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Отношение сознания к материи: математика и объективная реальность

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Ia?ineay ioieoeeiaeueiay aeiiacey ?1.

?aoa?ao ia oaio

“Ioiioaiea niciaiey e iaoa?ee:

iaoaiaoeea e iauaeoeaiay ?aaeueiinoue.”

Eniieieoaeue

Aaeaee?aa Aeaieee.

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue

Eaeeieia Ieueaa Eaiieaeiaia.

Ia?iue

2002a.

Niaea?aeaiea

1. Aaaaeaiea 3

2. Yeneo?n a enoi?eth 5

1.1. A?a/aneay oeeinioey e aa iaoaiaoeea 5

1.2. Aic?iaeaeaiea. Oeeinioneea i?aaeiinueee iainiiaaiey en/eneaiey
aaneiia/ii iaeuo 8

1.3. Iaaaeeeaeiau aaiiao?ee e ?acaeoea oeeinioee iaoaiaoeee a XIX a. 9

1.4. Iaoaiaoeea a XX a. 12

3. Oeeinioey e iaoaiaoeea 13

4. Caeeth/aiea 19

5. Nienie eeoa?aoo?u 20

Aaaaeaiea

?ieue iaoaiaoeee a nia?aiaiiie iaoea iinoiyiii aic?anoaao. Yoi naycaii n
oai, /oi, ai-ia?auo, aac iaoaiaoe/aneiai iienaiey oeaeiai ?yaea yaeaiee
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe o?oaeii iaaeayoueny ia eo aieaa aeoaieia iiieiaiea e
inaiaiea, a, ai-aoi?uo, ?acaeoea oeceee, eeiaaenoeee, oaoie/aneeo e
iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo iaoe i?aaeiieaaaao oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea
iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa. Aieaa oiai, aac ?ac?aaioee e eniieueciaaiey
iineaaeiaai auei au, iai?eia?, iaaiciiaeii ie inaiaiea einiina, ie
nicaeaiea yeaeo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiuo iaoei, iaoaaeoeo i?eiaiaiea a naiuo
?acee/iuo iaeanoyo /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Anoue e ae?oaay noi?iia aeaiiiai aii?ina. Iaoaiaoeea – /?acau/aeii
naiaia?aciay iaoea, oeeinioneee aiaeec oeaeiai ?yaea iieiaeaiee eioi?ie
aanueia neiaeai. E oioy iniaaiiinoe iaoaiaoe/aneiai ciaiey auee
i?aaeiaoii i?enoaeueiiai aieiaiey auaeathueony oeeinioia e iaoaiaoeeia
anao a?aiai e ia?iaeia, iiiaea iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu iaoaiaoeee
inoathony iaaeinoaoi/ii ?ac?aaioaiiuie, /oi a naith i/a?aaeue oi?iiceo
?acaeoea eae «/enoie» e i?eeeaaeiie iaoaiaoeee, oae e ae?oaeo io?aneae
iaoee, a oii /enea oeeinioee.

Oeeinioey a noa?a iaoaiaoeee niinianoaoao au?aaioea aaeaeaaoiiai
iiieiaiey iaoaiaoe/aneiai ciaiey, ?aoaieth anoanoaaiii aicieeathueo
aii?inia i i?aaeiaoa e iaoiaeao iaoaiaoeee, niaoeeoeea aa iiiyoee.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii oeeinioneia iiieiaiea iaoaiaoeee iiaeao i?aaenoaoue
oieueei eae noiia auaiaeia, noiia ii?aaeaeaiee, iieo/aiiuo ia iniiaa
aiaeeca ?acee/iuo aa noi?ii. I?aaeeueiia iiieiaiea iaoaiaoeee ia iiaeao
auoue iieo/aii oiic?eoaeueii eee iooai i?inoiai n?aaiaiey neo/aaa,
eioi?ua iiaeoiaeyo iiae ecaanoiia eiooeoeaiia i?aaenoaaeaiea, e
iiaeuneaiey caoai iaeioi?uo iauaaeeiythueo eo i?eciaeia. Oaeie iaoiae
iaiaoiaeei aeey i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai iiieiaiey ethaiai i?aaeiaoa, ii nai
ii naaa ii iaaeinoaoi/ai.

Iaoaiaoeee iiiai ?ac eaiyee i?aaenoaaeaiea i naiae iaoea e aeaeaee yoi
eaaeaeie ?ac iiae aeaaeaieai ii?aaeaeaiiuo oaeoia, eioi?ua canoaaeyee eo
ioeacaoueny io onoiyaoeony i?eau/iuo aicc?aiee. Ae?oaeie neiaaie,
nia?aiaiiia iiieiaiea iaoaiaoeee ia iiaeao auoue noi?ioee?iaaii eae
i?inoia nia?aiea eiathueony eiooeoeaiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee ia yoie iaoea, ia
iiaeao auoue acyoi iaiin?aaenoaaiii ec ciaeiinoaa n oaie eee ae?oaeie
iaoaiaoe/aneeie oai?eyie, oi anoue oieueei ia iniiaa cae?aaiai niunea
iaoaiaoeea. Iii o?aaoao enneaaeiaaiey enoi?ee iaoaiaoeee, iaiaoiaeeii
i?eaaaiooue e enneaaeiaaieyi aa no?oeoo?u, ooieoeee, ioiioaiey e ae?oaei
iaoeai.

Yeneo?n a enoi?eth

1.1. A?a/aneay oeeinioey e aa iaoaiaoeea

Ia?aie oeeinioneie oai?eae iaoaiaoeee aue ieoaai?aeci, eioi?ue
?anniao?eaae iaoaiaoe/aneia ciaiea eae iaiaoiaeeioth iniiao anyeiai
ae?oaiai ciaiey e eae iaeaieaa enoeiioth aa /anoue. Eae oeeinioneia
oa/aiea ieoaai?aeci auoiaeeo ca ?aiee nianoaaiii oeeinioee iaoaiaoeee,
ii a oeaio?a aai oai ia iaiaa eaaeeo ii?aaeaeaiiia enoieeiaaiea nooe
iaoaiaoe/aneiai ciaiey.

Enoiee iaoaiaoeee ooiaeyo a aeoaieoth ae?aaiinoue, e Aaeioo e Aaaeeiio.
Aieueoeinoai enoi?eeia iaoee ioiinyo, iaeiaei, iiyaeaiea iaoaiaoeee eae
oai?aoe/aneie aeenoeeieeiu e aieaa aicaeiaio ia?eiaeo, a eiaiii e
a?a/aneiio ia?eiaeo aa ?acaeoey, oae eae ie a aaeiaoneie, ie a
aaaeeiineie iaoaiaoeea, ianiio?y ia iaee/ea oai aeiaieueii neiaeiuo e
oi/iuo ?acoeueoaoia, ia iaeeaii eaeai-eeai neaaea nianoaaiii
iaoaiaoe/aneiai, aeaaeoeoeaiiai ?annoaeaeaiey, oi anoue auaiaea iaeieo
oi?ioe e i?aaee ia iniiaa ae?oaeo eee eia/a – iaoaiaoe/aneiai
aeieacaoaeuenoaa a iau/iii niunea yoiai neiaa.

