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Ieai ?aoa?aoa:

1. Aaaaeaiea. No?.(3-4)

2. Aeeiaieue e aai io?eoeaoaeueiia aeaenoaea ia i?aaieci. No?.(4-9)

Eo?aiea e aai io?eoeaoaeueiia aeaenoaea ia i?aaieci. No?. (9-11)

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u. No?. 12

Aaaaeaiea

Aeeiaieeci – iaeei ec aeaeia ia?eiiaiee.

Ia?eioeee e ceioiio?aaeaiea eie.

Ia?eioee – yoi ethaia oeie/aneia niaaeeiaiea, eioi?ia
aicaeaenoaoao ia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i?aaiecia. Ceioiio?aaeaiea
ia?eioeeaie – yoi eo oiio?aaeaiea ethaui iai?eaieaiui n iaaeeoeeineie e
nioeeaeueiie oi/ae c?aiey ia?acii eee i?eaieaiui, ii iai?aaeeueiui.

Caeanue iniaaiii oianoii iacaaoue ineoiaeoeaiua ia?eioeee: oa,
eioi?ua aicaeaenoaotho ia i?aaieci, aucuaay iiaaaeai/aneea eciaiaiey,
a?iaea yeoi?ee e aaeethoeeiaoeee. Eniieueciaaiea e ca/anooth
i?iecaiaenoai iiiaeo ia?eioeeia, eioi?uie ceioiio?aaeyao aieueoia /enei
ethaeae, cai?auaii ai iiiaeo no?aiao, ii aeeiaieue e oaaae, aeaa
iaeaieaa oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo ia?eioe/aeeo aauanoaa, aiieia caeiiiu
e eaaei aeinooiiu. Iaeiaei n oao ii?, eae auea oaa?aei aeieacaia
iianiinoue eo?aiey, yoa i?eau/ea nae/an noaiiaeony ana aieaa
iai?aaieeiie nioeeaeueii a NOA, Aaeeeia?eoaiee e iiiaeo no?aiao Caiaaea.

I?e/eiu ceioiio?aaeaiey ia?eioeeaie.

Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai i?e/ei ceioiio?aaeaiey ia?eioeeaie.

Nioeeaeueiay niaeaniaaiiinoue. Anee eniieueciaaiea oiai eee eiiai
ia?eioeea i?eiyoi a a?oiia, e eioi?ie /aeiaae i?eiaaeeaaeeo eee n
eioi?ie ii naay eaeaioeoeoee?oao, ii ii/oanoaoao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
i?eiaiyoue yoio ia?eioee, /oiau iieacaoue naith i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e yoie
a?oiia. Yoi ioiineony ei anai ia?eioeeai, io ieeioeia e aeeiaiey aei
aa?ieia.

Oaeiaieuenoaea. Iaeia ec aeaaiuo i?e/ei, ii/aio ethaee oiio?aaeytho
ia?eioeee, – yoi niioonoaothuea e i?eyoiua iuouaiey, io oi?ioaai
naii/oanoaey e ?aeaenaoeee aei ienoe/aneie yeoi?ee.

Aeinooiiinoue. Iaeaaaeueiia iio?aaeaiea ia?eioeeia iaeaieaa auniei oai,
aaea iie eaa/a aeinooiiu, iai?eia? a e?oiiuo ai?iaeao. I?eiaiaiea
eaaaeueiuo ia?eioeeia oaeaea aic?anoaao n aeinooiiinoueth, iai?eia?
aeeiaieeci ?ani?ino?aiai n?aaee oi?aiaoeaa nie?oiuie iaieoeaie.

Ethaiiuonoai a ioiioaiee ia?eioeeia canoaaeyao iaeioi?uo ethaeae ia/aoue
naiei i?eieiaoue ia?eioeee.

A?aaeaeaaiinoue. I?eiaiaiea ia?eioeeia iiaeao auaeyaeaoue neiaieii
iiiiceoeee oeaiiinoyi iauanoaa. Eiaaea /aeiaae ioaa?aaao iauanoai e ana
aeueoa?iaoeau, aeeth/ay naiiai naay, naie iaaeaaeaeu e oeaee,
aicieeathuaa /oanoai aanniuneaiiinoe aeecie, ecieyoeee e iaaaeaeaaoiinoe
aeaeaao aai i?aae?aniieiaeaiiui e o?iie/aneie ia?eiiaiee.

Ooiae io oece/aneiai no?anna. Aieueoeinoao ethaeae oaeaaony ni?aaeyoueny
n iaeaieaa no?anniauie neooaoeeyie eo aeecie, ii iaeioi?ua iuoathony
iaeoe oaaaeeua a oi?ia ia?eioe/aneie caaeneiinoe. Ia?eioeee /anoi
noaiiayony eiaeiui oeaio?ii, aie?oa eioi?iai a?auaaony eo aeeciue.

*oi oaeia ia?eiiaiey?

Yoi iauee oa?iei, aeeth/athuee ianeieueei oi?i caaeneiinoe.

Oiea?aioiinoue (ia?aiineiinoue) e ia?eioeeo oaaee/eaaaony ii ia?a oiai,
eae i?aaieci i?eaueaao e iaio. N oaaee/aieai oiea?aioiinoe aic?anoaao
eiee/anoai ia?eioeea, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey ieacaiey ia i?aaieci i?aaeiaai
yooaeoa.

Caaeneiinoue – yoi oa?iei, eniieuecoaiue aeey iienaiey ninoiyiey, i?e
eioi?ii i?aaieci i?eaueaao ooieoeeiie?iaaoue iiae aicaeaenoaeai
ia?eioeea. Eiaaea i?eai ia?eioeea i?ae?auaaony, ia?eiiai eniuouaaao
e?aeiee aeeneiioi?o, eiaioaiue neiae?iiii ioiaiu.

