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Noaoenoeea

Aiia Aeaenaaaia Iiiiaa

Oaia ?1: Aaiae a eo?n

1). I?aaeiao e iaoiae nioeeaeueii- yeiiiie/aneie noaoenoeee.

I?aaeiaoii nioeeaeueii- yeiiiie/aneie noaoenoeee yaeyaony eiee/anoaaiiay
noi?iia ianniauo yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo yaeaiee, iaoiaeu ecia?aiey
e aiaeeca iauaeoeaii nouanoaothueo ?acia?ia, o?iaiae e caeiiiia?iinoae
eo ecia?aiey. Iia ecia?yao eiee/anoaaiioth noi?iio yaeaiee ia?ac?uaii n
ea/anoaaiiie.

Ana ianniaua yaeaiey eiatho eiee/anoaaiioth e ea/anoaaiioth
oa?aeoa?enoeeo. Iaa yoe oa?aeoa?enoeee acaeiinaycaiu.

I?ioeann aini?iecaiaenoaa iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa eco/aaony
yeiiiie/aneie noaoenoeeie. I?ioeann aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey-
aeaiia?aoe/aneie noaoenoeeie. I?ioeann aini?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiiai e
eoeueoo?iiai aeaaininoiyiey- nioeeaeueiie noaoenoeeie.

2. Iniaaiiinoe noaoenoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia.

Iaoiae nioeeaeueii- yeiiiie/aneie noaoenoeee- iaoiae noaoenoe/aneiai
enneaaeiaaiey. Ninoieo ec yoaiia iaaethaeaiey, nai?a, eeanneoeeaoeee e
noaoenoe/aneiai aiaeeca.

1) Yoai iieo/aiey (nai?a) noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo.

Oi?iu iaaethaeaiey:

io/aoiinoue (eaaeaeay oicyenoaaiiay aaeeieoea ia?eiaee/anee
i?aaeinoaaeyao io/ao)

niaoeeoe/aneea (niaoeeaeueiua iaaethaeaiey)

?aiueoa a ioa/anoaaiiie noaoenoeea i?aaei?eyoey auee iaycaiu
i?aaeinoaaeyoue eioi?iaoeeth iai anai. Nae/an yoa i?aeoeea i?ae?auaia.
*anoiua i?aaei?eyoey eiatho i?aai ia i?aaeinoaaeyoue iieioth
eioi?iaoeeth. A ?uii/iie yeiiiieea- yoi auai?i/iia iaaethaeaiea.

Oeaeue noaoenoeee: nai? iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo aeaiiuo e i?aaeinoaaeaiea eo
anai ioaeaeathueiny (i?aaei?eyoeyi e oi).

2) Yoai naiaeee aeaiiuo, eo iaiauaiey e ia?aaioee.

Iiaua oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe iaoneaaeeaatho iiaua aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe, /oi
aucuaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eiaiaiey iiauo eeanneoeeaoi?ia. Anee ?aiueoa
noaoenoeea auea iniiaaia ia ia?ainoaiaiiie ?iee iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, ana i?iecaiaenoai aeaeeeinue ia iaoa?eaeueiia e
iaiaoa?eaeueiia, oi nae/an ethaay aeayoaeueiinoue ?anniao?eaaaony eae
i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoa. Oaia?ue nouanoaotho eeanneoeeaoi?u aeaeia
aeayoaeueiinoe.

3) Aiaeec.

Iiaua nenoaiu iieacaoaeae, iiaay iaoiaeieiaey eo ?an/aoia.

3). Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?ai?aaiecaoeee noaoenoeee.

I?ia?aiia ia?aoiaea ?innee ia i?eiyooth a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aeoeea
nenoaio o/aoa e noaoenoeee ?ann/eoaia ia 1995- 1997 aiaeu. A yoii
aeieoiaioa i?ineaaeeaathony aeaa iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiey:

caiaia iieacaoaeae ieaiiaie yeiiiieee iieacaoaeyie ?acaeoie ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee;

iiaua oi?iu nai?a eioi?iaoeee.

