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Noaoenoeea

Aiia Aeaenaaaia Iiiiaa

Oaia ?1: Aaiae a eo?n

1). I?aaeiao e iaoiae nioeeaeueii- yeiiiie/aneie noaoenoeee.

I?aaeiaoii nioeeaeueii- yeiiiie/aneie noaoenoeee yaeyaony eiee/anoaaiiay
noi?iia ianniauo yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo yaeaiee, iaoiaeu ecia?aiey
e aiaeeca iauaeoeaii nouanoaothueo ?acia?ia, o?iaiae e caeiiiia?iinoae
eo ecia?aiey. Iia ecia?yao eiee/anoaaiioth noi?iio yaeaiee ia?ac?uaii n
ea/anoaaiiie.

Ana ianniaua yaeaiey eiatho eiee/anoaaiioth e ea/anoaaiioth
oa?aeoa?enoeeo. Iaa yoe oa?aeoa?enoeee acaeiinaycaiu.

I?ioeann aini?iecaiaenoaa iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa eco/aaony
yeiiiie/aneie noaoenoeeie. I?ioeann aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey-
aeaiia?aoe/aneie noaoenoeeie. I?ioeann aini?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiiai e
eoeueoo?iiai aeaaininoiyiey- nioeeaeueiie noaoenoeeie.

2. Iniaaiiinoe noaoenoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia.

Iaoiae nioeeaeueii- yeiiiie/aneie noaoenoeee- iaoiae noaoenoe/aneiai
enneaaeiaaiey. Ninoieo ec yoaiia iaaethaeaiey, nai?a, eeanneoeeaoeee e
noaoenoe/aneiai aiaeeca.

1) Yoai iieo/aiey (nai?a) noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo.

Oi?iu iaaethaeaiey:

io/aoiinoue (eaaeaeay oicyenoaaiiay aaeeieoea ia?eiaee/anee
i?aaeinoaaeyao io/ao)

niaoeeoe/aneea (niaoeeaeueiua iaaethaeaiey)

?aiueoa a ioa/anoaaiiie noaoenoeea i?aaei?eyoey auee iaycaiu
i?aaeinoaaeyoue eioi?iaoeeth iai anai. Nae/an yoa i?aeoeea i?ae?auaia.
*anoiua i?aaei?eyoey eiatho i?aai ia i?aaeinoaaeyoue iieioth
eioi?iaoeeth. A ?uii/iie yeiiiieea- yoi auai?i/iia iaaethaeaiea.

Oeaeue noaoenoeee: nai? iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo aeaiiuo e i?aaeinoaaeaiea eo
anai ioaeaeathueiny (i?aaei?eyoeyi e oi).

2) Yoai naiaeee aeaiiuo, eo iaiauaiey e ia?aaioee.

Iiaua oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe iaoneaaeeaatho iiaua aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe, /oi
aucuaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eiaiaiey iiauo eeanneoeeaoi?ia. Anee ?aiueoa
noaoenoeea auea iniiaaia ia ia?ainoaiaiiie ?iee iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, ana i?iecaiaenoai aeaeeeinue ia iaoa?eaeueiia e
iaiaoa?eaeueiia, oi nae/an ethaay aeayoaeueiinoue ?anniao?eaaaony eae
i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoa. Oaia?ue nouanoaotho eeanneoeeaoi?u aeaeia
aeayoaeueiinoe.

3) Aiaeec.

Iiaua nenoaiu iieacaoaeae, iiaay iaoiaeieiaey eo ?an/aoia.

3). Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?ai?aaiecaoeee noaoenoeee.

I?ia?aiia ia?aoiaea ?innee ia i?eiyooth a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aeoeea
nenoaio o/aoa e noaoenoeee ?ann/eoaia ia 1995- 1997 aiaeu. A yoii
aeieoiaioa i?ineaaeeaathony aeaa iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiey:

caiaia iieacaoaeae ieaiiaie yeiiiieee iieacaoaeyie ?acaeoie ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee;

iiaua oi?iu nai?a eioi?iaoeee.

Ae?oaei aeieoiaioii yaeyaony eiioeaioeey ?aoi?iu iaoeeiiaeueiie
noaoenoeee aei 2000 aiaea. I?aaeoniao?eaaao:

nenoaiaoecaoeey iaaethaeaiey,

iaoiaeieiaey iaaethaeaiey ?aciuo oeiia i?aaei?eyoee,

eciaiaiea oi?i nai?a eioi?iaoeee,

oi?ie?iaaiea iioeiaeueiie nenoaiu iieacaoaeae.

Oaia ?2: Noaoenoeea ianaeaiey. Aeaiia?aoe/aneay noaoenoeea.

1). Caaea/e aeaiia?aoe/aneie noaoenoeee.

Aeaiia?aoey- iaoea i ia?iaeiianaeaiee.

Aeaiia?aoe/aneay noaoenoeea- /anoue aeaiia?aoee, iaoea, caieiathuayny
nai?ii, ia?aaioeie e aiaeecii eioi?iaoeee i aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey.

Enoi/ieee noaoenoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee – ia?aiene ianaeaiey ii aic?anoo e
i?i/ei i?eciaeai. Aua nouanoaotho auai?i/iua ianeaaeiaaiey.

2). Iieacaoaee /eneaiiinoe e ninoaaa ianaeaiey.

Iinoiyiiia ianaeaiea- ianaeaiea, iinoiyiii i?iaeeaathuaa ia aeaiiie
oa??eoi?ee.

Iaee/iia ianaeaiea- ianaeaiea, iaoiaeyuaany ia aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee a
iiiaio ia?aiene.

A?aiaiii ionoonoaothuaa e a?aiaiii i?iaeeaathuaa- niioaaonoaaiii.

Iinoiyiiia ianaeaiea = Iaee/iia + A?aiaiii ionoonoaothuaa – A?aiaiii
i?iaeeaathuaa.

Ia iniiaa yoeo aeaiiuo ii?aaeaeyaony /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey. Ii aeaiiui
i /eneaiiinoe ca ?yae eao iiaeii ?ann/eoaoue aaniethoiue i?e?ino, oaiiu
?inoa e n?aaeithth /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey.

*eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey: L..

– aeaiiua ia ia/aei e eiiaoe aiaea

i?e ?aaiuo eioa?aaeao (ia iniiaa eaa?oaeueiuo aeaiiuo) – yoa oi?ioea
n?aaeiae o?iiieiae/aneie.

aeey ia?aaiuo eioa?aaeia – yoi oi?ioea n?aaeiae acaaoaiiie.

Nouanoaotho oaeaea ae?oaea iieacaoaee:

ieioiinoe ianaeaiey;

naiaeiiai iieiaeaiey e o.i.

3). Iieacaoaee iaoaie/aneiai aeaeaeaiey. Iea?aoeey.

Iea?aoeey- yoi iaoaie/aneia ia?aiauaiea ianaeaiey ii oa??eoi?ee no?aiu
eee iaaeaeo no?aiaie. Iayoieeiaay iea?aoeey- nenoaiaoe/aneia
ia?aaeaeaeaiea ec ai?iaea a ai?iae (o/aaa e oi).

I- /enei i?eauaoeo ia aeaiioth oa??eoi?eth,

A- /enei auauaoeo n aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee.

(iao = I – A

Ii yoei iieacaoaeyi iiaeii ?an/eoaoue eiaoeoeeaiou i?eauoey e oauoey:

,

– n?aaeiaaiaeiaay /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey.

4. Anoanoaaiiia aeaeaeaiea ianaeaiey.

Yoi eciaiaiea /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey a nayce n i?ioeannaie ?iaeaeaiey e
nia?oe.

N- eiee/anoai ?iaeeaoeony,

M- eiee/anoai oia?oeo.

(a = N – M

.

Iauee i?e?ino ianaeaiey- yoi noiia (a e (iao:

( = (a + (iao,

.

E?iia iaueo iieacaoaeae aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee anoanoaaiiiai aeaeaeaiey
ianaeaiey nouanoaotho /anoiua eiyooeoeeaiou, io?aaeathuea aioo?aiiea
i?ioeannu, ?iaeaeaiea, nia?oue.

Iiaic?anoiua eiaooeoeeaiou ?iaeaeaaiinoe e nia?oiinoe:

– /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey a aeaiiii aic?anoa.

Eiao aeaoneie nia?oiinoe (aei 1 aiaea):

– n?aaeiaa /enei aeaoae aei iaeiiai aiaea.

, aaea N0- a i?ioeii aiaeo, a N1- a aeaiiii.

Yoio eiao io?aaeaao caei?iauea iaoeee, ninoiyiea iaaeeoeeiu.

Eiao Iie?ianeiai:

, aaea t- ia?eiae.

5. En/eneaiea ia?niaeoeaiie /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey.

Naiui i?inoui yaeyaony niinia n i?eiaiaieai E( e E(IAO:

, aaea E( = const.

?an/ao /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey ia iniiaa i?iaiice?oaiiai aeeiaie/aneiai
?yaea /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey: anee nouanoaoao /aoeay oaiaeaioeey, oi aa
iiaeii i?iaeeeoue ia ia?niaeoeao.

?an/ao /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey ia iniiaa oaaeeoeu nia?oiinoe.

Oaaeeoea nia?oiinoe- yoi nenoaia acaeiinaycaiiuo iieacaoaeae, iniiaaiiay
ia aa?iyoiinoue aeiaeeoey aei neaaeothuaai aiaea eaaeaeie aic?anoiie
a?oiiu. Iieacaoaee aeiaeeoey o?aaotho aieueoiai iauaia noaoenoe/aneie
eioi?iaoeee.

Aeey eaaeaeiai iieieaiey ?an/eouaaaony naie eiaooeoeeaio.

?an/aou /eneaiiinoe a yoii neo/aa aaaeoony ioaeaeueii aeey eaaeaeiai
iieieaiey. Iauay /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey a aeaiiii aiaeo ?aaia noiia
/eneaiiinoe anao iieieaiee, aeeaoueo a yoii aiaeo.

Oaia ?3. Noaoenoeea o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia. Noaoenoeea ?uiea o?oaea.

1. Iieacaoaee noaoenoeee o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia.

*eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey no?aiu.

Ianaeaiea a iao?oaeiniiniaiii aic?anoa (aeaoe e iaineiia?u).

Ianaeaiea o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa.

Eiaaeeaeu.

Oaeoe/anee ia?aaioathuaa ianaeaiea.

Oaeoe/anee ?aaioathuaa ianaeaiea iao?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa.

Naeueaei iea?aoeee.

O?oaeiaua ?ano?nu no?aiu.

Caiyoua a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa.*

Aac?aaioiua.

Ia?aaioathuaa ianaeaiea a o?oaeiniiniaiii aic?anoa (iai?eia?, o/aueany n
io?uaii io i?iecaiaenoaa, aeiiioicyeee) – yeiiiie/anee iaaeoeaiay
eaoaai?ey.

Yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiia ianaeaiea.

Iaaiiua ?aaioieee.

Eeoea, naiinoiyoaeueii iaania/eaathuea naay ?aaioie.

A?aaeaeaineia ianaeaiea.

Aiaiiineoaeauea.

?aaioieee ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie iniiaa (iai?eia?, /aeiiee).

?aaioiaeaoaee.

Iaiiea/eaaaiay ?aai/ay neea ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo.

*eaiu eieeaeoeaiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

*- ia/eiay n ?9- iiaua iiiyoey.

Iieacaoaee no?oeoo?u o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia:

Iieacaoaeue yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe ianaeaiey- aeiey yeiiiie/anee
aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey a iauae /eneaiiinoe.

O?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu- aeiey aac?aaioiuo a iauae /eneaiiinoe
yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey.

O?iaaiue yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey- aeiey
yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa e iauae
/enaeiiinoe o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia.

Eiaooeoeeaio o?oaeiniiniaiinoe ianaeaiey- ioiioaiea ianaeaiey
o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa e iauae /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey.