Ineoieiae/aneay caaeneiinoue, eae oe?iei i?eiyoi aeoiaoue, yaeyaony
iio?aaiinoueth eee eiiioeueneaiui aeaeaieyi i?iaeieaeaoue i?eieiaoue
ia?eioee, iacaaeneii io oiai, anoue oece/aneay caaeneiinoue eee iao.
Iaeiaei aanueia ?eneiaaiii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi eaeie-oi ia?eioee ia
aucuaaao oece/aneie caaeneiinoe. *aeiaae iinea aeieaiai i?eiaiaiey eee
i?e niaoeeoe/aneeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao iiaeao i?eaycaoueny e ia aeae ia
aucuaathuaio i?eaueaiey ia?eioeeo. Iai?eia?, anoue naeaeaoaeuenoaa oiai,
/oi iaaieueoia i?eaueaiea e ia?eooaia iinea ?aaoey?iiai eniieueciaaiey
ii aa/a?ai a oa/aiea iiiaeo eao i?eaiaeeo e o?iie/aneie aanniiieoea
iinea ioiaiu i?eaia. Ineoieiaey ia?eiiaiee aua ia iiiyoia, ii i?iecioee
aaaeiua i?i?uau a iiieiaiee oiai, eae i?aaieci iiaeao noaoue oiea?aioai
e ineoiaeoeaiui ia?eioeeai (ia?eioeeai, eioi?ua aicaeaenoaotho ia iica e
aini?eyoea).

Aeeiaieue e aai io?eoeaoaeueiia aeaenoaea

ia i?aaieci.

Aeeiaieue a i?aaiecia

I?eia?ii 20% ethaiai aeeiaieueiiai iaieoea aani?ae?oaony a
aeaeoaeea, a 80% – a eeoa/ieea. Caoai nie?o ?aciineony e?iaueth ii anaio
oaeo. Ia/aiue ?ac?ooaao (ieeneyao) nie?o n ii/oe iinoiyiiie nei?inoueth:
iau/ii i?eia?ii 0,5 eeo?a ieaa eee 0,3 eeo?a aenee a /an. A eoiaa yoio
i?ioeann ioaaouaaao i?eia?ii 90% aeeiaiey, ia?acoy a ea/anoaa eiia/iuo
i?iaeoeoia oaeaeeneue aac e aiaeo. Inoaaoeany 10% auaiaeyony /a?ac
eaaeea n iioii. Aeeiaieue a i?aaiecia ieacuaaao /aou?a iniiaiuo yooaeoa.

Ii iaania/eaaao i?aaieci yia?aeae (nie?o eiaao aunieoth yia?aaoe/aneoth
oeaiiinoue, ii ia niaea?aeeo ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa).

Ii aeaenoaoao eae aianoace?othuaa n?aaenoai ia oeaio?aeueioth ia?aioth
nenoaio, caiaaeeyy aa ?aaioo e nieaeay yooaeoeaiinoue.

Ii noeioee?oao i?iecaiaenoai ii/e. I?e aieueoii i?eaia aeeiaiey oaei
oa?yao aieueoa aiaeu, /ai iieo/aao, e eeaoee iaacaiaeeaathony.

Ii a?aiaiii auaiaeeo ec no?iy ia/aiue. Iinea aieueoie aeicu nie?oiiai
i?eia?ii aeaa o?aoe ia/aie iiaoo aueoe ec no?iy, ii ?aaioa ia/aie iau/ii
iieiinoueth ainnoaiaaeeaaaony nionoy ianeieueei aeiae.

O?iaaiue aeeiaiey a e?iae

Aicaeaenoaea aeeiaiey ia iiaaaeaiea caaeneo io eiee/anoaa nie?oa,
aeinoeaoaai /a?ac e?iaue iicaa. Yoio «o?iaaiue aeeiaiey a e?iae»
ii?aaeaeyaony aua ianeieueeeie oaeoi?aie, e?iia eiee/anoaa auieoiai.

?acia? ia/aie ii?aaeaeyao nei?inoue ieeneaiey e auaaaeaiey aeeiaiey.

Ianna naiiai /aeiaaea ii?aaeaeyao eiee/anoai e?iae a i?aaiecia,
iineieueeo iauai e?iae i?iii?oeeiiaeai ae. *ai e?oiiaa /aeiaae, oai
neeueiaa e?iaue ?acaaaeyao iio?aaeaiiue aeeiaieue e oai aieueoa aai
ioaeii, /oiau ieacaoue oio aea yooaeo.

Aaaeiu oaeaea nei?inoue e iaia?a iio?aaeaiey aeeiaiey. *ai iaaeeaiiaa
/aeiaae iueao ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai aeeiaiey, oai neaaaa aai
aicaeaenoaea.

Iio?aaeaiea aeeiaiey iaoiuae ieacuaaao aieaa neeueiue e nei?ue yooaeo,
/ai iio?aaeaiea ai a?aiy eee iinea aaeu. Aaea aeaenoaoao eae aooa? i?e
iiaeiuaiee.