Ae?oaei aeieoiaioii yaeyaony eiioeaioeey ?aoi?iu iaoeeiiaeueiie
noaoenoeee aei 2000 aiaea. I?aaeoniao?eaaao:

nenoaiaoecaoeey iaaethaeaiey,

iaoiaeieiaey iaaethaeaiey ?aciuo oeiia i?aaei?eyoee,

eciaiaiea oi?i nai?a eioi?iaoeee,

oi?ie?iaaiea iioeiaeueiie nenoaiu iieacaoaeae.

Oaia ?2: Noaoenoeea ianaeaiey. Aeaiia?aoe/aneay noaoenoeea.

1). Caaea/e aeaiia?aoe/aneie noaoenoeee.

Aeaiia?aoey- iaoea i ia?iaeiianaeaiee.

Aeaiia?aoe/aneay noaoenoeea- /anoue aeaiia?aoee, iaoea, caieiathuayny
nai?ii, ia?aaioeie e aiaeecii eioi?iaoeee i aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey.

Enoi/ieee noaoenoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee – ia?aiene ianaeaiey ii aic?anoo e
i?i/ei i?eciaeai. Aua nouanoaotho auai?i/iua ianeaaeiaaiey.

2). Iieacaoaee /eneaiiinoe e ninoaaa ianaeaiey.

Iinoiyiiia ianaeaiea- ianaeaiea, iinoiyiii i?iaeeaathuaa ia aeaiiie
oa??eoi?ee.

Iaee/iia ianaeaiea- ianaeaiea, iaoiaeyuaany ia aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee a
iiiaio ia?aiene.

A?aiaiii ionoonoaothuaa e a?aiaiii i?iaeeaathuaa- niioaaonoaaiii.

Iinoiyiiia ianaeaiea = Iaee/iia + A?aiaiii ionoonoaothuaa – A?aiaiii
i?iaeeaathuaa.

Ia iniiaa yoeo aeaiiuo ii?aaeaeyaony /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey. Ii aeaiiui
i /eneaiiinoe ca ?yae eao iiaeii ?ann/eoaoue aaniethoiue i?e?ino, oaiiu
?inoa e n?aaeithth /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey.

*eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey: L..

– aeaiiua ia ia/aei e eiiaoe aiaea

i?e ?aaiuo eioa?aaeao (ia iniiaa eaa?oaeueiuo aeaiiuo) – yoa oi?ioea
n?aaeiae o?iiieiae/aneie.

aeey ia?aaiuo eioa?aaeia – yoi oi?ioea n?aaeiae acaaoaiiie.

Nouanoaotho oaeaea ae?oaea iieacaoaee:

ieioiinoe ianaeaiey;

naiaeiiai iieiaeaiey e o.i.

3). Iieacaoaee iaoaie/aneiai aeaeaeaiey. Iea?aoeey.

Iea?aoeey- yoi iaoaie/aneia ia?aiauaiea ianaeaiey ii oa??eoi?ee no?aiu
eee iaaeaeo no?aiaie. Iayoieeiaay iea?aoeey- nenoaiaoe/aneia
ia?aaeaeaeaiea ec ai?iaea a ai?iae (o/aaa e oi).

I- /enei i?eauaoeo ia aeaiioth oa??eoi?eth,

A- /enei auauaoeo n aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee.

(iao = I – A

Ii yoei iieacaoaeyi iiaeii ?an/eoaoue eiaoeoeeaiou i?eauoey e oauoey:

,

– n?aaeiaaiaeiaay /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey.

4. Anoanoaaiiia aeaeaeaiea ianaeaiey.

Yoi eciaiaiea /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey a nayce n i?ioeannaie ?iaeaeaiey e
nia?oe.

N- eiee/anoai ?iaeeaoeony,

M- eiee/anoai oia?oeo.

(a = N – M

.

Iauee i?e?ino ianaeaiey- yoi noiia (a e (iao:

( = (a + (iao,

.

E?iia iaueo iieacaoaeae aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee anoanoaaiiiai aeaeaeaiey
ianaeaiey nouanoaotho /anoiua eiyooeoeeaiou, io?aaeathuea aioo?aiiea
i?ioeannu, ?iaeaeaiea, nia?oue.

