioe Iauaa

niaci niaci niaci aiaeueaacey

3.O?iiaioeeou – aa?aaaoeey

N3 – ?aoeaioi?u

OeIN, aaaaoaoeaiua aaiaeee

aiaeueaaoe/aneia aeaenoaea, aicaoaeaeaiea OeIN, ?aioa .

Na?ioiieiiieiaoeee

Na?ioiiei.

Oneeeaaao aa?aaaoeeth o?iiaioeeoia. Iacia/aaony i?e e?iaioa/aieyo, eae
?aaeeicaueoiia n?aaenoai.

Oaioeo?aiei

Oaaee/eaaao auaeaeaiea na?ioiieia, ia iaeaaeaao au?aaeaiiui
ia?eoa?e/aneei aeaenoaeai. Iacia/aaony i?e aeeiaioa?iii iaee?aiee.

Oeoienaoei, Eaeiacei

Aioeaeai?annaiou, eiaeae?otho ia?aoiue caoaao na?ioiieia.
Iaieaeaeueii-aeai?anneaiue ineoic.

Aonie?ii, O?iiacee – N1-ieiaoeee

Iacia/aaony i?e a?oa?eaeueiie aeia?oaicee, iaeaaeaao
aiaeueaaoe/aneei yooaeoii, aoeie/iue o?aieaeeecaoi? ( ia iioaioeee?oao
aeaenoaea aauanoa oaiaoathueo OeIN ).

Na?ioiieiieeoeee

Oeei?iaaioaaeei ( ianaeaeoeaiue na?ioiieiieeoee, aenoaieiiaeieaoi?)
Iacia/aaony i?e aeea?aee, ceiea/anoaaiiuo iiaiia?aciaaieyo (
neiioiiaoe/aneay oa?aiey ), iaeioi?uo oi?iao iea?aie.

Eaoaina?ei ( N2-eeoee ) Iacia/aaony i?e a?oa?eaeueiie aeia?oaicee,
iea?aie ceiea/anoaaiiuo iiaiia?aciaaieyo (neiioiiaoe/aneay oa?aiey )

Ieiiceae ( N3-eeoee ) Iae?ieaioee.

Ieaina?ei ( N3-eeoee ) Aioeaeai?annaio ( yeciaaiiua e ?aaeoeaiua
aeai?annee ).

Ia?eoie ( ianaeaeoeaiue na?ioiieiieeoee ) I?e iea?aie e
aeea?aee.

Aeioaieiiaay nenoaia

aeica,oneiaiua ?aoeaioi?iia oa?iaeieiae/aneea yooaeou

aaeeieoeu aeaenoaea

1 niaoeeoe/aneia Ae1-?aoeaioi?u : ?anoe?aiea ninoaeia

aeaenoaea ia ii/ae, na?aeoea, a?thoiie iieinoe

aeioaieiiaua Ae2-?aoeaioi?u : oiaiueoaiea auaeaeaiey

ii?aae?aiaeeia

Ae3-?aoeaioi?u ( OeIN ) : ineoio?iiiia

aeaenoaea

3 aaoa-1 aae?aii Oneeaiea nie?aoeiinoe ieiea?aea

?aoeaioi?u

5 – 10 aeueoa-aae?aii Niaci ninoaeia

?aoeaioi?u

Aeioaiei e aai i?iecaiaeiua (aeiaooaiei). Ianaeaeoeaiue noeioeyoi? e
aeioaieiiauo e aeueoa-aae?aii?aoeaioi?ia. I?e na?aea/iie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe ( ia aucuaaao oaoeea?aeeth )

Aeiaooaiei ( aaoa-aae?aiiieiaoee ).

Aiiii?oei ( aeioaieiiieiaoee )

A ia?eieiae/aneie i?aeoeea aeey ea/aiey aeeiaieecia ( i?eieiatho aianoa
n aeeiaieai oae eae i?eaiaeeo e oooaeoaieth noauaeoeaiiai ninoiyiey,
aucuaaao oioiioo e ?aioo ).

A?iiie?eioei ( aeioaieiiieiaoee ) Aeey oiaiueoaiey
iinea?iaeiaie eaeoaoeee.

Aeioaieiiaeieaoi?u

Aaeiia?eaeie ( Ae2-aeieaoi? ) Aioeineoioe/aneia aeaenoaea (
ea/aiea oecio?aiee )

Iaoaeeii?aieae ( ia?eoa?e/aneee aeioaieiiaeieaoi? ) Oneeeaaao
iioi?eeo aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai o?aeoa, i?ioeai?aioiia aeaenoaea

Noeueie?eae ( ianaeaeoeaiue aeioaieiiaeieaoi? ) Aioeineoioe/aneia
n?aaenoai iiaiai iieieaiey.

N?aaenoaa aeey ia?eica ( iauea aianoaoeee )

I?aia?aou, aucuaathuea oe?o?ae/aneee ia?eic, /oi yaeyaony
ia?aoeiui oaiaoaieai OeIN, eioi?ia i?iyaeyaony a aueeth/aiee niciaiey e
oaiaoaiee aieaaie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe.

1779a. aiaeeeneee oeiee Aeaaee iaia?oaeee, /oi caeenue acioa
aucuaaao iioa?th niciaiey.*a?ac 50 eao aiaeeeneee oe?o?a Oeaiai –
iiiuoaeny eniieueciaaoue caeenue acioa i?e oe?o?ae/aneeo iia?aoeeyo.

1884a. aia?eeaineee noiiaoieia Oaen i?iaa?ee caeenue acioa e noae
?aaioaoue ia iaoeeaioao.Ii o?aaiaaeanue aieueoay eiioeaio?aoeey, /oi
i?eaiaeeei e aeiienee e nia?oe.

1846a. aia?eeaineee a?a/ Aeaeainii i?eiaiye yoe? aeey
iaacaieeaaiey. Ii?aai i?eiaiye yoe? i?e oaeaeaiee coaia. A
oe?o?ae/aneie iia?aoeee ii oaeaeaiee ninoaeenoie iiooiee. Ioeoeeaeueiay
aeaoa ioe?uoey ia?eica.

1847a. a Iineaa – Eiicaioeaa

a NIa – Ie?iaia Eniieueciaaee yoe? aeey iauae aianoacee (
oaeaeaiea ?aea iiei/iie aeaeacu ) Ie?iaia aia?aua a aiaiii-iieaauo
oneiaeyo eniieueciaae ia?eic (yoe?)

IAUEA AIANOAOEEE

1.EIAAEssOeEIIIUA

1.a Eaoo/ea aeeaeeinoe

yoe? ecioeth?ai ooi?ioai yioeth?ai iaio?ai o?eeai

1.a Aacu

caeenue acioa oeeeeii?iiai

2.IAEIAAEssOeEIIIUA

2.a Aa?aeoo?aou oeiiaioae iao?ey

2.a I?i/ea i?ii?aieaeeae, aeaae?ee, ieneaooe?ao iao?ey, eaoaiei

Iaoaieci aeaenoaey

Aeieaaea neiaioe/aneie ia?aaea/e ia o?iaia OeIN.

Nouanoaoao 4 oai?ee

1.Oai?ey iaueo nenoai Oaiaoatho yia?aaoe/aneee iaoaaieeci iae?iia eee
aai niaoeeoe/aneea ?aoeaioi?u ( aeieacaii aeey oeiiaioaea iao?ey )

2.Oai?ey aaeeiiai o/anoea Anoue aaeeiue o/anoie aeey anao iaueo
aianoaoeeia

3.Iaioeaeiay iaioeaeaie

i?yiia acaeiiaeaenoaea n eiiiiiaioaie iaia?ai

4.Eeieaeiay eeieaeaie

Iauea aianoaoeee :

Aieueoeinoai ia acaeiiaeaenoaotho ni niaoeeoe/aneeie ?aoeaioi?aie (
oieeii-, aae?aii)

Ia eciaiytho iaoaaieeci ia?aiuo eeaoie e eo iioaioeeae iieiy

Aucuaatho noaaeeecaoeeth yeaeo?iaicaoaeeiie /anoe iaia?aiu iae?iia, oi
anoue ia?ooatho aa i?iieoeaaiinoue aeey ?acee/iuo eiiia ( Ca,K,Na,Cl ),
yoi i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth e?eoe/aneiai o?iaiy aeaiiey?ecaoeee,
iiyoiio iioaioeeae aeaenoaey ia aicieeaao e aicaoaeaeaiea io iae?iia e
iae?iio ia i?ioiaeeo

5.Eeiieaeiay oai?ey

Yooaeoeaiinoue iaueo aianoaoeeia naycaia n eo eiyooeoeeaioii
?anoai?aiey

?anoai?eiinoue a ianea

eiyooeoeeaio ?anoai?aiey = ———————————–

?anoai?eiinoue a aiaea

yoe? ( aeeyoeeiaue ) = 2.4, oei?ioi?i = 70, ooi?ioai = 300

Iauea aianoaoeee oeene?othony ia iaia?aia iae?iia /oi
i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth iiaeaeaeiinoe eeieaei-aaeeiaiai neiy,
aneaaenoaea /aai i?ienoiaeeo aeieaaea iao?eaauo eaiaeia, oiaiueoaaony
eiee/anoai ioe?uouo eaiaeia. Iauee eoia – – oiaiueoaaony iioaioeeae
aeaenoaey, oaaee/eaaaony eaoaioiue ia?eiae, oiaiueoaaony aiieeooaea e
neaaeiaay aeia?iiey?ecaoeee.

Ia?eiae aaaaeaiey

Noaaeee

1.Aiaeueaacey niciaiea i?eooieyaony, ?aoeaenu iiauoathony,
aiee iao

2.Aicaoaeaeaiea oo?aoa niciaiey, iioi?iia
aicaoaeaeaiea, oaaee/aiea /anoiou aeuoaiey, oaaee/aiea
a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey, aeoeaaoeey yiaeie?eiiie nenoaiu ( aua?in
aae?aiaeeia, aetheiei?oeeieaeia )

Ia?eiae iiaeaea?aeaiey ia?eica

3.Oe?o?ae/aneee ia?eic ( iiaa?oiinoiue, aeoaieee,
naa?oaeoaieee ) ionoonoaea niciaiey, ionoonoaea ?aoeaenia, e?iia
aeeciaiii aaaeiuo, ?anneaaeaiea iuooe, iiaeaaeaiea anao aeaeia
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe

Ia?eiae auaaaeaiey ec ia?eica

4.I?iaoaeaeaiea

Aa?aioeeiue oaeoi? – ?acieoea iaaeaeo e?eoe/aneei o?iaiai
aeaiiey?ecaoeee e aaniethoiie aaee/eiie iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey.

Iaoaieci

Noaaeey aiaeueaacee

Iiaeaaeythony iaeeea iae?iiu ?aoeeoey?iie oi?iaoeee, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
oiaiueoaieth ainoiaeyuaai aieaaiai iioiea

Noaaeey aicaoaeaeaiey

Oaiaoathony iae?iiu ei?u, i?e yoii oaiaoaaony ienoiaeyuee
ei?eiaue eiio?ieue e ?anoi?iaaeeaathony iiaeei?eiaua iae?iiu e iae?iiu
aeiioaeaiona

Noaaeey oe?o?ae/aneiai ia?eica

Iauee aianoaoee i?iieeaao a aieueoeinoai ia?aciaaiee OeIN e
i?eaiaeeo e ?aaiiia?iiio oaiaoaieth anao no?oeoo? ca eneeth/aieai
ninoaeiaeaeaaoaeueiiai e aeuoaoaeueiiai oeaio?ia. Iiea iie
ooieoeeiie?otho – oe?o?ae/aneee ia?eic, i?e eo oaiaoaiee aaiiaeueiay
noaaeey

Neea iaueo aianoaoeeia

Aaeiaaiecaoeey no?oeoo? iaueo aianoaoeeia i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth
eo eeiieaeio?iiiinoe e neeu ia?eioe/aneiai yooaeoa.

1-a ianoi – Ecioeth?ai ( niaea?aeeo aoiiu ooi?a )

2-a ianoi – Yioeth?ai,Iaoieneoeth?ai ( niaea?aeao ooi? e oei? )

3-a – Ooi?ioai ( niaea?aeeo ooi?, oei? e a?ii )

4-a – Yoe? e Caeenue acioa ( ia niaea?aeao aaeieaeia)

Aaciianiinoue

Ia?eioe/aneay oe?ioa – ?acieoea iaaeaeo oiene/aneie e
oa?aiaaoe/aneie eiioeaio?aoeeyie. Yoe? = 50 ia/ea Ooi?ioai = 35
ia/ea Oeeeeii?iiai = 15 ia/ea

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea:

?aiiaa_.

1.Ia?eiae aaaaeaiey a ia?eic

?aoeaeoi?ii – aicaoaeaeaiea aeoaeaeathuaai ia?aa ec-ca iano
iiai ?acae?aaeathuaai aeaenoaey

1.Niaci a?iioia

2.Caiaaeeaiea aeuoaiey

3.Caiaaeeaiea /anoiou na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee eee inoaiiaea na?aeoea

4.E oae aeaeaa..

Noaaeey aicaoaeaeaiey : Yoe? e Iaoieneoeo?ai – 10-20 ieioo

Ooi?ioai – 1-2 ieioou

2.Ia?eiae iiaeaea?aeaiey ia?eica Aeieaaea neiiaoe/aneeo aaiaeeaa –
nieaeaiea a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey, oiaiueoaiea ninoaeenouo ?aaeoeee,
oiaiueoaiea neeu na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee ( Ooi?ioai, Iaoieneoeo?ai,
Ecioeo?ai)

Oaaee/aiea a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey – Oeeeeii?iiai

Nianoaaiiue aaaiieiaoe/aneee yooaeo – Oeeeeii?iiai, Ooi?oai

Oaaee/aiea /oanoaeoaeueiinoe ieiea?aea e yiaeiaaiiui
eaoaoieaieiai – Ooi?ioai, Iaoieneoeo?ai, Yioeo?ai, Oeeeeii?iiai

Ia?ooaiea eeneioii-iniiaiiai ?aaiiaaney, oaiaoaiea aeuoaoaeueiiai
e ninoaeiaeaeaaoaeueiiai oeaio?ia

Iicaeiaa

3.Iinoia?eioe/aneea yooaeou

a) Ianoiia ?acae?aaeaiea ( a?iioiiiaaiiiee, aoaeaeoacu)

a) Nianoaaiiia oiene/aneia aeaenoaea ia aioo?aiiea i?aaiu

( Yoe?, Iaoieneoeo?ai; Ooi?ioai – aaiaoeo o aianoaceieiaia)

EIIAEIE?IAAIIUE IA?EIC

1.Yoai – I?aiaaeeeaoeey

Niioai?iua, o?aieaeeecaoi?u, iae?ieaioeee, ia?eioe/aneea
aiaeueaaoeee, I-oieeiieeoeee ( Ao?iiei )

2.Yoai – Aaiaeiue ia?eic ( iaeiaaeyoeeiiiue )

Aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ia?eica /enoui ooi?ioaiii o?aaoaony eiioeaio?aoeey 4
iauaiiuo i?ioeaioa, a i?e i?aaeoanoaothuae i?aiaaeeeaoeee n aaiaeiui
ia?eicii o?aaoaony 0.5 iauaiiuo i?ioeaioa.Aeiiieieoaeueii aaiaeyony
iei?aeaenaiou oae eae yoe? oieueei a aieueoeo eiioeaio?aoeeyo iiaeao
aucuaaoue ?anneaaeaiea iuooe.

IAEIAAEssOeEIIIUE IA?EIC

Aeinoieinoaa :

1. Auno?ia ?acaeoea ia?eica, aac noaaeee

2.Aeinoaoi/ii i?inoi

II Iaoi?aaeyaii

Oeiiaioae iao?ey

Aaaaeaiea ia?eica – 10-20 naeoiae, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
yooaeoa – 20-30 ieioo.Anneieee?oaony aee?iaie oeaiueth e iiyoiio
iaaethaeathony aeeeoaeueiua iinoia?eioe/aneea aeai?annee. ?ac?ooaaony a
ia/aie – ia?eic auno?i i?ae?auaaony.

Aeinoieinoai – aeaoaaecia

Iaaeinoaoee : iianai ( oiene/aneia oaiaoaiea aeuoaoaeueiiai e
ninoaeiaeaeaaoaeueiiai oeaio?ia ), aaaiieiaoe/aneea yooaeou – o?aaoaony
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia aaaaeaiea I-oieeiieeoeeia, ia?eic iaaeinoaoi/ii
aeoaieee – oaaee/aiea a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey, aeaeaaoaeueiua
?aaeoeee.

Eniieuecoaony eae aaiaeiue ia?eic.

I?iiaieae ( Niia?aaei )

Aaaaeaiea ia?eica – 10-20 naeoiae, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
yooaeoa – 3-5 ieioo, /a?ac 20-30 ieioo – aeaenoaea en/acaao
iieiinoueth

Aeinoieinoaa : ?anoe?yao ei?iia?iua ninoaeu, oiaiueoaao
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue e yiaeiaaiiui eaoaoieaieiia, iaeioiene/ai ( iiaeii
aaiaeeoue 3 ?aca iiae?yae ). Eniieuecoaony eae aaiaeiue ia?eic e
naiinoiyoaeueii.

I?aaeeii

I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey – 40 ieioo.

Aeinoieinoaa : aeoaieee, iaeiiianai, ?anneaaeyao aeaaeeea iuooeu,
nieaeaao /oanoaeoaeueiinoue ieiea?aea e yiaeiaaiiui eaoaoieaieiai.
Iaaeinoaoie – ianoiia ?acae?aaeathuaa aeaenoaea ( o?iiaic,
o?iiaioeaaeo).

Ieneaooe?ao iao?ey

Aaaaeaiea ia?eica – 20-30 ieioo, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey
– 1.5-3 /ana.

Aeinoieinoaa : Oaaee/eaaao onoie/eainoue e aeiienee ( a oii /enea
OeIN ), oeo/oaao iicaiaia e?iaiia?auaiea, ieceioiene/ai, oaaee/eaaao
iauaa ia?eoa?e/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea ninoaeia aac niacia i?aeaieeey?iuo
noeieoa?ia. Iaaeinoaoie – i?e auno?ii aioo?eaaiiii aaaaeaiee –
e?aoeia?aiaiiua oiie/aneea noaei?iae, aiiiy.

Eaoaiei

Aaaaeaiea ia?eica – 30 naeoiae, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey –
aei 15 ieioo. Aeennioeeaoeaiue aianoaoee : oaiaoaao annioeeaoeaioth
ei?o, oaeaion; aeoeae?oao eeiae/aneea oeaio?u – oi anoue aucuaaao ia
ia?eic, a aeoaieee nii e iiuioth aiaeueaaceth. I?e aioo?eaaiiii
aaaaeaiee – 2 /ana e aieueoa, i?e aioo?eiuoa/iii aaaaeaiee – 3, 4 /ana e
aieueoa. Aeinoieinoai – eniieuecoaony eae iiiiia?eic i?e yeno?aiiuo
ninoiyieyo. Iaaeinoaoie – aaeethoeeiaoeee i?eyoiiai oa?aeoa?a, iinea ieo
o 15% – aeaci?eaioaoeey.

IAIA?EIOE*ANEEA AIAEUeAAOEEE

Iniiaiua yooaeou :

1.Aiaeueaacey 2.AEa?iiiieaeaiea
3.I?ioeaiainiaeeoaeueiue yooaeo

EEANNU

I?iecaiaeiua :

1.Naeeoeeeiaie eeneiou Anie?ei ( aoeaoeenaeeoeeeiaay eeneioa ),
iao?ey naeeoeeeao

2.Ie?acieiia Aiaeueaei, aieaeiie?ei, aooaaeeii

3.Aieeeia Oaiaoeaoei, ia?aoeaoaiie

Iieacaiey : aieiaiay, coaiay aieue, ieaeaey, iaa?eou, eeoi?aaeea.

Naeeoeeeaou e i?iecaiaeiua ie?acieiia iauaaeeiaiu a a?oiio
ianoa?ieaeiuo i?ioeaiainiaeeoaeueiuo n?aaenoa.

4.Aio?aieeiaie eeneiou Iaoaiaiiaay eeneioa, oeooaiaiiaay
eeneioa, oieoaiaiiaay eeneioa

5.Eiaeieoenoniie eeneiou Eiaeiiaoaoeei, noeeiaeae

6.Oaieeoenoniie eeneiou Aeeeeioaiae iao?ey ( Aieueoa?ai ),
aeeeioaiae

7.I?iieiiiaie eeneiou Eaoi?ioai ( A?ooai ), iai?ienai

8.Ieneeaiu Ie?ieneeai, oaiieneeai

Eeanneoeeaoeey ii oiaiueoaieth aea?iiiieaeathuaai e
i?ioeaiainiaeeoaeueiiai yooaeoa

Aieueoa?ai > Eiaeiiaoaoeei > A?ooai > Aiaeueaei, Aieaeiie?ei >
Ie?ieneeai > Iai?ienai > Anie?ei > Ia?aoeeoaiie

Aieaooieythuee yooaeo iaueo aiaeueaaoeeia

Oeaio?aeueii_. :

I?iieeatho /a?ac aaiaoiyioeaoaee/aneee aa?uea? e ia?ooatho i?iaaaeaiea
aieaauo eiioeuenia ia o?iaia oaeaiona ( ainoiaeyuea iooe )

Eiaeae?otho neioac i?inoaaeaiaeeia-A2 e
i?inoaaeaiaeeia-F2-aeueoa

Ia?eoa?e/anee_. :

Iaia?eioe/aneea aiaeueaaoeee aeiee?otho acaeiiaeaenoaea
aeaiaaiiie noanoaioeee ( a?aaeeeeieia ) n ia?eoa?e/aneeie
iioeeoeaioi?aie. Nieaeay ioae iie oiaiueoatho iaoaie/aneia
?acae?aaeaiea ?aoeaioi?ia. E ia ia?eoa?e/aneii o?iaia iie eiaeae?otho
neioac i?inoaaeaiaeeiia : A2 e F2-aeueoa, eioi?ua oaaee/eaatho
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue iioeeoeaioi?ia e oaeoi?ai oaeei ia?acii
iaia?eioe/aneea aiaeueaaoeee iiauoatho aieaaie ii?ia.

I?ioeaiainiaeeoaeueiue yooaeo

Iaoaieci eiaeae?iaaiey neioaca i?inoaaeaiaeeiia :

Iaia?aiiua oinoieeieaeu –> A?aoeaeiiiaay eeneioa, eioi?ay aeaeaa
iiaeao i?aa?auaoueny ii aeaoi iooyi :

1.Eeiiieneaaiaciay ?aaeoeey A?aoeaeiiiaay eeneioa —>
eaeeio?eaiu

2.Oeeeeiieneaaiaciay ?aaeoeey A?aoeaeiiiaay eeneioa —>
i?inoaaeaiaeeiu

Iaia?eioe/aneea aiaeueaaoeee eiaeae?otho oeeeeiieneaaiaco

I?ioeaiainiaeeoaeueiay aeoeaiinoue:

Anie?ei 1

Eiaeiiaoaoeei 217

Nieaeatho i?iieoeaaiinoue eaieeey?ia e yennoaeaoeaiua yaeaiey i?e
ainiaeeoaeueiii i?ioeanna. Noaaeeece?otho eeciniiaeueiua iaia?aiu, /oi
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaao auoiae oa?iaioia a oeaie. Oiaiueoatho au?aaioeo
iae?iy?aia a oii /enea AOO, /oi i?eaiaeeo e ia?ooaieth ieeneeoaeueiiai
e aeeeieeoe/aneiai oinoi?eee?iaaiey -> iao yia?aiiaania/aiey
ainiaeeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna -> ii caoooaao.

AEa?iiiieaeathuee yooaeo

I?inoaaeaiaeei-A1 aeoeae?oao aaeaieeaooeeeeaco, eioi?ay
i?aa?auaao AOO a oeeeee/aneoth oi?io aaeaiiceiiiiioinoaoa.
Oeeeee/aneay oi?ia AIO niinianoaoao acaeiiaeaenoaeth eaeueoeey e iao?ey
ia aeiioaeaion.Iaeiia?aiaiii ii nieaeaao aeoeaiinoue oeaio?aeueiuo
caaiueaa neiiaoe/aneie ia?aiie nenoaiu, /oi i?eaiaeeo e ?anoe?aieth
ninoaeia e iiaeiyoeth oaiia?aoo?u. Ia aeiioaeaion e?iia oiai aeaenoaoao
eioa?eaeeei-1

1) Eiaeae?otho neioac i?inoaaeaiaeeiia-A1 e i?aiyonoaotho eo
ie?iaaiiiio aeeyieth ia iae?iiu i?aiioe/aneie iaeanoe aeiioaeaiona,
oeaio?a oa?ii?aaoeyoeee, a oii /enea oaieii?iaeoe oeee.

2) Eiaeae?otho neioac yiaeiaaiiuo ie?iaaiia,a oii /enea
eioa?eaeeeia-1

NAEEOeEEAOU

Onooiatho i?iecaiaeiui ie?acieiia ii i?aainoiaeyo i?iecaiaeiua
aieeeia

Ia ?aeiiaiaeothony aeaoyi aei 12 eao, iioiio /oi, oaiaoay
oeeeeiieneaaiaco, iie aeoeae?otho eeiiieneaaiaco. Ec-ca yoiai ia?acoaony
aieueoaa eiee/anoai eaeeio?eaiia e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia aiaoeeaenee,
eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e a?iioeaeueiie anoia (eaea?noaaiiie ) o aeaoae. Iie
yaeythony iaeiei ec oaeoi?ia ?enea aeey aicieeiiaaiey neiae?iia ?ay (
yioeaoaeiiaoee, aee?iaay aeeno?ioey ia/aie e aieiaiiai iicaa ).
ssaeythony aioeo?iiaioeeoa?iuie i?aia?aoaie, neaauie aioeeiaaoeyioaie.
Iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny aeey i?ioeeaeoeee o?iiaioeeoica. Ia
?aeiiaiaeoaony i?eiaiaiea i?e ycaa, aiiaua aeeeoaeueiia i?eiaiaiea (
iia?aaeaeaiea neecenoie iaiei/ee ).

I?IECAIAeIUA IE?ACIEIIA

Eiaeae?oetho e?iaaoai?aiea, iiaoo i?eaiaeeoue e aa?aioeioeeoico,
eaeeiiaiee.

I?IECAIAeIUA AIEEEIA

Iaeaieaa neaaua, ia ?acae?aaeatho neecenooth aeaeoaei/ii
eeoa/iiai o?aeoa, ia aeeytho ia e?iaue.

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea iaia?eioe/aneeo aiaeueaaoeeia

1.Ia?ooaiey aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai o?aeoa

I?e iaeiie?aoiii i?eiaiaiee – aeeniaioe/aneea yaeaiey (aiee),i?e
eo?niaii – y??iceaiua e ycaaiiua iia?aaeaeaiey neecenoie aeaeoaeea e
aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoee ( nieaeaiea neioaca i?inoaaeaiaeeiia
i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth ?aia?aoeaiuo niiniaiinoae neecenoie)

a) Iaeaieaa aaciianii, n iaeie noaiaiueth aa?iyoiinoe
ycaiia?aciaaiey : A?ooai, Aieaeiie?ei, Aieueoa?ai, Aiaeueaei

a) Ni n?aaeiae noaiaiueth aa?iyoiinoe : Ie?ieneeai, Iai?ienai,
Aooaaeeii

a) N aunieie noaiaiueth oeueoea?iaaiiie iianiinoe :
Aoeaoeenaeeoeeeiaay eeneioa, Eiaeiiaoaoeei. Iiyoiio iacia/athony
neioaoe/aneea aiaeiae i?inoaaeaiaeeiia ( Oeeoioae – aiaeia
i?inoaaeaiaeeia-A )

2.Caaea?aeea iao?ey, aiaeu, oei?a a i?aaiecia -> oaaee/aiea
a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey, ioae. Aooaaeeii, Eiaeiiaoaoeei, Anie?ei

3.Aeeyiea ia ii/ee

4.Eciaiaiey ni noi?iiu e?iae Aiaeueaei, Eiaeiiaoaoeei

5.Ia?ooaiey ni noi?iiu oeaio?aeueiie nenoaiu : aieiaie?oaeaiea,
niieeainoue, ooiieyaiinoue

IA?EIOE*ANEEA AIAEUeAAOEEE

Ecae?aoaeueii oaiaoatho aieaaoth /oanoaeoaeueiinoue aac ia?ooaiey
niciaiey

Eeanneoeeaoeey

Ii enoi/ieeo iieo/aiey e oeie/aneiio ninoaao

1.Anoannoaaiiua aeeaeieaeu iiey Ii?oei, Eiaeaei, Iiiiiii

2.Iieoneioaoe/aneea

I?iecaiaeiua ieie?eaeei-oaiaio?aia Yoeeii?oei, Aoi?aii?oei, Iaeaooei,
Aa?iei

3.Neioaoe/aneea

A) I?iecaiaeiua ieie?eaeeia I?iiaaeie, Oaioaiee,

A) I?iecaiaeiua aaaicii?oaia Iaioacioeei

A) I?iecaiaeiua ii?oeiaia Aooi?oaiie

A) I?iecaiaeiua ?acee/iuo oeie/aneeo a?oii O?aiaaeie, Oeieaeei,
I?ineaeie

Ii oa?aeoa?o acaeiiaeaenoaey n iieaoiuie ?aoeaioi?aie

1.Aaiienou Inoaeueiua iieaou

2.Aaiienou-Aioaaiienou

Oa?aeoa?ia niaoaiiay aeoeaiinoue, iaiueoa iiai/iuo yooaeoia,
iaiueoa oaiaoatho aeuoaiea, aucuaatho iaiaa au?aaeaiiia i?eno?anoea.
Iaioacioeei, Aooi?oaiie, Iaeaooei, Aoi?aii?oei

3.Aioaaiienou Iaei?oei ( iaiaa oaeiaai ), Iaeienii, Iaeo?aenii

Iaoaieci aeaenoaey

_.Iioeeoeaioeaiay nenoaia

A-aeaeueoa ( oiieea ieaeeiiaua ) e N ( aacieaeeiiaua ) aieieia eaeoo
a caaeiea ?iaa nieiiiai iicaa, io anoaai/iuo iae?iiia a ?aoeeoey?ioth
oi?iaoeeth, ioooaea – a aeiioaeaion, oaeaion e ei?o aieiaiiai iicaa.

a) oaaee/eaatho aieaaie ii?ia

a) oaaee/eaatho ia?eiae ia?aiineiinoe aiee

a) oiaiueoatho aaia?aeeciaaiioth ?aaeoeeth ia aieue

2.Aioeiioeeoeaioeaiay nenoaia

A iaa aoiaeyo : oeaio?aeueiia na?ia ieieiaiaeii?iaiaeiia aauanoai,
yae?a oaa, aieoaia iyoii, iaeioi?ua yae?a ?aoeeoey?iie oi?iaoeee.
Oaaee/eaatho oi?iiciia aeeyiea ia o?iaia caaeieo ei?aoeia.

3.Nenoaia iieiaeeoaeueiiai e iaaaoeaiiai iiaee?aieaiey

EOIA

Ia?eioe/aneea aiaeueaaoeee ia?ooatho i?iaaaeaiea aieaauo
eiioeuenia /a?ac iioeeoeaioeaioth nenoaio ia ?aciuo o?iaiyo OeIN.

1) Oiaiueoatho i?iaaaeaiea aieaauo eiioeuenia ia o?iaia caaeieo
?iaia, ?aoeeoey?iie oi?iaoeee, annioeeaoeaiuo yaea? oaeaiona.

2) Oaaee/eaatho aeoeaiinoue no?oeoo? aioeiioeeoeaioeaiie
nenoaiu.

3) Oneeeaatho ienoiaeyuaa oi?iiciia aeeyiea ia o?iaaiue
caaeieo ?iaia nieiiiai iicaa.

4) Oaaee/eaatho aeoeaiinoue no?oeoo? iieiaeeoaeueiiai
iiaee?aieaiey.

5) Oiaiueoatho aeoeaiinoue no?oeoo? iaaaoeaiiai iiaee?aieaiey.

6) Oaaee/eaatho aieaaie ii?ia.

7) Cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eaatho eioa?aae ia?aiineiinoe aiee.

8) Oie/oiaeatho eee oiaiueoatho aaia?aeeciaaiioth ?aaeoeeth ia
aieue.

Iae?i-oeie/aneea iaoaieciu aeaenoaey

Yiaeiaaiiua : aaoa-yiaei?oeiu, aeeii?oei, yieaoaeeiu, iaoyieaoaeeiu.

Nouanoaoao 2 aeaea ?aoeaioi?ia ( ii ca?yaeo ) – aieiiiua e
eaoeiiiua.Ii?oei niaaeeiyaony n aieiiiuie ?aoeaioi?aie – naiae
aeae?ieneeueiie a?oiiie, a n eaoeiiiuie – iaoeeueiie a?oiiie. Ii?oei
aoiaeeo a “iieinoue” ?aoeaioi?a e i?eaiaeeo e oiaiueoaieth aoiaea
eaeueoeey a eeaoeo e oaaee/aieth i?iieoeaaiin oe aeey eaeey.

A?oiiu iieaoiuo ?aoeaioi?ia

ITH – aiaeueaacey, oaiaoaiea aeuoaiey, naaeaoeaiue yooaeo, yeoi?ey,
ieic.

AeAEUeOA – aiaeueaacey, oaiaoaiea aeuoaiey, eaea?noaaiiay
caaeneiinoue, yeoi?ey.

EAIIA – aiaeueaacey, naaeaoeaiue yooaeo, ieoic, aeenoi?ey.

NEAIA – aaethoeeiiaaiiue yooaeo.

Ia?eiiaiey

Iai?aiaeieeiia no?aieaiea i?iaeieaeeoue aeaeueiaeoee i?eai i?aia?aoa
e aeiaeaaoueny yoiai ethauie n?aaenoaaie.

1. Ineoe/aneay caaeneiinoue i?e ioiaia – io?eoeaoaeueiia
iano?iaiea, noauaeoeaiia oooaeoaiea ninoiyiey

2. Oece/aneay caaeneiinoue. I?e ioiaia – aanoeiaioiue neiae?ii :
o?aaiaa, aaniieienoai, ia?ooaiea nia, ionoonoaea aiiaoeoa, oioiioa,
?aioa, aeea??ay, o?aii?, aiee a iuo oeao e nonoaaao.

Ii?oei

Ii aeoeaiinoe i?eiyo ca oneiaioth aaeeieoeo, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
aeaenoaey (aiaeueaacey) – 4-5 /ania. Aucuaaao yeoi?eth, aeooaaiue
eiioi?o, iiaa?oiinoiue nii, oaiaoaiea aeuoaiey (oiaiueoaiea
aicaoaeeiinoe aeuoaoaeueiiai oeaio?a oaeaeeneui aacii e ethauie
?aoeaeoi?iuie aicaeaenoaeyie ). Iaeua aeicu – oiaiueoaiea /anoiou
aeuoaiey e oaaee/aiea aeoaeiu, i?e oaaee/aiee aeicu – oiaiueoaiea e
/anoiou e aeoaeiu aeuoaiey, i?e aaaaeaiee oiene/aneie aeicu –
aeuoaiea *aeia-Noiena e inoaiiaea.

Aeuoaiea *aeia-Noiena

Eiaao i?ioeaieaoeaaie yooaeo, ca n/ao oaiaoaiey eaoeaaiai oeaio?a.
Aucuaaao a?aaeeea?aeeth, oiaiueoaiea aeeo?aca ( ca n/ao oaaee/aiey
eiioeaio?aoeee aacii?anneia ), aeiioa?ieth. I?e ia?aii aaaaeaiee o
15% – oioiioa, o 40% – ?aioa ( oaaee/aiea aeoeaiinoe ?aioiiai oeaio?a ).
Aua aucuaaao :

Oaaee/aiea oiiona aeaaeeie ioneoeaoo?u aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai
o?aeoa ( noeieoa?ia ), nieaeaiea nae?aoeee nieyiie eeneiou,
oiaiueoaiea ia?enoaeueoeee –> caii?u; oaaee/aiea oiiona ii/aoi/ieeia e
ii/aaiai iocu?y, oiaiueoaiea eo ?aoeaeoi?iiai ioaaoa ia ?anoyaeaiea.

Eiaeaei

A 10-15 ?ac iaiaa aeoeaai /ai ii?oei, yaeyaony i?ioeaieaoeaaui
n?aaenoaii, auioneaaony a eiiaeiaoeee n iaia?eioe/aneeie aiaeueaaoeeaie
( Naaeaeaei, Naeiaaeaei ( Eiaeaei + Ia?aoeaoaiie ) ) e ae?oaeie
i?aia?aoaie.

Iiiiiii

ssaeyaony noiiie ianeieueeeo iieaoia, a oii /enea Iaiaaa?eia –
iiyoiio iaeaaeaao niaciieeoe/aneei aeaenoaeai. A 2-4 ?aca iaiaa
aeoeaai /ai ii?oei, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey – 2-4 /ana

I?iiaaeie

A 5-7 ?ac iaiaa aeoeaai /ai ii?oei, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey
– aei 4-o /ania. Aieaa au?aaeai naaeaoeaiue e niioai?iue eiiiiiaio,
aucuaaao iaiueooth yeoi?eth, iaiueoa oaiaoaao aeuoaiea e oiion
eeoa/ieea, a?iioia, ii/aoi/ieeia, iao ieica e i?ioeaieaoeaaiai
yooaeoa. I?eiaiyaony aeey iaacaieeaaiey ?iaeia.

Oaioaiee

A 80-100 ?ac aeoeaiaa ii?oeia, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey – ia
aieaa 30 ieioo. I/aiue oaiaoaao aeuoaiea. I?eiaiyaony a
aianoaceieiaee aeey i?aiaaeeeaoeee e iae?ieaioaiaeueaacee a ni/aoaiee n
Ae?iia?eaeieii a niioiioaieyo 1 : 50, 1 : 100. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
aeaenoaey i?e yoii oaaee/eaaaony a 2-3 ?aca.

Iaioacioeei

Aaiieno-aioaaiieno. A 3-4 ?aca iaiaa aeoeaai /ai ii?oei,
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey – aei 3-o /ania. Aucuaaao iaiueooth
eaea?noaaiioth caaeneiinoue, iaiueoa oaiaoaao aeuoaiea ( e i?e
oaaee/aiee aeicu oaiaoaiea ia oaaee/eaaaony ).

Iaeaooei

Aaiieno ( EAIIA ) – aioaaiieno ( ITH ). Ii aeoeaiinoe i?eia?ii
?aaai ii?oeio, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey – aei 4-5 /ania.
Aucuaaao iaiueoea : eaea?noaaiioth caaeneiinoue, oaia oaiea aeuoaiey,
yeoi?eth. Iaeaaeaao aieaa neeueiui naaeaoeaiui yooaeoii, a aieueoeo
aeicao aucuaaao aeenoi?eth, aaeethoeeiaoeee.

Aooi?oaiie

Iioiae ia Iaeaooei. A 3-5 ?ac aeoeaiaa ii?oeia,
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey – 4-5 /ania.

O?aiae

A 5-10 ?ac iaiaa aeoeaai /ai ii?oei, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
aeaenoaey – aei 6-oe /ania. Aucuaaao oaiaoaiea aeuoaiey, ii/oe ia
aucuaaao yeoi?eth. Aeoeaai i?e aioo?eiuoa/iii e yioa?aeueiii aaaaeaiee.

Aoi?aii?oei

A 20-50 ?ac aeoeaiaa ii?oeia, ia aeaiuei aeaenoaoao neeueiaa, /ai
ia ioae/ei, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey – 9-12 /ania. Aucuaaao
iaiueooth yeoi?eth, oaaee/aiea aeicu ia i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth
oaiaoaiey aeuoaiey.

I?ineaeie

Ii aeoeaiinoe i?eia?ii ?aaai ii?oeio, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
aeaenoaey – 4 /ana. Ia eciaiyao oiion aeaaeeeo iuooe, ia oaiaoaao
aeuoaiea, iaeeiaeiai yooaeoeaai i?e yioa?aeueiii e ia?yioa?aeueiii
aaaaeaiee.

Iaeienii, Iaei?oei

Aioaaiienou iieaoiuo ?aoeaioi?ia, ia iaeaaeatho ia?eiaaiiui
iioaioeeaeii, ia aucuaatho eaea?noaaiiie caaeneiinoe.
I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey – 10-60 ieioo.

INEOIOA?IAEIEIAE*ANEEA EEE INEOIO?IIIUA I?AIA?AOU

Ineoiaeoeaiua – eciaiytho ineoe/aneea i?ioeannu.
Ineoioa?iaeieiae/aneea i?aia?aou – eniieuecothony a ineoeao?ee. 2
o?iaiy ineoiiaoieiae/aneeo ia?ooaiee :

1.Ineoioe/aneee o?iaaiue ( oyaeaeue ).

Oecio?aiey, ineoicu : iaieaeaeueii-aeai?anneaiue ineoic,
yieeaioe/aneee ineoic. Ineoicu iiaoo auoue
eaeeiiaoe/aneea.

2.Iaa?ioe/aneee o?iaaiue.

Iaa?icu e iaa?ioe/aneea ninoiyiey. Ia?ooaiey a iniiaiii
yia?aaoe/aneea e yiioeeiiaeueiua. Iia?aie/iua ninoiyiey iaaeaeo ii?iie e
iaoieiaeae. Auaeaeytho ieiei 50 aauanoa, eioi?ua yaeythony iaaeeaoi?aie
OeIN.

Aoeaoeeoieei_. – aeaenoaoao ia anao o?iaiyo OeIN

I1-?aoeaioi?u oiaiueoaiea aoiaea eaeey, aicaoaeaeaiea. I2-?aoeaioi?u
oaaee/aiea aoiaea eaeey, oi?iiaeaiea. I-?aoeaioi?u ( nieiiie iica )
oaaee/aiea i?iieoeaaiinoe aeey eaoeiiia, aicaoaeaeaiea

Aeioaiei_. ( iea?ino?eaeueiay nenoaia, iacieeiae/aneay,
iaciei?oeeaeueiay iaeanoue, tuber infundibuli, ?aioiue oeaio? )
?aoeaioi?u :

a) Iinoneiaioe/aneea

D1-?aoeaioi?u – oaaee/aiea ia?aciaaiey oeeeee/aneie oi?iu
aaeaiiceiiiiioinoaoa, oi?iiaeaiea

D2-?aoeaioi?u – oaaee/aiea aoiaea eaeey, oi?iiaeaiea

a) I?aneiaioe/aneea

D3-?aoeaioi?u – oiaiueoaiea aua?ina aeioaieia.

Aaiiaaieiiianeyiay eeneioa

AAIE-A ?aoeaioi?u – oaaee/aiea aoiaea oei?a, oi?iiaeaiea AAIE-A
?aoeaioi?u – oiaiueoaiea aoiaea eaeueoeey, oi?iiaeaiea. Ia?ooaiey a
nenoaia aaiiaaieiiianeyiie eeneiou – iaeia ec i?e/ei ineoe/aneeo
?anno?ienoa.

Aeaeaa ii noaia :

Iaaeeaoi?_. – Ianoi aeaenoaey – Oeiu ?aoeaioi?ia – Yooaeo

Aeooaiao_. – ?aeaeiua iae?iiu ia anao o?iaiyo – ianeieueei
?aoeaioi?ia – oaaee/aiea i?iieoeaaiinoe aeey eaoeiiia, aicaoaeaeaiea.

Aeeoeei_. – nieiaeueiua anoaai/iua iae?iiu – oaaee/aiea aoiaea
oei?a, oi?iiaeaiea.

Na?ioiiei_. ( o/anoaoao a i?ioeannao iiaee?aieaiey, a aaiaca
iaa?icia ( i?e ia?ooaieyo ) ) – i?iaeieaiaaoue iica, iino,
i?iaeoeee ia anao o?iaiyo sht-1a ?aoeaioi?u – oaaee/aiea aoiaea oei?a,
oi?iiaeaiea sht2 ?aoeaioi?u – oiaiueoaiea aoiaea eaeey, aicaoaeaeaiea.

Ii?aae?aiaeei_. ( i?eieiaao o/anoea a iiaee?aieaiee, ia?ooaiey
i?e iaa?icao ) – iino, noaie, i?iaeoeee ia anao o?iaiyo. ( -1
?aoeaioi?u – oiaiueoaiea aoiaea eaeey, aicaoaeaeaiea ( -2 ?aoeaioi?u –
oaaee/aiea aoiaea eaeey, oi?iiaeaiea ( -1 ?aoeaioi?u – oiaiueoaiea
aoiaea eaeey, aicaoaeaeaiea ( -2 ?aoeaioi?u – eciaiaiea oiea iao?ey,
oi?iiaeaiea. Io?eiu, Ioeeaioeaeu_. – ia anao o?iaiyo OeIN

?1 ( aeueoa-1 e aeueoa-2 ), ?2 – a iniiaiii – oaaee/aiea aoiaea
oei?a, oi?iiaeaiea

Aaeaiicei, Aeiienaioei_. – aa?iyoii, eeaaiaeu aaiciaeeacaiaiiauo
?aoeaioi?ia

?ieue iaaeeaoi?ia a aaiaca ineoe/aneeo ?anno?ienoa

Ii?aae?aiaeei Aeioaiei Na?ioiiei Aoeaoeeoieei Ineoo?iiuie i?aia?ao

Iauaa ineoiiioi?iia aicaoaeaeaiea ++ + —

iae?ieaioe/aneee

A?aae, aaeethoeeiaoeee

++ — (?) — (?) Aioeineoioe/aneee

Aa?anneaiinoue + + — + Aioeaa?anneuiue

No?ao + (?) — (?)

++ Aioeoiae/aneee

Iaieaeaeueiia aicaoaeaeaiea +

++

Aioeiaieaeaeueiue

Aeai?anney —

— — + Aioeaeai?anneaiue

“++” – i/aiue oaaee/eaaao, “+” – oaaee/eaaao, ” — ” – oiaiueoaao, ” — —
“- neeueii oiaiueoaao, (?)” – iaaeinoaoi/ii aeaiiuo.

Eeanneoeeaoeey

_.Ineoieaioeee ( oaiaoatho )

1.1 Iae?ieaioeee ( aeey ea/aiey ineoicia )

1.2 O?aieaeeecaoi?u ( aeey ea/aiey iaa?icia e iaa?iciiiaeiaiuo
ninoiyiee ) = aieneieeoeee = aoa?aeoeee

1.3 Iauanaaeaoeaiua ( aeiiioeee ) – i?e aanniiieoea,
iaa?iciiiaeiaiuo ninoiyieyo

2.Ineoiaiaeaioeee ( aicaoaeaeatho )

2.1 Iauaoiiece?othuea ( aaeaioiaaiu ) ?anoeoaeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey
– aeaiue-oaiue, yeaooa?ieiee. Neaaue noeioee?othuee yooaeo

2.2 Ineoinoeioeyoi?u ( aeoeae?otho ineoe/aneea e iioi?iua
i?ioeannu ). I?eiaiythony ?aaeei.

2.3 Aioeaeai?annaiou – aeey ea/aiey aeai?annee e
iaieaeaeueii-aeai?anneaiiai ineoica a aeai?anneaiie oaca

3.Ineoiaeeneaioeee

Ineoioiene/aneea aauanoaa. ( Ianeiei, LSD , Neeioeeaei ). A
iaaeeoeeia nae/an ia i?eiaiythony. ?aiueoa – i?e ea/aiee ineoicia.
Aucuaatho aeaceioaa?aoeeth.

4.Ii?iioeieee_. ( i?aia?aou eeoey )

Ea?aiiao eeoey, Ieneaooe?ao eeoey. I?eiaiythony aeey ea/aiey
iaieaeaeueii-aeai?anneaiiai ineoica ( aioeiaieaeaeueiia e
aioeaeai?anneaiia aeaenoaea )

5.Iiio?iiu

Oeo/oatho iaiyoue, iaeaa/atho i?ioeannu iao/aiey, iaoaaiee/aneea
oea?aa?ii?ioaeoi?u. Oeo/oatho iaiaiiua i?ioeannu a aieiaiii iicaa.
Iieacaiey : o?aaiu, eioieneeaoeee, einoeueou, ?anno?ienoaa ineoeee o
aeaoae, aoa?ineea?icu. Ie?ioeaoai, Iaioiaai, Aieiieii, Ie?eaeeoie.

Iae?ieaioeee

I?iecaiaeiua : 1.Oaiioeaceia 2.Aooe?ioaiiia
3.Aeeoaieeaooaia Ieiiceae, Oeonia?eeai, Iaioeo?eaeie

4.Oeienaioaia Oei?i?ioeenai, Oeoiaioeenie, Oeioeenai.

5.Aeeaaicacaieia Eeicaiei, Eienaiei.

6.Aaicaieaea Noeueie?eae ( Yaeiiee )

7.Eiaeiea ?aca?iei, Ea?aeaeei.

Auaeaeytho oeie/iua e aoeie/iua iae?ieaioeee. Aoeie/iua – Eeicaiei
e Noeueia?eae – ia aucuaatho yeno?aie?aieaeaeueiuo ?anno?ienoa.
Inoaeueiua – aucuaatho.

Oaiioeaceiu

a) aeeoaoe/aneea I?iiacei, Aieiacei, Eaaiiai?iiacei

a) ieia?aceiiaua Iaoa?acei, Yoaia?acei, O?eooacei, O?aiieii,
Ooi?oaiacei, Oeii?iiaiacei

a) ieia?eaeeiiaua Iaiacei, Oei?eaeacei, Iaoeaioee

Aeeoaoe/aneea

Naaeaoeaiia, neaaia aioeineoioe/aneia aeaenoaea. I?aia?aou auai?a
i?e ia/aea ineoica.

