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Математические модели естествознания

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Ieaeaai?iaeneee Ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao

ei. I. E. Eiaa/aaneiai

?aoa?ao ia oaio

Iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea anoanoaiciaiey

auiieiee:

no. Oeoeei Oeiioae

731 a?oiia

i?iaa?ee:

Aioaeia ?.A.

Ieaeiee Iiaai?iae

1999a.

No?oeoo?a anoanoaaiiiiao/iuo ciaiee

Anoanoaaiiua e aoiaieoa?iua iaoee.

Iaoea caieiaaony eco/aieai iauaeoeaii nouanoaothueo ( o.a. nouanoaothueo
iacaaeneii io /ueaai-eeai niciaiey) iauaeoia e yaeaiee i?e?iaeu. Aii?in
i oii, nouanoaoao ee ie?oaeathuee ian ie? nai ii naaa eee ii yaeyaony
i?iaeoeoii aeayoaeueiinoe ?acoia (i?eiaaeeaaeauaai iaeiio aunoaio
nouanoao eee eaaeaeiio eiie?aoiiio eiaeeaeaeo) ninoaaeyao nooue o.i.
iniiaiiai aii?ina oeeinioee, eeanne/anee oi?ioee?oaiii a aeaea aeeeaiiu
i ia?ae/iinoe iaoa?ee eee niciaiey. A caaeneiinoe io ioaaoa ia iniiaiie
aii?in oeeiniou iiae?acaeaeythony ia iaoa?eaeenoia (i?eciatho
iauaeoeaiia nouanoaiaaiea ie?oaeathuaai ian ie?a, aicieeoaai a
?acoeueoaoa naii?acaeoey iaoa?ee), iauaeoeaiuo eaeaaeenoia (i?eciatho
iauaeoeaiia nouanoaiaaiea ie?a, aicieeoaai eae ?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe
aunoaai ?acoia) e noauaeoeaiuo eaeaaeenoia (n/eoatho, /oi ie?oaeathuee
ian ie? ia nouanoaoao ?aaeueii, a anoue ieiae aiia?aaeaiey ioaeaeueiiai
eiaeeaeaea) . Ii-aeaeeiiio iaaiciiaeii aeaoue yenia?eiaioaeueii
iainiiaaiiiai ioaaoa ia iniiaiie aii?in oeeinioee, oioy aieueoeinoai
anoanoaieniuoaoaeae yaeythony i?eaa?aeaioeaie iaoa?eaeenoe/aneeo
eiioeaioeee.

Ana nouanoaothuea iao/iua aeenoeeieeiu oneiaii (ethaay eeanneoeeaoeey
iineo i?eaeeaeaiiue oa?aeoa? e iaiieii io?aaeaao enoeiioth nooue aauae!)
?acaeaeaiu ia aeaa iniiaiua a?oiiu: anoanoaaiiiiao/iua (caieiathony
eco/aieai iauaeoia i?e?iaeu e yaeaiee, ia yaeythueony i?iaeoeoii
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea eee /aeiaa/anoaa) e aoiaieoa?iua (eco/atho
yaeaiey iauaeou, aicieeoea eae ?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea).

I?aaeiao anoanoaiciaiey – oaeou e yaeaiey, eioi?ua aini?eieiathony
iaoeie i?aaiaie /oanoa. Caaea/a o/aiiai- iaiaueoue yoe oaeou e nicaeaoue
oai?aoe/aneoth iiaeaeue, aeeth/athuoth caeiiu, oi?aaeythuea yaeaieyie
i?e?iaeu. Neaaeoao ?acee/aoue oaeou iiuoa, yiie?e/aneea iaiauaiey e
oai?ee, eioi?ua oi?ioee?otho caeiiu iaoee. ssaeaiey, iai?eia?,
oyaioaiea, iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeaiu a iiuoa; caeiiu iaoee, iai?eia?, caeii
anaie?iiai oyaioaiey – aa?eaiou iauyniaiey yaeaiee. Oaeou iaoee, aoaeo/e
onoaiiaeaiiuie, nio?aiytho naia iinoiyiiia cia/aiea; caeiiu iiaoo auoue
eciaiaiu a oiaea ?acaeoey iaoee, eae, neaaeai, caeii anaie?iiai
oyaioaiey aue nei??aeoe?iaai iinea nicaeaiey oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe.

Cia/aiea /oanoa e ?acoia a i?ioeanna iaoiaeaeaiey enoeiu – neiaeiue
oeeinioneee aii?in. A iaoea i?eciaaony enoeiie oi iieiaeaiea, eioi?ia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony aini?iecaiaeeiui iiuoii. Iniiaiie i?eioeei
anoanoaiciaiey aeaneo: ciaiey i i?e?iaea aeieaeiu aeiioneaoue
yiie?e/aneoth i?iaa?eo. Ia a oii niunea, /oi eaaeaeia /anoiia
ooaa?aeaeaiea aeieaeii iaycaoaeueii yiie?e/anee i?iaa?youeny, a a oii,
/oi iiuo, a eiia/iii n/aoa, yaeyaony ?aoathuei a?aoiaioii i?eiyoey
aeaiiie oai?ee.

Anoanoaiciaiea a iieiii niunea neiaa iauacia/eii e aeaao «?iaeiaoth»
enoeio, o.a. enoeio, i?eaiaeioth e i?eieiaaioth anaie ethaeueie. Iiyoiio
iii o?aaeeoeeiiii ?anniao?eaaeinue a ea/anoaa yoaeiia iao/iie
iauaeoeaiinoe. Ae?oaie e?oiiue eiiieaen iaoe – iauanoaiciaiea –
iai?ioea, anaaaea aue naycai n a?oiiiauie oeaiiinoyie e eioa?anaie,
eiathueieny eae o naiiai o/aiiai, oae e a i?aaeiaoa enneaaeiaaiey.
Iiyoiio a iaoiaeieiaee iauanoaiaaaeaiey ia?yaeo n iauaeoeaiuie iaoiaeaie
enneaaeiaaiey i?eia?aoaao aieueoia cia/aiea ia?aaeeaaiea eco/aaiiai
niauoey, noauaeoeaiia ioiioaiea e iaio e o.i.

Io oaoie/aneeo iaoe anoanoaiciaiea ioee/aaony iaoeaeaiiinoueth ia
iiciaiea, a ia ia iiiiuue a i?aia?aciaaiee ie?a, a io iaoaiaoeee oai,
/oi enneaaeoao i?e?iaeiua, a ia ciaeiaua nenoaiu.

Neaaeoao o/eouaaoue ?acee/ea iaaeaeo anoanoaaiiuie e oaoie/aneeie
iaoeaie, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie e i?eeeaaeiuie – n
ae?oaie. Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua iaoee – oeceea, oeiey, ano?iiiiey – eco/atho
aaceniua no?oeoo?u ie?a, a i?eeeaaeiua – caieiathony i?eiaiaieai
?acoeueoaoia ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee aeey ?aoaiey eae
iiciaaaoaeueiuo, oae e nioeeaeueii-i?aeoe/aneeo caaea/. A yoii niunea
ana oaoie/aneea iaoee yaeythony i?eeeaaeiuie, ii aeaeaei ia ana
i?eeeaaeiua iaoee ioiinyony e oaoie/aneei. Oaeea iaoee, eae oeceea
iaoaeeia, oeceea iieoi?iaiaeieeia yaeythony oai?aoe/aneeie i?eeeaaeiuie
aeenoeeieeiaie, a iaoaeeiaaaeaiea, iieoi?iaiaeieeiaay oaoiieiaey –
i?aeoe/aneeie i?eeeaaeiuie iaoeaie.

Iaeiaei i?iaanoe /aoeoth a?aiue iaaeaeo anoanoaaiiuie, iauanoaaiiuie e
oaoie/aneeie iaoeaie a i?eioeeia iaeuecy, iineieueeo eiaaony oeaeue ?yae
aeenoeeieei, caieiathueo i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea eee yaeythueony
eiiieaeniuie ii naiae nooe. Oae, ia nouea anoanoaaiiuo e iauanoaaiiuo
iaoe iaoiaeeony yeiiiie/aneay aaia?aoey, ia nouea anoanoaaiiuo e
oaoie/aneeo – aeiieea, a eiiieaeniie iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iie aeenoeeieeiie,
eioi?ay aeeth/aao e anoanoaaiiua, e iauanoaaiiua, e oaoie/aneea
?acaeaeu, yaeyaony nioeeaeueiay yeieiaey.

O?iaie i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee e ea?a?oey anoanoaaiii iao/iuo ciaiee.