Iiaic?anoiua eiaooeoeeaiou ?iaeaeaaiinoe e nia?oiinoe:

– /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey a aeaiiii aic?anoa.

Eiao aeaoneie nia?oiinoe (aei 1 aiaea):

– n?aaeiaa /enei aeaoae aei iaeiiai aiaea.

, aaea N0- a i?ioeii aiaeo, a N1- a aeaiiii.

Yoio eiao io?aaeaao caei?iauea iaoeee, ninoiyiea iaaeeoeeiu.

Eiao Iie?ianeiai:

, aaea t- ia?eiae.

5. En/eneaiea ia?niaeoeaiie /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey.

Naiui i?inoui yaeyaony niinia n i?eiaiaieai E( e E(IAO:

, aaea E( = const.

?an/ao /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey ia iniiaa i?iaiice?oaiiai aeeiaie/aneiai
?yaea /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey: anee nouanoaoao /aoeay oaiaeaioeey, oi aa
iiaeii i?iaeeeoue ia ia?niaeoeao.

?an/ao /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey ia iniiaa oaaeeoeu nia?oiinoe.

Oaaeeoea nia?oiinoe- yoi nenoaia acaeiinaycaiiuo iieacaoaeae, iniiaaiiay
ia aa?iyoiinoue aeiaeeoey aei neaaeothuaai aiaea eaaeaeie aic?anoiie
a?oiiu. Iieacaoaee aeiaeeoey o?aaotho aieueoiai iauaia noaoenoe/aneie
eioi?iaoeee.

Aeey eaaeaeiai iieieaiey ?an/eouaaaony naie eiaooeoeeaio.

?an/aou /eneaiiinoe a yoii neo/aa aaaeoony ioaeaeueii aeey eaaeaeiai
iieieaiey. Iauay /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey a aeaiiii aiaeo ?aaia noiia
/eneaiiinoe anao iieieaiee, aeeaoueo a yoii aiaeo.

Oaia ?3. Noaoenoeea o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia. Noaoenoeea ?uiea o?oaea.

1. Iieacaoaee noaoenoeee o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia.

*eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey no?aiu.

Ianaeaiea a iao?oaeiniiniaiii aic?anoa (aeaoe e iaineiia?u).

Ianaeaiea o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa.

Eiaaeeaeu.

Oaeoe/anee ia?aaioathuaa ianaeaiea.

Oaeoe/anee ?aaioathuaa ianaeaiea iao?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa.

Naeueaei iea?aoeee.

O?oaeiaua ?ano?nu no?aiu.

Caiyoua a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa.*

Aac?aaioiua.

Ia?aaioathuaa ianaeaiea a o?oaeiniiniaiii aic?anoa (iai?eia?, o/aueany n
io?uaii io i?iecaiaenoaa, aeiiioicyeee) – yeiiiie/anee iaaeoeaiay
eaoaai?ey.

Yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiia ianaeaiea.

Iaaiiua ?aaioieee.

Eeoea, naiinoiyoaeueii iaania/eaathuea naay ?aaioie.

A?aaeaeaineia ianaeaiea.

Aiaiiineoaeauea.

?aaioieee ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie iniiaa (iai?eia?, /aeiiee).

?aaioiaeaoaee.

Iaiiea/eaaaiay ?aai/ay neea ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo.

*eaiu eieeaeoeaiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

*- ia/eiay n ?9- iiaua iiiyoey.

Iieacaoaee no?oeoo?u o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia:

Iieacaoaeue yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe ianaeaiey- aeiey yeiiiie/anee
aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey a iauae /eneaiiinoe.

O?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu- aeiey aac?aaioiuo a iauae /eneaiiinoe
yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey.

O?iaaiue yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey- aeiey
yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa e iauae
/enaeiiinoe o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia.

Eiaooeoeeaio o?oaeiniiniaiinoe ianaeaiey- ioiioaiea ianaeaiey
o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa e iauae /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey.

Eiaooeoeeaio caiyoinoe anaai ianaeaiey- ioiioaiea caiyouo e iauae
/eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey.

