.

Сетевые методы в планировании

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1091
Скачать документ

Eaoaae?a i?eeeaaeiie iaoaiaoeee

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

ii eo?no:

“Aeene?aoiay iaoaiaoeea”

ii oaia:

“Naoaaua iaoiaeu a ieaie?iaaiee”

A?oiia: AeE 102

Nooaeaio: Oaeiiaiia ?.A.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue: Aeoa?iaa C.A.

Iineaa 1998

Niaea?aaeaiea

Aaaaeaiea 3

*anoue 1 Oai?aoe/aneay /anoue e eo?niaiio i?iaeoo 4

Aeaaa 1 Oai?ey a?aoia 4

Aeaaa 2 Eaeaiaea?iia ieaie?iaaiea naoaauie iaoiaeaie 8

*anoue 2 I?aeoe/aneay ?aaeecaoeey eo?niaiai i?iaeoa 13

Caaeaiea 13

?aoaiea 14

Caeeth/aiea 20

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u 21

Aaaaeaiea

Aeey eeethno?aoeee oneiaee e ?aoaiee iiiaeo caaea/ ethaee iieuecothony
a?aoeeaie. Ii naiae nooe a?aoeee yaeythony iaai?ii ec iiiaeanoaa oi/ae e
io?aceia i?yiuo niaaeeiythueo yoe oi/ee. Aicieeaao aii?in: iiae/eiythony
ee a?aoeee eaeei-eeai caeiiai e iaeaaeatho ee iie eaeeie-ieaoaeue
naienoaaie? Yoio aii?in aue iinoaaeai Ae. Eaieaii, eioi?ue aia?aua
iauaaeeiee ana noaiaoe/aneea ecia?aaeaiey, ninoiyuea ec niaieoiiinoe
oi/ae e eeiee, iauei oa?ieiii “a?ao” e ?anniio?ae a?ao eae
naiinoiyoaeueiue iaoaiaoe/aneee iauaeo. Oai?ey a?aoia iaoea naia
i?eiaiaiea a ?aoaiee oeaeiai ?yaea yeiiiie/aneeo caaea/. Yoo iaeanoue
i?eeiaeaiey oai?ee a?aoia iiaeii iacaaoue: “Eaeaiaea?iia ieaie?iaaiea
i?ia?aii naoaauie iaoiaeaie”. Eco/aiea eiaiii yoie iaeanoe yaeyaony
iniiaiie oeaeueth iiaai eo?niaiai i?iaeoa.

I?ia?aiia ii?aaeaeyao niaieoiiinoue acaeiinaycaiiuo iia?aoeee eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeii auiieieoue a ii?aaeaeaiiii ii?yaeea, /oiau aeinoeaiooue
iinoaaeaiiie a i?ia?aiia oeaee. Iia?aoeee eiae/anee oii?yaei/aiu a oii
niunea, /oi iaeie iia?aoeee iaeuecy ia/aoue, i?aaeaea /ai ia aoaeoo
caaa?oaiu ae?oaea. Iia?aoeey i?ia?aiiu iau/ii ?anniao?eaaaony eae
?aaioa, aeey auiieiaiey eioi?ie o?aaothony o?aou a?aiaie e ?ano?nia. Eae
i?aaeei, niaieoiiinoue iia?aoeee i?ia?aiiu ia iiaoi?yaony. Aei iiyaeaiey
naoaauo iaoiaeia eaeaiaea?iia ieaie?iaaiea i?ia?aii (o. a. ieaie?iaaiea
ai a?aiaie) inouanoaeyeinue a iaaieueoii iauaia. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiui
n?aaenoaii oaeiai ieaie?iaaiey aue eaioi/iue (eeiaeiue) a?aoee Aaioa,
caaeaaaaoee n?iee ia/aea e ieii/aiey eaaeaeie iia?aoeee ia
ai?eciioaeueiie oeaea a?aiaie. Aai iaaeinoaoie caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
ii ia iicaieye ainnoaiiaeoue caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie iia?aoeeyie
(ii?aaeaeythuea a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a oaiiu ?aaeecaoeee i?ia?aiiu). A
nayce n iiauoaieai neiaeiinoe nia?aiaiiuo i?ia?aii iio?aaiaaeanue
?ac?aaioea aieaa /aoeeo e yooaeoeaiuo iaoiaeia ieaie?iaaiey,
iaania/eaathueo iioeiecaoeeth anaai i?ioeanna inouanoaeaiey i?ia?aiiu.
I?e yoii yooaeoeaiinoue eioa?i?aoe?oaony eae ieieiecaoeey
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe auiieiaiey i?ia?aiiu c o/aoii yeiiiie/aneeo
oaeoi?ia eniieueciaaiey eiathueony ?ano?nia.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiia oi?aaeaiea i?ia?aiiaie noaei iiaie iaeanoueth
oai?aoe/aneeo e i?eeeaaeiuo enneaaeiaaiee aeaaiaea?y ?ac?aaioea aeaoo
aiaeeoe/aneeo iaoiaeia no?oeoo?iiai e eaeaiaea?iiai ieaie?iaaiey, a
oaeaea iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey i?ia?aiiaie. Yoe iaoiaeu, ?ac?aaioaiiua
ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii a 1957-1958 aa. aeaoiy ?acee/iuie a?oiiaie, iieo/eee
iacaaiey iaoiae e?eoe/aneiai iooe (IEI) e iaoiae ioeaiee e ia?aniio?a
i?ia?aii (IA?O).