Eiaooeoeeaio caiyoinoe anaai ianaeaiey- ioiioaiea caiyouo e iauae
/eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey.

Eiaooeoeeaio iioaioeeaeueiiai caiauaiey- ioiioaiea /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey
a aei?aai/ai aic?anoa (0-15 eao) e /eneaiiinoe o?oaeiniiniaiiai
ianaeaiey.

Eiaooeoeeaio iaineiiiie iaa?ocee- ioiioaiea /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey
iaineiiiiai aic?anoa e /eneaiiinoe o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey.

2. Aaeain o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia.

Oaaeeoea, n iaeiie noi?iiu eioi?ie iieacaiu enoi/ieee oi?ie?iaaiey
o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, a n ae?oaie- iai?aaeaiey eo ?ani?aaeaeaiey. Yoio
aaeain no?ieony ia iniiaa noaoenoeee o?oaea e caiyoinoe.

I. Enoi/ieee.

Anaai o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, a o/:

O?oaeiniiniaiia ianaeaiea o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa.

?aaioieee noa?oa e iieiaea o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa, caiyoua a
yeiiiieea eee i?eciaiiua aac?aaioiuie, a o/:

Eeoea noa?oeo aic?anoia.

Iiae?inoee.

Aaaeaioeu e auioaeaeaiiua ia?anaeaioeu.

Naeueaei iayoieeiaie iea?aoeee.

II. ?ani?aaeaeaiea o?oaeiniiniaiuo ?ano?nia ii aeaeai caiyoinoe:

Yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiia ianaeaiea.

Ianaeaiea, caiyoia a yeiiiieea.

?aaioathuea ii iaeio, ec ieo:

?aaioathuea a ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a.

?aaioathuea a /anoiii naeoi?a.

?aaioathuea a iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo e oiiaeao.

?aaioathuea ia NI.

?aaioathuea ia i?aaei?eyoeyo ni niaoaiiie oi?iie nianoaaiiinoe e ae?.

?aaioathuea ia ii iaeio:

?aaioiaeaoaee.

Eeoea, ?aaioathuea ca naie n/ao.

*eaiu i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eiiia?aoeaia, aeeth/ay eieoicieeia.

Iiiiaathuea /eaiu naiuee.

Neoaeeoaee ?aeeaeiciiai eoeueoa.

Aiaiiineoaeauea.

Aac?aaioiua.

Yeiiiie/anee iaaeoeaiia ianaeaiea a o?oaeiniiniaiii aic?anoa, a o/:

Iao/athueany n io?uaii io i?iecaiaenoaa.

O/aueany, i?eciaiiua aac?aaioiuie.

Ana inoaeueiua, eoi ia ?aaioaao, iacaaeneii io enoi/ieea aeioiaeia.

Oaia ?4. Noaoenoeea iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa.

Iaoeeiiaeueiia aiaaonoai- yoi niaieoiiinoue iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeooiaiuo
aeaa (?ano?nia), iaeiieaiiuo a no?aia a ?acoeueoaoa i?ioeiai o?oaea, a
oaeaea o/oaiiuo e aiaea/aiiuo a yeiiiie/aneee iai?io i?e?iaeiuo
?ano?nia, eioi?uie iauanoai ?aniieaaaao a ii?aaeaeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie.

Iaoeeiiaeueiia aiaaonoai ninoieo ec o?ao i?eioeeieaeueii ?acee/iuo
/anoae:

I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu, o/oaiiua e aiaea/aiiua a iai?io. Yoi
iaaini?iecaiaeeiua aeaaa.

Caiey.

Iieaciua eneiiaaiua – ieia?aeueiua ?ano?nu.

Aiaea – yia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu.

Ean e aeeaioiue ie?.

Iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu, iieo/aiiua a ?acoeueoaoa iaeiieaiiiai o?oaea.
Aini?iecaiaeeiua ?ano?nu.

Eioaeeaeooaeueiue iioaioeeae iauanoaa eee iaeiieaiiue iao/ii-
oaoie/aneee iioaioeeae.

Iaoeeiiaeueiia eiouanoai (aeaiaaeiay e iaoo?aeueiay oi?iu o/aoa).

Iniiaiua oiiaeu.

Iai?ioiua oiiaeu.

Ee/iia eiouanoai.

No?aoaae/aneea ?ano?nu.

Eioaeaeooaeueiue iioaioeeae.

Caaea/e noaoenoeee iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa: oa?aeoa?enoeea iauaia,
no?oeoo?u, aeeiaieee e yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey anaai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa e aai ninoaaiuo /anoae; ii?aaeaeaiea iauaia
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa ia iniiaa iaoiaea i?yiiai n/aoa.

Oaia ?4.1. Noaoenoeea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia.

Aaaeiui yeaiaioii iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa (IA) e oneiaeai ?acaeoey
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa neoaeao i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu. Cao?aou o?oaea
ia eo iiaeaea?aeaiea, i?aia?aciaaiea e i?eoiiiaeaiea i?aa?auatho
i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu a yeaiaio nicaeaiiiai o?oaeii IA.

I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu (I?) – yoi anoanoaaiiua i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu no?aiu,
iaeii ec oneiaee iaania/aiey iaoa?eaeueiie aeecie iauanoaa, iiauoaiey
aeaaininoiyiey ia?iaea. A ninoaa I? aeeth/atho caiaeueiua oiiaeu, eaniua
oiiaeu, caianu iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, aiaeiua ?ano?nu,
aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu, ?uaiua aiaaonoaa e o.ae.

I? iiae?acaeaeythony ia aiaea/aiiua e ia aiaea/aiiua a i?ioeann
iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa. Aiaea/aiiua a yeiiiie/aneee iai?io I?
aeeth/athony a ninoaa IA e noaiiayony aaaeiui yeaiaioii
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee no?aiu. I?e?iaea a oie aea ia?a enoi/iee
iio?aaeoaeueiuo noieiinoae, a ec ieo e ninoieo IA, eae e o?oae.
Aiaea/aiiua a i?ioeann iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa eee yeiiiie/aneee
iai?io i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu aunooiatho, n iaeiie noi?iiu, a ea/anoaa
ooieoeeiie?othueo n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, a n ae?oaie – eniieuecothony
ia iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioaeaeu. Ia aiaea/aiiua a i?eoeann iauanoaaiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa I? ioiinyony e iioaioeeaeueiiio aiaaonoao.

I? o/eouaathony a iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee, a iaeioi?ua aeaeu I? e a
aeaiaaeiie ioeaiea.

Noaoenoeea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia ?ac?aaaouaaao naith niaoeeoe/aneoth
nenoaio iieacaoaeae. Yoa nenoaia iicaieyao io?aceoue iaee/ea, ninoaa I?,
aeeiaieeo e eo eniieueciaaiea. Iniiaiuie ninoaaiuie /anoyie noaoenoeee
I? yaeythony noaoenoeea caiaeueiuo oiiaeia, eaniuo ?ano?nia, iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo, aiaeiuo ?ano?nia, aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia e o.ae.

Caaea/e noaoenoeee I?:

Eiio?ieue ca oiaeii auiieiaiey ieaia eco/aiey I?, eo nio?aiaiey e
ainiieiaiey.

Ii?aaeaeyao iauai caiania I? ii noaiaie eco/aiiinoe e aiciiaeiinoe
aiaea/aiey eo a yeiiiie/aneee iai?io. Eco/aao ?aciauaiea I? ii no?aia,
oa?aeoa?ecoao aeeiaieeo e i?e?ino auyaeaiuo caiania I?.

I?ecaaia iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaiaaoue e oeo/oaoue nenoaio iieacaoaeae e
iaoiaeieiaeth eo en/eneaiey, /oi iicaieeo ananoi?iiia e iieii
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue I?.

Aieaa yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea I?. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue oneeaiey io?aiu
i?e?iaeu.

Iaania/aiea ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey e aini?iecaiaenoaa I?.

Noaoenoeea I?, oe?iei eniieuecoy noaoenoe/aneea iaoiaeu, aeieaeia
auyaeyoue ana aiciiaeiinoe yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey I?,
niinianoaiaaoue inouanoaeaieth ia? ii eiiieaeniiio e ?aoeeiiaeueiiio
eniieueciaaieth e io?aia caiaeueiuo, eaniuo e aiaeiuo ?ano?nia, iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo. Aaaeiui yoaiii inaiaiey I? yaeythony eo ?acaaaeea, eco/aiea,
ninoaaeaiea eaaeano?ia ii ioaeaeueiui aeaeai (caiaeueiue eaaeano?,
eaniie eaaeano?, aiaeiue eaaeano?, eaaeano? ianoi?iaeaeaiee iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo) e a oa??eoi?eaeueiii aniaeoa.

Oaia ?5. Noaoenoeea iniiaiuo oiiaeia.

1. Iiiyoea iniiaiuo oiiaeia e aeaeu ioeaiee.

Iniiaiua oiiaeu- yoi niaieoiiinoue iaoa?eaeueii- aauanoaaiiuo
oeaiiinoae i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai e iai?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey,
eioi?ua eniieuecothony ia i?ioyaeaiee ?yaea eao e iinoaiaiii
eciaoeaaynue a oa/aiea anaai n?iea neoaeau, ia oa?ytho naiae
iaoo?aeueiie oi?iu.

IIO — yoi caeaiey, nii?oaeaiey,ia?aaeaoi/iua ono?ienoaa, iaoeiu e
iai?oaeiaaiea, o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa, i?iecaiaenoaaiiue eiaaioa?ue e
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe, oicyenoaaiiue eiaaioa?ue, ?aai/ee e i?iaeoeoeaiue
neio, iiiaieaoiea naaeu e ianaaeaeaiey, eaieoaeueiua cao?aou ii
oeo/oaieth caiaeue e o.ae.

Aeaeu ioeaiie iniiaiuo oiiaeia.

O/ao i?iecaiaeeony eae a noieiinoiii, oae e a iaoo?aeueiii
au?aaeaiee.

1) Ii ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe — oaeoe/aneea cao?aou ia nicaeaiea eee
i?eia?aoaiea, ia aaiae a aeaenoaea IIO (aaeainiaay noieiinoue). Ii
ia?a eniieueciaaiey oiiaeu eciaoeaathony, a oaeaea iaaethaeathony
eioeyoeeiiiua ecaea?aeee, iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeia ainnoaiiaeoaeueiay
noieiinoue.

2) Ainnoaiiaeoaeueiay noieiinoue — noieiinoue aini?iecaiaenoaa oao aea
IIO a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo. Aaee/eia ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie noieiinoe
ii?aaeaeyaony a i?ioeanna ia?aioeaiee iniiaiuo oiiaeia (inouanoaeyaony
01.01 eaaeaeiai aiaea ia iniiaa onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiii eiyooeoeeaioia
ia?aioeaiee). Iniaaiiinoue ia?aioeaiee iineaaeieo aeaoo eao caeeth/aaony
a oii, /oi ainnoaiiaeoaeueiay noieiinoue iiaeao auoue acyoa ii
oaeoe/anee neeaaeuaathueiny oeaiai i?eia?aoaiey.

Iaoiaeu ia?aioeaiee:

a) eiaeaenaoeey. Aaeainiaay noieiinoue IIO oiiiaeaaony ia eiyooeoeeaio
eiaeaenaoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa iieo/aai iiaoth ainnoaiiaeoaeueioth
noieiinoue, eioi?ay n iiaiai aiaea noaiiaeoueny aaeainiaie.

a) ia iniiaa neiaeeaoeony oeai ( /oi io?aaeaaony aeieoiaioaeueii).
Ainnoaiiaeoaeueiay noieiinoue aa?aony ii oeaiai, neiaeeaoeiny ia ?uiea
IIO.

2. Aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo oiiaeia

IIO a i?ioeanna ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eciaoeaathony, o.a. a i?ioeanna
neoaeau oa?ytho naith oeaio.