Ieia?aceiiaua

Aioeineoioe/aneia, neaaia naaeaoeaiia aeaenoaea. Iniiaiay oa?aiey
iinea eoie?iaaiey aicaoaeaeaiey aeeoaoe/aneeie

Ieia?eaeeiiaua – I?iiaaeooi/iue niaeo? aeaenoaey

Ana aioeineoioe/aneea – D2-aeieaoi?u, iae?ieaioeee –
oeaio?aeueiua aae?aiiaeieaoi?u, i?aia?aou i?ioea no?aoa –
oeaio?aeueiua oieeiiaeieaoi?u

Yooaeou iae?ieaioeeia

1.Oneeeaatho aeaenoaea iaueo aianoaoeeia.

Nii i?e ia?eica aaenaiaeii ( iiuo ia e?una ) i?e aeica 50
ieeeea?aii ia eeeia?aii aana – 17 ieioo, i?e aeiiieieoaeueiii aaaaeaiee
aieiaceia a aeica 20 ieeeea?aii ia eeeia?aii nii oaaee/eaaaony aei
117 ieioo.

2.Aeiioa?ie/aneia aeaenoaea Oiaiueoatho iaiaiiua i?ioeannu,
eniieuecothony a aianoaceieiaee, aoiaeyo a ninoaa eeoe/aneie niane.

3.Nieaeaiea oiiona neaeaoiuo iuooe.

I?e aeeeoaeueiii aaaaeaiee – iiauoatho ( eaoioiie/aneia aeaenoaea
).

4.I?ioeai?aioiia aeaenoaea (e?iia Oei?eaeaceia) Aeiee?otho
oaii?aoeaioi?u ?aioiiai oeaio?a.

Yoi eniieuecoaony :

a) i?e eioieneeaoeee eaea?noaaie, eioi?ua oai ia iaiaa
iaiaoiaeeii aaiaeeoue ( i?e ea/aiee ceiea/anoaaiiuo iiooieae ).

a) i?e aa?aiaiiinoe ( i?aia?ao io/ayiey )

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea

1.Yeno?aie?aieaeaeueiua ?anno?ienoaa Ia?eeiniieci ( o?aii? ?oe ).
Aeioaiei oi?iiceo aeoeaiinoue oieeia?ae/aneeo iae?iiia, a iae?ieaioeee
aeiee?otho aeioaieiiaua ?aoeaioi?u, /oi i?eaiaeeo e ?anoi?iaaeeaaieth.
I?e o?aii?a, aeeiacee, aucaaiiuo yoeie eaea?noaaie iacia/athony
oeeeeiaeie, aiecee e ae?oaea.

2.Nieaeaiea a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey, aei i?oinoaoe/aneie
aeiioaicee.

3.Oaiaoaiea aeuoaiey.

4.Ia?ooaiea ooieoeee ia/aie e ii/ae. Iaeaieaa iianai aieiacei (
aieiaceiiaua aeaeoooe )

5.?acae?aaeaiea neecenouo iaiei/ae. Iniaaiii – Aieiacei.

6.Aeea?ae/aneea aea?iaoeou ( o ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea ).

7.Oaiaoaiea e?iaaoai?aiey aei aa?aioeioeeoica.

8.Iae?ieaioe/aneee neiae?ii = aeai?anney + ia?eeiniieci +
aac?acee/ea ( eiaeeooa?aioiinoue ).

9.Aeiii?ieaeoeiyiey. I?ieaeoei eiio?iee?oao ia?aciaaiea iieiauo
ai?iiiia. Aeiaeiianoey o ioae/ei, naenoaeueiua ia?ooaiey ( oaiaoaiea ).

I?iecaiaeiua aooe?ioaiiia.

Aaeiia?eaeie, Aaeiaiecie, Ae?iia?eaeie ( ia eniieuecoaony eae
iae?ieaioee ). Aioeineoioe/aneea, iao oi?iicyuaai yooaeoa, iiaeao
aeaaea aeoeae?iaaoue. Oa?aeoa?iu yeno?aie?aieaeaeueiua ia?ooaiey.
I?eiaiyaony i?e iaieaeaeueiuo aicaoaeaeaieyo, ino?ii a?aaeiaii
ninoiyiee, oecio?aiee n aaeethoeeiaoeeyie, anao i?iyaeaieyo
aicaoaeaeaiey.

Aeiieie?oao D2-aeieaoi?iay aeoeaiinoue.

?aca?iei

A ineoeao?e/aneie i?aeoeea – oieueei i?e ni/aoaiiie iaoieiaee.
Ineoic + aeia?oiie/aneay aieaciue, ineoic + aeia?oe?aic.

Ea?aeaeei_. – oi aea naiia.

Iiai/iua yooaeou ?aca?ieia e ea?aeaeeia ( ca n/ao aeoeaaoeee
ia?aneiiaoe/aneie ia?aiie nenoaiu ) : a?aaeeea?aeey, ieic, oneeaiea
ia?enoaeueoeee, a?iioiniaci, ae?oaea yaeaiey.

Eeeie/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey iae?ieaioeeia

1. Naaeaoeaiua ( iae?ieaioeee aunieeo aeic ( 200-600 ieeeea?aii ) ).
Eeicaiei, Oei?aaeacei, Aieiicei, Eaaiiai?iiacei, Oei?i?iaaenai,
Aioeaae?aia?ae/aneea, aioeoieeia?ae/aneea, iiaoo auoue
aioena?ioiieia?ae/aneea – iiyoiio iiiai iiai/iuo yooaeoia: a?eoiee,
ia?ooaiey aeeiiiaeaoeee e ae?oaea. I?eiaiytho ia ia/aeueiie noaaeee
ineoieaioe/aneiai aicaoaeaeaiey.

2. Aioeineoioe/aneea

I?aia?aou n?aaeieo e ieceeo aeic :

I?aia?aou n?aaeieo aeic ( 20-50 ieeeea?aii ) : Eienaiei, O?eooacei,
Yoaia?acei, Oeii?iia?acei.

I?aia?aou ieceeo aeic: Oeiiaaeeenie, Aaeiia?eaeie, O?eooi?ia?eaeie,
Ooi?oaiacee, Oaiaceae, Noeueia?eae.

O?AIEAEEECAOI?U

( eao ” trancvilage ” – aeaeaoue ?aaiiaeooiui ). =
aoa?aeoeee = aieneieeoeee.

Aeaaiue yooaeo – ono?aiaiea no?aoa, ineoe/aneie iai?yaeaiiinoe,
iaa?ioe/aneeo ?anno?ienoa. I?eiaiythony i?e ycaaiiie aieacie,
aeia?oiiee, a?iioeaeueiie anoia ( ineoiniiaoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a ).
O?aieaeeecaoi?u eciaiytho aeoeaiinoue iae?iiia eeiae/aneie nenoaiu e
ei?u aieiaiiai iicaa. Ooieoeee eeiae/aneie nenoaiu

1. eioaa?aoeey neaiaeia n eioa?i- e yenoa?i?aoeaioi?ia.

2. iiaeniciaoaeueiay ioeaiea yoeo neaiaeia.

A iniiaa iaa?ioe/aneiai caaieaaaiey – eiioeeeo, eiaaea anoue 2
?aciuo oaiaeaioeee iiaaaeaiey. Aicieeatho canoieiua i/aae aicaoaeaeaiey
a eeiae/aneie nenoaia e ei?a.

Aeey eeanne/aneeo o?aieaeeecaoi?ia oa?aeoa?iu 3 yooaeoa :

1. Aieneieeoe/aneee ( i?ioeaio?aaiaeiue ) – ia o?iaia
eeiae/aneie nenoaiu.

2. Naaeaoeaiue eee aeiiinaaeaoeaiue – ia o?iaia ?ino?aeueiiai
ioaeaea ?aoeeoey?iie oi?iaoeee.

3. Nieaeaiea iuoa/iiai oiiona ( ia?ooaiea i?iaaaeaiey a
nieiiii iicaa ).

Naaaeaiey ioiineoaeueii nenoai iiaee?aieaiey ( iieiaeeoaeueiiai e
io?eoeaoaeueiiai ).

Nenoaia iaa?aaeu – iaaeeaeueiue io/ie ia?aaeiaai iicaa (
aeioaieia?ae/aenea e ii?aae?aiaeeiy?ae/aneea iae?iiu ). Eiia?ae?otho
eeiae/aneoth nenoaio. Yeaeo?e/aneia ?acae?aaeaiea aucuaaao
iieiaeeoaeueiua yiioeee.

Nenoaia iaeacaiey – ia?eaaio?eeoey?iay nenoaia. Iaaeeaoi?u oi/ii
iaecaanoiu ( i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi yoi – aoeaoeeoieei e na?ioiiei ).
Eiia?aaoeey – a eeiae/aneoth nenoaio e ae?oaea ioaeaeu iicaa.

O?aieaeeecaoi?u ?anoi?iaaeeaatho nenoaio iaa?aaeu e
caoi?iaaeeaatho nenoaio iaeacaiey. Iianiinoue – neeueiay ineoe/aneay
caaeneiinoue (oece/aneay – iacia/eoaeueia). Iaoeeaiou neeiiiu
ceioiio?aaeyoue o?aieaeeecaoi?aie.

Eeanneoeeaoeey o?aieaeeecaoi?ia

I?iecaiaeiua :

1.Aaiciaeeacaieia – naiua yooaeoeaiua 1,4-aeeaaiciaeeacaieiu,
o?eacieiaaicaaeeacaieiu.

2.I?iiaiaeeiea – Iai?iaae

3.Aiecee

4.O?eienacee

5.Aeueoa-aeieaoi?u oeaio?aeueiiai aeaenoaey – Ie??ienai

6.N?aaenoaa, aeeythuea ia na?ioiieiy?ae/aneea ?aoeaioi?u – Aonie?ii

7.Aaoa-aeieaoi?u – aioeaa?anneaiue yooaeo

8.Aenoaieiiaeieaoi?u – Aeae?ienecei ( Aenoa?ee )

Aeiaaiua o?aieaeeecaoi?u :

( ia eiatho aeiiinaaeaoeaiiai yooaeoa )

Iacaiai ( Iaaeacaiai ), A?aiaeaenei ( Oioeciiai ), Aonie?ii,
Ie??ienai, O?eienacei.

Aaiciaeeacaiaiiaue ?yae :

1. I?aia?aou aeeeoaeueiiai aeaenoaey ( aei 3-o nooie)
Oei?aeeacaiieneae, Aeeacaiai, Oaiacaiai, Iacaiai, Oei?acaiai, I?acaiai,
Ieo?acaiai, Oeth?acaiai, Oethieo?acaiai.Iineaaeiea o?e i?aia?aoa –
iaeaaeatho aeiiinaaeaoeaiui yooaeoii, i?eiaiythony i?e iaa?ica,
aanniiieoea. Ana ia?a/eneaiiua i?aia?aou eae i?aaeei ia?acotho aeoeaiue
iaoaaieeo a i?aaiecia – ii?aeeacaiai, eioi?ue aeieai auaiaeeony ec
i?aaiecia aneaaenoaea /aai ia oa?aeoa?ai neiae?ii ioiaiu.

2. I?aia?aou n?aaeiae aeeeoaeueiinoe aeaenoaey (10-20 /ania)
Iicaiai, Ei?acaiai, Aeuei?acieai, A?iiacaiai, Oaiacaiai. I?aia?aou
yaeythony aieneieeoeeaie e niioai?iuie, eiaeoeae-

?othony a ia/aie a ?aaeoeee n aetheo?iiiaie eeneioie, /aua aucuaatho
neiae?ii ioiaiu.

3. I?aia?aou ei?ioeiai aeaenoaey ( 3-8 /ania ) O?eacieai,
Ieaeacieai. *aua i?eiaiythony a aianoaceieiaee aeey iioaioee?iaaiey
aeaenoaey iaueo aianoaoeeia. I?eiaiythony eae niioai?iua, i/aiue
oa?aeoa?ai neiae?ii ioiaiu. ssaeythony oaeaea e aieneieeoeeaie, ii ia
i?eiaiythony ii yoiio yooaeoo.

Aaiciaeeacaieiiaua o?aieaeeecaoi?u aeeytho ia niaoeeaeueiua
aaiciaeeacaieiiaua ?aoeaioi?u. Yoe ?aoeaioi?u neiioeaio?e?iaaiu a ei?a e
a eeiae/aneie nenoaia, eo oai a 5 ?ac aieueoa ( ii ieioiinoe ), /ai a
noaieiauo no?oeoo?ao. Aaiciaeeacaieiiaua ?aoeaioi?u nouanoaotho o anao
iicaiii/iuo, ia/eiay n einoenouo ?ua.

Noaia aeaenoaey aaiciaeeacaieiiauo ?aoeaioi?ia

A ?aoeaioi? aoiaeyo :

a) ?aoeaioi? aaiiaaieiiianeyiie eeneiou (AAIE-A ?aoeaioi?).

a) nai aaiciaeeacaieiiaue ?aoeaioi?

a) aieiiiue ( oei?eaeiue eaiae )

Iinea aeoeaaoeee aaiciaeeacaieiiaiai ?aoeaioi?a i?ienoiaeeo
oaaee/aiea naycuaaiey aaiiaaieiiianeyiie eeneiou, aneaaenoaea yoiai
/aua ioe?uaaaony oei?eaeiue eaiae, oei? aoiaeeo a eeaoeo, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e aeaiiey?ecaoeee.

Aeoeaaoi?u e aeieaoi?u ?aoeaioi?ia :

Aeoeaaoi?u – i?iaeoeou aeaa?aaeaoeee oeeeee/aneie oi?iu
aaeaiiceiiiiioinoi?iie eeneiou ( eiicei e aeiienaioei ). Yiaeiaaiiue
aioaaiieno – iaioeae, aai aiaeeeneay aaa?aaeaoo?a – DBI ( eiaeaeoi?
naycuaaiey aaiciaeeacaiaia ). Yoi aauanoai auaeaeyaony i?e no?annao e
io?eoeaoaeueiuo yiioeeyo e aucuaaao no?ao.

Aaiciaeeacaieiiaua i?aia?aou – iaeaieaa aaciianiu. Niioiioaiea
oa?aiaaoe/aneay aeica : eaoaeueiay aeica = 1:1000 ( a iae?iiao anoue
nenoaia oi?iiaeaiey ). Aeey n?aaiaiey yoi ioiioaiea aeey oaiiaa?aeoaea =
1:40.

Iieacaiey e i?eiaiaieth

Aeeacaiai :

1. Iaa?icu e iaa?iciiiaeiaiua ninoiyiey ( iaiaoiaeeii ni/aoaiea
n ineoioa?aieae ).

2. Enoa?e/aneea e eiioiiae?e/aneea ?aaeoeee

3. Iuoa/iua niaciu oeaio?aeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey

4. Aeeiaieueiay e iieaoiay ianoeiaioeey

5. Yieeaioe/neee noaoon ( aioo?eaaiii)

6. Yeeaiiney

Iiai/iua yooaeou

Nieaeaiea iuoa/iiai oiiona, i?ioeaiiieacai i?e i?ioanneyo
o?aaothueo aeeeoaeueiiai aeaenoaey, Nieaeaiea ino?iou ?aaeoeee,
Eaea?noaaiiay caaeneiinoue

Neiae?ii ioaea/e – ioiaiytho 6-8 iaaeaeue ( ii 1/6 aeicu a
iaaeaeth ). Anee aicieeaao neiae?ii ioiaiu – iacia/atho (
-aae?aiiaeieaoi?u.

Aeuei?acieai ( Eannaaeai ) Iiuiue aieneieeoee, aunieia n?iaenoai
e aaicaaeeacaieiiaui ?aoeaioi?ai. Aioeaeai?anneaiay aeoeaiinoue.
Ni/aoaaony n eeanne/aneeie aioeaeai?annaioaie. Iaiaa au?aaeai
aeiiinaaeaoeaiue yooaeo. Iieacaiey : Ea/aiea iaa?icia, aeai?annee,
no?aoia.

Iai?ioai ( 1961 aiae ) Nae/an eniieuecoaony ?aaeei. Iaeaaeaao
naaeaoeaiui e i?ioeainoaei?iaeiui aeaenoaeai, iioaioeee?oao aeaenoaea
iaueo aianoaoeeia e niioai?iuo. Nieaeaao iuoa/iue oiion.

Aiecee I?aia?eiciay iiaeaioiaea ( nieaeaao nae?aoeeth e niaciu ).
Iaeaaeaao i?ioeaieaoeaaui aeaenoaeai

O?eienacei Iaei aeeyao ia iuoa/iue oiion, eniieuecoaony i?e
neaaue iaa?ioe/aneeo i?iyaeaieyo

Aonie?ii Iaoaieci aeaenoaey – aeoeaaoeey i?aneiaioe/aneeo
?aoeaioi?ia aeey na?ioiieia – oiaiueoaao auaeaeaiea na?ioiieia. Neaai
naycuaaaony n D2-aeioaieiiauie ?aoeaioi?aie – neaaia aioeineoioe/aneia
aeaenoaea.

I?aeiouanoaa : Ia aucuaaao iei?aeaenaoeeth Ieieiaeueiua
naaeaoeaiua naienoaa

Ia iioaioeee?oao aeaenoaea ae?oaeo aeai?annaioia Ia aucuaaao
yeoi?ee e caaeneiinoe

Aeae?ieneaeei Aeieaoi? oeaio?aeueiuo I1-aenoaieiiauo ?aoeaioi?ia.
Iao ia?eioe/aneiai yooaeoa, neaaue iauaoaiaoathuee yooaeo. I?eiaiyaony a
ia?eieiaee eae aieneieeoee, i?e i?iaaaeaiee aeeaaiinoe/aneeo i?ioeaaeo?
a noiiaoieiaee (oiaiueoaao auaeaeaiea nethiu).

INEOIAIAEAIOEEE

_. Ineoi( iioi?iua )noeioeyoi?u

I?iecaiaeiua :

1. Io?eia Eioaei

2. Oaieeaeeeeaieiia Oaiaiei, Ia?eaeee

3. Neaeiiieieia Neaeiiea?a, Neaeiioai

Iaoaieci aeaenoaey

1. I?yiay aeoeaaoeey iaiei?oaena ( Eioaei, Oaia?iiei )

2. Oiaiueoaiea oi?iiciuo aeeyiee iaeaiei?oaena ia iaiei?oaen (
i?iecaiaeiua neaeiiieieiia, oaieeaeeeeaieiia )

3. Oaaee/aiea aeoeaiinoe aeeyiee ?aoeeoey?iie oi?iaoeee

Iae?ioeie/aneee iaoaieci

A) I?iecaiaeiua io?eiia Eioaei aeieai n/eoaeny eiaeaeoi?ii
oinoiaeeynoa?acu –> iaeiieaiea oeeeee/aneie oi?iu
aaeaiiceiiiiioinoi?iie eeneiou. oeAIO – iin?aaeiee aeioaieiy?a/aneeo,
aae?aiy?ae/aneeo, Oieeiy?ae/aneeo, iaeioi?uo na?ioiieiy?ae/aneeo
aeeyiee, Iae?iiaioeaeiuo aeeyiee. A ?acoeueoaoa – oaaee/aiea aeoeaiinoe
ninoaeiaeaeaaoaeueiiai oeaio?a. Eioaei ono?aiyao oi?iiciua yooaeou
aaeaiiceia.

Eioaei iacia/atho i?e ia?aooiieaieyo e anoaie/aneeo ninoiyieyo,
a ea/anoaa aioeia?eioe/neiai n?aaenoaa aeey ono?aiaiey oiene/aneiai
aeaenoaey iaueo aianoaoeeia e eae ?aaoeyoi? aeaeoaei/iie nae?aoeee.

A) A?oiia oaieeaeeeeaieiia

Oaiaiei – oeaio?aeueiue e ia?eoa?e/aneee neiiaoiieiaoee.
Ineoiiioi?iay noeioeyoeey ca n/ao aeoeaaoeee aeioaieiy?ae/aneeo
no?oeoo? iacieeiae/aneie e iaciei?oeeaeueiie nenoaiu. Oaaee/eaaao aua?in
na?ioiieia. I?eiaiyaony i?e :

Ia?aooiieaiee, anoaiee, eaoaioiuo eee ne?uouo oi?iao
ineoicia. ?aiaa i?eiaiyeny a ea/anoaa aiaeaioeea. Iiuiay yeoi?ey,
ia?eioee.

A) I?iecaiaeiua neiaeiieieiia

Oeaio?aeueiua aae?aiiiiceoeaiua i?aia?aou, a ioee/ea io
oaieeaeeeeaieiia – aeaenoaotho iya/a, ?aaeei aucuaatho aanniiieoeo e
ia?aaicaoaeaeaiea, ia aucuaatho oaoeea?aeeth e oaaee/aiea
a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey. I?eiaiaiea – oiaea + aioeaeai?annaiou.

AIOEAeAI?ANNAIOU

Aeai?annee ano?a/athony o 3-5% ethaeae. Iaoaieci aeai?annee : 1.
Nieaeaiea eiioeaio?aoeee ii?aae?aiaeeia e na?ioiieia a OeIN 2.
Oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa aaoa-2 aae?aii?aoeaioi?ia.

Caaea/a aioeaeai?annaioa – oaaee/eoue ia?aaea/o ii?aae?aiaeeia e
na?ioiieia

Aeaeu aeai?annee

1. Ii eeeie/aneie ea?oeia 1 Caoi?iiaeaiii-aiaoe/aneay 2
Aeai?anney n yeaiaioaie aaeeoaoeee ( aicaoaeaeaiey )

2. Ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth

Yiaeiaaiiua : iaieaeaeueii-aeai?anneaiue ineoic, noa?/aneea
aeai?annee

Ineoiaaiiua ( ?aaeoeaiua ) – eiaaea ia aacao a aeecie

I?aaie/aneea ( iiooiee, niiaoe/aneea e eioaeoeeiiiua caaieaaaiey
)

Aioeaeai?annaiou

_. O?eoeeeee/aneea Aieo?eioeeeei ( o?eioecie ), Aeienaiei, Eiei?aiei,
Ii?o?eioeeeei, Aeacei?aiei. Eiaeae?otho ia?aoiue caoaao ii?aae?aiaeeia e
na?ioiieia. Iieacaiey : yiaeiaaiiua aeai?annee, yio?ac o aeaoae (
eiei?aiei ), O?iie/aneee aieaaie neiae?ii, ino?ua iaie/aneea ?aaeoeee,
iaayc/eaue no?ao ( oiaee ).

I?aia?aou ” aoi?ie aaia?aoeee “_. – aeieaoi?u caoaaoa ii?aae?aiaeeia
e na?ioiieia.

Oeoienaoei e A?acaaeii – aeaenoaotho ia na?ioiieiy?ae/aneea
?aoeaioi?u, Iai?ioeeeei – ia aae
?aiy?aeaneea

Iieacaiey : yiaeiaaiiua, ?ao?aeoa?iua e ne?uoua aeai?annee

3. Eiaeaeoi?u iiiiaieiieneaeacu (IAI)_. – iaia?aoeiua IAI-A –
aeeyao ia na?ioiiei e ii?aae?aiaeei, IAI-A – ?ac?ooaao aeioaiei.
Eiaeaeoi?u IAI aeeytho a iniiaiii ia IAI-A

Ieaeaieae, Iieeiaaieae, O?ainaiei, Eiaeiiai, Eieacai, Oao?eiaeie,
Ie?aceaeie.

Iieacaiey :

aeai?annee a ni/aoaieyo n oyaeeuie oiaeyie e ineoiiioi?iie
caoi?iiaeaiiinoueth.

Iiai/iua yooaeou aioeaeai?annaioia

O?eoeeeee/aneea

1.Ecauoi/iay naaeaoeey ( aeieaaea I1-aenoaieiiauo ?aoeaioi?ia )

2.Neiiaoiieiaoe/aneea yooaeou ( oaoeea?aeey, aaniieienoai, einiiiey (
ia?ooaiea nia ) ).

3.Oieeiy?ae/aneea yooaeou ( ia?ooaiea c?aiey,caaea?aeea ii/e )

4.I?oinoaoe/aneay aeiioaicey, ea?aeeiieiiaoee

5.Iioaioeee?iaaiea aeaenoaey aeai?annaioia

6.Oiaiueoatho aioeaeia?oaiceaiue yooaeo Aoaieoeaeeia,
Eeiieoeaeeia,

Iaoeeaeiou.

Eiaeaeoi?u IAI

1.Aeia?oaicey ( oneeeaaaony oe?aieiii, eioi?ue niaea?aeeony a
nu?a, eiao?oa, ieaa –> iaeuecy, eia/a aeia?oaicey noaiao
ceiea/anoaaiiie ).

2.Aeia?oa?iey

3.Aicaoaeaeaiea OeIN, ?anno?ienoai nia, noaei?iae

4.Oaiaoaiea aeaoieneoee?othuae ooieoeee ia/aie

Cai?auaaony ni/aoaoue n o?eoeeeee/aneeie aioeaeai?annaioaie

AIOEAIAEIAEUeIUA N?AAeNOAA

I?eiaiythony aeey ea/aiey eoaie/aneie aieacie na?aeoea, oaeaea
iacuaathuaeny angina pectoris.

Eoaie/aneay aieaciue na?aeoea – ia?ooaiea aeinoaaee eee
iio?aaeaiey eenei?iaea a ieiea?aea.

I?e/eiu

I?e iaeioi?uo caaieaaaieyo aaia/iuo a?oa?ee :

1. Aoa?ineea?ic

2. Aiaeinianoe/aneee eiiiiiaio.

No?ann i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth iae?iaaiiiai oiiona e aiaeiniacio
–> ieeethcey 75%.

3. O?iiaiyiaieey

Aicieeaao o?iiaioeeoa?iue yiaie, aeoeae?oaony iaoaieci eiaaoeyoeee,
/oi i?eaiaeeo e o?iiaiyiaieee.

Ieiaaiiue oiion oi?iiceony aaeaiiceiii – i?iaeoeoii ?aniaaea
oeeeee/aneie oi?iu aaeaiiceiiiiioinoi?iie eeneiou. I?e aeaoeoeeoa
yia?aee – ?anoe?aiea ninoaeia, oae eae iaeaieeaaaony aaeaiicei.

Iio?aaeaiea eenei?iaea a ieiea?aea i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ?aaioa
na?aeoea. ?aaioa na?aeoea i?iii?oeeiiaeueia oaea?iiio iauaio e
/anoioa na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee. ?aaioa na?aeoea i?iii?oeeiiaeueia
aaiiciiio aica?aoo ( i?aaeiaa?ocea ) e iauaio ia?eoa?e/aneiio
nii?ioeaeaieth ninoaeia ( iinoiaa?ocea ).

Aiciiaeiinoe oa?iaeioa?aiee i?e eoaie/aneie aieacie na?aeoea

1. Oaaee/aiea ei?iia?iiai e?iaioiea

2. Oiaiueoaiea nie?aoeiinoe ieiea?aea ( io?eoeaoaeueiia eii- e
o?iiio?iiiia aeaenoaea )

3. Oaaee/aiea oiea?aioiinoe e oece/aneie iaa?ocea (
aioeaeiienaiou )

4. Aeeaeoaeeniiiaeiaiia aeaenoaea ( na?aea/iua aeeeiceaeu )

5. Aeoeaaoeey aiay?iaiiai aeeeieeca

6. Oiaiueoaiea ninoaeenoie i?iieoeaaiinoe ( i?e aunieie
i?iieoeaaiinoe iiyaeyaony ioae, naeaaeeaathuee ninoaeu )

7. Oeo/oaiea iee?ioee?eoeyoeee ieiea?aea

8. Oaaee/aiea ooeeecaoeee eenei?iaea ieiea?aeii

Enoi?e/anee ia?aua – ninoaei?anoe?ythuea n?aaenoaa.

Oaeoi?u ia?aie/eaathuea aioeaiaeiaeueioth aeoeaiinoue
ninoaei?anoe?ythueo n?aaenoa

1. I?aia?aou iaeaaeatho ia ecae?aoaeueiui aeaenoaeai, a nenoaiiui
ninoaei?anoe?ythuei

2. Oaiiiai “iae?aaeuaaiey” : ?anoe?ythony e caei?iaua ninoaeu,
i?e yoii a caei?iaua ninoaeu ooiaeeo aieueoa e?iae /ai a aieueiua,
oae eae caei?iaua ?anoe?ythony aieueoa.

Eeanneoeeaoeey

1. Ninoaei?anoe?ythuea n?aaenoaa: i?aaie/aneea ieo?aou –
ieo?iaeeoea?ei

i?iecaiaeiua : neaeiieieiia – Iieneaeaiei, ie?eieaeeia,
oaieeaeeeeaieiia, o?iiaia, io?eia, ecioeiieeia.

2. Aioaaiienou eaeueoeeaauo eaiaeia

3. Aaoa-aae?aiieeoeee – Iaceaeai, Aiai?eeei

4. Aaoa-aae?aiiieiaoeee

5. Aioeaae?aia?ae/aneea n?aaenoaa ?aciiai oeia aeaenoaey

6. Aniiiiaaoaeueiua n?aaenoaa

I?aaie/aneea ieo?aou

Oa?iaeieeiaoeea I?eiaiaiea

I?aia?ao Eaea?noaai-iay oi?ia Niinia aaaaeaiey Ia/aei aeaenoaey
I?iaeieaeeoaeue-iinoue Eoie?i-aaiea I?ioe-eaeoeea

Ieo?iaeeoea?ei oaaeaoee e

1%nie?o. ??

aiaeiue ?-?

2% iacue noaeeiaa.

aioo?eaaiii

ia i?aaeiea/uea 1-2 ieioou

Aeey aeeeoaeueiuo

15-30 ieioo 10-15 ieioo

aaaaeaiee

3,5 – 5 /ania +

— —

+

Nonoae oaaeaoee aioo?ue 10-15 ieioo 4-5 /ania — +

Ieo?iia oaaeaoee aioo?ue 20-30 ieioo 6-8 /ania — +

O?eieo?ieiia oaaeaoee

iieeia?iua ieaiee aioo?ue

aiieeeaoeey ia neecenooth ?oa 40-50 ieioo

2-3 ieioou 4-5 /ania

1,5 – 6 /ania —

+ +

+

Ieo?iaea?i iieeia?-iua aeenee iaeiaeii 20 ieioo 20 /ania — +

Ieo?ini?aeae oaaeaoee

oaaeaoee noaeeiaa.

aioo?ue 2-3 ieioou

20-30 ieioo 0,5 – 1 /an

2-3 /ana +

— —

+

Y?eieo – eiaao oieueei enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea

Niinia i?eiaiaiey noaeeiaaaeueiue ec-ca oiai, /oi i?e yoii i?aia?ao
ieioao ia/aiue.

Oa?iaeiaeeiaieea ieo?aoia

1. Iniiaiie yooaeo – aeae?iaeeiaie/aneay ?aca?ocea oiaiueoaao
:

aaiiciue aica?ao – i?aaeiaa?oceo, iauaa ia?eoa?e/aneia
nii?ioeaeaiea ninoaeia – iinoiaa?oceo

Aneaaenoaea yoiai oiaiueoaaony ?aaioa na?aeoea e aai iio?aaiinoue
a eenei?iaea

2. Iacia/eoaeueii oaaee/eaaaony aeinoaaea eenei?iaea a ieiea?ae

Oiaiueoaiea ninoaeenoiai oiiona e aacieiino?eeoi?iuo ?aoeaenia,
oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa eieeaoa?aeae e ?ao?ia?aaeiiai e?iaioiea

3. Oea?eiieeoe/aneee yooaeo – oeo/oaiea ieee?ioee?eoeyoeee

4. I?ioeaia?eoie/aneia aeaenoaea

Iiai/iua yooaeou

1. Naycaiiua n nenoaiiui ninoaei?anoe?ythuei aeaenoaeai (i?e
oiaiueoaiee a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiea aieaa /ai ia 10 ieeeeiao?ia )

a) oiaiueoaiea ei?iia?iie ia?oocee

a) ?aoeaeoi?iay oaoeea?aeey

a) ia?ooaiey iicaiaiai e?iaiia?auaiey –> aieiaiua aiee oeia
iea?aiae

2. ?acaeoea ieo?aoiie caaeneiinoe – /aua ia o aieueiuo, a ia
i?iecaiaenoaa ieo?iaeeoea?eia

3. ?acaeoea oiea?aioiinoe e ieo?aoai

I?ioeaiiieacaiey

1. Ino?ue eioaeoeeiiiue ieiea?aeeo n aeiioiieae e
a?aaeeea?aeeae ( ioiineoaeueiia i?ioeaiiieacaiea ).

2. Oaaee/aiea aioo?e/a?aiiiai aeaaeaiey

3. Aeaoeiia (2. e 3. – aaniethoiua i?ioeaiiieacaiey)

4. Ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iay aeieaaea

5. Eaeeineie?acee ( eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay iaia?aiineiinoue )

Aeea?ae/aneea ?aaeoeee e?aeia ?aaeee.

I?iecaiaeiua neaeiieieiia

Iieneaeaiei ( Ei?aaoii ) Aeae?iaeeiaie/aneay ?aca?ocea :

oiaiueoaiea: aaiiciiai aica?aoa, iio?aaeaiey eenei?iaea, iauaai
ia?eoa?e/aneiai nii?ioeaeaiey ninoaeia, aa?aaaoeeiiiay niiniaiinoue
o?iiaioeeoia, oaaee/aiea yeanoe/iinoe ia/aeueiie /anoe ai?ou, neaaia
aieaooieythuaa aeaenoaea

Ia aucuaaao oaiiiai “iae?aaeuaaiey”, iaiueoa nieaeaao a?oa?eaeueiia
aeaaeaiea

Oa?iaeieeiaoeea – oaaeaoee : noaeeiaaaeueii eee aioo?ue

I?iecaiaeiua ie?eieaeeia e oaieeaeeeeaieiia

I?iecaiaeiua ie?eieaeeia – Aeeie?eaeaiie

oaieeaeeeeaieiia – Eeaeioeacei

?aciuo a?oii – Ea?aie?iiai, Yooeeeei, Iaiaaa?ei,
Ii-oia.

Eeaeioeacei – aeiee?oao oinoiaeeynoa?aco ( yoi i?eaiaeeo e iaeiieaieth
oeeeee/aneie AIO )

Aeeie?eaeaiie – eiaeae?oao aaeaiiceiaeacaieiaco ( oa?iaio,
i?aa?auathuee aaeaiicei a eiicei), yoi i?eaiaeeo e iaeiieaieth
aaeaiiceia e ?anoe?aieth ninoaeia na?aeoea.

E?iia yoiai : aeaenoaoao ecae?aoaeueii, i?e aeeeoaeueiii
i?eiaiaiee aeoeaii ?acaeaaaony eieeaoa?aeueiia e?iaiia?auaiea, aeoeaiue
aeacaa?aaaio, oiaiueoaao aeia?o?ioeth, nieaeaao aa?iyoiinoue eioa?eoa

Iieacaiey :

1. Aeeeoaeueiia ea/aiea o?iie/aneie eoaie/aneie aieacie na?aeoea n
oeaeueth i?ioeeaeoeee noaiiea?aeee e eioa?eoa

2. Aeey aeeaaiinoeee ne?uouo caaieaaaiee na?aeoea ii
iaee/eth/ionoonoaeth oaiiiaia “iae?aaeuaaiey”

Aioaaiienou eaeueoeeaauo eaiaeia

1. Oiaiueoatho iio?aaeaiea eenei?iaea ieiea?aeii : io?eoeaoaeueiia
eii- e oiiio?iiiia aeaenoaea

oiaiueoaao aaiiciue aica?ao e iauaa ia?eoa?e/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea
ninoaeia

2. Oaaee/eaatho aeinoaaeo eenei?iaea a na?aeoea

3. I?ioeaia?eoie/aneia aeaenoaea

4. Caiaaeeyao aoa?ineea?ic, oiaiueoaao eaeueoeeiic noaiee

Eeanneoeeaoeey

1. I?iecaiaeiua iaiaaa?eia Aa?iiaiee = oeiiioei = eciioei

2. I?iecaiaeiua aeae?iie?eaeeia Ieoaoeaeei = ei?eioa? =
ei?aeaoai = ei?aeeiei = aaeaeao = oaieaeaeei

3. I?iecaiaeiua ieia?aceia Oeeiii?ecei ( nooaa?ii )

E?iia oiai :Aeeeoeacai ( ei?aeee ), Ec?aaeeiei ( eiie? ), Aa?aiaiee

Aeeyao ia ieiea?ae, aaaaeaiea aioo?ue, ia/aei – 15-30 ieioo,
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue – 6-8 /ania

au?aaeaiiia i?ioeaia?eoie/aneia, io?eoeaoaeueiue eii-, oiii-,
o?iiio?iiiue yooaeo, neaaia ninoaei?anoe?ythuaa.

Ieoaoeaeei

Aeeyao ia oiion ninoaeia, aaaaeaiea noaeeiaaaeueii, ia/aei – 5-10
ieioo, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue – 3-4 /ana, eii-, oiii-, o?iiio?iiiia
aeaenoaea ionoonoaoao, neeueiia ninoaei?anoe?ythuaa aeaenoaea

Iiai/ii :

Aeiioiiey, i?eaiaeyuay e oaoeea?aeee. Aa?iiaiee oiaiueoaao
nie?aoeiinoue ieiea?aea – o iiaeeeuo ethaeae iiaeao aicieeiooue
na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue, iiaoo aicieeaoue ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iua
aeieaaeu.

Aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?u

Oiaiueoatho iio?aaiinoue ieiea?aea a eenei?iaea. Io?eoeaoaeueiue
eii-, oiii-, o?iiio?iiiue yooaeo, oiaiueoaiea /anoiou na?aea/iuo
nie?auaiee e a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey. Oeaio?aeueiia
aioeaae?aia?ae/aneia aeaenoaea, aioe?aieiiaia aeaenoaea – oiaiueoaao
iauaa ia?eoa?e/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea ninoaeia. I?ioeaia?eoie/aneia
aeaenoaea.

Iiai/ii

1. Naycaiiia n iaea?aeeinaeaeoeaiinoueth a?iioiniaci, ia?ooaiea
ia?eoa?e/aneie iee?ioee?eoeyoeee, aeiiaeeeaiey

2. Naycaiiua n ieiea?aeii

nieaeaiea aeoeaiinoe ieiea?aea –> na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue,
ia?ooaiey ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iie i?iaiaeeiinoe ( ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iua
aeieaaeu )

I?ioeaiiieacaiey

1. Ninoiyiey, i?ioaeathuea n oiaiueoaieai a?oa?eaeueiiai
aeaaeaiey e nie?aoeiinoe ieiea?aea

2. Eaaiaeaeoaei/eiaay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue – aaniethoiia

3. A?eoiee ii oeio ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iuo aeieaae

4. A?iioiiano?oeoeaiua caaieaaaiey

Aae?aia?ae/aneea niaoaiiiai oeia aeaenoaey

Aieiaea?ii

aeie :

aaoa-aae?aii?aoeaioi?ia na?aeoea ( neaaia io?eoeaoaeueiia eii-,
oiii-, o?iiio?iiiia aeaenoaea ), ( -aae?aii?aoeaioi?ia ninoaeia,
?aoeaioi?ia e aetheaaiio ( oeo/oaao aeaiiie?iaaiea oaeaaiaeia )

Aaoa-aae?aiiieiaoeee ( ia i?eiaiythony_. )

Oaaee/eaatho nie?aoeiinoue ieiea?aea – oaaee/eaaaony eiioeaio?aoeey
aaeaiiceia – ?anoe?ythony ninoaeu. Ii i?e aoa?ineea?ica ?anoe?aiey
ninoaeia ia i?ienoiaeeo

Aniiiiaaoaeueiua

Ioiinyony e ?aciui a?oiiai : ineoio?iiiua ( o?aieaeeecaoi?u e
naaeaoeaiua ), aioeeiaaoeyiou e aioeaa?aaaiou ( oeo/oatho
iee?ioee?eoeyoeeth e aaii?aieiaeth ), aiaaiee/aneea noa?ieaeu,
aioeaeiienaiou, aioeoe?aieaeiua n?aaenoaa ( oaaee/eaatho eiyooeoeeaio
?/I a ieoioiiae?eyo ), aioea?aaeeeeieiiua n?aaenoaa.

AIOEAEIA?OAICEAIUA N?AAeNOAA

Iacuaaoue eo aeiioaiceaiuie iai?aaeeueii, oae eae iie
iacia/athony i?e aeia?oaicee aeey nieaeaiey a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey e
i?eiaiyoue eo i?e ii?iaeueiuo oeeo?ao a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey
iaoeaeaniia?acii.

Eeanneoeeaoeey A?oa?eaeueiuo aeia?oaicee_. ( AA )

1. Ia?ae/iay aeia?oaicey – a 80% neo/aaa ( i?e/eia ia ynia ) Aa
iacuaatho – aeia?oiie/aneay aieaciue. Ea/aiea – nieaeaiea
a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey.

2. Neiioiiaoe/aneay ( ia oiia ae?oaiai caaieaaaiey ). Ea/aiea –
ono?aiaiea i?e/eiu, aa aucaaaoae.

A?oa?eaeueiia aeaaeaiea – eioaa?aoeaiue iieacaoaeue,
oa?aeoa?ecothuee oi ia?ooceiiiia aeaaeaiea, iiae eioi?ui
e?iainiaaaeathony i?aaiu e oeaie. I?e nieaeaiee a?oa?eaeueiiai
aeaaeaiey iaaeaao i?aaiiue e?iaioie – aicieeatho ia?ooaiey eo ooieoeee.

A?oa?eaeueiia aeaaeaiea nieaeatho, /oiau oiaiueoeoue ?ene
aicieeiiaaiey caaieaaaiee : i?e oaaee/aiee a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey ia
10 ii ?o no ?ene aicieeiiaaiey eioa?eoa ieiea?aea oaaee/eaaaony a 3
?aca, oaaee/eaaaony aa?iyoiinoue ?acaeoey iaoieiaee iicaiaiai
e?iaiia?auaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa ea/aiea aeieaeii enoiaeeoue ec 2-o
i?eioeeiia : iaiaoiaeeii nieceoue a?oa?eaeueiia aeaaeaiea, ii nio?aieoue
ia i?eaieaiii o?iaia i?aaiiue e?iaioie. Iiyoiio aeaaeaiea nieaeatho
oia?aiii ( 180 –> 150 ),a ia aeiaiaeyo n?aco aei ii?iu ( a iniaaiiinoe
yoi ioiineony e ethaeyi iiaeeeiai aic?anoa, aeeeoaeueii eniuouaathuei
iiauoaiiia a?oa?eaeueiia aeaaeaiea ).

A?oa?eaeueiia aeaaeaiea ( AAe ) = Oiion ninoaeia ( iae?iaaiiue e
ieiaaiiue ) + ?aaioa na?aeoea ( /anoioa na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee ( *NN ) e
na?aea/iue aua?in ( NA )) + Iauai oee?eoee?othuae e?iae ( IOeE ).

I?e aaaaeaiee eaea?noa i?aaieci ai?aony ni nieaeaieai aeaaeaiey :
oiion ninoaeia nieaeai eaea?noaaie –> inoathony IOeE e ?aaioa na?aeoea
– iie iiauoathony – eaea?noai ia?anoaao aeaenoaiaaoue –> iaiaoiaeeii :

a) Iiuiia n?aaenoai, eioi?ia iiaeao i?ioeainoiyoue anai
iaoaieciai.

a) Eiiieaeniay oa?aiey, aeeythuay n?aco ia ana nenoaiu
iiauoaiey aeaaeaiey.

Ii noaiaie oyaeanoe :

Eaaeay, oia?aiiay, oyaeaeay, ceiea/anoaaiiay

Aeia?oiie/aneea e?ecu – aiacaiiua, ?aceea iiauoaiey
a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey ( 160 –> 250 ). Ioaeia yeno?aiiay iiiiuue.
Eaea?noaa aaiaeyony aioo?eaaiii eee noaeeiaaaeueii. Nouanoaoao 4
aiciiaeiinoe nieaeaiey AAe –> 4 a?oiiu i?aia?aoia.

1. Aioeaae?aia?ae/aneea n?aaenoaa ( neiiaoe/aneay ?aaoeyoeey
ninoaeia e na?aeoea ).

2. Ia?eoa?e/aneea aaciaeeeyoaoi?u – nieaeatho ieiaaiiue
eiiiiiaio oiiona, ii i?e aoa?ineea?ica aeaenoaotho neaai.

3. Ii?iaeecaoi?u aiaeii-nieaaiai aaeaina ( aeeo?aoeee ) –
oiaiueoatho IOeE + auaiaeyo ec noaiee ninoaeia iao?ee ( i?ioeeaeoeea
aoa?ineea?ica ).

4. Aioaaiienou aiaeioaiceia – 2 –> iineaaeiea enoi?e/anee, ii
cia/aieth – iaiai?io.

Aioaaiienou aiaeioaiceia-2

Ooieoeee aiaeioaiceia-2 :

1. Aacieiino?eeoi? ( naiue neeueiue a i?aaiecia ). A noaiea
ninoaea anoue ?aoeaioi?u e iaio.

2. Oaaee/eaaao nae?aoeeth aeueaeinoa?iia – caaea?aeea iao?ey e
aiaeu – ioae ninoaeenoie noaiee + oaaee/aiea IOeE – oaaee/aiea
a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey.

3. Oeaio?aeueiia aeaenoaea – anoue ?aoeaioi?u, oaaee/eaathuea
neiiaoe/aneee oiion.

A?oiia ia?ae?uaaao ana 3 iaoaiecia – iiiioa?aiey

. I?aia?aou oiaiueoathuea aeoeaiinoue ?aieia ieaciu ca n/ao
oiaiueoaiey au?aaioee ?aieia a ii/eao – aioeaae?aia?ae/aneea i?aia?aou
( iniaaiii aaoa-aeieaoi?u ).

2. Aeieaoi?u eiiaa?oe?othuaai oa?iaioa_. – iaeaieaa iiuiua e
ia?niaeoeaiua.

Eaioii?ee, Yiaeai?ee, ?aiei?ee

Iaoaieci :

1. Oiaiueoaiea aacieiino?eeoeee, iaoneiaeaiiie aiaeioaiceiii-2

2. Oiaiueoaiea nae?aoeee aeueaeinoa?iia – oiaiueoaiea caaea?aeee
iao?ey e aiaeu.

3. Ca n/ao oeaio?aeueiiai aeaenoaey aeiee?otho neiiaoiieiaoe/aneee
yooaeo aiaeioaiceia-2

4. Caueuatho eeieiu ( aaciaeeeyoaoi?u ) io ?ac?ooaiey.

Iieacaiey :

1. Iiiioa?aiey AA ethaie noaiaie, ii a iniiaiii oia?aiiie,
oyaeaeie, ceiea/anoaaiiie.

2. I?aiyonoaotho aeia?eaeueiee ieiea?aea i?e o?iie/aneie
na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.

3. Yooaeoeaiu i?e aeeaaaoe/aneeo aiaeiiaoeyo

4. I?aiyonoaotho ?acaeoeth aeeaaaoe/aneie iao?iiaoee, ia
aeiioneay iiauoaiey AAe a ii/eao.

Aeey eoie?iaaiey aeia?oiie/aneeo e?ecia ia i?eiaiythony, oae eae
auioneathony oieueei a oaaeaoeao.

N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aia?aoia :

Eaioii?ee

I?eiaiyaony 4 ?aca a aeaiue – iaoaeiaii aeey aeeeoaeueiiai
i?eiaiaiey + aieueoia eiee/anoai iiai/iuo yooaeoia :

I?oinoaoe/aneay aeiioaicey, aieiaiay aieue, aieiaie?oaeaiea,
?aoeaeoi?iay oaoeea?aeey ( iiiuoea i?aaiecia i?aiyonoaiaaoue
nieaeaieth AAe ).

Yiaeai?ee, ?aiei?ee

a) a eo ninoaaa iao aoiia na?u – iaiaa au?aaeaiu iiai/iua yooaeou

a) n?aaenoaa i?ieiiae?iaaiiiai aeaenoaey ( 1 – 2 ( a oyaeaeuo
neo/ayo ))

3. Aeieaoi?u aiaeioaiceiiauo ?aoeaioi?ia ninoaeia

Na?aeacei – aioo?eaaiii, aeey niyoey aeia?oiie/aneeo e?ecia,
oai?aoe/anee iiaeii ea/eoue AA ethaie noaiaie, ii iiiai iiai/iuo
yooaeoia – ia i?eiaiyaony.

4. Oiaiueoathuea nae?aoeeth aeueaeinoa?iia_. ( ii/aaiiiua n?aaenoaa
)

Nie?iiieaeoii – neaaia, iaeiyooaeoeaiia aioeaeia?oaiceaiia n?aaenoai.
I?eiaiyaony i?e: aeia?aeueaeinoa?iiecia, eae eaeee-naa?aaathuee
i?aia?ao.

Aioeaae?aia?ae/aneea n?aaenoaa

a) I?aeiouanoaaiii oeaio?aeueiiai aeaenoaey

a) I?aeiouanoaaiii ia?eoa?e/aneiai aeaenoaey :

Neiiaoieeoeee – oiaiueoatho auaeaeaiea iaaeeaoi?ia,
Aeueoa-aae?aiieeoeee – eneeth/atho aeeyiea ii?aae?aiaeeia,
Aaoa-aae?aiieeoeee – oiaea ia na?aeoea, Aeueoa, aaoa-aae?aiieeoeee

Aaiaeeiaeieaoi?u – yaeythony oieeiieeoeeaie, ii e neiiaoe/aneea e
ia?aneiiaoe/aneea aaiaeee ono?iaiu iaeeiaeiai – i?a?uaaiea eiioeuena
ia o?iaia aaiaeey. Ec-ca neeoeii oe?ieiai niaeo?a aeaenoaey i?e AA ia
i?eiaiythony. Iaeaaeatho auno?ui e neeueiui yooaeoii – i?eiaiythony aeey
eoie?iaaiey aeia?oiie/aneeo e?ecia e i?e na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.