A?iiaaeiue naeaea, inouanoaeaiiue a a?a/aneie iaoaiaoeea, caeeth/aaony a
eaeaa aeieacaoaeuenoaa eee aeaaeoeoeaiiai auaiaea. Aeieacaoaeuenoai
ia?auo aaiiao?e/aneeo oai?ai i?eienuaaaony auaeathuaiony a?a/aneiio
oeeinioo Oaeano ec Ieeaoa, eioi?ue aeei iaaeaeo 625 – 547 aa. aei i.y.
Anee aa?ii, /oi aeaaeoeoeaiue iaoiae a iaoaiaoeeo aue aianai Oaeanii, oi
iaaei neacaoue, /oi iaoaiaoeea a A?aoeee, ia/eiay n yoiai iiiaioa,
?acaeaaeanue /?acau/aeii auno?uie oaiiaie, e i?aaeaea anaai a ieaia
eiae/aneie nenoaiaoecaoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa iaoaiaoeea ioi?ieeanue eae
iniaay iaoea, iia iaoea naie niaoeeoe/aneee iaoiae – iaoiae
aeaaeoeoeaiiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa, eioi?ue ii?aaeaeyao aa ?acaeoea aei
ianoiyuaai a?aiaie.

Iiyaeaiea iaoaiaoeee eae nenoaiaoe/aneie iaoee ieacaei a naith i/a?aaeue
a?iiaaeiia aeeyiea ia oeeinioneia iuoeaiea, eioi?ia ieacaeinue a
ii?aaeaeaiiii niunea iiae/eiaiiii iaoaiaoeea. Yoi e anoanoaaiii.
Iiciaiea oiai a?aiaie auei ianeieueei ia?aie/aiiui ieoieiae/aneei e
aio?iiiii?oiui iauyniaieai i?e?iaeu. Ia oiia ?aciiai ?iaea iaonoie/eauo
i?aaenoaaeaiee, eioi?ua oae aea o?oaeii aeieacaoue, eae e ii?iaa?aiooue,
aaea ?aaeueiia niaoaeinue n oaioanoe/aneei, iaoaiaoeea iiyaeeanue eae
ciaiea niaa?oaiii iniaie i?e?iaeu, aeinoiaa?iinoue eioi?iai ia aucuaaao
ieeaeiai niiiaiey, iinueee eioi?iai yniu, a auaiaeu niaa?oaiii
iai?aeiaeiu.

Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi a iaoaiaoeea a?aee oaeaeaee ia i?inoi i?aeoe/anee
iieaaeiia n?aaenoai, ii, i?aaeaea anaai, au?aaeaiea aeoaeiiie nouiinoe
ie?a, ia/oi naycaiiia n enoeiiie e iaeciaiiie i?e?iaeie aauae. Iie
einiieiaece?iaaee e ienoeoeoee?iaaee iaoaiaoeeo, naeaeaa aa enoiaeiui
ioieoii a naieo iiaeoiaeao e iienaieth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Yoa
ienoeoeeaoeey iaoaiaoeee iaoea naia au?aaeaiea a oeeinioneii o/aiee
Ieoaai?a e aai iineaaeiaaoaeae. Iniiaiie oacen ieoaai?aecia ninoieo a
oii, /oi «ana anoue /enei». Niune yoiai ooaa?aeaeaiey ia naiaeeony e
oiio anoanoaaiiiio enoieeiaaieth, iiae eioi?ui iiaeienaeny au e
nia?aiaiiue o/aiue, /oi anthaeo iiaoo auoue iaia?oaeaiu eiee/anoaaiiua
nayce e /oi anyeay caeiiiia?iinoue iiaeao auoue au?aaeaia iin?aaenoaii
iaeeo iaoaiaoe/aneeo niioiioaiee. A?a/aneay oeeinioey oiai a?aiaie
i?eaioe?iaaeanue ia iouneaiea ia?aiiniiau ie?a, ia/aea, ec eioi?iai
iiaeii auei au iauynieoue ana i?ienoiaeyuaa. Aeey ieoaai?aeoeaa eiaiii
/enea ea?aee ?ieue ia/aea, ?ieue enoiaeiuo nouiinoae, ii?aaeaeythueo
iaeioi?ui ia?acii aeaeeiua yaeaiey e i?ioeannu. *oanoaaiii
aini?eieiaaiua aaue noaee enoieeiauaaoueny a naiae no?oeoo?a eeoue eae
iiae?aaeaiea /eneai, naienoaa eo noaee ?anniao?eaaoueny a niioaaonoaee
ni naienoaaie oiai eee eiiai /enea eee /eneiaiai niioiioaiey, eae
i?iyaeaiea /eneiaie aa?iiiee.

A?aee caiaoeee, /oi a?eoiaoe/aneea aeaenoaey iaeaaeatho iniaie
i/aaeaeiinoueth, aaconeiaiie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth, i?eioaeeoaeueiie aeey
?acoia, eioi?ie ia iaeaaeatho ieeaeea ooaa?aeaeaiey i ?aaeueiuo niauoeyo
e oaeoao. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai auei enoieeiaaii eae i?iyaeaiea iniaiai
ioiioaiey /enae e enoeia. Oeeinioey i?aa?aoeeanue o ieoaai?aeoeaa a
ienoeeo /enae e aaiiao?e/aneeo oeao?, oaaaeaeaiea a enoeiiinoe oeai eee
eiiai ooaa?aeaeaiey i ie?a aeinoeaaeinue naaaeaieai aai e /eneiaie
aa?iiiee.

*oi eanaaony i?e?iaeu naiie iaoaiaoe/aneie caeiiiia?iinoe, enoieia aa
aaconeiaiie enoeiiinoe, oi ?aiiea ieoaai?aeoeu nei?aa anaai ia
caaeoiuaaeenue iaae yoei aii?inii. O Ieaoiia, iaeiaei, iu iaoiaeei oaea
iaeioi?oth oai?eth ia yoio n/ao. Iaoaiaoe/aneea enoeiu aeey Ieaoiia
a?iaeaeaiu, iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aia/aoeaiey ia enoeia naiie ii naa,
eioi?ua aeooa iieo/eea, i?aauaay a aieaa niaa?oaiiii ie?a, ie?a eaeae.
Iaoaiaoe/aneia iiciaiea anoue iiyoiio i?inoi i?eiiieiaiea, iii o?aaoao
ia iiuoa, ia iaaethaeaiey i?e?iaeu, a eeoue aeaeaiey ?acoiii.