Eciin– aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea iioa?e ea/anoa iniiaiuo oiiaeia. Eciin-
niinia ainnoaiiaeaiey ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe. Aii?oecaoeey aoiaeeo a
ninoaa cao?ao e en/eneyaony ii onoaiiaeaiiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
ii?iai aii?oecaoeee.

A=Ii/O, aaea A- ?acia? aiaeiaie aii?oecaoeee, Ii- ia?aiia/aeueiay
noieiinoue IIO, O- n?ie neoaeau.

, aaea Na- ii?ia aii?oecaoeee.

3.Iieacaoaee iaee/ey, aeaeaeaiey, ninoiyiey e eniieueciaaiey IIO.

Oiiae inoaoi/iie noie-oe= ia?aiia/aeueiay noie-oue — noiia
aii?oecaoeee

I?e ia?aioeaiea IIO ia?aioeaieaaaony e eciin(oiiiaeaaony ia eiyo.
ia?aioeaiee). Auaeaeyaony ?acieoea iaaeaeo oiiaeaie ia ia/aei e
eiiaoe aiaea, oae eae aaiaeyony iiaua IIO e auauaatho noa?ua.
Aeey iauae oa?aeoa?enoeee IIO ?ann/eouaaaony n?aaeiaaiaeiaay
noieiinoue IIO ia iniiaa aeaiiuo ii ianyoeai. Iia ?ann/eouaaaony eae
n?aaeiao?iiieiae/aneay eee n?aaeiaacaaoaiiay. Aeey oi/iiai o/aoa
eiee/anoaa IIO eo ia?aaea/a i?ienoiaeeo iaeiia?aiaiii n eciinii. Aeey
yoiai ?ann/eouaaaony eiyooeoeeaio eciina.

Eiyooeoeeaiou ninoiyiey e eciina:

Eiyo eciina = aaee/eia eciina/ ia?aiia/aeueiay noieiinoue

Eiyo aiaeiinoe = inoaoi/iay noieiinoue/ ia?aiia/aeueiay noieiinoue

A noiia yoe aeaa eiyooeoeeaioa aeatho 1.

Iieacaoaee aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaeaeaiey IIO:

Eiyo auauoey = noieiinoue auauaoeo IIO/ noieiinoue IIO ia ia/aei
ia?eiaea

Eiyo iinooieaiey = noieiinoue iinooieaoeo IIO/ noieiinoue IIO ia
eiiaoe ia?eiaea

Eiyo iaiiaeaiey = noieiinoue iiauo IIO/ noieiinoue IIO ia eiiaoe
ia?eiaea

Oaia ?6: Noaoenoeea iai?oaeiaaiey

1. Iiiyoea e eeanneoeeaoeey iai?oaeiaaiey.

Iai?oaeiaaiea — yoi aeoeaiua IIO, oi anoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii o/anoaothuea
a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aeoeaiay /anoue IIO aeeth/aao a naay:

neeiaua iaoeiu, iai?oaeiaaiea, o.a. ana aa?aaaou, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa ?acee/iuo aeeia yia?aee(ana ia?iaua eioeu,
yeaeo?iaaia?aoi?u);

?aai/ea iaoeiu e iai?oaeiaaiea;

ecia?eoaeueiua e ?aaoee?othuea i?eai?u e ono?ienoaa;

au/eneeoaeueiay oaoieea e o.i.

Yoe a?oiiu auaeaeythony aeey o/aoa e aiaeeca IIO, aeey iiaen/aoa
aii?oecaoeee e aeey i?iaaaeaiey ia?aioeaiee.

2.Iieacaoaee iaee/ey e eniieueciaaiey iai?oaeiaaiey.

1) Eeanneoeeaoeey iai?oaeiaaiey ii iieacaoaeyi iaee/ey a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna:

onoaiiaeaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea – oaeoe/anee aeaenoaothuaa, ?aaioathuaa,
iaoiaeyuaany a ieaiiaii ?aiiioa, i?inoieiia, ?aca?aiia.

iaonoaiiaeaiiia – iiaeeaaeauaa onoaiiaea, eceeoiaa, iaaiaeiia,
iiaeeaaeauaa nienaieth

Aeey iai?oaeiaaiey aaiaeeony iiiyoea niaiiinoe eniuoaiey, oae eae iii
iiaeao ?aaioaoue aieaa iaeiie niaiu. Eiyooeoeeaio niaiiinoe
en/eneyaony ia iniiaa iaaethaeaiee.

