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Ainoaea?noaaiiue ii?neie oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao.

Oaeoeueoao ii?neiai i?eai?ino?iaiey.

Eaoaae?a nenoai aaoiiaoe/aneiai oi?aaeaiey

e

ai?oiaie au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee

?aoa?ao

ii oai?ee aaoiiaoe/aneiai oi?aaeaiey

ia oaio:

Neo/aeiua ooieoeee.

auiieiee:

nooaeaio a? 3410 Eaiioueaa A.A.

i?iaa?ee :

Naciiia A. A.

Neo/aeiua i?ioeannu a nenoaiao aaoiiaoe/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey.

Aei neo ii? iiaaaeaiea nenoai aaoiiaoe/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
enneaaeiaaeinue i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo, caaeaiiuo ai a?aiaie caaeathueo e
aiciouathueo aicaeaenoaeyo (nooiai/aoay ooieoeey, eiioeueniay ooieoeey,
aa?iiie/aneia aicaeaenoaea e o. ae.)

Iaeiaei ai iiiaeo neo/ayo oa?aeoa? aicaeaenoaey auaaao oaeei, /oi aai
iaeuecy n/eoaoue ii?aaeaeaiiie ooieoeeae a?aiaie. Iii iiaeao i?eieiaoue
n oa/aieai a?aiaie naiua ?aciiia?aciua neo/aeiua cia/aiey. A oaeeo
neo/ayo iu iiaeai ioeaieoue oieueei aa?iyoiinoue iiyaeaiey oie eee eiie
oi?iu aicaeaenoaey a oio eee eiie iiiaio a?aiaie. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo ia
iioiio, /oi iii iaecaanoii ca?aiaa, a iioiio, /oi naia i?e?iaea
?aaeueiiai caaeathuaai eee aiciouathuaai aicaeaenoaey oaeiaa, /oi
aaee/eia aai a eaaeaeue iiiaio a?aiaie e i?ioeann aai eciaiaiey n
oa/aieai a?aiaie caaenyo io iiiaeanoaa ?aciiia?aciuo aaee/ei, eioi?ua
neo/aeiui ia?acii iiaoo eiiaeie?iaaoueny ae?oa n ae?oaii, iiyaeyoueny
iaeiia?aiaiii eaee n ethaui naeaeaii ai a?aiaie e o. i.

Aa?iyoiinoiua oa?aeoa?enoeee aeene?aoiuo neo/aeiuo aaee/ei. *oiau
iieiinoueth ciaoue aeene?aoioth neo/aeioth aaee/eio «iaaei eiaoue
neaaeothuea aeaiiua:

a) ana aiciiaeiua cia/aiey,

eioi?ua iia iiaeao i?eieiaoue i?e aeaiiuo oneiaeyo caaea/e eee iiuoa;

a) aa?iyoiinoue iiyaeaiey eaaeaeiai ec yoeo cia/aiee.

A?aoe/anee yoio caeii ?ani?aaeaeaiey ecia?aaeai ia ?en. 1. Ii
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?aaiiaa?iyoiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea a iaeioi?ii eioa?aaea
(a ?anniao?eaaaiii neo/aa io 1 aei 6).

?en. 1

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo caeii ?ani?aaeaeaiey neo/aeiie aaee/eiu iiaeao
caaeaaaoueny a aiaeeoe/aneie oi?ia.

I?eia?ii aiaeeoe/aneiai caaeaiey caeiia ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeene?aoii
neo/aeiie aaee/eiu yaeyaony /anoi eniieuecoaiue caeii Ioanniia. Ii
i?eiaiei e aeene?aoiui neo/aeiui aaee/eiai, eioi?ua oai?aoe/anee iiaoo
i?eieiaoue ana iieiaeeoaeueiua cia/aiey io 0 aei ii. I?eia?aie oaeeo
.aaee/ei iiaoo neoaeeoue /enei ianna- aee?ia aaaiia o?aiaay, /enei
auciaia ia oaeaoiiiie noaioeee a oa/aiea eaeiai-eeai ii?aaeaeaiiiai
io?acea a?aiaie, /enei yeaeo?iiia, iiiaaeathueo ia aiiae yeaeo?iiiie
eaiiu ca ii?aaeaeaiiue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie, e o. i. Yoio caeii
caienuaaaony neaaeothuei ia?acii aeey oeaeuo cia/aiee /enea o:

aaea ?(o) — aa?iyoiinoue iiyaeaiey cia/aiey o’, ^ i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
n?aaeiaa cia/aiea aeaiiie aeene?aoiie aaee/eiu, iieo/aiiia ii
?acoeueoaoai aieueoiai /enea iiuoia.

Oioy caeii ?ani?aaeaeaiey iieiinoueth ii?aaeaeyao neo/aeioth aaee/eio
aeey i?aeoeee ioaeiu iaeioi?ua aieaa i?inoua in?aaeiaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee
neo/aeiie aaee/eiu, au?aaeathueany a aeaea iaueiiaaiiuo ianeo/aeiuo
/enae.

