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Анализ снизу вверх и сверху вниз

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AIAEEC NIECO AAA?O E NAA?OO AIEC

“Naa?oo aiec” vs. “nieco aaa?o”, “i?yiie” vs. “ia?aoiue”, “oi?aaeyaiue
aeaiiuie” vs. “aeaeaeeiue oeaeueth” – o?e ia?u ii?aaeaeaiee aeey oaeeo
oa?ieiia, eae “oeaiiie aiaeec”, “ia?neia”, “neioaene/aneee ?acai?”,
“eiae/aneee aiaeec” e “iiene”. A i?eioeeia, ana yoe oa?ieiu io?aaeatho
noiaeiua ioiioaiey, e ?acee/ea iaaeaeo ieie ninoieo eeoue a oii, /oi iie
acyou ec ?acee/iuo iiaeiaeanoae eiiiuethoa?iie iaoee e eneonnoaaiiiai
eioaeeaeoa (ia?neia, nenoaiu n caeiaeaiiuie a ieo i?aaeeaie, iieneiaua
nenoaiu e nenoaiu, iai?aaeaiiua ia ?aoaiea i?iaeai e o.ae.)

Nooue yoeo i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiee iiaeii i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue ia i?eia?a
ia?aaeeaiu iienea. Iniiaiay caaea/a ethaiai iienea ninoieo a oii, /oiau
ii?aaeaeeoue ia?o?oo, ii eioi?iio au aoaeaoa ia?aiauaoueny n ianoiyuae
iiceoeee e aaoae oeaee. Anee au ia/iaoa iiene n oaeouae iiceoeee e
aoaeaoa i?iaeieaeaoue aai, iiea ia iaoeiaoanue ia aeaeaaiue ?acoeueoao,
– yoi oae iacuaaaiue i?yiie iiene eee iiene nieco aaa?o. Anee au
iuneaiii noaaeoa naay a oi ianoi, aaea au oioeoa i/ooeoueny a
?acoeueoaoa iienea e ii?aaeaeyaoa ia?o?oo, aeaeaaynue a ia?aoiii
iai?aaeaiee, o.a. ooaea, aaea au aeaenoaeoaeueii iaoiaeeoanue a
ianoiyuee iiiaio, – yoi iiene a ia?aoiii iai?aaeaiee eee iiene naa?oo
aiec. Ia?aoeoa aieiaiea ia oi, /oi, ii?aaeaeea ia?o?oo a ?acoeueoaoa
ia?aoiiai iienea, aai ana aea i?aaenoieo aeia?aoueny aei naiae oeaee.
Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi nae/an au aeaeaeaoanue aia?aae, yoi ia yaeyaony
i?yiui iieneii, o.e. iiene oaea aue inouanoaeai ?aiaa, i?e/ai a ia?aoiii
iai?aaeaiee.