Iaoiae e?eoe/aneiai iooe aue i?aaeeiaeai oe?iie A. I. du ?int de Nemours
& Company aeey oi?aaeaiey i?ia?aiiaie no?ieoaeuenoaa, a caoai aue ?acaeo
e iaiauai oe?iie Iaunhlo Associates. Iaoiae IA?O ?ac?aaioai
eiinoeueoaoeaiie oe?iie ii caeaco aiaiii-ii?neiai ieienoa?noaa NOA aeey
eaeaiaea?iiai ieaie?iaaiey iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo e
iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo ?aaio i?ia?aiiu nicaeaiey ?aeao «Iiea?en».

A iaoiaeao IA?O e IEI iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony a?aiaiiiio aniaeoo
ieaiia a oii niunea, /oi iaa iaoiaea a eiia/iii n/aoa ii?aaeaeytho
eaeaiaea?iue ieai i?ia?aiiu. Oioy yoe iaoiaeu auee ?ac?aaioaiu
iacaaeneii, iie ioee/athony ii?aceoaeueiui noiaenoaii. Iiaeaeoe, naiui
nouanoaaiiui ?acee/eai ia?aiia/aeueii auei oi, /oi a iaoiaea IEI ioeaiee
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe iia?aoeee i?aaeiieaaaeenue aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuie
aaee/eiaie, a a iaoiae IA?O — neo/aeiuie. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaa iaoiaea
ninoaaeyth aaeeiue iaoiae naoaaiai ieaie?iaaiey e oi?aaeaiey (NIO)
i?ia?aiiaie.

*anoue 1

Oai?aoe/aneay /anoue e eo?niaiio i?iaeoo

Aeaaa1

Oai?ey a?aoia

Iiiyoea a?aoa

A?aoii G(X,U) iacuaaaony niaieoiiinoue aeaoo iauaeoia iaeioi?iai
iiiaeanoaa X e ioia?aaeaiey yoiai iiiaeanoaa a naay A.

I?e aaiiao?e/aneii i?aaenoaaeaiee a?aoa yeaiaiou iiiaeanoaa O
ecia?aaeathony oi/eaie ieineinoe e iacuaathony aa?oeiaie a?aoa. Eeiee,
niaaeeiythuea ethaua ia?u oi/ae x e y, ec eioi?uo o yaeyaony
ioia?aaeaieai o, iacuaathony aeoaaie a?aoa. Aeoae a?aoa eiatho
iai?aaeaiea, iaicia/aaiia no?aeeie, eioi?ay iai?aaeaia ino?eai io
yeaiaioa o e aai ioia?aaeaieth o.

Aa?oeiu e eeiee a?aoa

Aeaa aa?oeiu A e A yaeythony a?aie/iuie aa?oeiaie aeoae, anee A- ia/aei
aeoae, a A aa eiiaoe.

Niaaeiuie iacuaathony ?acee/iua aeoae, eiathuea iauoth a?aie/ioth oi/eo.
Aeaa aa?oeiu o e o niaaeiu, anee iie ?acee/iu e nouanoaoao aeoaa,
eaeouay io iaeiie ec ieo e ae?oaie .

Aa?oeia iacuaaaony eciee?iaaiiie, anee iia ia niaaeeiaia aeoaaie n
ae?oaeie aa?oeiaie a?aoa.