Aioeaae?aia?ae/aneea oeaio?aeueiiai aeaenoaey

Eeioaeeei e Aoaioaoeei – aeoeae?otho i?aneiaioe/aneea ( -2
aae?aii?aoeaioi?u – oiaiueoaaony auaeaeaiea ii?aae?aiaeeia ec ieii/aiee

Iaoeeaeioa – ia?ooaao neioac ii?aae?aiaeeia, aeiee?oy
aeioaaeaea?aieneeaco – aianoi ii?aae?aiaeeia neioace?oaony “eiaeiue
iaaeeaoi?” – aeueoa-iaoee-ii?aae?aiaeei, eioi?ue, ianiio?y ia
iioiaeanoue ia auiieiyao ooieoeey ii?aae?aiaeeia.

Eeeie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea

Eeioaeeei :

1. Eiiaeie?iaaiiay oa?aiey i?e oia?aiiie e,?aaea – oyaeaeie AA.

2. Eiiaaea – aeey eoie?iaaiey aeia?oiie/aneiai e?eca. I?e yoii
aiciiaeii e?aoeia?aiaiiia oaaee/aiea AAe ( ia 15-20 ieioo )
iaoneiaeaiiia aai ia?eoa?e/aneei aeaenoaeai.

3. Ea/aiea iea?aiae – oiaiueoaao aiieeooaeo ioeuenaoeee a?oa?ee
iicaiauo iaiei/ae.

Aoaioaoeei

Eiiaeie?iaaiiia ea/aiea AA ethaie noaiaie, iaeaaeaao
i?ieiiae?iaaiiui aeaenoaeai – i?eiaiyaony 1 ?ac a nooee.

Iaoeeaeioa

Neaaia n?aaenoai, auno?i ?acaeaaaony i?eaueaiea ( /a?ac ianyoe (
oiaiueoaiea yooaeoa ) ), II – ia a?aaeeo i?e aa?aiaiiinoe.

Iiai/ii

1. Caaea?aeea iao?ey – oaaee/aiea IOeE – iiyoiio iacia/aaony n
aeeo?aoeeaie

2. Nooinoue ai ?oo – aieueiua iiiai iuetho – oaaee/aiea IOeE

3. Ineoiiioi?iia oi?iiaeaiea – aeoaieee nii + aiiacey

4. Nieaeaiea eeaeaei ( iieiaiai aea/aiey )

A oeaeii i?aia?aou oia?aiiie neeu aeaenoaey, i?eiaiythony
oieueei aeey eiiieaeniie oa?aiee, iaaaciianiu aeey iaoeeaioa, ? iiiai
iiai/iuo yooaeoia.

Aae?aia?ae/aneea ia?eoa?e/aneiai aeaenoaey. Neiiaoieeoeee

Iaaeinoaoee

Iacaaiea Ia/aei I?iae-oue Caaea?aeea iao?ey Ia?aneiiao.

yooaeou Iae?ieaio.

neiae?ii I?oinoaoe/.

aeiioaicey

?aca?iei 24 /ana 5-7 aeiae + ++ ++ +/-

Aoaiaoeaeei 3 /ana 2-3 aeiy ++ + – ++ (100%)

I?ieae 4-6 /ania 18-36 /ania ++ + – +

?aca?iei – ia?ooaao aeaiiie?iaaiea iaaeeaoi?a a i?aneiaioe/aneii
ieii/aiee, /oi i?eaiaeeo e aai auno?iio ?ac?ooaieth, i?eiaiyaony a
eiiieaena n aeeo?aoeeaie o iiaeeeuo ethaeae.

Aoaiaoeaeei

( Ieoaaeei ) eiaao 2 iaoaiecia aeaenoaey – ?aca?ieiiiiaeiaiue +
eiaeae?iaaiea ia?aoiiai caoaaoa ii?aae?aiaeeia i?aneiaioe/aneei
ieii/aieai = neeueiia aeaenoaea, ii iiiai iiai/iuo aeaenoaee :
neeueii caaea?aeeaaao iao?ee, o 100% iaoeeaioia aucuaaao i?oinoaoe/aneee
eieeain – i?eiaiyaony oieueei a oneiaeyo noaoeeiia?a. ssaeyaony
“n?aaenoaii io/ayiey” i?e oyaeaeuo e ceiea/anoaaiiuo oi?iao AA, ia
iiaeaeathueony ae?oaiio ea/aieth.

I?ieae – i?eiaiyaony ia i?e AA, a i?e a?eoieyo.

Aeueoa-aae?aiieeoeee

Ianaeaeoeaiua ( aeueoa-1, aeueoa-2 ) ia i?eiaiythony, e?iia
Oaioieaieia aeey e?aoeia?aiaiiiai niyoey aeia?oiie/aneiai e?eca.
Naeaeoeaiua ( aeueoa-1 ) – oe?iei i?eiaiythony.

I?acicei

Iiiioa?aiey AA ethaie noaiaie, eiiaeie?iaaiiia ea/aiea AA ethaie
noaiaie, aeey eoie?iaaiey aeia?oiie/aneeo e?ecia ia i?eiaiyaony, oae
eae ieioi ?anoai?ei. Aeeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey 8-10 /ania – 2 ?aca a
nooee.

Iiai/ii :

1. O 20% i?oinoaoe/aneay aeiioaicey ( yoi iaiiiai ) – iiaeii
i?eiaiyoue a aiaoeaoi?iie i?aeoeea

2. Aieiaie?oaeaiea, aieiaiay aieue – iiiiaaao aaeeaeie, i?aia?aou,
niaea?aeauea iaioie ( aiaeueaei e aieaeiie?ei ia iiiiaatho ).

Aaoa-aae?aiiaeieaoi?u

Iaoaieci :

1. Ia?aua 4 iaaeaee i?eaia iniiaiia aeaenoaea – oiaiueoaiea NA,
a?aaeeea?aeey, ii i?ioanoaee 4-o iaaeaeue NA ainnoaiaaeeaaaony (
na?aeoea “oneieuecaao” )

2. Iinea 4-o iaaeaeue neiiaoioi?iiciue yooaeo – oiaiueoaiea
iae?iaaiiiai ninoaeenoiai oiiona – ?anoe?aiea a?oa?eie.

3. Oiaiueoaiea neioaca ?aieia a ii/eao

I?eiaiaiea : iiiioa?aiey AA eaaeie noaiaie ( no?ann ),
eiiaeie?iaaiiay oa?aiey AA ethaie noaiaie. Ia i?eiaiyaony aeey
eoie?iaaiey aeia?oiie/aneeo e?ecia oae eae ia niioaaonoaoao iaoaieci.

I?e a?iioeaeueiie anoia, naoa?iii aeeaaaoa – i?eiaiytho
ea?aeeinaeaeoeaiua aaoa-aeieaoi?u, anee eciee?iaaiiay AA – ethaua.

Aeueoa e aaoa-aeieaoi?u.

Eaaaoaiie = 1/3 aeoeaiinoe i?ii?aiieiea + 1/7-1/8 aeoeaiinoe
i?aciceia = oi?ioee yooaeo.

Iiiioa?aiey eaaeie e oia?aiiie noaiaie AA

Eiiaeie?iaaiiay i?e AA ethaie noaiaie

Aeey eoie?iaaiey aeia?oiie/aneeo e?ecia ia eniieuecoaony.

Ia?eoa?e/aneea aaciaeeeyoaoi?u

_. “Noa?ua, o?aaeeoeeiiiua”

Iaiaaa?ei, Yooeeeei, Iioia, Aeeaacie.

Yooeeeei – aioo?eaaiiia aaaaeaiea i?e eoie?iaaiee
aeia?oiie/aneeo e?ecia, Iioia – i?e nianoe/aneeo caaieaaaieyo
aioo?aiieo aeaaeeiiuoa/iuo i?aaiia, Aeeaacie – aaeaioiaai.

Ii ana iie iaeaaeatho ieceie aioeaeia?oaiceaiie aeoeaiinoueth
– ia i?eiaiythony.

2. Iiaua

Ai?annei ( Aeae?ieacei a ninoaaa Yaeaeueoaia )

Eiiaeie?iaaiiia ea/aiea AA oia?aiiuo e oyaeaeuo noaiaiae,
eoie?iaaiea aeia?oiie/aneeo e?ecia.

Iiai/ii : ?aoeaeoi?iay oaoeea?aeey, ia?ooaiey iicaiaiai
e?iaiia?auaiey, i?oinoaoe/aneay aeiioaicey, caaea?aeea iao?ey

Aeeacieneae

Nicaeai niaoeeaeueii aeey eoie?iaaiey aeia?oiie/aneeo e?ecia,
i?eiaiyaony oieueei aioo?eaaiii, ia/aei /a?ac 2-5 ieioo,
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue 2-3 /ana.

Ieo?ii?onneae iao?ey – oiaea

Ia/aei /a?ac 2-5 ieioo, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue 5 ieioo (
naa?oei?ioeia aeaenoaea ).

I?eiaiaiea :

Eoie?iaaiea aeia?oiie/aneeo e?ecia

Eaaiaeaeoaei/eiaay na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue ( a oii /enea
eioa?eo ieiea?aea )

A oe?o?aee – oi?aaeyaiay aeiioiiey

3. Aioaaiienou eaeueoeey

Niaoeeoe/aneea aeieaoi?u eaeueoeeaauo eaiaeia ( i?aiyonoaotho
aoiaeo eaeueoeey ).

Ieoaaeeiei e Aeeeoeacai – iaeaieaa au?aaeaii aeeyiea ia
eaeueoeeaaua eaiaeu ninoaeenoie noaiee.

I?eiaiaiea :

Iiiioa?aiey AA eaaeie e oia?aiiie noaiaie, eiiaeie?iaaiiay oa?aiey
anao noaiaiae

Eoie?iaaiea aeia?oiie/aneeo e?ecia, a oii /enea noaeeiaaaeueii.

Aeeo?aoeee – i?iecaiaeiua oeaceaeia – iiiioa?aiey.

NA?AeA*IUA N?AAeNOAA

N?aaee ia?ooaiee ?aaiou na?aeoea iiaeii auaeaeeoue :

a) na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue e

a) ia?ooaiey ?eoia

Iiyoiio na?aea/iua n?aaenoaa aeaeyony ia :

a) Ea?aeeioiie/aneea n?aaenoaa

Oaaee/eaaaony neea na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee, oeo/oaaony aaiiaeeiaieea.

a) Aioea?eoie/aneea n?aaenoaa

Ono?aiytho ?acee/iua a?eoiee, aeaenoaotho ia i?iaiaeyuoth nenoaio e
aicaoaeeiinoue na?aeoea.

Ea?aeeioiie/aneea_. :

1. Na?aea/iua aeeeiceaeu

Aacacioenoua niaaeeiaiey ?anoeoaeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey

2. Eaioa?a

3. Ae?oaea ea?aeeioiie/aneea n?aaenoaa

Ia yaeythony ecae?aoaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie, aicaoaeaeaiea OeIN
(ei?aeeaiei ), aicaeaenoaea ia iae?iiaaeeaoi?u ( Aae?aiaeei ).

Iaia?noyiea_. ( Aeeaeoaeen )

Ioe?uoa a 1543 aiaeo E. Ooenii. Aaae a i?eiaiaiea 1785 aiaeo A.
Aeca?a?. Ii iienae aa iniiaiua naienoaa eae ii/aaiiiua. Iicaea iia auea
eco/aia Aioeeiui a ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa aeey ea/aiey na?aea/iie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.

No?ioaio

Iieaeoea ninoieo ec 2-o /anoae : aeeeiia e aaeeeiia, a ninoaa
aaeeeiia aoiaeeo eaeoiiiia eieueoei. Aeeeii ( naoa?enoay /anoue )
ioaa/aao ca :

?anoai?eiinoue, o?ainii?o /a?ac eeaoi/iua iaia?aiu, o?iiiinoue e
aaeeai, nei?inoue auaaaeaiey.

Aaeeeii ii?aaeaeyao ea?aeeioiie/aneee yooaeo, ii no?oeoo?a
iaiiieiaao noa?ieaeiua ai?iiiu. ?ac?ua eaeoiiiiai eieueoea
oiaiueoaao eee ono?aiyao ea?aeeioiie/aneia aeaenoaea aeeeiceaea. Yoie
no?oeoo?ie ii?aaeaeythony e iaeioi?ua ieia?aeei?oeeieaeiua naienoaa
no?ioaioa. A caaeneiinoe io eiee/anoaa naoa?enouo /anoae iieaeoeu
na?aea/iua aeeeiceaeu ?acaeaeythony ia iiiiceaeu, aeeiceaeu, .. e oae
aeaeaa ( ia aieaa 5 naoa?en ouo /anoae ).

?aiueoa_. na?aea/iua aeeeiceaeu ?acaeaeyee ia 2 a?oiiu :

1. I?aia?aou aeey ea/aiey o?iie/aneie na?aea/iie iaaeinoa oi/iinoe
(“a?oiia Iaia?noyiee” )

2. I?aia?aou aeey ea/aiey ino?ie na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iin oe (
“a?oiia No?ioaioa” )

Ii n iiyaeaieai /enouo aeeeiceaeia ( aoi?e/iuo e o?aoe/iuo )
i?aia?aou iaia?noyiee i?eiaiythony e aeey ea/aiey ino?ie na?aea/iie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.

Nae/an_. eeanneoeeaoeey ii ca?yaeaiiinoe iieaeoeu.

1. Iiey?iua

I?iecaiaeiua No?ioaioeia : Ei?aeeeii

Oi?ioi ?anoai?eiu, iaiaa eeiioeeueiua, ieioi ananuaathony a
aeaeoaei/iieeoa/iii o?aeoa, ii/oe ia naycuaathony n aaeeaie ieaciu,
iacia/athony aioo?eaaiii, i?eiaiythony aeey ea/aiey iaino?aiey eee
ino?ie na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.

2. Iaiiey?iua

I?eia? i?aia?aoa : Aeeaeoienei, ana naienoaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiu,
i?eieiatho yioa?aeueii, eniieuecothony aeey ea/aiey o?iie/aneie
na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.

3. Ioiineoaeueii iiey?iua

I?eia? i?aia?aoa : Aeeaienei ( Ecieaieae ), ana naienoaa
i?iiaaeooi/iu, eniieuecothony aeey ea/aiey e ino?ie e o?iie/aneie
na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.

Iaoaieci

Iauee aeey anao, 5 iniiaiuo aeaenoaee :

1. Iieiaeeoaeueiia eiio?iiiia oaaee/aiea neeu na?aea/iuo
nie?auaiee

2. Iieiaeeoaeueiia oiiio?iiiia oaaee/aiea oiiona ieiea?aea

3. Io?eoeaoaeueiia o?iiio?iiiia oiaiueoaiea /anoiou
na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee

4. Io?eoeaoaeueiia ae?iiio?iiiia ia?ooaiea i?iaaaeaiey
eiioeuena

5. Iieiaeeoaeueiia aaoiio?iiiia oaaee/aiea aicaoaeeiinoe,
ia?ooaiey ?eoia

Ea/aaiuie yooaeoaie yaeythony 1,2 e 3 aeaenoaey, 4 e 5 –
i?eciaee ia?aaeice?iaee.

1. Iieiaeeoaeueiia eiio?iiiia

Oaaee/aiea neeu na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee – ?acoeueoao i?yiiai aeaenoaey
ia ea?aeeiieioeeou ( i?iaa?aii ia eciee?iaaiiii na?aeoea ).
Na?aea/iua aeeeiceaeu acaeiiaeaenoaotho n nianoaaiiuie ?aoeaioi?aie, iie
anoue a na?aeoea e OeIN. I?e acaeiiaeaenoaee ioe?uaathony eaeueoeeaaua e
iao?eaaua eaiaeu.

Ii?iaeueiia nie?auaiea ieiea?aea

Yoaiu :

1. Iaia?aiiiai yeaeo?iaaiaca

2. Nii?yaeaiey iaia?aiiiai yeaeo?iaaiaca n aeioeie/aneeie
i?ioeannaie

3. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeioeiee ia?aciaaiey aeoiieiceiiaiai
eiiieaena

4. Yia?aiiaania/aiea.

Iioaioeeae aeaenoaey ia?aaeaaony iaeaeaioeoeoee?iaaiiuie nenoaiaie
aioo?ue eeaoee :

a) Aua?in eaeueoeey ec na?eiieaciaoe/aneiai ?aoeeoeoia.

a) Oaaee/eaaaony aoiae eaeueoeey a eeaoeo /a?ac eaeueoeeaaua
eaiaeu, aeeth/aaony eaeueoeee-iao?eaaue ianin ( oiaiueoathuee auoiae
eaeueoeey ).

a) ?acei oaaee/eaaaony eiioeaio?aoeey eaeueoeey aioo?e eeao ee.

Iiae aeeyieai eaeueoeey iaaeoeaiue aeiaoey?iue aeoei ia?aoiaeeo
a oea?eeey?ioth oi?io. Yoiio ia?aoiaeo i?aiyonoaotho eiiu eaeey.
Ia?iieiciua io?inoee ia ieiceia i?e nie?auaiee naycuaathony n
ieiceiiauie ?aoeaioi?aie ia aeoeia, aeaeaeaiea i?ienoiaeeo iooai
ioiineoaeueiiai niauaiey ieiceia e aeoeia ae?oa ioiineoaeueii ae?oaa,
eaoaeecaoi?ii yoie ?aaeoeee yaeyaony o?iiiieicei, eioi?ue enoiaeii
cae?uaaao ?aoeaioi?u ia aeoeia. Eaeueoeee acaeiiaeaenoaoao n aeoeaiie
a?oiiie o?iiiieiceia ( o?iiiieiii ) – ioe?uaathony ?aoeaioi?u –
i?ienoiaeeo a?aaouaa aeaeaeaiea.

Yia?aey : ieicei ?ac?ooaao AOO – eaeueoeee oaaee/eaaao
AOO-acioth aeoeaiinoue ieiceia. Yia?aaoe/aneea noano?aou – AOO,
AAeO, e?aaoei-oinoao. Eaeueoeee oaaee/eaaao iai?io AOO.

Aeeeiceaeu aicaeaenoaotho ia ana yoaiu_. :

1. Eaeoiiiia eieueoei aeiee?oao oa?iaiou n SH-a?oiiie a
eaeee-iao?eaaii ianina – ii ?aaioaao iaaeeaiiaa – eiiu ea eey, eioi?ua
oaea auoee ia aica?auathony – aeiieaeeaaenoey.

2. Oaaee/eaaaony aua?in eiiia eaeueoeey.

Oaaee/eaaaony eiee/anoai eaeueoeey, aoiaeyuaa /a?ac eaeueoeeaaua
eaiaeu. Ia?ooaiea ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eaeee-iao?eaaiai ianina –
caaea?aeea auoiaea eaeueoeey – aua aieueoa oaaee/eaaaony eaeueoeeaaue
“caei”. Oaaee/aiiay eiioeaio?aoeey eaeueoeey e aeaoeoeeo eaeey
i?eaiaeyo e onei?aieth ia?aciaaiey oea?eeey?iiai aeoeia ec
aeiaoey?iiai. Oaaee/aiea niaea?aeaiey eaeueoeey :

Oaaee/aiea nei?inoe acaeiiaeaenoaey aai n aeoeiii – onei?aiea
ioe?uoey ?aoeaioi?ia ia aeoeia.

Onei?aiea acaeiiaeaenoaey ieiceia n AOO + oaaee/aiea
AOO-aciie aeoeaiinoe ieiceia i?eaiaeeo e onei?aieth aeaeaeaiey –
onei?aiea ?anuaieaiey AOO ( oaaee/aiea yia?aiiaania/aiey).

Aeeeiceaeu :

1. Aeiee?otho aeoeaiue o?ainii?o eaoaoieaieiia e na?aeoeo –
oiaiueoaiea eo niaea?aeaiey a oeaiyo – eo aieueoa a aeoeaiie oi?ia

2. Ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea iao?ey e eaeey

Aunaiaiaeaeaiea eaeueoeey ec na?eiieaciaoe/aneiai ?aoeeoeoia –
eiio?iiiue yooaeo.

3. Oiaiueoaiea oaeoi?a ?anneaaeaiey ( ia eaeaioeoeoee?iaai ) Aua?in
eaeueoeey ec ?aoeeoeoia.

Iauee eoia aeeyiey ia iaiai.

Niaea?aeaiea aeeeiaaia – oiaiueoaaony, niaea?aeaiea eaeoaoa –
oiaiueoaaony, iio?aaeaiea aetheicu – oiaiueoaaony, iio?aaeaiea aee?iuo
eeneio – oaaee/eaaaony, iaiai AOO, AAeO, e?aaoeioinoaoa – oaaee/eaaaony,
niaea?aeaiea AOO, AAeO, e?aaoeioinoaoa – oaaee/eaaaony, iio?aaeaiea
eenei?iaea oiaiueoaaony eee ia eciaiyaony

A ?acoeueoaoa ia oieueei oaaee/eaaaony ?aaioa, ii e oaaee/eaaaony
yia?aaoe/aneee iaiai, ia i?eaiaey e aeaoeoeeoo eenei?iaea e oaaee/aieth
iio?aaeaiey aetheicu.

2. Io?eoeaoaeueiia o?iiio?iiiia (a iniiaa eaaeeo eiio?iiiia
aeaenoaea).

A?aaeeea?aeey ec-ca aeeth/aiey aeoaeaeathuaai ia?aa :

a) neiiea?aeeaeueiue yooaeo

Anee oaaee/eaaaony ?aaioa na?aeoea – oaaee/eaaaony aeaaeaiea –
ia/eiatho ?aaae?iaaoue aa?i?aoeaioi?u neiiai?oaeueiie ciiu – eiioeuenu
eaeoo a yae?i aeoaeaeathuaai ia?aa – caiaaeeaiea ?aaiou na?aeoea.

a) ea?aeeiea?aeeaeueiue yooaeo

I?e oaaee/aiee neeu nie?auaiey i?ienoiaeeo e aieaa neeueiia
naeaoea – ?aaae?otho niaoeeaeueiua ?aoeaioi?u, ?aniieiaeaiiua a naiii
ieiea?aea – eiioeuenu a yae?i aeoaeaeathuaai ia?aa – caiaaeeaiea ?aaiou
na?aeoea.

Na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue nii?iaiaeaeaaony canoiai a
aaiiciie nenoaia, iniaaiii a onoueyo iieuo aai ( oai anoue ?aoeaioi?u
). *ai aieueoa canoie – oai aieueoa aeeyiea ia neiiaoe/aneea oeaio?u –
oaaee/aiea /anoiou nie?auaiee. Na?aea/iua aeeeiceaeu oaaee/eaatho
?aaioo na?aeoea e ono?aiytho canoie.

Aeiiieieoaeueii, i?e aicaeaenoaee na?aea/iuo aeeeiceaeia
oiaiueoaaony aeiieney ( eioi?ay nieaeaao e?eoe/aneee o?iaaiue
aeaiiey?ecaoeee neioniaiai ocea ) – iaaeeaiiaa aicieeatho iioaioeeaeu
aeaenoaey – oiaiueoaaony /anoioa na?aea/iuo nie?aua iee.

Noiia?ii :

Oaaee/eaathony :

eiyooeoeeaio iieaciiai aeaenoaey, oaea?iue iauai, ianiniay
ooieoeey na?aeoea, ei?iia?iue e?iaioie, ieiooiue iauai e?iae (ia niio?y
ia caiaaeeaiea /anoiou nie?auaiee ), oee?eoeyoeey e?iae, aeaaeaiea,
nei?inoue e?iaioiea, ii/aioaeaeaiea ( oaaee/eaaaony ii/a/iue e?iaioie )
– nieaeaaony iauai oee?eoee?othuae e?iae.

Oiaiueoathony :

ia?eiae aeinoeaeaiey iaeneiaeueiiai iai?yaeaiey, inoaoi/iue iauai,
aaiiciia aeaaeaiea ( + oaaee/eaaaony oiion aai ), ii?oaeueiay
aeia?oaicey, canoie e?iae a oeaiyo – en/acatho ioaee.

Ia?aiao?u Iiey?iua Iaiiey?iua

Iieo/atho ec Iaia?noyiee, Ai?eoeaaoa No?ioaioa, Eaiaeuoa

Aeoeaiinoue 1000 – 4000 EAAe 8000 – 11000

Eoioeyoeey au?aaeaia ia au?aaeaia

Yooaeo /a?ac 30-50 ieioo 2-5 ieioo

Yioa?aeueiue eiyooeoeeaio = 1 iaiaa 0,1 – 0,2

Eaioa yeeieiaoeee 7-20 % aieaa 50 %

( aeiey auaaaeaiey ) Iiey?iua ia naycuaathony n aaeeaie –
auno?ue e neeueiue yooaeo e auno?ay yeeieiaoeey /a?ac ii/ee

EAAe – eioa/uey aaeeieoea aeaenoaey – eiee/anoai i?aia?aoa
aeinoaoi/iia aeey oiai, /oiau aucaaoue inoaiiaeo na?aeoea o eioee a
nenoieo.

I?aia?aou iaia?noyiee naycuaathony aei 80% – oee?eoee?otho ii
yioa?iia/aii/iiio e?oao :

AEaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iue o?aeo – ia/aiue – n aeae/ueth a AEEO – a
ia/aiue e oae aeaeaa.

N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aia?aoia Iaia?noyiee :

Aeeaienei Aeeaeoienei

Ananuaaaony 60 – 80 % aei 100 %

Naycuaaaony n aaeeaie 25 % 90 – 98 %

?ac?ooaaony a ia/aie 70% (30 % auaiaeeony a iaeciaiiii aeaea) 100%

Yioa?iia/aii/iay oee?eoeyoeey 6 – 8 %, aei 10 % aei 50 %

Ia?eiae iieoaeecie a ieacia 24 – 48 /ania aei 5 aeiae

Oa?aiaaoe/aneay eiioeaio?aoeey 0,5 – 2,0 iaiia/ie 20-35 ia/ie

Aeoeaiinoue 4000 – 5000 1500 – 2000

A?aiy iaeneiaeueiiai yooaeoa 4-6 /ania 6-12 /ania

Aeeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey iinea ioiaiu aei iaaeaee aei 18-20 aeiae

Iaaeinoaoie na?aea/iuo aeeeeiceaeia – i/aiue iaeaiueeay oa?aiaaoe/aneay
oe?ioa

Noaoa?aiaaoe/aneay aeica 0.8 20

Oa?aiaaoe/aneay 0.9-2.0 20-35

Oiene/aneay 3.0 45-50

Eioieneeaoeey

?acei au?aaeaiiay a?aaeeea?aeey n iiyaeaieai ae?iiio?iiiiai
aeaenoaey ( ao?ei-aaio?eeoey?iay caaea?aeea ).

1. Oiaiueoaiea eiioeaio?aoeee eaeey – ia?ooaiea i?iaaaeaiey

2. Aeie SH-a?oii oa?iaioia – ia?ooaiea i?iaaaeaiey

3. Oaaee/aiea eioa?aaea PQ ( eee iieiue ao?ei-aaio?eeoey?iue
aeie ) – aeieaeii ianoi?iaeeoue ( oiene/aneia aeaenoaea ).

Anee aeica aua oaaee/aia – i?iyaeyaony aaoiio?iiiia aeaenoaea

1. Oaaee/aiea aoiaea eaeueoeey – aieaa e?ooia ia?anoaiea
aeaiiey?ecaoeee

2. Oiaiueoaiea eaeey – nieaeaiea o?iaiy e?eoe/aneie
aeaiiey?ecaoeee

3. Ia?ooaiea ao?ei-aaio?eeoey?iie i?iaiaeeiinoe

Ana yoi i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi aeaeoaei/ee ia/eiatho
nie?auaoueny iacaaeneii io i?aaena?aeee – yaiay aeeeiceaeiay
eioieneeaoeey – o?aaoao niaoeeaeueiiai ea/aiey : i?aia?aou eaeey,
eiiieaeniiu, naycuaathuea eaeueoeee ( iaaieaaay e iao?eaaay niee
YAeOA – yoeeaiaeeaieioao?aoenoniie eeneiou ), aeiiaoi?u SH-a?oii,ia
caiaaea – aaaaeaiea aioeoae e Aeeaeoaeeno ( Iaia?noyiea ).

Iiai/ii :

1. Oioiioa e ?aioa, a oii /enea i?e ia?aioa?aeueiii aaaaeaiee (
oeaio?aeueiia aeaenoaea – ?aoeaioi?u a ?aioiii oeaio?a).

2. Ia?ooaiey c?aiey, enaioiiney ( aeaeaiea anaai a aeaeoii naaoa ).

3. Aieiaiua aiee, aieiaie?oaeaiea

4. Iae?ioiene/aneea ia?ooaiey aei aeaee?eaa En/acatho oieueei i?e
ioiaia i?aia?aoia

Oaeoi?u oaaee/eaathuea /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e na?aea/iui aeeeiceaeai

1 Iiaeeeie aic?ano

2 Au?aaeaiiay na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue ( iicaeiyy noaaeey )

3 Eaai/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue, aeiieney

4 Ii/a/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue

5 Yeaeo?ieeoiua ia?ooaiey ( iniaaiii aeiieaeeaiey )

6 Ia?ooaiey eeneioii-iniiaiiai ninoiyiey ( iiyoiio eiiaeie?otho
n aeeo?aoeeaie )

Eaioa?a

Yooaeo neaaaa na?aea/iuo aeeeiceaeia, yaeyaony i?aia?aoii auai?a
i?e eaai/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe ( ?aoeaeoi?iay noeioeyoeey aeuoaiey ),
yaeyaony iiaa?oiinoii-aeoeaiui aauanoaii – auoaniyao oieneiu.

Iaaeinoaoee :

Ianeyiue ?anoai? – iiyoiio aaiaeeony iiaeeiaeii – aieaciaiii,
iaaeeaiii ?acaeaaaony yooaeo – i?eiaiyaony iiyoiio ia i?e
/?acau/aeiuo ninoiyieyo.

Ae?oaea

Ia aeieaeiu i?eiaiyoueny. Oaaee/eaatho ?aaioo na?aeoea ia 20%, ii
i?e yoii a 5-7 ?ac oaaee/eaatho iio?aaeaiea na?aeoeai eenei?iaea.
I?eiaiythony i?e ea?aeeiaaiiii oiea – Aeioaiei. Noeioee?oao na?aeoea +
?anoe?yao ninoaeu, Aeiaooaiei aieaa yooaeoeaai ( naeaeoeaiue aaoa-1
ieiaoee ).

AEIA?EAEEYIEss

1. Caaieaaaiey ii/ae Nae?aoe?othony a aeenoaeueiuo
eaiaeueoeao. Eaeee-naa?aaathuaai

iaoaiecia iao.

2. Aeaoeoeeo aeueaeinoa?iia

3. Ia?aaeice?iaea E-i?aia?aoia.

Aeey neioaca aaeea e aeeeiaaia o?aaoaony aeinoaoi/ii aieueoia
eiee/anoai eaeey.

Eciaiaiea iiaa?oiinoiiai iioaioeeaea eeaoee, eciaiaiey aeoeaiinoe
ieiea?aea, ia?ooaiey i?iaiaeeiinoe n ia?aoiaeii ia naiinoiyoaeueiue
?eoi, i?ae?auaiea aicaoaeeiinoe ieiea?aea aneaaenoaea iaaiciiaeiinoe
aicieeiiaaiey eeaoi/iiai iioaioeeaea.

AEIIEAEEYIEss

Iia?aoeee ia AEEO, iiiinu, ?aiou, oiaiueoaiea iio?aaeaiey
eaeey, i?eiaiaiea eiiiiaiaiiuo aauanoa, aoeeaeic, aeeaeic (ia
eiiiaine?iaaiiue a oa/aiee 5-6 aeiae ).

Oiaiueoaiea iuoa/iie aeoeaiinoe, oiaiueoaiea i?iaiaeeiinoe e
aicaoaeeiinoe iuoa/iie oeaie.

?aaoeyoeey iaiaia eaeueoeey

Ia?aoai?iii – caaea?aeea eaeueoeey a e?iae ( oaaee/aiea
?aaani?aoeee eaeueoeey a ii/eao ).

Aeoaiei A3 – o?ainii?o eaeueoeey ec eeoa/ieea a einoue
(inneoeeaoeey einoe ).

Eaeueoeeoiiei – iinooieaiea eaeueoeey ec e?iae a einoue.

I?IOEAIA?EOIE*ANEEA N?AAeNOAA

Iauay oa?iaeieiaey

Iiey?ecaoeey oeeoiieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu caaeneo io ?aaiou
eaeee-iao?eaaiai ianinia, eioi?ua no?aaeatho i?e eoaiee – a?eoiee.

Aaoiiaoeci

*anoioa iiaeao auoue eciaiaia i?e :

1) onei?aiea aeeanoiee/aneie aeaiiey?ecaoeee

2) oiaiueoaiea ii?iaiaiai iioaioeeaea

3) eciaiaiea iioaioeeaea iieiy

Iaoaieci a?eoiee eae iauaeo oa?iaeieiae/aneiai aeaenoaey

a) eciaiaiea i?iaaaeaiey eiioeuena

a) eciaiaiey aaia?aoeee eiioeuena

a) ni/aoaiea a) e a)

Eciaiaiea ii?iaeueiiai aaoiiaoecia. Iiyaeaiea yeoiie/aneiai
i/aaa.?aiiyy eee iicaeiyy neaaeiaay aeaiiey?ecaoeey.Caiaaeeaiea auno?uo
ioaaoia. Iiyaeaiea iaaeeaiiuo ioaaoia. Iaoaieci re entry ( e?oa
aicaoaeaeaiey – iiaoi?iia nie?auaiea – aeaeoaei/eiaay oaoeea?aeey ).

A?eoiiaaiiui aeaenoaeai iaeaaeatho :

Eaoaoieaieiu, neiiaoiieiaoeee, oieeiieeoeee, eciaiaiea
eeneioii-iniiaiiai ?aaiiaaney, iaeioi?ua iauea aianoaoeee (oeeeeii?iiai
), enaioei, yooeeeei, oe?aieaeiua ai?iiiu, eoaiey e ainiaeaiey
na?aeoea.

Eeanneoeeaoeey

1 Aeieaoi?u iao?eaauo eaiaeia

a?oiia A: oia?aiiia oaiaoaiea oacu 0, caiaaeeaiea i?iaaaeaiey
eiioeuena, onei?aiea ?aiiey?ecaoeee (Oeieaeei, Iiaieaeiaieae,
aeacieneie?aieae)

a?oiia A: ieieiaeueiia oaiaoaiea 0 oacu e caiaaeeaiea
aeaiiey?ecaoeee, oiaiueoaiea i?iaaaeaiey (Eeaeieaei, Aeioaiei,
Iaeneeaoei)

a?oiia N: au?aaeaiiia oaiaoaiea 0 oacu, e caiaaeeaiea i?iaaaeaiey
(I?iiaoaiii (?eoiiii?i,I?iiaii?i))

2 Aeieaoi?u aaoa-2 aae?aii?aoeaioi?ia (Iaceaeai)

3 Aeieaoi?u eaeeaauo eaiaeia: I?ieae, Aieiaea?ii, Nioaeie

4 Aeieaoi?u eaeueoeeaauo eaiaeia: Aa?aiaiee, Aeeeoeacai.

Iniiaiua iaoaieciu aeaenoaey i?ioeaia?eoie/aneeo n?aaenoa.

Aeaieiua no?aeee a noaia iaicia/atho oaiaoathuaa aeaenoaea.

I?aia?aou a?oiiu A

Oeieaeei:

Io?eoeaoaeueiia eiio?iiiia aeaenoaea,ia YEA: oaaee/eaathony QRST
e QT.

Oa?iaeieeiaoeea i?aia?aoia a?oiiu A:

Ia?eiae iieoauaaaeaiey = 6 /ania, i?aia?ao /a?ac 4-10 /ania
?ac?ooaaony. I?e eiaeoeoeee oeeoio?iia ?450 (?eoaiieoeei, aa?aeoo?aou)
i?ienoiaeeo oaaee/aiea ?ac?ooaiey oeieaeeia a ia/aie.

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea:

1 Io?eoeaoaeueiia eiio?iiiia aeaenoaea

2 Na?aea/iua aeieaaeu

3 Oiaiueoaiea a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey

4 ?acae?aaeaiea neecenoie aeaeoaeea

5 Ia?ooaiea c?aiey

Iiaieaeiaieae

Ia?eiae iieoauaaaeaiey = 3 /ana. I?eiaiyaony i?e ia?ieneciaeueiuo
a?eoieyo, iiai/ii: oiaiueoaiea a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey, iiaeao auoue
iaino?aiea aeaoeiiu. Eo?n ea/aiey ia aieaa 3 ianyoeaa, i?e aieaa
aeeeoaeueiii – iiaeao auoue eiioiiay iaoieiaey ii oeio aie/aiee.

Aeeciie?aieae_. ioee/aaony i?ieiiae?iaaiiui aeaenoaeai (ia?eiae
iieoauaaaeaiey = 6 /ania)7

Aeiaeei_. aoiaeeo a ninoaa “Ioeuenii?i”a, iaeaaeaao
neiiaoieeoe/aneei yooaeoii. Oeieaeeiiiaeiaiia aeaenoaea,
ia?aiineiinoue – eo/oa.

Yoiicei_. – iyaeee, oeieaeeiiiiaeiaiue, iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiue
yooaeo.

Yoaoeecei_. – aieaa i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue yooaeo.

Nouanoaotho i?aia?aou:Aaiiaei?, Oe?aoeeeeei.

I?aia?aou a?oiiu A

Eeaeieaei

Iaiaa i?i/ii naycuaaaony n iao?eaauie eaiaeaie, aieaa naeaeoeaai i?e
aeaeoaei/eiauo a?eoieyo (oae eae naycuaaaony n aeaiiey?eciaaiiuie
eeaoeaie, o eioi?uo iioaioeeae aeaenoaey a aeaeoaei/eao aieueoa).
Iaeay aeiaeinooiiinoue, ia?eiae iieoauaaaeaiey 1.5 – 2 /ana. Aaiaeeony
aioo?eaaiii. I?eiaiyaony i?e aeaeoaei/eiauo a?eoieyo, iniaaiii i?e
iaioeiaeiuo ninoiyieyo, a ea?aeeioe?o?aee, aeey ea/aiey aeeeiceaeiie
eioieneeaoeee.

Iaeneeaoei_. aeiaeinooiiinoue aei 90%.

Aeeoaiei

Ia?eiae iieoauaaaeaiey = 6-24 /ania,a caaeneiinoe io aeicu.
Iiaeao iiaeaaeyoue iaoaaieeci aioeeiaaoeyioiuo, ineoio?iiiuo
i?aia?aoia.

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea i?aia?aoia a?oiiu A: oiaiueoaiea a?oa?eaeueiiai
aeaaeaiey

Eciaiaiea ia YEA: oiaiueoaiea eioa?aaea QT.

I?aia?aou a?oiiu N

Aieiaea?ii

Oaaee/aiea eioa?aaea PQ, ia 100% naycuaaaony n aaeeaie ieaciu.
Ia?eiae auaaaeaiey = 20 aeiae, neaaeiaaoaeueii iiauoaaony ?ene
ia?aaeice?iaee e eoioeyoeee – i?aia?ao ioiineony e ?aca?aiui.

A?aoeeee_. (I?ieae)

Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaai i?e aeaeoaei/eiauo a?eoieyo.

Aeieaoi?u eaeueoeeaauo eaiaeia

Ieoaaeeiei, Aa?aiaiee, Aeeeoeacai.

Aa?aiaiee

Oaaee/aiea eioa?aaeia ?? e ?Q. Aieaa i?eaioe?iaai ia i?aaena?aeiua
a?eoiee (aiciiaeii i?eiaiaiea na?aea/iuo aeeeiceaeia, ieo?aoia).

II*AAIIIUA N?AAeNOAA (aeeo?aoeee)

Iniiaiua iieacaiey

Iieacaiea Oeaeue E?eoa?ee i?aia?aoa

Ioaee Auaaaeaiea ecauoea aeeaeeinoe Naeo?aoeee

Ino?ay na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue Aaiiaeeiaie/aneay ?aca?ocea
Naeo?aoeee (aaaeia auno?ioa e neea aeaenoaey)

A?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oaicey Ono?aiaiea iao?ee-caaeneiuo oaeoi?ia
iaoiaaiaca aeia?oiiee Naeo?aoeee (nio?aiytho aeoeaiinoue i?e
aeeeoaeueiii i?e aia)

Ino?ay ii/a/ay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue I?iiuaea ii/ae, oaeaeaiea iao?ioieneiia
Aunieee yooaeo, auno?ia ianooieaiea yooaeoa

Io?aaeaiey Auaaaeaiea oieneiia

Ianoiua ia?ooaiey aaiiaeeiaieee (aeaoeiia) Aeaaeae?aoaoeey,
iooyaeaaiea aeeaeeinoe

Iao?ii eae ieoaiue oa?iaeiaeaenoaey

1 Oneeaiea eeoai/eiaie oeeueo?aoeee (aiciiaeii, a iniiaiii ia
oiia nieaeaiey aaiiaeeiaieee o iaoeeaioa).

2 Ia?ooaiea eaiaeueoeaaie ?aaani?aoeee iao?ey e oei?a

3 Aioaaiienou aeueaeinoa?iia

4 Aioaaiienou aioeaeeo?aoe/aneiai ai?iiia

1 Iniioe/aneea aeeo?aoeee

Ia?ooatho eiioeaio?aoeeiiioth niiniaiinoue ii/ae. Aaaaeaiea
aieueoie aeicu iaiaoaaieece?oaiiai aauanoaa, eioi?ia ieioi
?aaani?ae?oaony e oi?ioi oeeueo?oaony. Aaiaeeony a e?iaue, /oi i?eaiaeeo
e oaaee/aieth iauaia aeia?iniioe/iie eaiaeueoeaaie ii/e e
oaaee/aieth nei?inoe oiea ii/e — oaaee/aiea iioa?ue aiaeu e
yeaeo?ieeoia.

Iaiieoie

Iniaaiiinoe : ?ani?ino?aiyaony oieueei ii aiaeeaoi/iiio naeoi?o.
Aaiaeeoue aioo?eaaiii, eaiaeueii.

Ii/aaeia

Iniaaiiinoe : ?ani?ino?aiyaony ii anai naeoi?ai, iiiaaeay ai
aioo?eeeaoi/iue naeoi? i?eaiaeeo ei aoi?e/iie aeia?aeae?aoaoeee.
I?eiaiyaony aioo?eaaiii eee aioo?ue.

Aeeoea?ei

I?eiaiyaony aioo?ue.

Iieacaiey

Iaioeiaeiua iieacaiey aeey i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey oaaee/aiey aioo?e/a?aiiiai
aeaaeaiey i?e eioa?eoao e einoeueoao, aeaoeiia (iniaaiii ino?ay),
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea ino?ie ii/a/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe (a ieeao?e/aneie
oaca), io?aaeaiey (+ aaiiaeeeethoeey).

Eeanneoeeaoeey

Oeieei-oa?iaeieiae/aneay Eieaeecaoeey Ii neea aeaenoaey

I?iecaiaeiua enaioeia Eeoai/ae Oia?aiiia,neaaia

Iniioe/aneea aeeo?aoeee I?ieneiaeueiua eaiaeueoeu Neeueiia

Eiaeaeoi?u ea?aiaiaeae?acu I?ieneiaeueiua eaiaeueoeu Neaaia

Iaoeaaua aeeo?aoeee Ainoiaeyuay /anoue iaoee Neeueiua

?oooue-niaea?aeauea Ainoiaeyuay /anoue iaoee Neeueiua

Oeaceaeu, oeaceaeiiiaeiaiua Ia/aeueiue naaiaio aeenoaeueiiai eaiaeueoea
Oia?aiiia

Eaeee-naa?aaathuea Aeenoaeueiue eaiaeaoe, niae?aoaeueiua o?oai/ee Neaaia

2 Iaoeaaua aeeo?aoeee

Oo?inaieae (eaceen), Aoiaoaaeei (aooaiien),

Yoae?eiiaay eeneioa (o?aaeae) ¦

Eiaeie?eiii ¦ I?iecaiaeiua yoae?eiiaie eeneiou

Oee?eiaoai ¦

Ieoaie

1 Iao?eaaua eaiaeu eeaoee

2 Ni/aoaiiue o?ainii?o iao?ey,eaeey e 2-o eiiia oei?a.

3 Iaiai iao?ey ia eaoeiiu aiaei?iaea

4 O?ainii?o iao?ey n oei?ii

O?ainii?o iao?ey

O?ainoeaeethey?iue Ia?aoeaeethey?iue

Oo?inaieae

Nae?aoe?oaony ii/eaie, eiaeae?oao iao?eaaue iioaioeeae, i?eaiaeeo e
oaaee/aieth iioa?ue eaeueoeey e iaaiey. Ninoaei?anoe?ythuee yooaeo
/a?ac 10-15 ieioo iinea aaaaeaiey aei ?acaeoey nianoaaiii
aeeo?aoe/aneiai aeaenoaey.

I?eiaiaiea

Ino?ay eaaiaeaeoaei/eiaay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue, aeia?oiie/aneee
e?ec, ioae eaaeeo, ino?ay e o?iie/aneay ii/a/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue,
aeaoeiia, ino?ua io?aaeaiey, ioae iicaa.

Iiai/iua yooaeou

Aeiioei?aie/aneee aeeaeic (eiiu oei?a caiauaaony
aeea?aiiao-eiiaie), aeiieaeeaiey, aeiiiao?eaiey, i?oinoaoe/aneea
?aaeoeee, o?iiaiyiaiee/aneea ?aaeoeee, ia?ooaiea neooa, iiaeaa?a,
aeia?aeeeaiey, ?acae?aaeaiea neecenoie (Yoae?eiiaay eeneioa).

3 ?oooue-niaea?aeauea aeeo?aoeee

Iiao?eo (i?aaie/aneia niaaeeiaiea ?oooe ia aaca oaioeeeeia).
Iacia/aiea /a?ac 1-2 iaaeaee, iaeneiaeueiia aeaenoaea /a?ac 6-12 /ania.

4 Oeaceaeu e oeaceaeiiiaeiaiua

Aeeoeioeaceae, Oeeeeiiaoeiceae, Oei?oaeeaeii (Ieniaeieei),
Oeiiaieae (Aa?eiaeueaeeen).

Ieoaiue – o?ainii?o iao?ey e oei?a a ia/aeueiii naaiaioa
aeenoaeueiiai eaiaeueoea (yeaeo?iiaeo?aeueiay iiiia) — yeaeo?ieeoiua
iioa?e (iao?ee, oei?, eaeee, i?ioiiu aiaei?iaea), caaea?aeea auaaaeaiey
eaeueoeey (oaaee/eaaaony aai ?aaani?aoeey).

Iieacaiey

1 Ioaee ethaiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey (iao oiea?aioiinoe)

2 A?oa?eaeueiay aeia?oaicey

3 Aeaoeiia, ?aoeeaeeae?othuee iao?ieeoeac

Oeaceaeu aucuaatho :

1 Oiaiueoaiea iauaia oee?eoee?othuae e?iae

2 Oiaiueoaiea eiee/anoaa iao?ey a noaiea ninoaeia —

a) oiaiueoaiea ioaea noaiee ninoaea — oiaiueoaiea iauaai
ia?eoa?e/aneiai nii?ioeaeaiey ninoaeia

a) oiaiueoaiea oiiona ieioeeoia — oiaiueoaiea iauaai ia?eoa?e/aneiai
nii?ioeaeaiey ninoaeia

Iiai/ii

Aeiieaeeaiey, aeiiiao?eaiey, aeia?eaeueoeeaiey, aeia?aeeeaiey,
aeeaeic, oaaee/aiea o?iaiy oieanoa?eia e o?eaeeoea?eaeia.

5 Eiaeaeoi?u ea?aiaiaeae?acu

Aeeaea?a

Auaaaeaiea iaeaoo/eo eeneio n nio?aiaieai uaei/iiai ?aca?aa,
oaaee/aiea iioa?ue iao?ey, aeae?iea?aiiaoa, eaeey, naeaea eeneioiinoe
ii/e a uaei/ioth noi?iio, a ieaciu a eeneoth – aoeeaeic. E Aeeaea?ao
aicieeaao auno?ay oiea?aioiinoue a oa/aiee 3-4 aeiae — iiyoiio oe?iei
eniieuecoaony :

1 A iooaeueiieiaee aeey oa?aiee aeaoeiiu oae eae ea?aiaiaeae?aca
oaaee/eaaao i?eoie aeeaeeinoe e aeaciiio yaeieo

2 Eae aioenae?aoi?iue i?aia?ao i?e aeia?aoeeaeiuo ninoiyieyo
aeaeoaei/iieeoa/iiai o?aeoa

6 Eaeee-naa?aaathuea aeeo?aoeee

1 Aioaaiienou aeueaeinoa?iia

Nie?iiieaeoii (aeaenoaotho aai iaoaaieeou) – eiieo?aioiue aioaaiieno
aeueaeinoa?iia. Oiaiueoaiea auaaaeaiey eaeey e aiaei?iaea, oaaee/aiea
auaaaeaiey iao?ey e aiaeu.

I?eiaiaiea

a) Aeia?aeueaeinoa?iieci

a) A ni/aoaiee n ae?oaeie aeeo?aoeee

2 Aieei?eae (aeieaoi? iao?eaauo eaiaeia — caaea?aeea eaeey),

O?eaioa?ai

7 I?iecaiaeiua enaioeia

Oaia?iiei, Oaioeeeei, Yooeeeei.