Eae iu iueyiaai

I?e oiio?aaeaiee aeeiaiey ia?aaea/a eiioeuenia a ia?aiie nenoaia
caiaaeeyaony. Ia?auie ii?aaeathony aunoea o?iaie iicaa – cai?aou,
aieiaiea e aaniieienoai en/acatho, onooiay ianoi iuouaieth aeiaieuenoaa
e yeoi?ee. Ii ia?a ii?aaeaiey iecoeo o?iaiae iicaa oooaeoathony
eii?aeeiaoeey aeaeaeaiee, c?aiea e ?a/ue. Iaeeea e?iaaiiniua ninoaeu
eiaee ?anoe?ythony. Eceo/aaony oaiei e /aeiaaeo noaiiaeony aea?ei. Yoi
icia/aao, /oi e?iaue ioeeiieeanue io aioo?aiieo i?aaiia oaea, aaea
e?iaaiiniua ninoaeu oaea noceeenue iiae aicaeaenoaeai aeeiaiey ia
ia?aioth nenoaio. Iiyoiio iaeiia?aiaiii iaaeaao oaiia?aoo?a aioo?aiieo
i?aaiia. Aiciiaeiia oneeaiea naenoaeueiiai aeaeaiey naycaii n
iiaeaaeaieai iau/iuo cai?aoia. Ii ia?a iiauoaiey o?iaiy aeeiaiey a e?iae
oece/aneay iieiaay niiniaiinoue ana aieaa oooaeoaaony. A eiioea eiioeia
io?aaeythuaa aicaeaenoaea aeeiaiey aucuaaao oioiioo e, aiciiaeii, ?aioo.

Iioiaeuea

Iioiaeuea – yoi oece/aneee aeeneiioi?o iinea iio?aaeaiey
ecauoi/iiai eiee/anoaa aeeiaiey. Neiioiiu iiaoo aeeth/aoue aieiaioth
aieue, ?anno?ienoai aeaeoaeea, aeaaeaeo, aieiaie?oaeaiea e
?acae?aaeeoaeueiinoue. Iioiaeuea ia?acoaony a ?acoeueoaoa o?ao
i?ioeannia. Ai-ia?auo, neecenoay iaiei/ea aeaeoaeea ?acae?aaeaaony
ecauoeii aeeiaiey, e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea aeaeoaeea ia?ooaaony. Ai-aoi?uo,
i?ienoiaeeo iaacaiaeeaaiea eeaoie, anee eiee/anoai iio?aaeaiiiai
aeeiaiey i?aauoaao i?iioneioth niiniaiinoue ia/aie, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
aeeiaieue nio?aiyaony a e?iae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia a?aiy. A-o?aoueeo,
o?iaaiue aeeiaiey ieacuaaao «oieiaia» aicaeaenoaea ia ia?aioth nenoaio,
io eioi?iai ae ioaeii a?aiy, /oiau ii?aaeoueny.

Eo/oee niinia ecaaaeaoue iioiaeuey – ia ieoue neeoeii iiiai. Ii
aa?iyoiinoue iioiaeuey nieaeaaony, anee aeeiaieue ia?aiaoaoue n
caeoneie: i?eai e iiaeiuaiea nie?oa i?e yoii ?anoyaeaathony ia aieaa
aeeeoaeueiue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie, e aaea neoaeeo aa?uea?ii.
Iaaeeiaieueiua iaieoee, i?eieiaaiua iaeiia?aiaiii eee iinea, ?acaaaeytho
nie?o. Aieaciaiiua iineaaenoaey iau/ii nieaeathony oaeaea, anee
aeeiaieue i?eieiaaony a niieieiie ianoaiiaea, a eo?aiea naaaeaii e
ieieioio.

AEaeoaeie oniieaeaaaony naaaeae aunoeeeie: iieiei, nu?ua yeoea
eee i?inoi oi?ioee caao?ae! Oieueei iinea yoiai iiaeii i?eiyoue anie?ei
eee ae?oaea aieaooieythuea n?aaenoaa aeey iaeaa/aiey aieiaiie aiee.
Iianiinoue ?acae?aaeaiey aeaeoaeea aieaooieythueie eaea?noaaie ai?acaei
auoa, eiaaea aeaeoaeie ionoie. Ecaanoii, /oi niee oeeo?oniauo, iaae e
aeoaiei N niaea?aeao a naaa «aioeiioiaeueiue oaeoi?». Oeio/ea iaieoee
iiaoo ieacaoue ia aeaeoaeie niya/athuaa aicaeaenoaea. AEeaeeinoe ethaiai
?iaea iiiiaoo ainnoaiiaeoue aeeaeeia iaiieiaiea iaacaiaeaiiuo eeaoie.
Aeey i?i/euaiey aieiau i?eiaiytho eioa e /ae (eioaei noeioee?oao
ia?aioth nenoaio), a naoa? niaaaeeo aan yia?aeae; ii e eioaei, e naoa?
iiaoo oooaeoeoue ninoiyiea /aeiaaea, eiaaea eo iaiaaeeaiiia aicaeaenoaea
caeii/eony. Iiaeiaiui aea ia?acii eae a?aiaiiia iaeaa/aiea i?eieiatho
aua aeeiaieue, eioi?ue (a oia?aiiii eiee/anoaa) iiaeaaae?eaaao oayaeooth
ia?aioth nenoaio e a?iaea au ?acaiiyao iai?eyoiua iuouaiey. Ii yoi
oieueei ion?i/ea: ia?aiia/aeueiia iioiaeuea e iioiaeuea io iiaie aeicu
aeeiaiey ana aua iiaeaeeaeatho aan!

Aeeiaieeci

Aeeiaieeci – ?aaoey?iia, eiiioeueneaiia iio?aaeaiea aieueoiai
eiee/anoaa aeeiaiey a oa/aiea aeieaiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie. Yoi iaeaieaa
na?ueaciay oi?ia ia?eiiaiee a iaoa a?aiy, aiaeaeathuay io 1 aei 5%
ianaeaiey aieueoeinoaa no?ai. Aeeiaieee iueao eiiioeueneaii, ioaa/ay ia
ineoieiae/aneoth eee oece/aneoth caaeneiinoue aeeiaiey.

Aeeiaieeeii iiaeao noaoue eaaeaeue. Iaeiaei enneaaeiaaiey
iieacaee, /oi aeey aeaoae aeeiaieeeia ?ene ia?anoe aeeiaiee/aneoth
caaeneiinoue a 4-6 ?ac auoa, /ai aeey aeaoae iaaeeiaieeeia.