Iaeiie ec oaeeo oa?aeoa?enoee yaeyaony n?aaeiaa cia/aiea, eee
iaoaiaoe/aneia iaeeaeaiea, neo/aeiie aaee/eiu. Iii ii?aaeaeyaony ec
au?aaeaiey

*anoi eniieuecoaony oae iacuaaaiia n?aaeiaeaaae?aoe/iia cia/aiea
neo/aeiie aaee/eiu, i?aaenoaaeythuaa niaie ei?aiue eaaae?aoiue ec
n?aaeiaai eaaae?aoa neo/aeiie aaee/eiu:

Eiiaaea ?anniao?eaaaony oeaio?e?iaaiiia cia/aiea neo/aeiie aaee/eiu ae”i
= o— o, aaea o — n?aaeiaa cia/aiea. Oiaaea aiaeiae/ii oi?ioea iiaeii
aaanoe iiiyoea oeaio?aeueiiai iiiaioa i-ai ii?yaeea

Ec oi?ioeu neaaeoao, /oi oeaio?aeueiue iiiaio ia?aiai ii?yaeea

anaaaea ?aaai ioeth.

Ia?aoeiny oaia?ue e oa?aeoa?enoeeai ?annayiey aeene?aoiie neo/aeiie

aaee/eiu.

Anee o — neo/aeiay aaee/eia, x` — n?aaeiaa cia/aiea yoie aaee/eiu, oi
aaee/eia o —o` anoue ioeeiiaiea neo/aeiie aaee/eiu io aa n?aaeiaai
cia/aiey. Yoi ioeeiiaiea yaeyaony neo/aeiie aaee/eiie, eae e naia
aaee/eia o.

N?aaeiei ioeeiiaieai SYMBOL 68 \f “Symbol” \s 10 D iacuaaaony
n?aaeiaa cia/aiea (iaoaiaoe/aneia iaeeaeaiea) aaniethoiie aaee/eiu
ioeeiiaiey, o. a.

Aeenia?neae iacuaaaony n?aaeiee eaaae?ao ioeeiiaiey neo/aeiie aaee/eiu
io aa n?aaeiaai cia/aiey. Iia niaiaaeaao n oeaio?aeueiui iiiaioii
aoi?iai ii?yaeea