Ia?yaeo n ieoiai?aeneie oeeinioeae, nouanoaiaaea ae?oaay, aieaa
?aaeenoe/aneay (n nia?aiaiiie oi/ee c?aiey) oeeinioey iaoaiaoeee,
eaeouay io aoiiecia Eaaeeiia e Aeaiie?eoa. Ecaanoii, /oi Aeaiie?eo
io?eoeae aiciiaeiinoue aaiiao?e/aneeo iino?iaiee a ionoioa:
aaiiao?e/aneea oeao?u auee aeey iaai ia oiic?eoaeueiuie nouiinoyie, a
i?aaeaea anaai iaoa?eaeueiuie oaeaie, ninoiyueie ec aoiiia.

Iaoaiaoe/aneee aoiieci iiyaeeny nei?aa eae /anoiay ya?enoe/aneay eaeay a
aaiiao?ee, /ai eae iniaue acaeyae ia i?e?iaeo iaoaiaoeee a oeaeii.
Iaeiaei ii iayai niaea?aeae a naaa ii?aaeaeaiioth aioeoaco ieoaai?aecio.
Anee aeey ieoaai?aeoeaa iaoaiaoe/aneea iauaeou (/enea) ninoaaeyee iniiao
ie?a a iioieiae/aneii niunea e iniiao aai iiieiaiey, oi a aoiienoe/aneie
ya?enoeea iaoaiaoe/aneea caeiiiia?iinoe aunooiatho oaea eae aoi?e/iua ii
ioiioaieth e aoiiai eae ia?ainouiinoyi. Oece/aneia caeanue eiae/anee
i?aaeoanoaoao iaoaiaoe/aneiio e ii?aaeaeyao naienoaa iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iauaeoia. Ieoaai?aeoeu auee i?aau, aic?aaeay i?ioea i?aa?auaiey
iaoaiaoeee a oeceeo, ianoaeaay ia /enoioa iaoaiaoe/aneiai iaoiaea, a
oaeaea e ia eaeaaeecaoeee aaneiia/iie aeaeoiinoe aaiiao?e/aneeo aaee/ei.
Nenoaia aaeeeaeianeie iaoaiaoeee ia iiaea auoue iino?iaia aac oaeie
eaeaaeecaoeee. Ii iaoaiaoe/aneee aoiieci oai ia iaiaa niaea?aeae a
ca?iaeuoa aoaeouoth, aieaa yiie?enoneoth oeeinioeth iaoaiaoeee, eioi?ay
iaecaaaeii aeieaeia auea aueoe ia noeaio a nayce n ?inoii aeeyiey
anoanoaaiiuo iaoe.

1.2. Aic?iaeaeaiea. Oeeinioneea i?aaeiinueee iainiiaaiey en/eneaiey
aaneiia/ii iaeuo

Ca ouny/o eao, eioi?oth iu iacuaaai yiioie n?aaeiaaaeiauey, a iaoaiaoeea
ia i?iecioei nouanoaaiiuo ia?aai?ioia, oioy iaoaiaoe/aneea e eiae/aneea
enoeiu auee iinoiyiiui iauaeoii ?acee/iuo noieanoe/aneeo niaeoeyoeee.
Oeeinioey iaoaiaoeee oaeaea noiyea ia ia?oaie oi/ea: iia ia auoea ca
?aiee ieoaai?aecia a aai ieaoiie/aneie e iaiieaoiie/aneie
eioa?i?aoaoeee. Oieueei a XIV-XV aa. A Aa?iia ia/aeinue aic?iaeaeaiea
oai?/aneiai iaoaiaoe/aneiai iuoeaiey a a?eoiaoeea, aeaaa?a e aaiiao?ee.
Neaaeothuea aeaa noieaoey iciaiaiiaaeenue iiyaeaieai e ?acaeoeai
niaa?oaiii iiauo iaoaiaoe/aneeo eaeae, eioi?ua iu ioiinei naaiaeiy e
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiio e eioaa?aeueiiio en/eneaieth. Iiaua eaeae aicieeee
anayce n iio?aaiinoyie iaoee, a iniaaiiinoe iaoaieee e yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai i?aaeii?aaeaeeei iiyaeaiea i?eioeeieaeueii iiaie
oeeinioee iaoaiaoeee. Iaoaiaoeea noaea ?anniao?eaaoueny ia eae
a?iaeaeaiiia e aaniethoiia ciaiea, a nei?aa eae ciaiea aoi?e/iia,
iiuoiia, caaenyuaa a naiae no?oeoo?a io iaeioi?uo aiaoieo ?aaeueiinoae.
Yoa oeeinioneay onoaiiaea i?iai?aaeaeeea a naith i/a?aaeue eiie?aoiia
iaoiaeieiae/aneia iuoeaiea, y?ei i?iyaeaoaany a noa?a iainiiaaiey
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiai e eioaa?aeueiiai en/eneaiee.

Iniiaiui iiiyoeai oai?ee iaoaiaoeea e oeeinioa Eaeaieoea auei iiiyoea
aeeooa?aioeeaea, eee aaneiia/ii iaeiai i?e?auaiey ooieoeee. Ionoue iu
eiaai ooieoeeth y=f(x). Anee iu oaaee/ei aa a?aoiaio (x) ia iaeioi?oth
aaee/eio h, oi iieo/ei i?e?auaiea ooieoeee dy=f(x+h)-f(x). Aeey
Eaeaieoea dy ia ?aaii 0, ii aianoa n oai yoa aaee/eia noieue iaea,
/oi, oiiiaeea aa ia ethaia eiia/iia /enei, iu ia iieo/ei eiia/iie
aaee/eiu. A iniiaiii naiai ii?aaeaeaiee Eaeaieoe i?iaiaeee /oaeaeoth
iaoaiaoeea e aiiaua cae?aaiio niuneo eaeath iaa?oeiaaeiaie aaee/eiu.

I?ioeai?a/eainoue aeai?eoiia aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiai en/eneaiey, ianiaeanea
eo n i?aaenoaaeaieyie i iaoaiaoe/aneie no?iainoe, aaei i/aaeaeiui aeey
aieueoeinoaa iaoaiaoeeia XVIII a. Iaaeaeo oai naii yoi en/eneaiea
iaoiaeeei ana iiaua i?eeiaeaiey a iaoaieea e ano?iiiiee, i?aa?auaynue a
oeaio?aeueioth e iaeaieaa i?iaeoeoeaioth /anoue iaoaiaoe/aneiai ciaiey.
I?iaeaia iainiiaaiey aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiai en/eneaiey noaiiaeeanue ana
aieaa aeooaeueiie, ia?a?anoay a iaeioi?oth i?iaeaio aaea, aucaaaooth, ii
neiaai Ia?ena, ioeeee aeaaea a ie?a ianiaoeeaeenoia.