Yoe aea i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey iiaeii ?anniio?aoue ia i?eia?a nenoai n
ano?iaiiuie i?aaeeaie. I?aaenoaaei naaa, /oi i?aaeei ninoieo ec iaai?a
aioaoeaaeaioia e iaai?a neaaenoaee. Eiaaea nenoaia ii?aaeaeyao, /oi ana
aioaoeaaeaiou ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?aaeea oaeiaeaoai?aiu, yoi i?aaeei
aucuaaaony e auiieiyaony (auiieiyaony ee eaaeaeia aucaaiiia i?aaeei
caaeneo io niaoeeoeee eiie?aoiie nenoaiu). Iinea yoiai a aaco ciaiee
caiinyony ooaa?aeaeaiey, iieo/aiiua a ?acoeueoaoa auiieiaiey i?aaeea, e
auiieiythony niioaaonoaothuea iia?aoeee. Aeaiiue i?ioeann i?ienoiaeeo
auoaiienaiiui ia?acii, iacaaeneii io oiai, i?eiaiyao ee nenoaia i?yiie
eee ia?aoiue eiae/aneee aiaeec. *oiau i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue ?acee/ey
iaaeaeo ieie, neaaeoao ioaeaeueii ?anniio?aoue i?ioeaaeo?o aeoeaaoeee
i?aaeea. Aucuaathony oieueei aeoeae?iaaiiua i?aaeea. I?e i?yiii
eiae/aneii aiaeeca (nieco aaa?o), eiaaea a nenoaio aeiaaaeythony iiaua
aeaiiua, iie n?aaieaathony ni anaie aioaoeaaeaioaie anao i?aaee. Anee
aeaiiua niioaaonoaotho aioaoeaaeaioo i?aaeea, oi yoi i?aaeei
aeoeae?oaony (anee iii aua ia yaeyaony aeoeae?iaaiiui), e anee
iiaeia?aiu ana aioaoeaaeaiou ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?aaeea, oi iii aucuaaaony.
Ooaa?aeaeaiey, iieo/aiiua a ?acoeueoaoa auiieiaiey i?aaeea, caiinyony a
aaco ciaiee e ?anniao?eaathony a ea/anoaa iiauo aeaiiuo, n?aaieaathony n
aioaoeaaeaioaie e iiaoo aucaaoue aeoeaaoeeth e aucia aeiiieieoaeueiuo
i?aaee. I?e ia?aoiii eiae/aneii aiaeeca (naa?oo aiec) i?e aeiaaaeaiee
aeaiiuo i?aaeea ia aeoeae?othony. Eiaaea nenoaia iieo/aao cai?in, ii
n?aaieaaaony ni anaie neaaenoaeyie anao i?aaee. Anee cai?in niaiaaeaao
ni neaaenoaeai, oi yoi i?aaeei aeoeae?oaony, a ana aai aioaoeaaeaiou
?anniao?eaathony a ea/anoaa aoi?e/iuo cai?inia e iiaoo aucaaoue
aeoeaaoeeth aeiiieieoaeueiuo i?aaee. Eiaaea cai?in niioaaonoaoao ia
ia?aie/aiiiio oneiaeai ooaa?aeaeaieth aacu ciaiee, ia iaai iinooiaao
ioaao, e anee yoio cai?in enoiaeee io aioaoeaaeaioa, n/eoaaony, /oi ii
oaeiaeaoai?yao iineaaeiaio. Eiaaea ana aioaoeaaeaiou iaeioi?iai i?aaeea
aoaeoo oaeiaeaoai?aiu, i?aaeei aucuaaaony e auiieiyaony. I?e auiieiaiee
i?aaeea inouanoaeyaony ioaao ia cai?inu, eioi?ua aai aeoeae?iaaee, e
oaia?ue ae?oaea aioaoeaaeaiou n/eoathony oaeiaeaoai?aiiuie e iiaoo
aucuaaoueny niioaaonoaothuea ei i?aaeea. Ia?aoeoa aieiaiea ia oi, /oi
aucia e auiieiaiea i?aaeea anaaaea i?ienoiaeeo a i?yiie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, a ioee/ea i?yiiai oeaiiiai aiaeeca io ia?aoiiai
ninoieo a oii, eiaaea aeoeae?oaony i?aaeei.

I?eia?u

Ia?neia. Iiiuoaainy i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue e iauynieoue ?acieoeo iaaeaeo
neioaene/aneei aiaeecii naa?oo aiec e nieco aaa?o ia i?eia?a
i?aaeeiaeaiey “They are flying planes” e i?inoie a?aiiaoeee,
i?aaenoaaeaiiie a aeaea i?iioia?iaaiiuo i?aaee:

1. S ( NP VP

2. NP ( N

3. NP ( PRO

4. NP ( ADJ N

5. VP ( VT NP

6. VT ( V

7. VT ( AUX V

8. N ( planes

9. PRO ( they

10. ADJ ( flying

11. AUX ( are

12. V ( are

13. V( flying

Aioaoeaaeaiou oeacaiu n i?aaie noi?iiu, a neaaenoaey – n eaaie.
Iai?eia?, i?aaeei 1 /eoaaony neaaeothuei ia?acii: “Anee
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ninoieo ec eiaiiie a?oiiu (NP), ca eioi?ie
neaaeoao aeaaieueiay a?oiia (VP), oi yoa iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue yaeyaony
i?aaeeiaeaieai (S).”