Aa?iyoiinoiua oa?aeoa?enoeee iai?a?uaiuo neo/aeiuo aaee/ei. Iai?a?uaiay
neo/aeiay aaee/eia iiaeao i?eieiaoue ana cia/aiey a eaeii-eeai caaeaiiii
ia?aie/aiiii eioa?aaea (a < o < b) eee ana cia/aiey io —ii aei +ii. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ooieoeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey (eioaa?aeueiue caeii ?ani?a- aeaeaiey) aeey iai?a?uaiie neo/aeiie aaee/eiu aoaeao ecia?aaeaoueny iai?a?uaiie e?eaie. Ia ?en. 2 iieacaiu iaa oiiiyioouo auoa aa?eaioa.Aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi iai?a?uaiay neo/aeiay aaee/eia i?eiao ii?aaeaeaiiia /eneiaia cia/aiea o, aaneiia/ii iaea (iai?eia?, aa?iyoiinoue iiiaaeaiey oeaio?a oyaeanoe nia?yaea a ii?aaeaeaiioth oi/eo oeaee). Aa?iyoiinoue aea oiai, /oi iai?a?uaiay neo/aeiay aaee/eia ieaaeaony a iaeioi?ii i?iiaaeooea o1<. o<.o1aoaeao eiaoue eiia/iia cia/aiea, a eiaiii:Aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi iai?a?uaiay neo/aeiay aaee/eia niaea?aeeony a i?iiaaeooea iaaeaeo o e o + do, aoaeaoAaee/eiaiacuaaaony ieioiinoueth aa?iyoiinoe.Caeii ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeey iai?a?uaiie neo/aeiie aaee/eiu a ioee/ea io aeene?aoiie caaeaaony ia a aeaea cia/aiee aa?iyoiinoe, a a aeaea ieioiinoe aa?iyoiinoe SYMBOL 119 \f "Symbol" \s 10 w (o), iacuaaaiie oaeaea aeeooa?aioeeaeueiui caeiiii ?ani?aaeaeaiey. Ia ?en. 3 iieacaiu aeeooa?aioeeaeueiua caeiiu ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeeyaeaoo aa?eaioia ooieoeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey F (x), iieacaiiuo ia ?en. 2.Anee au caeanue eniieueciaaeinue oi aea iiiyoea caeiia ?ani?aaeaeaiey, /oi e aeeyaeene?aoiie neo/aeiie aaee/eiu, oi iieo/eeenue au aaneiia/ii iaeua i?aeeiaou ?(o).?annayiea iai?a?uaiie neo/aeiie aaee/eiu iiaeii ioeaieaaoue iaeieiec neaaeothueo cia/aiee, neiaaniua oi?ioee?iaee eioi?uo inoathony i?aae-ieie.N?aaeiaa ioeeiiaiea (iaei oaeiaiay aeey au/eneaiee aaee/eia)Aeenia?ney (iaeaieaa oaeiaiay aeey au/eneaiee aaee/eia)N?aaeiaeaaae?aoe/iia ioeeiiaieaNeo/aeiua i?ioeannuNeo/aeiay aaee/eia o, eciaiythuayny ai a?aiaie ^ iacuaaaony neo/aeiui eee noioanoe/aneei i?ioeannii. Neo/aeiue i?ioeann ia anoue ii?aaeaeaiiay e?eaay o (t), a yaeyaony iiiaeanoaii aiciiaeiuo e?eauo o {1), oae aea eae neo/aeiay aaee/eia ia eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiiai cia/aiey, a yaeyaony niaieoiiinoueth (iiiaeanoaii) aiciiaeiuo cia/aiee.Iiaeii aua neacaoue, /oi neo/aeiue i?ioeann anoue oaeay ooieoeey a?aiaie, cia/aiea eioi?ie a eaaeaeue iiiaio a?aiaie yaeyaony neo/aeiie aaee/eiie.I?eia?aie neo/aeiuo i?ioeannia iiaoo, iai?eia?, yaeyoueny: eii?aeeiaou naiieaoa, caia?yaiua ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiie noaioeeae; oaie aece?iaaiey aeaeaeouaeny oeaee aieiaeie naiiiaaaaeaiey; iiiaoe a nenoaia oaeaoi?aaeaiey; iaa?ocea yeaeo?e/aneie naoe e o. i.Eoae, a neo/aeiii i?ioeanna iao ii?aaeaeaiiie caaeneiinoe o {t). Eaaeaeay e?eaay iiiaeanoaa (?en.4) yaeyaony eeoue ioaeaeueiie ?aaeecaoeeae neo/aeiiai i?ioeanna. Ieeiaaea iaeuecy neacaoue ca?aiaa, ii eaeie e?eaie iieaeao i?ioeann.Iaeiaei neo/aeiue i?ioeann iiaeao auoue ioeaiai iaeioi?uie aa?iyoiinoiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.A eaaeaeue ioaeaeueiue iiiaio a?aiaie iaaethaeathony neo/aeiua aaee/eiu eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo eiaaonaie caeii ?ani?aaeaeaiey. Iineieueeo yoi — iai?a?uaiay neo/aeiay aaee/eia, oi iaaei iieueciaaoueny iiiyoeai