Eco/aiea oiio?aaeaiey aeeiaiey n?aaee iieiaeaaee a ?innee ai
iiiaii iie?aaony ia iiuo iiaeiaiuo enneaaeiaaiee ca a?aieoeae, eioi?ua a
eiioea 19 – ia/aea 20 aaea oe?iei i?iaiaeeeenue a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia e
Naaa?iie Aia?eea e aaeenue a naiuo ?acee/iuo iai?aaeaieyo:

Eco/aeenue ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue e oa?aeoa? oiio?aaeaiey aeeiaiey
o/aueieny.

Enneaaeiaaeinue aeeyiea aeeiaiey ia aeaoneee e iiae?inoeiaue i?aaieci.

Ii?aaeaeyeanue acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo oniaaaaiinoueth e oiio?aaeaieai
aeeiaiey.

?ac?aaaouaaeenue e ai?iae?iaaeenue i?ia?aiiu aioeaeeiaieueiiai iao/aiey.

Nouanoaaiiia ianoi n?aaee enneaaeiaaiee yoiai ia?eiaea caieiaee ?aaiou,
eeethno?e?othuea ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue e oa?aeoa? ieoaeiuo iau/aaa, eiaaea
aeaoyi aeaaaee nie?oiua iaieoee aeey:

«oe?aieaiey caei?iauey»

«aiiaoeoa»

«oeo/oaiey ?inoa»

«iaeaa/aiey i?i?acuaaiey coaia»

«nia?aaaiey»

«ooieaiey aieiaea»

«oniieiaiey»

Auoiaaaoay a 19 e ia ?oaaaea 20 noieaoey oaa?aeay oaa?aiiinoue a
oe?aieythuai aeaenoaee aeeiaiey /anoi eiaea iineaaenoaeai i?yioth
aeeiaieecaoeeth ?aaaiea.

N?aaee enneaaeiaaiee aeeyiey aeeiaiey ia aeaoneee i?aaieci,
i?aaeaea anaai, auaeaeyaony ?aaioa E.A. Naaeeia «Aeeyiea aeeiaiey ia
ia?aioth nenoaio e iniaaiiinoe ?acaeaathuaainy i?aaiecia» (1902). A iae
niaea?aeaony iiiai/eneaiiua, ii?ie oieeaeueiua iiuou e iaaethaeaiey i
aeeyiee aeeiaiey ia ia?aioth nenoaio ?aaaiea; oaaaeeoaeueiuie i?eia?aie
aeieacuaaaony, /oi oaea iaaieueoea aeicu aeeiaiey aoaeoaeueii aeeytho ia
oi?ie?othueeny iica e iniaaiiinoe ?anoouaai /aeiaaea.

Nia?aiaiiue ia?eiae eco/aiey ?aiiae aeeiaieecaoeee ioia/ai
iiiai/eneaiiuie iiiuoeaie aieaa aeoaiei ?ane?uoue i?e/eiu
ceioiio?aaeaiey nie?oiuie iaieoeaie. N?aaieaay aeeyiea naa?noieeia,
aeeiaieueiuo iau/aaa, naiuee e iiea iiae?inoeia ia iio?aaeaiea eie
nie?oiuo iaieoeia, Forslung (1970) auyniee, /oi aeeiaieueiia iiaaaeaiea
iaoa?e ieacuaaao nouanoaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia aeeiaieecaoeeth i?aaeaea
anaai aei/a?ae. Aeeiaieueiia iiaaaeaiea iooea iaoneaaeeaaao oaeiaia aai
aei/a?e e eiaao iaeaieueoaa aeeyiea ia aeeiaieecaoeey nuiiaae. Aeeyiea
naa?noieeia auei acaeiinaycaii n oai, aoaeao eee ia aoaeao ieoue
iiae?inoie a ionoonoaea ?iaeeoaeueneiai eiio?iey. Vidkhri (1974)
auaeaeyao ianeieueei oeiia niioiioaiey iaaeaeo aeeiaieueiie eoeueoo?ie
iee?inioeeaeueiie n?aaeu e onoaiiaeaie eiaeeaeaea a ioiioaiee
aeeiaieecaoeee:

«aanoeiaioiie eoeueoo?a» niioaaonoaoao inoaiiaea ia iieiia aicaea?aeaiea

«aiaeaaeaioiie eoeueoo?a» – aeaoiuneaiiay e i?ioeai?a/eaay aeeiaieueiay
onoaiiaea

«eeaa?aeueiie eoeueoo?a» – niioaaonoaoao «aeiioneathuay» onoaiiaea,
iaeiaei cai?auathuay ioe?iaaiiia iueyinoai

«iaoieiae/aneie eoeueoo?a» – aeeiaieueiay onoaiiaea, aeiioneathuay
ethaua i?iyaeaiey iueyinoaa.

Aaoi? aeaeeo i?e/eiu iueyinoaa a iniaaiiinoyo i?ioeanna nioeeaeecaoeee,
aeaoi?ie?iaaaoeo eoeueoo?iua ii?iu iiaaaeaiey, a oii /enea e iio?aaeaiey
aeeiaiey.

Niaeanii ioeaieai, aeaa o?aoe aeeiaieeeia ninoaaeytho ioae/eiu.
Enneaaeiaaiey neo/aaa aeeiaieecia iieacuaatho, /oi aeeiaieeci ca/anooth
yaeyaony /anoueth iauae ea?oeiu aeai?anneaiiai caaieaaaiey. Iiiaea
aeeiaieeee no?aaeatho yiioeeiiaeueiuie i?iaeaiaie, i?eia?aoaiiuie n
aeaonoaa, /anoi naycaiiuie n iioa?ae, ionoonoaeai eee iaaaeaeaaoiinoueth
iaeiiai eee iaieo ?iaeeoaeae.