Neioaene/aneee ?acai? naa?oo aiec ia/eiaaony n neiaiea S, eioi?ue e
aoaeao yaeyoueny aa?oeiie aea?aaa ?acai?a. Yoa i?ioeaaeo?a yeaeaaeaioia
i?ioeaaeo?a iinoaiiaee caaea/e, eioi?ay caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau
ii?aaeaeeoue, yaeyaony ee iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue neia i?aaeeiaeaieai.
I?aaeei 1 aeaneo, /oi eaaeaeia i?aaeeiaeaiea ninoieo ec eiaiiie a?oiiu
(NP), ca eioi?ie neaaeoao aeaaieueiay a?oiia (VP). I?e iaee/ee
ianeieueeeo i?aaee, nia?aa i?eiaiyaony i?aaeei n iaeiaiueoei iiia?ii, a
caoai iii ?anoe?yaony neaaa iai?aai. Oaeei ia?acii neaaeothuei oaaii
yaeyaony iaoiaeaeaiea ia?aie nayce, o.a. NP. Nia?aa aeoeae?oaony i?aaeei
2, a caoai i?aaeei 8 (?en. 2a). O.e. “planes” ia niioaaonoaoao ”they”,
aeai?eoi n?aaaouaaao aiiaue, e oaia?ue nia?aa aeoeae?oaony i?aaeei 3, a
caoai i?aaeei 9. Caoai aeai?eoi aica?auaaony e i?aaeeo 1 e neaaeothuae
oeaeueth noaaeo ii?aaeaeaiea VP. Nia?aa aeoeae?othony i?aaeea 5, 6, a
caoai 12 (?en. 2b). Aeaeueiaeoee oiae ?acai?a io?aeai ia ?enoiea 2 (n,
d, e).

Neioaene/aneee ?acai? nieco aaa?o ia/eiaaony ni neia a i?aaeeiaeaiee.
Iiyoue aea ?acai? aaaeaony neaaa iai?aai, e nia?aa i?eiaiyaony i?aaeei n
iaeiaiueoei iiia?ii. Eoae, nia/aea ia?aia neiai i?aaeeiaeaiey “they”
niioiineony n aioaoeaaeaioii i?aaeea 9, eioi?ia iinea auiieiaiey auaeaao
ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi “they” yaeyaony ianoieiaieai (PRO). Caoai auiieiyaony
i?aaeei 3 e auaeaao, /oi “they” yaeyaony NP. NP niioaaonoaoao
aioaoeaaeaioai i?aaee 1 e 5, ii ie iaeii ec yoeo i?aaee aua ia aucaaii,
iiyoiio ?acai? ia?aoiaeeo e “are”. Auiieiyaony i?aaeei 11 (ianiio?y ia
oi, /oi i?aaeei 12 oaeaea aucaaii, iii ia auiieiyaony a niioaaonoaee n
i?aaeeii i iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe auiieiaiey i?aaee). Caoai auiieiythony
i?aaeea 10, 8 e 2 (?en. 3a). Ia aeaiiie noaaeee aeaeueiaeoee ?acai?
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe NP+AUX+ADJ+NP iaaiciiaeai, iiyoiio iu aica?auaainy
e iineaaeiaio aucaaiiiio, ii aua ia auiieiaiiiio i?aaeeo, o.a. e i?aaeeo
4. ?acai? iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe NP+AUX+NP oae aea iaaiciiaeai, iiyoiio
iiyoue auiieiyaony iineaaeiaa aucaaiiia iaauiieiaiiia i?aaeei. Nae/an
yoi i?aaeei 13, eioi?ia auaeaao, /oi “flying” yaeyaony V. Caoai
auiieiythony i?aaeea 6 e 5 (?en. 3n). ?acai? iineaaeiaaoaeeueiinoe
NP+AUX+VP iaaiciiaeai, iiyoiio auiieiyaony i?aaeei 7 e auaeaao
ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi “are flying” yaeyaony VT. Caoai niiaa auiieiythony
i?aaeea 5 e 1, ia /ai e caeai/eaaaony neioaene/aneee ?acai? (?en. 3d).