ieioiinoe aa?iyoiinoe.Iaicia/ei w(x,t) caeii ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeey anao yoeo ioaeaeueiuo neo/aeiuo aaee/ei. A iauai neo/aa ii iaiyaony n oa/aieai a?aiaie,:i?e/ai ii naienoao aeey eaaeaeiai ec ieoAeey eaaeaeiai caaeaiiiai iiiaioa a?aiaie iiaeii iaeoe oa?aeoa?enoeee neo/aeiuo aaee/ei, ii?aaeaeaiiua. A ?acoeueoaoa aoaeai eiaoue n?aaeiaa ii iiiaeanoao (iaoaiaoe/aneia iaeeaeaiea)e aeenia?nethN?aaeiaa cia/aiea neo/aeiiai i?ioeanna i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeioi?oth n?aaeithth e?eaoth (?en. 11.12), ieiei eioi?ie a?oiie?othony ana aiciiaeiua ioaeaeueiua ?aaeecaoeee yoiai i?ioeanna, a aeenia?ney D(t) eee n?aaeiaeaaae?aoe/iia ioeeiiaiea SYMBOL 115 \f "Symbol" \s 10 s (t) oa?aeoa?ecotho ?annayiea ioaeaeueiuo aiciiaeiuo ?aaeecaoeee i?ioeanna ieiei yoie n?aaeiae e?eaie.I?inoaeoei oeiii neo/aeiiai i?ioeanna yaeyaony /enoi neo/aeiue i?ioeann. A oaeii i?ioeanna ana cia/aiey neo/aeiie aaee/eiu a ioaeaeueiua iiiaiou a?aiaie ia caaenyo ae?oa io ae?oaa. Oiaaea iiyaeaiey cia/aiee (x1,t1) e o. ae. aoaeoo iacaaeneiuie neo/aeiuie. niauoeyie, aeey eioi?uo aa?iyoiinoue eo niaianoiiai ianooieaiey ?aaia, eae ecaanoii, i?iecaaaeaieth aa?iyoiinoae ianooieaiey eaaeaeiai ec ieo a ioaeaeueiinoe. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeey /enoi neo/aeiiai i?ioeannae aiiauaYoi — naiua i?inoua niioiioaiey a oai?ee neo/aeiuo i?ioeannia. Iie iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee iaeioi?uo aeaeia iiiao (/enoi neo/aeiua oaioe/aneea iiiaoe).Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee iieaciuo aoiaeiuo neaiaeia nenoai ?aaoee?iaaiey e neaaeyueo nenoai niioiioaiey i?aeoe/anee ia iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny, oae eae aeey yoeo neaiaeia oiae i?ioeanna a iineaaeothuea iiiaiou a?aiaie a eaeie-oi noaiaie caaeneo io oiai, /oi auei a i?aaeuaeouea iiiaiou a?aiaie,Oae, iai?eia?, anee ?a/ue eaeao i neaaeaiee ca naiieaoii, oi ii ia iiaeao eae oaiaeii auno?i iaiyoue naia iieiaeaiea e nei?inoue. Iiyoiio anee ii a iiiaio a?aiaie t caiye iieiaeaiea o1 oi yoei naiui aai aiciiaeiia iieiaeaiea o2 a neaaeothuee iiiaio t2 ia?aie/aii, o. a. niauoey (x1, t1) e (x2 ,t2) ia aoaeoo iacaaeneiuie. *ai aieaa eia?oeeiiai eco/aaiue iauaeo, oai aieueoa yoa acaeiicaaeneiinoue, eee ei??aeyoeey. A oaeeo neo/ayo aianoi oi?ioeu iaiaoiaeeii caienaoueaaea w2,1 1 {x2, t2)do — oneiaiay aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi neo/aeiue i?ioeann i?ieaeao aaeece oi/ee (x2, t2), anaee ii oaea i?ioae /a?ac oi/eo (x1,t2). Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ciay ieioiinoe aa?iyoiinoe, iiaeii iaeoe oaeaea e oneiaioth ieioiinoue aa?iyoiinoe'E?iia oiai, eiaao ianoi neaaeothuay naycue iaaeaeo iniiaiuie ieioiinoyie aa?iyoiinoe:oae eae w (o1, t1) anoue ieioiinoue aa?iyoiinoe neo/aeiie aaee/eiu (x1,t1) aacioiineoaeueii e oiio, eaeia iioii aoaeao cia/aiea (x2, t2), o. a. aeiioneaaony —ii < o2 <+ ii. Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii ethaay ieioiinoue aa?iyoiinoe iecoaai ii?yaeea anaaaea iiaeao auoue iieo/aia ec aunoae, o. a. aunoea ieioiinoe aa?iyoiinoae niaea?aeao iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai eioi?iaoeee i neo/aeiii i?ioeanna (i acaeiinaycyo iaaeaeo aiciiaeiuie cia/aieyie neo/aeiie aaee/eiu o a ?acee/iua iiiaiou a?aiaie).Iaienaiiua niioiioaiey ni?aaaaeeeau aeey neo/aeiuo i?ioeannia ethauo oeiia. A caaeneiinoe aea io oiai, aei eaeiai ii?yaeea i?eieiathony ai aieiaiea ieioiinoe aa?iyoiinoe, a oaeaea io ?aciuo aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeiioac i oi?iao nayce iaaeaeo w1, w2, . . ., wi ?anniao?eaathony ?aciua oeiu neo/aeiuo i?ioeannia a ioee/ea io /enoi neo/aeiuo.Noaoeeiia?iua neo/aeiua i?ioeannuNoaoeeiia?iui neo/aeiui i?ioeannii iacuaaaony oaeie i?ioeann, aa?iyoiinoiua oa?aeoa?enoeee eioi?iai ia caaenyo io a?aiaie. Ana ieioiinoe aa?iyoiinoae w1, w2, .. ., wn ia iaiythony i?e ethaii naeaeaa ?anniao?eaaaiiai o/anoea i?ioeanna ai a?aiaie, o. a. i?e nio?aiaiee iinoiyiiie ?aciinoe.Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi noaoeeiia?iue neo/aeiue i?ioeann a eaeie-oi ia?a aiaeiae/ai iau/iui noaoeeiia?iui eaee onoaiiaeaoeiny i?ioeannai a aaoiiaoe/aneeo nenoaiao.. Iai?eia?, i?e ?anniio?aiee iau/iuo onoaiiaeaoeony ia?eiaee/aneeo eieaaaiee ie/aai ia eciaieony, anee ia?aianoe ia/aei ion/aoa ia eaeoth-ieaoaeue aaee/eio. I?e yoii nio?aiyo naie cia/aiey oaeea oa?aeoa?enoeee, eae /anoioa, aiieeooaea, n?aaeiaeaaae?aoe/iia cia/aiea e o. i.A noaoeeiia?iii neo/aeiii i?ioeanna caeii ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaeei e oio aea aeey eaaeaeiai iiiaioa a?aiaie, o. a- ieioiinoue aa?iyoiinoe ia caaeneo io a?aiaie: w(o, t) = w (x).Ionthaea iieo/aai x`= ninst b SYMBOL 115 \f "Symbol" \s 10 s =const aaeieue anaai neo/aeiiai i?ioeanna. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a noaoeeiia?iii neo/aeiii i?ioeanna n?aaeiyy eeiey, a ioee/ea io iauaai neo/ay aoaeao i?yiay o` = ninst, iiaeiaii iinoiyiiiio niauaieth n?aaeiae eeiee iau/iuo ia?eiaee/aneeo eieaaaiee. ?annayiea cia/aiee ia?aiaiiie o a noaoeeiia?iii neo/aeiii i?ioeanna ii?aaeaeyaiia SYMBOL 115 \f "Symbol" \s 10 s =const oaeaea aoaeao ana a?aiy iaeeiaeiaui, iiaeiaii iinoiyiiiio cia/aieth n?aaeiaeaaae?aoe/iiai ioeeiiaiey iau/iuo onoaiiaeaoeony eieaaaiee io n?aaeiae eeiee.Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii e aeaoia?iay ieioiinoue aa?iyoiinoe oaeaea aoaeao iaeia e oa aea aeey iaeiiai e oiai aea i?iiaaeooeae oaeaea aeey n-ia?iie ieioiinoe aa?iyoiinoe.Caaeaiea anao yoeo ooieoeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey ieioiinoe ii?aaeaeyao neo/aeiue i?ioeann. Iaeiaei aieaa oaeiaii eiaoue aeaei n iaeioi?uie in?aaeiaiiuie e oa?aeoa?enoeeaie i?ioeanna.I?aaeaea /ai ia?aeoe e iei, ioiaoei aeaa aaaeiuo aeey i?aeoeee naienoaa. 1. Ia?aie/eaaynue oieueei noaoeeiia?iuie neo/aeiuie i?ioeannaie, iiaeii aoaeao ii?aaeaeeoue oieueei onoaiiaeaoeany (noaoeeiia?iua) aeeiaie/aneea ioeaee aaoiiaoe/aneeo nenoai i?e neo/aeiuo aicaeaenoaeyo. Oaeie i?eai i?eiaiyeny e ?aiaa i?e ?anniio?aiee ?aaoey?iuo aicaeaenoaee, eiaaea ii?aaeaeyeenue aeeiaie/aneea naienoaa nenoai ?aaoee?iaaiey ii aaee/eia aeeiaie/aneeo ioeaie a onoaiiaeaoainy ia?eiaee/aneii ?aaeeia.2. Noaoeeiia?iua neo/aeiua i?ioeannu iaeaaeatho caia/aoaeueiui naienoaii, eioi?ia ecaanoii iiae iacaaieai y?aiaee/aneie aeiioacu.Aeey noaoeeiia?iiai neo/aeiiai i?ioeanna n aa?iyoiinoueth, ?aaiie aaeeieoea (o. a. i?aeoe/anee aeinoiaa?ii.A naiii aeaea, iineieueeo aa?iyoiinoiua oa?aeoa?enoeee noaoeeiia?iiai neo/aeiiai i?ioeanna oa/aieai a?aiaie ia iaiythony,oi aeeeoaeueiia iaaethaeaiea neo/aeiiai i?ioeanna ia iaeiii iauaeoa (n?aaeiaa ii a?aiaie) aeaao a n?aaeiai oaeoth aea ea?oeio, eae e aieueoia /enei iaaethaeaiee, naeaeaiiia a iaeei e oio aea iiiaio a?aiaie ia aieueoii /enea iaeeiaeiauo iauaeoia (n?aaeiaa ii iiiaeanoao).Aeey iiiaeo neo/aaa nouanoaoao iaoaiaoe/aneia