Eni=(Ni*Lni/(Ni (<=3), aaea Eni- niaiiinoue ?aaiou iai?oaeiaaiey, Ni- eiee/anoai iai?oaeiaaiey, L- /enei niaiEiyo eniieueciaaiey ia?ea iai?oaeiaaiey = /enei oaeoe/anee ?aaioathuaai iai?oaeiaaiey/ /eneaiiinoue iaee/iiai iai?oaeiaaiey.2) Ii a?aiaie ?aaiou:Eaeaiaea?iue oiiae = a?aiy ?aaiou aeey iai?oaeiaaiey iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey.?aaeeiiue = eaeaiaea?iue - i?acaeieee e auoiaeiua.?aniieaaaaiia a?aiy = ?aaeeiiue oiiae - ieaiiaue ?aiiio - ?aca?aiue oiiae.Ieaiiaue oiiae = ?aniieaaaaiia a?aiy - a?aiy, ia o?aaoaiia aeey auiieiaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu.Oaeoe/anee io?aaioaiiia a?aiy = ieaiiaue oiiae - a?aiy i?inoiy.Eiyo eniieueciaaiey ia?ea = oaeoe/anee io?aaioaiiia a?aiy/ eaeaiaea?iia (?aaeeiiia) a?aiy eee iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiia aeey aeaiiie a?oiiu iai?oaeiaaiey.Eaeaiaea?iue oiiae - n iai?a?uaiui a?aiaiai, ?aaeeiiue - n i?a?uaiui.3) Iieacaoaee eniieueciaaiey iai?oaeiaiey ii iiuiinoe:Eiyo eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie iiuiinoe = oaeoe/anee i?iecaaaeaiiay i?iaeoeoeey/ n?aaeiaaiaeiaay iiuiinoueAeey yia?aaoe/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey:Eiyo eniieueciaaiey aeaeaaoaey = n?aaeiaa eiee/anoai oaeoe/anee au?aaioaiiie yia?aee/ iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiie iiuiinoe aeaeaaoaey.Aaaeiaeoea iieacaoaee noaoenoeee iai?oaeiaaiey.Yia?aaoe/aneia e i?iecaiaenoaaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea - iaeaieaa aeoeaiay /anoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iniiaiuo oiiaeia ai anao io?aneyo i/o. Yia?aaoe/aneia - iai?oaeiaaiea, iniiaiie ooieoeeae eioi?iai yaeyaony i?iecaiaenoai ?acee/iuo aeaeia yia?aee (oaieiaie, iaoaie/aneie, yeaeo?e/aneie) e i?aia?aciaaiea iaeiiai aeaea yia?aee a ae?oaie. I?iecaiaenoaaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea - i?oaeey o?oaea, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo ?aai/ei inouanoaeyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia i?aaeiao o?oaea.I?iecaiaenoaaiiia e yia?aaoe/aneia iai?oaeiaaiea aanueia ?aciiia?acii ii eiino?oeoeee, iacia/aieth e iiiaei ae?oaei i?eciaeai.A?oiiu yia?aaoe/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey n o/aoii ?acee/ey ?iee ioaeaeueiuo aai aeaeia a yia?aaoe/aneii iaania/aiee i?iecaiaenoaa:1. Ia?iaua eioeu.Aeaeaaoaee:- ia?ae/iua. I?aia?acotho iioaioeeaeueioth yia?aeth nee i?e?iaeu a iaoaie/aneoth.Ii aeaeai eniieuecoaiie yia?aee iie iiae?acaeaeythony ia:oaieiaua (ia?iaua e aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey)aiaeyiuaaoiiiua- aoi?e/iua. I?aia?acotho iaeei aeae yia?aee a ae?oaie.Yeaeo?iaaia?aoi?u. I?aia?acotho iaoiie/aneoth e ae?oaea aeaeu yia?aee a yeaeo?e/aneoth yia?aeth.Yeaeo?iaiia?aou. Iie aicaeaenoaotho ia i?aaeiaou o?oaea (naa?i/iua aiia?aou, yeaeo?iia/e, yeaeo?inooeea e o.ae.)O?ainoi?iaoi?u e i?aia?aciaaoaee oiea (aui?yieoaee, oioi?ia?u).I?iecaiaenoaaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea aeaeyoii niiniao aicaeaenoaey ia i?aaeiao o?oaea: iaoaie/aneia, oa?ie/aneia e oeie/aneia.ii oa?aeoa?o aai i?eiaiaiey: iaaeio?aneaaiai i?eiaiaiey e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiia aeey eiie?aoiuo i?iecaiaenoa.ii niaoeeaeecaoeee: oieaa?naeueiia e niaoeeaeueiia.ii noaiaie aaoiiaoecaoeee: iaoeiu aac i?eioaeeoaeueiie nayce ?aai/aai i?aaia n i?aaeiaoii o?oaea, iaoeiu n i?eioaeeoaeueiie naycueth ?aai/aai i?aaia n i?aaeiaoii o?oaea, n aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie iiaea/ae iaoa?eaea e aaoiiaoece?iaaiiui oaiaeii aioiaiai i?iaeoeoa - aaoiiaou.ii noaiaie oaoie/aneiai niaa?oainoaa: nia?aiaiiia, oaoie/anee niaa?oaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea; iai?oaeiaaiea o?aaothuaa iiaea?iecaoeee; onoa?aaoaa iai?oaeiaaiea, iiaea?iecaoeey eioi?iai ia oeaeaniia?acia.ii ae?. i?eciaeai (aic?anoo, ianoo ecaioiaeaiey).Iaee/ea iai?oaeiaaiey oa?aeoa?ecotho iieacaoaee aai /eneaiiinoe.Iaee/iia iai?oaeiaaieaonoaiiaeaiiia iai?oaeiaaieaoaeoe/anee ?aaioathuaai?inoieiiaa ieaiiaii ?aiiioa?aca?aiiaiaonoaiiaeaiiia iai?oaeiaaieaiiaeeaaeauaa onoaiiaeaeceeoiaaiaaiaeiia (iiaeeaaeauaa nienaieth)Iaee/iia - ana iai?oaeiaaiea, /eneyuaany ia aaeaina i?aaei?eyoey. Onoaiiaeaiiia - iai?oaeiaaiea, naeaiiia a yenieoaoaoeeth. ?aca?aiia - eni?aaiia iai?oaeiaaiea, ca/eneaiia a oaoiieiae/aneee eee eiie aeae ?aca?aa ia iniiaaiee niioaaonoaothuaai aeieoiaioa. Iai?oaeiaaiea a i?inoia - ia?aaioathuaa ii anai i?e/eiai, aeeth/ay iaoiaeyuaany a iaeeaeaiee ?aiiioa e a aaa?eeiii ?aiiioa. Oaeoe/anee ?aaioathuaa - ana eniieuecoaiua aaeeieoeu iai?oaeiaaiey iacaaeneii io i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe a?aiaie eo ?aaiou ca iaaethaeaaiue ia?eiae.Niiinoaaeyy /enea aaeeieoe oaeoe/anee ?aaioaaoaai iai?oaeiaaiey n /eneii aaeeieoe onoaiiaeaiiiai eee iaee/iiai iai?oaeiaaiey iieo/atho eiyooeoeeaiou eniieueciaaiey ia?ea iai?oaeiaaiey.Ii ?aaeeio ?aaiou ?acee/atho iai?oaeiaaiea iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey e iai?oaeiaaiea i?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey. Eiyooeoeeaio niaiiinoe - iieacaoaeue, oa?aeoa?ecothuee eniieueciaaiea iai?oaeiaaiey ii n?aaeiaio /eneo niai ?aaiou a nooee.E ni = eie-ai niai, io?aaioaiiuo anaie aaeeieoeaie iai?oaeiaaieyeie-ai io?aaioaiiuo iaoeii-aeiaeNiiinoaaeyy eiyooeoeeaio niaiiinoe n /eneii niai ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey ii onoaiiaeaiiiio ?aaeeio ?aaiou, iieo/ei eiyooeoeeaio eniieueciaaiey niaiiiai ?aaeeia.Aaaeiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie iaee/ey yia?aaoe/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey neoaeeo aai iiuiinoue. Yooaeoeaiay iaeneiaeueii aeeeoaeueiay iiuiinoue oeacuaaaony a ianii?oa e oa?aeoa?ecoao iaeaieueooth iiuiinoue, eioi?oth iiaeii iieo/eoue ia ?aai/ai aaeo aeaeaaoaey e eniieueciaaoue aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy aac oa?icu auoiaea iai?oaeiaaiey ec no?iy aneaaenoaea ia?aa?ocee. Ii aeaiiui i oaeoe/anee i?iecaaaeaiiie aeaeaaoaeai yia?aee ii?aaeaeytho n?aaeithth oaeoe/aneoth iiuiinoue. (Anee yeaeo?iaaia?aoi? n ianii?oiie iiuiinoueth 100 eAo ca 200 / ?aaiou au?aaioae 1600 eAo / ye-yi, oi aai n?aaeiyy oaeoe/aneay iiuiinoue = 1600:200=80 eAo).Eiyooeoeeao eniieueciaaieyaeaeaaoaey ii iiuiinoe = n?aaeiyy oaeoe/aneay iiuiinoue aeaeaaoaey : aai yooaeoeaiay iaeneiaeueii aeeeoaeueiay iiuiinoue. (80:100=0,8).Noiia?iay iiuiinoue neeiaiai iai?oaeiaaiey i?aaei?eyoee ii?aaeaeyao ec yia?aaoe/aneee iioaioeeae. Ii? = I iae + I yi + I ya, aaea Ii? - iiuiinoue, ianeoaeeaathuay i?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann, I iae - iiuiinoue ia?ae/iuo aeaeaaoaeae, iaiin?aaenoaaiii ianeoaeeaathueo ?aai/ea iaoeiu, I yi - iiuiinoue yeaeo?iiioi?ia, i?eaiaeyueo a aeaeaeaiea ?aai/ea iaoeiu, I ya - iiuiinoue yeaeo?iaiia?aoia.Eniieueciaaiea iai?oaeiaaiey iiaeii oa?aeoa?eciaaoue e ii a?aiaie:Eaeaiaea?iue oiiae a?aiaie - a?aiy auoiaeiuo, i?acaeie/iuo aeiae e iaaeaeoniaiiuo ia?a?uaia = ?aaeeiiue oiiae a?aiaie.?aaeeiiue oiiae a?aiaie - ?aca?aiia a?aiy = ?aniieaaaaiue oiiae a?aiaie.?aniieaaaaiue oiiae a?aiaie - a?aiy ieaiiauo ?aiiioia = ieaiiaue oiiae a?aiaie.Ieaiiaue oiiae a?aiaie - a?aiy, iaioaeiia aeey auiieiaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu = a?aiy o/anoey iai?oaeiaaiey a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna.A?aiy o/anoey iai?oaeiaaiey a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna = iaoeiiia (oaeoe/anee io?aaioaiiia a?aiy + iiaeaioiaeoaeueii-caeeth/eoaeueiia e aniiiiaaoaeueiia a?aiy).Eiyooeoeeaio eniieueciaaiey iai?oaeiaaiey ii a?aiaie = a?aiy o/anoey iai?oaeiaaiey a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna eee oaeoe/anee io?aaioaiiia a?aiy : oiiae a?aiaie , i?eiyoue ca aaco aeey n?aaiaiey (eaeaiaea?iue, ?aaeeiiue eee ieaiiaue).Iieacaoaee eniieueciaaiey iai?oaeiaaiey ii a?aiaie e ii iiuiinoe iicaieytho iieo/eoue iaiauathuee iieacaoaeue eniieueciaaiey iai?oaeiaaiey ii iauaio auiieiaiiuo ?aaio iooai ia?aiiiaeaiey eiyooeoeeaioia eniieueciaaiey iai?oaeiaaiey ii iiuiinoe e ii a?aiaie.Io - oaeoe/anee i?iecaaaeaiiue iauai iieaciie ?aaiouOo - a?aiy oaeoe/aneie ?aaiou iai?oaeiaaieyIo - ianii?oiay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iai?oaeiaaieyOe - eaeaiaea?iue oiiae a?aiaieIaiauathuae oa?aeoa?enoeeie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae i?aaei?eyoey neoaeeo iieacaoaeue i?iecaiaenoaaiiie iiuiinoe - iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiue iauai i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ue iiaeao auoue i?iecaaaeai i?aaei?eyoeai a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie.N?aaeiyy aiaeiaay iiuiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony ii oi?ioea:,?=*- n?aaeiyy aiaeiaay iiuiinoue, I i - iiuiinoue ia ia/aei io/aoiiai aiaea, Iaa - iiuiinoe, aaiaeeiua a oa/aiea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea , Iaua - iiuiinoe, auauaoea a io/aoiii aiaeo, *1 - /enei ianyoeaa, inoathueony n iiiaioa aaiaea iiuiinoe aei eiioea aiaea, *2 - /enei ianyoeaa, inoathueony aei eiioea aiaea n iiiaioa auauoey iiuiinoe, 12 - /enei ianyoeaa a aiaeo.Eiyooeoeeaio eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie iiuiinoe - ioiioaiea oaeoe/anee i?iecaaaeaiiiai iauaia i?iaeoeoeee e n?aaeiae aiaeiaie iiuiinoe.Oaia ?7: Noaoenoeea i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoey1.) Iieacaoaee iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa ii iaoo?aeueii aauanoaaiiiio ninoaao.Iaoa?eae( oeao1( oeao2( oeao3( aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey.I?iaeoeoeey oeaoia- iieooaa?eeaou, iiaoo oaeaea i?iaeaaaoueny i?aaei?eyoeyi ia noi?iio.