Anee aeoaa U enoiaeeo ec aa?oeiu o eee caoiaeeo a o, oi aeoaa U
iacuaaaony eioeeaeaioiie aa?oeia o, a aa?oeiu o eioeeaeaioiie aeoaa U.
Iauaa /enei aeoa, eioeeaeaioiie aa?oeia o, yaeythony noaiaiueth aa?oeiu
o ?(o). Aa?oeiu, noaiaiue eioi?uo ?(o)>2, iacuaathony oceii, a ni
noaiaiueth ?(o)= 0.
Aaee/eia L(j )-E(i)-d ij iacuaaaony iieiui ?aca?aii a?aiaie iia?aoeee
( i , j ). Eaeia iaeneiaeueiia eiee/anoai a?aiaie iiaeao auoue
auaeaeaii aeey auiieiaiey iia?aoeee (i ,j ) aac aaaaeaiey
aeiiieieoaeueiuo a?aiaiiuo ia?aie/aiee ia iineaaeothuea iia?aoeee? Aeey
niaethaeaiey yoiai oneiaey iia?aoeey ( i , j ) aeieaeia auoue caeii/aia
e iiiaioo a?aiaie A ( j ). Iineieueeo iia?aoeey ( i , j ) iiaeao
ia/aoueny ia ?aiaa E ( i ), ia aa auiieiaiea aac aaaaeaiey
aeiiieieoaeueiuo ia?aie/aiee ia iineaaeothuea iia?aoeee iiaeii
auaeaeyoue ia aieaa E( j )-E(i ) aaeeieoe a?aiaie. Aaee/eia E ( j ) -E
( i ) – d ij Iacuaaaony naiaiaeiui ?aca?aii a?aiaie iia?aoeee ( i ,j
). Naiaiaeiue ?aca?a a?aiaie ?aaai iaeneiaeueiie caaea?aeea auiieiaiey
iia?aoeee ( i , j ), ia aeeythuae ia auiieiaiea iineaaeothueo
iia?aoeee. Eaeia iaeneiaeueiia eiee/anoai a?aiaie iiaeao auoue
auaeaeaii aeey auiieiaiey iia?aoeee ( i,j ) aac aaaaeaiey
aeiiieieoaeueiuo a?aiaiiuo ia?aie/aiee ia ethaoth iia?aoeeth i?iaeoa?
Aeey auiieiaiey yoiai oneiaey iia?aoeey ( i,j ) aeieaeia ia/aoueny a
iiiaio a?aiaie L(i ) e caeii/eoueny e iiiaioo a?aiaie E(j ),
ceaaeiaaoaeueii, ia auiieiaiea iia?aoeee ( i,j ) a yoii neo/aa iiaeii
auaeaeeoue ia aieaa A ( J ) -L(i) aaeeieoe a?aiaie. Aaee/eia A( j )-
L (i )-d ij iacuaaaony iacaaeneiui ?aca?aii A?aiaie iia?aoeee (i
,j ). Iacaaeneiue ?aca?a a?aiaie ?aaai iaeneiaeueiie caaea?aeea,
eioi?oth iiaeii aeiionoeoue i?e auiieiaiee iia?aoeee ( i ,j ) aac
aaaaeaiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo a?aiaiiuo ia?aie/aiee ia ethaoth ae?oaoth
iia?aoeeth i?iaeoa. Io?eoeaoaeueiia cia/aiea iacaaeneiiai ?aca?aa
icia/aao, /oi ethaay caaea?aeea n auiieiaieai iia?aoeee i?eaaaeao e
aeiiieieoaeueiui ia?aie/aieyi ia auiieiaiea ae?oaeo iia?aoeee.

Iino?iaiea eaeaiaea?iiai a?aoeea e ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ano?nia

Eiia/iui ?acoeueoaoii auiieiyaiuo ia naoaaie iiaeaee ?an/aoia yaeyaony
eaeaiaea?iue a?aoee (ieai). Yoio a?aoee eaaei i?aia?acoaony a ?aaeueioth
oeaeo a?aiaie, oaeiaioth aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?ioeanna auiieiaiey
i?ia?aiiu.