Eiaooeoeeaio iioaioeeaeueiiai caiauaiey- ioiioaiea /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey
a aei?aai/ai aic?anoa (0-15 eao) e /eneaiiinoe o?oaeiniiniaiiai
ianaeaiey.

Eiaooeoeeaio iaineiiiie iaa?ocee- ioiioaiea /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey
iaineiiiiai aic?anoa e /eneaiiinoe o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey.

2. Aaeain o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia.

Oaaeeoea, n iaeiie noi?iiu eioi?ie iieacaiu enoi/ieee oi?ie?iaaiey
o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, a n ae?oaie- iai?aaeaiey eo ?ani?aaeaeaiey. Yoio
aaeain no?ieony ia iniiaa noaoenoeee o?oaea e caiyoinoe.

I. Enoi/ieee.

Anaai o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, a o/:

O?oaeiniiniaiia ianaeaiea o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa.

?aaioieee noa?oa e iieiaea o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa, caiyoua a
yeiiiieea eee i?eciaiiua aac?aaioiuie, a o/:

Eeoea noa?oeo aic?anoia.

Iiae?inoee.

Aaaeaioeu e auioaeaeaiiua ia?anaeaioeu.

Naeueaei iayoieeiaie iea?aoeee.

II. ?ani?aaeaeaiea o?oaeiniiniaiuo ?ano?nia ii aeaeai caiyoinoe:

Yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiia ianaeaiea.

Ianaeaiea, caiyoia a yeiiiieea.

?aaioathuea ii iaeio, ec ieo:

?aaioathuea a ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a.

?aaioathuea a /anoiii naeoi?a.

?aaioathuea a iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo e oiiaeao.

?aaioathuea ia NI.

?aaioathuea ia i?aaei?eyoeyo ni niaoaiiie oi?iie nianoaaiiinoe e ae?.

?aaioathuea ia ii iaeio:

?aaioiaeaoaee.

Eeoea, ?aaioathuea ca naie n/ao.

*eaiu i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eiiia?aoeaia, aeeth/ay eieoicieeia.

Iiiiaathuea /eaiu naiuee.

Neoaeeoaee ?aeeaeiciiai eoeueoa.

Aiaiiineoaeauea.

Aac?aaioiua.

Yeiiiie/anee iaaeoeaiia ianaeaiea a o?oaeiniiniaiii aic?anoa, a o/:

Iao/athueany n io?uaii io i?iecaiaenoaa.

O/aueany, i?eciaiiua aac?aaioiuie.

Ana inoaeueiua, eoi ia ?aaioaao, iacaaeneii io enoi/ieea aeioiaeia.

Oaia ?4. Noaoenoeea iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa.

Iaoeeiiaeueiia aiaaonoai- yoi niaieoiiinoue iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeooiaiuo
aeaa (?ano?nia), iaeiieaiiuo a no?aia a ?acoeueoaoa i?ioeiai o?oaea, a
oaeaea o/oaiiuo e aiaea/aiiuo a yeiiiie/aneee iai?io i?e?iaeiuo
?ano?nia, eioi?uie iauanoai ?aniieaaaao a ii?aaeaeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie.

Iaoeeiiaeueiia aiaaonoai ninoieo ec o?ao i?eioeeieaeueii ?acee/iuo
/anoae:

I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu, o/oaiiua e aiaea/aiiua a iai?io. Yoi
iaaini?iecaiaeeiua aeaaa.

Caiey.

Iieaciua eneiiaaiua – ieia?aeueiua ?ano?nu.

Aiaea – yia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu.

Ean e aeeaioiue ie?.

Iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu, iieo/aiiua a ?acoeueoaoa iaeiieaiiiai o?oaea.
Aini?iecaiaeeiua ?ano?nu.

Eioaeeaeooaeueiue iioaioeeae iauanoaa eee iaeiieaiiue iao/ii-
oaoie/aneee iioaioeeae.

Iaoeeiiaeueiia eiouanoai (aeaiaaeiay e iaoo?aeueiay oi?iu o/aoa).

Iniiaiua oiiaeu.

Iai?ioiua oiiaeu.

Ee/iia eiouanoai.