aeieacaoaeuenoai yoiai naienoaa. Oiaaea iii naiaeeony e y?aiaee/aneie oai?aia.Eoae, n?aaeiaa cia/aiea (iaoaiaoe/aneia iaeeaeaiea) aeey noaoeeiia?iiai i?ioeanna aoaeaoAiaeiae/iui ia?acii iiaoo auoue caienaiu iiiaiou aieaa aunieeo ii?yaeeia — aeenia?ney, n?aaeiaeaaae?aoe/iia ioeeiiaiea e o. i.Y?aiaee/aneay aeiioaca iicaieyao neeueii oi?iuaoue ana ?an/aou e yenia?eiaiou. Iia iicaieyao aeey ii?aaeaeaiey o. D, SYMBOL 115 \f "Symbol" \s 10 s :, aianoi ia?aeeaeueiiai eniuoaiey iiiaeo iaeiioeiiuo nenoai a iaeei e oio aea iiiaio a?aiaie, iieueciaaoueny iaeiie e?eaie o{t), iieo/aiiie i?e eniuoaiee iaeiie nenoaiu a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie.Oaeei ia?acii, aaaeiia naienoai noaoeeiia?iiai neo/aeiiai i?ioeanna ninoieo a oii, /oi ioaeaeueiay aai ?aaeecaoeey ia aaneiia/iii i?iiaaeooea a?aiaie iieiinoueth ii?aaeaeyao niaie aanue neo/aeiue i?ioeann ni anaie aan/eneaiiuie aiciiaeiuie aai ?aaeecaoeeyie. Yoei naienoaii ia iaeaaeaao ieeaeie ae?oaie oei neo/aeiiai i?ioeanna.Ei??aeyoeeiiiay ooieoeeyIa/aeueiue ei??aeyoeeiiiue, iiiaio aeaoo cia/aiee neo/aeiie ooieoeee o (t) e o (t1), acyouo a iiiaiou a?aiaio t e t1, iineo iacaaiea ei??aeyoeeiiiie (aaoiei??aeyoeeiiiie) ooieoeee. Iia iiaeao auoue iaeaeaia ec au?aaeaiey.aaea w2 (x,t,x1, t1) — aeaoia?iay ieioiinoue aa?iyoiinoe.Eiiaaea iiae ei??aeyoeeiiiie ooieoeeae iiieiatho oeaio?aeueiue ei??aeyoeeiiiue iiiaio x (t) e x (t1), o.a.Ei??aeyoeeiiiay ooieoeey yaeyaony aanueia oieaa?naeueiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie aeey neo/aeiiai i?ioeanna. Iia ii?aaeaeyao caaeneiinoue neo/aeiie aaee/eiu a iineaaeothuee iiiaio a?aiaie x(t1) io i?aaeoanoaothuaai cia/aiey o (t) a iiiaio a?aiaie t. Yoi anoue ia?a nayce iaaeaeo ieie.?anniio?ei iniiaiua naienoaa ei??aeyoeeiiiuo ooieoeee.1. Ec ii?aaeaeaiey ei??aeyoeeiiiie ooieoeee neaaeoao naienoai neiiao?ee:2. I?e t1=t ei??aeyoeeiiiay ooieoeey aeaao n?aaeiee eaaae?ao neo/aeiie aaee/eiu, a R0(t,t1)—aeenia?neth:3. Iiaeii iieacaoue, /oi i?eaaaeaiea e neo/aeiui aaee/eiai i?iecaieueiuo ianeo/aeiuo aaee/ei ia iaiyao eo ei??aeyoeeiiiuo iiiaioia e aeenia?nee. Iiyoiio ei??aeyoeeiiiay ooieoeey R0 (t,t1) ia eciaieony, anee e neo/aeiie ooieoeee aeiaaaeoue i?iecaieueioth ianeo/aeioth ooieoeeth. Yoi naienoai ia ioiineony e ooieoeee R (t, t1), oae eae aeiaaaeaiea ianeo/aeiuo aaee/ei e neo/aeiui eciaiyao ia/aeueiua iiiaiou. A yoii neo/aa ei??aeyoeeiiiay ooieoeey aoaeao ?aaia noiia ei??aeyoeeiiiuo ooieoeee neo/aeiie e ianeo/aeiie ooieoeee.Aiaeiae/ii ei??aeyoeeiiiie ooieoeee iiaeii aaanoe iiiyoea acaeiiie ei??aeyoeeiiiie ooieoeee aeey aeaoo neo/aeiuo aaee/ei o (t) e o (t):A neo/aa oiaeaeanoaaiiiai ?aaainoaa ioeth acaeiiie ei??aeyoeeiiiie ooieoeee neo/aeiua ooieoeee o (t) e o (t) iacuaatho iaei??aee?iaaiiuie..Anee acaeiiay ei??aeyoeeiiiay ooieoeey ioee/ia io ioey, oi o {t) e o {t) iinyo iacaaiea ei??aee?iaaiiuo neo/aeiuo ooieoeee.A neo/aa noaoeeiia?iinoe i?ioeanna ei??aeyoeeiiiua ooieoeee R (t, ti) e R0 (t, ti) ia aoaeoo caaenaoue io oaeouaai cia/aiey a?aiaie t e aoaeoo ii?aaeaeyoueny oieueei a?aiaiiui naeaeaii SYMBOL 116 \f "Symbol" \s 10 t = t1—t.Niaeo?aeueiay ieioiinoue noaoeeiia?iuo i?ioeannia?anniio?ei oae iacuaaaioth yia?aaoe/aneoth oi?io eioaa?aea Oo?uea. Anee ?anniao?eaaaony iaeioi?ay neo/aeiay ooieoeey a?aiaie o {t), oi aeey iaa yoe oi?ioeu iiaoo auoue caienaiu a aeaeaAicueiai eaaae?ao iiaeoey ecia?aaeaiey Oo?uea [ F (iw)) ]2 e i?ieioaa?e?oai ii anai /anoioai io—ii aei -ii