I?e iino?iaiee eaeaiaea?iiai a?aoeea iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue iaee/ea
?ano?nia, oae eae iaeiia?aiaiiia (ia?aeeaeueiia) auiieiaiea iaeioi?uo
iia?aoeee ec-ca ia?aie/aiee, naycaiiuo n ?aai/ae neeie, iai?oaeiaaieai e
ae?oaeie aeaeaie ?ano?nia, iiaeao ieacaoueny iaaiciiaeiui. Eiaiii a yoii
ioiioaiee i?aaenoaaeytho oeaiiinoue ?aca?au a?aiaie iae?eoe/aneeo
iia?aoeee. Naeaeaay iae?eoe/aneoth iia?aoeeth a oii eee eiii
iai?aaeaiee, ii a i?aaeaeao aa iieiiai ?aca?aa a?aiaie, iiaeii
aeiaeoueny nieaeaiey iaeneiaeueiie iio?aaiinoe a ?ano?nao. Iaeiaei
aeaaea i?e ionoonoaee ia?aie/aiee ia ?ano?nu iieiua ?aca?au a?aiaie
iau/ii eniieuecothony aeey au?aaaouaaiey iio?aaiinoae a ?ano?nao ia
i?ioyaeaiee anaai n?iea ?aaeecaoeee i?ia?aiiu. Ii nouanoao, yoi
icia/aao, /oi i?ia?aiio oaeaaony auiieieoue aieaa eee iaiaa iinoiyiiui
ninoaaii ?aai/ae neeu ii n?aaiaieth ni neo/aai, eiaaea iio?aaiinoe a
?aai/ae neea (e ae?. ?ano?nao) ?acei iaiythony i?e ia?aoiaea io iaeiiai
eioa?aaea a?aiaie e ae?oaiio.

Aeey iino?iaiey eaeaiaea?iiai a?aoeea i?aaeaea anaai ii?aaeaeythony
eaeaiaea?iua n?iee auiieiaiey e?eoe/aneeo iia?aoeee. Aeaeaa
?anniao?eaathony iae?eoe/aneea iia?aoeey e oeacuaathony eo ?aiiea n?iee
ia/aea A e iicaeiea n?iee ieii/aiey L. E?eoe/aneea iia?aoeee
ecia?aaeathony nieioiuie eeieyie. Io?acee a?aiaie, a i?aaeaeao eioi?uo
iiaoo auiieiyoueny iae?eoe/aneea iia?aoeee, iaiinyony ioieoe?iuie
eeieyie, iieacuaathueie, /oi eaeaiaea?iua n?iee yoeo iia?aoeee iiaeii
aua?aoue a oeacaiiuo i?aaeaeao i?e oneiaee nio?aiaiey ioiioaiee
neaaeiaaiey. Oeeoeaiay iia?aoeey ia o?aaoao cao?ao a?aiaie e iiyoiio
ecia?aaeaaony ia a?aoeea aa?oeeaeueiui io?aceii. *enea, i?inoaaeaiiua
iaae iae?eoe/aneeie iia?aoeeyie, niioaaonoaotho eo
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoyi.

?ieue iieiuo e naiaiaeiuo ?aca?aia a?aiaie i?e auai?a eaeaiaea?iuo
n?ieia auiieiaiey iae?eoe/aneeo iia?aoeee iauyniyaony aeaoiy iaueie
i?aaeeaie.

1. Anee iieiue ?aca?a ?aaai naiaiaeiiio, oi eaeaiaea?iua n?iee
iae?eoe/aneie iia?aoeee iiaeii aua?aoue a ethaie oi/ea iaaeaeo aa ?aiiei
ia/aeii e iicaeiei ieii/aieai.

2. Anee naiaiaeiue ?aca?a iaiueoa iieiiai, oi n?ie ia/aea iae?eoe/aneie
iia?aoeee iiaeii naeaeiooue ii ioiioaieth e aa ?aiiaio n?ieo ia/aea ia
aieaa /ai ia aaee/eio naiaiaeiiai ?aca?aa, ia aeeyy i?e yoii ia auai?
eaeaiaea?iuo n?ieia iaiin?aaenoaaiii neaaeothueo iia?aoeee.

3. Anee naiaiaeiue ?aca?a a?aiaie iia?aoeee aieueoa iieiiai, oi yoi
neoaeeo i?eciaeii oiai, /oi ieii/aoaeueiua eaeaiaea?iua n?iee oaeie
iia?aoeee iaeuecy oeene?iaaoue, ia i?ineaaeea nia/aea, eae yoi iiaeeyao
ia n?iee ia/aea iaiin?aaenoaaiii neaaeothueo iia?aoeee. Noieue oeaiioth
eioi?iaoeeth iiaeii iieo/eoue ia iniiaa ?an/aoia naoaaie iiaeaee.