Noaaeee aeeiaieecia

Auoiaia iueyinoai iiaeao aanoe e aeeiaieecio: iioiio, /oi iuethuee
/aeiaae ia/eiaao ia?auaoueny e aeeiaieth ?aaee iaeaa/aiey no?anna
(«neiioiiaoe/aneia iueyinoai »), eeai iioiio, /oi iii ianoieueei
neeueii, /oi ia/aeueiua noaaeee caaeneiinoe inoathony ia caia/aiiuie
(«caiouaiiia iueyinoai»).

?aiiee aeeiaieeci ioia/ai iiyaeaieai i?iaaeia a iaiyoe. Aeeiaieecaoeey
iiae?anoathuaai iieieaiey aieueoeinoaii enneaaeiaaoaeae ?anniao?eaaaony
eae nouanoaaiiue eiaeeeaoi? iaaeaaiiieo/ey iee?i nioeeaeueiie n?aaeu.
Yoei e ii?aaeaeyaony iinoiyiiue eioa?an e eco/aieth i?iaeaiu
?ani?ino?aiaiiinoe e oa?aeoa?a ?aiiae aeeiaieecaoeee.

E ?aiiae aeeiaieecaoeee ioiineony ciaeiinoai n iiueyiythueie
aeicaie aeeiaiey a aic?anoa aei 16 eao. I ?aiiai (iiae?inoeiaii)
aeeiaieecia neaaeoao aiai?eoue i?e iiyaeaiee aai ia?auo i?eciaeia a
aic?anoa aei 18 eao. I?e aiaeeca aeeiaieecaoeee ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo iu
enoiaeeee ec aaaeiiai a iaoiaeieiae/aneii ieaia iieiaeaiey i oii, /oi
oiio?aaeaiea nie?oiuo iaieoeia iiae?inoeaie iaiaoiaeeii ?anniao?eaaoue
eae iaeio ec oi?i ia?ooaiey iiaaaeaiey. Yoi o?aaoao aieaa oe?ieiai e
aeoaieiai iiaeoiaea e ?anniao?eaaaiie i?iaeaia, ia ia?aie/eaathuaainy
?aieaie nioeeaeueiie e eeeie/aneie ia?eieiaee.

Iaeue/eee /aua aeaai/ae oiio?aaeytho iniiaiua aeaeu nie?oiuo
iaieoeia, i?e/ai n aic?anoaieai eo e?aiinoe yoa ?acieoea noaiiaeony
nouanoaaiiie. N?aaee ai?iaeneeo oeieueieeia ?ani?ino?aiaii iio?aaeaiea
i?aeiouanoaaiii neaauo aeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia – ieaa, aeia, o/aueany aea
naeueneeo oeie aieaa ciaeiiu ni aeonaie e?aieeo nie?oiuo iaieoeia. A
20-20-a aiaeu iiaeii auei ano?aoeoue aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieia oiio?aaeaiea
oeieueieeaie naiiaiia: a 1,0 – 32,0%, o iaeue/eeia e 0,9-12% o aeaai/ae.
N aic?anoii oaaee/eaaeanue /anoioa oiio?aaeaiey aiaeee.

I?aeoe/anee ai anao nioeeaeueii-aeaeaie/aneeo e
eeeieei-nioeeaeueiuo enneaaeiaaieyo aeeiaieecaoeee iieiaeaaee
eniieueciaaeny iaoiae ii?ina a ?acee/iuo iiaeeoeeaoeeyo – io cai/iie
aieaou aei eioa?aueth ii oaeaoiio e eeeie/aneiai eioa?aueth.

Iaeaieaa o?oaeii niiinoaaeiu iaaeaeo niaie aeaiiua i
?ani?ino?aiaiiinoe e /anoioa oiio?aaeaiey aeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia n?aaee
iieiaeaaee, oae eae aaoi?u ia oieueei ?acee/iuo no?ai, ii aeaaea iaeiie
e oie aea no?aiu a iaeei e oio aea enoi?e/aneee ia?eiae eniieueciaaee
ea/anoaaiii ioee/iua ae?oa io ae?oaa iaoiaeu auyaeaiey oiio?aaeythueo e
ia oiio?aaeythueo aeeiaieue, ?acee/iua eeanneoeeaoeee ii aic?anoo e
o.ae.

Ianiio?y ia ?aciiieaiiainoue e?eoa?eaa auyaeaiey
ceioiio?aaeythueo aeeiaieai e aieueiuo aeeiaieeciii a
iiae?inoeiai-thiioaneii aic?anoa, aeaiiua ?acee/iuo aaoi?ia ana-oaee
iicaieytho noaeeoue i oii, /oi eo /enei aeinoaoi/ii aaeeei. Aiaeec
iaoa?eaeia, naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi ca iineaaeiea 100 eao iacaaeneii io
o?iaiy oiio?aaeaiey e ceioiio?aaeaiey nie?oiuie iaieoeaie iieacaoaee
?ani?ino?aiaiey nianoaaiii aeeiaieecia o iieiaeaaee nio?aiythony ia
aeinoaoi/ii noaaeeueiii o?iaia, ia i?aauoathuai 5% aieueiuo aei 20 eao e
8-10% aieueiuo aei 25 eao. Yoio oaeo eiaao i?eioeeieaeueiia cia/aiea,
oae eae naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aeeiaieea aicieeiiaaiey e ?acaeoey ?aiieo
oi?i aeeiaieecia a oeaeinoiie no?oeoo?a aeeiaieueiie caaieaaaaiinoe.
Iueyinoai eniiaeoeoea e ino?ay iio?aaiinoue a ia?aie ?thiea oeacuaatho
ia ?anoouoth caaeneiinoue. Iuethuee eniuouaaao /oanoai aeiu, ii ia
iiaeao ianoaeeoue naith i?iaeaio n ae?oaeie.