( iieooaa?eeaoia (i?iiaaeooi/iue iai?io) + aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey = aaeiaue iai?io.A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iauai i?iaeoeoeee o/eouaaaony ii ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee (?aaeeciaaiiay i?iaeoeoeey — i?iaeoeoeey, eioi?ay oaea iiea/aia).2). Noieiinoiua iieacaoaee i?iaeoeoeee.Cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai ?ann/eouaathony ii oeaoai. Aioo?e oeaoa:M+A+V+I = cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai a ia?aii oeaoaaaea I— iieaoa iaoa?eaeia, A— aii?oecaoeey, V— cao?aou ia ca?ieaoo ?aaioieeai, I— i?eaueue.I’+(A+(V+(I+ iaeiae = Aaeiaue auioneI+ (A= ia?aianaiiay noieiinoue(V+ (I = aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue(A+(V+(I+ iaeiae = (/enoay i?iaeoeoeey3). Iaoiaeu en/eneaiey V i?iecaiaenoaa.Aaeiaue auione = aaeiaue iai?io – i?iiaaeooi/iue i?iaeoeo (a iaoo?aeueii- aauanoaaiiie oi?ia)Aaeiaue auione=I’+ (A+ (V+(I+ iaeiae (ana a noieiinoiie oi?ia)(enoiaey ec ?uiea) Aaeiaue auione = ni?in* oeaia (ieaoaaeiue ni?in)4). I?eioeeiu eeanneoeeaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.A ieaiiaie yeiiiieea eniieueciaaeny eeanneoeeaoi? io?aneae ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa. A ea/anoaa iauaeoa eeanneoeeaoeee ?anniao?eaaeanue io?aneue ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, oi?ie?oaiay eae niaieoiiinoue i?aaei?eyoee, aeeth/aaiuo a eiie?aoioth a?oiie?iaeo.Eeanneoeeaoeeiiiie aaeeieoeae yaeyeinue ninoiyuaa ia naiinoiyoaeueiii aaeaina i?aaei?eyoea, eioi?ia a caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a aeayoaeueiinoe iiaeao auoue ioianaii oieueei e iaeiie io?anee.A nayce n ia?aoiaeii e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea aicieeea iio?aaiinoue a ae?oaie eeanneoeeaoeee. A 1994 aiaeo aue aaaaeai eeanneoeeaoi? aeaeia yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iiae aeaeii yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe iiieiaaony ni/aoaiea aeaenoaee, i?eaiaeyueo e iieo/aieth ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy i?iaeoeoeee. Aeae aeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony eeanneoeeaoeeiiiui i?eciaeii i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ia iicaieyao aeaoue iienaiea i?aaei?eyoeth eae iiiaii?ioeeueiiio noauaeoo yeiiiieee. Io?aneue- yoi niaieoiiinoue anao i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aaeeieoe, inouanoaeythueo iaeei aeae aeayoeueiinoe. Oa oai?ue iaeii i?aaei?eyoea, eiathuaa ?acee/iua aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe, iiiaaeaao a ?acee/iua io?anee.?acaeaeu eeanneoeeaoi?a.n/o + ioioa, eaniaiaenoai,?uaieianoai,ai?ii-aeiauaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue,ia?aaaouaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue,yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea, aac, aiaeiniaaaeaiea,no?ieoaeuenoai,iioiaay e ?icie/iay oi?aiaey,ainoeieoeu e ?anoi?aiu,o?ainii?o e naycue,oeiainiaia iin?aaeie/anoai,aeayoaeueiinoue ii iia?aoeeyi n iaaeaeaeeiinoueth,ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea e iai?iia,ia?aciaaiea,cae?aaiio?aiaiea,aeayoaeueiinoue ii aaaeaieth /anoiuo aeiiaoieo oicyenoa iaaiiui ianeoaeeaaieaiaeayoaeueiinoue ii i?aaeinoaaeaieth eiiia?/aneeo oneoa.Oaia ?8: Noaoenoeea cao?ao e yooaeoeaiinoe ?ano?nia.Iiae ?ano?naie, eae i?aaeei, iiieiatho o?oae e eaieoae. Eaieoae iiae?acaeaeyaony ia iniiaiie e iai?ioiue.Iniiaiuie iieacaoaeyie i?e ioeaiea ?ano?nia yaeythony neaaeothuea: yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey, yooaeo i?iecaiaenoaa.Yooaeo i?iecaiaenoaa — aaniethoiay aaee/eia i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey — niioiioaiea cao?ao e ?acoeueoaoia. I?e yoii ?acee/atho i?yioth e ia?aoioth yooaeoeaiinoue.I?yiay yooaeoeaiinoue= yooaeo i?iecaiaenoaa/ cao?aou ia ?ano?nuIa?aoiay yooaeoeaiinoue= cao?aou ia ?ano?nu/ yooaeo i?iecaiaenoaa(yooaeo e cao?aou aeieaeiu aeaaaoueny a niiinoaaeiuo oeaiao).Aeey ioeaiee ?ano?nia o/eouaathony 2 iniiaiuo oaeoi?a: eciaiaiea eie-aa ?ano?nia e eciaiaiea ea/-aa eo eniieueciaaiey.Noaoenoeea yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey oiiaeia- n?aaeiaaiaeiaua oiiaeu.- oiiaeiaieinoue.IQ=If * IOIf - eiaeaen oiiaeiioaea/e, iieacuaathuee noaiaiue oaaee/aiey iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa ca n/ao oeo/oaiey ea/anoaa ?ano?niaIQ - eiaeaen oiiaeia, iieacuaathuee noaiaiue oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa ca n/ao i?eaea/aiey aieueoaai eiee/anoaa ?ano?nia.Oiiaeiioaea/a a oeaeii ii i?aaei?eyoeth:, (- eiaeaen a?oiiu oiiaeia.- eiaeaen ia?aiaiiiai ninoaaa, eioi?ue ninoaaeyaony a aa?aae?iaaiiii aeaea.Aio niioaaonoaotho 2 eiaeaena iinoiyiiiai ninoaaa:1-e io?aaeaao eciaiaiea iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa a ?acoeueoaoa eciaiaiey oiiaeiioaea/e- ii oaeaea iacuaaaony eiaeaenii aeeyiey oiiaeiioaea/e.2-e- eiaeaen no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia (eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u oiiaeia):.N iiiiuueth yoeo eiaeaenia iiaeii i?iaiaeece?iaaoue aeeyiea eaaeaeiai ec ieo.Eiaeaen iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa.Ia?aiaiiue eiaeaen iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa:Noaiaiue aeeyiey eciaiaiey oiiaeiioaea/e e no?oeoo?u oiiaeia ia iauai i?iecaiaenoaa:(iinoiyiiua eiaeanu).A. Eciaiaiea oiiaeiaieinoe:A. Eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u oiiaeia:Acaeiinaycue iinoiyiiuo e ia?aiaiiiai eiaeaena:Oaia ?9. Iiiyoea iai?ioiuo oiiaeia e eo eeanneoeeaoeey. Iieacaoaee eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeia.1). Iiiyoea iai?ioiuo oiiaeia e eo eeanneoeeaoeey.Iai?ioiua oiiaeu- /anoue iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa eee i?aaeiaou o?oaea, eioi?ua iieiinueoueth iio?aaeythony a i?aaeaeao i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea, oo?a/eaay naith iaoo?aeueii- aauanoaaiioth oi?io e oeaeeeii ia?aiinyo ia i?iaeoeo naith noieiinoue.E iei ioiinyony:1. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu oiaa?ii- iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae (nu?uea, iaoa?eeu, iieooaa?eeaou, oiieeai, yia?aeth, oa?o, caianiua /anoe, eino?oiaiou, oicyenoaaiiue eiaaioa?ue e ae?oaea IAI).2. Iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai e no?ieoaeuenoai (iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai a oeaoao e iieooaa?eeaou nianoaaiiiai ecaioiaeaiey).3. Oiiaeu ia?auaiey (caianu ia neeaaeao i?aaei?eyoee i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaee).Iai?ioiua oiiaeu- iiiaioiue iieacaoaeue. Inoaoee iai?iouio oiiaeia- iieacaoaeue eiee/anoaa iai?ioiuo oiiaeia ia neeaaea- o/eouaaaony ia eiie?aoioth aeaoo, ca ia?eiae n/eoaaony eae n?aaeiee.2). Iieacaoaee eniieueciaaiey iai?ioiuo oiiaeia.I?e ii?aaeaeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iai?ioiuo oiiaeia iieacaoaeue iiaeao n/eoaoueny ia ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy.Noiia iaa?ioaoeony oiiaeia n/eoaaony eae au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae..- neieueei iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa i?eoiaeeony ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee.- iai?ioiua oiiaeu.Q- eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoeee.- i?e?ino iauaia i?iaeoeoeee e oaaee/aiea au?o/ee ca n/ao onei?aiey iai?a/eaaaiinoe.- yeiiiiey n?aaenoa ca n/ao onei?aiey iai?a/eaaaiinoe.3). Iieacaoaee eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeia.Eniieueciaaiea iaoa?eaeia oa?aeoa?ecoaony o?iaiai iaoa?eaeiaieinoe:m- iaoa?eaeiaieinoue,M- cao?aou iaoa?eaeia ca ia?eiae.Iaoa?eaeiaieinoue- eioa?aaeueiue iieacaoaeue. Ii ecia?yaony a iaoo?aeueiuo iieacaoaeyo (?anoiae eiie?aoiuo aeaeia iaoa?eaeia ia i?iecaiaenoai aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee).Iiaeao ?an/eouaaoueny ia?aoiue iieacaoaeue- auoiae i?iaeoeoeee ec aaeeieoeu iaoa?eaeia. Iiaeii a /eneeoaea oeacaoue iaoa?eaeu a iaoo?aeueiuo iieacaoaeyo, a a ciaiaiaoaea- i?iaeoeoeeth a ?oaeyo..p- oeaia, m- iaoa?eaeiaieinoue, q- iauai i?iaeoeoeee.Iaeaieaa /anoi eniieuecothony noieiinoiua iieacaoaee, iai?eia?, iio?aaiinoue a iaoa?eaeao ?ann/eouaaaony eae noiia cao?ao ia ana aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee.Aeeiaieea iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao i?e oeene?iaaiiie no?oeoo?a i?iecaiaenoaa ?ann/eouaaaony eae:- iauee eiaeaen, iieacuaaao eciaiaiea iio?aaiinoe a iaoa?eaeao anayce n eciaiaieai oeai e ii?i ?anoiaeia ioaeaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia.- iieacuaaaony i?e?ino iio?aaiinoae ca n/ao eciaiaiey oeaiu e iaoa?eaeiaieinoe. Yoi aaniethoiue iieacaoaeue.*oiau auyaeoue eciaiaiea iaoa?eaeiaieinoe ?ann/eouaaaony eiaeaen oaeaeueiiai ?anoiaea iaoa?eaeia:Eiaeaen aeeyiey oeai ia eciaiaiea iio?aaiinoae iaoa?eaeia:Oaia ?10. Noaoenoeea o?oaea.1. ?aai/aa a?aiy, ?aai/ay neea, oeaia o?oaea (iieacaoaee cao?ao o?oaea).1.1 Iieacaoaee iaee/ey caiyouo.Iauee iieacaoaeue caiyouo: nieni/iia /enei ?aaioieeia- yoi iiiaioiue iieacaoaeue, ?ann/eouaaaiue ia ii?aaeaeaiioth aeaoo. Eae i?aaeei aaaeaony iinooi/iue o/ao ?aaioieeia, iiyoiio aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue aun/eoaoue n?aaeianieni/iia /enei ?aaioieeia iooai noiie?iaaiey aeaiiuo i nieni/iie /eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia ia eaaeaeue aeaiue ia?eiaea e aeaeaieai ia /enei eaeaiaea?iuo aeiae a ia?eiaea. I?e yoii /eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia a auoiaeiua e i?acaeie/iua aeie ii?aaeaeyaony enoiaey ec /eneaiiinoe a i?aaeuaeouea aeie.1.2 Iieacaoaee no?oeoo?u ?aai/aai a?aiaie.Aieaa oi/ii iieacuaaao cao?aou o?oaea iieacaoaeue, naycuaathuee eiee/anoai ?aai/eo n io?aaioaiiui a?aiaiai. Iauay ianna cao?ao aeeaiai o?oaea ecia?yaony a /aeiaaei- aeiyo eee /aeiaaei- /anao io?aaioaiiiai a?aiaie. Nouanoaoao ianeieueei iieacaoaeae no?oeoo?u ?aai/aai a?aiaie:Eaeaiaea?iue oiiae ?aai/aai a?aiaie = n?aaeianieni/iia /enei ?aaioieeia * eaeaiaea?iia /enei aeiae io/aoiiai ia?eiaea.Oaaaeueiue oiiae = eaeaiaea?iue oiiae — auoiaeiua e i?acaeie/iua aeie.Iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiia ?aai/aa a?aiy = oaaaeueiue oiiae — iauaa /enei ioioneia.ssai/iue oiiae ?aai/aai a?aiaie = iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiue — iayaee (?ac?aoaiiua iayaee: ioione, naea/a yecaiaiia, aieaciue, yaee a noae). Ii i?eia?ii ?aaai 50% io eaeaiaea?iiai oiiaea.Oaeoe/anee io?aaioaiiia a?aiy = yai/iue oiiae — oeaeiaeiaaiua i?inoie.Ii oaeoe/anee io?aaioaiiiio a?aiaie ii?aaeaeythony iauea cao?aou o?oaea.1.3 Noieiinoiay ioeaiea o?oaeaCaoaou o?oaea, au?aaeaiiua a aeaiueaao,- noieiinoiay ioeaiea o?oaeiauo cao?ao- oeaia o?oaea. ?ann/eouaaaony a iniiaiii ia iaeiiai /aeiaaea, ia iaeei /aeiaaei- /an.A oeaio o?oaea ia i?aaei?eyoee aoiaeyo:ia/eneyaiay ca?ieaoa,io/eneaiey a nioeno?ao, iaaeno?ao e o.ae.iaeiae ia o?oae.O.i., e?eoa?eai yaeyaony oi, /oi nthaea (a oeaio o?oaea) ioiineony iaeia ia i?aauoaiea oiiaea iieaou o?oaea.2. Iieacaoaee eniieueciaaiey ?aai/ae neeu e ?aai/aai a?aiaie.I?eioeei: oaeoe/aneea cao?aou ?acaeaeeoue ia iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiia.1. Eiyo niaiiinoe ?aai/eo (iieacaoaeue eniieueciaaiey ?aai/eo iano)=a) /enei ?aaioathueo ia i?aaei?eyoee/ /enei ?aaioathueo a iaeaieaa caiieiaiioth niaio, ?ann/eouaaaony ia ii?aaeaeaiioth aeaoo ii iieacaoaeyi iiiaioa.a) iauaa eiee/anoai io?aaioaiiuo /aeiaaei- aeiae/ /enei /aeiaaei- aeiae, io?aaioaiiuo a iaeaieaa caiieiaiioth niaio.2. Eiyo eniieueciaaiey niaiiiai ?aaeeia = eiyooeoeeaio niaiiinoe/ /enei niai ii ?aaeeio (eiee/anoai niai ia 2 eee 3).3. Eiyo eniieueciaaiey ?aai/aai aeiy = n?aaeiyy oaeoe/aneay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aai/aai aeiy/ n?aaeiaonoaiiaeaiiay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aai/aai aeiy.4. Eiyo eniieueciaaiey iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiiai oiiaea ?aai/aai a?aiaie = oaeoe/anee io?aaioaiiia a?aiy/ iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiue oiiae.5. Eioaa?aeueiue iieacaoaeue eniieueciaaiey ?aai/aai a?aiaie = eiao eniieueciaaiey ?aai/aai aeiy * eiao eniieueciaaiey iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiiai oiiaea.Ana yoe iieacaoaee io?aaeatho eiee/anoai cao?ao o?oaea e noaiaiue eniieueciaaiey.3. Iieacaoaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey o?oaea.I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue aeeaiai o?oaea- yoi niiniaiinoue aeeaiai o?oaea i?iecaiaeeoue a aaeeieoeo a?aiaie ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoeee.Iieacaoaee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea:, aaea L- /eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia, Q- iauai i?iaeoeoeee, T-cao?aou o?oaea., W=1/t.A caaeneiinoe io i?eiyoie aaeeieoeu ecia?aiey o?oaea aoaeoo iieo/aoueny ?aciua iieacaoaee: ia iaeiiai /aeiaaea, ia iaeei /aeiaaei- aeaiue, /an, ia ?oaeue cao?ao o?oaea. A ?O i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea n/eoaaony ii iauaio iauaio auionea, a ca ?oaaaeii- ii /enoie i?iaeoeoeee.Iieacaoaee aeeiaieee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea- eiaeaenu i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.1. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua eiaeaenu (ii eaeiio- eeai i?iaeoeoo).2. Iauea eiaeaenu- a oeaeii ii i?iecaiaenoao.(ii oi?ioea n?aaeiaai eiaeaena)., aaea Id- eiaeaen no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia..Oi?ioeu e caaea/ai:- ia?aiaiiiai ninoaaa.- iinoiyiiiai ninoaaa.Eiaeaen No?oieeeia.. Yoa oi?ioea ioaeia aeey ?an/aoa eiaeaena i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe eae n?aaeiae ec eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo eiaeaenia.Aeey ioeaiee eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia nouanoaoao iieacaoaeue oiiaeiaii?oaeaiiinoe o?oaea:- iieacaoaeue eiee/anoaa oiiaeia ia iaeiiai ?aaioieea- oiiaeiaieinouew = f*tOaia ?11. Noaoenoeea iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa.1. I?eioeeiu iino?iaiey iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae.Iae?iyeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee i?ecaaiu io?aceoue ?acoeueoaou yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae e iaania/eoue aiciiaeiinoue aiaeeca aeeyiey ia?ii?eyoee ye. iieeoeee ia yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu.?an/ao yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae i?aaeiieaaaao ?aoaiea aeaoo i?iaeai:ii?aaeaeaiea yeiiiie/aneiai niunea iieacaoaeyaai ?an/ao ia iniiaa eiathuaeny eioi?iaoeee.O ian aue ?ac?aaioai aaeain i/o, aaea auee iieacaiu ?acoeueoaou ?acaeoey no?aiu. Yoe iieacaoaee iniiauaaeenue ia iaoo?aeueiuo iioieao, ca ?oaaaeii- ia noieiinoiuo .N 1988 noaee ia?aoiaeeoue ia ?an/ao AAI.I?eioeeieaeueiua ioee/ey a iaoiaeieiaee ?an/aoia iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae a ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo.Iaoiaeieiaey ?an/aoa aace?oaony ia neaaeothueo i?aaeiinueeao:?aaiii?aaiinoue iaoa?eaeueiuo e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo noa?Eeanneoeeaoeey io?aneae, inouanoaeythueo i?iecaiaenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue aeeth/aao:i?iiuoeaiiinoueno?ieoaeuenoain/oo?ainii?o e naycuenoa?a ia?auaiey (oi?aiaey)- Yoi noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaai?inaauaiea, cae?aaiio?aiaiea, eoeueoo?a, eneonnoaiAEEOoi?aaeaiea, oeiainu, no?aoiaaieaiaoea- Yoi noa?a iaiaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.I?iecaiaenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue aeeth/aao ?uii/ioth aeayoaeueiinoue (ana /oi i?iaeaaony) e ia?uii/ioth aeayoaeueiinoue (aanieaoiua oneoae ainoaea?noaa e iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee a oicyenoaao aeey nianoaaiiiai iio?aaeaiey).eiioeaioeey oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa?aiueoa n/eoaeinue, /oi i?iaeoeoeey yaeyaony oieueei ?acoeueoaoii o?oaea ?aai/eo, ii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy n/eoaaony, /oi i?iaeoeoeey nicaeaaony o?oaeii, caieae e eaieoaeii. Aeaaeaeueoeu yoeo oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa eiatho i?aai ia iieo/aiea aeioiaeia io yoeo oaeoi?ia, eiatho i?aai ia iieaoo o?oaea, caiaeueioth ?aioo.iauaeoeaiinoue naycae yeiiiieee naiinoiyoaeueiinoue noauaeoia a oneiaeyo ioaeaeaiey ainoaea?noaa io oi?aaeaiey oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth.?acoeueoao i?iecaiaenoaa a aeaiiii aiaeo — yoi ?acoeueoao ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeiiiieee ca aiae. ?acoeueoaoii i?iecaiaenoa ca aiae iacuaaaony oi, /oi auiouaii e ia iiaeeaaeeo aeaeueiaeoae ia?a?aaioea. Yoi oa i?iaeoeou, eioi?ua aioiau e iio?aaeaieth + i?iaeoeou iaeiieaiey + yenii?o. ?acoeueoao ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeiiiieee ca aiae (aaeiaue auione i?iaeoeoeee) yaeyaony i?iaeoeo, eioi?ue ia iiaeeaaeeo aeaeueiaeoae ia?a?aaioea a yeiiiieea no?aiu, oi anoue i?iaeoeoeey, eioi?ay iiaeeaaeeo iio?aaeaieth, iaeiieaieth e yenii?oo.Oaeei ia?acii, ia o?iaia ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa auyaeyaony iiiyoea eiia/iiai iio?aaeaiey.2. Nenoaia iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae.Aaeiaay i?iaeoeoeey- noiia noieiinoae anae i?iecaaaeaiiie ca aiae a yeiiiieea i?iaeoeoeee, aeeth/ay i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia e oneoa, eioi?ua iiaoo eiaoue ?uii/iue e ia?uii/iue oa?aeoa?.AAI- ana, /oi i?iecaaaeaii a iaoae no?aia.AII- iaoeeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea iacaaeneii io oa??eoi?ee.*AI = AAI - Aii?oecaoeey.*II = AII - Aii?oecaoeey.II (IAe) = *II - eina iaeiae ( aiiaue nicaeaiiue i?iaeoeo a yeiiiieea.Aaeiaue auione a io?aneyo, i?iecaiaeyueo oiaa?u, ?aaai aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee yoeo io?aneae. Aaeiaue auione i?iiuoeaiiinoe io?aaeaaony noieiinoueth ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, n/o i?iaeoeoia - niaieoiiinoueth nu?uo aac ia?a?aaioee i?iaeoeoia aeeaioiiaiaenoaa e ?anoaieaaiaenoaa, no?ieoaeuenoaa- iauaiii auiieiaiiuo no?ieoaeueii- iiioaaeiuo ?aaio, o?ainii?oa, nayce e oi?aiaee- iauaiii aaeiauo aeioiaeia io iniiaiiai aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe. Aaeiaue auione ii io?aneyi, ieacuaathuei ?uii/iua oneoae- au?o/eie io ?aaeecaoeee ieaoiuo oneoa, ia?uii/iua (aanieaoiua) oneoae ii?aaeaeyaony ii iauaio oaeoueo cao?ao ia ieacaiea yoeo oneoa + iio?aaeaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea (aii?oecaoeey).Aaeiaue auione ii yeiiiieea - oaeouaa iio?aaeaiea = AAI.I?iiaaeooi/iia iio?aaeaiea ninoieo ec noieiinoe oiaa?ia e oneoa, eioi?ua o?ainoi?ie?othony eee iieiinoueth iio?aaeythony a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa a io/aoiii ia?eiaea- yoi iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou aac aii?oecaoeee. O.i., a oeaeii ii yeiiiieea nouanoaoao o?e iniiaiuo iieacaoaey: AA - II = AAINo?oeoo?a oeai oiaa?ia e oneoa.Oaeoi?iay oeaia = I + A + V + iaeiae ia i?iecaiaenoai + I, aaeaI- iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou, A- aii?oecaoeey, V- iieaoa o?oaea, I- /enoay i?eaueue (aac o/aoa iaeiaia ia i?eaueue).Oeaia i?iecaiaeeoaey (iniiaiay i?iecaiaenoaaiiay oeaia) = oaeoi?iay oeaia + /enoua iaeiae ia i?iaeoeoeeth.Oeaia iio?aaeoaey = oeaia i?iecaiaeeoaey + oiaa?ii- o?ainii?oiua ?anoiaeu.3. Iaoiaeu ?an/aoa AAI.Nouanoaoao 3 iniiaiuo iaoiaea ?an/aoa AAI.1) I?iecaiaenoaaiiue — ?an/ao AAI ia noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaa. Iieo/aaony iooai noiie?iaaiey aaeiaie aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe ii io?aneyi. Aaeiaay aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony iooai au/eoaiey ec aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao. Yoio iaoiae iicaieyao i?iaiaeece?iaaoue no?oeoo?o i?iecaiaenoaa e yooaeoeaiinoue ioaeaeueiuo io?aneae ia noaaeee nicaeaiey aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoa.Aaeiaue auione — iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou = AAeN ii anai io?aneyi.AAeN + einaaiiua iaeiae + iioeeiu = AAI.AAI - Aii?oecaoeey = *AI.AII - Aii?oecaoeey = IAI.A 1995 aiaeo a ?O:i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia- 40.7%,i?iecaiaenoai oneoa- 57.5%,/enoua iaeiae - 7.8%.2) ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiue iaoiae- iaoiae aeioiaea. Noaouee ia?aciaaiey aeioiaeia:iieaoa o?oaea,i?eaueue yeiiiieee,aii?oecaoeey,noaneaeee,iaeiae ia i?iecaiaenoaiae?oaea iaeiae.3) Iaoiae eiia/iiai iio?aaeaiey. Ninoieo a oii, /oi noiie?othony neaaeothuea noaouee:eiia/iia iio?aaeaiea aeaa e oneoa (66%).ianaeaieai (aeiiaoiea oicyenoaa),?uii/iua oneoae (?icie/iue oiaa?iiai?io),ia?uii/iua (aanieaoiua) oneoae,iauanoaaiiua iio?aaiinoe (iaoea, iai?iia, oi?aaeaiea),aaeiaia iaeiieaiea iniiaiuo oiiaeia- ?ann/eouaaaony eae noiia i?e?inoa iniiaiuo e iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa eee eae noiia eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee aeaiiiai aiaea (28%).yenii?oii-eiii?oiia naeueaei (6%).AAI = P * Q,IAAI=IP * IQ,Aeaoeyoi? = AAI iiieiaeueiue / AAI ?aaeueiue,Aeaoeyoi?- yoi ia?an/ao noieiinoiuo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae ec oaeoueo oeai a iinoiyiiua.Aeaoeyoi?