Aeaeaeaiea iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiaeeca a XVIII a. e iainiiaaieth, eaaeaony,
iiaeii iieiinoueth iienaoue a nenoaia «oai?ey-i?eeiaeaiea», oa anoue eae
aeeaeaeoe/aneia acaeiiaeaenoaea yoeo aeaoo iiiaioia. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue
au/eneaiey ieiuaaeae, ia?aie/aiiuo i?iecaieueiuie e?eauie e.o.ae.
i?eaaei e ioe?uoeth aeai?eoiia aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiai en/eneaiey.
I?eeiaeaiea yoeo aeai?eoiia e iiaui caaea/ai canoaaeei iaiaueoue e
ooi/ieoue enoiaeiua iiiyoey e naeaeaoue aieaa no?iaeie naie aeai?eoiu. A
eiia/iii eoiaa aiaeec noi?ie?iaaeny eae eiae/anee iai?ioeai?a/eaay,
ioiineoaeueii caieiooay e iieiay iiiyoeeiay nenoaia.

1.3. Iaaaeeeaeiau aaiiao?ee e ?acaeoea oeeinioee iaoaiaoeee a XIX a.

Oeeinioneea aeeneonnee a iaoaiaoeea XIX a. Auee naycaiu a iniiaiii n
?acaeoeai aaiiao?ee, a eiaiii n enoieeiaaieai iaaaeeeaeiauo aaiiao?ee. A
iaeanoe iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiaeeca oaeaea aicieeee i?eioeeieaeueiua
o?oaeiinoe, ii iie eacaeenue eaaei ono?aieiuie e iaeioi?ua ec ieo,
aeaenoaeoaeueii, auee ono?aiaiu. Iaaaeeeaeiau aaiiao?ee auee oaeoii
nianai ae?oaiai ?iaea. Aii?in i i?e?iaea iaoaiaoe/aneiai ciaiey aiciee
anayce n ieie niiaa e ia iaiaa ino?i /ai a i?aaeuaeouai noieaoee, a
nayce n iainiiaaieai en/eneaiey aaneiia/ii iaeuo.

11 oaa?aey 1826 a. I?ioanni? Eacaineiai oieaa?neoaoa I.E. Eiaa/aaneee
i?aaenoaaee o/aiiio niaaoo oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa aeieeaae n
eceiaeaieai iniia aaiiao?ee. Aeaaiay eaeay aai ninoiyea a oii, /oi
aeneiia Aaeeeaea i ia?aeeaeueiuo i?yiuo iacaaeneia io ae?oaeo aeneii
aaeeeaeiaie aaiiao?ee (iaauaiaeeia ec ieo) e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aiciiaeii
iino?ieoue ae?oaoth aaiiao?eth, noieue aea iai?ioeai?a/eaoth, eae e
aaeeeaeiaa, anee a aaeeeaeiaie aaiiao?ee caiaieoue aeneiio i
ia?aeeaeueiuo ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiia ooaa?aeaeaiea. A iineaaeothuea aiaeu
Eiaa/aaneee ananoi?iiia ?ac?aaioae oai?eth iiaie aaiiao?ee e oeacae ?yae
aa i?eeiaeaiee a iaeanoe iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiaeeca.

Cia/aiea iaaaeeeaeiauo aaiiao?ee ninoieo i?aaeaea anaai a oii, /oi eo
iino?iaiea e aeieacaoaeuenoai iai?ioeai?a/eainoe i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu i ia?aeeaeueiuo, caieiaaoae iaoaiaoeeia
a oa/aiea aeaoo ouny/aeaoee. Ii ia oieueei yoiio iaoaiaoe/aneiio
cia/aieth iaaaeeeaeiau aaiiao?ee iaycaiu naiae ecaanoiinoueth. Iie
yaeeenue ia oieueei e?oiiui niauoeai a ?acaeoee iaoaiaoeee XIX a., ii
aianoa n oai oaeoii, i?ioeai?a/auei anai neiaeeaoeiny e oiio a?aiaie
i?aaenoaaeaieyi i i?e?iaea iaoaiaoe/aneiai ciaiey. Ioe?uoey Eiaa/aaneiai
i?eaaei iaoaiaoeeia e ei?aiiiio ia?aniio?o i?aaenoaaeaiee i nianoaaiiie
iaoea, i aa ooieoeee a nenoaia ciaiey, i iaoiaeao iino?iaiey e
iainiiaaiey iaoaiaoe/aneeo oai?ee. Iiaeii neacaoue aac i?aoaaee/aiey,
/oi nia?aiaiiia iiieiaiea iaoaiaoeee au?inei ec iiiuoie iniuneeoue oaeo
iaaaeeeaeiauo aaiiao?ee.

A ia/aea XIX a. a enoieeiaaiee iaoaiaoeee eiaee aeeyiea aeaa
iai?aaeaiey: yiie?eci e ai?ei?eci.

Ieaoii a naia a?aiy ?acee/ae a?eoiaoeeo e aaiiao?eth a niioaaonoaee n
i?e?iaeie eo iiiyoee. *enea aeey Ieaoiia ioiinyony e ie?o eaeae, a oi
a?aiy eae aaiiao?e/aneea iauaeou yaeythony eaeaaeueiuie oieueei
iaiieiaeio, oae eae iie naycaiu n /oanoaaiiuie ia?acaie e iiyoiio
caieiatho i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo ie?ii eaeae e ?aaeueiui
ie?ii. Aiaeiae/iia ?acee/aiea a?eoiaoeee e aaiiao?ee i?iaiaeeony e
iaoaiaoeeaie XIX a. Anee iauaeou a?eoiaoeee (iniaaiii yoi eanaaony
e??aoeeiiaeueiuo e iieiuo /enae) ?anniao?eaathony eae iuneaiiua
ia?aciaaiey, eae noa?a, aaea iu iiaeai iie?aoueny eneeth/eoaeueii ia
eiaeeo, oi aaiiao?e/aneea iiiyoey ia?ac?uaii naycuaathony n iiuoiuie
i?aaenoaaeaieyie. Aieueoeinoaii iaoaiaoeeia ia?aie iieiaeiu XIX a.
aaiiao?ey iiieiaaony /enoi yiie?e/anee eae iaoea i ?aaeueiii
i?ino?ainoaa.