Oaia?ue, iinea eco/aiey oai?ee naoaaiai ieaie?iaaiey, y ia?aoiaeo e
i?aeoe/aneie /anoe eo?niaiai i?iaeoa.

*anoue 2

I?aeoe/aneay ?aaeecaoeey eo?niaiai i?iaeoa

Caaeaiea

Aa?eaio ? 24

Iino?ieoue naoaaoth iiaeaeue e eaeaiaea?iue a?aoee ii oeacaiiui a
oaaeeoea aeaiiui.

Iiia?a ?aaio (iia?a-oeee) Eaeei ?aaioai i?aaeoa-noaoao
I?iaeieaee-oaeueiinoue ?aaio Iio?aaiinoue a o?oae?ano?nao

1 2 9 2

2 3, 4, 5 8 1

3 6 8 9

4 8 9 5

5 7 13 1

6 7 12 4

7 10, 12 14 4

8 9, 10 12 3

9 10, 12 14 8

10 11 6 4

11 14 9 1

12 13, 17 11 3

13 15 16 6

14 15 5 1

15 16 7 5

16 18 9 1

17 18 13 2

18

9 3

?aoaiea

Ia iniiaa aeaiiuo e i?aaeienaiee oeacaiiuo auoa auiieiyai ia?aue yoai
i?iaeoa, oianoue no?iei naoaaie a?aoee i?iaeoa (?en 4.1). Niauoey
i?iioia?iaaiu a e?oaeeao, eeiee ni no?aeeaie – ?aaiou (aeaeaa aianoi
neiaa “ ?aaiou” y aoaeo oiio?aaeyoue “iia?aoeee”). ?yaeii ni no?aeeaie
iia?aoeee noiyo eo iiia?a e ( n /a?oi/eaie iaae e iiae /eneii)
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue. Ioieoe?ii auaeaeaiu oeeoeaiua iia?aoeee.

?en 4.1

Oaia?ue ia?aeaeai ei aoi?iio yoaio – ia?aoiiio e i?yiiio i?ioiaeai ii
iieo/aiiiio naoaaiio a?aoeeo. I?e i?yiii i?ioiaea au/eneyai iaeaieaa
?aiiea aiciiaeiua n?iee ianooieaiey niauoee, i?e ia?aoiii – iaeaieaa
iicaeiea aeiionoeiua n?iee ianooieaiey niauoee. Au/eneaiey i?iecaiaeei
ii neaaeothuei aeai?eoiai.

Iaicia/ei /a?ac A/ j /- iaeaieaa ?aiiee aiciiaeiue n?ie ianooieaiey j-ai
niauoey. Ionoue d i,j- i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue iia?aoeee, niaaeeiythuae i
-a e j -a niauoey. Iineieueeo j-a niauoea ia iiaeao i?iecieoe, iiea ia
aoaeoo caaa?oaiu ana iia?aoeee aaaeouea e j-io oceo, oi iaeaieaa ?aiiee
aiciiaeiue n?ie aai ianooieaiey aoaeao au/eneyoueny ii neaaeothuaio
aeai?eoio.

Aeai?eoi ?an/aoa iaeaieaa ?aiieo aiciiaeiuo n?ieia

ianooieaiey niauoee.

Oaa 1. Iieiaeeoue A/0/ = 0

Oaa 2. Aeey j = 1,2,…,n au/eneeoue

E(j)=max {E( i ) + d ij },

i: (ij) y A

aaea iaeneioi aa?aony ii anai iia?aoeeyi, caaa?oathueiny, a j -m ocea
e auoiaeyuei ec ethaiai i?aaeoanoaothuaai i -ai ocea.

Iaicia/ei oaia?ue /a?ac L ( i ) iaeaieaa iicaeiee n?ie
ianooieaiey i -ai niauoey, ia aeeythuee ia a?aiy caaa?oaiey anaai
i?iaeoa. Ia/eiay n caaa?oathuaai niauoey aeaeaeainy a ia?aoiii
iai?aaeaiee /a?ac eaaeaeia i?aaeoanoaothuaa niauoea. Au/eneaiey
inouanoaeythony a yoii neo/aa ii neaaeothuaio aeai?eoio.

Aeai?eoi ?an/aoa iaeaieaa iicaeieo aeiionoeiuo n?ieia

ianooieaiey niauoee.

Oaa 1. Iieiaeeoue L( n ) =A( n ).