No?aoaae/aneea ?ano?nu.

Eioaeaeooaeueiue iioaioeeae.

Caaea/e noaoenoeee iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa: oa?aeoa?enoeea iauaia,
no?oeoo?u, aeeiaieee e yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey anaai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa e aai ninoaaiuo /anoae; ii?aaeaeaiea iauaia
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa ia iniiaa iaoiaea i?yiiai n/aoa.

Oaia ?4.1. Noaoenoeea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia.

Aaaeiui yeaiaioii iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa (IA) e oneiaeai ?acaeoey
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa neoaeao i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu. Cao?aou o?oaea
ia eo iiaeaea?aeaiea, i?aia?aciaaiea e i?eoiiiaeaiea i?aa?auatho
i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu a yeaiaio nicaeaiiiai o?oaeii IA.

I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu (I?) – yoi anoanoaaiiua i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu no?aiu,
iaeii ec oneiaee iaania/aiey iaoa?eaeueiie aeecie iauanoaa, iiauoaiey
aeaaininoiyiey ia?iaea. A ninoaa I? aeeth/atho caiaeueiua oiiaeu, eaniua
oiiaeu, caianu iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, aiaeiua ?ano?nu,
aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu, ?uaiua aiaaonoaa e o.ae.

I? iiae?acaeaeythony ia aiaea/aiiua e ia aiaea/aiiua a i?ioeann
iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa. Aiaea/aiiua a yeiiiie/aneee iai?io I?
aeeth/athony a ninoaa IA e noaiiayony aaaeiui yeaiaioii
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee no?aiu. I?e?iaea a oie aea ia?a enoi/iee
iio?aaeoaeueiuo noieiinoae, a ec ieo e ninoieo IA, eae e o?oae.
Aiaea/aiiua a i?ioeann iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa eee yeiiiie/aneee
iai?io i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu aunooiatho, n iaeiie noi?iiu, a ea/anoaa
ooieoeeiie?othueo n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, a n ae?oaie – eniieuecothony
ia iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioaeaeu. Ia aiaea/aiiua a i?eoeann iauanoaaiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa I? ioiinyony e iioaioeeaeueiiio aiaaonoao.

I? o/eouaathony a iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee, a iaeioi?ua aeaeu I? e a
aeaiaaeiie ioeaiea.

Noaoenoeea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia ?ac?aaaouaaao naith niaoeeoe/aneoth
nenoaio iieacaoaeae. Yoa nenoaia iicaieyao io?aceoue iaee/ea, ninoaa I?,
aeeiaieeo e eo eniieueciaaiea. Iniiaiuie ninoaaiuie /anoyie noaoenoeee
I? yaeythony noaoenoeea caiaeueiuo oiiaeia, eaniuo ?ano?nia, iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo, aiaeiuo ?ano?nia, aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia e o.ae.

Caaea/e noaoenoeee I?:

Eiio?ieue ca oiaeii auiieiaiey ieaia eco/aiey I?, eo nio?aiaiey e
ainiieiaiey.

Ii?aaeaeyao iauai caiania I? ii noaiaie eco/aiiinoe e aiciiaeiinoe
aiaea/aiey eo a yeiiiie/aneee iai?io. Eco/aao ?aciauaiea I? ii no?aia,
oa?aeoa?ecoao aeeiaieeo e i?e?ino auyaeaiuo caiania I?.

I?ecaaia iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaiaaoue e oeo/oaoue nenoaio iieacaoaeae e
iaoiaeieiaeth eo en/eneaiey, /oi iicaieeo ananoi?iiia e iieii
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue I?.

Aieaa yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea I?. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue oneeaiey io?aiu
i?e?iaeu.

Iaania/aiea ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey e aini?iecaiaenoaa I?.