Aaciaue aeeiaieeci – iuethuee ia iiaeao inoaiiaeoueny, iiea ia
aeinoeaaao noaaeee io?aaeaiey. Ii iiaeaaae?eaaao naay naiiii?aaaeaieyie
e iaiuuaiiuie iaauaieyie, ii ana aai iaauaiey e iaia?aiey inoathony ia
eniieiaiiuie. Ii ia/eiaao ecaaaaoue naiuee e ae?ocae e i?aiaa?aaaoue
aaeie, aueuie eioa?anaie, ?aaioie e aeaiueaaie. Ianooiaao oece/aneia
oooaeoaiea caei?iauey. Oiaiueoaaony noieeinoue e aeeiaieth.

O?iie/aneee aeeiaieeci oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeaeueiaeoei ii?aeueiui oiaaeeii,
e??aoeeiiaeueiui iuoeaieai, niooiuie no?aoaie, oaioaceyie e
ineoiiaoe/aneei iiaaaeaieai. Oece/aneee oua?a ia?anoaao. O iuethuaai
oaea ia inoaaony aeeae, e ii aieueoa ia iiaeao i?aaei?eieiaoue oaaia e
auoiaeo ec neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee. Yoie noaaeee /aeiaae iiaeao
aeinoeaiooue ca 5-25 eao.

Ecea/aiea iau/ii i?iaiaeeony ii niaoeeaeueiui i?ia?aiiai aeey
aeeiaieeeia. Ineoieiae/anee a aeeiaieeea aic?iaeaeaaony aeaeaiea
iieo/eoue iiiiuue, e ii ia/eiaao iuneeoue aieaa ?aoeeiiaeueii. A eaeaaea
a iai ?acaeaathony oaeaea iaaeaaeaea, ii?aeueiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue,
aiaoiea eioa?anu, naiioaaaeaiea e oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue aicaea?aeaieai io
aeeiaiey.

Eiia/iay noaaeey aeeiaieecia ianooiaao, anee aeeiaieee ioeacuaaaony io
ea/aiey eee n?uaaaony aiiaue iinea ea/aiey. Iaia?aoeiua ineoe/aneea e
oece/aneea ia?ooaiey iau/ii caeai/eaathony nia?oueth.

Caeeth/aiea

Aeeiaieeci – oyaeaeia caaieaaaiea, eioi?ia ?acaeaaaony a
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo iiiai eao. Aua ieeiio ia oaeaeinue ninoaaeoue oeie/iue
ia?ac aeeiaieeea.

Eoi aeiiaao, /oi o aan ia inoaeinue ae?ocae, /oi io aan ooea
aeaia e aan ia oioyo aeaeaoue nianoaaiiua aeaoe, /oi aaoa ea?uea?a
eaaeeo a ?oeiao e /oi io oae n/anoeeai ia/eiaaoaeny naiinoiyoaeueiie
aeecie inoaeenue eeoue iaeie ainiiieiaiey? Ai anai yoii aeiiaao oieueei
iaeei /aeiaae – au naie.

Eo?aiea e aai io?eoeaoaeueiia aeaenoaea

ia i?aaieci.

Eo?aiea e iieiaeaaeue – i/aiue na?ueaciay i?iaeaia, e i?iaeaia ia
oieueei iaaeeoeeineay, ii e nioeeaeueiay. A oi a?aiy eae a Aa?iia e a
Aia?eea ana aieueoa e aieueoa ?ani?ino?aiyaony i?eaa?aeaiiinoue
caei?iaiio ia?aco aeecie, o ian caiaoia niaa?oaiii i?ioeaiiieiaeiay
oaiaeaioeey. E yoi iieiaeaiea iaeuecy eciaieoue, ia ciay i?e/ei yaeaiey
e ia eiay aeaiiuo i aai oa?aeoa?a e ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoe. Caaea/a aeaiiiai
enneaaeiaaiey – i?aaenoaaeoue ii aiciiaeiinoe iieioth e aeinoiaa?ioth
oa?aeoa?enoeeo yoie i?iaeaiu a iaoae ?anioaeeea.

Oaia iaoaai enneaaeiaaiey i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an e aeey iaaeaaiaia, e
aeey a?a/ae, e aeey caeiiiaeaoaeae, a ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n aai
i?iaaaeaieai, ieoiyony n eeoaie: caei?iauea ia?iaea noieo ai?acaei
aieueoa. Iineieueeo i?iaeaia yoa ioithaeue ia iiaa e ii?aaeaeaiiua
aeaiiua aeey aiaeeca oaea eiathony, enneaaeiaaiea aoaeao iino?iaii ii
aiaeeoe/aneiio ieaio, oioy aeey o/aoa niaoeeoeee Ynoiiee iu iin/eoaee
iaiaoiaeeiui aaanoe e iaeioi?ua iienaoaeueiua yeaiaiou.

I?e oi?ioee?iaea aii?inia caaea/ae yaeyaony ?ane?uoea neaaeothueo
iiiyoee, ninoaaeythueo nouiinoue i?iaeaiu (a neiaeao- iia?aoeeiiaeueiua
iiiyoey, yiie?e/anee eioa?i?aoe?othuea oio eee eiie aniaeo):

1. ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue e ianooaau yaeaiey ( i?iaiaae ee eo?eoue
?aniiiaeaio e eo?eo ee ii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy; anee aea – oi ?aaoey?ii eee
io neo/ay e neo/ath, neieueei aueo?eaaao a aeaiue, /oanoaoao ee
oece/aneia iaaeiiiaaiea aac neaa?aou).

2. Eiaaea e eae ia/eiatho eo?eoue (a eaeii aic?anoa aia?aua iii?iaiaae
neaa?aoo, ii/aio ?aoee iii?iaiaaoue, eiaaea ia/ae eo?eoue ?aaoey?ii e
/ai yoi auei aucaaii).