1 Ea?aeeioiie/aneee yooaeo (oaaee/aiea na?aea/iiai aua?ina)

2 ?anoe?aiea ninoaeia ii/ae . 1 e 2 i?eaiaeeo e oeo/oaieth
ii/a/iiai e?iaioiea —

a) oaaee/aiea oeeueo?aoeee

a) oiaiueoaiea au?aaioee ?aieia — oiaiueoaiea au?aaioee
aeueaeinoa?iia — oiaiueoaiea au?aaioee iao?ey

Eiiaeie?iaaiiua: Iiaeo?aoee = Aeae?ioei?oeaceae + Aieei?eae,
O?eaiio? = Aeae?ioei?oeaceae + Oeaio?ai, Aaeaeueoai =
Aeae?ioei?oeaceae + ?aca?iei + Aeeaeae?ieacei, Yceae?aen

8 Oeoiaeeo?aoeee

Eeno Oieieiyiee, ieiaeu Iiaeaeaaaeueieea, o?aaa Oaiua iieaaiai,
Aaneeae, eeno A?onieee, aa?aciaua ii/ee.

I?AIA?AOU AEEssTHUEA IA OOIEOeETH AeUOAIEss

Iaoaieciu a?iioiiano?oeoeaiiai neiae?iia:

1 A?iioiniaci

2 Ioae neecenoie a?iioia a ?acoeueoaoa ainiaeaiey

3 Caeoii?ea i?inaaoa iie?ioie:

a) iie?iou neeoeii iiiai – aeia?e?eiey

a) iie?ioa iiauoaiiie ayceinoe – aeene?eiey

Iooe ai?ueau n a?iioiiano?oeoeaiui neiae?iiii

1 Ono?aiaiea a?iioiniacia

2 Oiaiueoaiea ioaea

3 Oeo/oaiea iooiaeaeaiey iie?iou

Oeceieiae/aneea iaoaieciu ?aaoeyoeee oiiona a?iioia

1 Neiiaoe/aneay aaaaoaoeaiay ia?aiay nenoaia

2 Ia?aneiiaoe/aneay aaaaoaoeaiay ia?aiay nenoaia

Ia?aneiiaoe/aneay

Ia anai i?ioyaeaiee a?iioeaeueiiai aea?aaa ?aniieiaeaiu
I-oieeii?aoeaioi?u. ?aoeaioi? naycai n iaia?aiiui oa?iaioii –
aoaieeaooeeeeacie. Yoio oa?iaio eaoaeece?oao ?aaeoeeth i?aa?auaiey AOO a
oeeeee/aneoth oi?io AIO. I?e aeoeaaoeee ?aoeaioi?a i?ienoiaeeo
iaeiieaiea oeAIO — ioe?uaathony eaeueoeeaaua eaiaeu. Aiaeeaoi/iue
eaeueoeee iinooiaao aioo?ue eeaoee. Eiaaea eiioeaio?aoeey eaeueoeey
a eeaoea aeinoeaaao ii?aaeaeaiiiai cia/aiey naycaiiue eaeueoeee auoiaeeo
ec aeaii (ieoioiiae?ee, eiiieaena Aieueaeaee). Iauay eiioeaio?aoeey
eaeueoeey oaaee/eaaaony, /oi i?eaiaeeo e aieaa neeueiiio nie?auaieth —
oiion aeaaeeeo iuooe a?iioia iiauoaaony — a?iioiniaci –> a ea/anoaa
ea/aiey iiaeii eniieueciaaoue I-oieeiieeoeee.

Neiiaoe/aneay

Yooaeo aeoeaaoeee aaoa-1 aae?aii?aoeaioi?ia.

1 Na?aeoea – oaaee/aiea:

*anoiou na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee, neeu nie?auaiee, oiiona
na?aea/iie iuooeu, nei?inoe ao?eiaaio?eeoey?iie i?iaiaeeiinoe,
aicaoaeeiinoe —> ea?aeeinoeioeyoeey.

2 AEe?iaay oeaiue – eeiieec

3 Ii/ee (thenoaaeiia?oey?iue aiia?ao) – aunaiaiaeaeaiea ?aieia

Yooaeo aeoeaaoeee aaoa-2 aae?aii?aoeaioi?ia

1 A?iioe (i?aeiouanoaaiiia ianoi ?aniieiaeaiey) – aeeeyoaoeey

2 Neaeaoiay ioneoeaoo?a – oaaee/aiea aeeeiaaiieeca

3 Ia?eoa?e/aneea ninoaeu – ?anneaaeaiea

4 Oeaiue iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeacu – oaaee/aiea aunaiaiaeaeaiey
einoeeia – oiaiueoaiea eiioeaio?aoeee aetheicu a e?iae.

5 Eeoa/iee – oiaiueoaiea oiiona e ia?enoaeueoeee

6 Iaoea – ?anneaaeaiea.

?aniieiaeaiea ?aoeaioi?ia i?eaaaeaii aeey aeaiiino?aoeee
aiciiaeiuo iiai/iuo yooaeoia.

Aaoa-2 aae?aii?aoeaioi?u naycaiu n iaia?aiiui oa?iaioii
aaeaieeaooeeeeacie, eioi?ay eaoaeece?oao ?aaeoeeth i?aa?auaiey AOO a
oeAIO. I?e iaeiieaiee ii?aaeaeaiiie eiioeaio?aoeee oeAIO eaeueoeeaaua
eaiaeu cae?uaathony – oiaiueoaaony eiioeaio?aoeey eaeueoeey aioo?e
eeaoee – eaeueoeee iinooiaao a aeaii – oiion iuooe oiaiueoaaony –
i?ienoiaeeo a?iioiaeeeyoaoeey –> a ea/anoaa ea/aiey iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue aae?aiiieiaoeee.

Iaeei ec iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iuo i?eia?ia a?iioiiano?oeoeaiiai
neiae?iia – a?iioeaeueiay anoia_.. A?iioeaeueiay anoia –
iaiaeii?iaeiia ii iaoaiecio caaieaaaiea:

a) Aoiie/aneee aa?eaio (“enoeiiay” a?iioeaeueiay anoia) –
a?iioiiano?oeoeey a ioaao ia ano?a/o ni no?iai niaoeeoe/iui
aeea?aaiii.

a) Eioaeoeeiiiicaaeneiay a?iioeaeueiay anoia – iao /aoeie
caaeneiinoe io aeea?aaia, eiie?aoiue aeea?aai ia auyaeyaony.

A aoiie/aneii aa?eaioa i?e iiaoi?iie ano?a/a n aioeaaiii
i?ienoiaeeo aeaa?aioeyoeey oo/iuo eeaoie – aunaiaiaeaeaaony aenoaiei.
N?aaee yooaeoia aenoaieia – a?iioieiino?eeoeey.

Nouanoaoao 2 oeia aenoaieiiauo ?aoeaioi?ia. A aeaiiii neo/aa
?anniao?eaathony aenoaieiiaua ?aoeaioi?u 1 oeia, iaoiaeyueany a noaiea
a?iioia. Iaoaieci aeaenoaey – aiaeiae/ai iaoaiecio aeaenoaey
I-oieeii?aoeaioi?ia – eiae/ii auei au i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi iiaeii
i?eiaiyoue aenoaieiiaeieaoi?u, ii aenoaieiiaeieaoi?u ia i?eiaiythony.
Aenoaieiiaeieaoi?u yaeythony eiaeaeoi?aie eiieo?aioiiai oeia, a i?e
a?iioeaeueiie anoia aenoaieia auaeaeyaony ianoieueei iiiai, /oi ii
auoaniyao aenoaieiiaeieaoi?u ec nayce n ?aoeaioi?ii.

?aaeueiua iaoaieciu ai?ueau n ecauoi/iui

eiee/anoaii aenoaieia

1 Noaaeeecaoeey iaia?ai oo/iuo eeaoie

2 Iiauoaiea onoie/eainoe oo/iuo eeaoie e aeaa?aioee?othuei
aaaioai.

Eeanneoeeaoeey

1 A?iioiniaciieeoeee

1.1 Iae?io?iiiua

1.1.1 Aae?aiiieiaoeee

1.1.2 I-oieeiieeoeee

1.2 Ieio?iiiua

2 I?ioeaiainiaeeoaeueiua n?aaenoaa

3 Iooa?eeaathuea n?aaenoaa (n?aaenoaa, ?aaoee?othuea auaaaeaiea
iie?iou)

Aeiiieieoaeueiua n?aaenoaa – i?ioeaiiee?iaiua (oieueei i?e
iaee/ee eioaeoeee)

Aae?aiiieiaoeee

1 Aeueoa- e aaoa-aae?aiiieiaoeee (ianaeaeoeaiua) Aae?aiaeeia
aeae?ioei?eae, Yoaae?eia aeae?ioei?eae, Aeyoaae?ei

2 Aaoa-1 e aaoa-2 aae?aiiieiaoeee

Ecaae?ei (Iiaiae?ei, Yonie?ai), I?oeei?aiaeeia noeueoao (Anoiiiaio,
Aeoiaio)

3 Aaoa-2 aae?aiiieiaoeee (naeaeoeaiua)

a) n?aaeiae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aeaenoaey Oaiioa?ie (Aa?ioae),
Naeaooaiie (Aaioiiee), Oa?aooieei, (A?eeaeei), Aaenii?aiaeei
(Ei?aaeie).

a) aeeeoaeueiiai aeaenoaey

Eeaiaooa?ie (Eiio?aniaciei), Naeiaoe?ie (Na?aeaio), Oi?iioa?ie
(Oi?aaeee).

Aae?aiaeei

Iaeaaeaao neeueiie a?iioiaeeeyoe?othuae e aioeaiaoeeaeoe/aneie
aeoeaiinoueth, aeiiieieoaeueii aeeyao ia aeueoa-aae?aii?aoeaioi?u
ninoaeia – niaci – oiaiueoaiea ioaea.

Iiai/ii:

1 Niaci ia?eoa?e/aneeo ninoaeia (aeeyiea ia
aeueoa-aae?aii?aoeaioi?u) – oaaee/aiea iauaai ia?eoa?e/aneiai
nii?ioeaeaiey ninoaeia – oaaee/aiea a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey.

2 Yooaeou ea?aeeinoeioeyoeee (oaoeea?aeey, oaaee/aiea
aicaoaeeiinoe na?aeoea — a?eoiee).

3 ?anoe?aiea c?a/ea, iuoa/iue o?aii?, aeia?aeeeaiey, oaiaoaiea
ia?enoaeueoeee.

Ii i?e/eia aieueoiai eiee/anoaa iiai/iuo yooaeoia aeey ea/aiey
a?iioeaeueiie anoiu i?eiaiyaony oieueei anee iao ae?oaeo i?aia?aoia.
I?eiaiyaony aeey eoie?iaaiey i?enooiia oaeoouey: 0.3-0.5 ie iiaeeiaeii.
Ia/aei aeaenoaey /a?ac 3-5 ieioo, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey ieiei
2-o /ania. Auno?i ?acaeaaaony oaoeoeeaeney (oiaiueoaiea yooaeoa io
eaaeaeiai iineaaeothuaai i?eaia i?aia?aoa).

Yoaae?ei

A oaaeaoe?iaaiiie oi?ia i?eiaiyaony aeey i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey
i?enooiia oaeoouey, i?e aaaaeaiee iiaeeiaeii eee aioo?eiuoa/ii – aeey
eoie?iaaiey eo. A oaaeaoe?iaaiiie oi?ia ia/aei aeaenoaey /a?ac 40-60
ieioo, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey 3-3.5 /ana.Iaeaaeaao iaiueoei,
/ai o aae?aiaeeia n?iaenoaii e aeueoa-aae?aii?aoeaioi?ai, iiyoiio
aucuaaao iaiueooth aeia?aeeeaieth e ea?aeeinoeioeyoeeth. I?iieeaao
/a?ac aaiaoiyioeaoaee/aneee aa?uea? e aucuaaao i?eaueaiea e
i?eno?anoea – “yoaae?iiiay oieneeiiaiey”. Aneaaenoaea yoiai yooaeoa
iiaeeaaeeo iniaiio o/aoo e, neaaeiaaoaeueii iaoaeiaai a i?eiaiaiee.

Yoaae?ei aoiaeeo a ninoaa eiiaeie?iaaiiuo i?aia?aoia:

A?iioieeoei, Nieooai, Oaioaae?ei.

Ecaae?ei_. – eniieuecoaony ?aaeei.

I?oeei?aiaeeia noeueoao

A eiaaeyoeeiiiie oi?ia i?eiaiyaony aeey eoie?iaaiey i?enooiia
oaeoouey. Ia/aei aeaenoaey /a?ac 40-50 naeoiae, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
aeaenoaey 1.5 /ana. A oaaeaoeao i?eiaiyaony aeey i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey
i?enooiia. Ia/aei aeaenoaey /a?ac 5-10 ieioo, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
aeaenoaey 4 /ana.

Nouanoaoao oaeay eaea?noaaiiay oi?ia, eae ay?iciee. A eo ninoaa
aoiaeeo ?aiaeeaio – aauanoai, eeiyuaa i?e ieceie oaiia?aoo?a e
niinianoaothuaa ?aniueaieth i?aia?aoa. Eiaaee?iaaiea i?iecaiaeeony ia
iaeneiaeueiii aaeioa. I?e 1-e eiaaeyoeee aeinoeaaaony 60% io
iaeneiaeueiiai yooaeoa, i?e 2-e eiaaeyoeee 80%, i?e 3-e e neaaeothueo
eiaaeyoeeyo yooaeo oaaee/eaaaony i?eia?ii ia 1% ii ?acei
oaaee/eaathony iiai/iua yooaeou. Iiyoiio aeey n?aaenoa n?aaeiae
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aeaenoaey iacia/aaony ieiei 8-ie aeic a nooee, a
aeey n?aaenoa aeeeoaeueiiai aeaenoaey 4-6 aeic a nooee (1 aeica –
eiee/anoai i?aia?aoa, iiiaaeathuaa a i?aaieci aieueiiai ca 1
eiaaeyoeeth). I?aia?ao, i?eiaiyaiue eiaaeyoeeiiii a ii?ia ia
ananuaaaony, aeaenoaoao ianoii.

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea (i?e ia?aaeice?iaea):

1 Neiae?ii “?eeioaoa” (“ioaea/e”): Nia/aea i?ienoiaeeo
oaoeoeeaene/aneay ?aaeoeey e i?aia?ao ia?anoaao aeaenoaiaaoue, iioii
aeaenoaea i?aia?aoa eciaiyaony ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiia (a?iioiniaci).

2 Neiae?ii “caie?aiey eaaeeo” I?ienoiaeeo ?anoe?aiea ia
oieueei a?iioia, ii e eo ninoaeia, /oi i?eaiaeeo e i?iiioaaaieth
aeeaeeie /anoe e?iae a aeueaaieu e iaeeea a?iioe. O?ainoaeao
neaieeaaaony e i?aiyonoaoao ii?iaeueiiio aeuoaieth, a ioeaoeyoue aai
iaeuecy – a aeueaaieao iao eaoeaauo ?aoeaioi?ia.

3 Ananuaaiea – i?aia?ao ia/eiaao aeaenoaiaaoue ia (-1
aae?aii?aoeaioi?u na?aeoea, /oi i?eaiaeeo e yaeaieyi
ea?aeeinoeioeyoeee.

Oaiioe?ie e Naeueaooaiie

I?eiaiythony a eiaaeyoeeiiiie oi?ia aeey i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey e
eoie?iaaiey i?enooiia oaeoouey. Ia/aei aeaenoaey /a?ac 2-3 ieioou,
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey aeey Oaiioe?iea 8 /ania, aeey
Naeaooaiiea 6 /ania.

Eiaaeyoeeiiiua I-oieeiieeoeee

Ao?iiei, yeno?aeo E?anaaee e ae?oaea iaeiaaeyoeeiiiua
I-oieeiiaeieaoi?u ia i?eiaiythony, oae eae iie oaiaoatho
a?iioiiioi?ioth ooieoeeth eaaeeo e niinianoaotho naouaieth iie?iou –
neaaeiaaoaeueii ia i?eiaiythony.

Eiaaeyoeoeiiiua: Ei?ao?iieoia a?iieae, O?iaaioie.

Iaoaieci aeaenoaey:

1 Aeie I-oieeii?aoeaioi?ia ia anai i?ioyaeaiee ?anie?aoi?iiai
o?aeoa.

2 Oiaiueoaiea neioaca oeAIO e niaea?aeaiey aioo?eeeaoi/iiai
eaeueoeey

3 Oiaiueoaiea nei?inoe i?ioeannia oinoi?eee?iaaiey
nie?aoeoaeueiuo aaeeia

4 Ia aeeytho ia eiee/anoai e oa?aeoa? iie?iou.

Yooaeo I-oieeiieeoeeia iaiueoa, /ai o aae?aiiieiaoeeia e
iiyoiio I-oieeiieeoeee i?eiaiythony aeey eoie?iaaiey i?enooia oaeoouey
oieueei o ii?aaeaeaiiuo eaoaai?ee aieueiuo:

1 Aieueiua n oieeia?ae/aneei aa?eaioii a?iioeaeueiie anoiu

2 Aieueiua n oaaee/aiiui oiionii ia?aneiiaoe/aneie ia?aiie
nenoaiu (aaaioiiey)

3 Aieueiua, o eioi?uo i?enooi oaeoouey ?acaeaaaony i?e aaeuoaiee
oieiaeiiai aicaeooa eee iuee.

O inoaeueiuo eaoaai?ee aieueiuo i?eiaiythony oieueei eae
n?aaenoaa aeey i?ioeeaeoeee i?enooiia. I-oieeiieeoeee i?eiaiythony a
noaiao o?iiioa?aiee (i?eai eaea?noa a ii?aaeaeaiiua ia?eiaeu a?aiaie).

Nouanoaotho eiiaeie?iaaiiua i?aia?aou: Aa?iaeoae = Oaiioa?ie
(aaoa-2 aae?aiiieiaoee) + Ao?iaaio (I-oieeiieeoee). Eiiaeie?iaaieai
aeinoeaaaony yooaeo neeueiue eae o aae?aiiieiaoeeia e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue
eae o oieeiieeoeeia, e?iia oiai eiee/anoai aae?aiiieiaoeea a aeaiiii
i?aia?aoa iaiueoa /ai a i?aia?aoa /enoiai aae?aiiieiaoeea –
neaaeiaaoaeueii iaiueoa iiai/iuo yooaeoia.

Ieio?iiiua a?iioiniaciieeoeee

I?iecaiaeiua io?eia (iaoeeenaioeia):

Oaioeeeei, Yooeeeei (80% – Oaioeeeei 20% – aaeeano aeey eo/oae
?anoai?eiinoe).

Iaoaieci aeaenoaey Oaioeeeeia:

1 Eiaeae?iaaiea oa?iaioa oinoiaeeynoa?acu, eioi?ay eaoaeece?oao
?aaeoeeth i?aa?auaiey oeAIO a AOO.

2 Aeieaaea aaeaiiceiiauo ?aoeaioi?ia a?iioia (aaeaiicei –
iiuiue yiaeiaaiiue a?iioieiino?eeoi?)

3 Oiaiueoaiea aeaaeaiey a eaai/iie a?oa?ee

4 Noeioeyoeey nie?auaiey iaae?aaa?iuo iuooe e aeeao?aaiu, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth aaioeeeyoeee

5 Oneeaiea aeaiey ?anie/ae aeuoaoaeueiiai yieoaeey — oaaee/aiea
ioaeaeaiey iie?iou

A?aiy iieo?aniaaea oaioeeeeia caaeneo io ianeieueeeo oaeoi?ia:

1 Ac?ineua iaeo?yuea 7-8 /ania

2 Eo?yuea 5 /ania

3 Aeaoe 3 /ana

4 Iiaeeeua, no?aaeathuea “eaai/iui na?aeoeai” 10-12 /ania e
aieaa

Ianuuathuay aeica aeey ac?ineuo 5-6 ia/ea iannu,
iiaeaea?aeeaathuay aeica 10-13 ia/ea

Eaoaai?ey aieueiuo Iiaeaea?aeeaathuay aeica

Eo?yuea 18

Aieueiua na?aea/iie e eaai/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth
2

Aeaoe aei 9 eao 24

Aeaoe 9-12 eao 20

A oaaeaoeao Oaioeeeei i?eiaiyaony aeey i?ioeeaeoeee i?enooiia, i?e
aioo?eaaiiii aaaaeaiee – aeey eoie?iaaiey i?enooiia oaeoouey.

?aeoaeueiua naa/e e 24% ?anoai? aioo?eiuoa/ii iayooaeoeaiu

Iiai/iua yooaeou

I?e ia?aaeice?iaea nenoaia i?aaiia, aiaea/aiiay a iiai/iue yooaeo
caaeneo io eiioeaio?aoeee i?aia?aoa a e?iae. Iaeneiaeueiay
oa?aiaaoe/aneay eiioeaio?aoeey 10-18 ia/ea.

Eiioeaio?aoeey Nenoaia i?aaiia Yooaeo

aieaa 20 ia/ea AEEO oioiioa, ?aioa, iiiin

aieaa 30 ia/ea Na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoay nenoaia oaoeea?aeey, aeaeoaei/eiaay
a?eoiey, naeaeae a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey

Aieaa 40 ia/ea OeIN aieiaiay aieue, aicaoaeaeaiea, o?aii?, ia?aoiaeyuee
a noaei?iae

I?aia?aou i?ieiiae?iaaiiiai aeaenoaey: Oaiiye, ?aoioee, Oaioa?ae – 2
?aca a aeaiue, i?eiaiythony n i?ioeeaeoe/aneie oeaeueth.

I?ioeaiainiaeeoaeueiua n?aaenoaa

a) noaaeeecaoi?u iaia?ai oo/iuo eeaoie

a) aetheiei?oeeieaeu

Noaaeeecaoi?u iaia?ai oo/iuo eeaoie

Iaaeie?iiee-iao?ee (Oaeeaae), E?iiieei-iao?ee (Eioae), Eaoioeoai
(Caaeeoai).

Iaoaieci:

1 Noaaeeece?otho iaia?aiu oo/iuo eeaoie

2 Oaiaoatho aeoeaiinoue oinoiaeenoa?acu

3 Oaiaoatho ooieoeeiiaeueioth aeoeaiinoue I-oieeii?aoeaioi?ia.

Oaeeaae e Eioae_. i?eiaiythony ii 1-2 eainoeu 4 ?aca a aeaiue, a
iineaaeothuai – ?aaea. Yooaeo ianooiaao /a?ac 3-4 iaaeaee iinea
iinoiyiiiai i?eaia i?aia?aoa. Eainoeu i?eiaiythony n iiiiuueth
niaoeeaeueiiai oo?aieiaaeyoi?a “Spinhaler”, eioi?ue iaiaoiaeeii
auienaoue a ia/aea ea/aiey.

Rp.: “Spinhaler”

D.S.Aeey i?eaia eainoe “Eioae”

#

Aioo?ue eainoeu “Eioae” ia i?eiaiythony

Eaoioeoai_. i?eiaiyaony a oaaeaoeao 1 ia 2-3 ?aca a aeaiue, aucuaaao
iiai/iia aeaenoaea – niieeainoue, ooiieyaiinoue.

Aetheiei?oeeieaeu

I?eiaiythony a ea/anoaa i?ioeeaeoeee i?enooiia a oi?ia
eiaaeyoeee. Iaeeiiaoacii, Oeooeeacii, Oeoiacieeae.

N?AAeNOAA AEEssTHUEA IA AEAEOAeI*II-EEOA*IUE O?AEO

1 Aeeythuea ia nae?aoi?ioth aeoeaiinoue

2 Aeeythuea ia iioi?eeo

A i?ieneiaeueiii ioaeaea AEEO (aeaeoaeie, ia/aiue, iiaeaeaeoaei/iay
aeaeaca) ii?aaeaiey i?ienoiaeyo iaeaieaa /anoi. Yoi iauyniyaony oai,
/oi yoe ioaeaeu ia?auie noaeeeaathony n “ieuaaie aa?anneae”. Ieua
yaeyaony naiaai ?iaea aa?anneae iineieueeo a aa ninoaa aoiaeyo
aauanoaa, /oaea?iaeiua aeey i?aaiecia.

A ninoaa aeaeac aeaeoaeea aoiaeyo 3 iniiaiuo oeia eeaoie:

Iaeeaaei/iua (ia?eaoaeueiua) nae?aoe?otho nieyioth eeneioo

Aeaaiua eeaoee nae?aoe?otho iaineiiaai

Ioeioeeou nae?aoe?otho neecue

Nae?aoeey e iioi?eea AEEO ?aaoee?oaony n iiiiuueth ia?aiiai e
aoii?aeueiiai iaoaieciia. Iniiaa ia?aiie ?aaoeyoeee nae?aoeee e
iioi?eee AEEO – aeoaeaeathuee ia?a. Aoii?aeueiay ?aaoeyoeey
inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth ai?iiiia iauaai aeaenoaey e ianoiuo:
oieaoeenoieeiei, aano?ei, nae?aoei.

Iaoieiaey aeaiiiai ioaeaea AEEO eae i?aaeei ni/aoaiiay.

Ia?ooaiey nae?aoeee

1 Aeiinae?aoeey (iaaeinoaoi/iay nae?aoi?iay aeoeaiinoue)

2 Aeia?nae?aoeey (ecauoi/iay nae?aoi?iay aeoeaiinoue)

1 Aeiinae?aoi?iua ia?ooaiey

Iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey ianoiuo e
iaueo ai?iiiia e iaaeeaoi?ia, iaiin?aaenoaaiii oaaee/eaathueo
nae?aoeeth: aenoaieia, aano?eia, aoeaoeeoieeia, ii yoe i?aia?aou ia
eniieuecothony i?e nae?aoi?iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.

Oieeiiieiaoeee ia oiio?aaeythony ec-ca eo neeoeii oe?ieiai
aeaenoaey (aieueoia eiee/anoai iiai/iuo yooaeoia).

Aenoaiei ia eniieuecoaony ec-ca aai aeeyiey ia ninoaeenoia ?onei e
iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai yooaeoa.

I?aia?ao aano?eia – Iaioaaano?ei ia i?eiaiyaony aeey ea/aiey ii
i?e/eia iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai yooaeoa. Aenoaiei e iaioaaano?ei
i?eiaiythony aeey enneaaeiaaiey noeioee?iaaiiie (noaiaeneiaeueiie e
iaeneiaeueiie) eeneioiinoe.

Ec-ca ionoonoaey aiciiaeiinoe noeioeyoeee nae?aoeee iniiao
ea/aiey nae?aoi?iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe ninoaaeyao caianoeoaeueiay oa?aiey.

I?e iaaeinoaoi/iinoe nae?aoeee nieyiie eeneiou eniieuecothony aa
i?aia?aou nieyiie eeneiou (Acidum hydrochloridum purum dilutum).
Yooaeou aeaiiiai i?aia?aoa:

1 Aeoeaaoeey iaineiiaaia n i?aa?auaieai aai a iainei

2 Noeioeyoeey nae?aoeee aeaeoaei/iuo aeaeac

3 Niaci i?ea?aoieea

4 Noeioeyoeey nae?aoeee iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeacu

Eae i?aaeei iaaethaeaaony ni/aoaiiia ia?ooaiea nae?aoeee nieyiie
eeneiou e iaineiiaaia.

Eiiiiiaiou eiiaeie?iaaiiuo i?aia?aoia

1 Oa?iaiou nieia aeaeoaeea e iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeacu e i?aia?aou,
noeioee?othuea eo nae?aoeeth

2 Eiiiiiaiou aeae/e e aeae/aaiiiua n?aaenoaa

Yooaeou:

a) iaeaa/aiea yioeueae?iaaiey aee?ia

a) oaaee/aiea aeoeaiinoe iaie?aaoe/aneie eeiacu

a) oeo/oaiea ananuaaiey aee?i?anoai?eiuo aeoaieiia (a?oiiu A,A,E)

a) aeae/aaiiiia aeaenoaea

3 Oa?iaiou ?anoeoaeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey

a) Oeaeetheaca, aaieoeaeetheaca – ?anuaieytho eeao/aoeo

a) A?iiaeei – eiiieaen i?ioaieeoe/aneeo oa?iaioia

4 Yeno?aeo ?eniaiai a?eaea – noiia oa?iaioia (aieeaca, i?ioaaca e
ae?oaea)

5 Eeiieeoe/aneea oa?iaiou, i?iaeooee?oaiua a?eaaie ?iaea Penicillum.

6 Iaiiaaneoaee – iiaa?oiinoii aeoeaiua aauanoaa.

I?aia?aou

Aoeeaeei-iainei – eiiieaen yeaiaioia aeaeoaei/iiai niea ni
naycaiiie nieyiie eeneioie

Iaoo?aeueiue aeaeoaei/iue nie – iieo/atho ec niaae n iiiiuueth
oenooeu a aeaeoaeea e iieiiai ei?ieaiey.

Iaineaeee – yeno?aeo ec neecenoie iaiei/ee aeaeoaeea oaieiuo
naeiae

Aaiiei – yeno?aeo ec neecenoie iaiei/ee aeaeoaeea iiai?iaeaeaiiuo
yaiyo eee oaeyo – i?eiaiyaony a iaaeeao?ee.

Iaie?aaoei – i?aia?ao niea iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeacu. Iaieo?iai =
iaie?aaoei + ?anoeoaeueiia aeae/aaiiiia aauanoai. Oanoae, Yicenoae,
Aeeaanoae = iaie?aaoei + yeno?aeo aeae/e + aaieoeaeetheaca. Ia?eaicei =
A?iiaeei + yeno?aeo aeae/e. Eiiaeoeei – yeno?aeo ?eniaiai a?eaea.
Iaie?aioeyo = Eiiaeoeei + neeeeiiu. Iaiceii?i = iainei +
iaie?aaoe/aneea oa?iaiou + oieaaay eeneioa

I?eiaiaiea i?aia?aoia

1 Caianoeoaeueiay oa?aiey i?e aiaoianae?aoi?iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe
a ?acoeueoaoa: o?iie/aneeo aano?eoia, iaie?aaoeoia, ?acaeoeee
aeaeoaeea.

2 Iaoai?eci

3 Iaeioaeoeeiiiay aeea?ay

4 Ieuaaua iia?aoiinoe (ia?aaaeaiea)

5 Iiaeaioiaea e ?aioaaiianeiio enneaaeiaaieth

2 Aeia?nae?aoi?iua ia?ooaiey

Eae i?aaeei iaaethaeathony a aeaeoaeea.

I?e/eiu:

1 Aaaioiiey (iiauoaiiue oiion aeoaeaeathuaai ia?aa)

2 Oaaee/aiea i?iaeoeoeee aano?eia (a oii /enea iiooieue)

3 Oaaee/aiea /oanoaeoaeueiinoe ?aoeaioi?ia ia ia?eaoaeueiuo
(iaeeaaei/iuo) eeaoeao.

A iauai neo/aa eeneioii-iaioe/aneay aa?anney i?ienoiaeeo i?e
ia?ooaiee aaeaina iaaeaeo nenoaiaie caueou e nae?aoeee nieyiie eeneiou e
aeaeoaei/iiai niea. Oaeei ia?acii aa?anney iiaeao i?iecieoe e i?e
ii?iaeueiie nae?aoi?iie aeoeaiinoe i?e ia?ooaiee ?aaoeyoeee.

I?aia?aou aeaeyony ia 2 a?oiiu:

1.1 Aioaoeeaeiua n?aaenoaa (oeie/anee iaeo?aeecotho nieyioth
eeneioo)

1.2 Aioenae?aoi?iua n?aaenoaa

1.1 Aioaoeeaeiua n?aaenoaa

O?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiua e aeaiiui n?aaenoaai:

1 Auno?ia acaeiiaeaenoaea n nieyiie eeneioie

2 I?eaanoe eeneioiinoue aeaeoaei/iiai niea e ?I 3-6

3 Naycuaaiea aeinoaoi/ii aieueoiai eiee/anoaa nieyiie eeneiou
(aieueoay eeneioiaieinoue)

4 Ionoonoaea iiai/iuo aeaenoaee

5 Iaeo?aeueiue eee i?eyoiue aeon.

Eiiiiiaiou i?aia?aoia

A) Oeaio?aeueiiai aeaenoaey ia oieueei oiaiueoatho eeneioiinoue,
ii e i?eaiaeyo e nenoaiiiio aeeaeico: ieuaaay niaea (aeae?iea?aiiao
iao?ey)

A) Ia?eoa?e/aneiai aeaenoaey

Ea?aiiao eaeueoeey (iae), ieneae iaaiey (aeaeaiay iaaiacey),
aeae?ieneae iaaiey (iaaiaceeiia iieiei), ea?aiiao iaaiey (aaeay
iaaiacey), aeae?ieneae aethieiey (aeeiicai), o?eneeeeao aethieiey.

Eiiaeie?iaaiiua i?aia?aou

Aeeaei_. = aenioo + aeae?iea?aiiao iao?ey (auno?ia aeaenoaea) +
ea?aiiao iaaiey (aeeeoaeueiia aeaenoaea). Aeeae?_. = Aeeaei + ei?a Ae?a
+ ei?a E?ooeiu (neaaeoaeueiia aeaenoaea). Aeueiaaaeue_. = aeae?ieneae
aethieiey + aeae?ieneae iaaiey + ni?aeo (aeiiieieoaeueiia iineaaeythuaa
e aeae/aaiiiia aeaenoaea). Oinoaethaaeue_. = Aeueiaaaeue + i?aia?ao
oinoi?a (ii i?e/eia oiai, /oi aeae?ieneae aethieiey naycuaaao oinoi? e
i?e aeeeoaeueiii i?eiaiaiee yoi iiaeao i?eaanoe e inoaiii?ico e
iiaeiaiui ineiaeiaieyi). Iaaeien, Ieoae, Aanoae – i?aia?aou n iiaeiaiui
ninoaaii.

N?aaieoaeueiia iienaiea iaeioi?uo i?aia?aoia

Aeae?iea?aiiao iao?ey

Nieaeaao eeneioiinoue aeaeoaei/iiai niea aei 8.3, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
ia?ooaieth nae?aoeee. Inoaoie aeae?iea?aiiaoa iao?ey i?ioiaeeo a
aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noioth eeoeo, aaea aianoa n nae?aoe?oaiui oai
aeae?iea?aiiaoii iao?ey (eioi?ue a ii?ia iaeo?aeecoaony eeneui oeionii)
ananuaaaony a e?iaue e i?eaiaeeo e nenoaiiiio aeeaeico. A aeaeoaeea,
i?e ?aaeoeee iaeo?aeecaoeee auaeaeyaony oaeaeeneue aac, eioi?ue
?acae?aaeaao noaieo aeaeoaeea. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e oneeaieth nae?aoeee
nieyiie eeneiou e aeaeoaei/iiai niea.

Ieneae iaaiey

Nieaeaao eeneioiinoue iacia/eoaeueii, oaeaeeneue aac ia ia?acoaony.
Ia?acoaony oei?eae iaaiey, eioi?ue iiaeao iaeo?aeeci aaoue
aeae?iea?aiiao iao?ey a aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoea. A oeaeii i?aia?ao
aeaenoaoao aieaa aeeeoaeueii.

Aeae?ieneae aethieiey

I?e ?anoai?aiee aiaeie ia?acoaony aaeue, eioi?ue aaeni?ae?oao
aeaeoaei/iue nie. Eeneioiinoue inoaiaaeeaaaony ia o?iaia ?I=3. A
aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoea nieyiay eeneioa auoiaeeo ec ninoaaa aaey e
iaeo?aeecoao aeae?iea?aiiao iao?ey.

Iauea aeaenoaey i?aia?aoia

1 Iaeo?aeecaoeey nieyiie eeneiou

2 Aaeni?aoeey iaineia 1 e 2 – oiaiueoaiea iaioe/aneie
aeoeaiinoe

3 Iaaieaeeaathuaa aeaenoaea

4 Aeoeaaoeey neioaca i?inoaaeaiaeeiia

5 Oneeaiea nae?aoeee neece. 3,4 e 5 – i?ioaeoeaiua aeaenoaey (eo
cia/aiea ianoaeaeaaony)

Eeeie/aneee yooaeo

En/acatho ecaeiaa e oyaeanoue, oiaiueoathony aieue e niaci
i?ea?aoieea, oeo/oaaony iioi?eea, oeo/oaaony iauaa ninoiyiea iaoeeaioa,
iiaeao oaaee/eaaoueny nei?inoue caaeeaeaiey aeaoaeoia noaiee
aeaeoaeea.

I?eiaiaiea aioaoeeaeiuo n?aaenoa

1 Ino?ue e o?iie/aneee aano?eo a oaca iaino?aiey (n iiauoaiiie e
ii?iaeueiie nae?aoeeae) 2 Ycioaaeo, ?aoethen-ycioaaeo 3
A?uaea ieuaaiaeiiai ioaa?noey aeeao?aaiu 4 Aeoiaeaieo 5
Eiiieaeniay oa?aiey ycau aeaeoaeea 6 Neiae?ii iaycaaiiie
aeeniainee (iia?aoiinoe a aeeaoa, eaea?noaa, ?acae?aaeathuea neecenooth
iaiei/eo aeaeoaeea) 7 I?ioeeaeoeea no?anni?iuo yca i?e eioaineaiie
oa?aiee a iineaiia?aoeeiiiii ia?eiaea

Ia?eiae iieoauaaaeaiey = 20 ieiooai (iaeneioi 30-40 ieioo, aei 1
/ana).

Iaoiaeu i?ieiiae?iaaiey yooaeoa:

1 Oaaee/aiea aeicu (nae/an eae i?aaeei ia i?eiaiyaony)

2 I?eai iinea aaeu (/a?ac 1 /an (ia aunioa nae?aoeee) eee 3 –
3.5 /ana (i?e auaaaeaiee ieue ec aeaeoaeea)). I?e yoii
aeinoeaaaony:

a) iioaioee?iaaiea yooaeoa “ieuaaiai aioaoeeaea”

a) caiaaeeaiea yaaeoaoeee i?aia?aoa

3 Ni/aoaiea n aioenae?aoi?iuie i?aia?aoaie.

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea

1 I?iaeaiu ni nooeii. Aethieiee e eaeueoeee-niaea?aeauea
i?aia?aou – iiaoo i?eaiaeeoue e caii?ai, iaaiee-niaea?aeauea – iiaoo
aucuaaoue iiiinu.

2 N?aaenoaa, niaea?aeauea iaaiee, eaeueoeee, aethieiee iiaoo
naycuaaoue iiiaea i?aia?aou: oieeiieeoeee, oaiioeaceaeu,
i?ii?aiieie, oeieaeei e ae?oaea iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii ?acaeoue ai a?aiaie
eo i?eai.

3 Iiei/ii-uaei/iie neiae?ii (i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii i?eaia
aieueoiai eiee/anoaa ea?aiiaoa eaeueoeey e iieiea). Oaaee/eaaaony
eiioeaio?aoeey eaeueoeey a ieacia e?iae -> oiaiueoaaony i?iaeoeoeey
ia?ao-ai?iiia -> oiaiueoaaony yene?aoeey oinoaoia -> eaeueoeeiic ->
iao?ioiene/aneee ooaeo -> ii/a/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue.

4 I?e aeeeoaeueiii oiio?aaeaiee aieueoeo aeic i?aia?aoia,
niaea?aeaueo aethieiee e iaaiee iiaeao aucaaoue eioieneeaoeeth.

1.2 Aioenae?aoi?iua n?aaenoaa

Iaoaieci aeaenoaey ai?iiiia e iaaeeaoi?ia

_ I?inoaaeaiaeei A e aenoaiei.

I?e nayce eo n ?aoeaioi?aie aeoeae?oaony G-aaeie -> aeoeae?oaony
aaeaieeaooeeeeaca -> AOO i?aa?auaaony a oeAIO -> aeoeae?oaony
i?ioaei-eeiaca e oinoi?eee?oao aaeee, /oi i?eaiaeeo e oiaiueoaieth
aeoeaiinoe i?ioiiiie iiiiu (caea/eaaao aioo?ue eeaoee eaeee a iaiai ia
i?ioiiu aiaei?iaea, eioi?ua auaeaeythony a i?inaao aeaeoaei/iie
aeaeacu).

2 Aano?ei e aoeaoeeoieei_. /a?ac ?aoeaioi?ii-aeoeae?oaiua
eaeueoeeaaua eaiaeu oaaee/eaatho aoiae eaeueoeey a eeaoeo, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e aeoeaaoeee i?ioaei-eeiacu e oiaiueoaieth aeoeaiinoe
i?ioiiiie iiiiu.

1.2.1 I?aia?aou, naycuaathueany n ?aoeaioi?aie

1.2.1.1 Aenoaieiiaeieaoi?u aoi?iai oeia (aeiee?otho
I2-aenoaieiiaua ?aoeaioi?u)

I?aia?aou 1 iieieaiey: Oeeiaoeaeei (Aenoaaeee, Aaeiiao)
I?eiaiyaony a aeica 1 a/nooee

I?aia?aou 2 iieieaiey: ?aieoeaeei 0.3 a/nooee

I?aia?aou 3 iieieaiey: Oaiioeaeei (Aanoa?) 0.04 a/nooee

?ienaoeaeei (Aeoao) 0.15 a/nooee

Aeiaeinooiiinoue oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiay (> 50%) -> i?eiaiythony
yioa?aeueii.

Oa?aiaaoe/aneea eiioeaio?aoeee

Oeeiaoeaeei 0.8 iea/ie ?aieoeaeei 0.1 iea/ie

Ia?eiae iieoauaaaeaiey

Oeeiaoeaeei 2 /ana ?aieoeaeei 2 /ana
Oaiioeaeei 3.8 /ana

I?iyaeyaony eeanne/aneay caaeneiinoue aeica/yooaeo

Iiai/iua yooaeou i?aia?aoia 1 iieieaiey

1 I?e aeeeoaeueiii i?eiaiaiee oeeiaoeaeei iiaeao
acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue n ae?oaeie i?aia?aoaie

2 Ioaeaeueiua neo/ae ?anno?ienoaa ioaeneie iieiaie noa?u

O i?aia?aoia 2 e 3 iieieaiey iiaeiaiuo iiai/iuo yooaeoia iao

1.2.1.2 Oieeiieeoeee

Ie?aicaiei

Aano?inaeaeoeaiue aioeionea?eiiaue i?aia?ao aeeeoaeueiiai aeaenoaey
(i?eiaiyaony 2 ?aca a nooee). Aieaa ecae?aoaeai /ai Ao?iiei ->
iaiueoa iiai/iuo yooaeoia. Ec-ca ioiineoaeueiinoe ecae?aoaeueiiai
aeaenoaey i?e aeeeoaeueiii i?eiaiaiee aiciiaeiu iiai/iua yooaeou:
nooinoue ai ?oo, aeaoeiia, caaea?aeea ii/e

1.2.1.3 Aioeaano?eiiauo i?aia?aoia iao

Aeieaoi?u i?ioiiiie iiiiu

Iiai?aaeie

Naiue neeueiue i?aia?ao, naeaeoeaai. A oaaeaoeao – iaaeoeaiue
i?aia?ao, aeoeae?oaony a eeneie n?aaea – neaaeiaaoaeueii oieueei a
aeaeoaeea. Aeoeaiay oi?ia i?aia?aoa naycuaaaony n oeieiauie a?oiiaie
oa?iaioia i?ioiiiie iiiiu.

Aniiiiaaoaeueiua aioenae?aoi?iua i?aia?aou

1 I?inoaaeaiaeeiu

2 Iieieaeiua

Aeaea?aei_. – (i?aia?ao aac oeaio?aeueiiai yooaeoa)

I?eiaiaiea

a) i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea aeeno?ioe/aneeo eciaiaiee AEEO

a) oiaiueoaiea nae?aoeee nieyiie eeneiou

a) Ii?iaeecaoeey iee?ioee?eoeyoeee e eeioioiea

a) onei?aiea ?aaaia?aoeee

ae) oaaee/aiea nae?aoeee neece

a) oiaiueoaiea eiioeaio?aoeee aae?aiiei?oeeio?iiiiai ai?iiia e
aeeeiei?oeeieaeia a e?iae

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea – aeiioiiey

3 Aeieaoi?u eaeueoeeaauo eaiaeia – iaiueoee yooaeo, ii
i?eiaiyaony i?e oi?iao, ?acenoaioiuo e aenoaieio e aoeaoeeoieeio

4 Eiaeaeoi?u ea?aiaiaeae?acu. Aeeaea?a oiaiueoaiea ia?aciaaiey e
nae?aoeee i?ioiiia aiaei?iaea

N?AAeNOAA AEEssTHUEA IA OOIEOeEE AEAEOAeI*II-EEOA*IIAI O?AEOA

(i?iaeieaeaiea)

Nenoaia caueou yieoaeey ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo yoaiia:

1 Neecenoi-aeea?aiiaoiue aa?uea?

2 Iiaa?oiinoiue oinoieeieaeiue aa?uea?

3 Nae?aoeey i?inoaaeaiaeeiia

4 Iea?aoeey eeaoie

5 Oi?ioi ?acaeoia e?iainiaaaeaiea

I?aia?aou aeaeyony ia aano?ii?ioaeoeaiua (naie caueuatho
neecenooth aeaeoaeea) e oaaee/eaathueo caueoiua naienoaa neecenoie.

Ea?aaiienieii_. (aeiaano?ii, aeoiaano?ii)

A aai iniiaa – ei?aiue Nieiaeee, ii no?oeoo?a iioiae ia
aeueaeinoa?ii. Yooaeou:

iniiaiua

1 Oaaee/aiea aeoeaiinoe ioeioeeoia

2 Oaaee/aiea oieueiu caueoiiai neiy

3 Oaaee/aiea ayceinoe neece e aa niiniaiinoe e aaeaacee

aeiiieieoaeueiua

4 Oiaiueoaiea aeoeaiinoe iaineiiaaia

5 Oeo/oaiea iee?ioee?eoeyoeee

6 Oiaiueoaiea ?ac?ooaiey i?inoaaeaiaeeiia

Yooaeou i?inoaaeaiaeeiia

1 Oaaee/aiea nae?aoeee neece

2 Noaaeeecaoeey neecenoiai aa?uea?a

3 Oaaee/aiea nae?aoeee aeea?aiiaoia

4 Oeo/oaiea iee?ioee?eoeyoeee (iaeaieaa aaaeii)

5 Oiaiueoaiea i?iieoeaaiinoe iaia?ai

I?aia?aou iaeaaeatho yooaeoaie:

1 Oeeoii?ioaeoeaiia aeaenoaea (ia iiaoo caueoeoue ana eeaoee, ii
niinianoaotho nio?aiaieth no?oeoo?u oeaie – aenoii?ioaeoeaiia
aeaenoaea)

2 Oiaiueoaiea nae?aoeee: nieyiie eeneiou, aano?eia, iaineia.

Iecii?inoae_. (Oeeoioae)

Neioaoe/aeee aiaeia i?inoaaeaiaeeia A1. I?eiaiyaony aeey ea/aiey
ycaaiiie aieacie aeaeoaeea e aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoee,
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea ycaiia?aciaaiey i?e i?eaia ?acae?aaeathueo neecenooth
iaiei/eo aauanoa (Anie?ei e ae?.).

I?aia?aou aeaeyony ia:

1 Aioeaa?anneaiay a?oiia (aioaoeeaeiia e aioenae?aoi?iia
aeaenoaea)

2 Caueoiua

3 ?aia?aiou (niinianoaotho i?ioeannai caaeeaeaiey)

I?aia?aou iaiin?aaenoaaiii caueuathuea neecenooth
iaiei/eo

Noaieo?ao aeniooa_. (iniiaiie ieo?ao aeniooa)

Ayaeouaa, i?ioeaiiee?iaiia aeaenoaea. I?eiaiyaony aeey ea/aiey:
ycaaiiie aieacie aeaeoaeea e aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoee, yioa?eoia,
eieeoia, ainiaeaiee eiaee e neecenouo.

Noanaeeoeeeao aeniooa_. (Aeaniie)

Ieaieiia?acothuaa aeaenoaea, ayaeouaa, oaaee/aiea au?aaioee
neece, ianiaoeeoe/aneia aioeaeea?aeiia aeaenoaea. I?eiaiyaony i?e
ycaaiiie aieacie aeaeoaeea e aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoee, iaino?aiea
o?iie/aneiai aano?eoa, aeea?ae ?acee/iiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey.

Eieeieaeiue noaoeeo?ao aeniooa_. (Aeaiie,O?eaeiie, Aaio?enie)

Ieaieiia?acothuaa aeaenoaea oieueei a eeneie n?aaea
(aano?inaeaeoeaiinoue), aaeni?aoeey iaineia, nieyiie eeneiou,
oaaee/aiea ?acenoaioiinoe neecenoie, oaaee/aiea au?aaioee neece (e
oneeaiea aa caueoiuo naienoa), aeea?aiiaoia, i?inoaaeaiaeeiia.
Aaeoa?eoeeaeiia aeaenoaea a ioiioaiee Helicobacter pylori.

Noe?aeueoao

1 A eeneie n?aaea – iieeia?ecaoeey e naycuaaiea n y?iceaiuie
o/anoeaie neecenoie (n?iaenoai e ii?aaeaiiiio yieoaeeth a 8-10 ?ac
aieueoa, /ai e caei?iaie oeaie).

2 Aaeni?aoeey iaineia, aeae/iuo eeneio

3 Oaaee/aiea neioaca i?inoaaeaiaeeiia a neecenoie.

Oi?ia auionea: oaaeaoee ii 0.5 – 1 a, i?eiaiyoue 4 ?aca aei aaeu e
ia ii/ue.