Ie?oaeathuea ian iauaeou i?e?iaeu eiatho aioo?aiithth no?oeoo?o, o.a. a
naith i/a?aaeue naie ninoiyo ec ae?oaeo iauaeoia (yaeiei ninoieo ec
eeaoie ?anoeoaeueiie oeaie, eioi?ay neiaeaia ec iieaeoe, yaeythueony
iauaaeeiaieyie aoiiia e o.ae.). I?e yoii anoanoaaiiui ia?acii
aicieeatho ?acee/iua ii neiaeiinoe o?iaie i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee:
einie/aneee, ieaiaoa?iue, aaieiae/aneee, aeieiae/aneee, oeie/aneee,
oece/aneee. I?aaenoaaeoaee anoanoaaiiuo iaoe, caieiathueany eco/aieai
iauaeoia eaeiai-eeai o?iaiy iiaoo aeinoe/ue eo iieiiai iienaiey eeoue
iniiauaaynue ia ciaieyo aieaa «ieceiai» (yeaiaioa?iiai) o?iaiy
(iaaiciiaeii iiiyoue caeiiu aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe eeaoee, ia eco/ea
oeieci i?ioaeathueo a iae ?aaeoeee). Iaeiaei ?aaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe
eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai enneaaeiaaoaey aanueia ia?aie/aiu (/aeiaa/aneie
aeecie iaaeinoaoi/ii ia oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau ieiaeioai?ii
caieiaoueny eco/aieai n?aco ianeieueeeo o?iaiae, ii aeaaea caaaaeiii ia
oaaoaao ia neieueei-ieaoaeue iieiia inaiaiea oaea iaeiieaiiuo ciaiee i
eaeii-oi iaeiii). Ec-ca yoiai aicieeei aeaeaiea anoanoaaiii iao/iuo
ciaiee ia ioaeaeueiua aeenoeeieeiu, i?eia?ii niioaaonoaothuea
auoaia?a/eneaiiui o?iaiyi i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee: ano?iiiieth, yeieiaeth,
aaieiaeth, aeieiaeth, oeieth e oeceeo. Niaoeeaeenou, ?aaioathuea ia
naiai o?iaia, iie?athony ia ciaiey niaaeiuo iaoe, iaoiaeyueony ieaea ii
ea?a?oe/aneie eanoieoea. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyao oeceea, iaoiaeyuayny ia
«naiii ieaeiai yoaaea» /aeiaa/aneeo ciaiee («ninoaaeythuay eo
ooiaeaiaio»): enoi?e/anee neiaeeeinue oae, /oi a oiaea ?acaeoey yoie
iaoee iaia?oaeeaaeenue ana aieaa «yeaiaioa?iua» o?iaie i?aaiecaoeee
iaoa?ee (iieaeoey?iue, aoiiiue, yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe…), eco/aieai
eioi?uo ii-i?aaeiaio caieiaeenue oeceee.

Anoanoaaiiua iaoee ?acee/iuo o?iaiae ia iainiaeaiu ae?oa io ae?oaa. I?e
eco/aiee aunieii?aaieciaaiiuo nenoai aicieeaao anoanoaaiiay iio?aaiinoue
a eioi?iaoeee i ninoaaeythueo eo yeaiaioao, i?aaeinoaaeyaiie
aeenoeeieeiaie «aieaa ieceeo» o?iaiae. I?e eco/aiee aea «yeaiaioa?iuo»
iauaeoia aanueia iieaciu ciaiey i eo iiaaaeaiee a neiaeiuo nenoaiao,
aaea i?e acaeiiaeaenoaeyo n ae?oaeie yeaiaioaie i?iyaeythony naienoaa
eco/aaiuo. I?eia?ii acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoe ?aciuo o?iaiae iiaeao neoaeeoue
?ac?aaioea Iuethoiiii eeanne/aneie oai?ee oyaioaiey (oece/aneee
o?iaaiue), aicieeoae ia iniiaa caeiiia aeaeaeaiey ieaiao Eaiea?a
(ano?iiiie/aneee o?iaaiue), e nia?aiaiiua eiioeaioeee yaiethoeee
Anaeaiiie, iaiuneeiua aac o/aoa caeiiia a?aaeoaoeee.

Anoanoaaiiua iaoee, iaoiaeyueany ia ieaeieo yoaaeao ea?a?oe/aneie
eanoieoeu, ianiiiaiii i?iua auoanoiyueo, iineieueeo caieiathony aieaa
i?inouie iauaeoaie (no?iaiea yeaeo?iiiiai iaeaea aoiia oaea?iaea,
ianiiiaiii «i?iua ia?aiie ?aiu», niaea?aeauae iiiaeanoai aoiiia n oaeeie
iaeaeaie!). Iaeiaei, eiaiii ec-ca i?inoiou eco/aaiuo iauaeoia iaoee
ieaeieo o?iaiae noiaee iaeiieoue ai?acaei aieueoa oaeoe/aneie
eioi?iaoeee e nicaeaoue aieaa caeii/aiiua oai?ee.

Ianoi iaoaiaoeee n?aaee anoanoaaiiuo iaoe.

Ianoaeaeaaoayny auoa no?oeoo?a anoanoaiciaiey ia niaea?aeeo iaoaiaoeee,
aac eioi?ie iaaiciiaeia ie iaeia ec nia?aiaiiuo oi/iuo iaoe. Yoi naycaii
n oai, /oi naia iaoaiaoeea ia yaeyaony anoanoaaiiie iaoeie a iieiii
niunea yoiai iiiyoey, iineieueeo ia caieiaaony eco/aieai eaeeo-eeai
iauaeoia eee yaeaiee ?aaeueiiai ie?a. A iniiaa iaoaiaoeee eaaeao
aeneiiu, i?eaeoiaiiua /aeiaaeii. Aeey iaoaiaoeea ia eiaao ?aoathuaai
cia/aiey aii?in, auiieiythony ee yoe aeneiiu a ?aaeueiinoe eee iao
(iai?. a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeaaiiieo/ii ninouanoaoao ianeieueei aaiiao?ee,
iniiaaiiuo ia ianiaianoiuo ae?oa n ae?oaii nenoaiao aeneii).

Anee iaoaiaoeea caaioeo eeoue eiae/aneay no?iainoue aai auaiaeia,
aeaeaaiuo ia iniiaa aeneii e i?aaeoanoaothueo oai?ai,
anoanoaieniuoaoaeth aaaeii, niioaaonoaoao ee aai oai?aoe/aneia
iino?iaiea ?aaeueiinoe. I?e yoii a ea/anoaa e?eoa?ey enoeiiinoe
anoanoaaiiiiao/iuo ciaiee aunooiaao yenia?eiaio, a oiaea eioi?iai
inouanoaeyaony i?iaa?ea oai?aoe/aneeo auaiaeia.

A oiaea eco/aiey naienoa ?aaeueiuo iauaeoia /anoi ieacuaaaony oae, /oi
iie i?eaeeaeaiii niioaaonoaotho aeneiiaoeea oiai eee eiiai ?acaeaea
iaoaiaoeee (iai?. iieiaeaiea iaaieueoiai oaea iiaeii i?eaeeaeaiii
iienaoue, caaeaa o?e aai eii?aeeiaou, niaieoiiinoue eioi?uo iiaeii
?anniao?eaaoue eae aaeoi? a o?aoia?iii i?ino?ainoaa). I?e yoii ?aiaa
aeieacaiiua a iaoaiaoeea ooaa?aeaeaiey (oai?aiu) ieacuaathony
i?eiaieiuie e oaeei iauaeoai.

E?iia neacaiiiai, iaoaiaoeea ea?aao ?ieue i/aiue eaeiie/iiai, yeiiiiiiai
e aieiai ycuea, oa?ieiu eioi?iai i?eiaieiu e aiaoia niaa?oaiii
?acii?iaeiui iauaeoai ie?oaeathuaai ie?a (aaeoi?ii iiaeii iacaaoue e
niaieoiiinoue eii?aeeiao oi/ee, e oa?aeoa?enoeeo neeiaiai iiey, e
eiiiiiaioiue ninoaa oeie/aneie nianoe, e oa?aeoa?enoeeo
yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey ianoiinoe).

I/aaeaeii, /oi aieaa i?inoua iauaeou iaoaai ie?a oaeiaeaoai?ytho aieaa
i?inoui nenoaiai aeneii, neaaenoaey ec eioi?uo iaoaiaoeeaie eco/aiu
aieaa iieii. Iiyoiio anoanoaaiiua iaoee «iecoeo» o?iaiae ieacuaathony
aieaa iaoaiaoece?iaaiiuie.

Iiuo ?acaeoey nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey iieacuaaao, /oi ia
ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey anoanoaaiii iao/iuo aeenoeeieei iaecaaaeii
i?ienoiaeeo eo iaoaiaoecaoeey, ?acoeueoaoii eioi?ie yaeyaony nicaeaiea
eiae/anee no?ieiuo oi?iaeeciaaiiuo oai?ee e aeaeueiaeoaa onei?aiiia
?acaeoea aeenoeeieeiu.

I?eaeeaeaiiue oa?aeoa? anoanoaaiiiiao/iuo ciaiee.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi anoanoaaiiua iaoee /anoi iacuaatho oi/iuie,
i?aeoe/anee ethaia eiie?aoiia ooaa?aeaeaiea a ieo iineo i?eaeeaeaiiue
oa?aeoa?. I?e/eiie yoiai yaeyaony ia oieueei ianiaa?oainoai
ecia?eoaeueiuo i?eai?ia, ii e ?yae i?eioeeieaeueiuo ia?aie/aiee ia
oi/iinoue ecia?aiee, onoaiiaeaiiuo nia?aiaiiie oeceeie. E?iia oiai,
i?aeoe/anee ana ?aaeueii iaaethaeaaiua yaeaiey noieue neiaeiu e
niaea?aeao oaeia iiiaeanoai i?ioeannia iaaeaeo acaeiiaeaenoaothueie
iauaeoaie, /oi eo en/a?iuaathuaa iienaiea ieacuaaaony ia oieueei
oaoie/anee iaaiciiaeiui, ii e i?aeoe/anee aanniuneaiiui (/aeiaa/aneia
niciaiea niiniaii aini?eiyoue eeoue aanueia ia?aie/aiiue iauai
eioi?iaoeee). Ia i?aeoeea enneaaeoaiay nenoaia niciaoaeueii oi?iuaaony
iooai aa caiaiu iiaeaeueth, o/eouaathuae oieueei naiua aaaeiua yeaiaiou
e i?ioeannu. Ii ia?a ?acaeoey oai?ee iiaeaee oneiaeiythony, iinoaiaiii
i?eaeeaeaynue e ?aaeueiinoe.