Oaa 2. Aeey i = n-1,n-2,……,0 au/eneeoue

L(i)=min {L(j-dij)},

j:(ij)yA

aaea ieieioi aa?aony ii anai iia?aoeeyi ia/eiathueiny a i -i ocea e
aoiaeyuei a ethaie j-e ocae.

Aeaenoaoy iienaiiui auoa niiniaii, ?ann/eoaai iaeaieaa ?aiiea aiciiaeiua
n?iee ianooieaiey niauoee e iaeaieaa iicaeiea aeiionoeiua n?iee
ianooieaiey niauoee (?en 4.2). Iaeaieaa ?aiiea aiciiaeiua n?iee
ianooieaiey niauoee ioia?aaeaiu a eaaae?aoeeao ?yaeii n naiei niauoeai,
iaae eaaae?aoeeaie ?aniieiaeaiu iaeaieaa iicaeiea aeiionoeiua n?iee
ianooieaiey niauoee. Ia iniiaa i?yiiai e ia?aoiiai i?ioiaeia auaeaeyai
ia a?aoeea e?eoe/aneea iia?aoeee ec eioi?uo neeaaeuaaaony e?eoe/aneee
iooue. E?eoe/aneee iooue ninoaaeytho iia?aoeee: 1,2,4,8,9,(ec 6 aei 8
niauoey oeeoeaiay iia?aoeey),12,13,15,16,18 – yoe ii?aaoeee auaeaeaiu
ae?oaei oeaaoii ia a?aooeea (?en 4.2).

E?eoe/aneia a?aiy i?iaeoa – 104.

EMBED CDraw5

?en 4.2

Oaia?ue au/eneei ?aca?au a?aiaie aeey iae?eoe/aneeo iia?aoeee.
?ann/eoaiiua ?aca?au a?aiaie aianai a oaaeeoeo 1.

Oaaeeoea 1

Oaia?ue i?aia?acoai iieo/aiioth oaaeeoeo e aeaeo (oaaeeoea 2)
iaiaoiaeeiiio aeey iino?iaiey eaeaiaea?iiai a?aoeea i?iaeoa. Aaaaeai a
oaaeeoeo aeey eaaeaeie iia?aoeee oaeea iiiyoey eae n?ie iicaeiaai ia/aea
e n?ie ?aiiaai ieii/aiey. Oaeaea aeiaaaei a?aoo oeacuaathuoth ia
iio?aaiinoe a ?ano?nao eaaeaeie iia?aoeee.

Oaaeeoea 2

Ia iniiaa iieo/aiiie oaaeeoeu no?iei eaeaiaea?iue a?aoee ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoa (?en 4.3) e aeaa a?aoeea ?ano?niuo i?ioeeae i?iaeoa – a ia?aii,
auaa?ai a ea/anoaa iiiaioia ia/aea iae?eoe/aneeo iia?aoeee eo ?aiiea
aiciiaeiua n?iee, iieo/ei ?aiiee eaeaiaea?iue ieai ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa
(?en 4.5), a ai aoi?ii auaa?ai a ea/anoaa iiiaioia ia/aea iae?eoe/aneeo
iia?aoeee eo iicaeiea aeiionoeiua n?iee, iieo/ei iicaeiee eaeaiaea?iue
ieai ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa (?en 4.6)

.?en 4.5

?en 4.6

Caeeth/aiea

Iaeneiaeueiay iio?aaiinoue a ?ano?nao eae ia ?aiiai, oae e ia iicaeiai
eaeaiaea?iuo ieaiao ?aaia 15, ii ia iicaeiai eaeaiaea?iii ieaia a?aiy
eniieueciaaiey iaeneioia ?ano?nia ninoaaeyao 1, a ia ?aiiai ieaia 8.
Oaeaea ec a?aoeeia aeaeii, /oi iaeaieaa ?aaiiia?ii ?ano?nu ?ani?aaeaeaiu
ia iicaeiai ieaia. Iiyoiio iaeaieaa iioeiaeueiie ?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoa
aoaeao iicaeiee eaeaiaea?iue ieai, oianoue eiaaea iu aicueiai iaeaieaa
iicaeiea aiciiaeiua n?iee iia?aoeee.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

Oaoa O. “Aaaaeaiea a enneaaeiaaiea iia?aoeee” o.1,2
I. Ie? 1989

Eiaaeaaa E.O. “Iaoaiaoe/aneay eiaeea e oai?ey a?aoia”
IYNE 1977

PAGE

PAGE 16

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Ответить

Курсовые, Дипломы, Рефераты на заказ в кратчайшие сроки
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020