n aeaeaieai ?acoeueoaoa ia 2n:A iineaaeiai au?aaeaiee eaaae?ao iiaeoey caiaiai i?iecaaaeaieai nii?yaeaiiuo eiiieaenia F (iw) e F (—iw). Ecia?aaeaiea Oo?uea F (iw) caiaiei au?aaeaieaiAaee/eia, iaoiaeyuayny a eaaae?aoiuo neiaeao, eae iao?oaeii aeaeaoue, yaeyaony enoiaeiie ooieoeeae a?aiaie. Iiyoiio a ?acoeueoaoa iieo/aaony oae iacuaaaiay oi?ioea ?aeay (oai?aia Ia?naaaey), eioi?ay e niioaaonoaoao yia?aaoe/aneie oi?ia eioaa?aea Oo?uea:Iiaenoaaeyy w = 2nf, iieo/eiI?aaay /anoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaee/eio, i?iii?oeeiiaeueioth yia?aee ?anniao?eaaaiiai i?ioeanna. Oae, iai?eia?, anee ?anniao?eaaaony oie, i?ioaeathuee ii iaeioi?iio nii?ioeaeaieth R, oi yia?aey, auaeaeeaoayny a yoii nii?ioeaeaiee ca a?aiy t, aoaeaoEc (11.58) e (11.59) auoaeaao, /oi aeey iaoiaeaeaiey yia?aee ?anniao?eaaaiiai i?ioeanna ca aaneiia/iue eioa?aae iaaethaeaiey n ?aaiui iniiaaieai iiaeii eioaa?e?iaaoue eaaae?ao ooieoeee a?aiaie ii anaio a?aiaie io —ii aei +oo eee eioaa?e?iaaoue eaaae?ao iiaeoey ecia?aaeaiey Oo?uea ii anai /anoioai io—ii aei +ii.Iaeiaei yoe oi?ioeu iaoaeiaiu oai, /oi aeey aieueoeinoaa i?ioeannia yia?aey ca aaneiia/iue eioa?aae a?aiaie no?aieony oaeaea e aaneiia/iinoe. Iiyoiio oaeiaiaa eiaoue aeaei ia n yia?aeae, a ni n?aaeiae iiuiinoueth i?ioeanna, eioi?ay aoaeao iieo/aia, anee yia?aeth iiaeaeeoue ia eioa?aae iaaethaeaiey. Oiaaea oi?ioeo iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaeaI?aaay /anoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie n?aaeiee eaaae?ao ?anniao?eaaaiie aaee/eiu o {t). Aaiaey iaicia/aieaiiaeii ia?aienaoue oi?ioeoa aeaeaeea a aeaeaAaee/eia S (w) eee S (2ef) iineo iacaaiea niaeo?aeueiie ieioiinoe. Aaaeiui naienoaii niaeo?aeueiie ieioiinoe yaeyaony oi, /oi eioaa?e?iaaiea aa ii anai /anoioai io —ii aei + ii aeaao n?aaeiee eaaae?ao enoiaeiie ooieoeee a?aiaie o (t).Ii naiaio oece/aneiio niuneo niaeo?aeueiay ieioiinoue anoue aaee/eia, eioi?ay i?iii?oeeiiaeueia n?aaeiae iiuiinoe i?ioeanna a eioa?aaea /anoio io w aei w+ dw.A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo niaeo?aeueioth ieioiinoue ?anniao?eaatho oieueei aeey iieiaeeoaeueiuo /anoio, oaeaaeaay aa i?e yoii, /oi iiaeii naeaeaoue, oae eae niaeo?aeueiay ieioiinoue yaeyaony /aoiie ooieoeeae /anoiou. Oiaaea, iai?eia?, oi?ioea aeieaeia auoue caienaia a aeaeaaaea S0 (w) = 2S(w) — niaeo?aeueiay ieioiinoue aeey iieiaeeoaeueiuo /anoio. Iaeiaei a aeaeueiaeoai eceiaeaiee aoaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny niaeo?aeueiay ieioiinoue, niioaaonoaothuay anaio aeeaiaciio /anoio io —ii aei +-ii, oae eae i?e yoii oi?ioeu iieo/atho aieaa neiiao?e/iue oa?aeoa?.Eae aeaeii ec yoiai ?anniio?aiey, naycue iaaeaeo aeaeii niaeo?aeueiie ieioiinoe e aeaeii ooieoeee a?aiaie iieo/aaony ia?aoiie ii n?aaiaieth ni naycueth iaaeaeo ei??aeyoeeiiiie ooieoeeae e naiei i?ioeannii Ionthaea auoaeaao, /oi aieaa «oe?ieiio» a?aoeeo niaeo?aeueiie ieioiinoe aeieaeai niioaaonoaiaaoue aieaa «oceee» a?aoee ei??aeyoeeiiiie ooieoeee e iaiai?io.Au/eneaiea niaeo?aeueiie ieioiinoe iaoaeiaii aeaeaoue ii niioiioaieth, oae eae yoi naycaii n o?oaeiinoueth i?aaeaeueiiai ia?aoiaea. Iau/iiniaeo?aeueiay ieioiinoue au/eneyaony ii ecaanoiie ei?aeyoeeiiiie ooieoeee i?e iiiiue oi?ioe ?an/aou ii ieieioio n?aaeiaeaaae?aoe/iie ioeaeeAnee ia aaoiiaoe/aneoth nenoaio aeaenoaotho iaeiia?aiaiii iieaciue neaiae e iiiaoa, oi aicieeaao caaea/a iioeiaeueiiai ?an/aoa nenoaiu n oai, /oiau iieo/eoue iaeiaiueooth ?acoeueoe?othuoth ioeaeo. N oi/ee c?aiey iaeeo/oaai aini?iecaaaeaiey iieaciiai neaiaea nenoaia aeieaeia eiaoue aiciiaeii aieueooth iieino i?iioneaiey, a n oi/ee c?aiey iaeeo/oaai iiaeaaeaiey iiiaoe nenoaia, iaiai?io, aeieaeia eiaoue aiciiaeii iaiueooth iieino i?iioneaiey. E?eoa?eai iieo/aiey iioeiaeueiiai ?aoaiey caeanue aoaeao ieieiaeueiia cia/aiea ?acoeueoe?othuae ioeaee nenoaiu, ii?aaeaeyaiie iieaciui neaiaeii e iiiaoie.Aeey neo/aeiuo aaee/ei iaeaieaa i?inoi ii?aaeaeeoue n?aaeiaeaaae?aoe/ioth ioeaeo, iiyoiio aa e eniieuecotho aeey ioeaiee oi/iinoe aaoiiaoe/aneie nenoaiu.?anniio?ei ?an/ao nenoaiu ii e?eoa?eth ieieioia n?aaeiaeaaae?aoe/iie ioeaee i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii aeaenoaee iieaciiai neaiaea e iiiaoe.Niaeanii yoiio e?eoa?eth, iaaeaeaoaeueiinoue ioeaee i?iii?oeeiiaeueia eaaae?aoo aa aaee/aiu. Oaeay iinoaiiaea yaeyaony /anoi eiae/iie, ii iia ia iiaeao, eiia/ii, i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia iieioth oieaa?naeueiinoue. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo iai?eia? i?e no?aeueaa ii eaeie-eeai oeaee, ana ioeaee, aieueoea iaeioi?iai cia/aiey, yaeythony iaeeiaeiai iaaeaeaoaeueiuie. Iaeiaei n?aaeiee eaaae?ao ioeaee nenoaiu ?aaoee?iaaieyi?aeoe/anee ai anao neo/ayo yaeyaony iaeaieaa i?inoi au/eneyaiie aaee/eiie, /oi e ii?aaeaeeei eniieueciaaiea yoiai e?eoa?ey.Aiciiaeiu ianeieueei oi?ioee?iaie caaea/e. Iaeaieaa i?inoi caaea/a iiaeao auoue noi?ioee?iaaia oae. Anee eiaaony 'eaeay-oi nenoaia aaoiiaoe/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey caaeaiiie no?oeoo?u, oi iaiaoiaeeii oae aua?aoue ia?aiao?u yoie nenoaiu, /oiau .iieo/eoue ieieioi n?aaeiaeaaae?aoe/iie ioeaee i?e caaeaiiuo noaoenoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoeeao iieaciiai neaiaea e iiiaoe.Yoa caaea/a ?aoaaony neaaeothuei ia?acii. Ii niaeo?aeueiie ieioiinoe ioeaee iooai aa eioaa?e?iaaiey iaoiaeeony aeenia?ney. Aeenia?ney iieo/aaony caaenyuae io aa?iyoiinoiuo oa?aeoa?enoee iieaciiai neaiaea, iiiaoe e ia?aiao?ia nenoaiu. Caoai euoony oneiaey, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoueiaeiaeaiu ia ia?aiao?u nenoaiu, /oiau iieo/eoue ieieioi aeenia?nee. I?e aeinoaoi/ii i?inoii au?aaeaiee aeey aeenia?nee yoi iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeaii iaiin?aaenoaaiiui aeeooa?aioee?iaaieai e i?e?aaieaaieai ioeth /anoiuo i?iecaiaeiuo.A aieaa neiaeiuo neo/ayo i?eoiaeeony eneaoue ieieioi aeenia?nee iooai /eneiaiai caaeaiey eioa?anothueo ia?aiao?ia e iino?iaiey niioaaonoaothueo a?aoeeia, a oaeaea ?an/aoii ia YAI.Iaoiaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiie ia?aaeaoi/iie ooieoeee aua ia icia/aao, /oi ?aaeueiay aaoiiaoe/aneay nenoaia iiaeao auoue auiieiaia iioeiaeueiie, oae eae ?aaeecaoeey aa iiaeao Iuoue nii?yaeaia n aieueoeie o?oaeiinoyie. Iioeiaeueioth ia?aaeaoi/ioth ooieoeeth, ca eneeth/aieai i?inoaeoeo neo/aaa, neaaeoao n/eoaoue eaeaaeueiie ooieoeeae, e eioi?ie ii aiciiaeiinoe iaaei no?aieoueny i?e auiieiaiee ?aaeueiie aaoiiaoe/aneie nenoaiu,Eeoa?aoo?aA. A. Ai?iiia. Iniiau oai?ee aaoiiaoe/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e oi?aaeaieyA. A. Aanaea?neee, A. I. Iiiia Oai?ey nenoai aaoiiaoe/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaieyss. C. Oeuieei. Iniiau oai?ee aaoiiaoe/aneeo nenoaiA. A. Ai?iiia. Iniiau oai?ee aaoiiaoe/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e oi?aaeaiey

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