Iniiaiua yoaiu ?acaeoey anoanoaiciaiey iiaoo auoue auaeaeaiu, enoiaey ec
?acee/iuo niia?aaeaiee. Ii iiaieth aaoi?a, a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai e?eoa?ey
neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue aeiieie?othuee n?aaee anoanoaieniuoaoaeae
iiaeoiae e iino?iaieth eo oai?ee. I?e yoii ieacuaaaony aiciiaeiui
auaeaeaiea o?ao iniiaiuo yoaiia.

Anoanoaiciaiea ae?aaiaai ie?a. Caaa?oaiiiai aeaeaiey ia aeenoeeieeiu ia
nouanoaiaaei, nicaeaaaaiua eiioeaioeee a naiai aieueoeinoaa iineee
ie?iaicc?ai/aneee oa?aeoa?. Yenia?eiaioaeueiue iaoiae iiciaiey a
i?eioeeia aeiioneaeny, ii ?ieue ?aoathuaai e?eoa?ey enoeiiinoe
yenia?eiaioo ia ioaiaeeeanue. Aa?iua iaaethaeaiey e aaieaeueiua
iaiauathuea aeiaaaeee ninouanoaiaaee n oiic?eoaeueiuie e /anoi
ioeai/iuie iino?iaieyie.

Eeanne/aneee ia?eiae ?acaeoey anoanoaiciaiey aa?ao naia ia/aei n
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo ?aaio Aaeeeay (18 aae) e aeeeony aei ia/aea iaoaai
noieaoey. Oa?aeoa?ecoaony /aoeei ?acaeaeaieai iaoe ia o?aaeeoeeiiiua
iaeanoe e aeaaea ianeieueei aeia?o?ioe?iaaiiie ?ieueth yenia?eiaioa a eo
?acaeoee («iiiyoue- cia/eo ecia?eoue»). Yenia?eiaio ?anniao?eaaaony ia
oieueei eae e?eoa?ee enoeiiinoe, ii e eae iniiaiie eino?oiaio iiciaiey.
Aa?a a enoeiiinoue yenia?eiaioaeueii aeiauouo ?acoeueoaoia noieue
aaeeea, /oi eo ia/eiatho ?ani?ino?aiyoue ia iiaua iaeanoe e i?iaeaiu,
aaea niioaaonoaothuae i?iaa?ee ia i?iecaiaeeeinue. I?e iaia?oaeaiee
?anoiaeaeaiee oae nicaeaaaaiuo eiioeaioeee n ?aaeueii iaaethaeaaiuie
yaeaieyie iaecaaaeii aicieeaei iaaeioiaiea, a?aie/auaa n iiiuoeaie
io?eoeaiey naiie aiciiaeiinoe iiciaiey ie?oaeathuaai ie?a.

Nia?aiaiiia anoanoaiciaiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony eaaeiiia?aciui iaeiieaieai
iiaiai oaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea e aicieeiiaaieai iiiaeanoaa iiauo
aeenoeeieei ia noueao o?aaeeoeeiiiuo. ?aceia oaei?iaeaiea iaoee,
iniaaiii yenia?eiaioaeueiie. Eae neaaenoaea – aic?anoaiea ?iee
oai?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee, iai?aaeythueo ?aaioo yenia?eiaioaoi?ia a
iaeanoe, aaea iaia?oaeaiea iiauo yaeaiee aieaa aa?iyoii. oi?ioee?iaea
iiauo ya?enoe/aneeo o?aaiaaiee e nicaeaaaaiui oai?eyi: e?aniou,
i?inoiou, aioo?aiiae iai?ioeai?a/eainoe, yenia?eiaioaeueiie
i?iaa?yaiinoe, niioaaonoaey (i?aainoaaiiinoe). ?ieue yenia?eiaioa, eae
e?eoa?ey enoeiiinoe ciaiey, nio?aiyaony, ii i?eciaaony , /oi naii
iiiyoea enoeiiinoe ia eiaao aaniethoiiai oa?aeoa?a: ooaa?aeaeaiey,
enoeiiua i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo, i?e auoiaea ca a?aieoeu, a ?aieao
eioi?uo i?iaiaeeeanue yenia?eiaioaeueiay i?iaa?ea, iiaoo ieacaoueny
i?eaeeaeaiiuie e aeaaea eiaeiuie. Nia?aiaiiia anoanoaiciaiea oo?aoeei
i?enouoth eeanne/aneei ciaieyi i?inoioo e iaaeyaeiinoue. Yoi i?iecioei
aeaaiui ia?acii ec-ca oiai, /oi eioa?anu nia?aiaiiuo enneaaeiaaoaeae ec
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeey eeanne/aneie iaoee iaeanoae ia?aianoeeenue ooaea,
aaea iau/iue “aeeoaeneee” iiuo e ciaiey ia iauaeoao e i?ienoiaeyueo n
ieie yaeaieyo a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ionoonoaotho.

Iinea o?eoioa eeanne/aneie iaoaieee Iuethoiia oeiey a eeoea Eaaoacuea,
iieiaeeaoaai ia/aei nenoaiaoe/aneiio i?eiaiaieth aania, anoaea ia
eiee/anoaaiiue iooue, a aneaae ca iae e ae?oaea anoanoaaiiua iaoee.
«Oaeiai ia?aia iniiaaiea, ii eioi?iio oecee ia iiaeao iaieoenue aac
iaoaiaoeee; iia aeaao aio aaeeinoaaiiue ycue, ia eioi?ii ii a ninoiyiee
ecuyniyoueny (A.Ioaiea?a.Oeeo.ni/. – N.220)».

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiia e eioaa?aeueiia en/eneaiea oi?ioi iiaeoiaeeo aeey
iienaiey eciaiaiey nei?inoae aeaeaeaiee, a aa?iyoiinoiua iaoiaeu – aeey
iaia?aoeiinoe e nicaeaiey iiaiai. Ana iiaeii iienaoue eiee/anoaaiii, e
oai ia iaiaa, inoaaony i?iaeaiie ioiioaiea iaoaiaoeee e ?aaeueiinoe. Ii
iiaieth iaeieo iaoiaeieiaia, /enoay iaoaiaoeea e eiaeea eniieuecotho
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, ii ia aeatho iai ieeaeie eioi?iaoeee i ie?a ( ii/aio
Ioaiea?a n/eoae, /oi caeiiu i?e?iaeu eiiaaioeeiiaeueiu), a oieueei
?ac?aaaouaatho n?aaenoaa aai iienaiey. Iaeiaei, aua A?enoioaeue ienae,
/oi /enei anoue i?iiaaeooi/iia iaaeaeo /anoiui i?aaeiaoii e eaeaae, a
Aaeeeae iieaaae, /oi Eieaa I?e?iaeu iaienaia ycueii iaoaiaoeee.

Ia eiay iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai ioiioaiey e ?aaeueiinoe, iaoaiaoeea ia
oieueei iienuaaao yoo ?aaeueiinoue, ii e iicaieyao, eae a o?aaiaieyo
Iaenaaeea, aeaeaoue iiaua eioa?aniua e iaiaeeaeaiiua auaiaeu i
?aaeueiinoe ec oai?ee, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeaia a iaoaiaoe/aneie oi?ia. Eae
aea iauynieoue iaiinoeaeeioth enoeiiinoue iaoaiaoeee e aa i?eaiaeiinoue
aeey anoanoaiciaiey? Iiaeao ana aeaei a oii, /oi « iaoaieci
iaoaiaoe/aneiai oai?/anoaa, iai?eia?, ia ioee/aaony nouanoaaiii io
iaoaiecia eaeiai au oi ie auei eiiai oai?/anoaa»(
A.Ioaiea?a.Oeeo.ni/.-N.285)? Eee aieaa i?eaiaeiu aieaa neiaeiua,
nenoaiiua iauyniaiey?

Ii iiaieth iaeioi?uo iaoiaeieiaia, caeiiu i?e?iaeu ia naiaeyony e
iaienaiiui ia aoiaaa iaoaiaoe/aneei niioiioaieyi. Eo iaaei iiieiaoue eae
ethaie aeae i?aaieciaaiiinoe eaeaaeueiuo i?iia?acia aauae, eee
ine-ooieoeee. Anoue o?e aeaea i?aaieciaaiiinoe: i?inoaeoee – /eneiaua
niioiioaiey; aieaa neiaeiue – ?eoieea 1-ai ii?yaeea, eco/aaiay
iaoaiaoe/aneie oai?eae a?oii; naiue neiaeiue – ?eoieea 2-ai ii?yaeea –
«neiai». Aeaa ia?auo aeaea i?aaieciaaiiinoe iaiieiytho Anaeaiioth ia?ie
e aa?iiieae, o?aoee – niuneii. A ?aieao yoiai iauyniaiey iaoaiaoeea
caieiaao naia iniaia ianoi a iiciaiee.