Noaoenoeea I?, oe?iei eniieuecoy noaoenoe/aneea iaoiaeu, aeieaeia
auyaeyoue ana aiciiaeiinoe yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey I?,
niinianoaiaaoue inouanoaeaieth ia? ii eiiieaeniiio e ?aoeeiiaeueiiio
eniieueciaaieth e io?aia caiaeueiuo, eaniuo e aiaeiuo ?ano?nia, iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo. Aaaeiui yoaiii inaiaiey I? yaeythony eo ?acaaaeea, eco/aiea,
ninoaaeaiea eaaeano?ia ii ioaeaeueiui aeaeai (caiaeueiue eaaeano?,
eaniie eaaeano?, aiaeiue eaaeano?, eaaeano? ianoi?iaeaeaiee iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo) e a oa??eoi?eaeueiii aniaeoa.

Oaia ?5. Noaoenoeea iniiaiuo oiiaeia.

1. Iiiyoea iniiaiuo oiiaeia e aeaeu ioeaiee.

Iniiaiua oiiaeu- yoi niaieoiiinoue iaoa?eaeueii- aauanoaaiiuo
oeaiiinoae i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai e iai?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey,
eioi?ua eniieuecothony ia i?ioyaeaiee ?yaea eao e iinoaiaiii
eciaoeaaynue a oa/aiea anaai n?iea neoaeau, ia oa?ytho naiae
iaoo?aeueiie oi?iu.

IIO — yoi caeaiey, nii?oaeaiey,ia?aaeaoi/iua ono?ienoaa, iaoeiu e
iai?oaeiaaiea, o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa, i?iecaiaenoaaiiue eiaaioa?ue e
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe, oicyenoaaiiue eiaaioa?ue, ?aai/ee e i?iaeoeoeaiue
neio, iiiaieaoiea naaeu e ianaaeaeaiey, eaieoaeueiua cao?aou ii
oeo/oaieth caiaeue e o.ae.

Aeaeu ioeaiie iniiaiuo oiiaeia.

O/ao i?iecaiaeeony eae a noieiinoiii, oae e a iaoo?aeueiii
au?aaeaiee.

1) Ii ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe — oaeoe/aneea cao?aou ia nicaeaiea eee
i?eia?aoaiea, ia aaiae a aeaenoaea IIO (aaeainiaay noieiinoue). Ii
ia?a eniieueciaaiey oiiaeu eciaoeaathony, a oaeaea iaaethaeathony
eioeyoeeiiiua ecaea?aeee, iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeia ainnoaiiaeoaeueiay
noieiinoue.

2) Ainnoaiiaeoaeueiay noieiinoue — noieiinoue aini?iecaiaenoaa oao aea
IIO a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo. Aaee/eia ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie noieiinoe
ii?aaeaeyaony a i?ioeanna ia?aioeaiee iniiaiuo oiiaeia (inouanoaeyaony
01.01 eaaeaeiai aiaea ia iniiaa onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiii eiyooeoeeaioia
ia?aioeaiee). Iniaaiiinoue ia?aioeaiee iineaaeieo aeaoo eao caeeth/aaony
a oii, /oi ainnoaiiaeoaeueiay noieiinoue iiaeao auoue acyoa ii
oaeoe/anee neeaaeuaathueiny oeaiai i?eia?aoaiey.

Iaoiaeu ia?aioeaiee:

a) eiaeaenaoeey. Aaeainiaay noieiinoue IIO oiiiaeaaony ia eiyooeoeeaio
eiaeaenaoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa iieo/aai iiaoth ainnoaiiaeoaeueioth
noieiinoue, eioi?ay n iiaiai aiaea noaiiaeoueny aaeainiaie.

a) ia iniiaa neiaeeaoeony oeai ( /oi io?aaeaaony aeieoiaioaeueii).
Ainnoaiiaeoaeueiay noieiinoue aa?aony ii oeaiai, neiaeeaoeiny ia ?uiea
IIO.

2. Aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo oiiaeia

IIO a i?ioeanna ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eciaoeaathony, o.a. a i?ioeanna
neoaeau oa?ytho naith oeaio.

Eciin– aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea iioa?e ea/anoa iniiaiuo oiiaeia. Eciin-
niinia ainnoaiiaeaiey ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe. Aii?oecaoeey aoiaeeo a
ninoaa cao?ao e en/eneyaony ii onoaiiaeaiiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
ii?iai aii?oecaoeee.