Aeaiiue i?eia? aue i?eaaaeai n oeaeueth n?aaiaiey iaoaieciia
neioaene/aneiai ?acai?a nieco aaa?o e naa?oo aiec. Onoaiiaeaiea no?iaiai
ii?yaeea ?acai?a neaaa iai?aai e ioia?aoeey i?aaee iaoneiaeaiu
no?aieaieai e i?eiaiaieth a iaeaieueoae noaiaie noiaeiiai aeai?eoia,
ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ?acoeueoaou ?acai?a ieacaeenue ?acee/iuie.

Nenoaiu ni ano?iaiiuie i?aaeeaie. ?anniio?ei i?yiie e ia?aoiue oeaiiie
aiaeec ia i?eia?a auaeoiaiiiai iaai?a i?aaee i oii, eae neaaeoao
i?iaanoe aa/a?. I?aaeea ?aniieiaeaiu a iau/iii ii?yaeea, aioaoeaaeaio
?aniieaaaaony neaaa, a neaaenoaea – ni?aaa, ana aucaaiiua i?aaeea
auiieiythony, a ?acai? aaaeaony ia?aeeaeueii.

1. Oi?ioee oeeuei ii OA + ?aii oo?ii ano?a/ iao ( Iicaeiaa eeii

2. ?aii oo?ii ano?a/ iao + Ioaeii ii?aaioaoue ( ?aaioa aeiiicaeia

3. Ioaeii ii?aaioaoue + Iaiaoiaeeiu aeieoiaiou ( ?aaioa a ioena

4. Iicaeiaa eeii ( Ia niaoue aeiiicaeia

5. ?aaioa aeiiicaeia ( Ia niaoue aeiiicaeia

6. ?aaioa aeiiicaeia ( Aica?auaiea a ioen

7. ?aaioa a ioena ( Aica?auaiea a ioen

Iai?eia?, i?aaeei 1 aeaneo, /oi anee ii OA eaeao oi?ioaa eeii e o iaiy
caao?a ?aii oo?ii ano?a/ iao, oiaaea y neaaeoth ?aaeeio “Iicaeiaa eeii”.

?anniio?ei nia?aa i?eia? i?yiiai oeaiiiai aiaeeca. Aeiionoei, nenoaia
iieo/eea ia/aeueioth eioi?iaoeeth i oii, /oi caao?a ?aii ooi?i o iaiy
iao ano?a/. Aeoeae?othony i?aaeea 1 e 2. Aeiionoei, /oi aeaeaa nenoaia
iieo/eea niiauaiea i oii, /oi iia ioaeii ii?aaioaoue. Aeoeae?oaony
i?aaeei 3, a i?aaeei 2 aucuaaaony e auiieiyaoy, ioeoaea neaaeoao auaiae,
/oi y iaoiaeonue a ?aaeeia “?aaioa aeiiicaeia”, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
aucuaathony e auiieiythony i?aaeea 5 e 6. A eoiaa nenoaia caeeth/aao,
/oi y aeieaeia aa?iooueny a ioen e ia niaoue aeiiicaeia.