?aia?aiou

I?aia?aou aeoaieiia: iieeaeoaieiu, A1, N. Ai?iiiaeueiua
i?aia?aou: iieiaua ai?iiiu

Ianei iaeaieoe, oeiiaieea. Aeaioii (Aeeaanee). O?eoiiie
(Iao?iieaeacie) + aeiiieieoaeueiay aeoeaiinoue i?ioea Helicobacter
pylori

Aeieeei, nie Aeiy, yeno?aeo Eaeeaioiy

Ieneoa??enei?aii iao?ey

Ie?eieeeiiaua iniiaaiey.

I?aia?aou oaiaoathuea ia?aiiaaaaoaoeaiua ?aaeoeee

_ Ineoio?iiiua

O?aieaeeecaoi?u e naaeaoeaiua, iae?ieaioeee (Noeueie?eae,
Iaoieeii?aieae (Oea?oeae)), aioeaeai?annaiou

2 N?aaenoaa ?aaoee?othuea iioi?eeo. Oieeiieeoeee, ieio?iiiua
niaciieeoeee (Iaiaaa?ei, Ii-oia, Aaeeaei?, Oaieeaaa?ai)

3 N?aaenoaa oiaiueoathuea aieue. Aiaeueaaoeee, ianoiua aianoaoeee

I?AIA?AOU AEEssTHUEA IA IIOI?IUA OOIEOeEE AEEO

Nae?aoeey – i?ioeann, caaenyuee io eiioeaio?aoeee oeAIO.
Noeioee?otho nae?aoeeth: i?inoaaeaiaeeiu, oieeiiieiaoeee, oiea?iue
oienei (iaoieiae/aneia aeaenoaea). Oaiaoatho nae?aoeeth: niiaoinoaoei,
iieieaeu, aeioaieii- e aae?aiiieiaoeee.

A eeoa/ieea i?ienoiaeeo eciiniioe/aneay ?aaani?aoeey ca n/ao:

1 Eaeee-iao?eaaie AOO-acu (yeaeo?iaaiiay iiiia)

2 O?ainii?o oei?eaea iao?ey (yeaeo?iiaeo?aeueiay iiiia)

Ia iioi?eeo aeeytho:

1 Ninoaa ieue (eeao/aoea – aeoeae?oao iioi?eeo)

2 Aeaeaaoaeueiay aeoeaiinoue /aeiaaea (iuooeu a?thoiiai i?anna –
iannaaee?otho eeoa/iee e niinianoaotho aeoeaaoeee iioi?eee)

3 Ia?aii-aoii?aeueiay ?aaoeyoeey

I?e aeiiiioi?eea i?eiaiytho: neaaeoaeueiua, i?ieeiaoeee,
aioeia?aoe/aneea n?aaenoaa.

NEAAEOAEUeIUA N?AAeNOAA

Neaaeoaeueiua – n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua oiaiueoatho a?aiy
i?ioiaeaeaiey eeoa/iiai niaea?aeeiiai ii aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiio o?aeoo,
/oi i?eaiaeeo e iiyaeaieth eee o/auaieth nooea e eciaiaieth aai
eiinenoaioeee.

I?e/eiu aeiiiioi?eee

1 Aeeaoa (aeaoeoeeo eeao/aoee, i?aniay, ?aoeie?iaaiiay ieua)

2 Aeii- eee aeia?nae?aoeey

3 Aeiieeiacey: aic?ano, iniaaiiinoe i?ioannee, iinoaeueiue
?aaeei

4 Aeec?aaoeyoi?iua ?anno?ienoaa: iia?aoeee ia AEEO,
iicaiii/ieea, iaeii oaca.

5 “Ineoiaaiiua” i?e/eiu (niaia ianoaiiaee)

Eeanneoeeaoeey neaaeoaeueiuo

Ii iaoaiecio:

1 ?acae?aaeathuea (noeioee?othuea,eiioaeoiua) Oeie/anee
noeioee?othuea ?aoeaioi?u neecenoie

3 Oaaee/eaathuea iauai eeoa/iiai niaea?aeeiiai . Oaaee/eaatho iauai e
?acaeeaeatho, ca n/ao:

a) oneeaiey nae?aoeee (e nieaeaieth ?aaani?aoeee)

a) oaaee/aiey iniioe/aneiai aeaaeaiey a i?inaaoa eeoee

a) naycuaaiey aiaeu

4 Iya/eoaeueiua Eciaiaiea eiinenoaioeee ca n/ao yioeueae?iaaiey,
aeaoa?aaioiuo naienoa, no?oaeoaioiuo naienoa

Ii neea aeaenoaey:

1 Aia?eoeaiua (Aperitiva) – ii?iaeueiue e iyaeee nooe

2 Eaenaoeaiua (Laxativa, Purgentiva) – iyaeee eee eaoeoeaia?aciue
nooe a caaeneiinoe io aeicu

3 Ae?anoeaiua (Drastiva) – aeeaeeee nooe

Ii eieaeecaoeee:

1 Oiieee (eee aanue) 2 Oienoue eeoa/iee

Ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth:

?anoeoaeueiua, ieia?aeueiua, neioaoe/aneea.

Iieacaiey:

1 O?iie/aneee caii? (i?e iayooaeoeaiinoe aeeaoioa?aiee, i?e
aeeeoaeueiii iinoaeueiii ?aaeeia)

2 ?aaoeyoeey nooea i?e caaieaaaieyo aii?aeoaeueiie iaeanoe (aaii??ie,
i?ieoeo, ?aeoaeueiua o?aueiu)

3 Iiaeaioiaea e eino?oiaioaeueiui ianeaaeiaaieyi, iia?aoeeyi.

4 Aeaaaeueieioecaoeey

5 Ea/aiea io?aaeaiee (i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea ananuaaiey yaeia)

Oeiiaua iiai/iua yooaeou_.:

1 Eeoa/iay eieeea, aeea?ay

2 Iioa?y aiaeu e yeaeo?ieeoia

3 ?acae?aaeathuaa aeaenoaea e iia?aaeaeaiea neecenoie

4 I?eaueaiea, neiae?ii caaeneiinoe (“io?aaioeci”)

I?e i?ae?auaiee i?eaia eeoa/iee ieioi ni?aaeyaony n
iaa?oceie

5 Iao?i- e aaiaoioiene/iinoue

?acae?aaeathuea

?anoeoaeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey

I?aia?aou ec Eannee_. (Aeaenaiae?ianeee eeno). Eniieuecothony
eenouey, ieiaeu a aeaea ianea, ianoiy e yeno?aeoa.

I?aia?aou: Naiaaea, Eeanenaia, Naiaaeaenei. Eiiieaeniua i?aia?aou:
Eaeeoeo ( niaea?aeeo yeno?aeou Naiiu e eiaee?a, ianea naiiu, aaicaeeee,
iyou), Aeaio?ai (niaea?aeeo yeno?aeo Naiiu e ianea aiena e oieia)

I?aia?aou ec E?ooeiu eiieie_. Eniieuecothony: ei?a, aeinoa?-ieiaeu a
aeaea ioaa?ia, yeno?aeoia, eiiiioia e i?inoi nu?ua yaiaeu. I?aia?aou:
Eio?aiee, ?aiiee.

I?aia?aou ?aaaiy_. – oaaeaoee ec ei?iy ?aaaiy. Ananuaathony –
?anuaieythony – nae?aoe?oaony aiiaue a oienoii eeoa/ieea e
aeaenoaoao. Ec-ca yoeo iniaaiiinoae ia/aei aeaenoaey /a?ac 6-12
/ania iinea i?eaia (iacia/aaony ia ii/ue, yooaeo – oo?ii).

Oa?iaeiaeeiaieea:

1 Oeie/anee ?acae?aaeaao ?aoeaioi?u neecenoie iaiei/ee

2 Eiaeae?oao eaeee-iao?eaaoth AOO-aco,/oi i?eaiaeeo e oiaiueoaieth
?aaani?aoeee aiaeu e yeaeo?ieeoia.

3 Oaaee/eaaao nae?aoeeth

5 Oaaee/eaaao i?iieoeaaiinoue neecenoie

Ii neea: Aperitiva, Laxativa. A caaeneiinoe io eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie
/onoaeoaeueiinoe aeica iiaeao eieaaaoueny aei 4 – 8 n?aae ieo. Eo?n:
7-10 aeiae.

Neioaoe/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey

I?iecaiaeiua oaiieooaeaeia (Io?aai)

1 iieieaiea

Oaiieooaeaei, Ecioaiei, Ecaiai (Ecioaiei + iaiieo)

2 iieieaiea Ieneoaienaoei (Eaeneaai), Iao?ey ieeinoeueoao. Aeecee ii
neea e a?aiaie aeaenoaey, o ieeinoeueoaoa iao?ey aieaa au?aaeai
?acae?aaeathuee yooaeo, iao?i- e aaiaoioiene/aneia aeaenoaea.

I?iecaiaeiua eanoi?iaiai ianea (Oleum Ricini)

?eoeeiieiaay eeneioa – aeaenoaoao a aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoea,
oiaiueoaao ?aaani?aoeeth aiaeu e yeaeo?ieeoia, oneeeaaao nae?aoeeth,
ieacuaaao ?acae?aaeathuaa aeaenoaea ia anai i?ioyaeaiee AEEO.
Aeaenoaea neeueiia, i?iyaeyaony /a?ac 2-3 /ana, aeica – 15-60 ie
aioo?ue. I?eiaiyaony a aeaea eainoe, nianae n nieii, eioa, a aeaea
yioeuenee e a /enoii aeaea. Ieacuaaao ?iaeinoeioee?othuei aeaenoaeai:
a) i?eiaiyaony a aeooa?noaa eae iniiaa eeieiaioia; a) i?ioeaiiieacaii
i?e aa?aiaiiinoe. Iaeuecy i?eiaiyoue i?e io?aaeaieyo
aee?i?anoai?eiuie yaeaie (iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue oneeaieth eo
ananuaaiey).

Oaaee/eaathuea iauai

Iniioe/aneea

Oaaee/eaatho iauai + naycuaatho aiaeo + noeioeyoeey iioi?eee

Nieaaua neaaeoaeueiua_.: noeueoao iaaiey, noeueoao iao?ey,
ea?eiaa?neay nieue (eneonnoaaiiay e anoanoaaiiay), aunieiieia?aeueiua
aiaeu (Aaoaeeineea). Ia/aei aeaenoaey /a?ac 2-3 /ana, aeica – 15-30 a.
Neeueiua, i?eiaiythony i?e io?aaeaieyo.

Iiiaiaoiiiua nie?ou_. Iaiieo, ni?aeo, eneeeo. I?eiaiythony
i?eia?ii ii 5 a a aeaea 50 a 10% ?anoai?a 2-3 ?aca a aeaiue.

Aeenaoa?eaeu_. Eaeooeica (Aethoaeae). Oaaee/eaatho iniioe/aneia
aeaaeaiea e nieaeatho eeneioiinoue a eeoa/ieea. ?anuaieythony
iee?ioei?ie eeoa/ieea a eeneie n?aaea e iaeaaeatho ?acae?aaeathuei
aeaenoaeai.

Aeae?ioeeueiua

Iieenaoa?eaeu (oeaeetheica) iaaooatho a i?inaaoa eeoa/ieea a 3-10
?ac. Iniiaa i?aia?aoia: eaieia?ee, aaa?, naiy eueia, iiaei?iaeieea,
io?oae, ieiaeu eiaee?a.

Iya/eoaeueiua

Ianea: aacaeeiiaia, ia?neeiaia, ieeaeiaia (ii 1-2 noieiaie eiaeea).
Aeieocao (yioeueaaoi?).

I?aia?ao ?acae?aaeathuee eiiiiiaio Oaaee/eaathuee iauai eiiiiiaio
Iya/eoaeueiue eiiiiiaio

Eaoeie eenouey e ieiaeu Naiiu ieiaeu eiaee?a aacaeeiiaia ianei

Iee-ia? — aeae?ieneae iaaiey aacaeeiiaia ianei

Aaeieaen ieiaeu Naiiu naiaia e eiaeo?a naiyi iiaei?iaeieea —

Caii?u auaatho aoiie/aneea e nianoe/aneea. “+” – i?eiaiyaony,”-” – ia
i?eiaiyaony

Aeaenoaea Aoiie/aneea caii?u Nianoe/aneea caii?u

?acae?aaeathuaa + —

Oaaee/eaathuaa iauai + +

Iya/eoaeueiia — +

Ieio?iiiua niaciieeoeee — +

I?ieeiaoeee + +

Ae?oaea n?aaenoaa ?aca?iei, aaoa-aeieaoi?u,

Oaioieaiei, Aaeaioiiei Ecaae?ei, oieeiieeoeee

Aeeoace/aneea caii?u: 1 Naa/e (Aenaeiaeee, aeeoea?ei). 2 Oeio/ea naa/e
(Oa??ieaen, eaeueoeeieaen) 3 Eaea?noaaiiua eeeciu: ni?aeo,
“aeia?oiie/aneea”: 10-20 a oei?eaea iao?ey ia 0.5 eeo?a aiaeu,
ianeyiua: 100-200 a, aeeoea?eiiaua: 10-20 a.

I?ieeiaoeee

I?eiaiythony i?e aeeniaioe/aneii neiae?iia: oyaeanoue,
aeeneiioi?o, ecaeiaa, acaeooea aeeaioa, io?uaeea

I?e/eia: aeiiiioi?eea, noac, caiaaeeaiea yaaeoaoeee,?aoethen.

Aeioaiei: oi?iiciay ?aaoeyoeey, ?aoeaioi?iay ?aeaenaoeey,
oneeaiea nie?auaiey oaea, ?anneaaeaiea noeieoa?a i?ea?aoieea, nie?auaiea
ieaeiaai ieuaaiaeiiai noeieoa?a, oiaiueoaiea ?aeaenaoeee oaea
aeaeoaeea.

Yooaeou i?ieeiaoeeia:

1 Aioeaeioaieiiaia aeaenoaea

2 Oiaiueoaiea oi?iiciiai eiio?iey iaae auaeaeyaiui
aoeaoeeoieeiii a ia?aiuo nieaoaieyo.

3 Aeie aenoaieiiauo ?aoeaioi?ia

Ana yoi i?eaiaeeo e: oaaee/aiea yaaeoaoeee, en/aciiaaiea
?aoethena, aioeyiaoe/aneee yooaeo (i?ioeai?aioiue), oaaee/aiea
ia?enoaeueoeee oiieiai eeoa/ieea.

I?aia?aou_.: Iaoieeii?aieae (Oea?oeae), A?iiii?eae (Aeia?ae),

Aeiiia?eaeii (Iioeeeoi), Oeecai?eae (Eii?aeeiaen).

I?eiaiaiea_.: Ooieoeeiiaeueiua ia?ooaiey iioi?eee,
aeeniaioe/aneee neiae?ii, iaoai?eci, aoiiey aeaeoaeea,
?aoethen-ycioaaeo, oioiioa, ?aioa, eeioa, i?eaioiaeaiea e
?aioaaiieiae/aneiio enneaaeiaaieth.

Aioeia?aoe/aneea

Oneeeaatho nie?auaiey iuooe: I-oieeiiieiaoeee, eiaeaeoi?u
oieeiynoa?acu.Ineaaeytho nie?auaiey iuooe: I-oieeiiaeieaoi?u,
niaciieeoeee.

I?AIA?AOU I?EIAIssAIUA I?E AEIA?IIOI?EEA

I?eiaiythony i?e neiae?iia aeea?ae – aioeaeea?aeiua (yaeythony
neiioiiaoe/aneei ea/aieai – neaaeiaaoaeueii iaiaoiaeeii ni/aoaoue n
yoeio?iiiie oa?aieae)

Ino?ay ieuaaay eioieneeaoeey, aeea?aee (a oii /enea eaea?noaaiiua),
eciaiaiey ?aaeeia iiaoo auoue i?e/eiaie aeea?aeiiai neiae?iia.

Aeiiieieoaeueiia i?eiaiaiea: O?iie/aneea caaieaaaiey eeoa/ieea,
eieeou, caaieaaaiey ia/aie e aeae/aauaiaeyueo iooae, iiaeaeaeoaei/iie
aeaeacu, yiceiiiaoee, aeecaaeoa?eic.

Iianiinoue: iioa?y aiaeu, yeaeo?ieeoia, oa?iaioia.

Eeanneoieaoeey

1 Iieieaeu oeaio?aeueiiai aeaenoaey (Aeeoaieeieneeao (?aanae),
Eiia?aieae (Eiiaeeoi)).

2 Aethieiee e eaeueoeee-niaea?aeauea: Aooaioeueaeo (Eaiiaeoao,
?aaaai, Iaieioanoiiai)

3 Ayaeouea n?aaenoaa: i?aia?aou aeniooa, Oaiiaeueaei,
i?aaie/aneea ayaeouea, Oaiiaeiii (Oaiiaeueaei + Yoae?eaeei
(aioenaioee))

4 Yioa?ini?aaiou: aeoeae?iaaiiue oaieue, Iieeoaiai, Eeaiini?a,
Niaeoa (noaaeeece?oao neecue, aaeni?ae?oao iainei e nieyioth eeneioo
aac oaaee/aiey iauaia).

5 Oieeii- e niaciieeoeee

Iaoaieci: Oiaiueoaiea nae?aoeee, oneeaiea ?aaani?aoeee aiaeu e
yeaeo?ieeoia, oiaiueoaiea iioi?eee, oiaiueoaiea /onoaeoaeueiinoe e
aeaenoaeth ?acae?aaeathueo aauanoa, oiaiueoaiea eiioeaio?aoeee
?acae?aaeathueo aauanoa ca n/ao aaeni?aoeee.

OEIEIOA?AIAAOE*ANEEA I?AIA?AOU. AIOEAEIOEEE

Oeieioa?aiaaoe/aneea n?aaenoaa, ia?acoaiua iee?ii?aaieciaie eee
iieo/aaiua ec ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia, a oii /enea neioaoe/aneea niaaeeiaiey
niiniaiua ecae?aoaeueii iiaeaaeyoue eee oaiaoaoue aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue
iee?ii?aaieciia.

E?iia iaaeeoeeiu aioeaeioeee oe?iei eniieuecothony a
eiina?aiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a naeueneii oicyenoaa(i?e ia?aaioea ii/a e
a ea/anoaa aeiaaaie a ei?i neioo). I?e yoii iaecaaaeii aicieeaao
i?iaeaia onoie/eainoe.

Onoie/eainoue

1.I?e?iaeiay (aeaeiaay) Ii?aaeaeyaony naienoaaie iee?ii?aaiecia

2.I?eia?aoaiiay

a) ia?ae/iay (aei ano?a/e n aioeaeioeeii)

a) aoi?e/iay (iinea ano?a/e n aioeaeioeeii)

A ?acoeueoaoa iooaoeee i?ienoiaeeo eciaiaiea aaiiia.

Iaoaieciu:

1.1 Eiaeoeaaoeey oa?iaioaie, neioace?oaiuie ia iniiaa nianoaaiiie
aaiaoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee iee?ii?aaiecia.

1.2 Oi aea ii ia iniiaa ieacieaeiuo aaiia

2 Oiaiueoaiea n?iaenoaa ?aoeaioi?ia (o/anoeia naycuaaiey) e
aioeaeioeeo

3 Ia?ooaiea i?iieeiiaaiey a eeaoeo (iniaaiii aeey aeaenoaothueo ia
aaeeiaue neioac)

4 Eciaiaiea i?iaeoeoeee aooieeoe/aneeo oa?iaioia

5 Eciaiaiea iaoaaieecia aieioue aei aeeth/aiey aioeaeioeea a
iaoaaieeci

I?eioeeiu i?eiaiaiey aioeaeioeeia_.:

1 Ouaoaeueiue, aaeoa?eieiae/anee iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiue aeeaaiic

2 Iacia/aiea aioeaeioeeia a iioeiaeueiuo aeicao (iacia/aiea a
iaeuo aeicao i?eaiaeeo e aicieeiiaaieth onoie/eauo oi?i)

3 Aeeeoaeueiia ea/aiea

4 ?aiiaa ia/aei ea/aiey

5 Eiiaeie?iaaiea aioeaeioeeia

6 ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea “aioeaeioeeia ?aca?aa”

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee aioeaeioeeia

Eeneioionoie/eainoue (aeey aiciiaeiinoe yioa?aeueiiai aaaaeaiey),
Nei?inoue ananuaaiey (aunieay)

Nei?inoue auaaaeaiey, Iooe auaeaeaiey, N?iaenoai e i?aaiai,
Oiene/aneia aeaenoaea (ionoonoaea)

E o?aaiaaieyi e aioeaeioeeo ioiinyony (e?iia iniiaiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee)- oaeiaiay eaea?noaaiiay oi?ia.

Iaieoeeeeeiu: i?e?iaeiua, aeineioaoe/aneea, iieoneioaoe/aneea.

A ninoaa iaieoeeeeeiia aoiaeyo aeaa no?oeoo?iua /anoe:
oeacieeaeeiiaia eieueoei (?ac?ooaaony aieaeacaie) e aaoa-eaeoaiiia
eieueoei (?ac?ooaaony aaoa-eaeoaiacaie). I?e ?ac?ooaiee
oeacieeaeeiiaiai eieueoea ia?acoaony 6-aieiiiaieoeeeeaiiaay eeneioa, i?e
i?eniaaeeiaiee e iae ?acee/iuo ?aaeeeaeia ia?acothony iieoneioaoe/aneea
iaieoeeeeeiu.

Iaoaieci aeaenoaey iaieoeeeeeiia: ia?ooaiea neioaca eeaoi/iie
noaiee.

Eeaoi/iay noaiea auiieiyao neaaeothuea ooieoeee:

Caueoa, ?aaoeyoeey iniioe/aneiai aeaaeaiey, iinoiyinoai oi?iu
iee?ii?aaiecia. Iniiaiia aauanoai eeaoi/iie noaiee – iieeia? io?aei,
ninoiyuee ec io?aiee-iaioeaeia. Neioac io?aiee-iaioeaeia ia/eiaaony ni
noi?iiu oeeoiieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu aaeoa?eaeueiie eeaoee. Ia iao?eoea
5-o?eaeeeaeeoinoaoa ia/eiaaony neioac io?aiee-iaioeaea: nia/aea
i?eniaaeeiyaony N-aoeaoeeio?aiiaay eeneioa, caoai iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
ec 4-5 aieiieeneio, caoai – N-aoeaoeeaetheicaiei. Ia?acothueeny
io?aiee-iaioeae iinooiaao ia?oaeo, e ianoo nai?ee eeaoi/iie noaiee e
iieeia?ecoaony iiae aeaenoaeai o?ainiaioeaeac e iieeia?ac.

Aeaenoaea iaieoeeeeeiia:

1 Oaiaoaiea o?ainii?oiie ooieoeee 5-o?eaeeeaeeoinoaoa

2 Oaiaoaiea o?ainiaioeaeac e iieeia?ac

3 Noiaeanoue n N-aoeaoeeio?aiiaie eeneioie iicaieyao
iaieoeeeeeiai ano?aeaaoueny aianoi iaa a neioac, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
i?ae?auaieth neioaca. Iaaeinoaoie N-aoeaoeeio?aiiaie eeneiou e
io?aiee-iaioeaeu ia iieeia?ecothony. Neioac aaeea i?iaeieaeaaony, a
eeaoi/iay noaiea ia oaaee/eaaaony – ?ino inoaiaaeeaaaony e iee?ii?aaieci
ia?aoiaeeo a oi?io noa?iieanoa. Noa?iieanou iaeaaeatho nieaeaiiie
ae?oeaioiinoueth e onoie/eainoueth e eo oie/oiaeatho caueoiua neeu
i?aaiecia.

Anoue niaoeeaeueiua eaiaeu e ianoa naycuaaiey (caueoa –
oiaiueoaiea o?iiiinoe iaieoeeeeeiia eee naycuaaiea iaieoeeeeeiia n
aaoa-eaeoaiacaie).

Yooaeo iaieoeeeeeiia:

1 Yooaeo aaeoa?einoaoe/aneee

2 Aeaenoaoao ia iieiaeua, ?anoouea eeaoee

3 Iaoeaeaniia?acii eiiaeie?iaaoue n oaiaoathueie neioac aaeea

4 Aieaa /oanoaeoaeueiu e iaieoeeeeeiai i?inoi ono?iaiiua
iee?ii?aaieciu.

Iao?eaaay e eaeeaaay nieue aaiceeiaieoeeeeeia

Aeaenoaotho ia A?aii (+) eieee: no?aioieiee, noaoeeieiee,
iiaaiieiee, ii nae/an aei 90 ooaiiia no?aioieieeia e noaoeeieieeia
onoie/eau e noa?ui iaieoeeeeeiai. Aeaenoaotho ia A?aii (-):
aiiieiee, iaieiaieiee, aeaaeiay o?aiiiaia, aicaoaeeoaeue neae?neie ycau.
Aeice?othony a aaeeieoeao aeaenoaey (AAe). 1 AAe = 0.4-0.6 iee?ia?aiia
e?enoaeee/aneiai i?aia?aoa. Aaiaeyony ia?yioa?aeueii (eaeeaaoth nieue
ia aaiaeeoue yiaeiethiaaeueii). Aei 90% naycuaaaony n aaeeaie ieaciu.
Ia/aei aeaenoaey /a?ac 20-30 ieioo e iinea 3-4 /ania eiioeaio?aoeey
nieaeaaony ieaea yooaeoeaiie. Oi?ioi i?iieeaao a i?aaiu e oeaie,
auaiaeeony ii/eaie. Ieioi i?iieeaao /a?ac aaiaoiyioeaoaee/aneee
aa?uea? (i?e ainiaeaieyo – eo/oa).

Iaaeinoaoee:

1 Iaaiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey yioa?aeueii (i?aia?aou
iaeeneioionoie/eau)

2 Iaeay aeeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey (i?eiaiaiea 4-6 ?ac a nooee)

3 Aeea?aee (oe?iei ano?a/athony e eioaineaiua – aeaeatho
i?iao)

4 Oceee niaeo? aeaenoaey

5 Iaee/ea onoie/eauo oi?i

Aeineioaoe/aneea iaieoeeeeeiu

Eeneioionoie/eaua: Oaiieneiaoeeiaieoeeeeei (ioee/aaony oieueei
eeneioionoie/eainoueth)

I?ieiiae?iaaiiiai aeaenoaey: Iiaieaeiiaay nieue aaiceeiaieoeeeeeia.
Aeeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey aei 12 /ania, aaiaeeoue oieueei aioo?eiuoa/ii.

Aeoeeeeei-1,-3,-5:

Aeoeeeeei-1 aei 7 aeiae, aeoeeeeei-3 aei 6-10 aeiae,
aeoeeeeei-5 aei 21 aeiy eee 1 ianyoea. Aaiaeyony oieueei aioo?eiuoa/ii
(aieaciaiii!). Auniei aeoeaiu i?ioea nie?ioao, A?aii (+) eieeai, ii e
onoie/eainoue ?acaeaaaony auno?aa.

Iieoneioaoe/aneea iaieoeeeeeiu

Iaoeoeeeeei

Aeaenoaoao ia oei?o onoie/eaoth e iaieoeeeeeiai, aieaa aeoeaai.

Ienaoeeeeei

Eeneioionoie/ea (iiaeii i?eiaiyoue aioo?ue), aeaenoaoao ia
onoie/eauo e iaieoeeeeeio, onoie/eainoue e iaio ?acaeaaaony
iaaeeaiiaa.

Aeeeeienaoeeeeei

Aieaa eeneioionoie/ea, aeaenoaoao a iaoeoeeeeei-onoie/eaua
noaoeeieieee.

N ?anoe?aiiui niaeo?ii aeaenoaey:

Aiieoeeeeei_. e Aiieneoeeeeei (ia neiiieiu)

Aeaenoaoao ia aaeoa?ee eeoa/iie a?oiiu, onoie/eainoue ?acaeaaaony
iaaeeaiii, aeaenoaoao ia noaoeeieieee e no?aioieieee onoie/eaua e
iaieoeeeeeiai. Aaiaeeony ia?yioa?aeueii.

Ea?aaieoeeeeei_. e Aceioeeeeei

Aeiiieieoaeueii yooaeoeaai i?ioea iaei/ee neiacaeaiiai aiiy,
aoeueaa?iiai i?ioay. Auaiaeeony ia 80% n ii/eaie, inoaeueiia n
aeae/ueth. Aaiaeeony ia?yioa?aeueii.

Aoeeaeioeeeeei

I?aeiouanoaaiii aeaenoaoao ia A?aii (-) oei?o.

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea

1 Aeea?ae/aneea ?aaeoeee (ia?ae?anoii ia a?oiio) ii
eioaineaiinoe aei aiaoeeaeoe/aneiai oiea (/onoaeoaeueiinoue ii i?iaa
eee aiaiiaco)

2 Ianoiia ?acae?aaeaiea

a) Aeey oao, eioi?ua i?eieiatho yioa?aeueii – aeinneou e
noiiaoeou

a) Aeey aaiaeeiuo ia?yioa?aeueii – aaiaeeoue n ?anoai?ii
iiaieaeia

3 Iae?ioiene/aneia aeaenoaea (a aieueoeo aeicao) – aucuaatho
oeaio?aeueioth ?aioo (iniaaiii i?e yiaeiethiaaeueiii aaaaeaiee)

4 Ea?aeeioiene/iinoue (i?e i/aiue aieueoeo aeicao – 40.000.000
AAe)

OeAOAEINII?EIU

I?iecaiaeiua aieiioeaoaeinii?iiiaie eeneiou. Iioiaee ia
iaieoeeeeeiu, oiaea eiaeae?otho neioac eeaoi/iie noaiee. A oeaeii
neeueiaa iaieoeeeeeiia (neeueiaa oaiaoatho 5-o?eaeeeaeeoinoao,
aieueoa iioiaee ia N-aoeaoeeio?aiiaoth eeneioo). Iaeaaeatho
neia?aeciii ii ioiioaieth e iaieoeeeeeiai. Oa?aeoa?ii aaeoa?eoeeaeiia
aeaenoaea.

1 iieieaiea

Oeaoaeioei (Eaoeei), Oeaoacieei (Eaocie), Oeaoaeaaeei (Oeaia?ei),
Oeaoaeaenei (Oeaia?aen). Aunieay aeoeaiinoue e A?aii (+), a oii
/enea e onoie/eaui e iaieoeeeeeiai. ?ac?ooathony aaoa-eaeoaiacaie, ii
iaaeeaiiaa – ia anaaaea iieiay ia?ae?anoiay onoie/eainoue e e
iaieoeeeeeiai.

Oeaoaeaaeei (Oeaia?ei)

Aeoeaai i?ioea aicaoaeeoaeae: neae?neie ycau, yioa?ieieeia,
aoeueaa?iiai i?ioay, ia aeoeaai i?ioea A?aii (-) aiay?iaia e iaei/ee
neiacaeaiiai aiiy. I?e aioo?eiuoa/iii aaaaeaiee ia/aei /a?ac 30 ieioo
e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue 7-8 /ania, i?e aioo?eaaiiii aaaaeaiee ia/aei
/a?ac 10 ieioo e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue 2 /ana. Iiiai iiiaaeaao a ii/ee,
ia/aiue, iaiueoa – a eaaeea. Auaiaeeony /a?ac ii/ee i?inoie
oeeueo?aoeeae 90%. Iiai/ii: aeea?aee, eaeeiiaiey, iao?ioiene/iinoue.

Oeaoaeioei (Eaoeei)

Niaeo? e aeoeaiinoue ?aaia i?aaeuaeouaio, nicaeaaony aieueoay
eiioeaio?aoeey a ieacia, eo/oa i?iieeaao a i?aaiu. I?e aioo?eiuoa/iii
aaaaeaiee i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey 3-4 /ana.

Oi?ioi i?iieeaao a ieaa?aeueioth e ia?eoiiaaeueioth iieinoe,
eaaeea, eo/oa, /ai Oeaia?ei i?iieeaao /a?ac aaiaoiyioeaoaee/aneee
aa?uea?. Iiai/iia aeaenoaea: aeea?aee, iaeo?iiaiey, iao?ioiene/iinoue
+ aieaciaiiinoue i?e aaaaeaiee e oeaaeou.

Oeaoacieei (Eaocie)

Niaeo? oio aea + aieaa neeueiia aeaenoaea ia A?aii (-),
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey aei 10 /ania, iaiueoa
iao?ioiene/iinoue.

Oeaoaeaenei (Oeaia?aen)

Iiaeii i?eiaiyoue aioo?ue, ananuaaaony aei 90%. i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
aeaenoaey 8-12 /ania. Oi?ioi i?iieeaao a i?aaiu, iniaaiii iiiai
niaea?aeeony a eaaeeo.

I?eiaiaiea_.:

Ea/aiea caaieaaaiee eaaeeo, ii/aauaiaeyueo iooae, ianoii – ioeoia,
oiiceeeoia, aiieie/eiauo caaieaaaiee eiaee, inoaiieaeeoia (oi?ioi
i?iieeatho).

Iiai/ii:

Aeeniaioe/aneea ?anno?ienoaa, ia?ooaiey aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai o?aeoa
(ia i/aiue au?aaeaiiua), aeecaaeoa?eic, aeea?aee.

2 iieieaiea

Oeaoaiaiaeie (Iaiaeie), Oeaoaeneoei (Iaoieneoei), Oeaoo?ienei (Ceiaoeao)
– i?eiaiythony aioo?eiuoa/ii e aioo?eaaiii, Oeaoaeei? (Oeaeei?) –
i?eiaiyaony aioo?ue.

Oeaoo?ienei

?anoe?aiiue niaeo? aeaenoaey (20000 ooaiiia), aeaenoaoao e ia A?aii (+)
e ia A?aii (-), a oii /enea ia onoie/eaua e iaieoeeeeeiai e
oeaoaeinii?eiai 1 iieieaiey onoie/ea e ( -eaeoaiacai.
Aaeoa?einoaoe/aneee yooaeo, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue 3-4 /ana (aei 8
/ania). Oi?ioi iiiaaeaao a nieiiie iica, ieaa?aeueioth iieinoue,
ieiiao?ee, aioo?ue aeac, einoioth oeaiue.

Iieacaiey:

Iineaiia?aoeeiiiay eioaeoeey, ia eaeaioeoeoee?iaaiiue aicaoaeeoaeue,
nainen, inoaiieaeeou, iaieiaeou.

Iiai/iua aeaenoaey_.: (au?aaeaiu iaiueoa /ai o 1 iieieaiey) Oeaaeou
(?acae?aaeathuaa aeaenoaea), aeea?aee, iao?ioiene/iinoue.

3 iieieaiea

Auniei aeoeaiu e A?aii (-), aeoeaiu a ioiioaiee neiaaiieiie iaei/ee
(i?aia?ao auai?a). Aunieay onoie/eainoue e ( -eaeoaiacai, iao
ia?ae?anoiie onoie/eainoe e oeaoaeinii?eiai 1 iieieaiey. Aeoeaiinoue ii
ioiioaieth e A?aii (+) ia i?aauoaao aeoeaiinoue iieoneioaoe/aneeo
iaieoeeeeeiia e oeaoaeinii?eiia 1 e 2 iieieaiee.

Oeaoaoienei (Eeaoi?ai), Oeaoie?acii (Oeaoiaeae), Oeaooaceaeei (Oi?ooi).

Oeaoie?acii (Oeaoiaeae)

Oi?ioi i?iieeaao a oeaie, einoue, nieiiiiicaiaoth aeeaeeinoue,
auaeaeyaony n ii/ie e aeae/ueth. I?eiaiyaony i?e naioeoeaiee,
iaieiaeoao, ia?eoiieoao, aeooa?neii nainena, inoaiieaeeoa. Iiai/ii:
aeea?aey, iaeo?iiaiey, ia?ooaiea ooieoeee ia/aie.

eiiaaea – aeeniaioe/aneea ?anno?ienoaa.

Oeaooaceaeei (Oi?ooi)

Oeoeaai ii ioiioaieth e iaei/ea neiacaeaiiai aiiy, yooaeoeaiinoue 94%.
iaiaa oiene/ai.

N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea oeaoaeinii?eiia ?aciuo iieieaiee.

A?aii (+) A?aii (-) Aiay?iau

1 iieieaiea +++ + –

2 iieieaiea ++ ++ +/-

3 iieieaiea + +++ +

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea oeaoaeinii?eiia (eoia)

1 Aeea?ae/aneea ?aaeoeee

2 Iao?ioiene/iinoue (Oeaoaei?eaeei – oeie/ii)

3 Eaeeiiaiey, iaeo?iiaiey (i?e aeeeoaeueiii i?eiaiaiee
aieueoeo aeic)

4 Ia?ooaiey AEEO anee i?eiaiyaony aioo?ue – oioiioa, ?aioa,
aeeniaioe/aneea ?anno?ienoaa, anee aeieai – aeecaaeoa?eic.

5 Eiaeii iieiaeeoaeueiay ?aaeoeey ia naoa? Oeaoaei?eaeei,
Oeaoaeaenei

6 Eoia?eiiiiaeiaiue yooaeo, aeiii?io?iiaeyiey, noaei?iaeiua
?aaeoeee (i?e yiaeiethiaaeueiii aaaaeaiee aieueoeo aeic i?e ea/aiee
iaieiaeoa (aieaa 50 ieeeea?aiiia)).

OAO?AOeEEEEIU

1 iieieaiea:

Oao?aoeeeeei, ieneoao?aoeeeeei

2 iieieaiea:

Aeieneoeeeeei (Aea?iieoeei), Ieiioeeeeei, Iaoaoeeeeei, Ii?oioeeeeei.
Ii?oioeeeeei a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia i?eiaiyaony.

Niaeo? oe?ieee: aeaenoaoao ia ana, e?iia aiiieieeia,
aoeueaa?iiai i?ioay, iaei/ee neiacaeaiiai aiiy, aicaoaeeoaey
ooaa?eoeaca, 70-80 ooaiiia noaoeeieieeia e no?aioieieeia
(onoie/eainoue).

Iaoaieci: Ia?ooaao neioac aaeea

1 Oiaiueoaao yoai aeoeae?iaaiey aieiieeneio e eo naycuaaiea n
o?ainii?oiie ?IE

2 Oaiaoaiea o?ainii?oa ?IE e ?eainiiai

3 Ia?ooaiea aoiaea o?ainii?oiie ?IE ia ?eainiio e n/eouaaiea.

Aeiiieieoaeueiua iaoaieciu aeaenoaey:

1 Ia?aciaaiea oaeaoiuo niaaeeiaiee n eiiaie iaaiey e ia?aaioea.

2 Oaiaoaiea ieeneeoaeueiiai oinoi?eee?iaaiey

3 Ia?ooaiea i?iieoeaaiinoe oeeoiieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu.

Yooaeo aaeoa?einoaoe/aneee, yooaeoeaiinoue i?ioea iieiaeuo oi?i.

Oao?aoeeeeei e Ieneoao?aoeeeeei

I?eiaiythony aioo?ue, ia/aei aeaenoaey /a?ac 1.5-2 /ana,
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aei 8-10 /ania. Aeoeaiinoue ?acei oiaiueoaaony a
i?enoonoaee 2-o e 3-o aaeaioiuo eiiia, aeiaeinooiiinoue nieaeaaony
i?e oiio?aaeaiee iyniie e iiei/iie ieue (neaaeiaaoaeueii oiio?aaeyoue
aei aaeu). Niee oao?aoeeeeeia (aeae?ioei?eae) i?eiaiythony
aioo?eiuoa/ii. Ia/aei aeaenoaey /a?ac 30 ieioo i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
aei 8 /ania. A ieacia naycuaaaony iacia/eoaeueii, oi?ioi i?iieeaao a
ia/aiue, ii/ee, eaaeea. Ecae?aoaeueii iaeaieeaaaony a ainiaeaiiuo
oeaiyo, ia?acoao eiiieaeniiu n eiiaie eaeueoeey, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
ea?eano e inoaiii?ico. Iiiai iaeaieeaaaony a aeae/e, nae?aoe?oaony n
iieieii iaoa?e. Iaeaieeaaaony a ieaa?aeueiie iieinoe, ieioi i?iieeaao
/a?ac aaiaoiyioeaoaee/aneee aa?uea? e a nieiiiiicaiaoth aeeaeeinoue.
I?e ia?yioa?aeueiii aaaaeaiee auaiaeeony a iniiaiii ii/eaie, i?e i?eaia
aioo?ue ia 50% auaiaeeony /a?ac eeoa/iee.

Iaoaoeeeeei

Eo/oa ananuaaaony, aeeeoaeueii aeaenoaoao (i?eai 2 ?aca a nooee),
eoioee?oao, eo/oa i?iieeaao a oeaie, iaiaa oiene/ai.

Aea?iieoeei

Iaiueoa naycuaaaony n 2-o aaeaioiuie eiiaie, eo/oa ananuaaaony,
iaeaaeaao i?ieiiae?iaaiiui aeaenoaeai. Aeica nieaeaia, yooaeoeaiay
eiioeaio?aoeey nio?aiyaony aei 20 /ania, ?anoe?ai niaeo?. I?aia?ao
oi?ioi i?iieeaao a eaaeea, ia eoioee?oao (eee eoioee?oao iaiueoa),
aucuaaao iaiueoa iiai/iuo yooaeoia. Iiaeii i?eiaiyoue i?e ea/aiee ii/ae,
eo?n aei 10 aeiae.

Eeiioeeeeei

Naiue aeoeaiue ec oao?aoeeeeeiia, iaiueoa ia?ae?anoiay onoie/eainoue,
aeiaeinooiiinoue aei 90%. Aeeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey aei 24 /ania.
Eoioee?oao, i?iieeaao /a?ac aaiaoiyioeaoaee/aneee aa?uea?.
Aaeeinoaaiiue i?aia?ao, iiai/iui yooaeoii eioi?iai yaeythony
aanoeaoey?iua ia?ooaiey.

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea oao?aoeeeeeiia (eae i?aaeei i?e aeeeoaeueiii
i?eiaiaiee a aieueoeo aeicao)

1 Aaiaoioiene/iinoue, iniaaiii i?e ia?ooaieyo ooieoeee ia/aie

2 Aeeniaioe/aneea ?anno?ienoaa, a 10-15% – aeea?ay

3 ?acae?aaeaiea neecenoie (i?e i?eaia aioo?ue) – noiiaoeou,
aeinneou.

4 Aeea?aee (?aaeei)

5 Oiaiueoaiea i?io?iiaeia, nieaeaiea eiee/anoaa o?iiaioeeoia
(i?e aeeeoaeueiii i?eiaiaiee a aieueoeo aeicao) – inoi?iaeii i?eiaiyoue
n aioeaa?aaaioaie.

6 Aeecaaeoa?eic ia?aoiaeyuee a eaiaeeaeic e eaiaeeaeiieeic e
i?e caiouaiee a eaiaeeaeinainen.

Iaycaoaeueii ia?aeeaeueiia iacia/aiea i?ioeaia?eaeiauo
i?aia?aoia !

AIOEAEIOEEE (i?iaeieaeaiea)

IAE?IEEAeU

Y?eo?iieoeei, Ieaaiaeiieoeei, 3-aoeaoeeieaaiaeiieoeei.

Eiaeae?oao neioac aaeea ia o?iaia ?eainii – i?eniaaeeiyaony e
?eainiia e i?aiyonoaoao aoiaeo o?ainii?oiie ?IE. A iaaieueoeo aeicao
i?aia?ao ieacuaaao aaeoa?einoaoe/aneia aeaenoaea, a aieueoeo aeicao
ieacuaaao aaeoa?eoeeaeiia aeaenoaea. ?aoeeiiaeueii eiiaeie?iaaoue n
oao?aoeeeeeiii. I?aia?aou auniei aeoeaiu i?ioea A?aii (+) eieeia, a oii
/enea onoie/eauo e iaieoeeeeeio e oao?aoeeeeeio. Anoue aeoeaiinoue
i?ioea A?aii (-) eieeia, ?eeeaonee e a?ooeaee, iaei aeoeaiu i?ioea
A?aii (-) iaei/ae. Oi?ioi i?iieeatho aioo?ue eeaoie, iaeaaeatho
ieceie oiene/iinoueth. I?eieiathony yioa?aeueii, oi?ioi ananuaathony
(aeiaeinooiiinoue caaeneo io eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie /onoaeoaeueiinoe).

3-aoeaoeeieaaiaeiieoeei ananuaaaony eo/oa ae?oaeo i?aia?aoia
a?oiiu. I?aia?aou iacia/aaony a aeica 0.5 a (500000 AAe). Ia/aei
aeaenoaey /a?ac 2-3 /ana, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue 6-8 /ania.

O 3-aoeaoeeieaaiaeiieoeeia aeaenoaea ia/eiaaony auno?aa e aeeeony
aeieueoa. Eiiaaea iae?ieeaeu aaiaeyony ia?yioa?aeueii (aioo?eiuoa/ii),
ii o yoiai niiniaa iao iniauo i?aeiouanoa: ia/aei aeaenoaey /a?ac 20-40
ieioo e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue 4-6 /ania.

Iae?ieeaeu oi?ioi i?iieeatho a i?aaiu e oeaie, iiiai iaeaieeaaaony a
ia/aie (nae?aoe?othony /a?ac aeae/ue), eaaeeo, i?e ainiaeaiee
i?iieeatho /a?ac aaiaoiyioeaoaee/aneee aa?uea?. Auaeaeythony a iniiaiii
/a?ac ii/ee (/a?ac eeoa/iee – 30%).

Iieacaiey e i?eiaiaieth:

Iiaaiiiee ?acenoaioiua e ae?oaei aioeaeioeeai, aiieiua ieaa?eou, ?aiaaay
eioaeoeey, eioaeoeey ii/aauaiaeyueo iooae.

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea:

Aeeniaioe/aneea ?anno?ienoaa (aeeneiioi?o, oioiioa, ?aioa –
?aaea), aeea?aey, eaea?noaaiiay aeaeoooa (oa?aeoa?ii aeey
3-aoeaoeeieaaiaeiieoeeia).

Ieaoao?ei_. (1/3 Ieaaiaeiieoeeia + 2/3 Oao?aoeeeeeia)

Oaaee/aia ananuaaaiinoue, eo/oa i?iieeaao a i?aaiu, oe?a niaeo?
aeaenoaey, iaaeeaiiaa iiyaeythony onoie/eaua oi?iu. Oao?aieaai – oiaea
naiia, ii iiaeii aaiaeeoue aioo?eiuoa/ii.

Ieaii?oioeeeeei – iiaeii aaiaeeoue aioo?eaaiii e aioo?eiuoa/ii,
ii inoaeinue ianoii?acae?aaeathuaa aeaenoaea (oeaaeou). ?iciieoeei –
oaaee/aiiay aeoeaiinoue e A?aii (-) iaei/eai. Ieaeaeaieoeei
(Iae?iiai) – oaaee/aia aeoeaiinoue i?ioea A?aii (+), iniaaiii
i?ioea noaoeeieieeia. I?aia?ao ?aca?aa a neo/aa noaoeeieieeiaiai
nainena.

Aceo?iieoeei (Noiaiaae) – Iaeaaeaao aaeoa?eoeeaeiui aeaenoaeai,
niaeo? aeaenoaey oe?a, /ai y?eo?iieoeei, aeeth/aao ieeiieaci e
oeaieaeee, oiaiueoaia aeoeaiinoue i?ioea eeoa/iuo aaeoa?ee, i?eieiaaony
aioo?ue, i?ieiiae?iaaiiia aeaenoaea (1 ?ac a nooee).

A?OIIA EAAIIEOeAOEIA

Eaaiieoeaoei e aai niee (noaa?ao (Yoeaaiieoeaoei) – ia iaeaaeaao
ai?ueeei aeonii e ianoiui ?acae?aaeathuei aeaenoaeai). Noeoeeiao
eaaiieoeaoeia – i?eiaiyaony aeey ia?yioa?aeueiiai aaaaeaiey.
Neioiieoeei – nianue eaai- e i?aaia?auathueo oi?i (iaeaaeaao
iieiaeiiie aeoeaiinoueth). I?aia?aou aeaiiie a?oiiu aeoeaiu a ioiioaiee
noaoeeieieeia ?acenoaioiuo e iaieoeeeeeio e oao?aoeeeeeio, A?aii (-)
iaei/eai, nie?ioaoai, ?eeeaoneyi. I?aia?aou auai?a aeey ea/aiey eeoa/iuo
eioaeoeee.

Iaoaieci aeaenoaey:

Oaiaoatho neioac aaeea

1 I?eniaaeeiyynue e ?eainiia

2 Oi?iicyo o?IE

3 Ia?ooatho ooieoeee iieeia?ac e o?ainiaioeaeac

4 ?ac?ooatho iieeiaioeaeiua nayce

Iaeaaeatho aaeoa?einoaoe/aneei aeaenoaeai. I?eaiaeyo e aeoeaaoeee
neioaca eeaoi/iie noaiee (ia iacia/aoue aianoa n iaieoeeeeeiaie –
aeaenoaea i?ioeaiiieiaeii).

I?ioeaiiee?iaiia aeaenoaea neeueii oaiaoaaony a uaei/iie n?aaea, i?e
?I = 9 aeaenoaea iiaeao en/acaoue. Ananuaathony aei 90%, noaa?ao –
aeaaea aieueoa. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey 5-6 /ania. O aeaoae e
iniaaiii iiai?iaeaeaiuo aeeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey cia/eoaeueii aieueoa,
/ai o ac?ineuo. I?aia?aou oi?ioi i?iieeatho a ia/aiue, ieaa?aeueioth e
ia?eoiiaaeueioth iieinoue, nae?aoe?othony a iieiei iaoa?e.
I?eiaiaiea: 1,2,3 – iniiaiia

1 Aaeoa?eaeueiua aeecaioa?ee

2 A?thoiie oeo

3 A?ooeaeeac

4 Ieaeioeenoeo

5 ?eeeaoneicu

6 Nainen (Noeoeeiao eaaiieoeaoeia)

I?aia?aou oiene/iu, eo iiai/iia aeaenoaea: Oeea?ae/aneea
?aaeoeee, ?acae?aaeathuaa aeaenoaea ia AEEO (aeea?ay e ?aioa) –
i?eiaiythony oieueei a noaoeeiia?a, aa?aioeioeeoicu (i?iecaiaeeoue
eiio?ieue ea?oeiu e?iae), ineoiiioi?iua ?aaeoeee (oa?aeoa?ii aeey
noeoeeiaoa), io?eoeaoaeueiia eiio?iiiia aeaenoaea, eaiaeeaeic,
eaiaeeaeiieeic.