I?ioeaiiieiaeiia, ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneia aicc?aiea ia aaiiao?eth e
iaoaiaoeeo a oeaeii, eioi?iio noaeaeaii auei nua?aoue eneeth/eoaeueii
aieueooth ?ieue a aeeneonneyo i i?e?iaea iaaaeeeaeiauo aaiiao?ee, auei
?acaeoi a eiioea XVIII a. auaeathueiny iaiaoeeei oeeinioii E. Eaioii.
Niaeanii Eaioo, iiiyoey aaiiao?ee e a?eoiaoeee ia yaeythony io?aaeaieai
no?oeoo?u einiina, eae aeoiaee ieoaai?aeoeu, e ia ecaea/aiu iin?aaenoaii
aano?aeoeee ec iiuoa, ii i?aaenoaaeytho niaie io?aaeaiea /enoiai eee
ai?ei?iiai nica?oeaiey, i?enouaai /aeiaaeo ia?yaeo n yiie?e/aneei.
Nouanoaotho aeaa oi?iu /enoiai nica?oeaiey – i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy.
I?ino?ainoai e a?aiy – iaiaoiaeeiua aioo?aiiea i?aaenoaaeaiey, eioi?ua
aeaiu /aeiaaeo aeaaea i?e aano?aae?iaaiee io anaai yiie?e/aneiai.
Aaiiao?ey, ii Eaioo, anoue ia /oi eiia eae au?aaeaiiay a iiiyoeyo /enoay
eiooeoeey i?ino?ainoaa, a?eoiaoeea iaoiaeeony a oaeii aea ioiioaiee e
/enoiio i?aaenoaaeaieth a?aiaie. Aaiiao?e/aneea e a?eoiaoe/aneea
noaeaeaiey ia yiie?e/aneea, iineieueeo iie io?aaeatho ai?ei?iia
nica?oeaiea, ii aianoa n oai iie e ia aiaeeoe/aneea noaeaeaiey, ia
oaaoieiaee, eaeiauie yaeythony i?aaeea eiaeee, iineieueeo iie io?aaeatho
niaea?aeaiea /oanoaaiiinoe, oioy e ia yiie?e/aneie. Iaoaiaoeea oaeei
ia?acii iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeaia eae nenoaia neioaoe/aneeo noaeaeaiee,
au?aaeathuay no?oeoo?o ai?ei?iuo oi?i /oanoaaiiinoe. Eae nenoaia
auaiaeia e aeieacaoaeuenoa iaoaiaoeea aeieaeia auoue iieiinoueth
eioeeoeaii yniie: ii Eaioo, ana iaoaiaoe/aneea aeieacaoaeuenoaa
«iinoiyiii neaaeotho ca /enoui nica?oeaieai ia iniiaaiee anaaaea
i/aaeaeiiai neioaca»

A oai?aoe/aneii ieaia ai?ei?ec i?aaenoaaeyao ?aceoth iiiiceoeeth
yiie?ecio. Iaeiaei cia/aiea yoiai ?anoiaeaeaiey ia neaaeoao
i?aoaaee/eaaoue. A iaoiaeieiae/aneeo oa?aiaaieyo e iaoaiaoeea
?aoeeiiaeenou i?aeoe/anee noiaeeeenue n yiie?enoaie, oae eae iei oaeaea
o?aaiaaee io iaoaiaoe/aneeo aeneii i/aaeaeiinoe, iaaeyaeiinoe,
eiooeoeaiie yniinoe, oioy oaia?ue oaea io eiaie ai?ei?iie /oanoaaiiinoe.
Neioac aaiiao?e/aneeo aeneii iin?aaenoaii /enoie eiooeoeee i?ino?ainoaa
o?oaeii ioee/eoue a i?aeoe/aneie ieineinoe io o?aaiaaiey auaaaeaiey yoeo
aeneii ec iaaethaeaiey oaa?aeuo oae eee iaoaie/aneeo aeaeaeaiee a
i?ino?ainoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, a ia/aea XIX a. iu aeaeei iaee/ea aeaoo aeeaiao?aeueii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo aicc?aiee ia nouiinoue iaoaiaoeee e aianoa n oai
ii?aaeaeaiiia aaeeinoai a iaoiaeieiae/aneeo o?aaiaaieyo: io
iaoaiaoe/aneeo enoei o?aaiaaee ia oieueei eo no?iaie aeieacoaiinoe, ii
aua e iaycaoaeueiie iaaeyaeiinoe, iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeaiiinoe niciaieth,
eiooeoeaiie yniinoe oiai eee eiiai ?iaea.

Aica?auaynue e iaaaeeeaeiaui aaiiao?eyi, ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi oioy
ioe?uoey a iaoea, eae au iie ia auee aaeeee, naie ii naaa ia yaeythony
aeeaaeii a oeeinioeth, iaeiiei nouanoaotho ioe?uoey, eioi?ua aeaeoo ca
niaie eciaiaiey a oeeinioee iaoee, a iiieiaiee aa i?aaeiaoa, iaoiaeia,
nayce n ae?oaeie iaoeaie. Iaaaeeeaeiau aaiiao?ee – i?eia? iaeiiai ec
oaeeo ioe?uoee, /?acau/aeii ?aaeeeo a enoi?ee iaoee. Aei iino?iaiey
iaaaeeeaeiauo aaiiao?ee e oaeei naeaeaai a iaoaiaoeea, eiaaoei
oeeinioneia cia/aiea, iiaeii ioianoe oieueei o?e niauoey, a eiaiii
iiyaeaiey naiie eaeae iaoaiaoeee eae aeaaeoeoeaiie iaoee, ioe?uoea
ianiecia?eiuo aaee/ei e ioe?uoea aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiai en/eneaiey.

1.4. Iaoaiaoeea a XX a.

Oaeou, o?aaothuea ia?ano?ieee i?aaenoaaeaiey i nouiinoe iaoaiaoeee eae
iaoee, ii naiaio oa?aeoa?o iiaoo auoue naiuie ?aciuie. Oaeeie oaeoaie
iiaoo auoue ioaeaeueiua oai?aiu, iiaua iaoaiaoe/aneea oai?ee, iiaua
yaeaiey a i?eeeaaeiie iaoaiaoeea e o. ae. Enoi?ey iieacuaaao, /oi ia
eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii yoaia oeeinioey iaoaiaoeee a?auaaony aie?oa
eaeiai-oi ii?aaeaeaiiiai e?oaa niauoee a iaoaiaoeea, a eaeie-oi ia?a,
iiaeao auoue, aeaaea aaniethoece?oy aai e i?aoaaee/eaay aai cia/eiinoue.
Aeey oeeinioee iaoaiaoeee XX a. oaeei iaoaiaoe/aneei aacenii yaeythony
iniiaaiey iaoaiaoeee, iiiuoee iaoaiaoeeia ono?aieoue i?ioeai?a/ey ec
oai?ee iiiaeanoa, a a iauai ieaia – iaeoe n?aaenoaa, aa?aioe?othuea
iaaeaaeiinoue iaoaiaoe/aneeo ?annoaeaeaiee.