?aaioa iaae ethaie iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaeueth ia/eiaaony ni nai?a e
aiaeeca oaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea. Ii?aaeaeythony oeaee iiaeaee?iaaiey.
Auaeaeythony aeaaiua /a?ou eco/aaiiai iauaeoa eee yaeaiey. Aaiaeyony
oi?iaeeciaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee. I?eieiathony i?aaeea ?aaiou n ieie. A
?acoeueoaoa aicieeaao iaoaiaoe/aneee iauaeo, eioi?ue e iacuaaaony
iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaeueth. ?ac?aaaouaathony iaoiaeu iaoaiaoe/aneiai
aiaeeca iiaeaee, eioi?uie iia enneaaeoaony. Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou
iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey eioa?i?aoe?othony a ?aieao enoiaeiiai
oaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea, /oi iicaieyao ioeaieoue noaiaiue aaeaeaaoiinoe
iiaeaee. ?acoeueoaou iiaeaee?iaaiey ia aeieaeiu i?ioeai?a/eoue
auaeaeaiiui ?aiaa eeth/aaui yenia?eiaioaeueiui oaeoai. Iaeiia?aiaiii,
iiaeaeue ia iiaeao iauynieoue ana noi?iiu eco/aaiiai iauaeoa eee
yaeaiey.

Oi?ioay iiaeaeue, e?iia iauyniaiey ecaanoiuo, aeieaeia aeaaaoue
aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeneacuaaoue iiaua naienoaa. Iaoaiaoe/aneia
iiaeaee?iaaiea oe?iei eniieuecoaony oai, aaea yenia?eiaioaeueiua
enneaaeiaaiey o?oaeiaiee e aei?iainoiyue, eee aiiaua iaaiciiaeiu
(iai?eia?, a eco/aiee nioeeaeueiuo yaeaiee).

E?iia caaea/e i i?iaiica, iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea iiiiaaao
eeanneoeoee?iaaoue e nenoaiaoece?iaaoue oaeoe/aneee iaoa?eae, oaeaeaoue
nouanoaothuea nayce a iicaeea oaeoia. Yoi auoaeaao ec oiai, /oi iiaeaeue
yaeyaony niaoeeoe/aneei -y?eei e au?aceoaeueiui ycueii, i?aaeiacia/aiiui
aeey iienaiey aeey iienaiey eco/aaiiai iauaeoa eee yaeaiey.

Ie? iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae ?aciiia?acai. Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua noaiu
eo eeanneoeeaoeee. Iaeiaei, eaaeaeay iiaeaeue eiie?aoia e i?aaeiacia/aia
aeey iienaiey aeinoaoi/ii oceiai e?oaa iauaeoia e yaeaiee. Iiaeaee
neeueii ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa ia oieueei i?aaeiaoiuie iaeanoyie,
ii iaoaiaoe/aneie oa?ieiieiaeae, a oaeaea iaoaiaoe/aneeie iaoiaeaie eo
enneaaeiaaiey.

I?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaony aieaa i?inoui iiaeaeyi. Ioiaoei, /oi «i?inoioa»
(eiiaaea a oua?a oi/iinoe)-iaeei ec i?eioeeiia, i eioi?ii anaaaea ioaeii
iiiieoue i?e ?ac?aaioea iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee.

Iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee iae?iiiuo nenoai

Eco/aiea iae?iiiuo nenoai – iaeii ec naiuo ?iiaioe/aneeo iai?aaeaiee
iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee, iineieueeo iae?iiiua nenoaiu i?enoue eae
/aeiaaeo, oae e aeeaioiui. Naiay niaa?oaiiay eioaeeaeooaeueiay nenoaia –
/aeiaa/aneee iica. Ieeaeie eiiiuethoa? a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia iiaeao
aini?iecaanoe aa oaiiiai. Aieaa oiai, aeaaea iiaaaeaiea oaeeo
ioiineoaeueii i?inouo i?aaieciia, eae eaeueia?u, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a
iieiie ia?a iaaiciiaeii niiaeaee?iaaoue ia eiiiuethoa?a. Caeiiu
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia ia?aiie nenoaiu a oeaeii ia
ieioi eco/aiu. Iaeiaei, caeiiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey annioeeaoeee iaeuecy
naanoe caeiiai iiaaaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia. Ia naiii aeaea ia
yooaeoao, iaoneiaeaiiuo eieeaeoeaiui iiaaaeaieai iae?iiiuo iiioeyoeee,
ecaanoii iaei. Iiiyoiu iaeioi?ua naiua iauea i?eioeeiu. Iai?eia?,
iae?iiiua nenoaiu niiniaiu aaeaioe?iaaoueny e iaiythueiny oneiaeyi, o.a.
ei ia ioaeiu aeanoeea i?ia?aiiu. Iaeiia?aiaiii, iineaaeiea, oioy au a
oi?ia ?aoeaenia, i?enoonoaotho a ia?aiie nenoaia. Yenia?eiaioaeueiia
eco/aiea yooaeoia eieeaeoeaiiai iiaaaeaiey iae?iiiuo nenoai cao?oaeiaii.
Yoe nenoaiu neeoeii neiaeii ono?iaiu. Oae a iicaa /aeiaaea e aeeaioiuo
eaaeaeue iae?ii iaoiaeeony iiae aicaeaenoaeai ouny/ ae?oaeo iae?iiia e,
niioaaonoaaiii, aeeyao ia ouny/e iae?iiia. Anaai aea ii nia?aiaiiui
ioeaieai a iicaa ii?yaeea ieeeea?aea iae?iiia. Ia?iiiia cia/aiea eiaao
iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea, eae iaoiae einaaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey. Iii
iiiiaaao iiiyoue, eaeea i?ioeannu iiaoo i?ienoiaeeoue a iae?iiiuo
iiioeyoeeyo. Caoai oaea iiaeii iuoaoueny iaia?oaeeoue niioaaonoaothuea
yaeaiey yenia?eiaioaeueii. Iiaeaee ?acee/athony a caaeneiinoe io oeaeae
iiaeaee?iaaiey. Iaeioi?ua iiaeaee aeinoaoi/ii aaeaeaaoii a aeaoaeyo
iienuaatho iiaaaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo iae?iiia e iiiiaatho iiiyoue
caeiiiia?iinoe eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. Iie aea yaeythony aaciauie aeey
iiaeaeae iaeuo iae?iiiuo iiioeyoeee. Aeey iienaiey aieueoeo iiioeyoeee
eniieuecotho oi?iuaiiua iiaeaee iae?iiia. Oii? aeaeaaony ia eco/aiea
yooaeoia eieeaeoeaiiai iiaaaeaiey. ?acoeueoaou iiaeaee?iaaiey
eniieuecothony eae a iae?ioeceieiaee, oae e a oaoieea. Oaea nae/an
auioneathony iae?iiiua ieaou. Iiea eo aiciiaeiinoe iaaaeeee. Iie
eniieuecothony, iai?eia?, a ia?aaioea ecia?aaeaiee, a oaeaea i?e ?aoaiee
iaeioi?uo yeiiiie/aneeo caaea/. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi nae/an ana
caaea/e, eioi?ua iiaeii ?aoeoue n iiiiuueth iae?iiiuo ieao, a i?eioeeia
iiaeii ?aoeoue e n iiiiuueth iau/iiai eiiiuethoa?a. Iaeiaei, iae?iiiua
ieaou oaaee/eaatho auno?iaeaenoaea. Ia?niaeoeaiui n/eoaaony iai?aaeaiea,
naycaiiia n eniieueciaaieai iae?iiiie oaoieee aeey i?iaaaeaiey
au/eneaiee. ?yae au/eneaiee ia iae?iiiaeiaiuo nenoaiao iiaeao
i?iaiaeeoueny iao?aaeeoeeiiiui niiniaii -iooai eieoaoeee yaeaiee.

Aicaoaeeiua nenoaiu

Ia?aiay eeaoea, eee iae?ii yaeyaony no?oeoo?iie aaeeieoeae ia?aiie
nenoaiu aeeauo i?aaieciia. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua a?aieoeu iae?iia, eae e
ethaie ae?oaie eeaoee, ii?aaeaeythony eeaoi/iie iaia?aiie. A ethaie
eeaoea nouanoaoao ?aciinoue iioaioeeaeia iaaeaeo niaea?aeeiui eeaoee
-oeeoiieaciie e aiaeeaoi/iie n?aaeie. Iaia?aia iiey?eciaaia. Aa
aioo?aiiyy iiaa?oiinoue ca?yaeaia io?eoeaoaeueii ii ioiioaieth e
aiaoiae. ?aciinoue iioaioeeaeia iacuaatho iaia?aiiui iioaioeeaeii. Aai
aaee/eia ninoaaeyao ianeieueei aeanyoeia ieeeeaieueo. I?e/eia
aicieeiiaaiey iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea -ia?aaainoai eiioeaio?aoeee eiiia
a oeeoiieacia e a oeaiaaie aeeaeeinoe. Yoi iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi
eeaoi/iua iaia?aiu iaeaaeatho ecae?aoaeueiie i?iieoeaaiinoueth aeey
?acee/iuo eiiia.