- yoi aa?aae?iaaiiue eiaeaen oeai, i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey ono?aiaiey aeeyiey oeai e ii?aaeaeaiey aeeiaieee oece/aneiai iauaia naiaeiuo noieiinoiuo iieacaoaeae: AAI a oeaeii, AAI ii io?aneyi yeiiiieee, AAI ii iai?aaeaieyi eiia/iiai eniieueciaaiey, AAI iauaai aeioiaea no?aiu a oeaeii e ii ioaeaeueiui nioeeaeueiui a?oiiai.AAI = Z * L , aaea: L - eiee/anoai o/anoaothueo a i?iecaiaenoaa ethaeae, Z - n?aaeiee aeioiae ia eaaeiiai o/anoieea.4). Iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e eo eniieueciaaiea aeey iae?iaiaeeca.Yooaeoeaiinoue- yoi ioiioaiea ?acoeueoaoia i?iecaiaenoaa e cao?aoai.1. Eniieueciaaiea o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia:, o.a. i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea ?aaia ioiioaieth AAI e /eneaiiinoe o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia;W=AAI: LIANAE. (W=(M+V+m): L), o.a. AAI ia aeooo ianaeaiey ?aaii ioiioaieth AAI e iauae /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey.2. Eiyooeoeeaio yooaeoeaiinoe eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee (EA):- yoi ioiioaiea eciaiaiey AAI e EA ca aeaiiue aiae.3. Eniieueciaaiea caiee oa?aeoa?ecoaony o?iaeaeiinoueth, o.a. ioiioaieai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa ca?iiauo a iaoo?a e ieiuaaee naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee.Aiaeec iio?aaiinoe a o?oaeiauo ?ano?nao (t- o?oaeiaieinoue):,,(o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu).Oaia ?12. Noaoenoe/aneee iaaeio?aneaaie aaeain i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee.A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoio aaeain yaeyaony iniiaiie noaiie acaeiioaycee noieiinoiuo e iaoo?aeueiuo iieacaoaeae, n/aoia i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey ia iae?io?iaia. No?ieony ia iniiaa ?acaa?iooiai noaoenoe/aneiai iaaethaeaiey: yeiiiie/aneie ia?aiene, auai?i/iiai ianeaaeiaaiey.Noaia iaaeio?aneaaiai aaeaina.Io?anee 1 — 222 ( i?iecaiaeeoaee eae oiaa?ia, oae e oneoa.Eiaooeoeeaiou i = j oeacuaatho ia iaeio e oo aea io?aneue e i?iecaiaeeiue ath i?iaeoeo.(- a noieaoea, a (- a no?iea.((( - iauai iinoaaee i?iaeoeoeee ec (-ie io?anee a (-oth.(( - iauai i?iecaiaenoaa a aeaiiie io?anee.((((- i?iiaaeooi/iia iio?aaeaiea a (-ie io?anee.(((((((() - i?iiaaeooi/iia iio?aaeaiea ii anaio ia?iaeiiio oicyenoao.II- i?iiaaeooi/iia iio?aaeaiea.((((( -iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou (-ie io?anee.(((((((()-iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa.(( = (( ((( + (( - o?aaiaiea aeey no?iee. Iieacuaaao iaoo?aeueii- aauanoaaiioth no?oeoo?o AAI, iiaen/ao AAI ii iaoiaeo eiia/iiai eniieueciaaiey.(( = (( ((( + (( - o?aaiaiea aeey noieaoea. Iieacuaaao noieiinoioth no?oeoo?o AAI, iiaen/ao AAI ii aeioiaeo.I?iiaaeooi/iia iioa?aeaiea ?aaii iaoa?eaeueiui cao?aoai ii anaio ia?iaeiiio oicyenoao.(( (( ((( + (( (( = (( (( ((( + (( ((,(( (( = (( (( ( AAI- eiao i?yiuo cao?ao eee ii?ia cao?ao. Iieacuaaao cao?aou i?iaeoeoeee (-ie io?anee ia i?iecaiaenoai 1 ?oaey i?iaeoeoeee (-ie io?anee. Yoe eiaooeoeeaiou oa?aeoa?ecotho oaoiieiaeth i?iecaiaenoaa.,.(( (( a(( * (( + (( (( = (( ((AX + Y = XX – AX = Y(E – A) X = YX = (E – A)-1 YX = BY, aaea B = (A – A)-1B- eiao iieiuo cao?ao, iieacuaaao iio?aaiinoue a aaeiaii auionea (-ie io?anee aeey i?iecaiaenoaa aaeeieoeu eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee (-ie io?anee.I?aeiouanoaa aaeaina: a iaeiie oaaeeoea i?aaenoaaeaia e iaoo?aeueii- aauanoaaiiay, e noieiinoiay no?oeoo?a AAI.I?aeiouanoaa ?an/aoia n iiiiuueth iaaeio?aneaaiai aaeaina:Iauai aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa anao io?aneae ii?aaeaeyaony n enoiaey ec iauaiia iio?aaeaiey, iaeiieaiey e yenii?oa.Ia iniiaa iaaeio?aneaaiai aaeaina ii?aaeaeyaony iio?aaiinoue a o?oaeiauo ?ano?nao enoiaey ec oeaeaauo onoaiiaie yeiiiieee.L=t1x1+...+tJxJ+...+tnxn=tx=tBY=tYiieiL=tYiieiEioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea iaaeio?aneaaiai aaeaina.Iaaeio?aneaaie aaeain nouanoaoao a iaoae no?aia n 1968 aiaea, ii no?ieeny ii eia/a, /ai i?eiyoi ai anai ie?a. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoio aaeain noae ?aai/ae iiaeaeueth, a ia iao/iie. Caieiaaony ei Aineiinoao ?O, ia?aae eioi?ui noieo caaea/a i?iaaaeaiey auai?i/iiai ianeaaeiaaiey aeey iaiiaeaiey eioi?iaoeee i iioieao i?iaeoeoeee e eiaooeoeeaioao i?yiuo cao?ao. Eioi?iaoeeiiiie aacie yaeyaony aaeeiia?aiaiiia auai?iyiia ianeaaeiaaiea ?acoeueoaoia yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia anao io?aneae yeiiiieee: ?aaoey?iay io/aoiinoue, auai?i/iia ianeaaeiaaiea i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee i?iaiaeeony ia iniiaa ianieioiiai iaaethaeaiey, oa i?iaiaeeony auai?ea. E?iia auai?i/iiai ianeaaeiaaiey eniieuecoaony noaoenoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey (aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa ii io?aneyi) ia io/aoiinoe, ia iauaiao i?iecaiaenoaa, aeaiiua i iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?aoao.Oaia ?13. Noaoenoeea cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e aeeiaieee naaanoieiinoe.1). Iiiyoea ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa e naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee. Eo eeanneoeeaoeey.Eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea i?e i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee ianao cao?aou. Naiia anao cao?ao a aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee, naycaiiuo n i?iecaiaenoaii e ?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoeoeee,- ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa.Eeanneoeeaoeey ecaea?aeae ii yeaiaioai:nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu,iieoiiua aeaoaee, iieooaa?eeaou e eiiieaeoothuea,aniiiiaaoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu,oiieeai e yia?aey ni noi?iiu,c/i (iniiaiay, aeiiieieoaeueiay e o.ae.),aii?oecaoeey IO,i?i/ea aeaiaaeiua ?anoiaeu.Ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ii noaoueyi cao?ao. Nouanoaotho aaea iiaeoiaea:Ii oeaeaaiio eniieueciaaieth:i?yiua, cao?aou iaeiiai aeaea (any ca?ieaoa, ana iaoa?eaeu e o.ae.)einaaiiua, ianeoaeeaaiea iai?oaeiaaiey2. Ia iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua, ia?aua ia caaenyo io iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, a ia?aiaiiua caaenyo.Ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa aunooiatho eae naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ay ia?aaeaeyaony ii noaoueyi eaeueeoeyoeee. Ninoaa cao?ao, aeeth/aaiuo a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee onoaiaaeeaaaony cae?i?aeaoaeueii, o.a ?aaoee?oaony ainoaea?noaii. Aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie IEIE? ia aeeth/aeny a naaanoieiinoue, ii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?ienoiaeeo ia?aniio?.2.Iieacaoaee naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee e aeeiaieea naaanoieiinoe.a) z=C/q — naaanoieiinoue ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee.a) z= ( zq / ( pq — o?iaaiue cao?ao ia ?oaeue i?iaeoeoeeea) noiia zq — naaanoieiinoue anae i?iaeoeoeee.Ia iniiaa yoiai n/eoathony eiaeaenu naaanoieiinoe:.Ia?aiaiiiai ninoaaa:..Oaia ?14. Noaoenoeea i?eauee e ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.1). Iiiyoea i?eauee. Nenoaia aa iieacaoaeae e oaeoi?ia eciaiaiey.I?eaueue - aaniethoiue iieacaoaeue, iaicia/athuee yooaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee.“I?eaueue = I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee aeioiae - Cao?aou, naycaiiua n aa iieo/aieai”. Nouanoaoao ioee/ea a ii?aaeaeaiee i?eauee a eaieoaeenoe/aneie e nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieeao. I?e nioeeaeecia - yoi iaiiea/aiiue o?oae ?aai/eo - ia?a yenieoaoaoeee, neaaeiaaoaeueii, nouanoaiaae aii?in i nouanoaiaaiee i?eauee aiiaua, o.e. nioeeaeenoe/aneay nenoaia i?aaeiieaaaao ionoonoaea yenieoaoaoeee, a i?e eaieoaeecia i?eaueue - yoi yooaeo aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eieiaoaey.I?eaueue ecia?yaony ia aeaoo o?iaiyo:ia o?iaia i?aaei?eyoey - nthaea ioiineony oieueei i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey (cao?aou ia aii?oecaoeeth, ca?ieaoo - /enoua cao?aou - aoiaeyo a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee), o.i., i?eaueue ia i?aaei?eyoee - yoi /anoue aiiauenicaeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa, eioi?ay caaeneo io i?aaei?eieiaoaey;ia o?iaia iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee - yoi AAI, o.a. aeioiaeu io aeaaeaiey oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa: aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey, ca?ieaoa, i?eaueue.?an/ao i?eauee anaaaea ?aaeaiaioe?oaony ainoaea?noaii, o.a.ii?aaeaeyaony, /oi aeieaeii auoue aeeth/aii a cao?aou e aeioiaeu.A nayce n oai, /oi i?eaueue iiaeao auoue en/eneaia ii-?aciiio (yeiiiie/aneay, aaeainiaay e o.ae.), nouanoaoao nenoaia iieacaoaeae i?eauee a caaeneiinoe io o?aeoiaee aeioiaeia e cao?ao (/oi a ieo aeeth/aaony).Nenoaia iieacaoaeae i?eauee:A. Au?o/ea io ?aeecaoeee “-” IAeN, aeoeecu “-” naaanoieiinoue oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee (cao?aou, naycaiiua n i?iecaiaenoaii) = I?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee (1).A. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eaieoae iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny ia oieueei ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee, ii e ia i?iaaaeaiea oeiainiauo iia?aoeee (iieoiea oeaiiuo aoiaa e o.ae.). Neaaeiaaoaeueii,I?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee “+ -” naeueaei oeiainiauo iia?aoeee “+-” naeueaei iia?aoeee n iaoa?eaeueiuie oeaiiinoyie (yoi aia?aaeecaoeeiiiia iia?aoeee) = Aaeainiaay i?eaueue. (2) (ia any aa aaee/eia iiaeeaaeeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth).A. O.I., Aaeainiaay i?eaueue aeieaeia ei??aeoe?iaaoueny aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey:Aaeainiaay i?eaueue + – ei??aeoe?iaea aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey (iaeioi?ua iaeiae ioiaiythony eee ieaoyony, iai?eia?, a ?O nouanoaiaae iaeia ia i?aauoaiea oiiaea ca?ieaou, au/eoaaony ec aaeainiaie i?eauee iaeia ia eiouanoai) = Iaeiaiiaeaaaaiay i?eaueue. (3)A. Iaeiaiiaeaaaaiay i?eaueue – iaeiae = *enoay i?eaueue. (4) (iiaeii eiaoue i?eaueue aiiaua, ii ia eiaoue /enoie i?eauee)Eoae, I?eaueue=( pq - (zq = ((p-z)*q, aaea (pq - au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee anao i?iaeoeoia, (zq - naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee, ((p-z)*q - i?eaueue io i?iecaiaenoaa aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee.Oaeoi?u eciaiaiey i?eauee:Oece/aneee iauai ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.Oeaia ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.Naaanoieiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.No?oeoo?a ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee (i?e aa eciaiaiee aac eciaiaiey iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, iai?eia?, oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa aieaa i?eaueueiuo i?iaeoeoia).Aiaeec aeeyiey yoeo oaeoi?ia ia eciaiaiea i?eauee i?ienoiaeeo ii neaaeothuei oi?ioeai:(1) Aeeyiea eciaiaiey iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa. (i?eaueue ia ioaeaeueiua aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee iaoiaeeony eae noiia).