A?OIIA AIEIIAEEEICEAeIA

Iiaea?oiia No?aioiieoeeia

Noeueoao No?aioiieoeeia aue ioe?uo a 1943 aiaeo.

Aeeaeae?ino?aioiieoeei, noeueoao, iaioioaiao (nieue iaioioaiiaie
eeneiou), anei?aeiao no?aioiieoeeia. Oei?eaeueoeeaaue eiiieaen
no?aioiieoeeia – aeey yiaeiethiaaeueiiai aaaaeaiey.

I?eiaiaiea:

1 Iniiaiia – ea/aiea ooaa?eoeaca

2 A?ooeaeeac

3 Ooey?aiey

4 Iaeioi?ua aeaeu naeueiiiaee

I/aiue auno?i iiyaeythony onoie/eaua oi?iu.

Iaoaieci aeaenoaey:

Ia?ooaiea neioaca aaeea ca n/ao oeene?iaaiey ia ?eainiia (a
ae?oaii ianoa ioiineoaeueii iaieoeeeeeiia), ia?ooaiea
i?ino?ainoaaiiie eiioeao?aoeee iao?e/iie e o?ainii?oiie ?IE, i?ienoiaeeo
naeaea o?eieaoiiai eiaea e aicieeaao 2 aiciiaeiinoe:

1 Aieiieeneioa ia ano?aeaaaony ia naia ianoi – ia?ooaiea neioaca
aaeea

2 Ano?aeaaaony ae?oaay aieiieeneioa – neioace?oaony /oaea?iaeiue
aeey eeaoee aaeie – ia?ooaiea ooieoeee eeaoee.

E?iia yoiai aeaenoaey iaeaaeatho niiniaiinoueth ?ac?ooaoue
oeeoiieaciaoe/aneoth iaia?aio, /oi i?eaiaeeo e:

1 Ia?ooaieth iniina

2 Oaaee/aiea aoiaea naiiai i?aia?aoa aioo?ue eeaoee

3 Neia?aeci n iaieoeeeeeiii

I?eiaiythony ia?yioa?aeueii (aeoeaiinoue nieaeaaony a i?enoonoaee
aaeeiauo i?eianae, ieeneeoaeae), a aeaea ay?icieae, yiaeiethiaaeueii.
I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey 8-10 /ania. I?aia?aou neeueii
i?iieeatho a eaaeea, ii/ee,iieinoe e aeeaeeinoe, i?e ainiaeaiee – /a?ac
aaiaoiyioeaoaee/aneee aa?uea?, i/aiue eaaei i?iieeatho /a?ac
ieaoeaioo. Auaiaeyony /a?ac ii/ee (60-80%)

I?eiaiaiea:

Ooaa?eoeac, aaeoa?eaeueiua yiaeiea?aeeou, iiaaiiiee,
a?ooeaeeac, ia?eoiieo

I?aia?aou oiene/iu – i?eiaiythony oieueei a noaoeeiia?a.

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea

1 Ii?aaeaiea neooa (iaia?aoeiue iaa?eo neooiaiai ia?aa,
ia?ooaiea ei?oeaaa aiia?aoa, ia?ooaiey oeaio?aeueiie /anoe neooiaiai
?aoeaioi?a – i?eaiaeeo e iaia?aoeiie iioa?a neooa).

2 Ii?aaeaiey aanoeaoey?iiai aiia?aoa

3 Iao?iiaoe/aneia aeaenoaea

Iaioioaiao – iaiueoa iiai/iuo yooaeoia (aeea?aey, ii?aaeaiey
ia/aie).

A?oiia i?aia?aoia 1-ai iieieaiey Iiiiieoeei, Iaiieoeei,
Eaiaieoeei.

Iaiieoeeia noeueoao

Oe?ieee niaeo? aeaenoaey e?iia aiay?iaia, ii iaoaiecio i?eia?ii
niioaaonoaoao no?aioiieoeeio, ii iaeaaeaao aaeoa?eoeeaeiui yooaeoii –
iaiueoay nei?inoue ?acaeoey onoie/eauo oi?i.

I?e i?eiaiaiee aioo?eiuoa/ii auno?i ananuaaaony e aeaenoaoao 8-10
/ania. Ec eeoa/ieea ia ananuaaaony – anee i?eiaiyaony yioa?aeueii, oi
aeey ea/aiey ianoiuo eeoa/iuo eioaeoeee.

I?eiaiyaony aeey ea/aiey yioa?eoia, eieeoia, noa?eeecaoeee
eeoa/ieea i?e iia?aoeeyo ia eeoa/ieea, ianoii aeey ea/aiey aiieiuo
ii?aaeaiee eiaee.

Iiiiieoeei

Iioiae ia Iaiieoeei, ii neaaaa aeaenoaoao ia iiaaiieieee e
no?aioieieee, aeaenoaoao ia i?inoaeoeo: aiaaa, eaeoiaiey. I?e
ia?yioa?aeueiii aaaaeaiee i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey 2-2.5
/ana. I?eiaiaiea: yioa?eou, oiene/aneea aeeniainee, aiaaiay
aeecaioa?ey, eioaeoeee ii/aauaiaeyueo iooae, eiaeiue eaeoiaieic.

Eaiaieoeeia noeueoao e iiiinoeueoao

Niaeo? iioiae ia iiiiieoeei, aeaaiia i?eiaiaiea – ea/aiea ooaa?eoeaca,
iiaeao aeaenoaiaaoue ia no?aioieiee onoie/eaue e ae?oaei
aioeaeioeeai. I?e aioo?eiuoa/iii aaaaeaiee i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
aeaenoaey 8-10 /ania. Oi?ioi i?iieeaao a eaaeea, a?iioeaeueioth
neecue, aeae/ue, i?e ainiaeaiee i?ioiaeeo /a?ac aaiaoiyioeaoaee/aneee
aa?uea?, i?ioiaeeo /a?ac ieaoeaioo. Auaiaeeony ii/eaie. ssaeyaony
?aca?aiui n?aaenoaii aeey ea/aiey ooaa?eoeaca.

I?aia?aou oiene/iu, iiai/iia aeaenoaea:

1 Ioioiene/aneia – iaiaoiaeeii aeaeaoue aoaeeia?aiiu e i?e
ia?ooaiee neooa – ioiaieoue

2 Iao?ioiene/aneia

3 Eo?a?yiiaeiaiia (oneeeaaao aeaenoaea iei?aeaenaioia – iiaeao
i?eaiaeeoue e ia?ooaieth aeuoaiey)

4 Aeeniaioe/aneea ?anno?ienoaa, eiiaaea – oeaio?aeueiiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey

5 Aeea?aee

Iaeuecy eiiaeie?iaaoue ?aciua aieiiaeeeiceaeu iaaeaeo niaie – yoi
i?eaiaeeo e oneeaieth ioi- e iao?ioiene/aneiai aeaenoaey.

2-a iieieaiea_. – Aaioaieoeei

3-a iieieaiea_. – Oia?aieoeei e Aieeaoeei.

O i?aia?aoia 2-ai e 3-ai iieieaiee oaaee/aia aioeiee?iaiay
aeoeaiinoue (3-a iieieaiea > 2-a iieieaiea > 1-a iieieaiea), ?anoe?ai
niaeo? aeaenoaey (oaaee/aia aeoeaiinoue ii ioiioaieth e
yioa?iaaeoa?eyi), oaaee/aia i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey, iaiueoa
ia?ae?anoiay oiea?aioiinoue, iaiueoa ioi- e iao?ioiene/iinoue. I?aia?aou
?aca?aa!

I?eiaiaiea:

1 Oyaeaeay aiieiay eioaeoeey ?acenoaioiay e ae?oaei i?aia?aoai

2 Niaoaiiay eioaeoeey

3 Nainen

4 Oyaeaeua eioaeoeee aeuoaoaeueiiai e o?iaaieoaeueiiai o?aeoa

5 Inoaiieaeeou

?ACIUA I?AIA?AOU NO?AOAAE*ANEIAI ?ACA?AA

Iaieoeeeeeiu 4-ai iieieaiey

Iaceioeeeeei, Aceioeeeeei (i?iecaiaeiua Aiieoeeeeeia). Eo/oa
i?iieeatho a eeaoee, auaeaeythony a aeoeaiie oi?ia (i?eiaiythony aeey
ea/aiey eioaeoeee ii/aauaiaeyueo iooae), oaaee/aia nae?aoeey a
aeae/ue, ?anoe?ai niaeo? aeaenoaey (aeaenoaotho ia A?aii (+) e A?aii
(-), i?ioae, yioa?ieiee, neiaaiieiay iaei/ea. Oeaeaniia?acii ni/aoaoue
n aieiiaeeeiceaeaie e oeaoaeinii?eiaie 2-ai e 3-ai iieieaiee.

?eoaieoeei

Aeoeaai a ioiioaiee no?aioieieeia onoie/eauo e ae?oaei aioeaeioeeai,
aicaoaeeoaey neae?neie ycau, aaciaie aaia?aiu, iaeaaeaao
aioeooaa?eoeaciui aeaenoaeai, aeaenoaoao a eiioeaio?aoeee 0.01 ia/ie.
IA aeoeaai a ioiioaiee eeoa/iie oei?u, i?ioay, naeueiiiaee, oeaaee.

Oi?ioi i?iieeaao a i?aaiu e oeaie, yooaeo i?eaeeaeaaony e
aaeoa?eoeeaeiiio, i?e yioa?aeueiii aaaaeaiee i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
aeaenoaey 6-8 /ania. Naeaeoeaii iaeaieeaaaony a aeae/e (eiioeaio?aoeey
a 1000 ?ac aieueoa, /ai a ieacia). I?aia?ao i?ioiaeeo /a?ac
aaiaoiyioeaoaee/aneee aa?uea?. I/aiue auno?i ?acaeaaaony onoie/eainoue
– i?eiaiaiea oieueei ii ia?aie/aiiui iieacaieyi:

Noaoeeieieee ?acenoaioiua e ae?oaei i?aia?aoai, aanoeannu,
yiieaiu, nainen, oieaoeenoeou, oieaiaeou, ooaa?eoeac.

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea:

Aeea?aee, oeaaeou i?e aioo?eaaiiii aaaaeaiee, ia?ooaiey
ooieoeee ia/aie

?eoaiieoeei

?anoe?ai niaeo? aeaenoaey ii n?aaiaieth n ?eoaieoeeiii. Oi?ioi
ananuaaaony, aeaenoaoao ia i?ioae, no?aioieieee ?acenoaioiua e
iieoneioaoe/aneei iaieoeeeeeiai, aeoeaai a ioiioaiee a?ooeaee,
aicaoaeeoaey eai?u. Iiaeaaeyao neioac ?IE, iaeaaeaao aaeoa?eoeeaeiui
yooaeoii. Oeaeaniia?acii eiiaeie?iaaoue n oao?aoeeeeeiii,
iae?ieeaeaie.

I?eiaiaiea: ooaa?eoeac (iniiaiia), eai?a, aiii?ay onoie/eaay e
ae?oaei aioeaeioeeai.

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea:

Oioiioa, ?aioa, aaiaoioiene/iinoue, aeea?aee,ie?aoeaaiea ii/e e neac a
i?aiaeaaue oeaao.

Eeieiieoeei

Aeoeaai a ioiioaiee A?aii (+): no?aioieiee, iiaaiieiee onoie/eaua e
ae?oaei aioeaeioeeai. aeaenoaoao ia aicaoaeeoaeue neae?neie ycau,
aaciaie aaia?aiu. IA aeaenoaoao ia A?aii (-). Oi?ioi ananuaaaony,
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey aei 12 /ania. Oi?ioi i?iieeaao a
ia/aiue, ii/ee, /a?ac ieaoeaioo (a e?iae ieiaea aei 60-85%).
Nae?aoe?oaony a iieiei – aei 60-80%. Oi?ioi i?iieeaao a einoioth oeaiue
– aei 25%. Auaeaeyaony n ii/ie.

I?eiaiaiea:

Nainen, oyaeaeua caaieaaaiey eaaeeo (yiieaiu, aanoeannu),
naioe/aneea yiaeiea?aeeou, ino?ue e o?iie/aneee inoaiieaeeo.

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea:

Ia?ooaiey AEEO (aeea?ae, eieeou), o?iiaioeeoiiaiey, aeea?aee, i?e
aioo?eaaiiii aaaaeaiee – eieeain.

?enoiieoeei

Auniei aeoeaai e A?aii (+) onoie/eaui e ae?oaei i?aia?aoai, o A?aii (-)
– ia?ae/iay onoie/eainoue. Ia?ooaao neioac eeaoi/iie noaiee (eiaeae?oao
iieeia?ecaoeeth io?aiee-iaioeaeia).

Aaiaeeony aioo?eaaiii a aeica 10000-20000 AAe. Yioa?aeueii ieioi
ananuaaaony, auaiaeeony /a?ac ii/ee – 80%. Eaaei i?iieeaao a eeioo.

I?eiaiaiea: no?aioieieee onoie/eaua e ae?oaei aioeaeioeeai.

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea: o?iiaioeaaeou, aeea?aee, eaeei- e
iaeo?iiaiey, ioi- e iao?ioiene/aneia aeaenoaea.

Aaieiieoeei

Iaeaaeaao aaeoa?eoeeaeiui yooaeoii, iioeiaeueiay ?I = 8. Aeoeaai a
ioiioaiee iaoeoeeeeei-onoie/eauo noaoeeieieeia, IA aeaenoaoao ia
A?aii (-). Ia?ooaao neioac eeaoi/iie noaiee.

I?eiaiaiea: Oyaeaeay noaoeeieieeiaay eioaeoeey ?acenoaioiay e
iaoeoeeeeeio, i?e aeea?aeyo e iaieoeeeeeio (nieaeaia aeea?aaiiinoue).

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea: ioioiene/aneia, aeea?aee, iaeiieaiea a eaaeeo e
ieaa?a, iao?ioiene/iinoue.

Eeeiaeiieoeei_. (i?iecaiaeiia Eeieiieoeeia)

Aeoeaai a ioiioaiee A?aii (+) eieeia, eeino?eaeee, aiay?iaia. Eo/oa
ananuaaaony, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey aei 12 /ania. Iiiai
i?iieeaao a ieiiao?ee, ia/aiue (iinooiaao a aeae/ue a aeoeaiie
oi?ia).

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea: ia?ooaiey AEEO (?aioa, aii?aeney, aeea?ay
(aei 30%)). Aucuaaao eieeou – aeieaeai i?eiaiyoueny no?iai ii
iieacaieyi.

Yooaeoeaii ni/aoaiea n Oia?aieoeeiii.

Oeaiai

Eieiaiai + noaaeeecaoi?.

Eieiaiai – naiue iiuiue n?aaee nouanoaothueo aioeaeioeeia. Iaeaaeaao
aaeoa?eoeeaeiui yooaeoii ii ioiioaieth ei anai eeeie/anee cia/eiui
oi?iai aicaoaeeoaeae. Onoie/ea e aaoa-eaeoaiacai, Au?aaeaiiue e
aeeeoaeueiue yooaeo iinea ioiaiu i?aia?aoa.

Noaaeeecaoi? (Oeeeinoaoei) – aunieiniaoeeoe/iue eiaeaeoi?
aeeaeae?iiaioeaeacu, eioi?ay iaania/eaaao auaeaeaiea Eieiaiaia /a?ac
ii/ee. 70% auaeaeyaony a iaeciaiaiiii aeaea.

Ieceay i?iieoeaaiinoue aaeoa?eaeueiie noaiee – auno?i i?ioiaeeo
/a?ac niaoeeaeueiua eaiaeu. Aaoa-eaeoaiacu iaaeaeo eeaoi/iie noaieie e
oeeoiieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiie – onoie/ea. Eciaiaiiue o/anoie
naycuaaiey – naycuaaaony n ae?oaei ioiineoaeueii iaieoeeeeeiia o/anoeii.
I?aeoe/anee ia au?aaaouaaaony ?acenoaioiinoue. Ia eoioee?oao,
iacia/eoaeueii iiaeeoeoee?oaony ia/aiueth. Naycuaaaony n aaeeaie ieaciu
ia aieaa 20-25% (aeoeaai). Inoi?iaeiinoue i?e:

Caaieaaaieyo AEEO (eieeoao), aa?aiaiiinoe (i?eiaiaiea ii aeeciaiiui
iieacaieyi), i?e a?oaeiii anea?ieeaaiee, aeaoyi, i?e ia?ooaiee ooieoeee
ii/ae, /a?aiiiiicaiauo o?aaiao.

Ni/aoaiea i?aia?aoia YOOAEO

Iaieoeeeeeiu + aieiiaeeeiceaeu

Iae?ieeaeu + iaieoeeeeeiu, oeaoaeinii?eiu, iieeieeneiu, eaaiieoeaoei.
i?e aaaaeaiee a iaeiii oi?eoea eee iineaaeiaaoaeueii – nieaeaiea
aioeaaeoa?eaeueiie aeoeaiinoe

Oao?aoeeeeei + iiei/iua i?iaeoeou (+ i?aia?aou aeaeaca) Nieaeaiea
aeiaeinooiiinoe

Iae?ieeaeu + na?aea/iua aeeeiceaeu Oaaee/aiea ananuaaiey na?aea/iuo
aeeeiceaeia

Iae?ieeaeu + oaioeeeei Oiaiueoaiea aeiaeinooiiiinoe iae?ieeaeia ec AEEO

Oao?aoeeeeei + na?aea/iua aeeeiceaeu Oaaee/aiea ananuaaiey na?aea/iuo
aeeeiceaeia

Eeeai? Eaaiieoeaoei, Oeaoaeinii?ei

Ia?eea?ae, ieaa?a, a?thoeia Oao?aoeeeeeiu,
Oeaoaeinii?eiu 2-ai e 3-ai iieieaiee, Oeaiai, Aieiiaeeeiceaeu,
Aaieiieoeei

AEae/ue Iaieoeeeeeiu, Oao?aoeeeeeiu, ?eoaiieoeei,
Eeieiieoeei

Einoe Eeieiieoeei, Eeeiaeiieoeei, Oeaaeinii?eiu,
Oeaiai, Oao?aoeeeeeiu

Ieaoeaioa AIEUeOEINOAI

Iao?ioiene/iinoue Oeaoaeinii?eiu, Iaoaoeeeeei, Aieiiaeeeiceaeu

Ioioiene/iinoue Aieiiaeeeiceaeu

Aaiaoioiene/iinoue ?eoaiieoeei, Oao?aoeeeeei, Iae?ieeaeu

Oaiaoaiea e?iaaoai?aiey Eaaiieoeaoei, Aaieiieoeei,
i?ioeaiiiooieaaua aioeaeioeee

AIOEA?EAEIAUA AIOEAEIOEEE

I?aeoe/anee iao aioeaaeoa?eaeueiie aeoeaiinoe ii aeaenoaotho ia
a?eau ?iaea Candida. I?eiaiythony a ni/aoaiee ni n?aaenoaaie
aeaenoaothueie ia eeoa/ioth oei?o

Ienoaoei

Ieioi ananuaaaony, aeoeaiinoue nieaeaaony a i?enoonoaee 2-o aaeaioiuo
eiiia, i?eiaiyaony yioa?aeueii ii 0.5

Eaai?ei

Aeiiieieoaeueiue yooaeo i?ioea o?eoiiiiaae. Aaiaoioiene/ai, aucuaaao
ia?ooaiey AEEO.

Aioioa?eoeei

I?eiaiyaony aeey ai?ueau n a?eaeaie onoie/eaui e Ienoaoeio e Eaai?eio.
I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey aei 8 /ania, i?e ia?ooaiee ooieoeee
ii/ae – aei 15 aeiae, neeiiai e eoioeyoeee. I?eiaiyaony i?e
aaia?aeeciaaiiii eaiaeeaeinainena, a?eaeao ?acenoaioiuo e Eaai?eio e
Ienoaoeio. Iiai/ii: aeea?aey, iao?ioiene/iinoue.

Ieeiaaioei

Aiaeia Aioioa?eoeeia, i?eiaiyaony yioa?aeueii, Oi?ioi ananuaaaony e
i?iieeaao a oeaie, i?aia?ao auai?a aeey aenoea?aeueiuo eaiaeeaeicia

NEIOAOE*ANEEA OEIEIOA?AIAAOE*ANEEA N?AAeNOAA

NOEUeOAIEEAIEAeU

Onooiatho ii aeoeaiinoe aioeaeioeeai, ii eiatho i?aeiouanoaa:

1 Iaeay oiene/iinoue (iiaeii i?eiaiyoue a aiaoeaoi?iie i?aeoeea)

2 Iao i?ioeaiiieacaiee a aeaoneii aic?anoa

3 Ioiineoaeueii ieceea oeaiu

I?aia?aou iaeaaeatho aaeoa?einoaoe/aneei i?ioeaiiee?iaiui yooaeoii (a
oneiaeyo eiioiiaeaoeoeeoa ia aeoeaiu), aeoeaiu oieueei i?ioea
aeaeyueony ooaiiia.

Iaoaieci aeaenoaey_.:

1 Eiieo?aioiia eiaeae?iaaiea IAAE (ia?aaieiiaaicieiie
eeneiou). Ooieoeey IAAE – noano?ao aeey iino?iaiey oieeaaie eeneiou).
IAAE + ioa?ei + aeooaieiiaay eeneioa = aeeaeae?ioieeaaay eeneioa.
?aaeoeey eaeao iiae aeaenoaeai oa?iaioa oieaoneioaoacu.
Aeeaeae?ioieeaaay eeneioa + 2 i?ioiia aiaei?iaea =
oao?aaeae?ioieeaaay eeneioa (eiyicei F). ?aaeoeey eaeao iiae
aeaenoaeai oa?iaioa oieao?aaeoeoacu. Eiyicei F iaiaoiaeei aeey
aeoeaaoeee iaeiioaea?iaeiuo niaaeeiaiee, eioi?ua eniieuecothony i?e
neioaca acioenouo iniiaaiee. Ionoonoaea eee iaaeinoaoie acioenouo
iniiaaiee i?eaiaeeo e ia?ooaieth neioaca ioeeaeiiauo eeneio e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii aaeeia iee?iaiie eeaoee.

2 Eiieo?aioiia naycuaaiea ioa?eia.

3 Eiaeae?iaaiea oieaoneioaoacu. Ec iaoaiecia aeaenoaey i?aia?aoia
neaaeoao:

1.I?aia?aou aeaenoaotho oieueei a aunieeo eiioeaio?aoeeyo
(eiioeaio?aoeey i?aia?aoa a ianoa aeaenoaey aeieaeia i?aauoaoue
eiioeaio?aoeeth IAAE a aeanyoee e nioie ?ac)

2.Noeueoaieeaieaeu iaeioiene/iu aeey aeeaioiuo eeaoie (a oii
/enea aeey eeaoie /aeiaaea) ec-ca oiai, /oi a aeeaioiuo eeaoeao ia
i?ienoiaeeo neioac aeeaeae?ioieeaaie eeneiou (iia caoaaouaaaony
aioiaie). Ii a ia/aie i?ienoiaeeo aeae?e?iaaiea aeeaeae?ioieeaaie
eeneiou iiae aeaenoaeai oieao?aaeoeoacu.

3.A n?aaeao n aunieeie eiioeaio?aoeeyie IAAE i?ioeaiiee?iaiay
aeoeaiinoue i?aia?aoia nieaeaaony (iaoeaeaniia?acii eniieueciaaoue a
aiieiii i/aaa)

4.Anee iee?ii?aaieci ia/eiaao neioace?iaaoue IAAE a aieueoeo
eiee/anoaao – noaiiaeony ?acenoaioiui e aeaenoaeth noeueoaieeaieaeia.

Niaeo? aeaenoaey – oe?ieee:

A?aii (-) e A?aii (+) eieee, A?aii (-) aaeoa?ee, aicaoaeeoaeue
oiea?u, oeaieaeee (aicaoaeeoaeue o?aoiiu), i?inoaeoea (aicaoaeeoaeue
iaey?ee e oieniieaciica), aeoeiiieoeaou (aicaoaeeoaee aeoaieeo
(nenoaiiuo) ieeicia).

Ia?aie/aiiia aeaenoaey a ioiioaiee: neiaaiieiie iaei/ee,
a?ooeaeeu, yioa?ieieeia.

Eeanneoeeaoeey

1 Ii ananuaaieth

Ieioi ananuaathony Oi?ioi ananuaathony

(iaeaaeatho oieueei ianoiui

aeaenoaeai) ana inoaeueiua

Ooaeacie,Noeueaei,Aeenoeueoi?iei,

Naeacii?iecaiaeiua (Naeaciie?eaeacei)

2 Ii aeeeoaeueiinoe yooaeoa:

Oei aeaenoaey Ia?eiae iieoauaaaeaiey Oaea?iay aeica Iiaeaea?aeeaathuay
aeica *anoioa i?eaia I?aia?aou

Ei?ioeiai <10 /ania 4-6 a 2-3 a 4-6 a nooN?aaeiaai 10-24 / 2-3 1-2 2-4 a nooee Noeueoacei, Iaoeenoeueoacei, NoeueoaiaoienacieAeeeoaeueii-ai >24 / 1-2 0.5-1 1 a nooee Noeueoaiiiiiaoaenei,
Noeueoaie?eaeacei, Ooacei, Noeueoaaeeiaoienei

Noeueoaie?eaeacei e Noeueoaaeeiaoienei i?i/ii naycuaathony n aaeeaie
ieaciu, /oi i?eaiaeeo e iaei-

ieaieth (eoioeyoeee) i?aia?aoia – i?ieiiae?iaaiiiio aeaenoaeth

Naa?oaeeeoaeueiiai aeaenoaey – Noeueoaeai (oiaea naycuaaaony n aaeeaie
ieaciu). I?e yeno?aiaeueiuo neooaoeeyo oaea?iay aeica 1a,
iiaeaea?aeeaathuay aeica – 0.25 a, i?eiaiyaony 1 ?ac a nooee.

I?e o?iie/aneeo ninoiyieyo oaea?iay aeica 2 a, i?eiaiyaony 1 ?ac a
iaaeaeth.

I?aia?aou aeeeoaeueiiai e naa?oaeeeoaeueiiai aeaenoaey ioee/athony
aieueoae oiene/iinoueth.

Aaeo?ei_. (Aenaioie)

O?eiaoii?ei (80 ia), eiaeae?oao oieao?aaeoeoaco + Noeueoaieeaieaeu
(400 ia), eiaeae?oao oieaoneioaoaco. Ca n/ao eiiaeie?iaaiiiai aeaenoaey
Aenaioie aeaenoaoao ia 60-95% ooaiiia (iau/iua i?aia?aou aeaenoaotho
ia 60% ooaiiia). Iaoaaieece?oaony a oiene/aneea aauanoaa (yiieneaeu).

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea: Eaeeiiaiey,
aa?aioeioeeoic, o?iiaioeeoiiaiey.

I?ioeaiiieacaiey e Aenaioieo:

1 Aa?aiaiiinoue

2 Caaieaaaiey e?iaaoai?iuo i?aaiia

I?eiaiaiea noeueoaieeaieaeia:

Eioaeoeee ii/aauaiaeyueo iooae (eeoa/iay iaei/ea, i?ioae) – ino?ua e
o?iie/aneea oeenoeou, ieaeeou, aneiioiiaoe/aneay aaoeeeeo?ey.

Aaeoa?eaeueiay aeecaioa?ey (i?eiaiythony i?aia?aou ia ananuaathueany
– Ooaeacie, Noeueaei). A oyaeaeu neo/ayo iacia/aaony Aenaioie (2
oaaeaoee 2 ?aca a aeaiue a oa/aiee 5 aeiae).

I?ioeeaeoeea iaieiaieieeiaie eioaeoeee

Eioaeoeee aeae/aauaiaeyueo iooae (oieaoeenoeo, oieaiaeo) – i?eiaiyaony
Noeueoaeai, Noeueoaie?eaeacei.

?iaeenoia ainiaeaiea – ianoiia e nenoaiiia i?eiaiaiea

Eioaeoeee aeac (eiiuethieoeaeou,aeaoa?eou) – i?eiaiyaony Aeueaooeeae

Eioaeoeee aa?oieo aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae.

O?aoiia (ianoii e nenoaiii)

Iaey?ey – Noeueoacei (+ i?ioeaiiaey?eeiua i?aia?aou ae?oaeo a?oii)

Oieniieaciic (+ ei?oeeinoa?ieaeu)

Aeoaieea ieeicu

Nainen – aioo?eaaiiia aaaaeaiea Yoacie-iao?ee, Ii?noeueoacie-iao?ee
(1-2 a 5-10% ?anoai?a).

Ianiaoeeoe/aneee ycaaiiue eieeo

Naeacii?iecaiaeiua

?aniaaeathony ia naeaciaoth eeneioo (i?ioeaiainiaeeoaeueiia aeaenoaea)
e noeueoaieeaieae i?ioeaiiee?iaiia aeaenoaea).

Iiai/iua yooaeou:

Aeeniaioe/aneea ?anno?ienoaa

Ia?ooaiey oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie nenoaiu (1%)

Aeea?aee (5-10%)

Ia?ooaiea e?iaaoai?aiey (eaeeiiaiey, o?iiaioeeoiiaiey)

Aaiieeoe/aneay aiaiey (?aaeei)

Iieeiaa?eou (en/acatho iinea ioiaiu)

Ii?aaeaiey ii/ae (5%). Au?aaeaaony a iciiaa (iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u),
aaiaoo?ee, aieyo a iiynieoea. Noeueoaieeaieaeu iiaoo auiaaeaoue a
inaaeie, eo aoeaoeee?iaaiiua i?iecaiaeiua

ieioi ?anoai?eiu a eeneie n?aaea.

Ia?u i?ioeeaeoeee iiai/iuo yaeaiee:

Iacia/aoue uaei/iia ieouea, ia ?aeiiaiaeothony eeneua i?iaeoeou
(oiaiueoaiea ?enea e?enoaeeo?ee). Iacia/aaony niaea (5-10 a/nooee) e
iieeaeoaieiiua i?aia?aou (iniaaiii aeoaieiu a?oiiu A).

I?IECAIAeIUA OEIIENAEEIA

Oeiieneaeei (oaaeaoee), Aeeieneaeei (aioo?eaaiii, aioo?ue
iieinoae). I?aia?aou iaeaaeatho aaeoa?eoeeaeiui aeaenoaeai e
i?eiaiythony i?e oyaeaeuo oi?iao aiieii-iae?ioe/aneeo i?ioeannia. Niaeo?
aeaenoaey – oe?ieee: i?ioae, neiaaiieiay iaei/ea, iaei/ea
O?eaeeaiaea?a, eeoa/iay iaei/ea, noaoeeieiee, no?aioieieee,
noaoeeieieee, aicaoaeeoaee aaciaie aaia?aiu e aeecaioa?ee. Aeaenoaoao
ia ooaiiu onoie/eaua e aioeaeioeeai e noeueoaieeaieaeai.

I?eiaiythony:

1 Eioaeoeee ii/aauaiaeyueo iooae

2 AEae/aauaiaeyueo iooae

3 Eaaeeo e ieaa?u

4 Nainen

5 Ianoiia i?eiaiaiea i?e iaeiaao e ycaao.

A aeaoneie i?aeoeea ia_. iieacai.

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea:

1 Aeeniaioe/aneea ?anno?ienoaa 2 Aeea?aee 3
Noaei?iae ee?iiiaeiuo iuooe

I?IECAIAeIUA IEO?IOO?AIA

Oo?aoeeeeei, Oo?aaeiiei, Oo?acieeaeii, Oo?acieei, Oo?aaei

Ii i?ioeaiiee?iaiie aeoeaiinoe i?eaeeaeathony e aioeaeioeeai
(Oao?aoeeeeeio).

Ii iaoaiecio – ia?ooaiea aeuoaiey, eiaeae?iaaiea oeeeea
o?eea?aiiiauo eeneio. Niaeo? aeaenoaey oe?ieee: A? (-) e A? (+)
aaeoa?ee, iaoieiae/aneea a?eau, e?oiiua ae?onu, o?eoiiiiaaeu, eyiaeee.
Aeinoieinoaaie i?aia?aoia aeaiiiai ?yaea yaeythony: Aunieay
i?ioeaiiee?iaiay aeoeaiinoue, oe?ieee niaeo?, ieceay oiene/iinoue,
iaeay nei?inoue ?acaeoey onoie/eainoe. *a?ac 3 /ana a ii/a
ii?aaeaeythony neaaeothuea aeiee enoiaeiiai eiee/anoaa i?aia?aoa:

Oo?aaeiiei 25%

Oo?acieeaeii 8%

Oo?aoeeeeei 1%

Oo?aaeiiei

I?eiaiyaony aioo?ue aeey ea/aiey eioaeoeee ii/aauaiaeyueo iooae,i?e
nainena, ia?eoiieoa.Ianoii – aeey i?iiuaaiey aiieiuo ?ai.

Oo?aoeeeeei

Ia?aaioea iia?aoeeiiiiai iiey, ea/aiea oeie/aneeo e oa?ie/aneeo
iaeiaia. Ianoiia ea/aiea oiiceeeeoia e ioeoia (iieineaiea),
eiiuethieoeaeoia (aeaciua eaiee), eioaeoeee ii/aauaiaeyueo iooae.

Oo?acieeaeii

I?eiaiyaony aioo?ue aeey ea/aiey aaeoa?eaeueiie aeecaioa?ee,
naeueiiiaeeaca, o?eoiiiieaca.

I?IECAIAeIUA 8-IENEOEIIEEIA

Oeiicie – ianoiia ea/aiea aiieiuo ?ai e yca. Yioa?inaioie,
Iaenaoi?i (eiiaeie?iaaiiue i?aia?ao n Yioa?inaioieii), Iaenaca –
ea/aiea aaeoa?eaeueiuo aeecaioa?ee, aeeniainee, naycaiiuo n aaeoa?eyie.
5-IIE – ea/aiea eioaeoeee ii/aauaiaeyueo iooae (i?eiaiyaony ?aaeei ii
i?e/eia aeea?aee).

I?IECAIAeIUA OEINAIEEA?AACIIA

Oa?eiainaio – ianoiia ea/aiea oiiceeeeoia, noiiaoeoia,
iiaeaioiaea e iia?aoeeyi ia ?ioiaie iieinoe, iiniaeioea.

I?IECAIAeIUA IAOOE?EAeEIA

Iaeeaeeeniaay eeneioa, Iaaei?aiii, Iaa?ai. Iaeaaeatho
aaeoa?einoaoe/aneei aeaenoaeai, aeoeaiu a ioiioaiee A? (-) oei?u, oi?ioi
ananuaathony. I?eiaiythony aeey ea/aiey eioaeoeee ii/aauaiaeyueo
iooae, oieaoeenoeoia, yioa?ieieeoia. Auno?i ?acaeaaaony
onoie/eainoue.

I?IECAIAeIUA OOI?OEIIEIIA

I?aia?ao Ia?eiae iieoauaaaeaiey Aeica aioo?ue Aeica aioo?eaaiii

Oeei?ioeienaoeei 4 /ana 0.25-0.75 0.2

Ii?oeienaoeei 4 0.4-0.6 —

Ioeienaoeei 7 /ania 0.2-0.4 0.2

Iaoeienaoeei 10 0.2 0.2

Ana i?aia?aou i?eiaiythony 2 ?aca a nooee

Niaeo? i?ioeaiiee?iaiie aeoeaiinoe i/aiue oe?ieee, aeecie e
oeaoaeinii?eiai 4-ai iieieaiey

Iaoaieci aeaenoaey

Oaiaoaiey oa?iaioa AeIE-ae?acu (ioaa/aao ca ia?aciaaiea
noia?nie?aee) – ?ane?o/eaaiea noia?nie?aee (aeiiieieoaeueii aeaenoaoao
ia nayce, ia?acoaiua yoei oa?iaioii) – iaeiio?iee?oaiue ?ino –
?ac?ooaiea iee?iaiie eeaoee. I?aia?aou yooaeoeaiu a ioiioaiee:

1 A? (-): eeoa/iie iaei/ee, eeaaneaeeu, i?ioay, oeaaeeu,
naeueiiiaee, yioa?iaaeoa?a, eaaeiiaeeu, inaaaeiiiiaaeu, aaiioeeueiie
iaei/ee, aicaoaeeoaey iaieiaeoa.

2 A? (+) – yooaeoeaiinoue aa?eaaaeueia:

no?aioieiee a?oii A,A,N, iiaaiieiee – ioeienaoeei e
oeei?ioeienaoeei. Cieioenoue e yieaea?iaeueiue noaoeeieiee – ana
i?aia?aou.

3 Aiay?iau (aa?eaaaeueiia aeaenoaea): eeino?eaeey, aaeoa?ieaeu

4 I?i/ea: oeaieaeey, ieeiaaeoa?ey ooaa?eoeaca.

Aeinoieinoaa i?aia?aoia aeaiiie a?oiiu:

1 I/aiue oe?ieee niaeo?

2 Oi?ioi i?iieeatho a i?aaiu e oeaie, a oii /enea a
nieiiiiicaiaoth aeeaeeinoue (iniaaiii i?e ainiaeaiee – eaa/a a
1.5-2.0 ?aca).

3 Iaeaieeaathony a iae?ioaaao

4 Iiaeii aaiaeeoue ia?yioa?aeueii e yioa?aeueii (ia 1-i yoaia
ea/aiey – aioo?eaaiii, ia 2-i yoaia ea/aiey – aioo?ue).

5 Iacia/eoaeueii naycuaathony n aaeeaie – aieueoea eiioeaio?aoeee
aeoeaiiai aauanoaa

6 Aeaenoaotho ia ooaiiu, ?acenoaioiua e ae?oaei aioeaeioeeai.

7 Iaeaaeatho aaeoa?eoeeaeiui aeaenoaeai – iiaeii aaiaeeoue i?e
eiioiiaeaoeoeeoa.

8 Iiaeii ni/aoaoue n iaieoeeeeeiaie, oeaoaeinii?eiaie,
aieiiaeeeiceaeaie, eeeiaeiieoeeiii, y?eo?iieoeeiii, iao?iieaeacieii,
aaieiieoeeiii.

Aneaaenoaea yoeo naienoa i?aia?aou ioiinyony e aioeaeioeeai
?aca?aa

I?eiaiaiea:

1 Eioaeoeee aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae (“oee/iua” – iiaaiieiee,
ieeiieacia, eaaeiiaeea, “ainieoaeueiua” – neiaaiieiay iaei/ea,
yioa?iaaeoa?, i?ioae)

2 Eioaeoeee ii/aauaiaeyuae nenoaiu (eeoa/iay iaei/ea, i?ioae,
yioa?ieiee)

3 Eioaeoeee iieiaie nenoaiu (oeaieaeey, aiiieiee, o?aaieacia (+
Oao?aoeeeeei)).

4 Oe?o?ae/aneea eioaeoeee (aiiaiaeeoeeo, ia?eoiieo,
oieaoeenoeo, iaie?aaoeo (aioo?eaaiii)).

5 Inoaiieaeeo e aiieiue a?o?eo – Oeei?ioeienaoeei e
Iaoeienaoeei

6 Aaeoa?eaeueiua eeoa/iua eioaeoeee (oeaaeea, naeueiiiaeea oeoa)

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea(1-5%):

1 Aeeniaioe/aneea ?anno?ienoaa 2 Aieiaiay aieue 3
A?o?aeaey 4 Oioinaineaeeecaoeey eiaee 5 Yiceiioeeey

I?ioeaiiieacaiey:

Aa?aiaiiinoue (i?eiaiyoue ii aeeciaiiui iieacaieyi)

Aeaoe aei 14 eao (ai a?aiy nic?aaaiey einoae i?aia?aou
iaeaieeaathony a o?yuaaie ciia, /oi i?eaiaeeo e ia?ooaieyi neaeaoa)

Yieeainey (aaniethoiia i?ioeaiiieacaiea, oae eae i?aia?aou
iaeaaeatho aioaaiieciii AAIE – iiaoo aucaaoue noaei?iae)

I?IOEAIOOAA?EOEACIUA I?AIA?AOU

O?oaeiinoue ea/aiey ooaa?eoeaca naycaia ni naienoaaie
ooaa?eoeaciie ieeiaaeoa?ee:

1 Eeneioionoie/eainoue

2 Aioo?eeeaoi/iia ?aniieiaeaiea

3 I/aiue auno?ia ?acaeoea onoie/eainoe i?e ea/aiee

I?eioeeiu oa?aiee

1 Aeeeoaeueiia ea/aiea (12-24 ian)

2 ?aaoey?iue e eiio?iee?oaiue i?eai eaea?noa

3 Eiiaeie?iaaiiay oa?aiey (iaeiia?aiaiiue i?eai 2-o – 3-o
eaea?noa)

4 Ia?eiaee/aneay niaia eaea?noaaiiuo i?aia?aoia

5 Ia?eiaee/aneee eiio?ieue eciaiaiey /onoaeoaeueiinoe e
i?aia?aoai

Eeanneoeeaoeey

1 N?aaenoaa ia?aiai ?yaea: I?eiaiythony i?e aia?aua auyaeaiiii
ooaa?eoeaca Iaeaieaa aeoeaiua eaea?noaa Eae i?aaeei iaiaa oiene/iu I?e
iiiioa?aiee auno?i ?acaeaaaony onoie/eainoue

1.1 Aioeaeioeee No?aioiieoeei, ?eoaiieoeei

1.2 Neioaoe/aneea I?iecaiaeiua AEIE (aeae?aceae
eciieeioeiiaie eeneiou): Eciieaceae, Ooeaaceae, Naethceae, Iaoaceae.

I?iecaiaeiua Yoeeaiaeeeieia: Yoaiaooie.

2 N?aaenoaa aoi?iai ?yaea (?aca?aiua): I?eiaiythony i?e
iaaeinoaoi/iie yooaeoeaiinoe n?aaenoa ia?aiai ?yaea eee o ?aiaa
ea/eaoeony aieueiuo Iaiaa aeoeaiu /ai n?aaenoaa ia?aiai ?yaea II
yooaeoeaii aeaenoaotho eiaaea ?acaeaaaony onoie/eainoue e i?aia?aoai
ia?aiai ?yaea

2.1 Aioeaeioeee Oeeeeina?ei, Eaiaieoeei, Oei?eieoeei.

2.2 Neioaoe/aneea I?iecaiaeiua IANE (ia?aaieiinaeeoeeeiaay
eeneioa): Iao?eaaay nieue IANE, Aaiane (eaeueoeeaaay nieue IANE).

I?iecaiaeiua ie?aceiea?aiiiaie eeneiou: Ie?aceiaieae

I?iecaiaeiua oeinaieea?aaciia: Oeiaoeaoacii

I?iecaiaeiua oeiaieaea eciieeioeiiaie eeneiou: Yoeiiaieae

I?iecaiaeiua Aeie

Eciieaceae

Naiue iiuiue i?aia?ao a?oiiu. I/aiue oceee niaeo? – aeaenoaoao
oieueei ia ieeiaaeoa?ee.

Iaoaieci – eiaeae?iaaiea ia?aciaaiey ie?eaeienaeueoinoaoa, /oi
i?eaiaeeo:

1 Oaiaoaiea neioaca AeIE

2 Ia?ooaiea neioaca iaeioi?uo aieiieeneio

3 Eiaeae?iaaiea neioaca ieeieiaie eeneiou (yaeyaony eiiiiiaioii
eeieaeiie iaia?aiu), /oi i?eaiaeeo e oiaiueoaieth eiee*anoaa eeieaeia a
eeaoi/iie noaiea -> nieaeaiea eeneioionoie/eainoe.

Aeiiieieoaeueiue iaoaieci – eiieo?aioiue aioaaiieci ieeioeiiaie
eeneiou (aeoaiei ??), /oi i?eaiaeeo e neioaco eiaeiiai eioa?iaioa:
aianoi IAAe neioace?oaony E-IAAe (eciieeioeiaieaeaaeaieiaeeioeeaioeae).

Ia/aei aeaenoaey /a?ac 1-4 /ana. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue 6-24 /ana.
Oi?ioi i?iieeaao a i?aaiu e oeaie. Ii niiniaiinoe eiaeoeae?iaaoue
i?aia?ao ianaeaiea aeaeeony ia auno?uo e iaaeeaiiuo eiaeoeaaoi?ia. A
n?aaeiae iieina e iaaeeaiiui eiaeoeaaoi?ai ioiineony 50-60% ianaeaiey.
Ea/aiea iaaeeaiiuo eiaeoeaaoi?ia a 2 ?aca yooaeoeaiaa.

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea:

1 OeIN: aieiaiay aieue, yeoi?ey, ia?ooaiea nia

2 Aeaoeoeeo aeoaieiia a?oiiu A, aeoaieia ??

3 Aeeniaioe/aneea ?anno?ienoaa

4 Aeea?ae/aneea ?aaeoeee

5 Aaiaoioiene/iinoue (o auno?uo eiaeoeaaoi?ia, i?e aeeeoaeueiii
ea/aiee)

I?aia?ao Aeoeaiinoue Aeaenoaea ia aioo?eeeaoi/iua oi?iu Aeoeaiinoue a
i/aaao ?aniaaea Oiene/iinoue

AEIE ++++ + + ++

IANE + — — +

No?aioiieoeei ++ ( ( +++

?eoaiieoeei ++++ + + +++

Yoaiaooie

Ii aeoeaiinoe i?eia?ii ?aaai Eciieaceaeo. Oi?ioi ananuaaaony,
i?iieeaao aioo?ue eeaoie. Ia?ooaao aaeeiaue neioac /a?ac oaiaoaiea
neioaca ?IE. Iao ia?ae?anoiie onoie/eainoe n ae?oaeie i?aia?aoaie.
Iaeioiene/ai

Iiai/ii:

1 Aeea?aee

2 Iaa?eou c?eoaeueiiai ia?aa (2%)

No?aioiieoeei

Auioneaaony a aeaea Noeueoaoa (i?eiaiyaony ia?aioa?aeueii),
Oei?-eaeueoeeaaiai eiiieaena (yiaeiethiaaeueii). Aeaenoaea
aaeoa?einoaoe/aneia. Aunieay aeoeaiinoue a ioiioaiee aeoeaii
?aciiiaeathueony e naiaiaeii oee?eoee?othueo. Ieceay aeoeaiinoue a
ioiioaiee iieiyueony, ia aeaenoaoao ia iaoiaeyueany aioo?e eeaoie.
Aeoeaiinoue a i/aaao eacaiciiai ?aniaaea oiaiueoaaony a 50-80 ?ac.
I/aiue auno?i ?acaeaaaony onoie/eainoue (/a?ac 2 ianyoea iiiioa?aiee –
60% onoie/eainoue).

Iaoaieci – ia?ooaiea neioaca aaeea: i?eniaaeeiyaony e
30S-noauaaeeieoea ?eainiiu e niinianoaoao ano?aeaaieth /oaea?iaeiuo
aieiieeneio a iieaeoeu aaeea.

Iiai/ii:

1 Ioi- e iao?ioiene/iinoue

2 Aeea?aee

3 Ia?ooaiea ia?aii-iuoa/iie ia?aaea/e (i?e aieueoeo aeicao)

?eoaiieoeei

Oe?ieee niaeo? aeaenoaey: A? (+) e A? (-) iee?ii?aaieciu,
ieeiaaeoa?ee ooaa?eoeaca e eai?u. Aeaenoaoao ia aioo?eeeaoi/ii
?aniieiaeaiiua iee?ii?aaieciu. Iaoaieci – ia?ooaiea neioaca ?IE.
Iaeaaeaao ieeinoaoe/aneei eee ieeioeeaeiui aeaenoaeai (a aieueoeo
eiioeaio?aoeeyo). Auno?i ?acaeaaaony onoie/eainoue.

Iiai/ii:

1 Ia?ooaiea ooieoeee ia/aie (2%)

2 Aeeniaioe/aneea ?anno?ienoaa

3 Aeea?aee

4 Oa?aoiaaiiia eee yia?eioiene/aneia aeaenoaea a ia?aii o?eiano?a
aa?aiaiiinoe

5 Ie?aoeaaiea neac, ii/e, iie?iou a i?aiaeaaue oeaao.

I?iecaiaeiua IANE

Iaoaieci: Eiieo?aioiia acaeiiaeaenoaea n IAAE (ia?aaieiiaaicieiie
eeneioie), iaioioaiiaie eeneioie, aeioeiii. Ia yooaeoeaiu a i/aaao
eacaiciiai ?aniaaea (oai iiiai IAAE). Oi?ioi i?iieeatho a i?aaiu e
oeaie, /a?ac ainiaeaiiua na?iciua iaiei/ee, ii eiioeaio?aoeey a i/aaao
e eaaa?iao iaaaeeea.

Ia aeaenoaoao ia aioo?eeeaoi/iua oi?iu. Iauay aioeiee?iaiay
aeoeaiinoue ieieiaeueia. Iaeioiene/iu. Caiaaeeytho ?acaeoea onoie/eainoe
e ae?oaei i?aia?aoai i?e eiiaeie?iaaiiii ea/aiee (No?aioiieoeei, AEIE
(+ caiaaeeytho eiaeoeaaoeeth Eciieaceaea)).