AEeaua i?aaieciu, ana eeaoee e, a /anoiinoe, iae?iiu iaeaaeatho
?acae?aaeeiinoueth -niiniaiinoueth ?aaae?iaaoue ia ?acee/iiai ?iaea
aicaeaenoaey. ?aaeoeee iinyo neiaeiue, eiiieaeniue oa?aeoa?, ii anaaaea
nii?iaiaeaeathony eciaiaieai yeaeo?e/aneiai ca?yaea iaia?aiu.
Aicaeaenoaey, aucuaathuea ?aaeoeee, iacuaathony ?acae?aaeeoaeyie, eee
noeioeaie. Oioy aeeaua i?aaieciu ninoiyo ec eeaoie, ?aaeoeee i?aaiecia a
oeaeii ia naiaeyony e ?aaeoeeyi ioaeaeueiuo eeaoie. Iaiiiiei
oieaa?naeueiia i?aaeei: caeiiiia?iinoe nenoaiu ia iiaoo auoue naaaeaiu e
caeiiiia?iinoyi ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia.

Ia?aiua eeaoee e iaeioi?ua oeaie (iuoa/iay, aeaeacenoay) niaoeeaeueii
i?eniiniaeaiu e inouanoaeaieth auno?uo ?aaeoeee ia ?acae?aaeaiea. Oaeea
eeaoee e oeaie iacuaathony aicaoaeeiuie, a eo ?aaeoeey
-aicaoaeeiinoueth. Eeaoee i?e aicaoaeaeaiee ia?aoiaeyo ec ninoiyiey
oeceieiae/aneiai iieiy a ninoiyiea aeoeaiinoe. A /anoiinoe, ia?aiay
eeaoea aaia?e?oao iaeei, eee ianeieueei yeaeo?e/aneeo eiioeuenia. Yoi
naycaii n oai, /oi i?e aicaoaeaeaiee i?iieoeaaiinoue iaia?aiu aeey eiiia
?acei oaaee/eaaaony. Aicieeatho eiiiua oiee, /oi anoanoaaiii i?eaiaeeo e
eciaiaieth ?aciinoe iioaioeeaeia ia iiaa?oiinoe iaia?aiu. Yoi eciaiaiea
iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea iacuaaaony iioaioeeaeii aeaenoaey. Aaia?e?oaiua
ia?aiuie eeaoeaie eiioeuenu oaeaea iacuaathony niaeeaie. A?oiiu, oanii
neaaeothueo ae?oa ca ae?oaii niaeeia, iacuaathony ia/eaie eee aa?noaie.
Aiieeooaeu niaeeia ioiineoaeueii noaaeeueiu aeey eaaeaeiai oeia
iae?iiia, iiyoiio /anoi aiai?yo, /oi iae?ii ?aaae?oao ia ?acae?aaeaiea
ii caeiio «ana, eee ie/aai».

Ia?aiia aicaoaeaeaiea – ?ani?ino?aiythueeny i?ioeann. Aicieeioa a
iaeiii, eee ianeieueeeo iae?iiao, iii ia?aaeaaony ae?oaei eeaoeai.
I?iaaaeaiea aicaoaeaeaiey iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi iioaioeeae aeaenoaey,
aicieeioa a iaeiie eeaoea, noaiiaeony ?acae?aaeeoaeai aeey naycaiiuo n
iae eeaoie. Oi aea naiia ioiineony e ae?oaei aicaoaeeiui oeaiyi,
iai?eia?, e na?aea/iie iuooea. Niaeanii iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiie a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy oi/ee c?aiey n/eoaaony, /oi «niiauaiey» a ia?aiie
nenoaia ia?aaeathony a aeaea eiioeuenia «ana, eee ie/aai» a oi?ia
/anoioiiai eiaea.

Ianoaeei i?e?iaeo iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea. Iaia?aia, ioaeaeythuay
oeeoiieacio iae?iia io iaaeeeaoi/iie n?aaeu, ninoieo a iniiaiii ec
eeieaeia -aee?iiiaeiaiuo aauanoa. A iaa ano?iaiu aaeeiaua iieaeoeu.
Iaeioi?ua iieaeoeu i?iiecuaatho eeieaeiue neie ianeaicue, a ae?oaea
iia?oaeaiu eeoue aei na?aeoeaaeiu (naiaia?aciua ai?neiee). Iaeioi?ua
aaeee auiieiytho ?ieue eaiaeia, inouanoaeythueo o?ainii?o eiiia /a?ac
iaia?aio. Ae?oaea -neoaeao ?aoeaioi?aie, iicaieythueie iae?iio
?aaae?iaaoue ia iinooiathuea io ae?oaeo iae?iiia iioaioeeaeu aeaenoaey.

Iaoaieciu ia?aiina eiiia /a?ac iaia?aio aeaeyony ia aeaa eeanna:
ianneaiue e aeoeaiue o?ainii?o. Ianneaiue o?ainii?o ia o?aaoao cao?ao
yia?aee. Ii ii?aaeaeyaony aeaoiy oaeoi?aie. Aeeooocey niinianoaoao
au?aaieaaieth eiioeaio?aoeee ?anoai?ia. Iineoaee ca?yaeia -eiiu
ia?aiauathony iiae aeaenoaeai yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey. I?e aeoeaiii
o?ainii?oa ca n/ao oeie/aneie yia?aee, inaiaiaeaeathuaeny i?e ieeneaiee
aieiieeneio, iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny ia?aiin eiiia eae a iaeanoe n aieaa
aunieie eo eiioeaio?aoeeae, oae e i?ioea yeaeo?e/aneeo nee.

iacuaaaony ?aaiiaaniui yeaeo?ioeie/aneei iioaioeeaeii. Iia au/eneyaony
ii oi?ioea Ia?inoa:

, (1)

-ca?yae eiia.

. Oaeei ia?acii, iieo/aai aeeooa?aioeeaeueiia o?aaiaiea:

. Cu( ( gK(u ( EK)
(2)

I?iaaaeai o?eaeaeueiue aiaeec o?aaiaiey (2). Ia?aieoai aai a aeaea:

.

Ionthaea iieo/aai:

.

.

.

. I?eaeaeay niiaa caeii Ee?oaioa, iieo/aai:

. . Cu( ( gNa(u ( ENa) (gK(u (EK ) (3)

Oaia?ue a neeo (3) ?aaiiaaniia cia/aiea iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea nooue:

.

. Aeaeaa, Aa?iooaei i?aaeiieiaeee, /oi a aeecie iae?iia eiiaaea
ianooiaao iniaue iiiaio -ninoiyiea aicaoaeaeaiey, eiaaea ia ei?ioeia
a?aiy iaia?aia noaiiaeony i?iieoeaaiie e aeey ae?oaeo eiiia, a
/anoiinoe, aeey iao?ey e oei?a. A ?acoeueoaoa i?eoiea aioo?ue eeaoee
iieiaeeoaeueiuo eiiia aaee/eia iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea iaaeaao, a caoai,
iinea ainnoaiiaeaiey ecae?aoaeueiuo naienoa iaia?aiu, niiaa aoiaeeo a
ii?io. Oae aia?aua auea iauyniaia aaia?aoeey niaeea.

Iao?eaai – eaeeaaue oeeee

Aeiioaca Aa?iooaeia oi?ioi iauyniyea iiiaea ecaanoiua oeceieiaai oiai
a?aiaie oaeou. A /anoiinoe, caaeneiinoue iioaioeeaea iieiy io
eiioeaio?aoeee eaeey a iaaeeeaoi/iie n?aaea, a oaeaea io oaiia?aoo?u.
Iaeiaei a oi a?aiy aeiioaco iaeuecy auei iiaeaa?aiooue
yenia?eiaioaeueiie i?iaa?ea. A ?anii?yaeaiee enneaaeiaaoaeae ia auei
iaoiaeeee iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai eciaiaiey iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea e
eiioeaio?aoeee eiiia. Aeiioaca Aa?iooaeia aucuaaea ianno nii?ia.

Neooaoeey eciaieeanue iinea niiauaiey aiaeeeneiai ciieiaa Aeae. THiaa,
naeaeaiiiai a 1936 a. Ii iaia?oaeee, /oi aeeeiiua oyaee o eaeueia?ia e
ea?aeaoeoe yaeythony ia e?iaaiiniuie ninoaeaie, eae yoi n/eoaeinue
?aiaa, a iaiau/aeii oienouie aeniiaie (io?inoeaie ia?aiuo eeaoie). Iie
iieo/eee iacaaiea aeaaioneeo aeniiia e noaee anoanoaaiiui iauaeoii aeey
eco/aiey iaia?ai. Aeeaiao? aeniiia aeinoeaaao 1 ii e aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
aaiaeeoue a ieo yeaeo?iaeu e eaieeey?u. A ?acoeueoaoa iiaeii ecia?eoue
eae iaia?aiiue iioaioeeae, oae e eiioeaio?aoeeth aioo?eeeaoi/iiai
?anoai?a.

. A aeaeueiaeoai i?iieoeaaiinoue iaia?aiu aeey eiiia iao?ey iaaeaao e
aeoeae?oaony i?iaiaeeiinoue aeey eiiia eaeey, eioi?ua aeaeaeoony ec
eeaoee, aaea eo eiioeaio?aoeey auoa. Eiiu eaeey oiinyo ec eeaoee
iieiaeeoaeueiue ca?yae. Aioo?aiiyy iiaa?oiinoue iaia?aiu ca?yaeaaony
io?eoeaoaeueii. Yoio iao?eaai-eaeeaaue oeeee ieaea aoaeao ?anniio?ai
iiae?iaiaa.