A=Ii/O, aaea A- ?acia? aiaeiaie aii?oecaoeee, Ii- ia?aiia/aeueiay
noieiinoue IIO, O- n?ie neoaeau.

, aaea Na- ii?ia aii?oecaoeee.

3.Iieacaoaee iaee/ey, aeaeaeaiey, ninoiyiey e eniieueciaaiey IIO.

Oiiae inoaoi/iie noie-oe= ia?aiia/aeueiay noie-oue — noiia
aii?oecaoeee

I?e ia?aioeaiea IIO ia?aioeaieaaaony e eciin(oiiiaeaaony ia eiyo.
ia?aioeaiee). Auaeaeyaony ?acieoea iaaeaeo oiiaeaie ia ia/aei e
eiiaoe aiaea, oae eae aaiaeyony iiaua IIO e auauaatho noa?ua.
Aeey iauae oa?aeoa?enoeee IIO ?ann/eouaaaony n?aaeiaaiaeiaay
noieiinoue IIO ia iniiaa aeaiiuo ii ianyoeai. Iia ?ann/eouaaaony eae
n?aaeiao?iiieiae/aneay eee n?aaeiaacaaoaiiay. Aeey oi/iiai o/aoa
eiee/anoaa IIO eo ia?aaea/a i?ienoiaeeo iaeiia?aiaiii n eciinii. Aeey
yoiai ?ann/eouaaaony eiyooeoeeaio eciina.

Eiyooeoeeaiou ninoiyiey e eciina:

Eiyo eciina = aaee/eia eciina/ ia?aiia/aeueiay noieiinoue

Eiyo aiaeiinoe = inoaoi/iay noieiinoue/ ia?aiia/aeueiay noieiinoue

A noiia yoe aeaa eiyooeoeeaioa aeatho 1.

Iieacaoaee aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaeaeaiey IIO:

Eiyo auauoey = noieiinoue auauaoeo IIO/ noieiinoue IIO ia ia/aei
ia?eiaea

Eiyo iinooieaiey = noieiinoue iinooieaoeo IIO/ noieiinoue IIO ia
eiiaoe ia?eiaea

Eiyo iaiiaeaiey = noieiinoue iiauo IIO/ noieiinoue IIO ia eiiaoe
ia?eiaea

Oaia ?6: Noaoenoeea iai?oaeiaaiey

1. Iiiyoea e eeanneoeeaoeey iai?oaeiaaiey.

Iai?oaeiaaiea — yoi aeoeaiua IIO, oi anoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii o/anoaothuea
a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aeoeaiay /anoue IIO aeeth/aao a naay:

neeiaua iaoeiu, iai?oaeiaaiea, o.a. ana aa?aaaou, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa ?acee/iuo aeeia yia?aee(ana ia?iaua eioeu,
yeaeo?iaaia?aoi?u);

?aai/ea iaoeiu e iai?oaeiaaiea;

ecia?eoaeueiua e ?aaoee?othuea i?eai?u e ono?ienoaa;

au/eneeoaeueiay oaoieea e o.i.

Yoe a?oiiu auaeaeythony aeey o/aoa e aiaeeca IIO, aeey iiaen/aoa
aii?oecaoeee e aeey i?iaaaeaiey ia?aioeaiee.

2.Iieacaoaee iaee/ey e eniieueciaaiey iai?oaeiaaiey.

1) Eeanneoeeaoeey iai?oaeiaaiey ii iieacaoaeyi iaee/ey a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna:

onoaiiaeaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea – oaeoe/anee aeaenoaothuaa, ?aaioathuaa,
iaoiaeyuaany a ieaiiaii ?aiiioa, i?inoieiia, ?aca?aiia.

iaonoaiiaeaiiia – iiaeeaaeauaa onoaiiaea, eceeoiaa, iaaiaeiia,
iiaeeaaeauaa nienaieth

Aeey iai?oaeiaaiey aaiaeeony iiiyoea niaiiinoe eniuoaiey, oae eae iii
iiaeao ?aaioaoue aieaa iaeiie niaiu. Eiyooeoeeaio niaiiinoe
en/eneyaony ia iniiaa iaaethaeaiee.

Eni=(Ni*Lni/(Ni (

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