Oeeinioey e iaoaiaoeea

Iiaeiaii oiio eae iniiaiui aii?inii oeeinioee yaeyaony aii?in ia
ioiioaiee niciaiey e iaoa?ee, noa?aeiaaui aii?inii oeeinioee iaoaiaoeee
yaeyaony aii?in ia ioiioaiee iiiyoee iaoaiaoeee e iauaeoeaiie
?aaeueiinoe, ae?oaeie neiaaie, aii?in i ?aaeueiii niaea?aeaiee
iaoaiaoe/aneiai ciaiey. Io oiai, eae ?aoaao yoio ooiaeaiaioaeueiue
aii?in oio eee eiie o/aiue, caaeneo oa?aeoa? inaauaiey ei anao
inoaeueiuo iaoiaeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai iaoaiaoeee, a oaeaea oi, e eaeiio
oeeinioneiio eaaa?th ii i?eiueaao.

I?aaeaea /ai ia?aeoe e inaauaieth aii?ina i ianoa iaoaiaoeee a nenoaia
iaoee, iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaa?eoaeueii auyaeoue oioy au a iaueo /a?oao
iauai, niaea?aeaiea e niioiioaiea oaeeo iiiyoee, eae oeeinioey, iau/iua
iaoee, niaoeeaeueiua iaoee, /anoiua iaoee.

Iiae iau/iuie iaoeaie iu iiieiaai ana iaoee, ca eneeth/aieai iaoaiaoeee,
eioi?ay yaeyaony iaiau/iie iaoeie. Oa?iei niaoeeaeueiua iaoee iaicia/aao
ana iaoee, aeth/ay iaoaiaoeeo, ii eneeth/ay, ?acoiaaony, oeeinioeth.
*anoiua aea iaoee – yoi oa iaoee, eioi?ua eco/atho iaoaeou a ?aieao
eaeie-eeai iaeiie oi?iu aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee (eee aeaaea /anoe aa) –
oeceea, oeiey, aeieiaey, e o. ae. Noaei auoue, /anoiua iaoee – yoi
niaoeeaeueiua iaoee ca au/aoii iaoaiaoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaoaiaoeeo, eae e oeeinioeth iiaeii ioianoe e anaiauei
iaoeai. A naiii aeaea, iia n/eoaany anaiauae e aano?aeoiie iaoeie,
iineieueeo iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao a i?eioeeia iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny e
i?aeoe/anee eniieuecoaony ai anao aac eneeth/aiey iaeanoyo ciaiey.
Aicieeaao aii?in – a /ai aea nouanoaaiiie ?acee/ea iaaeaeo oeeinioeae e
iaoaiaoeeie, ec/athueie iaeio e oo aea ?aaeueioth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue?

Naiue iauee ioaao ia iaai, caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi oeeinioey e
iaoaiaoeea eniieuecotho ?aciua niiniau iienaiey iauaeoeaiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e niioaaonoaothuea ei ycuee: a ia?aii neo/aa iu eiaai
aeaei n anoanoaaiiui, a ai aoi?ii neo/aa – n eneonnoaaiiui ycueii,
i?aaeiieaaathuei oi?iaeueii-eiae/aneee iaoiae iienaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Eae ecaanoii, oeeinioey eco/aao ana yaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iiae
oaeii anaiaueo caeiiiia?iinoae e aeaao, ii nouanoao, oieaa?naeueiue
iaoiae iiciaiey e i?aia?aciaaiey i?e?iaeiiai e nioeeaeueiiai ie?oaeaiey.
I?e yoii oeeinioey eco/aao e eiee/anoaaiioth (aiaoithth), e
ea/anoaaiioth noi?iiu iauaeoia, aiaeece?oy eo i?aaeaea anaai a ieaia
iaeaieaa iaueo i?eioeeiia, caeiiia e eaoaai?ee.

Eiia aeaei iaoaiaoeea. Aa caaea/a ninoieo a iienaiee oiai eee eiiai
i?ioeanna n iiiiuueth eaeiai-eeai iaoaiaoe/aeiai aiia?aoa, oi anoue
oi?iaeueii-eiae/aneei niiniaii. Ii ia iniiaaiee yoiai ooaa?aeaeaiey
iaeuecy aeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi iaoaiaoeea a ioee/ea io oeeinioee
ioia?aaeaao eeoue eiee/anoaaiioth noi?iio iauaeoia i?aaeiaoiiai ie?a.
Iaeuecy iioiio, /oi eeoue a enoiaeiuo iiiyoeyo iaoaiaoeee
aini?iecaiaeeony /enoi aiaoiyy (eiee/anoai a oe?ieii, oeeinioneii
niunea) noi?iia yoeo iauaeoia. ?acaeoay aea iaoaiaoe/aneay oai?ey
au?aaeaao ia oieueei aiaoithth, /enoi eiee/anoaaiioth noi?iio i?aaeiaoia
?aaeueiiai ie?a, ii e a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie eo aioo?aiithth,
ea/anoaaiioth noi?iio.

Eoae, ?acaeae iaaeaeo oeeinioeae e iaoaiaoeeie i?ioiaeeo ia ii eeiee
eaoaai?ee oi?ia e niaea?aeaiea, ea/anoai e eiee/anoai eee eaeeo-oi eiuo
eaoaai?ee oeeinioee. ?acee/ea iaaeaeo yoeie aeaoiy niiniaaie iienaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe caeeth/aaony a eiii – a iaoiaea e ycuea iienaiey
i?ioeannia aiaoiiai ie?a, a oii, /oi iaoaiaoeea a ethaii neo/aa
i?aaeiieaaaao oi?iaeecaoeeth a oe?ieii niunea neiaa, oi?iaeueiue niinia
iienaiey eco/aaiuo yaeaiee. sscue iaoaiaoeee – yoi oi?iaeeciaaiiue ycue,
ni anaie aai iaaeinoaoeaie e aeinoieinoaaie.

Ii anee aeaei ianoieo oae, oi iaoaiaoe/aneee iaoiae aeieaeai auoue
ioa?aeoa?eciaai eae aniiiiaaoaeueiue niinia oai?aoe/aneiai iienaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. A iauai e oeaeii oae iii e anoue. Iaeiaei iaoaiaoeea
eiiaaea aa?iaa e aeoaaea ioia?aaeaao ?aaeueiinoue, /ai yoi aeaeaaony a
?aieao iau/iuo iaoe. Aieueoa oiai, eiatho ianoi neo/ae, eiaaea
ya?enoe/aneay iiaeaeue iaoaiaoeee ieacuaaaony ?aoathuae a iiciaiee oao
eee eiuo i?ioeannia, iineieueeo eo eco/aiea ia aa?aaeueiii o?iaia ii
iaeioi?ui i?e/eiai cao?oaeiaii, a eiiaaea i?aeoe/anee aeaaea
iaaiciiaeii.