3. Aeeyiea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie iaono?iaiiinoe ia eo?aiea (aeioiae
naiuee ?aniiiaeaioa, aeeaao ee ii n iaieie ?iaeeoaeyie eee iao,
?aaioatho ee ?iaeeoaee ?aniiiaeaioa, /anoi ee auaatho eiioeeeou o iaai
n ?iaeeoaeyie e ?iaeeoaeae iaaeaeo niaie, aeiaa?eoaeueiua ee ioiioaiey
a naiuea).

4. Aeeyiea a?oiiu e ?aoa?aioiie a?oiiu (neieueei i?eia?ii /aeiaae eo?yo
ec eeanna ?aniiiaeaioa eee n?aaee aai eieeaa, eo?yo ee aai ae?ocuey,
eo?yo ee iaeaieaa aaoi?eoaoiua aeey iaai ethaee, eo?yo ee ethaee, n
eioi?uie aio aieueoa anaai oioaeinue au iauaoueny, eo?yo ee aai
?iaeeoaee, a?inee au ii eo?eoue, anee au ia iiaii ianoa o/aau eee ?aaiou
e aai i?eau/ea au ieioi ioiineeenue).

5.Aeeyiea oaeoi?ia nioeeieoeueoo?iiai o?iaiy (oaea/aiea ?aniiiaeaioa aai
ioiioaiea e ?aaioa eee o/aaa,i?aaeii/oaiea ?aniiiaeaioii aeaiaa, ciaiee
eee aunieiai iieiaeaiey a iauanoaa).

6. Aeeyiea ia?eaoeiaiauo oneeee oaaa/iuo iiaiee ia ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue
eo?aiey (aeiaa?ea ?aniiiaeaioa e ?aeeaia oaaaea, iaee/ea o iaai
annioeeaoeee , iaeaieaa /anoi aiooaaiuo a ?aeeaia neaa?ao, a?inee au ii
eo?eoue eee noae au eo?eoue iaiueoa a neo/aa ?aceiai iiauoaiey oeai ia
neaa?aou, aicieeiiaaiee o?oaeiinoae n iieoieie neaa?ao, oooaeoaiey
ea/anoaa oaaaea eee en/aciiaaiey ec i?iaeaaee aai ethaeiuo ia?ie
neaa?ao).

7. Ioiioaiea iaeo?yueo e eo?aieth (?acae?aaeaao ee ?aniiiaeaioa oaaa/iue
aeui, ii/aio,ii aai iiaieth ethaee ia/eiatho eo?eoue, eae au ii ioianny
e aaaaeaieth ia?aie/aiee ia eo?aiea a iauanoaaiiuo ianoao e ia
aeene?eieiaoeeth eo?yueo a iieaoa o?oaea, eae au ii ioianny e eo?aieth
noi?oae eee noi?oaa).

8. AEaeaiea ?annoaoueny n i?eau/eie (iuoaeny ee ?aniiiaeaio
eiaaea-ieaoaeue a?ineoue eo?eoue, neieueei a?aiaie ia eo?ee iinea yoiai,
niae?aaony ee ii a?inaoue a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai, niae?aaony ee a?ineoue
eiaaea-ieaoaeue,/ai auei aucaaii yoi aeaeaiea, aoaeao ee ii a?inaoue i?e
oooaeoaiee caei?iauey).

Ioaaou ia aii?inu,noi?ioee?iaaiiua ia iniiaa yoeo iiiyoee, iiiiaoo,
ai-ia?auo, aeaoue no?oeoo?ioth ea?oeio ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoe eo?aiey n?aaee
iieiaeaaee, iicaieyo auyaeoue cia/aiea oao eee eiuo oaeoi?ia a
oi?ie?iaaiee i?eau/ee e eo?aieth.E?iia oiai, iiaeii aoaeao
iiaeoaa?aeeoue eee ii?iaa?aiooue neaaeothuea aeiioacu:

a) Ininaiuie i?e/eiaie eo?aiey n?aaee iiae?inoeia e iieiaeaaee yaeythony
ia yeiiiie/aneay neooaoeey, ia ionooaea noaaeeueiinoe a iauanoaa, a
i?aaeaea anaai- aeeyiea a?oiiu (e iniaaiii- ?aoa?aioiie a?oiiu).
Iineieueeo ia i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e ie eee eiie a?oiia e auai? ?aoa?aioiie
a?oiiu aeeytho ia?aciaaiea, ?iae caiyoee, oeaiiinoe, oi e iie ieaaeoo
naia aicaeaenoaea, oioy ei??aeyoeey e ia aoaeao i/aiue neeueiie. I?e
i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo eo?aieai e aeioiaeaie ia
aoaeao.

a) Nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiay aeiey eo?eeueueeia (a caaea/o enneaaeiaaiey
aoiaeeo auyaeaiea aa aaee/eiu), aeey eioi?uo eo?aiea ia yaeyaony
oeceieiae/aneie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth, e eiaiii yoa /anoue nei?aa anaai
nie?aoeony i?e i?iaaaeaiee ia? eiio?ia?eaoeiaa.

a) Aeeyiea a?oiiu e niaaou aeeceeo ae?ocae iiaoo auoue ?aoathueie a
no?aieaiee a?ineoue eo?eoue, a oi a?aiy eae ae?oaea noeioeu (a oii /enea
e caaioa i caei?iauea) ia aoaeoo noieue yooaeoeaiu.