A oa/aiea oeeeea eiiu iao?ey caoiaeyo a eeaoeo, a eiiu eaeey aa
iieeaeatho. Oaeia caiauaiea aeieaeii au?aaieaaoue eiioeaio?aoeee eiiia.
Eacaeinue au, /oi iinea ?yaea oeeeeia ia?aiay eeaoea ia aeieaeia
aaia?e?iaaoue niaeeia (eiioeaio?aoeee eiiia aioo?e e aia eeaoee
o?aaiythony). A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yoi ia oae. Ia?aaiiia?iia
?ani?aaeaeaiea eiiia aioo?e e aia eeaoee iiaeaea?aeeaaaony aeoeaiui
o?ainii?oii eiiia. Iaoaieciu, inouanoaeythuea o?ainii?o eiiia /a?ac
iaia?aio a noi?iio iiauoaiiie eiioeaio?aoeee, iacuaathony iaia?aiiuie
ianinaie (iiiiaie). Iie iio?aaeytho yia?aeth, eioi?ay inaiaiaeaeaaony a
?acoeueoaoa ieeneaiey aieiieeneio.

ec eeaoee auaiaeeoueny oaea ia aoaeoo). Anee iaia?aiiue iioaioeeae
io?eoeaoaeai (aioo?aiiyy iiaa?oiinoue iaia?aiu ca?yaeaia
io?eoeaoaeueii), oi iao?eaaue ianin auiieiyao yeaeo?e/aneoth ?aaioo,
auaiaey ec eeaoee noiia?ii iaeei iieiaeeoaeueiue ca?yae. Iao?eaaue ianin
aeaenoaoao ecae?aoaeueii. Iai?eia?, ii ia niiniaai ia?aiineoue eiiu
eeoey. Iieaeoey?iue iaoaieci aeoeaiiai o?ainii?oa a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aei
eiioea ia ynai.

.

Aeey enneaaeiaaiey i?ioeanna aaia?aoeee niaeea A.Oiaeaeeeiui e A.Oaenee
aue ?ac?aaioai i?eaeiaeueiue i?eai, eioi?ue iacuaaaony iaoiaeii
oeenaoeee iioaioeeaea. Aioo?eeeaoi/ii aaiaeyony yeaeo?iaeu e
eniieuecoaony nenoaia n ia?aoiie naycueth, iicaieythuay iiaeaea?aeeaaoue
iaia?aiiue iioaioeeae ia ethaii caaeaiiii o?iaia. Oai naiui, iiaeii
eieoe?iaaoue ?acee/iua oacu iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey, eae au “caii?aaeeaay”
aai. Nenoaia iicaieyao ecia?youe eiiiua oiee. Eciaiyy eiiiue ninoaa
n?aaeu (oae aea /a?ac iee?ieaieeey?u iaiytho ninoaa aioo?eeeaoi/iie
aeeaeeinoe) iiaeii eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue eiiu, eioi?ua iaoneaaeeaatho oie.
Enneaaeiaaiey iaia?oaeeee, /oi aeaaea ianneaiue o?ainii?o eiiia (a
niioaaonoaee n a?aaeeaioii eiioeaio?aoeee e iai?aaeaieai yeaeo?e/aneiai
iiey) iiae/eiyaony niaoeeoe/aneei caeiiiia?iinoyi. Aeey eo iauyniaiey
A.Oiaeaeeeiui e A.Oaenee auea auneacaia aeiioaca i iaee/ee a iaia?aia
niaoeeaeueiuo eiiiuo eaiaeia, neoaeaueo aeey eo o?ainii?oe?iaee.

-ai?io ioe?uoi, /oi a naith i/a?aaeue oaaee/eaaao aeaiiey?ecaoeeth.
I?ioeann ioe?uoey ai?io i?ioaeaao eaaeiiia?acii.

-ai?io. A 1980 a. O. Neaai?n e Y. Iaa? ca?aaeno?e?iaaee oiee /a?ac
aaeeie/iua iao?eaaua eaiaeu. Ieacaeinue, /oi iie iiae/eiythony caeiio
«ana eee ie/aai», Ioe?uaathony i?aeoe/anee iaiiaaiii, a /a?ac a?aiy
ieiei 1 inae. oae aea i?aeoe/anee iaiiaaiii cae?uaathony. Eiiiua eaiaeu
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iieaeoeu aaeea, ae?aieaiiua a eeieaeiue neie
iaia?aiu.

-ai?io. Eiiu eaeey aeaeaeoony a iaeanoue n iaiueoae eiioeaio?aoeeae
(ianneaiue o?ainii?o). I?e yoii a ?aeiia iaa?oooa (iaia?aiiue iioaioeeae
iieiaeeoaeai) aeaeaeaiea inouanoaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n iai?aaeaieai
yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey. Eaeeaaue oie oiineo ec eeaoee (oi/iaa n aioo?aiiae
iiaa?oiinoe iaia?aiu) io?eoeaoaeueiue ca?yae. Iaia?aia niiaa
iiey?ecoaony.

-ai?ioa naie cae?uaathony, eiaaea iaia?aia aica?auaaony e o?iaith
iioaioeeaea iieiy (?aiiey?ecoaony).

io enoiaeiiai. Anee aeiee?iaaoue aeoeaiua iao?eaaua ianinu
eaeei-ieaoaeue yaeii, oi aenii ana ?aaii niiaeao naaia?e?iaaoue
ianeieueei ouny/ eiioeuenia. Iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeoeaiue o?ainii?o ia
o/anoaoao a aaia?aoeee niaeeia. Iaeiaei, ii iiaeaea?aeeaaao ia aeieaeiii
o?iaia eiioeaio?aoeeiiiua a?aaeeaiou, iaee/ea eioi?uo i?eaiaeeo e
aicieeiiaaieth iioaioeeaeia aeaenoaey.

Iinea iienaiey iaoaiecia aaia?aoeee niaeea, ia?aoeiny e nenoaia
o?aaiaiee, iienuaathuae yoi i?ioeann. Iia i?aaeeiaeaia A. Oiaeaeeeiui e
A. Oaenee.

Aenii Oiaeaeeeia – Oaenee

ia.

. Iiaeii aeieacaoue, /oi ana ?aoaiey oaeiai o?aaiaiey iiiioiiii
no?aiyony e ninoiyieyi ?aaiiaaney. Iauynieoue a ?aieao iaeiiai
yeaeo?ioeie/aneiai o?aaiaiey aaia?aoeeth iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey
iaaiciiaeii.

. Aieaa iaiaa oaaaeeoaeueiia iainiiaaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe eiaiii oaeie
caaeneiinoe ionoonoaoao.

iacuaaaony iaeneiaeueiie eaeeaaie i?iaiaeeiinoueth.

. Iaiiiiei, /oi

, (4)

. (5)

-ai?io aeey eaeeaauo eaiaeia. Nenoaia o?aaiaiee Oiaeaeeeia -Oaenee
eiaao neaaeothuee aeae:

, (6)

,
(7)

,
(8)

,
(9)

oaeaea no?aiyony e naiei ?aaiiaaniui cia/aieyi. I?ioeann aaia?aoeee
niaeea caeii/ai.

, oi /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy (aai iacuaatho ne?uoui, eee eaoaioiui
ia?eiaeii) aaia?e?oaony niaee. Iiaeaeue aaeaeaaoii io?aaeaao ii?iaiaua
naienoaa ?aaeueiiai aeniia. Anee aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia iaia?aio
e?aoeia?aiaiiui oie/eii aeaiiey?ecothuaai oiea (ioeeiiythuaai iaia?aiiue
iioaioeeae a iieiaeeoaeueiii iai?aaeaiee), oi iinea neaaiai aicaeaenoaey
iaia?aiiue iioaioeeae aica?auaaony a ?aaiiaaniia ninoiyiea. Aneaaenoaea
aeinoaoi/ii neeueiiai aicaeaenoaey nionoy eaoaioiue ia?eiae aaia?e?oaony
niaee.