Eoae, ianiio?y ia iaeeiaeiai anaiauee oa?aeoa?, oeeinioey e iaoaiaoeea
auiieiytho ?acee/ioth ooieoeeth a iiciaiee. I?e yoii oeeinioey iaiueoa
ioee/aaony io /anoiuo iaoe, /ai iaoaiaoeea, iineaaeiyy caieiaao iniaia
iieiaeaiea, eia/a «aieaoaia» a oeaiue iaoee, /ai oeeinioey e ethaay
ae?oaay iaoea.

Iiiiae?iaiaa ia?aoeiny e ooieoeeyi iaoaiaoeee e oeeinioee.

Ie?iaicc?ai/aneay ooieoeey oeeinioee iaoneiaeaia oai, /oi iia yaeyaony
iniiaie iao/iie ea?oeiu ie?a, a nicaeaiea eioi?ie naie iineeueiue aeeaae
aiineo, eiia/ii, eaaeaeay niaoeeaeueiay iaoea. ssaeyynue eoiaii
iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneie i?aeoeee e iiciaiey, oeeinioey a yoii niunea
aunooiaao a ea/anoaa ooiaeaiaioa anaai caeaiey iaoee. E?iia oiai,
oeeinioey eae nenoaia aeenoeeieei iaoneiaeeaaao oi?ie?iaaiea o /aeiaaea
iaiaoiaeeiuo oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioaoeee, eiaao ia?iiiia ainieoaoaeueiia
cia/aiea, yaeyynue ia oieueei iaoeie, ii e iniaie oi?iie iauanoaaiiiai
niciaiey – eaeaieiaeae.

Oeeinioey yaeyaony ia oieueei iniiaie ie?iaicc?aiey, ii e anaiauei
iaoiaeii iiciaiey. Ionthaea iaoiaeieiae/aneay ooieoeey oeeinioee.
Iiaeiaii oiio eae a nenoaia iaoe oeeinioey auiieiyao ?ieueno?aaeiy anaai
ciaiey, iia yaeyaony e anaiauei iaoiaeii iiciaiey e i?aia?aciaaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe: nenoaia iaoe e eo noai?aeeiaoeee niioaaonoaoao,
oaeei ia?acii, nenoaia e noai?aeeiaoeey iaoiaeia.

Oeeinioey auiieiyao ii ioiioaieth ei anai /anoiui iaoeai oaeaea
oai?aoeei-iiciaaaoaeueioth ooieoeeth. Yoi i/aaeaeii oaea iioiio, /oi
oai?ey iiciaiey yaeyaony iaeiie ec ioiineoaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiuo
aeenoeeieei, a eioi?ie eco/athony oi?iu e iaoiaeu iao/iiai iiciaiey,
no?oeoo?a e o?iaie aai, e?eoa?ee enoeiu.

Iaeiiaoe oeeinioey a oeaeii, iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay aeeaeaeoeea a
iniaaiiinoe, auiieiyao ii ioiioaieth ei anai inoaeueiui iaoeai
eiae/aneoth ooieoeeth. Ie iaeei niaoeeaeeno ia iiaeao oniaoii aanoe
enneaaeiaaiey, iaiauaoue e iauyniyoue iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou, ia
eniieuecoy oeeinioneeo iiiyoee e i?aaenoaaeaiee.

Oaeei ia?acii, oeeinioneea i?eioeeiu eiatho ia?iiiia iaoiaeieiae/aneia
cia/aiea, iaeaaeatho aieueoie ya?enoe/aeie neeie, aeatho aiciiaeiinoue
aieaa eioaineaii ?acaeaaoue niaoeeaeueiua iaoee.

Aiai?y i i?aaeiaoa e ooieoeeyo iaoaiaoeee, i/aaeaeii, /oi a nia?aiaiiie
iaoea ana aieaa iuooeiie noaiiaeony eioaa?e?othuay ?ieue iaoaiaoeee,
iineieueeo iia, eae e oeeinioey, yaeyaony anaiauae iao/iie
aeenoeeieeiie. N?aaieaay aa n oeeinioeae, iaiaoiaeeii /aoei ii?aaeaeeoue
i?aaeiao iaoaiaoe/aneiai ciaiey. Aeaoeieoeey oie eee eiie iaoee,
eiia/ii, ia niaea?aeeo en/a?iuaathuae oa?aeoa?enoeee yoie iaoee.
O.Yiaaeuen ii?aaeaeye iaoaiaoeeo eae iaoeo, caieiathuothny eco/aieai
i?ino?ainoaaiiuo oi?i e eiee/anoaaiiuo ioiioaiee ?aaeueiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iaeiaei nia?aiaiiua, iaeaieaa ?acaeoua
iaoaiaoe/aneea oai?ee iaiin?aaenoaaiii eiatho aeaei oaea n oae
iacuaaaiuie aano?aeoiuie no?oeoo?aie, oae /oi nia?aiaiiay iaoaiaoeea
/aua anaai ii?aaeaeyaony eae iaoea i /enouo, aano?aeoiuo no?oeoo?ao.

Ioiaoei aua iaeio iniaaiiinoue iaoaiaoeee. Iau/ii i?aaeiao iaoee
ioee/atho io aa iaoaeoa. A neo/aa iaoaiaoeee ioee/ea iauaeoa io
i?aaeiaoa auaeyaeeo ia oae, eae ai anao eiuo iaoeao, anee eiaoue aaeaeo,
/oi iiae i?aaeiaoii iaoee iau/ii iiieiatho ii?aaeaeaiioth noa?o
aeayoaeueiinoe, niaieoiiinoue, nenoaio oao caeiiiia?iinoae, eioi?ua
eco/athony ath. Iaoaiaoeea, no?iai aiai?y, ia eco/aao caeiiia ?acaeoey
i?e?iaeiie eee nioeeaeueiie n?aaeu, eo eco/atho iau/iua iaoee. A naiii
aeaea, anaiauea caeiiu ie?oaeathuae ian aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eco/aao
oeeinioey, a /anoiua – inoaeueiua (/anoiua) iaoee. Iaoaiaoeea aea a yoii
ioiioaiee, /oi iacuaaaony ia iiaacei. Iia ia yaeyaony /anoiie iaoeie a
iau/iii iiieiaiee yoiai neiaa; iia anoue iniaue niinia oai?aoe/aneiai
iienaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. A yoii ioiioaiee iia aieueoa, /ai iau/iay
iaoea, eai a i?eioeeia iia iiaeao iienuaaoue ethaia yaeaiea
ie?oaeathuaai ian ie?a e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oeaeoth niaieoiiinoue
aeenoeeieei. (Oeeinioey – oiaea ia/oi aieueoaa, /ai iaoea, ii a eiii
niunea: iia yaeyaony e iaoeie, e iniaie oi?iie iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey,
niaea?aeauae a naaa yeaiaiou eaeaieiae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a).