Oaia?ue ?anniio?ei yoo aea i?iaeaio n i?eiaiaieai ia?aoiiai oeaiiiai
aiaeeca. Aeiionoei, /oi nenoaia iieo/eea enoiaeioth eioi?iaoeeth i oii,
/oi o iaiy iao caao?a oo?ii ano?a/, ii iia ioaeii aua ii?aaioaoue, a
caoai aa (nenoaio) ni?ineee, neaaeoao ee iia aa?iooueny a ioen. Aeaiiue
cai?in aeoeae?oao i?aaeea 6 e 7. A naith i/a?aaeue aicieeiao aii?in
“?aaioa aeiiicaeia” eee “?aaioa a ioena”? I?e yoii aeoeae?othony
i?aaeea 2 e 3, e aicieeaao aii?in “?aii oo?ii ano?a/ iao”, “Ioaeii
ii?aaioaoue” eee “Ioaeiu aeieoiaiou”? Ia?aua aeaa aioaoeaaeaioa aoaeoo
oaeiaeaoai?aiu, oaeei ia?acii i?aaeei 2 aoaeao aucaaii e auiieiaii, /oi
iiaea/ao ca niaie oaeiaeaoai?aiea aioaoeaaeaioa “?aaioa aeiiicaeia”,
aucia e auiieiaiea i?aaeea 6, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai nenoaia i?eaeao e
caeeth/aieth, /oi iia neaaeoao aa?iooueny a ioen.

Ia?aoeoa aieiaiea ia oi, /oi i?e i?yiii ?acai?a ii?iaeaeaaony aieueoa
neaaenoaee, a i?e ia?aoiii – cai?inia. O.e. a iaieo i?eia?ao
eniieueciaaeenue iaeie e oa aea aeaiiua, oi a oiaea aiaeeca auiieiyeenue
iaeie e oa aea i?aaeea, ii aeoeae?iaaeenue ?acee/iua.

N?aaiaiea

Yooaeoeaiinoue. Auai? aeaea aiaeeca (naa?oo aiec eee nieco aaa?o)
caaeneo io eiioeao?aoeee aea?aaa, ii eioi?iio inouanoaeyaony iiene. Anee
a n?aaeiai eaaeaeiio yeaiaioo neaaeoao aieueoaa eiee/anoai yeaiaioia,
iaaeaee i?aaeoanoaoao, oi aiaeec naa?oo aiec (eee ia?aoiue aiaeec)
aoaeao aieaa yooaeoeaiui e iaiai?io. ?anniio?ei e?aeiee neo/ae.
Aeiionoei, /oi iieneiaay iaeanoue ia?acoao aea?aai n aa?oeiie a
ia/aeueiii ninoiyiee. Oiaaea i?e eniieueciaaiee i?yiiai iiaeoiaea iai
i?eaeaony inouanoaeyoue iiene i?aeoe/anee ii anaio aea?aao, oiaaea eae
i?e ia?aoiii iiaeoiaea – oieueei a aai eeiaeiie /anoe.

N?aaiaiea e oieoeeaoeey. A nenoaiao n caeiaeaiiuie i?aaeeaie eee
nenoaiao eiae/aneiai aiaeeca auai? i?yiiai eee ia?aoiiai oeaiiiai
aiaeeca aeeyao ia noaiaiue o?oaeiinoe i?ioeanna n?aaiaiey. I?e i?yiii
oeaiiii aiaeeca nenoaia iinoiyiii i?aaeuyaeythony iiaua oaeou, ia
eiathuea naiaiaeiuo ia?aiaiiuo. Oaeei ia?acii iinoiyiii i?iaiaeeony
n?aaiaiea aioaoeaaeaioia, aiieia aa?iyoii iaeaaeathueo naiaiaeiuie
ia?aiaiiuie, n oaeoaie, ia iaeaaeathueie oaeiauie.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, nenoaiai n ia?aoiui oeaiiui aiaeecii /anoi caaeatho
niaoeeaeueiua aii?inu. Anee i?aaeea eceiaeaiu a eiaeea i?aaeeeaoia, a ia
eiaeea noaeaeaiee, oiaaea i?iecaiaeeony n?aaiaiea aii?ina n ia?aiaiiie
ni neaaenoaeai n ia?aiaiiuie. Aoi?e/iua cai?inu oaeaea iiaoo
niaea?aeaoue ia?aiaiiua, iiyoiio, a iauai, nenoaiu n ia?aoiui oeaiiui
aiaeecii aeieaeiu auoue ?ac?aaioaiu oaeei ia?acii, /oiau iie iiaee
n?aaieaaoue aeaa neiaieueiua no?oeoo?u, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo iiaeao
niaea?aeaoue ia?aiaiiua, aeey /aai iio?aaoaony nicaeaiea aeai?eoia
oieoeeaoeee.