Ianoaeei aua iaeii naienoai aeniia. Aeaaioneea aeniiu aeinoeaatho
aeeeiu ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia naioeiao?ia. Iaia?aiiue iioaioeeae ia
?aciuo o/anoeao aeniia iiaeao ?acee/aoueny. Aenii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
oae iacuaaaioth ?ani?aaeaeaiioth nenoaio. Anee iiaeaenoaiaaoue ia
iaeioi?ue o/anoie aeniia aeiii?iaiaui aeaiiey?ecothuei oie/eii oiea, oi
iaia?aiiue iioaioeeae ia yoii e iaeioi?ii i?eiueathuai e iaio o/anoea
ioeeiieony io ?aaiiaaniiai ninoiyiey a iieiaeeoaeueiii iai?aaeaiee.
Oaeia ioeeiiaiea iacuaaaony eieaeueiui ioaaoii. Aiciouaiea n oa/aieai
a?aiaie caoooaao, iaeiia?aiaiii, eae eaiey, ?anoaeaynue ii aeniio. A
?acoeueoaoa eieaeueiua ioaaou, aicieeoea i?e noeioee?iaaiee ?acee/iuo
o/anoeia, iiaoo iaeeaaeuaaoueny ae?oa ia ae?oaa, o.a., eae aiai?yo,
noiie?iaaoueny ii i?ino?ainoao. Anee aea ia o/anoie aeniia iiaoi?ii
iiaeaaony aeaiiey?ece?othuee oie, oi iiaue eieaeueiue ioaao
iaeeaaeuaaaony ia i?aaeuaeouee. Aiai?yo, /oi i?ienoiaeeo a?aiaiiia
noiie?iaaiea. Eieaeueiua ioaaou a?aaeoaeueiu. Eo aiieeooaea caaeneo io
neeu noeioea (oi/iaa, neeu -aeeeoaeueiinoe). A neo/aa, eiaaea eieaeueiue
ioaao a ?acoeueoaoa noiiaoeee, eee aea iinea aeinoaoi/ii neeueiiai
iaeii?aciaiai eieaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey aeinoeaaao ii?iaiaiai o?iaiy,
caioneathony iaoaieciu aaia?aoeee iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey. Ca?iaeeaoenue
eieaeueii, iioaioeeae aeaenoaey ?ani?ino?aiyaony ii aeniio.

ssaeaiea ?ani?ino?aiaiey iauyniyaony neaaeothuei ia?acii. Oeeoiieacia –
yeaeo?ieeo, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oi?ioee i?iaiaeiee. Anee iaaeaeo oi/eaie
nouanoaotho iaioeaaua ?aciinoe iioaioeeaeia, oi aaeieue iaia?aiu
aicieeatho oiee (aaeece iiaa?oiinoe). Iie iai?aaeaiu io oi/ae n aieaa
aunieei iioaioeeaeii e oi/eai, aaea ii iaiueoa, e iiae/eiythony caeiio
Iia. Aneaaenoaea yoiai iioaioeeae ia o/anoeao, i?eeaaathueo, e iaeanoe
aaia?aoeee niaeea, ?anoao e aeinoeaaao ii?iaiaiai cia/aiey. A
?acoeueoaoa yoe o/anoee naie aaia?e?otho iioaioeeaeu aeaenoaey. I?ioeann
?ani?ino?aiyaony aaeieue aeniia.

I?iaaaeaiea ia?aiuo eiioeuenia iaeaaeaao aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth. I?e
“noieeiiaaiee” iie aiieaeee?otho, o.a. oie/oiaeathony. N iiiiuueth
eieaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey aicaoaeei aenii a aeaoo oi/eao. Ii iaio aoaeoo
?ani?ino?aiyoueny /aou?a eiioeuena, aeaa ec eioi?uo aeaeaeoony ai
ano?a/iuo iai?aaeaieyo. Aeaiiua eiioeuenu ano?aoyony e ia i?iionoyo
ae?oa ae?oaa. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi iaia?aia iaeaaeaao neaaeothuei
naienoaii. Ai a?aiy iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey e iaeioi?ia a?aiy iinea aai
caaa?oaiey iia ia ?aaae?oao ia aicaeaenoaea. A /anoiinoe, iinea
caaa?oaiey niaeea iaeioi?ia a?aiy ia niiniaia naaia?e?iaaoue iiaiai
iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey. Aeaiiia ninoiyiea iacuaaaony aaniethoiie
?ao?aeoa?iinoueth. Ioiaoei, /oi iinoaiaiii aaniethoiay ?ao?aeoa?iinoue
niaiyaony ioiineoaeueiie. Aeey oiai, /oiau eieoeee?iaaoue iioaioeeae
aeaenoaey a ninoiyiee ioiineoaeueiie ?ao?aeoa?iinoe, ioaeii i?eiaieoue
aieaa iiuiue noeioe, iaaeaee a ninoiyiee iieiy.

e ioeth, i?eoiaeei e o?aaiaieth:

(10)

eae e auoa iiae/eiythony o?aaiaieyi (7) -(9).

iieo/aaony iaueiiaaiiia aeeooa?aioeeaeueiia o?aaiaiea:

(11)

, i?e eioi?ie nenoaia o?aaiaiee eiaea i?eaieaiia ii iiaieth aaoi?ia
?aoaiea. Ia?aiao?u iieo/aiiiai i?e enneaaeiaaiee nenoaiu o?aaiaiee
?ani?ino?aiythuaainy iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey ieacaeenue aeeceeie e
?aaeueii iaaethaeaaiui a yenia?eiaioa.

Nei?inoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey eiioeuena ii aeaaioneiio aeniio ioiineoaeueii
ia aaeeea (ii n?aaiaieth n aiaeiae/iuie ii iacia/aieth i?iaiaeieeaie
ia?aiuo eiioeuenia o /aeiaaea). Iia ?anoao n oaaee/aieai aeeaiao?a
aeniia. Oaaee/aiea aeeaiao?ia aeniiia eca?aea i?e?iaea aeey
aunieinei?inoiiai i?iaaaeaiey eiioeuenia o aaniicaiii/iuo. Iaeiaei,
eiaaea i?aaiecio ioaeia ia oieueei auno?ioa ?aaeoeee, ii e ia?iiiia
eiee/anoai naycae, aeaaioneea aeniia noaiiayony ia i?eaieaiuie.
Iai?eia?, a c?eoaeueiii ia?aa, aaea aieueoa ieeeeiia naycae, aeey
aieueoeo aeniiia ia oaaoeei au ianoa. Aeeeiiua aeniiu o /aeiaaea e
iicaiii/iuo aeeaioiuo iie?uou aeinoaoi/ii oienoui eeieaeiui neiai
-ieaeeiiaie iaiei/eie (oi/iaa, iie iaaeou eeaoeaie niaea?aeaueie e
au?aaaouaathueie ieaeei). A ieaeeiiaie iaiei/ea i?enoonoaotho ?aaoey?ii
?aniieiaeaiiua ?ac?uau, aaea iaia?aia aeniia iaieaia. ?ac?uau
iacuaathony ia?aoaaoaie ?aiauea. Ieaeeiece?iaaiiua o/anoee eiatho aeeeio
ii?yaeea 1 -2 ii. I?ioyaeaiiinoue ia?aoaaoia ?aiauea ieiei 1 iei.
Ia?aoaaou ?aiauea niiniaiu aaia?e?iaaoue niaeee. Ieaeeiece?iaaiiua
o/anoee iaeaaeatho aieinoueth e iie/aneei nii?ioeaeaieai, ii iie ia
aaia?e?otho niaeeia. Eiioeuenu ii ieaeeiece?iaaiiui o/anoeai
?ani?ino?aiythony ianneaii, o.a. n cao?aoaie yia?aee ia iie/aneia
nii?ioeaeaiea e ia ia?aca?yae o/anoea, i?aaenoaaeythuaai niaie
eiiaeainaoi? (ia?aoeiua iioa?e). Noiia?ii cao?aou yia?aee ia aaeeee.

?anniio?ei ieaeeiece?iaaiiue o/anoie, ia?aie/aiiue aeaoiy ia?aoaaoaie.
Ionoue eaaue ia?aoaao aaia?e?oao niaee. Aiciouaiea (iieiaeeoaeueiia) ii
ieaeeiece?iaaiiiio o/anoeo ia?aaeaaony i?aaiio ia?aoaaoo. Eiaaea
ioeeiiaiea iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea i?aaiai o/anoea aeinoeaaao ii?iaiaiai
cia/aiey, ii aaia?e?oao niaee. Yoio eiioeuen ia iiaeao aucaaoue
aaia?aoeeth iiaiai niaeea eaaui ia?aoaaoii ?aiauea, iineieueeo oio
iaoiaeeony a ?ao?aeoa?iii ninoiyiee (a ninoiyiee iaaini?eei/eainoe).
Iaeiaei, aeaiiue ia?aoaao ii oie aea noaia aicaoaeaeaao ia?aoaao,
neaaeothuee ca iei ni?aaa. Ii ieaeeiece?iaaiiiio aeniio, ia?aneaeeaay io
ia?aoaaoa e ia?aoaaoo, aoaeao ?ani?ino?aiyoueny eiioeuen. I?ioeann
iacuaaaony naeueoaoi?iui i?iaaaeaieai aicaoaeaeaiey (saltare –
i?uaaoue). Iii iaania/eaaao nei?inoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey eiioeuenia a 20-
25 ?ac aieaa aunieoth, /ai a aeaaioneeo aeniiao oiai aea aeeaiao?a.

noiia?iia nii?ioeaeaiea ieaeeiiaie iaiei/ee. A neeo ia?aiai caeiia
Ee?oaioa iieo/aai:

.

. Yoi oiee, i?ioiaeyuea iaaeaeo niioaaonoaothueie ia?aoaaoaie e
ieaeeiece?iaaiiui o/anoeii. A ?acoeueoaoa iieo/ei o?aaiaiey:

niioaaonoaaiii.

Eeth/aaua enoi/ieee anoanoaiciaiey

Eiay a aeaeo ?aoeeiiaeueiinoue ia?aoiaea io iaoo?oeeinioee e
iaoaiaoe/anee oi/iiio anoanoaiciaieth, A.E. Aa?iaaeneee ioia/ae
iaeeiaeiaoth nouanoaaiiinoue e acaeiioth aeiiieieoaeueiinoue aeaoo
iniiaiuo e aienoeio oieaa?naeueiuo iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia –
eiee/anoaaiiiai (a?eoiaoe/aneiai eee aeaaa?ae/aneiai) e ea/anoaaiiiai
(aaiiao?e/aneiai), o. a. eioaa?aeueiiai (aiaoiaai) e
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiai (aioo?aiiaai): «Iaeii e oi aea i?e?iaeiia yaeaiea
iiaeao auoue iacaaeneii ioaa/aii iaieie yoeie iai?aaeaieyie oai?/aneie
iaoaiaoe/aneie iunee».