Oyniaiea i?aaeiaoa iaoaiaoeee iicaieyao iiiyoue a iaueo /a?oao eae iia
niioiineony ia oieueei n oeeinioeae, i /ai aiai?eeinue auoa, ii e n
/anoiuie iaoeaie, eco/athueie ioaeaeueiua o?aaiaiou i?e?iaeiiai e
nioeeaeueiiai ie?oaeaiey, ?aaii eae e eaeaaeueiuo ii naiae i?e?iaea
ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia.

Iineieueeo iaoaiaoeea i?aaenoaaeyao ii naiae i?e?iaea anaiauaa e
aano?aeoiia ciaiea, iia a i?eioeeia iiaeao e aeieaeia eniieueciaaoueny
ai anao io?aneyo iaoee.

Niaoeeoeea iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea e eco/aieth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ai
iiiaii iauyniyao e iniaaiiinoue e?eoa?ey enoeiu a iaoaiaoeea.

N e?eoa?eai enoeiu a /anoiuo iaoeao aeaei ianoieo aieaa eee iaiaa
i?inoi, iniaaiii anee ia caauaaoue ia ioiineoaeueiinoe i?aeoeee eae
e?eoa?ey enoeiu. A iaoaiaoeea aea e?eoa?ee enoeiu aunooiaao a aanueia
naiaia?aciie oi?ia; iu ia iiaeai aeieacaoue enoeiiinoue iaoaiaoe/aneiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey, iniiauaaynue eeoue ia i?aeoeea, neieueei au iu ia
ecia?yee oaeu o?aoaieueieea, iai ia oaeanony aeieacaoue, /oi noiia
aioo?aiieo oaeia o?aoaieueieea ?aaiyaony a oi/iinoe 180 a?aaeonai.

E yoi iauyniyaony ia noieueei ioeaeaie ecia?aiey, eioi?ia ia iiaeao
auoue eaeaaeueiui, aaniethoii oi/iui, neieueei aiiaeeeoe/aneei
oa?aeoa?ii iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiiyoee, oi?iaeueii-aeaaeoeoeaiui auaiaeii
i?aaeeiaeaiee, oai?ai iaoaiaoeee. Ei?i/a aiai?y, i?aeoeea yaeyaony
enoiaeiui ioieoii iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiiyoee, ii a ea/anoaa
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai e?eoa?ey enoeiu i?aaeeiaeaiee iaoaiaoeee iia iau/ii
ia aunooiaao. Oieueei a eiia/iii eoiaa i?aeoeea ii?aaeaeyao
i?eaiaeiinoue oiai eee eiiai iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa e iienaieth
eiie?aoiuo yaeaiee aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Naiaia?acea e?eoa?ey enoeiu a iaoaiaoeea au?aaeaaony e a oii, /oi, eae
i?aaeei, a ea/anoaa oaeiai e?eoa?ey aunooiaao a eoiaa oai?ey a?eoiaoeee
iaoo?aeueiuo /enae, enoeiu eioi?uo yaeythony iacuaeaiuie aeey eaaeaeiai
iaoaiaoeea. Ai?i/ai, a eaeie-oi ia?a yoi ioiineony ei anai iaoeai, anee
eiaoue aaeaeo iaee/ea a oeeinioee (eae ie?iaicc?ai/aneie e
iaoiaeieiae/aneie iniiaa iaoee) i?eioeeieaeueiuo iieiaeaiee, n eioi?uie
aeieaeiu niaeaniauaaoueny ana auaeaeaaaiua aeiioacu.

Iaiaoiaeeii caiaoeoue, /oi eniieueciaaiea a ea/anoaa iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai
e?eoa?ey enoeiu a?eoiaoeee iaoo?aeueiuo /enae icia/aao, /oi yoio
e?eoa?ee i?aaie/anee naycai n aeaoiy ae?oaeie o?aaiaaieyie – oi/iinoueth
e iai?ioeai?a/eainoueth. Oaeiaeaoai?aie yoei aeaoi e?eoa?eyi – oiaea
iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea enoeiiinoe iaoaiaoe/aneeo iino?iaiee.

Eoae iaoaiaoeea – naiaia?aciue niinia oai?aoe/aneiai iienaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iaeanoue ciaiey, eiathuay naie iniaue noaoon a
nenoaia iaoeth I?aaeiaoii iaoaiaoe/aneiai iienaiey iiaeao noaoue ethaie
i?ioeann aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a iauaeoyie yoie iaeanoe ciaiey yaeythony
i?ino?ainoaaiiua oi?iu e eiee/anoaaiiua ioiioaiey ?aaeueiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a iauai neo/aa – aano?aeoiua «iaoaiaoe/aneea»
no?oeoo?u.

Caeeth/aiea

Iaoaiaoeea – naiaia?aciue niinia oai?aoe/aneiai iienaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iaeanoue ciaiey, eiathuay naie iniaue noaoon a
nenoaia iaoe.

Iaoaiaoeea yaeyaony iaoeie, noiyuae eae au ioaeaeueii io anao ae?oaeo
iaoe e a yoii niunea iia iioiaea n oeeinioeae. Anaiauiinoue yoeo aeaoo
iaoe, eo acaeiii?iieeiiaaiea ae?oa a ae?oaa e acaeiieniieueciaaiea
aaaeao e ?acaeoeth iauanoaa e ana inoaeueiuo, oae iacuaaaiuo
niaoeeaeueiuo iaoe. Iiaeiaii oiio eae oeeinioey ?acaeaaeanue, ia?aoaea
iiaua iai?aaeaiey e eaeae, oae e iaoaiaoeea noaiiaeeanue ana aieaa
?acaeoie e anaiauae iaoeie.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

A.A.Aaeyaa, A.ss.Ia?ieiia «Oeeinioneea e iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu
iaoaiaoeee», IAO, 1981, – 214 n.

Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia «Aiinaieiae/aneee aiaeec iaoaiaoe/aneie iaoee»,
Eeaa Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1985, -130 n.

A.Ae.A?aaeaeaiieeia «Yeno?aiieyoeeiiiay i?iaiinoeea», Iiaineae?ne, 1988,
-142 n.

I.E.AEoeia «Oeeinioneea i?iaeaiu iaoaiaoeee», Ieine, 1977, -95 n.

A.A.Nie?eei «Iniiau oeeinioee», Iineaa, 1988, 592 n.

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