I?e neooaoeeyo, eiaaea ecauoie iao?ey iiaeao iia?aaeeoue
(aeia?oiie/aneay aieaciue) i?eiaiyaony Aaiane.

Eoia: Aunieay ecae?aoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey, iaeay oiene/iinoue,
iacia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai ia?ae/ii onoie/eauo oi?i, iaaeeaiiia
?acaeoea aoi?e/iie onoie/eainoe e ieeiaaeoa?eyi ooaa?eoeaca.

II:

1 Ieceay aeoeaiinoue

2 Ia yooaeoeaiu a i/aaao eacaiciiai ?aniaaea e ia aeaenoaotho ia
aioo?eeeaoi/iua oi?iu.

Iiai/iua yooaeou:

1 Ianoii?acae?aaeathuaa aeaenoaea – aeeniaioe/aneea ?anno?ienoaa

2 Aeea?aee – eiaeiua ?aaeoeee

3 I?e aeeeoaeueiii i?eiaiaiee – aioeoe?aieaeiue (ciaiaaiiue)
yooaeo, aeiiaeoaieiic A1,A2,N

Oeeeeina?ei

Aunieiaeoeaai, oe?ieee niaeo? aeaenoaey, iaiaa aeoeaai i?ioea
ieeiaaeoa?ee ooaa?eoeaca, oi?ioi ananuaaaony, aeaenoaoao ia
aioo?eeeaoi/iua oi?iu. Oa?aeoa?ii ioiineoaeueii iaaeeaiiia ?acaeoea
onoie/eainoe. Iaoaieci: oaiaoaiea neioaca eeaoi/iie noaiee
(iaioeaeiaeeeaia) ca n/ao eiieo?aioiiai aioaaiiecia n D-aeaieiii.
Iaeioiene/ai.

Iiai/ii:

1 Iae?ioiene/iinoue (anee aeeeoaeueii)

2 Aieiaiay aieue, aieiaie?oaeaiea

3 O?aii?

4 Aeai?anneaii-iiaeiaiua ?aaeoeee

Oei?eieoeei_. e Eaiaieoeei

Oei?eieoeei ia aeaenoaoao ia aioo?eeeaoi/iua oi?iu, ia?ae?anoiay
onoie/eainoue n Eaiaieoeeiii. Eaiaieoeei aeoeaiaa aeaenoaoao ia
ieeiaaeoa?ee. Iiai/ii: Ioi- e iao?ioiene/iinoue

Yoeiiaieae

Oaiaoaiea neioaca aaeea /a?ac ia?ooaiea neioaca AeIE. Ii
aieueoeinoao iieacaoaeae onooiaao i?aeoe/anee anai i?aia?aoai ia?aiai
?yaea, II aeaenoaoao ia aioo?eeeaoi/iua oi?iu, yooaeo aei
ieeioeeaeiiai, aeaenoaoao ia onoie/eaua e ae?oaei i?aia?aoai.

Iiai/ii:

1 Aeeniaioe/aneea yaeaiey

2 Ia?ooaiey OeIN (io aanniiieoeu aei aeai?anneaii-iiaeiaiuo
?aaeoeee)

3 Aeiiaeoaieiic a?oiiu A, ??

Ie?aceiaieae_. e Oeiaoeaoacii Iaeaieaa neaaua (ii aeoeaiinoe
niioaaonoaotho IANE)

Aeinoieinoaa:

Aeaenoaotho ia aioo?eeeaoi/iua oi?iu Aeoeaiu a eenie n?aaea (a
i/aaao eacaiciiai ?aniaaea)

Iaaeinoaoee: Auno?ia ?acaeoea onoie/eainoe

Iiai/ii:

1 Aaiaoioiene/iinoue

2 O?iiaioeeoiiaiey, oiaiueoaiea eiee/anoaa i?io?iiaeia

3 Aeiiaeoaieiic A6

4 Oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa ii/aaie eeneiou

5 Aeea?aee

N?AAeNOAA AeEss EA*AIEss NIE?IOAOICIA

O?aiaiaiaoicu (NEOEEEN)

1 Aaciaay a?oiia (iaeaieaa au?aaeaiiue yooaeo) – i?e?iaeiua
iaieoeeeeeiu (Aaiceeiaieoeeeeeia eaeeaaay, iao?eaaay e iiaieaeiiaay
nieue, Aeoeeeeei-1,3,5 ) ?acaeoey onoie/eainoe aicaoaeeoaey neoeeena ia
onoaiiaeaii. I?aia?aou yoie a?oiiu i?eiaiythony ia anao noaaeeyo
ea/aiey.

2 ?aca?aiua (i?e iaia?aiineiinoe iaieoeeeeeia)

Iieoneioaoe/aneea iaieoeeeeeiu: Ienaoeeeeei e Aiieoeeeeei
Oeaoaeinii?eiu 1-ai iieieaiey

Oao?aoeeeeeiu: Oao?aoeeeeei, Ieaoao?ei, Aeieneoeeeeei
(Aea?iieoeei)

Iae?ieeaeu: Y?eo?iieoeei

I?aia?aou Aeniooa: i?eiaiythony aeey ea/aiey ne?uouo oi?i
(iicaeieo) e o?aoe/iuo oi?i.

Aeeioeiie e Aeniiaa?ie onooiatho iaieoeeeeeiai ii aeoeaiinoe, a
/enoii aeaea ia iiiiaatho (i?eiaiythony a eiiieaeniie oa?aiee). Iiai/ii:

1 Ii?aaeaiea neecenouo e eiaee

2 Ii?aaeaiea ia/aie e ii/ae (?aaeei)

AIOENAIOEEE

Eenoa? i?eiaiye ?anoai? ea?aieiaie eeneiou (oaiie)

1847 Ceiiaeueaaen i?eiaiye i?aia?aou oei?a (oei?ioth ecaanoue)

Ie?iaia i?eiaiye yoeeiaue nie?o, oei?ioth ecaanoue

Iaoaieciu aeaenoaey aioenaioeeia

1 Aeano?oeoeaiia aeaenoaea Oei?aiei A (naiaiaeiue oei? i?eaiaeeo
e aeaiaoo?aoeee aaeeia)

2 Ieeneeoaeueiia Ia?aeenue aiaei?iaea, ia?iaiaaiao eaeey

3 Iaia?aiiaoaeothuaa Iiaa?oiinoiiaeoeaiua: oei?aaeneaeei, iuei.

4 Aioeiaoaaiee/aneia e aioeoa?iaioiia aeaenoaea Niee oyaeaeuo
iaoaeeia

Iaeioi?ua oeieii?aia?aou iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny aeaiyei: i?e
i?eaia aioo?ue – oeieioa?aiey, i?e eniieueciaaiee ianoii – aioenaioee.

O?aaiaaiey e aioenaioeeai

1 Neeueiia aioeiee?iaiia aeaenoaea

2 Ionoonoaea iia?aaeaeaiey oeaiae

3 Ionoonoaea ananuaaiey a aieueoeo eiee/anoaao

4 Oi?ioay ?anoai?eiinoue, onoie/eainoue e ?ac?ooaieth oa?iaioaie

5 Aunieay aeoeaiinoue a n?aaeao, aiaaouo aaeeii

Eeanneoeeaoeey aioenaioeeia

1 Iai?aaie/aneea

1.1 Aaeieaeu Oei?niaea?aeauea (oei?aiei A, iaioioeeae)
Eiaeniaea?aeauea (ianoieea eiaea)

1.2 Ieeneeoaee Ia?aeenue aiaei?iaea, ia?iaiaaiao eaeey

1.3 Eeneiou e uaei/e Ai?iay eeneioa, iaoaou?iue nie?o

1.4 Niee oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia I?aia?aou iaaee (noeueoao), na?aa?a
(ieo?ao na?aa?a – ey-

ien, i?ioa?aie, eieea?aie), oeeiea (noeueoao), ?oooe (noeaia).

2 I?aaie/aneea

2.1 Oaiieu (oaiie, ?aci?oeei)

2.2 Nie?ou (yoeeiaue)

2.3 Aeaoa?aaiou (oea?eaaeue, oei?aaeneaeei)

2.4 Aeueaeaaeaeu (oi?iaeei)

2.5 E?aneoaee (a?eeeeaioiaue caeaiue)

2.6 I?e?iaeiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey (iiaieiaiei)

IAI?AAIE*ANEEA AIOENAIOEEE

Oei?niaea?aeauea

Oei?niaea?aeauaa niaaeeiaiea + aiaea = HClO, eioi?ay ?aniaaeaaony ia
naiaiaeiua oei? e eenei?iae, eioi?ua iaeaaeatho aeiiieieoaeueiui
aioenaioe/aneei aeaenoaeai.

Niaeo? aeaenoaey aioenaioeeia: ana aeaeu aicaoaeeoaeae
caaieaaaiee + oneiaii iaoiaaiiay iee?ioei?a + ae?onu + aiaau, e?iia
aicaoaeeoaey ooaa?eoeaca.

Aioeoi?iei

A ninoaa aoiaeyo: NaOCl, NaOH. I?eiaiyaony a noiiaoieiaee i?e
ia?aaioea iieinoe ?oa.

Oei?aiei A

25% aeoeaiiai oei?a. I?eiaiyaony aeey: ea/aiey eioeoee?iaaiiuo ?ai
(1-2%) aeaceioaeoeey ?oe (0.25 – 0.5%), aiaoiyy aeaceioaeoeey (3 – 5%).
I?e io?aaeaiee ei?eoii a ea/anoaa aioeaeioa, ia?aaioea ei?iaauo eaiaeia
a noiiaoieiaee (1 – 2%)

Oei?iay ecaanoue – I?eiaiyaony oieueei aeey aiaoiae aeaceioaeoeee

Iaioioeeae

Niaea?aeeo 50% aeoeaiiai oei?a – aeey iaacca?aaeeaaiey aiaeu,
aeey i?eaioiaeaiey ?anoai?ia aeey aeaceioaeoeee (1 oaaeaoea ia 1 eeo?)

Eiaeniaea?aeauea

Nie?oiaay ianoieea eiaea

Niaea?aeeo naiaiaeiue eiae, eaeey eiaeeae, aiaeo, yoeeiaue nie?o.
I?eiaiyaony aeey ia?aaioee ?oe oe?o?aa, iia?aoeaiiai iiey,
iiaa?oiinoiuo eiaeiuo ?ai.

?anoai?u ethaiey

?anoai?u aiaeiue e aeeoea?eiiaue. Ninoaa: naiaiaeiue eiae, eiaeeae
eaeey, aiaea (eee aeeoea?ei). Ethaieue iaiaa aa?anneaai /ai nie?oiaay
ianoieea eiaea – ?aaea aucuaaao aeea?aee.

Eiaeioi?i – i?eiaiyaony aeey ia?aaioee iaaeoaieeo ?ai.

Eiaeeiie – i?eiaiyaony aeey ia?aaioee iieinoae, i?e oiiceeeeoao. A
ninoaa aoiaeeo naiaiaeiue eiae, eaeey eiaeeae, aiaea e iieeaeieeiaue
nie?o.

Ieeneeoaee_. (eenei?iaeniaea?aeauea)

Ia?aeenue aiaei?iaea

I?e ?anuaieaiee ia?acoaony iieaeoey?iue e aoiia?iue eenei?iae.
Iieaeoey?iue eenei?iae iaeaaeaao aaiinoaoe/aneei e i/euathuei
aeaenoaeai, aoiia?iue eenei?iae iaeaaeaao i?aeiouanoaaiii
aioeiee?iaiui aeaenoaeai.

3% ?anoai?

I?eiaiyaony aeey ia?aaioee ?ai, ane?uouo aanoeannia, iieinoae, caaa,
iieinoe ?oa i?e noiiaoeoao.

30% ?anoai?_. (ia?aeae?ieue)

I?eiaiyaony aeey ?acaaaeaiey n oeaeueth iieo/aiey iaiaa
eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo ?anoai?ia e aeey aeaieaiaioaoeee aiein.

35% a oaaeaoeao_. (aeae?iia?eo)

?acaaaeaiea aeey iieo/aiey ?anoai?ia.

Eeneiou

Eeneioa naeeoeeeiaay

Eniieuecoaony a aeaea iacae 1-2%, 1-10% nie?oiauo ?anoai?ia. E?iia
aioenaioe/aneiai iaeaaeaao ea?aoieeoe/aneei aeaenoaeai iicieueiay
aeeaeeinoue, iicieueiue ieanou?ue”Naeeiiae”).

Eeneioa ai?iay

Eniieuecoaony a aeaea aiaeiuo (iieineaiea caaa), nie?oiauo ?anoai?ia
e iacae aeey ia?aaioee ?ai.

Iao?ey oao?aai?ao

10-20%. “Aeea?ieio” – oaaeaoee (1 oaaeaoea ia 1 noaeai aiaeu). A
ninoaa oaaeaoie aoiaeeo iaioie e yaeaeeio.

Iaoaou?iue nie?o – 10% aiaeiue ?anoai? aiieaea. 25 ie + 5 e
aiaeu i?eiaiyaony aeey ia?aaioee ?oe oe?o?aa.

Niee oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia

I?aia?aou ?oooe – Aeeoei?eae e ieneoeeaieae ?oooe. Aunieioiene/iu – ia
i?eiaiythony.

I?aia?aou na?aa?a

Ieo?ao na?aa?a (eyien) 1-2% ?anoai?u e eyieniue ea?aiaeao –
aioenaioe/aneia (eyieniue ea?aiaeao iaeaaeaao e i?eaeeaathuei
aeaenoaeai). I?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey na?aa?a: I?ioa?aie e Eieea?aie
(1-3% ?anoai?u). I?eiaiythony a iooaeueiieiaee, o?ieiaee aeey ea/aiey
aiieiuo o?ao?eoia.

I?aia?aou iaaee e oeeiea

Noeueoao iaaee (0.25-1% ?anoai?u), noeueoao oeeiea a aeaea eaiaeue
i?e ea/aiee aiieiuo caaieaaaiee aeac.

I?AAIE*ANEEA AIOENAIOEEE

Oaiieu

Oaiie 2-5% ?anoai?. ?aiueoa – ia?aaioea eiaee, eino?oiaioia, nae/an –
aiaoiyy aeaceioaeoeey.

?aci?oeei – ii?ioee, naa/e, iace – aioenaioe/aneia e ayaeouaa aeaenoaea.

E?aneoaee

Auioneathony a aeaea 1-3% aiaeiuo ?anoai?ia. Iaeaaeatho au?aaeaiiui
aioenaioe/aneei e ayaeouei aeaenoaeai.

Iaoeeaiiaue neiee – i?eiaiaiea i?e noiiaoeoao e oiiceeeeoao.
A?eeeeaioiaue caeaiue, yoae?eaeeia eaeoao – ia?aaioea iiaa?oiinoiuo
eiaeiuo iia?aaeaeaiee.

Aeueaeaaeaeu

Oi?iaeei 0.5-1% ?anoai?, Eecie, Eecioi?i – eniieucothony aeey
aeaceioaeoeee iiiauaiee. O?io?iiei (oaaeaoee) 0.5-1.0 a aioo?ue. A
iaeciaiaiiii aeaea auaiaeeony ii/eaie – i?eiaiyaony aeey ea/aiey aiieiuo
eioaeoeee ii/aauaiaeyueo iooae (ieaeiiao?eou, oeenoeou). Iniaaiii
oeaeaniia?acii i?eiaiaiea i?e oneiaii-iaoiaaiiuo aicaoaeeoaeae
eioaeoeee.

Nie?ou

Yoeeiaue nie?o i?eiaiyaony aeey ia?aaioee eiaee, eino?oiaioia.
Eniieuecoaony a aeaea 40-95% ?anoai?ia.

Aeaoa?aaiou

Oea?eaaeue (Ioeoeei), Aeaaieoeeae (1% aiaeiue ?anoai?)- ia?aaioea
iia?aoeeiiiiai iiey, ?oe oe?o?aa. Yoiiee 0.5-1% ?anoai?, iacue –
aioenaioe/aneia aeaenoaea, i?eiaiyaony i?e ea/aiee o?ioe/aneeo yca,
ayeioaeoueo iiaa?oiinoiuo ?ai.

Oei?aaeneaeeia aeaetheiiao (Aeaeoai) 0.02-0.05% – iieineaiea caaa,
aeac, ia?aaioea iieinoae. 0.5% ?anoai? – ia?aaioea ?oe e
eino?oiaioia.

?ieeae 1-10% ia?aaioea ?oe, iia?aoeeiiiiai iiey.

N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeee aioenaioeeia e aioeaeioeeia

I?eciae Aioenaioeee Aioeaeioeee

Aeaenoaea Aaeoa?eoeeaeiia Aaeoa?einoaoe/aneia

Iaoaieci Aeano?oeoeey Ia?ooaiea iaoaaieecia

Niaeo? I/aiue oe?ieee Oceee (eae i?aaeei)

Oiene/iinoue Aunieay Ieceay

I?eiaiaiea Ianoii Nenoaiii

Aa?iyoiinoue ?acaeoey onoie/eainoe Iaeay Aieueoay

N?AAeNOAA ?AAOEE?OTHUEA I?IOeANNU INIIAIIAI IAIAIA

Eae i?aaeei ia eiatho o?iiiinoe e ii?aaeaeaiiui i?aaiai e
oeaiyi, aeaenoaotho nenoaiii.

AI?IIIU E AI?IIIAEUeIUA I?AIA?AOU (A e AI)

Ai?iiiu – aeieiae/anee aeoeaiua aauanoaa, au?aaaouaaaiua
yiaeie?eiiuie aeaeacaie e ?aaoee?othuea ?acee/iua ooieoeee i?aaiecia.

A e AI i?eiaiythony aeey 2-o aeaeia oa?aiee:

Caianoeoaeueiie e ?aaoee?othuae

I?e oiaiueoaiee i?iaeoeoeee Iiaeae?athony ii?aaeaeaiiua

nianoaaiiuo. A e AI

a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa

A ?aaoeyoeee nae?aoeee ai?iiiia anoue ei?ioeea e aeeeiiua
io?eoeaoaeueiua ia?aoiua nayce:

Ei?ioeay – i?iaeoeoeey ai?iiia yaeyaony iaoaieciii, ?aaoee?othuei
au?aaioeo niioaaonoaothuaai o?iiiiai ai?iiia aeiioeca.Ia ianoiyuee
iiiaio aeinoiaa?ii onoaiiaeaii iaee/ea neaaeothueo o?iiiuo ai?iiiia
aeiioeca: ai?iii ?inoa (niiaoio?iiiue ai?iii), i?ieaeoei, oe?aio?iiiue
ai?iii, ei?oeeio?iiei (aae?aiiei?oeeio?iiiue ai?iii), ethoaeiece?othuee
aiiii, oieeeeoenoeioee?othuee ai?iii. Ecaanoiu neaaeothuea
?aeeceia-oaeoi?u (?O) aeiioaeaiona: oe?aio?iiei ?O, ei?oeeio?iiei ?O,
i?ieaeoei ?O, ?O ai?iiia ?inoa. Auaeaeaiu iaeioi?ua eiaeae?othuea
oaeoi?u aeiioaeaiona: aeey i?ieaeoeia, aeey ai?iiia ?inoa.

Aeeeiiay – o?iaaiue ai?iiiia a ieacia aeiiieieoaeueii aeeyao ia
nae?aoeeth ?O aeiioaeaiona. Aua ia au?aaioeo ai?iiiia aeeytho: ia?aiay
nenoaia, aeieiae/aneea ?eoiu (nooi/iua, iany/iua, naciiiua).

Eeanneoeeaoeey ii oeie/aneie no?oeoo?a

1 Noa?ieaeu: aiae?iaaiu, yno?iaaiu, i?iaanoa?ii, aetheiei?oeeieaeu,
ieia?aeei?oeeieaeu.

2 Aaeeiaie i?e?iaeu (ia iacia/athony yioa?aeueii – ?ac?ooathony a
eeoa/ieea): einoeei, eaeueoeeoiiei, ia?ao-ai?iii.

3 I?iecaiaeiua aieiieeneio: oe?ienei, o?eeiaeoe?iiei.

Ai?iiiu ia eiatho aeaeiaie niaoeeoe/iinoe – iiyoiio iiiaea
i?aia?aou i?eaioiaeaiu ec aeaeac aeeaioiuo.

O eaaeaeiai ai?iiia naiy i?aaiio?iiiinoue e eeaoee-ieoaie.
Acaeiiaeaenoaea ai?iiiia n ?aoeaioi?aie ioee/aaony io acaeiiaeaenoaea
iae?iiaaeeaoi?ia n ?aoeaioi?aie.

Ai acaeiiaeaenoaee auaeaeyaony ianeieueei oac:

1 Oeenaoeey ia ?aoeaioi?a.

Aeoeaiue oeaio? naycuaaaony n niioaaonoaothueie aaeeaie
?aoeaioi?a. Acaeiiaeaenoaea ioee/aaony oai, /oi n?aco ia/eiaao
aeaenoaiaaoue nenoaia aoi?e/iuo iin?aaeieeia. Ai?iiiu aeoeae?otho
aaeaieeao-oeeeeaco – oaaee/eaaaony eiioeaio?aoeey oeAIO

– i?ienoiaeeo oaaee/aiea aeoeaiinoe oa?iaioia (i?ioaei-eeiac).
?aoeaioi?u aeey ai?iiiia anoue e aioo?e eeaoee (e a yae?ao eeaoie). I?e
acaeiiaeaenoaee ai?iiia n ?aoeaioi?ii a yae?a i?ienoiaeeo aea?ai?anney
aaiia – ia/eiaaony neioac niioaaonoaothueo aaeeia. Iiiaea ai?iiiu eiatho
iaa iaoaiecia aeaenoaey (i?e yoii aeey eaaeaeiai ec iaoaieciia –
naiy eiioeao?aoeey ai?iiia).

Iauee eoia aeaenoaey ai?iiiia: eciaiaiea iaoaaieecia ca n/ao
neioaca aaeeia, aaiu eioi?uo ?aiaa auee ?ai?anne?iaaiu, i?ienoiaeeo
oaaee/aiea aeoeaiinoe oa?iaioia.

Iiaeao auoue 2 aa?eaioa ?aaoeyoeee:

1 Eiio?ieue aeoeaiinoe no?oeoo? eeaoee e eeaoie : auno?ia
?acaeoea yooaeoa, aeaenoaea a iaeuo eiioeaio?aoeeyo, II – ia?aie/aiiue
ooieoeeiiaeueiue ?aca?a.

2 Eiio?ieue eiee/anoaa: aieueoie eaoaioiue ia?eiae, aeaenoaea
oieueei aieueoeo eiioeaio?aoeee, II – i?aeoe/anee iaia?aie/aiiue
ooieoeeiiaeueiue ?aca?a.

AI?IIIU E AI?IIIAEUeIUA I?AIA?AOU UEOIAEAeIIE AEAEACU

Nouanoaoao 2 iniiaiuo ai?iiia: oe?ienei e o?eeiaeoe?iiei. Ii naiae
no?oeoo?a iie yaeythony niioaaonoaaiii 4- e 3- eiaee?iaaiiuie
i?iecaiaeiuie aeeoe?iceia. Auee ioe?uou a 1915 aiaeo Eaaeaeii.

A aeineioaca auaeaeytho ianeieueei i?ioeannia:

1 Aeineioac oe?aiaeiaoeeia 2 Caoaao eiaea 3 Eiaee?iaaiea
oe?ieneia, ioeiaeaiea a eieeieae

4 I?ioaieec eieeieaea 5 Nae?aoeey a e?iaue

Ana i?ioeannu i?ienoiaeyo iaeiia?aiaiii.

Aieiieeneiou iinooiatho a a a?aioey?ioth yiaeiieaciaoe/aneoth
naoue (i?ienoiaeeo aeeeiceee?iaaiea), ioooaea – a aieeaeueioth
iaia?aio. Eiae caoaa/aiiue n iiiiuueth aeoeaiiai o?ainii?oa eee
iinooieaoee a eeaoee iooai aeeooocee oiaea iai?aaeyaony a aieeaeueioth
iaia?aio eeaoee. A aieeaeueiie iaia?aia iiae aeaenoaeai ia?ieneaeac
eiiece?iaaiiue eiae ia?aoiaeeo a iieaeoey?ioth oi?io. I?e eiaee?iaaiee
oe?iceia ia?acoaony iiii- e aeeeiaeoe?icei. I?ienoiaeeo eiiaeainaoeey n
ia?aciaaieai eieeieaea. Iaeiia?aiaiii i?ienoiaeeo caoaao eieeieaea.

Iiae aeaenoaeai oe?aio?iiiiai ai?iiia i?ienoiaeeo yiaeioeeoic –
ia?acothony eaiee eieeieaea – a oaaieeciniiao eaiee ?ac?ooathony,
ia?acothony oe?ienei e o?eeiaeoe?iiei e nae?aoe?othony a e?iaue. A
i?ioeanna ?ac?ooaiey eieeieaea ia?acothony oaeaea iiii- e
aeeeiaeoe?icei eioi?ua iinooiatho ia?aoii a eieeieae.

Yooaeou oe?aio?iiiiai ai?iiia:

1 Niaoeeoe/aneia aunaiaiaeaeaiea oe?ieneia e o?eeiaeoe?iieia.

2 Oneeaiea caoaaoa eiaea (aeoeaiue o?ainii?o e aeeooocey)

3 Oaaee/aiea ia?aciaaiey eiaee?iaaiiiai oe?iceia

4 Oneeaiea i?ioaieeca eieeieaea

5 Oneeaiea e?iaioiea e aaneoey?ecaoeee ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu,
onei?aiea ?inoa.

Oe?ienei e o?eeiaeoe?iiei naycuaathony n aaeeaie ieaciu (a naiaiaeiii
ninoiyiee iaoiaeeony 0.3%), iaeaaeatho n?aaieoaeueii aieueoei
ia?eiaeii iieo?aniaaea (6-7 aeiae).

Yooaeou oe?ieneia e o?eeiaeoe?iieia:

1 ?aaoeyoeey ?inoa e ?acaeoey, neioaca aaeea

2 Oneeaiea iaoaaieecia iuooe

3 Oaaee/aiea iinooieaiey eenei?iaea a oeaie

4 Noeioeyoeey anao eaeee-iao?eaauo ianinia

5 Ea?aeeiaaneoey?iay aeoeaiinoue: Iieiaeeoaeueiia eiio?iiiia,
oaaee/aiea /oanoaeoaeueiinoe e eaoaoieaieiai (a?eoiiaaiiia aeaenoaea),
oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa aaoa-aae?aii?aoeaioi?ia.

6 Oaaee/aiea eiioeaio?aoeee aetheicu a e?iae

7 Nieaeaiea aee?iaiai iaiaia

I?e aeiiooieoeee ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu_. o aeaoae iaaethaeaaony
e?aoeieci (ia?ooaiea ?acaeoey e ooieoeee OeIN). O ac?ineuo – ieenaaeaia
(neecenoue ioae) – nieaeaiea iaiaia, ineaaeaiea na?aea/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe, aeiioa?iey, iaee?aiea. A iiaeeeii aic?anoa
ieenaaeaia eae i?aaeei aooieiioiiiai oa?aeoa?a.

Ea/aiea – caianoeoaeueiay oa?aiey.

Oe?ieaeei_. – i?aia?ao yeno?aeoa aeaeac e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa. A
ninoaa i?aia?aoa aoiaeyo oe?ienei e o?eeiaeoe?iiei. I?aia?ao
iaeaaeaao aieueoei eaoaioiui ia?eiaeii (yooaeoeaai i?e aeeeoaeueiii
i?eiaiaiee). Ii?iaeecoao acioenoue aaeain, iniiaiie iaiai,
niinianoaoao nieaeaieth aana, oiaiueoaieth eiioeaio?aoeee oieanoa?eia a
e?iae – ioiineony e e i?ioeaioieanoa?eiiaui n?aaenoaai. I?eiaiyaony
a oii /enea aeey ea/aiey ceiea/anoaaiiuo iiooieae ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu.

Iaaeinoaoie – aieueoie eaoaioiue ia?eiae

Eeioe?iiei_. – yooaeo ?acaeaaaony auno?i, i?aia?ao yooaeoeaai i?e
oiea?aioiinoe e oe?ieaeeio.

Ae?oaea i?aia?aou: Oe?ainoii, Eeioe?ienei (auno?ia aeaenoaea, oi?ioi
ananuaaaony), Oe?aieiia (oe?ienei + o?eeiaeoe?iiei + eiaeeae eaeey).

*aua iaaethaeaaony aeia?ooieoeey ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu_.
(oiene/aneee cia eee aacaaeiaa aieaciue). I?iyaeaiey: oe?aioieneeic n
?ac?anoaieai ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu e ieieiaeacie/iie eeao/aoee
(yeciooaeuei (io/aaeacea)).

Iaoaieci: a ?acoeueoaoa aooieiioiiuo ia?ooaiee au?aaaouaathony
aioeoaea i?ioea ?aoeaioi?ia e oe?aio?iiiiio ai?iiio.

Eeeie/aneea i?iyaeaiey: ?acei aeoeae?iaai iaoaaieeci,
oaaee/aiea oaiia?aoo?u (“neiioii i?inouie”), oaaee/aiea aiiaoeoa
iaeiia?aiaiii n iioa?ae aana, oaoeea?aeey, a?eoiee, auiuaaiea
eaeueoeey aei inoaiii?ica.

Ea/aiea – aioeoe?aieaeiua n?aaenoaa:

Ia?eacieee_. – oiaiueoaao neioac oe?ieneia e o?eeiaeoe?iieia,
ia?ooaao eiaee?iaaiea ia noaaeee iiii- e aeeeiaeoe?iceia,
oiaiueoaiea caoaaoa e ieeneaiey eiaea (ia?aoiaea ec eiiece?iaaiiie
oi?iu a iieaeoey?ioth). E naienoaa i?aia?aoa ioiinyony:

1 Aieueoie eaoaioiue ia?eiae (aeaenoaoao iinea en/a?iaiey
?aca?aa eieeieaea)

2 I?e ia?ooaiee neioaca e oiaiueoaiee eiioeao?aoeee a ieacia
ai?iiiia ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu i?ienoiaeeo oneeaiiay nae?aoeey
oe?aio?iiiiai ai?iiia, eioi?ue niinianoaoao oneeaieth aaneo
ey?ecaoeee e oaaee/aieth ?acia?ia aeaeacu – no?oiiaaiiue yooaeo +
?ac?anoaiea ieieiaeacie/iie eeao/aoee.

3 Oi?ioi i?iieeaao /a?ac ieaoeaioo – ia?ooaiey o ieiaea

4 Iaeo?iiaiey, aa?aioeioeeioic

5 I?e yioa?aeueiii i?eiaiaiee – aeeniaioe/aneea yaeaiey
(oioiioa e ?aioa)

6 Ia?ooaiea ooieoeee ia/aie

Eiaeeaeu_.: Eiaeeae eaeey, iao?ey, ?anoai? Ethaiey.

I?e i?eaia aicieeaao ecauoie eiaea:

1 Oiaiueoaiea au?aaioee oe?aio?iiiiai ai?iiia (OOA) e
?aeeceia-oaeoi?ia aeiioaeaiona.

2 Ia?ooaiea i?ioiaeaeaiey iioeiaeueiuo eiee/anoa eiaea a eeaoee
aeaeacu.

Iaiaa aeoeaiu, ii ni/aoaiea n Ia?eacieeeii oeaeaniia?acii – oiaiueoaiea
no?oiiaaiiiai yooaeoa.

Aeeeiaeoe?iiei

Iaaeoeaai, ii oiaiueoaao i?iaeoeoeeth oe?aio?iiiiai ai?iiia –
i?eiaiyaony oieueei a ni/aoaiee n Ia?eacieeeii.

Ia?oei?ao eaeey

Oiaiueoaao caoaao eiaea e i?aa?auaiey eiiece?iaaiiiai eiaea a
iieaeoey?iue. Ia neioac ai?iiiia ia aeaenoaoao. Oa?aeoa?ii
no?oiiaaiiia aeaenoaea, aeia?aiey aeaeacu, i?eiaiyaony i?e
oiea?aioiinoe eee i?e iaiieacaiee Ia?eacieeea a nayce n aai iiai/iuie
yooaeoaie.

Ei?oeeinoa?ieaeu_. – i?eiaiythony aeey niyoey oe?aio?iiiuo e?ecia:
oiaiueoatho au?aaioeo OOA, ia?ooatho eiaee?iaaiea, oiaiueoatho
auaeaeaiea e nae?aoeeth oe?ieneia.

Eaeueoeeoiiei

Au?aaaouaaaony ia?aoanoeeeoey?iuie N-eeaoeaie ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu.
Ii no?oeoo?a – aaeie, ninoieo ec 32 aieiieeneio. Eiioeaio?aoeey a ieacia
100 ieeia?aii/eeo? = 0.1 iea/ie, o aeaiuei – iaiueoa. Oiaiueoaao
eiioeaio?aoeeth eaeueoeey a ieacia, niinianoaoao ioeiaeaieth
eaeueoeey a einoyo. IA aeeyao ia ananuaaiea e auaeaeaiea eaeueoeey. A
einoyo oi?iiceo inoaieeanou, oaaee/eaaao eiee/anoai eieeaaaia,
oaaee/eaaao eiee/anoai inoaiaeanoia, aeoeae?oao ieinoaiaiea,oiaiueoaao
niaea?aeaiea oinoi?a a ieacia e?iae ca n/ao oneeaiey auaeaeaiey aai
ii/eaie.

Eaeueoeeo?ei_. – i?eiaiyaony aioo?eiuoa/ii, aeice?oaony a AAe
(aaeeieoeao aeaenoaey). Eniieuecoaony i?e ea/aiee inoaiii?icia,
o?oaeiicaaeeaathueo ia?aeiiia (a ni/aoaiee n eaeueoeeai).

IA?AUEOIAEAeIUA AEAEACU

Ia?ao-ai?iii

Aaeeiaie i?e?iaeu, 84 aieiieeneiou, aioaaiieno eaeueoeeoiieia.
Niinianoaoao oaaee/aieth eiioeaio?aoeee eaeueoeey a ieacia ca n/ao:

1 Oneeaiea ananuaaiey

2 Auiuaaiea ec einoae

3 Oaaee/aiea ?aaani?aoeee a ii/eao

4 Oaaee/aiea auaeaeaiey oinoi?a

Aeaaiia aeaenoaea – ia einoioth oeaiue.

1 ?aiiyy oaca – aua?in eaeueoeey (2-4 /ana)

2 Iicaeiyy oaca – neioac oa?iaioia, ?ac?ooathueo einoioth
oeaiue, eiaeae?iaaiea aeeth/aiey eaeueoeey a eieeaaaiiaue iao?een.

Aeia?ia?aoe?aic

1 Neeueiue inoaiii?ic – /anoua ia?aeiiu io iacia/eoaeueiuo
oece/aneeo iaa?ocie.

2 Aeia?eaeueoeeaiey: o aeaoae – ?aiiaa cae?uoea ?iaeie/eia,
ioeiaeaiea eaeueoeey a iyaeeo oeaiyo, caiaaeeaiea ?inoa e ?acaeoey.

Aeey ea/aiey inoaiii?ica i?eiaiythony: Eaeueoeeo?ei, aeoaiei D, niee
eaeueoeey.

Aeiiia?aoe?aic

Iaaethaeaaony i?e aeaoaeoa oe?o?ae/aneie iia?aoeee, aooieiioiiuo
ia?ooaieyo. I?e ?aceii oiaiueoaiee eaeueoeey a ieacia iaaethaeaaony
niaciioeeey, oaoaiey, ey?eiai- e a?iioiniaciu.

Aeey ea/aiey i?eiaiythony Ia?aoe?ieaeei (ia?ao-ai?iii,
iieo/aiiue ec aeeaioiuo). I?aia?ao i?eiaiyaony aianoa n eaeueoeeai,
iaeaaeaao aeeeoaeueiui eaoaioiui ia?eiaeii, aaiaeeony iiaeeiaeii. 1 ie
i?aia?aoa niioaaonoaoao 20 AAe.

IIAeAEAEOAeI*IAss AEAEACA

Iiaeaeaeoaei/iay aeaeaca auiieiyao yecie?eiioth (auaeaeyao
iaie?aaoe/aneee nie) e yiaeie?eiioth (auaeaeyao ai?iiiu) ooieoeee.

Aeueoa-eeaoee – auaeaeytho aetheaaii. Aai yooaeou: oaaee/aiea
eiioeaio?aoeee aetheicu a e?iae, oneeaiea ?ac?ooaiey aeeeiaaia,
oiaiueoaiea eiee/anoaa ?aoeaioi?ia e einoeeio, oiaiueoaiea
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe a einoeeio.

Aaoa-eeaoee – auaeaeytho einoeei.

Aaiia- e aeaeueoa-eeaoee – auaeaeytho aano?ei e niiaoinoaoei
(aioaaiieno einoeeia).

1921 aiae – Aaioeia e Aano auea/eee yeno?aeoii ec iiaeaeaeoaei/iie
aeaeacu niaaeo n oaeaeaiiie iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeacie.

1965 aiae – neioac einoeeia (51 aieiieeneioa).

I?ieinoeei iinooiaao a e?iaue, iaeaaeaao iaeie aeoeaiinoueth (5% io
aeoeaiinoe einoeeia).

Einoeei_. – aeice?oaony oieueei a AAe. 1 AAe = 0.04 ia
e?enoaeee/aneiai einoeeia. Eiioeaio?aoeey a ieacia a oa/aiee nooie
iiaeaa?aeaia cia/eoaeueiui eieaaaieyi, Iaoiuae 0.4-0.8 ia/eeo? (15%
ninoaaeyao i?ieinoeei).

Einoeei aeeyao ia ana aeaeu iaiaia. I?e aai aeaoeoeeoa – a ieacia
aieueoay eiioeaio?aoeey aetheicu, ii iia ia ooeeece?oaony – no?aaeatho
ana aeaeu iaiaia.

Oeiu aeeaaaoa:

1 Niiioaiiue einoeei-caaeneiue e einoeei-iacaaeneiue

2 Aoi?e/iue – naycai n eciaiaieyie i?iaeoeoeee aioeeinoeeiiauo
oaeoi?ia (niiaoinoaoeia, aeeeiei?oeeieaeia). Iiaeao auoue aeeaaao
aa?aiaiiuo – eco/aaony a eo?na aeooa?noaa.

Iaoaieciu ?acaeoey:

1 Aaiaoe/aneay i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoue + oaeoi?u aiaoiae n?aaeu
(aiciiaeii ae?onu) = iia?aaeaeaiea eee aeaaeue aaoa-eeaoie
iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeacu.

2 Aaiaoe/aneay i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoue (aeaoeoeeo einoeeia) +
iaee?aiea (einoeeii?acenoaioiinoue) = aaniethoiay eee ioiineoaeueiay
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue einoeeia.

Aeaoeoeeo einoeeia i?eaiaeeo e ia?ooaieth ooeeecaoeee aetheicu,
aicieeiiaaieth aeia?aeeeaiee, ia?ooaieth iiaeiuaiey aetheicu n ieuae.

Aaeee: oiaiueoaiea iiaeiuaiey aieiieeneio – aeiiaieiiaoeeaeyiey.

AEe?u: ia?ooaiea ia?aciaaiey oeeiiee?iiia – oaaee/aiea
niaea?aeaiey o?eaeeoea?eaeia, oaiaoaiea eeiieeca.

I?e aieueoii aeaoeoeeoa – aeoeaaoeey aetheiiaiaaiaca, i?ioaieeca
(e ?ac?ooaiey aieiieeneio), ia?ooaiea i?aa?auaiee aieiieeneio (ana eaeoo
ia ia?aciaaiea oaeaaiaeia).

Aeaeueoa – oneeaiea eeiieeca, oaaee/aiea niaea?aeaiey
naiaiaeiuo aee?iuo eeneio, oaaee/aiea ieeneaiey aee?a a ia/aie-
eaoiaoeeaeic.

I?eciaee aeeaaaoa:_. oaaee/aiea naoa?a a ieacia, ?aceia
oaaee/aiea i?e naoa?iie iaa?ocea, au?aaeaiiay aetheico?ey.

Eeeie/anee: iieeo?ey, aeaaeaea, iieeoaaey (oaaee/aiiue aiiaoeo).
Oa?aeoa?ii aaeeiaia enoiuaiea, ia?ooaiey iee?ioee?eoeyoeee, ia?ooaiey
c?aiey (?aoeiiiaoee).

AI?IIIU /anoue 2

Yiaeiaaiiue einoeei au?aaaouaaaony ni nei?inoueth 0.5 – 1.5 AAe a
/an, iaaeaeo i?eaiaie ieue. Eieaaaiey aetheicu e einoeeia ia?aeeaeueiu,
aetheica neoaeeo ioneiaui iaoaieciii, i?iieeay aioo?ue aaoa-eeaoie
iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeacu e i?eaiaey e ia/aeo neioaca i?ieinoeeia e
einoeeia. A iaoaiecia neioaca einoeeia auaeaeytho 2 oacu:

Auno?ay – aua?in oaea neioace?iaaiiiai einoeeia

Iaaeeaiiay – oneeaiea neioaca e nae?aoeee einoeeia

Anoue 5 aeaeia nianoaaiiuo einoeeiiauo ?aoeaioi?ia. I?e iaee?aiee
oiaiueoaaony n?iaenoai ?aoeaioi?ia e einoeeio – aicieeaao
einoeei-?acenoaioiue aeeaaao. Ia?eiae iieo?aniaaea einoeeia = 4-5
ieioo. Anoue aioaaiienou (a ieacia – neiaeueaoiei). E aioaaiienoai
einoeeia ioiinyony niiaoinoaoei e aetheaaii.

Yooaeou einoeeia:

Aeeyiea ia oaeaaiaeiue iaiai

1 Oiaiueoaiea niaea?aeaiey naoa?a a ieacia

2 Oaaee/aiea i?iieeiiaaiey aetheicu /a?ac iaia?aiu

3 Oaaee/aiea aeoeaiinoe aaena- e aetheieeiacu a ia/aie

4 Nieaeaao oi?iicyuaa aeaenoaea aetheiei?oeeieaeia e
ei?oeeio?iieia ia aaena- e aetheieeiaco.

5 Oaaee/eaaao eiee/anoai aetheicu, iinooiathuae a iaioiciue
oeeee

6 Aeoeae?oao aeeeiaaineioaoaco, oaiaoaao oinoi?eeaco
(iniaaiii a ia/aie).

7 ?acei oaiaoaao aetheiiaiaaiac ec ie?oaaoa

Aeeyiea ia aee?iaie iaiai

1 Oneeaiea neioaca aee?iuo eeneio a ia/aie

2 Oaaee/aiea nei?inoe iiaeiuaiey o?eaeeoea?eaeia

3 Oaiaoaiea eeiieeca (eiaeae?iaaiea eeiac)

4 Oaaee/aiea iauaai eiee/anoaa aee?iaie eeao/aoee a i?aaiecia

Aeeyiea ia aaeeiaue iaiai

1 Oneeaiea iiaeiuaiey aieiieeneio oeaiyie, iniaaiii iuooeaie

2 Oneeaiea neioaca aaeea

3 Oiaiueoaiea ieeneaiey aieiieeneio

Eoia:

A Aioeeaoaaiee/aneia aeaenoaea

Oiaiueoaiea: aeeeiaaiieeca a ia/aie, ia?aciaaiey aetheicu, ia?aciaaiey
eaoiiiauo oae, eeiieeca, ?aniaaea aaeea e auoiaea aieiieeneio

A Aiaaiee/aneia aeaenoaea

Oaaee/aiea neioaca aeeeiaaia, aee?iuo eeneio, aeeoea?eia, aaeea
e aieiieeneio.

I?aia?aou ei?ioeiai aeaenoaey

Einoeei ?aaoey?iue, Noeinoeei (iieo/atho ec iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeacu
naeiae), Aeo?aieae, Ooioeei R.

Iauay oa?iaeieeiaoeea: Auno?ia ia/aei aeaenoaey (20-30 ieioo)
Aeinoeaaao iaeneiaeueiie eiioeaio?aoeee /a?ac 1-3 /ana, ii
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey 6-8 /ania. Aaiaeeony 1-3 ?aca a nooee.
Iaeaaeatho ianoii?acae?aaeathuei aeaenoaeai oae eae eo ?H iaiueoa /ai
pH oeaiae. I?aia?aou aeoeaiu, iiyoiio aiciiaeiu ia?aaeice?iaee,
i?eaiaeyuea e aeiiaeeeaie/aneie eiia. Neiioiiu eiiu: iioa?y niciaiey,
noaei?iae, aeiioa?iey, ia?ooaiey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie
nenoaiu. Eiia eaaei eoie?oaony aaaaeaieai aetheicu.

Einoeei anaaaea aeice?oaony a aaeeieoeao aeaenoaey. 1 AAe
niinianoaoao onaiaieth i?eia?ii 5-6 a naoa?a auaeaeyaiiai n ii/ie ca
nooee (i?eiaiyaoeeny ?aiaa iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiie aeicu
einoeeia).

I?aia?aou n?aaeiae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aeaenoaey

1 Einoeei aii?oiue + i?ioaiei + oeeie

2 Einoeei Naieeaioa

Ia/aei /a?ac 1-1.5 /ana, iaeneiaeueiay eiioeaio?aoeey /a?ac 3-6 /ania,
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue 8-10 /ania.

I?aia?aou aeeeoaeueiiai aeaenoaey

Noniaicey einoeei-i?ioaieia, Einoeei Eaioa

Ia/aei /a?ac 2 /ana, iaeneioi /a?ac 8-12 /ania, aeeeoaeueiinoue
aei 20 /ania.

I?aia?aou naa?oaeeeoaeueiiai aeaenoaey

Oeueo?aeaioa, Ooioeei G

Ia/aei /a?ac 4 /ana, iaeneioi /a?ac 10-16 /ania,
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aei 30 /ania.

Neioaoe/aneea aioeaeeaaaoe/aneea n?aaenoaa

I?iecaiaeiua noeueoaiee-ii/aaeiu

Oieaooaieae (I?eiaae) 6-12 /ania

Aoeaoiaaenaieae (Aeaieei?) 10-24 /ana

Oieacaieae (Oieeiaae) 10-24 /ana

Oei?i?iiaieae (Aeeaaaiac) 24-60 /ania

Iaoaieci aeaenoaey: noeioeyoeey aaoa-eeaoie iiyoiio yooaeoeaiu,
eiaaea i?e/eiie aeeaaaoa yaeyaony ineaaeaiea ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
aaoa-eeaoie (aeeaaao iiaeeeuo). I?e yoii:

Oaaee/eaaaony: /oanoaeoaeueiinoue eeaoie e aetheica, ia?aoiae
aetheicu aioo?ue eeaoie, neioac i?ieinoeeia e einoeeia

/oanoaeoaeueiinoue ?aoeaioi?ia e einoeeio

Oiaiueoaaony ia/aii/iay i?iaeoeoeey aetheicu.

I?aia?aou iaeioiene/iu, ii/oe iao iiai/iuo yooaeoia, II i/aiue
auno?i ?acaeaaaony oiea?aioiinoue – aei 50% aieueiuo ia/oanoaeoaeueiu e
aeaiiui i?aia?aoai.

Aeeaaieeaieae, Aeth?aii?i – oaaee/aia aeoeaiinoue,
ananuaaaiinoue, aeiioieanoa?eiyie/aneia aeaenoaea. Yooaeoeaii i?e
?acenoaioiinoe e i?aaeuaeouei i?aia?aoai.

Iiai/ii

Aeiiaeeeaiey, oiaiueoaiea niaea?aeaiey iao?ey, aiaiee, aaiaoeou,
aeea?aee.

I?iecaiaeiua aeaoaieaeeiia

Aeeaooeae, Iaoi?iei – Ia noeioee?otho aaoa-eeaoee, ii:
oiaiueoatho:

ananuaaaiinoue aetheicu, aeeyiea aioaaiienoia, oneeeaatho o?ainii?o
aetheicu e ooeeeecaoeeth aetheicu, oaiaoatho einoeeiaco.

E?iia yoiai i?aia?aou oi?iicyo neioac oieanoa?eia e oiaiueoatho
ianno oaea.

I?aia?aou iaeioiene/iu, aucuaatho neaainoue, iaoaeee/aneee
i?eaeon ai ?oo, eiiaaea – aoeeaeic.

AETHEAAII

I?iaeooee?oaony aeueoa-eeaoeaie iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeacu, ninoieo 29
aieiieeneio. Ia?eiae iieo?aniaaea 6-7 ieioo. Niinianoaoao oaaee/aieth
ia?aciaaiey aetheicu, oneeaiea ?aniaaea aeeeiaaia. Ieacuaaao
iieiaeeoaeueiia eiio?iiiia aeaenoaea (ii i?e yoii ?acei oaaee/eaaao
iio?aaiinoue ieiea?aea a eenei?iaea). Iieiaeeoaeueiia ae?iiio?iiiia,
iniaaiii a iaeanoe ao?ei-aaio?eeoey?iiai ocea. Oneeeaaao aua?in
eaeueoeey ec a?aioey?iie yiaeiieaciaoe/aneie naoe – inoi?iaeii i?e
i?eiaiaiee na?aea/iuo aeeeiceaeia. Iiaeao aucaaoue aeiiaeeeaie/aneea
ninoiyiey, ea?aeeiaaiiue oie.

AI?IIIU EI?U IAAeII*A*IEEIA

1855 O. Aaeenii iienae a?iiciaoth aieaciue – “aieaciue
Aaeeniia-Ae?ia?a”

1954 Oeeei Oyia i?eiaiee ai?iiiu ei?u iaaeii/a/ieeia aeey
ea/aiey ?aaiaoecia.

Ai?iiiu ei?u iaaeii/a/ieeia aeaeyony ia:

Ieia?aeiei?oeeieaeu, Aetheiei?oeeieaeu, Iieiaua ai?iiiu.