Ioaeaaay aeieaeiia oeeinioee e niciaaay «ia?iiiia cia/aiea iaoaiaoeee
aeey anoanoaiciaiey», ii ana-oaee iieaaae, /oi «a iniiaa anoanoaiciaiey
eaaeao oieueei iao/iua yiie?e/aneea oaeou e iao/iua yiie?e/aneea
iaiauaiey»:

«Ana iniiaiua iao/iua yiie?e/aneea iiiyoey i?e eiae/aneii aiaeeca
i?eaiaeyo e e??aoeeiiaeueiiio inoaoeo…Ieeiaaea ie iaeii iao/ii
eco/aaiia yaeaiea, ie iaeei iao/iue yiie?e/aneee oaeo e ie iaeii iao/iia
yiie?e/aneia iaiauaiea ia iiaeao auoue au?aaeaii aei eiioea, aac
inoaoea, a neiaaniuo ia?acao, a eiae/aneeo iino?iaieyo – a iiiyoeyo – a
oao oi?iao, a i?aaeaeao eioi?uo oieueei e eaeao ?aaioa oeeinioneie
iunee, eo neioace?othuay, eo aiaeece?othuay. A i?aaeiaoao enneaaeiaaiey
iaoee anaaaea inoaaony ia?aceaaaaiue ?aoeeiiaeenoe/anee inoaoie, eiiaaea
aieueoie, eioi?ue aeeyao ia yiie?e/aneia iao/iia eco/aiea, inoaoie,
en/acathuee iaoeaei ec eaeaaeueiuo iino?iaiee oeeinioee, einiiaiiee eee
iaoaiaoeee e iaoaiaoe/aneie oeceee. Aeoaieay iuneue, a y?eie e?aneaie
oi?ia au?aaeaiiay O. E. Otho/aaui- «Iuneue ec?a/aiiay anoue eiaeue»,
anaaaea niciaoaeueii eee aanniciaoaeueii /oanoaoaony eniuoaoaeai
i?e?iaeu e anyeei iao/iui enneaaeiaaoaeai, eiaaea ii a naiae iao/iie
?aaioa noaeeeaaaony n i?ioeai?a/eyie iaaeaeo yiie?e/aneeie iao/iuie
iaiauaieyie e ioaea/aiiuie iino?iaieyie oeeinioee eee eiaaea oaeou
canoaaeytho aai iaiyoue e ooi/iyoue (iau/ii ineiaeiyoue, a /anoi ?acei
oi?iuaoue) naie aeiioacu, iniaaiii /anoi – iaecaaaeii ia?aie/aiiua
iaoaiaoe/aneea au?aaeaiey i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee».

Iiyoiio Aa?iaaeneee n/eoae iaiaoiaeeiui enoiaeeoue i?aaeaea anaai eee, a
eiia/iii n/aoa, eiaiii ec eeth/aauo iao/iuo yiie?e/aneeo oaeoia eee
niioaaonoaothueo eeth/aauo iao/iuo yiie?e/aneeo iaiauaiee (oeia ioe?uoie
Iaiaeaeaaaui Ia?eiaee/aneie nenoaiu oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia—«iaeiiai ec
aaee/aeoeo yiie?e/aneeo iaiauaiee»), o. a. ia?auaoueny iaiin?aaenoaaiii
e yoei anoanoaaiiui eeth/aaui enoi/ieeai, eae au aniiieiay e?anii?a/eaia
otho/aaneia «Iie/aiea»:

Eae na?aeoeo auneacaoue naay?

Ae?oaiio eae iiiyoue oaay?

Iieiao ee ii, /ai ou aeeaaoue?

Iuneue ec?a/aiiay anoue eiaeue.

Ac?uaay, aiciooeoue eeth/e,

Ieoaeny eie—e iie/e.

Anaaaea inoathueeny a i?aaeiaoao enneaaeiaaiey iaoee ia?aceaaaaiue
?aoeeiiaeenoe/anee inoaoie, o. a. e??aoeeiiaeueiue inoaoie, e eioi?iio
i?eaiaeyo ana iniiaiua iao/iua yiie?e/aneea iiiyoey i?e eiae/aneii
aiaeeca, icia/aao, /oi iu aeieaeiu i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea ia?yaeo n
aaconeiaii iaiaoiaeeiuie – aeinoiaa?iuie – oaeoaie, oa?aeoa?iuie aeey
aiieia aeaoa?ieienoe/aneie eeanne/aneie iaoaieee, e oaeou aa?iyoiinoiua,
eaaeauea a iniiaa iaaeeaaeauae eaaioiaie iaoaieee (n aa niioaaonoaothuae
aa?iyoiinoiie eioa?i?aoaoeeae e n oa?aeoa?iui aeey iaa i?eioeeiii
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe), a oaeaea oaeou aa?u, n eioi?uie eiatho aeaei ia
oieueei ana ?aeeaee, ii e aoaeci, iineieueeo «iniiaaiiua ia oeeinioneeo
caeeth/aieyo» «aoaenoe/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey,—eae ni?aaaaeeeai caiaoee
Aa?iaaeneee, – ii nouanoao oiaea i?aaeiao aa?u».

*ooue ee ia ana iiaeaa?aay niiiaieth, Aa?iaaeneee caia/aao: «Ii yoi ia
eanaaony yiie?e/aneeo iaiauaiee, eioi?ua a iniiaa naiae nouanoaaiii
ioee/iu io iao/iuo oai?ee e iao/iuo aeiioac, n eioi?uie iie iau/ii
niaoeaathony».

I?e yoii ii n/eoae i?eioeeieaeueii iaiaoiaeeiui e aiciiaeiui no?aieoueny
e i?aaeaeueii iieiiio ioaaoo i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee e naiie I?e?iaeu a
oeaeii.

Iaeiaei a i?aaeaea, ioaaouaay a oeaeii I?e?iaeo, Anaeaiioth, iaoa?eth
(ni anaie i?enoueie ae ao?eaooaie, aieioue aei AEecie e ?acoia, a oii
/enea Aunoaai ?acoia – n aaneiia/iuie iioaioeeaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie),
iu ii e?aeiae ia?a a i?eioeeia iiaeai e aeieaeiu iieo/eoue – e
aeaenoaeoaeueii iieo/aai! – ia oieueei eneiiia aienoeio oieaa?naeueiia
(i?aaeaeueii iieiia) eeth/aaia iao/iia yiie?e/aneia iaiauaiea a aeaea
aiieia aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo acaeiinaycaiiuo ia?eiaee/aneeo nenoai
anaaiciiaeiuo (oae iacuaaaiuo yoaeiiiuo e i?iecaiaeiuo)
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo no?oeoo?iuo yeaiaioia iaoa?ee ia anao /aou?ao
aiciiaeiuo iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo iniiaiuo o?iaiyo aa anoanoaaiiie
naiii?aaiecaoeee – oece/aneii, oeie/aneii, aeieiae/aneii e
ineoieiae/aneii (o. a. ia naiii aeaea aaee/aeoaa aoiienoe/aneia iao/iia
yiie?e/aneia iaiauaiea iaiaeaeaaaneiai oeia), ii e aaeaeaaoiia aio
noieue aea oieaa?naeueiia eeth/aaia iao/iia oai?aoe/aneia iaiauaiea a
aeaea niaa?oaiii iaeiioeiiuo ii naiae neiiao?ee e, niioaaonoaaiii,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaeiicia/ii aeaaeoeoeaii ii?aaeaeyaiuo ii iaaeeaaeauae
iaoaiaoe/aneie eiaeoeoeee aiieia aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo acaeiinaycaiiuo
ia?eiaee/aneeo nenoai anaaiciiaeiuo ?aaiiia?ii eaaioiaaiiuo nianoaaiiuo
cia/aiee anao aiciiaeiuo oieaa?naeueiuo oa?aeoa?enoee ?anniao?eaaaiuo
yeaiaioia.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Ioaiea?a A. «I iaoea».I., 1983

2. A?enoioaeue «Ni/eiaiey». I., «Iuneue», 1975 a.

3. Eaio E. «Ni/eiaiey», I., «Iuneue», 1964 a.

I.E.Aaooiiei «Oai?ey iao/iiai ciaiey Eiiaioeea Eaioa». I., «Iaoea»,
1986 a.

Eaae?ia A.I. «I?aaeiao e acaeiinaycue anoanoaaiiuo iaoe».I.,
«Iaoea»,1967.436n.

«I?e?iaea e iauanoai» I, «Iaoea,1968.348n.

«Oeceea OO aaea. ?acaeoea e ia?niaeoeau.» Nai?iee. I,«Iaoea,1984.334n.

Aeaenaaa E.N., Ia/eiieeia I.O., Ia/aieei A.A. «Iaoiaeieiaey iainiiaaiey
eaaioiaie oai?ee». I.: «Iaoea»,1984.334n.

A.E.Eociaoeia, A.I.Eaeeen, A.I.Aooeia «Anoanoaiciaiea» I,
«Aaa?»,1996,384n.

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