Niaoaiiua no?aoaaee

Iiene a aeaoo iai?aaeaieyo. Anee ia ynii, eaeie aeae iienea – i?yiie eee
ia?aoiue – yaeyaony iaeaieaa i?eaieeiui aeey eiie?aoiiai i?eeiaeaiey,
neaaeoao inouanoaeyoue iiene a aeaoo iai?aaeaieyo. A oaeii neo/aa,
ioi?aaiuie oi/eaie noaiiayony ia/aeueiia e eiia/iia ninoiyiea, e iiene
inouanoaeyaony ii iai?aaeaieth e oeaio?o.

Auaiae ii aeaoi iai?aaeaieyi. I?e aeaiiii iiaeoiaea ecia/aeueiua aeaiiua
i?eiaiythony aeey aeoeae?iaaiey i?aaee, eioiua ia?aae?atho ae?oaea
aioaoeaaeaiou a ia?aoiii ii?yaeea. Aoi?e/iua cai?inu, eioi?ua ia
niioaaonoaotho ie neaaenoaeyi, ie aeaiiui, nio?aiythony a ea/anoaa
“aeaiiiia”, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue oaeiaeaoai?aiu iicaeiaa ca n/ao iiauo
eee iicaeiaa iinooieaoeo aeaiiuo. Nenoaio iiaeii ?ac?aaioaoue oaeei
ia?acii, /oi aeaiiua, oaeiaeaoai?ythuea “aeaiiiai” (aioaoeaaeaiou
aeoeae?iaaiiuo i?aaee) ia aoaeoo aeoeae?iaaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aaeea,
/oi “canoaaeo” nenoaio i?e i?aaenoiyuai i?yiii auaiaea
neiioeaio?e?iaaoueny ia i?aaeeao, o/eouaathueo i?aaeuaeouee eiioaeno.

?acai? n ia/aeii a eaaii oaeo. I?eiaiea auoaiienaiiue iaoiae e ia?neiao,
iu iieo/ei oae iacuaaaiue ?acai? n ia/aeii a eaaii oaeo. A oa?ieiao
i?eia?a, i?eaaaeaiiiai a ?acaeaea ia?neia, nenoaia nia/aea ?anniio?eo
“they”, iaeaeao i?aaeei 9 – aaeeinoaaiiia i?aaeei, eioi?ia iiaeii
i?eiaieoue e yoiio neiao, caoai i?aaeei 3, iauyniythuaa PRO, a caoai
i?aaeei 1, eae aaeeinoaaiiia i?aaeei, neaaenoaea eioi?iai ia/eiaaony n
NP. Aeaeaa nenoaia iiiuoaaony ?acia?aoue naa?oo aiec “are flying
planes” eae VP.

Caeeth/aiea

Iau/ii a nenoaiao eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa i?eiaiyaony iaeei ec aeaoo
aeaeia aiaeeca. Ia?aue – yoi aiaeec nieco aaa?o eee i?yiie aiaeec, a
aoi?ie- naa?oo aiec eee ia?aoiue. ?acee/ea eo ii?aaeaeyaony oai, a eaeii
iai?aaeaiee aaaeaony iiene (io ia/aea a eiiaoe eee iaiai?io) e eaeie
yeaiaio (neaaenoaea eee aioaoeaaeaio) aeoeae?oao i?aaeea.

Oaeoi? yooaeoeaiinoe e eaaeinoe aiaae?aiey iiaeao nua?aoue ?aoathuoth
?ieue i?e auai?a aeaea aiaeeca, eioi?ue aoaeao i?eiaiyoueny a
ii?aaeaeaiiii i?eeiaeaiee, ii neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi eniieueciaaiea
niaoaiiuo no?aoaaee oaeaea aiciiaeii.

I?EEIAEAIEA

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