Aetheiei?oeeieaeu

Aeae?iei?oecii, Ei?oecii – ia?acothony ec oieanoa?eia iiae
aeeyieai Ei?oeeio?iieia, eioi?ue acaeiiaeaenoaoao n ?aoeaioi?aie ia
iiaa?oiinoe eeaoie e aioo?e ieo e i?eaiaeeo e oneeaieth ia?aciaaiey
i?inoaaeaiaeeiia, aee?iuo eeneio e oieanoa?eia e neioaco ec ei?oeciia e
aeae?iei?oeciia.

Eeanneoeeaoeey

O ei?oeciia e aeae?iei?oeciia aetheiei?oeeieaeiay aeoeaiinoue
ni/aoaeanue n ieia?aeiei?oeeieaeiie, iiyoiio noaee i?eiaiyoue
neioaoe/aneea i?aia?aou.

I?aaeiecii, I?aaeiecieii – oiaiueoaia ieia?aeiei?oeeieaeiay aeoeaiinoue
e oaaee/aia aetheiei?oeeieaeiay. I?aaeiecieiia aaienoeoeeiao (aeey
ia?aioa?aeueiiai aaaaeaiey), Iaoeei?aaeiecieii (O?aacii).

Aeaenaiaoacii, O?eaioeeiieii (Iieueea?oai) – aua aieueoa
oiaiueoaia ieia?aeei?oeeieaeiay aeoeaiinoue e oaaee/aia
aetheiei?oeeieaeiay. Eaiieii – aeey aioo?enonoaaiiai aaaaeaiey

Iaeeaiaoacii (Iaeioeae), Aaoaiaoacii (iacue), Neiaea?,
Eieaea?oai.

Ai?iiiu naycuaathony n o?ainei?oeiii e aeueaoieiaie (Aeae?iei?oecii ia
80% naycuaaaony n o?ainei?oeiii e ia 20% n aeueaoieiaie). O?eaioeaiieii
iaiueoa naycuaaaony n aaeeaie ieaciu. I?e oiaiueoaiee eiee/anoaa
aaeeia ieaciu oaaee/eaaaony aeoeaiinoue e iiai/iua yooaeou
aetheiei?oeeieaeia. Oiaea yaeaiea i?ienoiaeeo o iiaeeeuo ethaeae e
enoiuaiiuo. *ai aieueoa naiaiaeiuo aetheiei?oeeieaeia oai aieueoa
ei?oeeio?iieia caaea?aeeaaaony ia/aiueth e auaiaeeony ii/eaie.

O aetheiei?oeeieaeia anoue nianoaaiiua ?aoeaioi?u ia iiaa?oiinoe
eeaoie (6000-12000/eeaoeo). Ca n/ao ?ai?annee e aea?ai?annee aaiia
aetheiei?oeeieaeu aeeytho ia ana aeaeu iaiaia.

Aaeeiaue iaiai: oaaee/eaaaony ?aniaae e oiaiueoaaony neioac
aaeea, aieiieeneiou i?aa?auathony a aetheico. Eiiaaea, i?e aieueoeo
eiioeaio?aoeeyo iiaeao ?acaeaaoueny einoeei-?acenoaioiue aeeaaao. A
ia/aie oaaee/aiea_. neioaca aaeeia: no?oeoo?iuo (oaaee/aiea aana ia/aie,
oneeaiea ?aaaia?aoeee) e oa?iaioaoeaiuo (oa?iaiou o?ainaieie?iaaiey e
neioaca aeeeiaaia).

Oaeei ia?acii oneeeaaaony aioeoiene/aneay ooieoeey ia/aie.

Aeaenoaey aetheiei?oeeieaeia:

1 Io?eoeaoaeueiue acioenoue aaeain – a ii/a oaaee/eaaaony
eiee/anoai aiieaea, ii/aaeiu, ii/aaie eeneiou, aieiieeneio.

2 Aeiii?ioaeiyiey (ca n/ao aeiaoeeiia)

3 Aeia?aeeeaiey, aetheico?ey.

4 Oaaee/aiea niaea?aeaiey aeeeiaaia a ia/aie e iuooeao

Iaeaaeaao aeaenoaeai ia niaaeeieoaeueioth oeaiue e oo/iua eeaoee –
i?ioeaiainiaeeoaeueiue yooaeo a i?iaeoeoeaioth oaco. Oaeaea
i?ienoiaeeo oiaiueoaiea i?iaeoeoeee oea?iaeanoaie eieeaaaia,
oiaiueoaaony ?ac?anoaiea niaaeeieoaeueiie oeaie. Ca n/ao oaiaoaiey
ooieoeee oo/iuo eeaoie i?ienoiaeeo oiaiueoaiea aenoaieia e
aeaeo?iieaeacu.

A eeioieaeiie oeaie i?ienoiaeeo oaiaoaiea i?iaeoeoeee eeioioeeoia
oeionii . Yoi iaoneiaeeaaao eiioiiaeai?anneaiia e aioeeaeeaie/aneia
aeaenoaea. Yoiio aea aeaenoaeth niinianoaoao oiaiueoaiea aeoeaiinoe
aenoaieia e na?ioiieia. Oaeaea i?ienoiaeeo noaaeeecaoeey iaia?ai
eecinii e oiaiueoaiea auoiaea eeciniiaeueiuo oaeoi?ia.

Aeiiieieoaeueii:

1 Oiaiueoaaony iea?aoeey noaieiauo eeaoie e?iae 2
Oiaiueoaaony aeoeaiinoue A-eeioioeeoia

3 Oiaiueoaaony acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo A- e O-eeioioeeoaie
4 Oiaiueoaiea ooieoeeiiaeueiie aeoeaiinoe n?aaeieo e iaeuo
eeioioeeoia 5 Oiaiueoaiea i?iaeoeoeee IgE – aetheiei?oeeieaeu
eniieuecothony a o?ainieaioieiaee

Aeeyiea ia oaeaaiaeiue iaiai:

Oaiaoaiea caoaaoa aetheicu oeaiyie – acaeiiaeaenoaea aetheicu n
?aoeaioi?aie

Oneeaiea neioaca aetheicu ec aieiieeneio.

Aeeyiea ia aee?iaie iaiai:

I?ienoiaeeo ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea aee?a, a iiaeeiaeiie aee?iaie
eeao/aoea i?ienoiaeeo eeiieec (aeiiieieoaeueii oaaee/eaaaony
eeiieeoe/aneay aeoeaiinoue aae?aiaeeia), i?ienoiaeeo oaiaoaiea
eeiiaaiaca – iiooaeaiea. Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei i?ienoiaeeo ioeiaeaiea
aee?a a iaeanoe eeoea e oae (eoiiia?aciia eeoei). E yooaeoai
ioiineony ii?iaeecaoeey iee?ioee?eoeyoeee, noaaeeecaoeey ninoaeenoie
noaiee, oiaiueoaaony ?ac?ooaiea eaoaoieaieiia (eiaeae?iaaiea EIIO) –
oaaee/eaaaony a?oa?eaeueiia aeaaeaiea.

Oiaiueoaiea eiee/anoaa oinoieeiacu A2 i?eaiaeeo e:

1 Oiaiueoaieth ia?aciaaiey a?aoeaeiiiaie eeneiou, i?inoaaeaiaeeiia
e o?iiaienaia A2

2 Oeo/oaieth iee?ioee?eoeyoeee, oneeaieth yenoaeaoeee

Iieacaiey

1 Ea/aiea ?aaiaoecia e ae?oaeo eieeaaaiicia a oii /enea
?aaiaoieaeiiai a?o?eoa

2 Ea/aiea a?iioeaeueiie anoiu (eoie?iaaiea status asthmaticus)

3 Ianoiia ea/aiea yecaiu, iae?iaea?ieoia

4 Ea/aiea aeiia?oeiiao?eoia, ino?uo e iaino?aiee o?iie/aneeo
ieaeiiao?eoia.

5 I?ioeeaeoeea e ea/aiea oieiauo ninoiyiee

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea

1 Oeaio?aeueiia aeaenoaea – ia?ooaiea ineoeee (aei noa?ieaeiuo
ineoicia)

2 Ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea aee?a

3 Ia?ooaiea aeiioaeaie/aneie e aeiioeca?iie ?aaoeyoeee

4 I?e aeeeoaeueiii i?eiaiaiee i?iyaeyaony ieia?aeei?oeeieaeiay
aeoeaiinoue – aeiieaeeaiey, caaea?aeea aiaeu (inoi?iaeii i?eiaiyoue n
aeeo?aoeeaie e na?aea/iuie aeeeiceaeaie).

5 Aeia?oiiey (ca n/ao oiaiueoaiey EIIO)

6 Oeueoea?iaaiiia aeaenoaea – oneeaiea e iaino?aiea oa/aiey ycau
aeaeoaeea e aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoee.

7 Oaiaoaiea eiioieoaoa – iaino?aiea o?iie/aneeo caaieaaaiee
(ooaa?eoeac, neoeeen)

8 Inoaiii?icu

9 Noa?ieaeiue aeeaaao

Ei?oeeio?iiei

Ii?ioie 10-40 AAe a 1 a. Iaycaoaeueii i?eiaiyaony i?e ai?iiiaeueiie
oa?aiee. Eia/a i?e ioiaia ai?iiia aicieeaao 2 yooaeoa:

1 Oaiiiai ioaea/e (oaaee/aiea aua?ina ?aeeceia oaeoi?ia
aeiioaeaiona e o?iiiuo ai?iiiia aeiioeca i?eaiaeeo e ?aceiio aua?ino
nianoaaiiuo ai?iiiia).

2 I?e aeeeoaeueiie oa?aiee ai?iiiaie ia au?aaaouaaaony
ei?oeeio?iiei e iinea ioiaiu nianoaaiiua ai?iiiu nianai ia
au?aaaouaathony.

I?aaeeueii – i?e oiaiueoaiee aeicu aaiaeeoue iaaieueoea
eiee/anoaa ei?oeeio?iieia.

Iiai/iia aeaenoaea – oiaea, /oi e o aetheiei?oeeieaeia.

IEIA?AEEI?OEEIEAeU

1 AeIENA (aeacieneei?oeeinoa?iiaoeaoao) caaea?aeeaaao iao?ee –
caaea?aeeaaaony aiaea – oaaee/aiea a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey.
I?eiaiythony i?e aeiiooieoeee iaaeii/a/ieeia (“Aaeeniiiaa aieaciue”).
I?eiaiyaony a aeaea ianeyiiai 0.5% ?anoai?a, aaiaeeony
aioo?eiuoa/ii. Iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiia aeaenoaea.

2 O?eiaoeeaoeaoao AeIENA – noniaicey, aaiaeeony aioo?eiuoa/ii –
aeeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey aei 2-o iaaeaeue. Oaeaea i?eiaiyaony
eiieaioaoeey oaaeaoie a aee?iaoth eeao/aoeo aeeaioa.

IIEIAUA AI?IIIU

Oieeeeoe-noeioee?othuee ai?iii e ethoaeiece?othuee ai?iii.

ONA i?eaiaeeo e

AEaiueiu ?acaeoeth oieeeeoea

Ioae/eiu nia?iaoiaaiac

EA i?eaiaeeo e

AEaiueiu iaoeyoeey

Ioae/eiu neioac oanoinoa?iia

Eaeoioa?ei – ooieoeeiie?iaaiea aeaeoiai oaea, eaeoaoeey
Yno?iaaiu_. – Yno?aaeeie, Yno?ie, Yno?eie. Iieoneioaoe/aneea –
Yno?aaeeiea aaiciao e aeei?iiaiiao. Neioaoe/aneea – Aeeyoeenoeiaano?ie,
Aeeiano?ie e aai niee, Neiyno?ie, Ieoayno?ie.

I?eiaiaiea

Iaaeinoaoi/iinoue ooieoeee ye/ieeia – aeeniaii?ay, eeeiaeoa?e/aneea
?anno?ienoaa, eiiieaeniay oa?aiey ?aea i?aaenoaoaeueiie aeaeacu. ?ae
iiei/iuo aeaeac o aeaiuei noa?oa 50-55 eao. Anoue aioeyno?iaaiiua
n?aaenoaa – neioaoe/aneea (aeie oeaiaauo ?aoeaioi?ia) – oaaee/eaaaony
eiioeaio?aoeey aiiaaeio?iiiuo ai?iiiia – oaaee/eaaaony ?acia? e
ooieoeeiiaeueiay aeoeaiinoue ye/ieeia.

Ea/aiea aanieiaeey. – Eeiieoai, Oiiieneoai

I?iaanoa?ii_. (neioaoe/aneee aiaeia – I?aaiei)

Iaania/eaaao eiieaioaoeeth oieeeeoea e ii?aaeaeyao ii?iaeueiue
oiion iaoee ai a?aiy aa?aiaiiinoe. Oiaiueoaao /oanoaeoaeueiinoue iaoee
e ieneoioeeio e aacii?anneio.

I?eiaiaiea – i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea aueeaeuoae.

Aioaaiienou I?iaanoa?iia i?eiaiythony aeey i?a?uaaiey aa?aiaiiinoe
(oieueei a noaoeeiia?ao, o iiuoiuo niaoeeaeenoia ii iaaeeoeeineei
iieacaieyi).

Ni/aoaiea n yno?iaaiaie – i?eiaiaiea a ea/anoaa eiio?aoeaioeaia

Aiae?iaaiu

I?eiaiythony i?e ?anno?ienoaao iieiaie noa?u o ioae/ei, ea/aiea
eeeiaeoa?e/aneeo ?anno?ienoa e ?aea iiei/iie aeaeacu.

1 Oanoinoa?ii 2 Iaoeeoanoinoa?ii 3 Oanoinoa?iia
i?iieiiao Aioaaiieno – Oeei?ioa?ii

Aiaaiee/aneea n?aaenoaa (i?iecaiaeiua aiae?iaaiia)

Oiaiueoaia niaoeeoe/aneay aiae?iaaiiay aeoeaiinoue ii nio?aiaii
aeaenoaea ia iaiai. Iaoaiae?inoaiieii ,Ia?iaie – i?eiaiythony aeey
noeioeyoeee i?ioeannia ?aaaia?aoeee: 1 Iinea oyaeaeuo iia?aoeee 2 O
enoiuaiiuo aieueiuo

Aeoaieiiua i?aia?aou

Ieceiiieaeoey?iua i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey
iaania/aiey anao i?ioeannia, i?e yoii ia yaeythueany ieanoe/aneei eee
yia?aaoe/aneei noano?aoii.

Aunooiatho a ea/anoaa eioa?iaioia.

I?eiaiaiea:

1 N?aaenoaa niaoeeoe/aneie oa?aiee niioaaonoaothuaai aaeoaieiica eee
aeiiaeoaieiica

I?e/eiu aaeoaieiicia:

1 Ia?ooaiea ea/anoaa e/eee naaeaine?iaaiiinoe ieoaiey.

I?e ecauoea oaeaaiaeia iaiaoiaeei aeoaiei A1, i?e aaaaoa?eainoaa
aeoaiei ??

2 Oaaee/aiiay iio?aaiinoue a aeoaieiao.

Oece/aneea e yiioeeiiaeueiua iaa?ocee, i?ioanneiiaeueiua a?aaeiinoe.

3 Ia?ooaiea ananuaaiey aeoaieiia

Ianiaoeeoe/aneay oa?iaeioa?aiey i?e ionoonoaee ?aaeueiiai aeii- eee
aaeoaieiica a ?ann/aoa ia oeo/oaiea eeaoi/iiai iaoaaieecia (i?eiaiythony
cia/eoaeueii aieueoea aeicu).

Aeeytho ia aaeeiaue iaiai: A5, A9,A12,A6,A,A,E. Aeeytho ia oaeaaiaeiue
iaiai: A1,A2,A5,N,A.

Aeeytho ia eeieaeiue iaiai: A6,??. Eiatho aioeeioaeoeeiiiue yooaeo:
N,A,D. Eiatho aioeaaii??aae/aneee yooaeo: N,?,E. Eiatho aioeaiaie/aneee
yooaeo: A12,A2,A6,N,A9. Aeoaiei A1

I?aia?aou:

Oeaieia a?iieae e oei?eae. Eiea?aieneeaca. Aeoeaiia aauanoai – oeaieia
aeeoinoao.

O/anoaoao a oaeaaiaeiii iaiaia (aeae?aieneee?iaaiea eaoi-eeneio). I?e
iaaeinoaoea no?aaeaao OeIN e ia?eoa?e/aneay ia?aiay nenoaia:

Auno?ay ooiieyaiinoue, iieeiaa?eou, ia?acu, iuoa/iay neaainoue, ioaee,
na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue.

I?eiaiaiea:

Oeaieia a?iieae e oei?eae – aeii e aaeoaieiicu, ea/aiea iieeiaa?eoia
(eiiieaeniay oa?aiey), ycaaiiay aieaciue aeaeoaeea e
aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoee, caaieaaaiey ia?eoa?e/aneeo ninoaeia.

Eiea?aieneeaca – A eiiieaeniie oa?aiee ii/a/iie, ia/aii/iie, na?aea/iie.
eaai/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe.

Iiai/ii: Aeea?aee(/aua i?e ia?yioa?aeueiii aaaaeaiee(i?e aioo?eaaiiii
aaaaeaiee aei aiaoeeaeoe/aneiai oiea)).

Aeoaiei A 2 (?eaioeaaei)

?eaioeaaei e ?eaioeaaei-iiiiioeeaioeae.

Aeoeaiia aauanoai – eioa?iaio oeaaei (o/anoaoao a eeaoi/iii aeuoaiee)

N?aaenoaa aeeythuea ia eiioieoao

Eiioiiaeai?annaiou

Aioei?ieeoa?aoeaiia aeaenoaea ( ianaeaeoeaiue oeeoioiene/aneee yooaeo.

Oeeeeinii?ei A (Naiaeeiioi), Acioeii?ei (Eio?ai), Oeeeeioinoai
(Yiaeienai), Io?iiaa CD3, Aetheiei?oeeieaeu.

Oeeeeinii?ei A

Aioeaeioee iaioeaeiie i?e?iaeu, oaiaoaao oeaiaaoth ianiaianoeiinoue i?e
ia?anaaeea. Naeaeoeaii aeaenoaoao a ioiioaiee O-eeioioeeoia (ieoaiue –
O-oaeia?u). Ia?ooaao neioac EE-2, i?aiyonoaoao ii?iaeueiie eiiia?aoeee
O- e A-eeioioeeoia.

Eniieueciaaoue iaiaoiaeeii eae iiaeii ?aiueoa, i?e iiyaeaiee ia?auo
i?eciaeia ianiaianoeiinoe. Iiai/ii:

Ieieiaeueiia oaiaoaiea e?iaaoai?aiey, iao?i- e aaiaoioiene/iinoue,
aeeniaioe/aneea ia?ooaiey, aeia?eaeeaiey, aeeniaii?ay, aiaiey,
noaei?iae, ia?ooaiea ?aaeoeaiinoe.

Acaoeii?ei

Eieaeacieueiia i?iecaiaeiia 6-ia?eaioiio?eia. Oaaee/aiu
eiioiiaeai?anneaiua naienoaa e oiaiueoaiu oeeoinoaoe/aneea. Ieoaiue –
aeoeaii aeaeyueany eeaoee. Ii iaoaiecio aeaenoaey – aioeiaoaaieeo. I?e
yioa?aeueiii aaaaeaiee ecae?aoaeueii iaeaieeaaaony a eeioieaeiie oeaie,
a eioi?ie o iaai aunieay nei?inoue i?aa?auaiey a aeoeaiia aauanoai (
naeaeoeaiinoue. Ii naiae no?oeoo?a yaeyaony 6-oeieiiceiiaie eeneioie –
eiieo?e?oao n eiiceiiaie eeneioie ca oa?iaiou, aneaaenoaea yoiai
i?ienoiaeeo ia?ooaiea neioaca AeIE. Aeiiieieoaeueii oaiaoaaony
5-oinoi?eaiceiaiei, /oi i?eaiaeeo e aeieo a S-oaco eeaoi/iiai oeeeea. A
ia/aea naiaai aeaenoaey oaiaoaao O-noi?anni?u – iie aieaa /onoaeoaeueiu,
/ai O-oaeia?u. Oaiaoaao ia oieueei i?ieeoa?aoeeth, ii e nic?aaaiea,
aeanoiaaiac eeaoie – i?aaeoanoaaiieeia O-eeoioeeoia a e?aniii einoiii
iicaa. Ia?ooaao i?ioeannu ?aniiciaaaiey aioeaaia (oi?iiceo ?acaeoea
eeaoi/iuo ?aoeaioi?ia). I?eiaiyaony i?e i?ioeeaeoeea iooi?aeaiey
o?ainieaioaoa, i?e ea/aiee aooieiioiiuo caaieaaaiee.

Iiai/ii:

?acaeoea aoi?e/iie eioaeoeee, aeeniaioe/aneea ia?ooaiey, oaiaoaiea
e?iaaoai?aiey, ieaeioeeoa?iiai ?yaea, aiaiey, o?iiaioeeoiiaiey,
oiene/aneee aaiaoeo.

Iaoio?aenao

Neioaoe/aneee aioaaiieno oieeaaie eeneiou. Iaia?aoeiia eiieo?aioiia
oaiaoaiea aeaaeae?ioieao?aaeoeoacu, i?eaiaeyuaa e oaiaoaieth neioaca
AeIE, aeiiieieoaeueii i?ienoiaeeo oaiaoaiea oeieaeeineioaoacu,
aoii?aeueiiai e eeaoi/iiai eiioieoaoa. Oa?aeoa?ia aieueoay aeoeaiinoue
i?ioea oeion-caaeneiuo aioeaaiia. I?eiaiyaony aeey i?ioeeaeoeee
iooi?aeaiey o?ainieaioaoa, i?e ?aaiaoe/aneii e ini?eaoe/aneii a?o?eoa,
aooieiioiiuo caaieaaaieyo niaaeeieoaeueiie oeaie (aea?iaoiieiceou).
Iiai/ii: oaiaoaiea e?iaaoai?aiey, aeeniaioe/aneea ia?ooaiey, auiaaeaiea
aiein, aaiaoi- e iao?ioiene/iinoue, eiaeiua aeea?aee.

Oeeeeioinoai

Iaeaaeaao aeai?anneaiie aeoeaiinoueth e a ioiioaiee iieiyueony eeaoie
eiioiiie nenoaiu. I?e iaiueoeo aeicao (2-5 ia/nooee) oaiaoaao
A-eeioioeeou, oaiaoaao noeioeyoeeth i?ieeoa?aoeee, i?e aieueoeo aeicao
(7-12 ia/nooee) – oaiaoaao O-eeioioeeou.

I?aia?ao iouaieyao eii Cl- – ia?ooaao ?aaioo AeIE-caaeneiie
AeIE-iieeia?acu, /oi i?eaiaeeo e inoaiiaea aeaeaiey eeaoee. I?eiaiyaony
i?e o?ainieaioaoeeee e i?e ea/aiee aooieiioiiuo caaieaaaiee. Iiai/ii:
Iaioeeoiiaiey, /anoe/iia eee iieiia auiaaeaiea aiein, aeeniaioe/aneea
ia?ooaiey, oaiaoaiea ?aaaia?aoeaiuo i?ioeannia.

Io?iiaa CD3

Eiaeae?oao acaeiiaeaenoaea aeeeii?ioaeiia ia iiaa?oiinoe O-eeioioeeoia.

I?eiaiyaony a i?ioeeaeoeea iooi?oaiey ii/ee.

Iiai/iuo yooaeoia iaei, ia oiia o?iie/aneie na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe
iiaeao ?acaeoueny ioae eaaeiai.

Aetheiei?oeeieaeu

Iaeaaeatho i?ioeaiainiaieoaeueiui e eiioiiaeai?anneaiui aeaenoaeai –
i?eiaiythony aeey eoie?iaaiey ainiaeeoaeueiuo ?aaeoeee. Ecae?aoaeueii
oi?iicyo eeioioeeou: oaiaoatho neioac EE-2, i?ieeoa?aoeeth eeioioeeoia,
oiaiueoatho oeeoioiene/iinoue O-eeeea?ia. Aeaenoaea i?eaiaeeo e
eeioiiaiee (oiaiueoaieth ?acia?ia eeioieaeiuo i?aaiia).

Eiioiinoeioee?othuea n?aaenoaa

I?eiaiythony a eiiieaeniie oa?aiee eiioii-aeaoeoeeoiuo ninoiyiee.
Niinianoaotho oaaee/aieth au?aaioee aioeoae, aeoeae?otho iae?ioaae,
eciaiytho oa?aeoa? eiioiiuo ?aaeoeee, oneeeaatho iauoth
nii?ioeaeyaiinoue i?aaiecia.

E?iia niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo i?aia?aoia oaeaea oaaee/eaatho aaeaioeaiua
naienoaa i?aia?aou ai?iiiia, aeoaieiia, AEaiue-Oaiue.

I?aia?aou oeiona

O-aeoeaei, Oeiaeei, Oeiiaai, Oeiiioei.

Aeoeae?otho ?aia?aoeaiua i?ioeannu, oaaee/eaatho nei?inoue nic?aaaiey e
aeeooa?aioee?iaee, oaaee/eaatho ooieoeeiiaeueioth aeoeaiinoue e auoiae a
e?iaue O-eeioioeeoia ii?iaeecotho niioiioaiea A- e O- eeioioeeoia, eo
noaiiioeyoeee. E?iia yoiai aeoeae?otho neioac eioa?oa?iiia, oaaee/eaatho
eiee/anoai iaeo?ioeeia e aeoeae?otho aeoeaiinoue oaaioeeoica.

I?eiaiythony i?e ea/aiee eiioiiaeaoeoeeoiuo ninoiyiee, ia?ooaiee
?aaaia?aoeee – (o?ioe/aneea ycau, ycau AEEO). I?aeoe/anee iao iiai/iuo
yooaeoia.

I?aia?aou neioaoe/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey

Aeeaoeaoeenieaiiiaioei (Aa?eiiaioei), Eaaiiecie (Aeaea?en),
Iaoeeo?aoeee, I?ioao eaeey, Iaioienee.

Aa?eiiaioei

Aeoeae?oao i?ieeoa?aoeeth e aeeooa?aioee?iaeo noaieiauo eeaoie e?iae aac
noeioeyoeee iaoieiae/aneeo eiioiiuo ?aaeoeee – i?eiaiyaony i?e
eiioiiaeaoeoeeoao.

Iaeioiene/ai – iiaeao auoue aieue a ianoa eiuaeoeee, ia?aua 4 iaaeaee
aiciiaeii a?aiaiiia oiaiueoaiea niaea?aeaiey eaeueoeey a ieacia.

Eaaiiacie

Aeoeae?oao O-eeaoi/iue eiioieoao, ainnoaiaaeeaaao yooaeoeaiinoue
ooieoeee ia?eoa?e/aneeo eeioioeeoia e oaaioeeoia, aeoeae?oao eo
nic?aaaiea.

I?eiaiyaony i?e ia?ae/iuo e aoi?e/iuo eiioiiaeaoeoeeoao, a eiiieaeniie
oa?aiee iiooieae.

Iiai/iua yooaeou i?e aeeeoaeueiii i?eiaiaiee:

Ii?aaeaiey AEEO: oioiioa, aii?aeney, ycaaiiua eieeou, aeea?ay.
Ii?aaeaiey OeIN: aieiaiay aieue, iiauoaiiay ooiieyaiinoue, ia?ooaiey
nia. Aeea?aey: : eiaeiua i?iyaeaiey, aaneoeeou. I?ioaeio?ey.

Eaeeiiaen

Neioace?oaony niaoeeaeueiui ooaiiii E.coli ni ano?iaiiie ieacieaeie.
ssaeyaony a?aioeioeeoa?iui e iae?ioaaaeueiui eieiieanoeioeoe?othuei
oaeoi?ii. Aeoeae?oao c?aeua eeaoee ieaeioeeoa?iiai ?yaea, noeioee?oao eo
aeeooa?aioee?iaeo e i?ieeoa?aoeeth. Oe?iei i?eiaiyaony i?e iaeo?iiaiee,
ieaeinoi?annee (i?ioeaiiiooieaaua n?aaenoaa, aieanoe/aneie aiaiee,
aeeeoaeueiuo eioaeoeeyo a o./. AE*).

Iiai/ii: aeeniaioe/aneea ia?ooaiey + aiee, ieaeaee, ia?acu, noaei?iae,
aieiaiua aiee, ?aaeei – niooaiiinoue niciaiey, ia?ooaiey iicaiaiai
e?iaiia?auaiey, ia?ooaiey ?eoia na?aeoea, na?aea/iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue.
Iiaoo auoue eiaeii-aeea?ae/aneea ?aaeoeee.

Iaoeeo?aoeee, I?ioao eaeey, Iaioienee (i?iecaiaeiua ie?eieaeeia)

Aeoeae?otho neioac AeIE ( aeoeae?oaony neioac aaeea, oaaee/eaaaony
nei?inoue ?inoa e i?ieeoa?aoeee eeaoie. Aeoeae?otho eaeeiiiyc,
y?eo?iiiyc, ?aaaia?aoeeth, ia?aciaaiea aioeoae, iiaeioeoaeueioth
niiniaiinoue iae?ioaaia, ianiaoeeoe/aneee eiioieoao (eecioeei,
eiiieaiaio). Iaeneiaeueii aeoeaiu i?e oaiaoaiee eiioieoaoa aioeaeioeeaie
e aetheiei?oeeieaeaie (iaoaaiee/aneea eiioiiaeaoeoeeou).

I?eiaiyaony aeey noeioeyoeee ianiaoeeoe/aneiai eiioieoaoa o ineaaeaiiuo
aieueiuo i?e aoi?e/iuo eiioiiaeaoeoeeoao (eaeeiiaiey eee au?aaeaiiia
nieaeaiea oaaioeeoa?iie aeoeaiinoe). I?eiaiythony aeey onei?aiey
?aaaia?aoeee i?e o?ioe/aneeo ycaao, ?aiao, iaeiaao. Iaeioiene/iu.
Iaioienee iiaeao aucuaaoue aeeniaioe/aneea ia?ooaiey
(ianoii?acae?aaeathuaa aeaenoaea), aeea?ae/aneea i?iyaeaiey.

Eiioiiei??aeoi?u aaeoa?eaeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey

A?iioiioiae, Eioaeii, Ianiao, ?eaiioiee, Ie?iaaiae.

A?iioiioiae

Aeoeae?oao aoii?aeueiue e eeaoi/iue eiioieoao, aeoeae?oao ia?eoa?e/aneea
iae?ioaae, O-eeioioeeou, i?iaeoeoeeth aioeoae A-eeioioeeoaie. Aioeoaea
i?aeiouanoaaiii iai?aaeythony a aa?oiea aeuoaoaeueiua iooe.

I?eiaiyaony eae aniiiiaaoaeueiia n?aaenoai i?e eioaeoeeyo aa?oieo
aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae. Iaeioiene/ai, ii iiaoo auoue aeeniaioe/aneea
ia?ooaiey, aeea?aee.

Eioaeii

Iaeaaeaao eiioiinoeioee?othuei aeaenoaeai i?e ianoiii i?eiaiaiee.
I?eiaiyaony i?e eiioiiaeaoeoeeoa aucaaiiii aioeaeioeeaie, aeey
ii?iaeecaoeee ninoaaa iee?ioei?u, i?eiaiyaony aeey i?ioeeaeoeee e
ea/aiey caaieaaaiee iieinoe ?oa. Iiai/iuo yooaeoia iao.

Ianiao

Aooieecao cieioenoiai e aaeiai noaoeeieieea, caeaiyuaai e
aaiieeoe/aneiai no?aioieieea ( i?ienoiaeeo aeoeaaoeey ianiaoeeoe/aneiai
eiioieoaoa. I?eiaiyaony a eiiieaeniie oa?aiee a?iioeaeueiie anoiu,
aeea?ae/aneeo ?eieoia, ioeoia, eiiuthieoeaeoia, aea?iaoeoia.

?eaiioiee

?eainiiu ieiaaiiiai no?aioieieea. I?eiaiyaony i?e ?aoeeaeeae?othueo
o?iie/aneeo eioaeoeeyo – ?eiioa?eiaeou, aiaeiu, ainiaeaiey aa?oieo
aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae.

Iiai/ii: noaoaa?eeeoao, ainiaeeoaeueiua ?aaeoeee a ianoa aaaaeaiey.

Ie?iaaiae

Aooieecao Ps. aerugenosa. Oaaee/eaaao oaaioeeoa?ioth aeoeaiinoue
iae?ioaaia, ia?aciaaiea aioeoae, aeoeae?oao ianiaoeeoe/aneea
aoii?aeueiua oaeoi?u caueou, yaeyaony eiaeoeoi?ii eioa?oa?iiia
(iaoneaaeeaaao neioac). Aeey yooaeoeaiiai e aaciianiiai ea/aiey
iaiaoiaeeii iiaeia?aoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth ie?iaaiioth aeico
(oaiia?aoo?a oaea ia aeieaeia i?aauoaoue 38(N). I?eiaiyaony i?e
o?iie/aneeo ainiaeaieyo: ooaa?eoeac, i?inoaoeo. Iiai/iua yaeaiey ?aaeee.
Iiaeao auoue aieiaiay aieue, aieue a nonoaaao.

Eioa?oa?iiu: Eioeei (IFN (), Yoeoa?ii (IFN () – i?e iaaeinoaoea
aoii?aeueiuo oaeoi?ia.

Io?aaeaiea eaea?noaaiiuie n?aaenoaaie e ea/aiea.

I?e i?aauoaiee aeicu ethaua aauanoaa aeaenoaotho oiene/anee.

A aeaiiue iiiaio i?ienoiaeeo oaaee/aiea /enea io?aaeaiee eaea?noaaie (e
aaniethoiia e ioiineoaeueiia). Aieueoay /anoue eaea?noa ioiineony e
aeeythuei ia OeIN.

I?e/eiu:

1 Aieueoia eiee/anoai i?eiaiaiee a eeeieea (oe?o?aey, aano?iyioa?ieiaey
e o.ae.)

2 Oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea ai aiaaieueie/iie nenoaia (niioai?iua,
iaacaieeaathuea, aea?iiiieaeathuea, o?aieaeeecaoi?u).

Iianiinoue i?aaenoaaeytho:

1 Aoi?ini?oiua i?aia?aou n enoaeoei n?ieii aiaeiinoe

2 Yooaeoeaiua i?aia?aou (i?e ia?aaeice?iaea, ioeaea a i?eiaiaiee,
oiio?aaeaiee aeaoueie)

Io?aaeaiey aeaeyony ia:

1 Neo/aeiua 2 I?aaeiaia?aiiua

a) Auoiaua a) sso?iaaiiua a) Noeoeeaeaeueiua a) E?eieiaeueiua (n
oeaeueth oaeenoaa eee ?acaeoey aaniiiiuiiai ninoiyiey)

Aa?aeoo?aou 9%

Eeioaeeei 27.3%

Ia?eioe/aneea i?aia?aou 14.8%

Nianue eaea?noa 18.5%

Ca iineaaeiea aiaeu ec-ca ieioie i/enoee ia?eioe/aneeo aauanoa,
ecaioiaeyaiuo a aeiiaoieo oneiaeyo a ea?oeio io?aaeaiey aeeth/aaony
?anoai?eoaeue e o. ae.

Eaoaeueiinoue i?e io?aaeaieyo eaea?noaaiiuie n?aaenoaaie = 1 – 4% I?e
oyaeaeie oi?ia io?aaeaiey aei 15%.

Noaaeee io?aaeaiey

1 Oieneeiaaiiay – oa?aeoa?ecoaony niaoeeoe/aneei aeaenoaeai
eaea?noaaiiiai aauanoaa a aeaea ia?ooaiey ooieoeee iaia?ai, oa?iaioia e
o.ae. Au?aaeaiiinoue aeaiiie noaaeee iaoiaeeony a i?yiie caaeneiinoe io
niaea?aeaiey aauanoaa a ieacia e?iae.

2 Niiaoiaaiiay – ?acaeoea oeiiauo iaoieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia e
oi?ie?iaaiea ianiaoeeoe/aneeo ?aaeoeee, yae oaea auaaaeai eee ?ac?ooai (
au?aaeaiiinoue ia caaeneo io niaea?aeaiey aauanoaa a ieacia.

Iauay ?aaeoeey = niaoeeoe/aneay + ianiaoeeoe/aneay.

Aeaenoaea ia OeIN

Oiene/aneay eiia, noaei?iae, oiene/aneea ineoicu.

Oiene/aneay eiia

A aunieeo aeicao aauanoaa aucuaatho oaiaoaiea ooieoeee OeIN – ia?eic
(ia?eioe/aneea aauanoaa, aa?aeoo?aou, iae?ieaioeee, o?aieaeeecaoi?u,
aeeiaieue).

Oacu eiiu:

Canuiaiea: ai a?aiy yoie oacu i?iyaeythony iniiaiua ?acee/ey iaaeaeo
?acee/iuie i?aia?aoaie (aa?aeoo?aou – ii?iaeueiia canuiaiea,
Aaiciaeeacaieiiaua i?aia?aou – ia?ooaiea iaiyoe, aicaoaeaeaiea,
aa?anneaiinoue, I?iecaiaeiua oaiioeaceia – i?iyaeaiey iaiiieiathuea
ia?eeiniieci).

Iiaa?oiinoiay eiia: Iioa?y niciaiey, oaiaoaiea ?aoeaenia, ia?ooaiea
aeioaoaeueiiai e eaoeaaiai ?aoeaenia, aieaaay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue
nio?aiaia.

Aeoaieay eiia: a?aoeaeney, aiaeueaacey, iiaeao auoue ia?ooaiea aeioaiey
e e?iaiia?auaiey.

I?iaoaeaeaiea: I?ioeannu ia?aoiua noaaeee canuiaiey.

Anoaie/aneea ninoiyiey aei ianeieueeeo ianyoeaa.

Aucaei?iaeaiea.

Noaei?iae

Iiaoo auoue neaaenoaeai niaoeeoe/aneiai aeaenoaey i?aia?aoa, ii /aua –
i?iyaeaiea ianiaoeeoe/aneie ?aaeoeee (?acoeueoao aeiienee iicaa).

Oiene/aneea ineoicu

Aeaee?ee e aeaee?ei- iiaioeaiua ninoiyiey, oa?aeoa?ecoaiua c?eoaeueiuie
aaeethoeeiaoeeyie e ia?ooaieyie i?eaioaoeee ai a?aiaie, i?ino?ainoaa e
ee/iinoe.

Oiene/aneia ii?aaeaiea na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu

Yecioiene/aneee oie – ia i/aiue /anoia yaeaiea. Oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae
ino?ia, noieeia ia?ooaiea ia?oocee oeaiae e?iaueth. Nii?iaiaeaeaaony
neiae?iiii iaeiai aua?ina, nieaeaieai a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey e
oiaiueoaieai aaiiciiai aica?aoa.

Ia?ooaiey ?eoia e i?iaiaeeiinoe: I?e ia?aaeice?iaea ao?iieia iiaeao
?acaeoueny neioniaay eee ia?ieneciaeueiay oaoeea?aeey. Iniaaiii aeeyiea
ia OeIN oa?aeoa?ii aeey o?eoeeeee/aneeo aioeaeai?annaioia
(Aieo?eioeeei). Iie ecae?aoaeueii iaeaieeaathony a ieiea?aea (
ecae?aoaeueiay ea?aeeioiene/iinoue: aeieaaea iao?eaauo eaiaeia,
ia?ooaiey ?eoia aei ia?oeaoaeueiie a?eoiee. Ia?ooaiey i?iaiaeeiinoe
i?eaiaeeo e aeieaaeai, oa?aeoa?ai io?eoeaoaeueiue eiio?iiiue yooaeo.

Aeiienee

1 Aeiiene/aneay: i?e iaa?iaaiiie oi?ia, i?e oeaio?aeueiii aeaenoaee.

2 Anie?aoeeiiii-iaoo?aoeeiiiay: anie?aoeey neece eee ?aioiuo iann,
caiaaeaiea ycuea.

3 Ia?aioeiaoiciay oi?ia – i?e iiaaiiiee

4 Aenoioiene/aneay oi?ia (oeaiaaay).

Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ea/aiey io?aaeaiee eaea?noaaiiuie i?aia?aoaie

A?oiiu ia?ii?eyoee:

1 Noaaeeecaoeey ninoiyiey aieueiiai

Niyoue noaei?iae, i/enoeoue aa?oiea aeuoaoaeueiua iooe io eii?iaeiuo
oae.

2 I?ae?auaiea aeaeueiaeoaai iinooieaiey yaea a i?aaieci

I?e ia?i?aeueiii iinooieaiee – ciiaeiaia i?iiuaaiea aeaeoaeea aia
caaeneiinoe io aeaaiinoe i?eiyoey yaea. Caoai – iiaoi?iia i?iiuaaiea –
yae iia iinooieoue ec eeoa/ieea iinea ia?aoiie ia?enoaeueoeee.
Eniieueciaaiea ?aiou yooaeoeaii oieueei /a?ac iaaieueoia a?aiy iinea
io?aaeaiey. Eniieuecoaony ne?ii Eiaeaeoaiu. I/enoea oiieiai eeoa/ieea
inouanoaeyaony oiaea n iiiiuueth ciiaea.

3 Onei?aiea auaaaeaiey ec i?aaiecia oaea aninaaoaainy yaea

1 Oi?ne?iaaiiue aeeo?ac

yoai 1 – i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay aiaeiay iaa?ocea, yoai 2 – aaaaeaiea
aeeo?aoeea, yoai 3 – caianoeoaeueiay eioocey ?anoai?aie yeaeo?ieeoia.
I?e io?aaeaiee aa?aeoo?aoaie i?eiaiyaony oi?ne?iaaiiue aeeo?ac n
iuaea/eaaieai ieaciu oae eae aa?aeoo?aou – neaaua eeneiou. A ?acoeueoaoa
oaaee/aiey niaea?aeaiey eiiece?iaaiiie oi?iu iie eaa/a oeeueo?othony e
ia aeeoooiaee?otho ec eaiaeueoeaa. Iuaea/eaaiea ia yooaeoeaii i?e
io?aaeaiee aaiciaeeacaieiiauie eee oaiioeaceiiauie i?aia?aoaie.

2 Aeeaeec. Nouanoaoao ianeieueei aai aeaeia. I?e iiiaaeaiee e?iae a
aeeaeecaoi? oiene/aneea aauanoaa iinooiatho a aeeaeece?othuoth
aeeaeeinoue. A oieneeieiaee i?eiaiytho ?aiiee aaiiaeeaeec. E aai
i?eiaiaieth nouanoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua o?aaiaaiey:

1 I?enoonoaea i?aia?aoa a ieacia aia eiiieaena n aaeeaie.

2 I?aia?ao ia aeieaeai iaoaaieece?iaaoueny.

E aeaiiui o?aaiaaieyi eaeaaeueii iiaeoiaeyo aa?aeoo?aou, e?iia yoiai
?aiiee aaiiaeeaeec i?eiaiyaony i?e ea/aiee io?aaeaiee iaoeeiaui e
yoeeiaui nie?oaie, yoeeaiaeeeieai e o.ae. ?aiiee aaiiaeeaeec
iaeiyooaeoeaai i?e io?aaeaieyo aaiciaeeacaieiiauie i?aia?aoaie,
o?eoeeeee/aneeie aioeaeai?annaioaie.

I?ioeaiiieacaiea e aaiiaeeaeeco – noieeia nieaeaiea a?oa?eaeueiiai
aeaaeaiey.

Ia?eoiiaaeueiue aeeaeec. Oaoie/anee aieaa i?ino, yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui
iaoiaeii, i?eiaiyaiui i?e yecioiene/aneii oiea.

Aaiini?aoeey – aaeni?aoeey ia ni?aaioao (anoanoaaiiue – aeoeae?iaaiiue
oaieue, ?acee/iua eneonnoaaiiua). Aiia?ao iiaeeeth/aaony /a?ac
a?oa?eiaaiiciue ooio ia i?aaeiea/uea. I?aeiouanoai – aiciiaeiinoue
i?eiaiaiey ia aeiainieoaeueiii yoaia (oieneeieiae/aneea a?eaaaeu
?aniieaaatho aiia?aoaie aeey aaiini?aoeee)

I?eiaiythony oaeaea ieaciioa?ac e oeueo?aoeeueo?aoeey.

4 Aioeaeioiay eee oa?iaeioa?aiey.

Ii iaoaiecio i?aia?aou aeaeyony ia oece/aneea (iaaca?aaeeaatho yae n
iiiiuueth oece/aneiai acaeiiaeaenoaey) e oeie/aneea (iaaca?aaeeaatho yae
iooai oeie/aneie iaeo?aeecaoeee). N?aaee oece/aneeo aioeaeioia oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee yioa?ini?aaiou (aaeni?ae?otho yae a eeoa/ieea –
Aaoiai, Iieeoaiai, Eeaiini?a).

Aeaiiua i?aia?aou ni?ae?otho yae a eeoa/ieea ( oiaiueoaaony eiee/anoai
yaea a i?aaiecia ( oaaee/eaaaony ioiineoaeueiia niaea?aeaiea a ieacia (
yae iinooiaao a eeoa/iee. Yioa?ini?aaiou: aaeni?ae?otho aiaeo – yoi
iiaeao i?eaanoe e aeaaeae?aoaoeee, ia?ooatho iioi?eeo eeoee, i?e
anie?aoeee – iiaeao aicieeiooue oaieueiay iiaaiiiey.

Ni?aaiou i?eiaiytho aianoa n nieaauie neaaeoaeueiuie, aeey i?ioeeaeoeee
?aiou (anie?aoeee) – i?ioeai?aioiua n?aaenoaa. Iinooiatho a i?aaieci
ia?aioa?aeueii.

Nouanoaotho oae aea e aeioeie/aneea aioeaeiou.

Oacu aeaoieneeaoeee:

1 Ieeneaiea n iiiiuueth iee?iniiaeueiuo ?aaeoeee (iiiiieneaaiacu
noaiiayony aieaa iiey?iuie). I?e yoii iiai/ii iiyaeythony naiaiaeiua
?aaeeeaeu e i?eieiatho o/anoea a ia?aeeniii ieeneaiee eeieaeia.

2 ?aaeoeee eiiuthaaoeee

3 Nenoaia aioeoiene/aneie caueou.

Iai?eia? Ia?aoeaoaiie iiaeao ieacuaaoue aaiaoioiene/aneia aeaenoaea. A
ii?iaeueiuo oneiaeyo ia?acoaony noeueoao e eiiuthae?oao n aeooaoeiiii.

E aioeieneaeaioai ioiinyony: aeoaieiu A, A, aiaei?anoai?eiue naeai.

Nianoaaiii aioeaeiou (oa?iaeieiae/aneea aioeaeiou eee i?ioeaiyaeey)

Auaatho eiieo?aioiua e iaeiieo?aioiua.

Iiaoo auoue i?eiaiaiu: 1 Oieueei anee yae aua a i?aaiecia 2 Oieueei i?e
oi/iie aeeaaiinoeea io?aaeaiey. Iiaoo auoue nianoaaiiua iiai/iua yooaeou

OIENE*ANEIA AAUANOAI ?AOeAIOI? AIOEAeIO

Ao?iiei I-oieeii?aoeaioi? Aieiinoeaiei, Oecinoeaiei, Aaeaioiiei
(eiaeaeoi?u aoeaoeeoieeianoa?acu)

Ia?eioe/aneea aiaeueaaoeee Ith-, aeaeueoa- iieaoiua ?aoeaioi?u Iaeienii

Aaiciaeeacaieiu Aaiciaeeacaieiiaua ?aoeaioi?u Oeoiacaiee

5 Neiioiiaoe/aneay oa?aiey

N?aaenoaa eae i?e ae?oaeo oi?iao iaoieiaee

Ea/aiea iineaaenoaee (anoaiee) Iiio?iiu.

PAGE 97

PAGE 97

Oa?iaeieiaey

Oa?iaeieiaey PAGE 97

Aiaeioaiceiiaai

?aiei

Aaoa-aeieaoi?u

Aiaeioaicei -1

Eiiaa?oe?othuee oa?iaio

Eiaeaeoi?u

Aiaeioaicei-2

Aiaeioaiceiiaua ?aoeaioi?u ninoaeia

Aeieaoi?u ?aoeaioi?ia

Aioaaiienou aeueaeinoa?iia

Nae?aoeey aeueaeinoa?iia

ia?ae/iue oa?iaeieiae/aneee yooaeo

oaaee/aiea eiioeaio?aoeee eaeey

oiaiueoaiea eiioeaio?aoeee iao?ey e eaeueoeey

oiaiueoaiea

eiioeaio?aoeee eaeey

yeaeo?ioeceieiae/aneay ?aaeoeey

Oaaee/aiea aeeanoiee/aneie ?aiiey?ecaoeee

Caiaaeeaiea oacu 0 iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey e nei?inoe i?iaaaeaiey

Caiaaeeaiea aeeanoiee/aneie aeaiiey?ecaoeee

oa?iaeioa?aiaaoe/aneee yooaeo

Neaaeiaay aeaiiey?ecaoeey

Re entry

Aiiiaeueiue aaoiiaoeci

Caiaaeeaiea oiea eaeey

Aeie iao?eaauo eaiaeia

Oiaiueoaiea e?ooeciu aeeanoiee/aneie aeaiiey?ecaoeee

Oaeeeiaiea iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey e yooaeoeaiiai ?ao?aeoa?iiai ia?eiaea

Iiaeaaeaiea iaoaiecia re entry

Oiaiueoaiea aaoiiaoecia

Oiaiueoaiea nei?inoe i?iaaaeaiey eiioeuena

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