A nayce n oai, /oi iniiaiie oeaeueth ii?ina yaeyaony aiaeec, oi
aieueoay /anoue aii?inia aoaeao iai?aaeaia eiaiii ia eioa?anothuee ian
naaiaio- iieiaeuo eo?eeeueueeia, eiay oeaeueth auyaeoue ?acee/ey a eo
onoaiiaeao e iiaaaeaiee. Ii aianoa n oai aeey iienaiey iaeioi?uo
iniaaiiinoae yoiai yaeaiey a iaoae no?aia e enneaaeiaaiey no?oeoo?u
iauanoaa ii i?eciaeo ioiioaiey e eo?aieth iai aoaeao iaiaoiaeeia e
?ai?acaioaoeaiay auai?ea n?aaee anae iieiaeaaee. A oiaea enneaaeiaaiey
iu ieaie?oai ii?ineoue o/aieeia, nooaeaioia, o/aueony IOO e oaoieeoiia,
iieiaeuo ?aai/eo e aac?aaioiuo io 15 aei 20 eao, eniieuecoy aeaiiua
Aeaia?oaiaioa noaoenoeee i /eneaiiinoe oie eee eiie a?oiiu n?aaee anae
iieiaeaaee Ynoiiee. Anaai i?aaeiieaaaaony ii?ineoue 400 /aeiaae,/oi
aeaao aeinoaoi/ioth aa?aioeth oi/iinoe.

Aeaienoaaiiay (iienaoaeueii-aiaeeoe/aneay) caaea/a enneaaeiaaiey
ii?aaeaeeea e niaoeeoeeo iaoae auai?ee: n iaeiie noi?iiu, iia
i?aaenoaaeyao anth iieiaeaaeue, ii n ae?oaie-eioa?anothuee ian naaiaio
?ai?acaioaoeaiie auai?ee ioaa/aao ia aeiiieieoaeueiua aii?inu.
Iineieueeo auai?ea o ian aeiaieueii aieueoay e aii?inia oiaea aoaeao
iaiaei, onoiue ii?in i?aaenoaaeyaony /a?an/o? aei?iaei e
iaeiyooaeoeaiui.

Aieaoa aoaeao ninoiyoue ec aeaoo /anoae: iauae, eioi?oth caiieiytho ana
?aniiiaeaiou ?ai?acaioaoeaiie auai?ee, e oeaeaaie, eioi?oth caiieiytho
eo?yuea ?aniiiaeaiou. Eaaeaeue ?aniiiaeaio iieo/aao iaa /anoe a eiiaa?oa
e ii caiieiaiee aica?auaao eo a oii aea eiiaa?oa . Iaeniieueciaaiiua
aoi?ua /anoe iiaeii aoaeao ionoeoue ii neaaeothuaio e?oao (aoiaaa iui/a
aei?iaay).

Eioi?iaoeey anaaaea niae?aaony aeey aeinoeaeaiey eaeie-eeai oeaee, e
aeaaiue yoai a aeinoeaeaiee oeaee enneaaeiaaiey – eioa?i?aoaoeey
iieo/aiiuo aeaiiuo. Iu aoaeai i?iaiaeeoue ia?aaioeo ii neaaeothuei
iai?aaeaieyi:

1. Ecia?aiea /enea eo?yueo , eciaiaiea eo aeiee ca iineaaeiea aiaeu.
Auyaeaiea aeiee aeaiuei n?aaee eo?yueo, oaeaeueiiai aana eo?eeueueeia a
?aciuo nioeeaeueiuo a?oiiao, aeiee “nioeeaeueiuo eo?eeueueeia” ii
ioiioaieth e iauaio /eneo eo?yueo.

2. Iaoiaeaeaiea n?aaeiaai aic?anoa ia/aea eo?aiey, aai aeeiaieea ca
iineaaeiea aiaeu.

3. Auyueaiea nayce iaaeaeo eo?aieai ?aniiiaeaioa e eo?aieai a aai
ie?oaeaiee, oaeoi?aie iaono?iaiiinoe, nioeeieoeueoo?iuie oaeoi?aie, a
iinea iaoiaeaeaiey yoeo naycae iiaeii aoaeao naeaeaoue auaiae i iaeaieaa
nouanoaaiiuo i?e/eiao eo?aiey.

4. Ioeaiea oaniiou nayce iaaeaeo eo?aieai e ia?eaoeiaiauie i?ia?aiiaie,
iaoiaeaeaiea iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo iaoiaeia eiio?ia?eaoeiaa.

5. Aiaeec aeeyiey nioeeaeueiuo e eoeueoo?iuo oaeoi?ia ia oi?ie?iaaiea
iaaaoeaiiai ioiioaiey e eo?aieth, iaoiaeaeaiea a?oii, aaea
“aioeeo?eeueiua” iano?iaiey iaeaieaa neeueiu.

Eiia/ii, iaeuecy iaaeayoueny, /oi iaeii oieueei enneaaeiaaiea niiniaii
?aoeoue i?iaeaio, e iu aiana ia noaaeee ia?aae niaie caaea/e niaa?oeoue
/oaei. Ii aac ananoi?iiiaai aiaeeca ethaua iiiuoee iiaaaeeoue eo?aiea
aoaeoo ai?ueaie n iaaeaeeiui i?ioeaieeii. A ciaiea iai?eyoaey – yoi
iai?aiaiiia oneiaea iiaaaeu.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

A?aoonue A.N. «Ineoieiaey, eeeieea e i?ioeeaeoeea ?aiiaai aeeiaieecia»

Io?aoia E.Ae., Neaei?ia I.E. «Aioeaeeiaieueiia ainieoaiea a oeiea».

Eaniuieia O.A. «Aeeyiea aeeiaiey ia i?aaieci iie?inoea».

Nainiiia I.A. «I?aaieci ioae/eiu» – ia?aaiae n aiae.

Eaionoei Ae.C. «Caei?iauea ioae/eiu» – ia?aaiae n aiae.

Iaeay niaaoneay yioeeeeiiaaeey – oii 1.

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