(I?q=((q*(p0 - z0) - iaiyai iauai i?iecaiaenoaa inoathony ia aaceniii o?iaia.(I?q= I?0*( Iq -1), aaea Iq - eiaeaen oece/aneiai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, (Iq -1) - eiaeaen i?e?inoa oece/aneiai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, a I?0 - iauee iauai i?eauee ia aaceniii ia?eiaea.(2) Ca n/ao eciaiaiey naaanoieiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee.(I?z = (p0q1 - (z1q1 - (p0q1 + (z0q1 = (z0q1 - (z1q0= ((zq1 = ((z0 - z1)q1, ec z0 au/eoaaony z1 , o.e. i?e?ino i?eauee i?ienoiaeeo i?e nieaeaiee naaanoieiinoe, (iaiyai naaanoieiinoue, oeaia oeene?oaony ia aaceniii o?iaia, a iauai i?iecaiaenoaa ia io/aoiii ia?eiaea, o.e. aai oaea o/ee).(3) Ca n/ao eciaiaiey oeaiu:(I?p = (p1q1 - (p0q1 = ((pq1(4) Ca n/ao eciaiaiey no?oeoo?u:(I?d =(I?- (I?q - (I??- (I?zI?eioeei:Nia/aea ii?aaeaeyaony eiee/anoaaiiue oaeoi?, ana inoaeueiua inoathony ia aaceniii o?iaia. Iioii ii?aaeaeyaony aeeyiea ea/anoaaiiuo oaeoi?ia, oa, eioi?ua oaea o/ee inoathony ia io/aoiii o?iaia, inoaeueiua- ia aaceniii. Oeaia o/eouaaaony a iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue.2). Iiiyoea ?aioaaaeueiinoe. Nenoaia aa iieacaoaeae e oaeoi?ia eciaiaiey.?aioaaaeueiinoue - ioiineoaeueiue iieacaoaeue yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ue iicaieyao niecia?eoue i?eaueue e cao?aou ia aa iieo/aiea,o.a., en/eneeoue i?eaueue ia aaeeieoeo cao?ao. Yoi iaiaoiaeeii aeey iieo/aiey i?aaenoaaeaiey ia yooaeoeaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.Ii o.e. nouanoaotho ?acee/iua iiieiaiey cao?ao i?iecaiaenoaa e i?eauee, oi auaeaeytho 3 iniiaiuo iieacaoaey ?aioaaaeueiinoe:1. ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee:r1=i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee\naaanoieiinoue (oaeouea cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee)Yoi iaeaieaa i?eiaieiue iieacaoaeue.2. ?aioaaaeueiinoue ii aaeainiaie i?eauee - iauay ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa:r2=aaeainiaay i?eaueue\i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu (?aiaa nthaea aeeth/aeanue noiia iniiaiuo e iai?ioiuo oiiaeia, a oaia?ue yoi ia?aue ?acaeae ianneaa aaeaina, o.a., eaieoae i?aaei?eyoey, au?aaeaiiue a aeaiueaao.3.?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeaae(neieueei i?eauee i?eoiaeeony ia ?oaeue i?iaeaae):r3=/enoay i?eaueue\au?o/eo io ?aaeecaoeee.Eco/aiea oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia aaee/eio i?eauee ?anoe?yaony n o/aoii 1-3 iieacaoaeae.Oaeaea nouanoaoao aua iaeia oi?ioea aeey en/eneaiey iauae ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa.Anee aeaii ri-?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa eaaeaeiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee, oi iauay ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa au?aaeaaony oi?ioeie:R=(riti, aaea ti-oaeaeueiue aan cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai i-ai i?iaeoeoa a iauae noiia cao?ao.Aeaiiue iieacaoaeue ia caaeneo io iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, a caaeneo oieueei io no?oeoo?u i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee.Iieacaoaeue ?aioaaaeueiinoe iiaeii i?iaiaeece?iaaoue ia iniiaa iieacaoaeae oaeoueo cao?ao, eniieueciaaiey eai.cao?ao, yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee.Aiaeec ii ioaeaeueiui iieacaoaeyi ?aioaaaeueiinoe.A. Aiaeec iauae ?aioaaaeueiinoe ia iniiaa aeeyiey 3 oaeoi?ia: eciaiaiey aaeainiaie i?eauee, iniiaiuo oiiaeia, iai?ioiuo oiiaeia.r2=(AI) aaeainiaay i?eaueue\(Oin+Oia).a.1.Eciaiaiea ?aioaaaeueiinoe ca n/ao iniiaiuo oiiaeia:a.2. Eciaiaiea ?aioaaaeueiinoe ca n/ao iai?ioiuo oiiaeia:(ro ia= AI0 \ (Oin1+Oia1) - AI0 \ (Oin1+Oia0)a.3.Eciaiaiea ?aioaaaeueiinoe ca n/ao aaeainiaie i?eauee:(rAI=AI1 \ IO1 - AI0 \ IO1, aaea IOi=Oin+OiaA. Aiaeec ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iaeoeoeee ia iniiaa aeeyiey o?ao oaeoi?ia:oeaia, naaanoieiinoue aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee, no?oeoo?a i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee.r1 =((pq - (zq)\(zqa.1. Eciaiaiea ca n/ao iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa:(rq =((p0q1 - (z0q1)\(z0q1 - ((p0q0 - (z0q0)\(z0q0a.2. Eciaiaiea ?aioaaaeueiinoe ca n/ao naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee:(rz =((p0q1 - (z1q1)\(z1q1 -((p0q1 - (z0q1)\(z0q1a.3.Eciaiaiea ?aioaaaeueiinoe ca n/ao oeai.(rp = ((p1q1 - (z1q1)\(z1q1 - ((p0q1 - (z1q1)\(z1q1Oaia ?15. Coaoenoeea iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai e eioeyoeee.1). Coaoenoeea iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai e eioeyoeee.Aaaeiuie yaeythony iaoo?aeueiua iieacaoaee, oaeea, eae:- iaania/aiiinoue aeeeueai- o?iaaiue aeecie- i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie (ioae. - 57 eao)- iio?aaeaiea i?iaeoeoeee ia aeooo ianaeaiey.Ii oieueei noieiinoiua nioeeaeueiua iieacaoaee yaeythony iaiauathueie, a iniiaiii yoi iieacaoaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea iio?aaeaiea.Iaoo?aeueiia iio?aaeaiea au?aaeaaony a iio?aaeaiee eiie?aoiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee.Noiia?iue iieacaoaeue- noieiinoue aeecie - yoi noieiinoue iio?aaeyaiuo aeaa e oneoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey iaania/aiey aeecie /aeiaaea. ?ann/eouaaaony eae Apq ( aaea ? - oeaia , q- iauaiu iio?aaeaiey). *ai aieueoa iauaiu iio?aaeaiey i?iaeoeoia, oai eo/oa aeeciue, ii /ai auoa oeaiu, oai aeeciue ooaea. Ii /oiau naeaeaoue eaeea-oi auaiaeu, ioaeii n?aaieoue Epq c ae?oaeie iieacaoaeyie a aeeiaieea. Aeey yoiai nouanoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua ii?iu iio?aaeaiey ia aeooo ianaeaiey, eioi?ua cae?aieythony, /oiau iiaeii auei ?ann/eoaoue yoio iieacaoaeue.Iaai? iao/ii-iainiiaaiiuo aeaa e oneoa, iaania/eaathueo ii?iaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea ia aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee, iieo/ee iacaaiea iio?aaeoaeueneay ei?ceia - aaeeiay aeey anao ?aaeiiia ?innee ?ai?acaioaoeaiay auai?ea oiaa?ia e oneoa, iaeaieaa /anoi iio?aaeyaiuo ianaeaieai.Iu i?eaioe?oainy ia oaeoe/aneia iio?aaeaiea, e eiay yoo oeene?iaaiioth iio?aaeoaeueneoth ei?ceio, iu iiaeai n?aaieaaoue eciaiaiey noieiinoe iaoae aeecie. ?ann/eouaaaony, eae- eiaeaen iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeaiIi ?ann/eouaaaony ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aeoeea, o.a. q oeene?oaony a aaceniii ia?eiaea.A oeaeii ii ?innee, ii ?aaeiiai iio?aaeoaeueneay ei?ceia aeeth/aao 3 a?oiiu oiaa?ia1) i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua oiaa?u - 103 iaeiaiiaaiey2) iai?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua - 2223) oneoae - 84.Oeaiu oeene?otho ia iniiaa eioi?iaoeee ia eciaiaiee oeai, iieo/aaiie ec aeaoo enoi/ieeia:1) aeaiiua i ?aaeno?aoeee oeai e oa?eoia ia iio?aaeoaeueneii ?uiea, oi anoue ?aaioieee Aineiinoaoa eaaeaeue iiiaaeaeueiee ?aaeno?e?otho oaeoe/aneea oeaiu oiaa?ia, eiathueony a i?iaeaaea.2) aeaiiua i no?oeoo?a oaeoe/aneeo iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia ianaeaiey - ia iniiaa ?acoeueoaoia ianeaaeiaaiey aeiiaoieo oicyenoa.Eiaeaen iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai n/eoaaony n 91 aiaea e ioaeeeoaony aaeaiany/ii a noaoenoe/aneeo nai?ieeao e aaeaeaa?oaeueii a noaoenoe/aneie aacaoa.Aeaoeyoi? AAI.E?iia iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai a yoio iieacaoaeue aoiaeeee aii?oecaoeey e iaeiieaiea. Ia yoe a?oiiu ii-?aciiio ?ann/eouaaeny aeaoeyoi?. Naiaeiue neeaaeuaaeny ec eiaeaenia ia?aioeaiee iniiaiuo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae:- ia?aioeaiee iauaiia iio?aaeaiey- ia?aioeaiee oiiaeia- ia?aioeaiee EA.?anniio?ei eiaeaen ia?aioeaiee iio?aaeaiey. Eiaeaen iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai eniieuecoaony eae : iieacaoaeue o?iaiy eioeyoeee; aeaoeyoi?, eae eiio?ieue ca o?iaiai oeai a ?aciuo ?aaeiiao.Aeey ioeaiee eioeyoeee eniieuecoaony neaaeothuee iieacaoaeue: o?iaaiue eioeyoeee eae oaii i?e?inoa eiaeaena oeai.Aeaeu eioeyoeee: oia?aiiay - iaiaa 10%, aaeiie?othuay - aei 200%, aeia?eioeyoeey - nauoa 200%Eiaeaen iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe aeaiaa: yoi eiee/anoai oiaa?ia, eioi?ia iiaeii eoieoue ia iaeio aeaiaaeioth aaeeieoeo.Eiaeaen ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiue: /ai aieueoa oeaiu, oai iaiueoa oiaa?a iiaeii eoieoue ia iaeio aeaiaaeioth aaeeieoeo.- eiaeaen iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe aeaiaa2). Noaoenoeea aeioiaeia ianaeaiey.No?oeoo?a aeioiaeia ianaeaiey.1. oaeoi?iua aeioiaeu:1.1. iieaoa o?oaea1.2. aeioiaeu io i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe1.3. aeioiaeu io nianoaaiiinoe ( ?aioa, %)( auoaia?a/eneaiiua aoiaeeee a AAI)2. o?ainoa?oiua auieaou - ana nioeeaeueiua iainee, iiniaey, iieo/aaiua ia ca o?oae.1+2 = aaeiaua aeioiaeuN yoeo aeaeia aeioiaea (aaeiaue aeioiae) iu ieaoeee iaeiae e ae? ieaoaaee e oaeei ia?acii iu iieo/aai : aeioiaeu - iaycaoaeueiua ieaoaaee = ?aniieaaaaiue aeioiae ianaeaiey.O?iaaiue aeocie eae iieacaoaeue ?ann/eouaaaony eae aeaiaaeiua aeioiaeu a ?an/aoa ia 1 /aeiaaea eee naiueth (ii ioee/aaony io AAI ia aeooo ianaeaiey).Eioa?anai aeey n?aaiaiey aeioiae a ?acee/iuo no?aiao, a oaeaea n?aaiaiey aeioiaea ii no?oeoo?a: ii ?aaeiiai, ii io?aneaaui aeioiaeai ianaeaiey, ii oa??eoi?ee.Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey yoeo iiiyoee nouanoaoao iieacaoaeue i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia eee ieieiaeueiue iio?aaeoaeueneee athaeaeao - iaai? iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia e oneoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey iniiaiuo nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo e oeceieiae/aneeo iio?aaiinoae ianaeaiey, a oaeaea ?anoiaeu ii aai i?eia?aoaieth. Yoio iieacaoaeue ?ann/eouaaaony oaeaea aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ieieiaeueiie ca?ieaou.Oeceieiae/aneee i?iaeeoi/iue ieieioi- ieieiaeueiue i?aaeae, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey oeceieiae/aneiai ninoiyiey a oa/aiea iaeioi?iai a?aiaie (yoi aeieaeii iaania/eaaoue ainoaea?noai).O?iaaiue aaaeiinoe. *a?oa aaaeiinoe- oi anoue aaaeiinoue - ninoiyiea , eiaaea aeioiaea ia oaaoaao aeey iaania/aiey oeceieiae/aneiai ieieioiaO?iaaiue aaaeiinoe n/eoaaony ii aeiea ianaeaiey, aeioiaeu eioi?ie ieaea i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia: Ae < pq - aaaeiinoue.PAGEPAGE 22

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